WorldWideScience

Sample records for dioxide based nuclear

  1. Nuclear energy significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is devoted to nuclear energy, to its acceptability, compatibility and sustainability. Nuclear energy is non-dispensable part of energy sources with vast innovation potential. The safety of nuclear energy, radioactive waste deposition, and prevention of risk from misuse of nuclear material have to be very seriously adjudged and solved. Nuclear energy is one of the ways how to decrease the contamination of atmosphere with carbon dioxide and it solves partially also the problem of global increase of temperature and climate changes. Given are the main factors responsible for the renaissance of nuclear energy. (author)

  2. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core

  3. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

  4. Nuclear power and carbon dioxide free automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear energy has been developed as a major source of electric power in Canada. Electricity from nuclear energy already avoids the emission of about 100 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in Canada. This is a significant fraction of the 619 million tonnes of Canadian greenhouse gas emissions in 1995. However, the current scope of application of electricity to end use energy needs in Canada limits the contribution nuclear energy can make to carbon dioxide emission reduction. Nuclear energy can also contribute to carbon dioxide emissions reduction through expansion of the use of electricity to less traditional applications. Transportation, in particular contributed 165 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to the Canadian atmosphere in 1995. Canada's fleet of personal vehicles consisted of 16.9 million cars and light trucks. These vehicles were driven on average 21,000 km/year and generated 91 million tonnes of greenhouse gases expressed as a C02 equivalent. Technology to improve the efficiency of cars is under development which is expected to increase the energy efficiency from the 1995 level of about 10 litres/100 km of gasoline to under 3 litres/100km expressed as an equivalent referenced to the energy content of gasoline. The development of this technology, which may ultimately lead to the practical implementation of hydrogen as a portable source of energy for transportation is reviewed. Fuel supply life cycle greenhouse gas releases for several personal vehicle energy supply systems are then estimated. Very substantial reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are possible due to efficiency improvements and changing to less carbon intensive fuels such as natural gas. C02 emissions from on board natural gas fueled versions of hybrid electric cars would be decreased to approximately 25 million t/year from the current 91 million tonnes/year. The ultimate reduction identified is through the use of hydrogen fuel produced via electricity from CANDU power

  5. Process for preparing sintered uranium dioxide nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Uranium dioxide is prepared for use as fuel in nuclear reactors by sintering it to the desired density at a temperature less than 1300 0 C in a chemically controlled gas atmosphere comprised of at least two gases which in equilibrium provide an oxygen partial pressure sufficient to maintain the uranium dioxide composition at an oxygen/uranium ratio of at least 2.005 at the sintering temperature. 7 Claims, No Drawings

  6. Structure of zirconium dioxide based porous glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gubanova, N. N.; Kopitsa, G. P.; Ezdakova, K. V.; Baranchikov, A. Y.; Angelov, Borislav; Feoktystov, A.; Pipich, V.; Ryukhtin, Vasyl; Ivanov, V. K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2014), s. 967-975 ISSN 1027-4510 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019; GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : zirconium dioxide * porous glasse * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders (UJF-V) Impact factor: 0.359, year: 2012

  7. Carbon dioxide conversion over carbon-based nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavarian, Mehrnoush; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-07-01

    The utilization of carbon dioxide for the production of valuable chemicals via catalysts is one of the efficient ways to mitigate the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is known that the carbon dioxide conversion and product yields are still low even if the reaction is operated at high pressure and temperature. The carbon dioxide utilization and conversion provides many challenges in exploring new concepts and opportunities for development of unique catalysts for the purpose of activating the carbon dioxide molecules. In this paper, the role of carbon-based nanocatalysts in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from carbon dioxide and methanol are reviewed. The current catalytic results obtained with different carbon-based nanocatalysts systems are presented and how these materials contribute to the carbon dioxide conversion is explained. In addition, different strategies and preparation methods of nanometallic catalysts on various carbon supports are described to optimize the dispersion of metal nanoparticles and catalytic activity.

  8. Micromechanical approach of behavior of uranium dioxide nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulacroix, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) is the reference fuel for pressurized water nuclear reactors. Our study deals with understanding and modeling of mechanical behavior at the microstructure scale at low temperatures (brittle fracture) and high temperature (viscoplastic strain). We have first studied the geometrical properties of polycrystals at large and of UO 2 polycrystal more specifically. As of now, knowledge of this behavior in the brittle fracture range is limited. Consequently, we developed an experimental method which allows better understanding of brittle fracture phenomenon at grain scale. We show that fracture is fully intra-granular and {100} planes seem to be the most preferential cleavage planes. Experimental results are directly used to deduce constitutive equations of intra-granular brittle fracture at crystal scale. This behavior is then used in 3D polycrystal simulation of brittle fracture. The full field calculation gives access to the initiation of fracture and propagation of the crack through the grains. Finally, we developed a mechanical behavior model of UO 2 in the viscoplastic range. We first present constitutive equations at macroscopic scale which accounts for an ageing process caused by migration of defects towards dislocations. Secondly, we have developed a crystal plasticity model which was fitted to UO 2 . This model includes the rotation of the crystal lattice. We present examples of polycrystalline simulations. (author) [fr

  9. Removal of carbon dioxide in reprocessing spent nuclear fuel off gas by adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumatsu, Teruki; Munakata, Kenzo; Tanaka, Kenji; Yamatsuki, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Masabumi

    1998-01-01

    The off gas produced by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel includes various radioactivities and these nuclei should be removed. In particular, 14 C mainly released as the form of carbon dioxide is one of the most required gaseous radioactivities to be removed because it has long a half-life. One of the methods to remove gaseous nuclei is the use of adsorption technique. The off gas contains water vapor which influences adsorption process of carbon dioxide. In this report, behavior of adsorption of carbon dioxide on various adsorbent and influence on adsorption behavior of carbon dioxide by containing water vapor are discussed. (author)

  10. In favour of atomic power. Dumsky, LAW: No carbon dioxide reduction without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    According to Georg Dumsky, chairman of the board of the technical departments of IAW, nuclear phase-out in the present situation is a nonsensical idea, whether from the view of business economy, national economy, or environmental protection. In his opinion, shutdown of nuclear power plants would result in a significant increase in carbon dioxide emissions [de

  11. Uranium dioxide and beryllium oxide enhanced thermal conductivity nuclear fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Antonio Santos; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto

    2007-01-01

    The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel for presenting many advantages such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water in high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. The conventional fuel is made with ceramic sintered pellets of uranium dioxide stacked inside fuel rods, and presents disadvantages because its low thermal conductivity causes large and dangerous temperature gradients. Besides, the thermal conductivity decreases further as the fuel burns, what limits a pellet operational lifetime. This research developed a new kind of fuel pellets fabricated with uranium dioxide kernels and beryllium oxide filling the empty spaces between them. This fuel has a great advantage because of its higher thermal conductivity in relation to the conventional fuel. Pellets of this kind were produced, and had their thermophysical properties measured by the flash laser method, to compare with the thermal conductivity of the conventional uranium dioxide nuclear fuel. (author) (author)

  12. Dielectric properties of zirconium dioxide-based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirova, O.S.; Gruzdev, A.I.; Koposova, Z.L.; Lyutsareva, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper studies the dielectric properties of materials based on stabilized zirconium dioxide with Co 3 O 4 additions possessing a high temperature-coefficient of resistance. These materials are promising for manufacturing resistance temperature gages that work under an oxidizing atmosphere at 370-1270 degrees K. The obtained results indicate the possibility of developing temperature gases possessing highsensitivity from stabilized zirconium dioxide with Co 3 O 4 additions

  13. Possibilities for Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction Resulting from Nuclear Power Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozicevic, M.; Tomsic, Z.; Kovacevic, T.

    1998-01-01

    Each energy resource is connected to certain environmental impacts and risks which must be taken into account. In recent years attention has been focused on the climate change effects of the burning fossil fuels, especially coal, due to the carbon dioxide which this releases into the atmosphere. If the electric energy produced in nuclear power plants were produced in coal-fired plants, global CO 2 emissions would rise for more than 2000 million tons, a significant value in comparison with 4000 million tons which is recommended as a target for emission reduction by the year 2005 at the Toronto Conference on the Changing Atmosphere. Possibilities for carbon dioxide emission reduction which would be the result of the nuclear option acceptance are discussed in this paper. (author)

  14. A Carbon Dioxide Gas Turbine Direct Cycle with Partial Condensation for Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuyoshi Kato; Takeshi Nitawaki; Yoshio Yoshizawa

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide gas turbine power generation system with a partial condensation cycle has been proposed for thermal and fast nuclear reactors, in which compression is done partly in the liquid phase and partly in the gas phase. This cycle achieves higher cycle efficiency than a He direct cycle mainly due to reduced compressor work of the liquid phase and of the carbon dioxide real gas effect, especially in the vicinity of the critical point. If this cycle is applied to a thermal reactor, efficiency of this cycle is about 55% at a reactor outlet temperature of 900 deg. C and pressure of 12.5 MPa, which is higher by about 10% than a typical helium direct gas turbine cycle plant (PBMR) at 900 deg. C and 8.4 MPa; this cycle also provides comparable cycle efficiency at the moderate core outlet temperature of 600 deg. C with that of the helium cycle at 900 deg. C. If this cycle is applied to a fast reactor, it is anticipated to be an alternative to liquid metal cooled fast reactors that can provide slightly higher cycle efficiency at the same core outlet temperature; it would eliminate safety problems, simplify the heat transport system and simplify plant maintenance. A passive decay heat removal system is realized by connecting a liquid carbon dioxide storage tank with the reactor vessel and by supplying carbon dioxide gasified from the tank to the core in case of depressurization event. (authors)

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS BASED ON ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Okovity; O. G. Devoino; V. A. Okovity; V. M. Astashinsky

    2016-01-01

    A technology for formation of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) based on zirconium dioxide has been developed in the paper. The paper investigates structures of phase composition and thermal stability of such developed coatings. Investigation results pertaining to formation of an oxide system ZrO2 – Y2O3, while using plasma spraying and subsequent high-energy processing, which allows to increase resistance of a thermal barrier coating to thermal cycling heat resistance of the coating at temperat...

  16. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 This test method covers the determination of uranium and the oxygen to uranium atomic ratio in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powder and pellets. 1.4 This test method covers the determination of chlorine and fluorine in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide. With a 1 to 10-g sample, concentrations of 5 to 200 g/g of chlorine and 1 to 200 μg/g of fluorine are determined without interference. 1.5 This test method covers the determination of moisture in uranium dioxide samples. Detection limits are as low as 10 μg. 1.6 This test method covers the determination of nitride nitrogen in uranium dioxide in the range from 10 to 250 μg. 1.7 This test method covers the spectrographic analysis of nuclear-grade UO2 for the 26 elements in the ranges indicated in Table 2. 1.8 For simultaneous determination of trace ele...

  17. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The period 1 April 1992--31 March 1993 saw the initial runs of three new spectrometers, which constitute a major portion of the new detection capabilities developed for this facility. These devices are the Proton Spectrometer (PSP) (data from which are shown on the cover of this document), the Mass Achroniat Recoil Mass Spectrometer (MARS), and the Multipole Dipole Multipole (MDM) Particle Spectrometer. The ECR-K500 cyclotron combination operated 5,849 hours. The beam was on target 39% of this time. Studies of nuclear dynamics and nuclear thermodynamics using the neutron ball have come to fruition. A critical re-evaluation of the available data on the giant monopole resonance indicated that the incompressibility is not specified to a range smaller than 200--350 MeV by those data. New systematic experiments using the MDM spectrometer are now underway. The MEGA collaboration obtained the first data on the μ → eγ decay rate and determination of the Michel parameter in normal μ decay. Experiments appear to confirm the existence of monoenergetic pair peaks even for relatively low Z projectile -- Z target combinations. Studies of the (α,2α) knockout reaction indicate that this reaction may prove to be a valuable tool for determination of reaction rates of astrophysical interest. Theoretical work reported in this document ranges from nuclear structure calculations using the IBM-2 model to calculations of kaon production and the in-medium properties of the rho and phi mesons. Nuclear dynamics and exotic shapes and fragmentation modes of hot nuclei are also addressed. New measurements of x-ray emission from highly ionized ions, of molecular dissociation and of surface interactions are reported. The research is presented in nearly 50 brief summaries usually including data and references

  18. Determination of trace metals in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, V.L.R.; Imakuma, K.

    1988-04-01

    A method is described for the simultaneous determination of low concentrations of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, without the use of chemical treatment. The lower limits of detection range from 2 μg g -1 for nickel and manganese to 5 μg g -1 for copper. Samples are prepared in the form of double-layer pellets with boric acid as a binding agent. Standards are prepared in a U 3 O 8 matrix, which is more chemically stable than UO 2 and has similar matrix behaviour. The correlation coefficients for calibration curves are better than 0.999. Erros range from 2.4 % for chromium to 6.8 % for nickel. (author) [pt

  19. Decomposing the Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia Based on the LMDI Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the influencing factors of industrial sector carbon dioxide emissions is essential to reduce natural and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we applied the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI decomposition method based on the extended Kaya identity to analyze the changes in industrial carbon dioxide emissions resulting from 39 industrial sectors in Inner Mongolia northeast of China over the period 2003–2012. The factors were divided into five types of effects i.e., industrial growth effect, industrial structure effect, energy effect, energy intensity effect, population effect and comparative analysis of differential influences of various factors on industrial sector. Our results clearly show that (1 Industrial sector carbon dioxide emissions have increased from 134.00 million ton in 2003 to 513.46 million ton in 2012, with an annual average growth rate of 16.097%. The industrial carbon dioxide emissions intensity has decreased from 0.99 million ton/billion yuan to 0.28 million ton/billion yuan. Also, the energy structure has been dominated by coal; (2 Production and supply of electric power, steam and hot water, coal mining and dressing, smelting and pressing of ferrous metals, petroleum processing, coking and nuclear fuel processing, and raw chemical materials and chemical products account for 89.74% of total increased industrial carbon dioxide emissions; (3 The industrial growth effect and population effect are found to be a critical driving force for increasing industrial sector carbon dioxide emissions over the research period. The energy intensity effect is the crucial drivers of the decrease of carbon dioxide emissions. However, the energy structure effect and industrial structure effect have considerably varied over the study years without displaying any clear trend.

  20. Minimization of the fission product waste by using thorium based fuel instead of uranium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galahom, A. Abdelghafar, E-mail: Agalahom@yahoo.com

    2017-04-01

    This research discusses the neutronic characteristics of VVER-1200 assembly fueled with five different fuel types based on thorium. These types of fuel based on mixing thorium as a fertile material with different fissile materials. The neutronic characteristics of these fuels are investigated by comparing their neutronic characteristics with the conventional uranium dioxide fuel using the MCNPX code. The objective of this study is to reduce the production of long-lived actinides, get rid of plutonium component and to improve the fuel cycle economy while maintaining acceptable values of the neutronic safety parameters such as moderator temperature coefficient, Doppler coefficient and effective delayed neutrons (β). The thorium based fuel has a more negative Doppler coefficient than uranium dioxide fuel. The moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) has been calculated for the different proposed fuels. Also, the fissile inventory ratio has been calculated at different burnup step. The use of Th-232 as a fertile material instead of U-238 in a nuclear fuel is the most promising fuel in VVER-1200 as it is the ideal solution to avoid the production of more plutonium components and long-lived minor actinides. The reactor grade plutonium accumulated in light water reactor with burnup can be recycled by mixing it with Th-232 to fuel the VVER-1200 assembly. The concentrations of Xe-135 and Sm-151 have been investigated, due to their high thermal neutron absorption cross section.

  1. Base isolation for nuclear power and nuclear material facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidinger, J.M.; Kircher, C.A.; Vaidya, N.; Constantinou, M.; Kelly, J.M.; Seidensticker, R.; Tajirian, F.F.; Ovadia, D.

    1989-01-01

    This report serves to document the status of the practice for the use of base isolation systems in the design and construction of nuclear power and nuclear material facilities. The report first describes past and current (1989) applications of base isolation in nuclear facilities. The report then provides a brief discussion of non-nuclear applications. Finally, the report summarizes the status of known base-isolation codes and standards

  2. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Mesoporous Manganese Dioxide-Based Composite Electrode for Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanhua; Cui, Xiuguo; Zu, Lei; Hu, Zhongkai; Gan, Jing; Lian, Huiquin; Liu, Yanag; Xing, Guangjian

    2017-01-01

    The mesoporous manganese dioxide with high specific surface area was obtained through a one-pot prepare procedure at ambient temperature under acidic conditions. And the graphene/mesoporous manganese dioxide composite was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal approach. As a comparison, silver nanowires also as a conductor was added to the mesoporous manganese dioxide. Both of the graphene and silver nanowires can increase the capacitance of the mesoporous manganese dioxide-based composite electrode materials. Compared with the graphene/mesoporous manganese dioxide composite, the silver nanowires/mesoporous manganese dioxide mixture has a better electrochemical performance, the specific capacitance and energy density is almost 2.2 times larger than that of the composites. The morphology and detail structure were investigated by the Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and Nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The electrochemical performance was assessed by the cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  3. Radioactivity around naval nuclear bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    Between 12th July and 2nd August 1988, Greenpeace took sediment samples from around four Royal Navy bases in the United Kingdom. Faslane, where nuclear powered submarines are berthed; Devonport and Rosyth where refit work is carried out and Portsmouth where US and UK nuclear submarines often visit. Samples were also taken from the US Navy base at Holy Loch, Scotland, where nuclear powered ballistic missile submarines are based. The samples were analysed at St Bartholomew Hospital Medical School, London. Identical samples were provided to the MoD personnel at Faslane and Devonport on the date taken. The purpose of carrying out the sampling programme was to highlight the fact that publicly available statistics from Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food (MAFF) are too limited in range, concentrating as they do merely on radioactive levels found between tides. The findings point to the necessity of monitoring subtidal as well as intertidal areas since levels of radioactivity found in the samples at Faslane and Holy Loch were four to nine times the figures published by MAFF. Until such time as nuclear power is no longer used at sea, it is the contention of Greenpeace that a more independent and comprehensive picture of the nature of radioactive contamination from around UK naval establishments must be obtained, than that presently available from MAFF. (author)

  4. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide. The developed catalyst activates carbon dioxide and delivers over 16% yield of DMC without the use of any dehydra...

  5. Carbon dioxide-based supercritical fluids as IC manufacturing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Pierce, T.; Tiefert, K.

    1999-05-11

    The production of integrated circuits (IC's) involves a number of discrete steps which utilize hazardous or regulated solvents and generate large waste streams. ES&H considerations associated with these chemicals have prompted a search for alternative, more environmentally benign solvent systems. An emerging technology for conventional solvent replacement is the use of supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Research work, conducted at Los Alamos in conjunction with the Hewlett-Packard Company, has lead to the development of a CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid treatment system for the stripping of hard-baked photoresists. This treatment system, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover, or CORR, uses a two-component solvent composed of a nonhazardous, non-regulated compound, dissolved in supercritical CO{sub 2}. The solvent/treatment system has been successfully tested on metallized Si wafers coated with negative and positive photoresist, the latter both before and after ion-implantation. A description of the experimental data will be presented. Based on the initial laboratory results, the project has progressed to the design and construction of prototype, single-wafer photoresist-stripping equipment. The integrated system involves a closed-loop, recirculating cycle which continuously cleans and regenerates the CO{sub 2}, recycles the dissolved solvent, and separates and concentrates the spent resist. The status of the current design and implementation strategy of a treatment system to existing IC fabrication facilities will be discussed. Additional remarks will be made on the use of a SCORR-type system for the cleaning of wafers prior to processing.

  6. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide based product as a hatchery sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, P; Cox, S; Gadde, U; Clark, F D; Bramwell, K; Watkins, S E

    2017-03-01

    Formaldehyde is commonly used to overcome contaminants introduced by hatching eggs or water supply in the hatcher cabinets. However, health risks associated with its use make economical alternatives important. This project evaluated a chlorine dioxide based product (CDBP) (0.3% concentrate) as a hatchery sanitizer in decontaminating microbial populations on the shell surface of hatching eggs (>18 d old), as well as its impact on hatchability and chick performance. Hatchers (0.20 m2) designed to hold approximately 50 eggs and equipped with circulation fans, heaters, and thermostats were used for the evaluation. For each of the 2 trials conducted, 450 hatching eggs were obtained and incubated in a common setter. Eggs used in trial 1 were floor eggs whereas in trial 2 nest eggs were used. On d 18 of incubation, eggs were removed from the setter, and viable eggs were randomly allocated to 9 hatchers. Pre-treatment egg rinse samples (10 eggs per hatcher) were collected for initial microbial analysis. Three hatchers were treated with CDBP and 3 hatchers with a formaldehyde based product (FBP). Three untreated hatchers served as control (C). Prior to hatch, 10 eggs/incubator, not previously rinsed, were used for post treatment microbial counts. The hatched chicks were reared until d 21 in floor pens with a common starter diet. For the CDBP treated eggs, hatchability and chick performance (weight gains, mortality, and FCR on d 7 and d 21) were similar to the other treatments. The application rate of CDBP evaluated in this study was not an effective antimicrobial alternative to formaldehyde for sanitizing hatching eggs in hatcher cabinets prior to hatch. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Supercritical carbon dioxide-based sterilization of decellularized heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Ryan S.; Jana, Soumen; Tefft, Brandon J.; Helder, Meghana R.; Young, Melissa D.; Hennessy, Rebecca R.; Stoyles, Nicholas J.; Lerman, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Objective The goal of this research project encompasses finding the most efficient and effective method of decellularized tissue sterilization. Background Aortic tissue grafts have been utilized to repair damaged or diseased valves. Although, the tissues for grafting are collected aseptically, it does not eradicate the risk of contamination nor disease transfer. Thus, sterilization of grafts is mandatory. Several techniques have been applied to sterilize grafts; however, each technique shows drawbacks. In this study, we compared several sterilization techniques: supercritical carbon dioxide, electrolyzed water, gamma radiation, ethanol-peracetic acid, and hydrogen peroxide for impact on the sterility and mechanical integrity of porcine decellularized aortic valves. Methods Valve sterility was characterized by histology, microbe culture, and electron microscopy. Uniaxial tensile testing was conducted on the valve cusps along their circumferential orientation to study these sterilization techniques on their integrity. Results Ethanol-peracetic acid and supercritical carbon dioxide treated valves were found to be sterile. The tensile strength of supercritical carbon dioxide treated valves (4.28 ± 0.22 MPa) was higher to those valves treated with electrolyzed water, gamma radiation, ethanol-peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (1.02 ± 0.15, 1.25 ± 0.25, 3.53 ± 0.41 and 0.37 ± 0.04 MPa, respectively). Conclusions Superior sterility and integrity were found in the decellularized porcine aortic valves with supercritical carbon dioxide sterilization. This sterilization technique may hold promise for other decellularized soft tissues. Summary Sterilization of grafts is essential. Supercritical carbon dioxide, electrolyzed water, gamma radiation, ethanol-peracetic acid, and hydrogen peroxide techniques were compared for impact on sterility and mechanical integrity of porcine decellularized aortic valves. Ethanol-peracetic acid and supercritical carbon dioxide treated

  8. Titanium-based zeolitic imidazolate framework for chemical fixation of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    A titanium-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (Ti-ZIF) with high surface area and porous morphology was synthesized and itsefficacy was demonstrated in the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide.

  9. Homogeneity study of enriched uranium dioxide to be used in intercomparison programs in the brazilian nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, Barbara F.G.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian nuclear facilities must dispose of measurement systems that allow the determination of their nuclear material inventories. The main goal of this work is the characterization of enriched uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) pellets to use as test sample to evaluate and verify these systems through the participation of the involved laboratories in interlaboratorial comparison programs. The programs are formed by a network of specialized laboratories in determining materials of the nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, before being sent to laboratories, the materials must have their homogeneity confirmed. The homogeneity study of the UO 2 pellets has being carried out in the Safeguards Laboratory (LASAL) of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) through Destructives Analysis technique. The technique used was Davies and Gray/NBL titrimetric method. For this purpose, 25 pellets of enriched uranium dioxide from two different batches were randomly chosen. The model for homogeneity study between-unit variation (between-bottle homogeneity study) and minimum sample intake (within-bottle homogeneity study) adopted is a one-way ANOVA. No statistical significant differences were observed in the results of total uranium concentration for both batches. Thus, the UO 2 pellets are considered homogeneous and can be used in a Brazilian measurement systems evaluation program.(author)

  10. New SERS-active junction based on cerium dioxide facet dielectric films for biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kurochkin

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility of the facet structures, based on cerium dioxide to further enhance the SERS signal. During the studies a new metamaterial was developed. The metamaterial is based on the facet cerium dioxide films and plasmonic nanoparticles that are immobilized on its surface. The new metamaterial provides additional SERS signal amplification factor of 211. Thus developed material offers the prospect of increasing the sensitivity and selectivity of biochemical and immunological analysis.

  11. Nuclear reactions video (knowledge base on low energy nuclear physics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebaev, V.; Kozhin, A.

    1999-01-01

    The NRV (nuclear reactions video) is an open and permanently extended global system of management and graphical representation of nuclear data and video-graphic computer simulation of low energy nuclear dynamics. It consists of a complete and renewed nuclear database and well known theoretical models of low energy nuclear reactions altogether forming the 'low energy nuclear knowledge base'. The NRV solves two main problems: 1) fast and visualized obtaining and processing experimental data on nuclear structure and nuclear reactions; 2) possibility for any inexperienced user to analyze experimental data within reliable commonly used models of nuclear dynamics. The system is based on the realization of the following principal things: the net and code compatibility with the main existing nuclear databases; maximal simplicity in handling: extended menu, friendly graphical interface, hypertext description of the models, and so on; maximal visualization of input data, dynamics of studied processes and final results by means of real three-dimensional images, plots, tables and formulas and a three-dimensional animation. All the codes are composed as the real Windows applications and work under Windows 95/NT

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS BASED ON ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Okovity

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A technology for formation of thermal barrier coatings (TBC based on zirconium dioxide has been developed in the paper. The paper investigates structures of phase composition and thermal stability of such developed coatings. Investigation results pertaining to formation of an oxide system ZrO2 – Y2O3, while using plasma spraying and subsequent high-energy processing, which allows to increase resistance of a thermal barrier coating to thermal cycling heat resistance of the coating at temperature of 1100 °C. This leads to longer protection of bottom layer against high-temperature exposure. The methodology is based on complex metallographic, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy investigations of structural elements in composite plasma coatings of the ZrO2 – Y2O system. Resistance of plasma coatings (Мe – Cr – Al – Y/ZrO2 – Y2O3-type, used as TBC to protect gas turbine engine blades under conditions of frequent thermal cyclings is limited by cleavage of an outer ceramic layer. Structural and electron microprobe investigations have shown that as a result of thermal cycling an outer atmosphere due to porous structure of the ceramic coating layer, migrates to the surface of lower metal coating, causing its oxidation. As a result, the metal-ceramic Al2O3 layer is formed at a metal-ceramic interface and it changes a stress state of the coating that causes a reduction of protective properties. Thus, a high heat resistance of thermal barrier coatings depends on processes occurring at the interface between metal and ceramic coating layers. A laser impact on samples with TBC leads to changes in the structure of the oxide layer of ZrO2 – Y2O3. In this case its initial surface characterized by considerable relief is significantly flattened due to processing and the coating is fractured and it is separated in fragments. As the oxide coating has low thermal conductivity, and the time of laser exposure is about 10–3 sec, a heat flux

  13. In situ titanium dioxide nanoparticles quantitative microscopy in cells and in C. elegans using nuclear microprobe analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Trequesser, Quentin [Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS, UMR 5797, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Saez, Gladys; Devès, Guillaume; Michelet, Claire; Barberet, Philippe [Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS, UMR 5797, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); Delville, Marie-Hélène [CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Seznec, Hervé, E-mail: herve.seznec@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS, UMR 5797, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2014-12-15

    Detecting and tracking nanomaterials in biological systems is challenging and essential to understand the possible interactions with the living. In this context, in situ analyses were conducted on human skin cells and a multicellular organism (Caenorhabditiselegans) exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs) using nuclear microprobe. Coupled to conventional methods, nuclear microprobe was found to be suitable for accurate description of chemical structure of biological systems and also for detection of native TiO{sub 2} NPs. The method presented herein opens the field to NPs exposure effects analyses and more generally to toxicological analyses assisted by nuclear microprobe. This method will show applications in key research areas where in situ imaging of chemical elements is essential.

  14. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  15. Nanocomposites based on titanium dioxide and polythiophene: structure and properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vu, Q. T.; Pavlík, Martin; Hebestreit, N.; Rammelt, U.; Plieth, W.; Pfleger, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 65, 1-2 (2005), s. 69-77 ISSN 1381-5148. [International Conference on Polymers and Organic Chemistry /11./. Prague, 18.06.2004-23.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050406 Grant - others:European Graduate School: Advanced Polymeric Materials(XE) IGK720 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polythiophene * titanium dioxide * nanocomposites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.565, year: 2005

  16. Evaluation and optimization of a supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion cycle for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, Edwin A.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550degC and 750degC. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550degC. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton Cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550degC versus 750degC. However, the supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton Cycle requires a high end operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle high end operating pressure of 7 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of the supercritical CO 2 recompression Brayton cycle for different reactor coolant outlet temperatures and mass flow rates. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt reactor power source, which provides heat to the power cycle at a maximum temperature of between 550degC and 850degC. Sensitivity calculations were also performed to determine the affect of reactor coolant mass flow rates for a reference reactor coolant outlet temperature of 750degC. The UniSim model used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete power conversion system. CO 2 properties were evaluated, and the operating range for the cycle was adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing conditions near the

  17. Three-dimensional ordered titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide film-based microfluidic device for efficient on-chip phosphopeptide enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De; He, Zhongyuan; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-09-15

    Microfluidic technology plays a significant role in separating biomolecules, because of its miniaturization, integration, and automation. Introducing micro/nanostructured functional materials can improve the properties of microfluidic devices, and extend their application. Inverse opal has a three-dimensional ordered net-like structure. It possesses a large surface area and exhibits good mass transport, making it a good candidate for bio-separation. This study exploits inverse opal titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide films for on-chip phosphopeptide enrichment. Titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide inverse opal film-based microfluidic devices were constructed from templates of 270-, 340-, and 370-nm-diameter poly(methylmethacrylate) spheres. The phosphopeptide enrichments of these devices were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The device constructed from the 270-nm-diameter sphere template exhibited good comprehensive phosphopeptide enrichment, and was the best among these three devices. Because the size of opal template used in construction was the smallest, the inverse opal film therefore had the smallest pore sizes and the largest surface area. Enrichment by this device was also better than those of similar devices based on nanoparticle films and single component films. The titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide inverse opal film-based device provides a promising approach for the efficient separation of various biomolecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux in titanium dioxide-water nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Tomio; Takamura, Masahiro; Kamiya, Takahito

    2011-01-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer was experimentally studied for saturated pool boiling of water-based nanofluids. Since significant nanoparticle deposition on the heated surface was observed after the nucleate boiling in nanofluids, measurement of CHF was also carried out using the nanoparticle deposited heated surface; pure water was used in the CHF measurement. In the present work, the heated surface was a 20 mm diameter cupper surface, and titanium-dioxide was selected as the material of nanoparticles. Experiments were performed for upward- and downward-facing surfaces. Although the CHFs for the downward-facing surface were generally lower than those for the upward-facing surface, the CHFs for the nanoparticle deposited surface were about 1.9 times greater than those for the bare surface in both the configurations. The CHF improvement corresponded well to the reduction of the surface contact angle. During the nucleate boiling in nanofluids, the boiling heat transfer showed peculiar behavior; it was first deteriorated, then improved, and finally approached to an equilibrium state. This observation indicated that the present nanofluid had competing effects to deteriorate and improve the nucleate boiling heat transfer. It was assumed that the wettability and the roughness of the heated surface were influenced by the deposited nanoparticles to cause complex variation of the number of active nucleation sites. During the nucleate boiling of pure water using the downward-facing surface, a sudden increase in the wall temperature was observed stochastically probably due to the accumulation of bubbles beneath the heated surface. Such behavior was not observed when the pure water was replaced by the nanofluid. (author)

  19. Hydrogen energy based on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    A concept to produce hydrogen of an energy carrier using nuclear energy was proposed since 1970s, and a number of process based on thermochemical method has been investigated after petroleum shock. As this method is used high temperature based on nuclear reactors, these researches are mainly carried out as a part of application of high temperature reactors, which has been carried out at an aim of the high temperature reactor application in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. On October, 2000, the 'First International Conference for Information Exchange on Hydrogen Production based on Nuclear Energy' was held by auspice of OECD/NEA, where hydrogen energy at energy view in the 21st Century, technology on hydrogen production using nuclear energy, and so on, were published. This commentary was summarized surveys and researches on hydrogen production using nuclear energy carried out by the Nuclear Hydrogen Research Group established on January, 2001 for one year. They contains, views on energy and hydrogen/nuclear energy, hydrogen production using nuclear energy and already finished researches, methods of hydrogen production using nuclear energy and their present conditions, concepts on production plants of nuclear hydrogen, resources on nuclear hydrogen production and effect on global environment, requests from market and acceptability of society, and its future process. (G.K.)

  20. Nuclear energy - Determination of chlorine and fluorine in uranium dioxide powder and sintered pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This International Standard describes a method for determining the chlorine and fluorine concentrations in uranium dioxide and in sintered fuel pellets by pyrohydrolysis of samples, followed either by liquid ion-exchange chromatography or by selective electrode measurement of chlorine and fluorine ions. Many ion-exchange chromatography systems and ion-selective electrode measurement systems are available

  1. Computer-Assisted Design of Imidazolate-Based Ionic Liquids for Improving Sulfur Dioxide Capture, Carbon Dioxide Capture, and Sulfur Dioxide/Carbon Dioxide Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guokai; Zhao, Ning; Wang, Jianji; Wang, Congmin

    2017-11-02

    A new strategy involving the computer-assisted design of substituted imidazolate-based ionic liquids (ILs) through tuning the absorption enthalpy as well as the basicity of the ILs to improve SO 2 capture, CO 2 capture, and SO 2 /CO 2 selectivity was explored. The best substituted imidazolate-based ILs as absorbents for different applications were first predicted. During absorption, high SO 2 capacities up to ≈5.3 and 2.4 molSO2  mol IL -1 could be achieved by ILs with the methylimidazolate anions under 1.0 and 0.1 bar (1 bar=0.1 MPa), respectively, through tuning multiple N⋅⋅⋅S interactions between SO 2 and the N atoms in the imidazolate anion with different substituents. In addition, CO 2 capture by the imidazolate-based ILs could also be easily tuned through changing the substituents of the ILs, and 4-bromoimidazolate IL showed a high CO 2 capacity but a low absorption enthalpy. Furthermore, a high selectivity for SO 2 /CO 2 could be reached by IL with 4,5-dicyanoimidazolate anion owing to its high SO 2 capacity but low CO 2 capacity. The results put forward in this work are in good agreement with the predictions. Quantum-chemical calculations and FTIR and NMR spectroscopy analysis methods were used to discuss the SO 2 and CO 2 absorption mechanisms. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Ionic Liquid-Based Optical and Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Kamalakanta; Pandey, Shubha; Kadyan, Anu; Pandey, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Due to their unusual physicochemical properties (e.g., high thermal stability, low volatility, high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows and good solvating ability), ionic liquids have shown immense application potential in many research areas. Applications of ionic liquid in developing various sensors, especially for the sensing of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes, gas sensing and sensing of various important ions, among other chemosensing platforms, are currently being explored by researchers worldwide. The use of ionic liquids for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is currently a major topic of research due to the associated importance of this gas with daily human life. This review focuses on the application of ionic liquids in optical and electrochemical CO2 sensors. The design, mechanism, sensitivity and detection limit of each type of sensor are highlighted in this review. PMID:26690155

  3. Ionic Liquid-Based Optical and Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakanta Behera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unusual physicochemical properties (e.g., high thermal stability, low volatility, high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows and good solvating ability, ionic liquids have shown immense application potential in many research areas. Applications of ionic liquid in developing various sensors, especially for the sensing of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes, gas sensing and sensing of various important ions, among other chemosensing platforms, are currently being explored by researchers worldwide. The use of ionic liquids for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO2 gas is currently a major topic of research due to the associated importance of this gas with daily human life. This review focuses on the application of ionic liquids in optical and electrochemical CO2 sensors. The design, mechanism, sensitivity and detection limit of each type of sensor are highlighted in this review.

  4. Evaluation of possible use of disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide in dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić-Martinez Mira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor sanitation of food contact surfaces has been a contributing factor in food borne disease outbreaks, especially those involving Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus etc. The objectives of this study were therefore to: 1. Determine the efficiency of a disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide in suspension in a closed system in a dairy plant. 2. Evaluate the possibility of disinfection of working surfaces with a disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide. In order to determine the germicidal effect of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide by suspension test (BSEN 1276:1997; the following test organisms were used: Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. The corrosive properties of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide were tested by IDF 077:1977 standard. The efficacy of this disinfectant was investigated in a closed system in a dairy plant. Results indicated a 100% reduction of >108 cfu/ml L. monocytogenes, E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, viable count after 1 minute of exposure to 100 ppm of the disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide and 400 ppm for Bacillus cereus. In the presence of 2% skim milk and 4 % skim milk concentrations of 200 and 250 ppm resulted in 100% reduction in numbers of the five of six test microorganisms, respectively. The spore former, Bacillus cereus is less susceptible to the disinfectant. Therefore, the efficient concentration for 100% reduction in viable count after 1 minute exposure was 500 ppm. The corrosive properties of the disinfectant were not determined. In the case of closed system disinfection in a dairy plant, reduction in viable count after 15 minute exposure to 100 ppm of disinfectant based on chlorine dioxide ranged from 80 to 100%.

  5. Performance analysis of a novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mingkun; Zhao, Pan; Wu, Yi; Dai, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Due to the intermittence and fluctuation of wind resource, the increasing penetration level of wind power will bring huge challenges to maintain the stability of power system. Integrating compressed air energy storage (CAES) system with wind farms can weaken this negative effect. However CAES system needs large caverns or mines to store compressed air, which is restricted in application. In this paper, a novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide is presented. The mathematical models of compressed liquid-carbon dioxide energy storage system are developed. The parametric analysis is conducted to examine the effect of some key thermodynamic parameters on the system performance. Compared with AA-CAES, the liquid carbon dioxide energy storage system has advantages such as a high energy density, high EVR. Moreover, the round trip efficiency of this system can reach about 56.64%, which is acceptable in consideration of the storage volume. Therefore, this proposed system has a good potential for storing wind power in large scale and offers an attractive solution to the challenges of the increasing penetration level of wind power. - Highlights: • A novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide is presented. • The effects of some key parameters on the system performance are studied. • The operation optimization is conducted by genetic algorithm. • Comparative analysis of AA-CAES and liquid carbon dioxide system is studied.

  6. Thermodynamics of a post combustion hydrate-based carbon dioxide capture process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Attouche Sfaxi, I.

    2011-07-01

    Hydrates selectivity towards carbon dioxide is offering a promising route for carbon dioxide removal from flue gases. Hydrate-based CO 2 capture process could substitute amine facilities widely implemented in gas treatment plants but suffering from oxidative degradation problems and high energy demand. In the framework of this thesis, we focus on phase equilibria that are involved in such process. Experimental dissociation conditions for clathrate hydrates of carbon dioxide and nitrogen, in the presence of some promoting molecules (Tetrahydrofuran, Tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and Tetrabutyl ammonium Fluoride ) are reported in the experimental section of this work. The data generated in this work along with literature data are compared to the model predictions. The developed model is based on the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS) for fluid phases combined to the van der Waals and Platteeuw's theory for the hydrate phase. (author)

  7. Aqueous Synthesis of Technetium-Doped Titanium Dioxide by Direct Oxidation of Titanium Powder, a Precursor for Ceramic Nuclear Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W. [Chemical; Saslow, Sarah A. [Earth

    2017-11-17

    Technetium-99 (Tc) is a problematic fission product that complicates the long-term disposal of nuclear waste due to its long half-life, high fission yield, and the environmental mobility of pertechnetate, its stable form in aerobic environments. One approach to preventing Tc contamination is through incorporation into durable waste forms based on weathering-resistant minerals such as rutile (titanium dioxide). Here, the incorporation of technetium into titanium dioxide by means of simple, aqueous chemistry is presented. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicate that Tc(IV) replaces Ti(IV) within the structure. Rather than being incorporated as isolated Tc(IV) ions, Tc is present as pairs of edge-sharing Tc(IV) octahedra similar to molecular Tc(IV) complexes such as [(H2EDTA)TcIV](u-O)2. Technetium-doped TiO2 was suspended in deionized water under aerobic conditions, and the Tc leached under these conditions was followed for 8 months. The normalized release rate of Tc (LRTc) from the TiO2 particles is low (3×10-6 g m-2 d-1), which illustrates the potential utility of TiO2 as waste form. However, the small size of the as-prepared TiO2 nanoparticles results in estimated retention of Tc for 104 years, which is only a fraction of the half-life of Tc (2×10-5 years).

  8. Nuclear safety based on nuclear knowledge - A Romanian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.C.; Popescu, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The recognized 'father' of the nuclear field, the scientist A. Einstein inherited us with a CONTRADICTION. On one hand he was the supporter of researches in the nuclear field, but on the other hand, when he saw the first devastating results of the atomic explosions he suddenly became a fervent opponent. In such conditions, the nuclear field made its first step in the conscience of humanity. Unfortunately it was a left first step. For this reason and also because of the nuclear incidents passed over the history of the field and due to yet unclear strategies regarding the final disposal of radioactive waste, a part of public opinion 'embraced' the concept 'NIMBY - Not In My Back Yard'. At present and for the future we have to fight against this concept in order to transform it in 'PIMY - Please In My Yard'. As a consequence, alongside numerous activities well-known by the specialists in the field, regulated and authorized by the regulatory body in the nuclear field, associated programmes for the CONTINUOUS qualification and education of human resources are needed. The Concept of Nuclear Security covers all the activities resulted from the nuclear fuel cycle. Taking into consideration the international experience in this field in our country's case, these activities were estimated for periods of approximately 70 years, as following: 10 years: the characterization and selection of the site, the design, construction and the commission of a nuclear power plant; 40 years: the operation, maintenance and modernization of a nuclear power plant; 20 years: the preservation for the decommissioning and the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. In all these stages until present Romania based a lot on the indigene component regarding the activities of research and development, design, construction - assembling, exploitation and maintenance (both for NPP Unit 1 and Unit 2, where this component was approximately of 50%). In such conditions, it was needed the

  9. Certification of a uranium-238 dioxide reference material for neutron dosimetry (EC nuclear reference material 501)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, J.; Lievens, F.; Ingelbrecht, C.

    1989-01-01

    Uranium-238 oxide of 99.999% isotopic and 99.98% chemical purity was transformed into dioxide spheres of nominal 0.5 and 1.0 mm diameter by gel precipitation and subsequent calcination under carbon dioxide and under argon containing 5% hydrogen at 1 125 K. The spheres were analysed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry, including isotope dilution, by gravimetry and by potentiometric titration. On the basis of these analyses, the uranium mass fraction was certified at 879.4 ± 2.8 g.kg -1 , and the 235 U/U - and 238 U/U abundances at 10.4 ± 0.5 mg.kg -1 and 999.9896 ± 0.0005 g.kg -1 , respectively. The material is intended to be used as a reference material in neutron metrology

  10. Carbon dioxide based power generation in renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pramod; Srinivasan, Kandadai

    2016-01-01

    After a substantial impact on refrigeration, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is gaining considerable attention as a working fluid for thermal power generation. This can be attributed mainly to its excellent heat transfer properties and compactness of components arising from its high density. It has the merit of being amenable to operation in sub-, trans- or super-critical Brayton cycle modes. However, inhibiting factors are high pressures needed when operated in trans- or supercritical cycles and the work of compression eroding most of the work of expansion in sub-critical cycle operation. Some of the lacunae of CO 2 such as high work of compression can be alleviated by using non-mechanical means such as thermal compression using the adsorption technique either for partial compression in high pressure Brayton cycles or for total compression in low pressure cycles. CO 2 has also been proposed as an additive to flammable hydrocarbons such that their flammability can be suppressed and yet retaining their other desirable thermodynamic qualities. This review explores the potential and limitations of thermodynamic cycles where either CO 2 is used alone or as a component in mixture of working fluids. Inter alia, it also highlights the issues of regulation of load management using the efficiency-specific power output plane. When used as a blending component, pinch point in the regenerators affects the cycle performance. The objective is to identify research and developmental challenges involving CO 2 as a working fluid specifically for solar power generation.

  11. Infrared study of acid-base properties of thorium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamotte, J.; Lavalley, J.C.; Druet, E.; Freund, E.

    1983-01-01

    Adsorption of CO 2 , C 5 H 5 N, CH 3 OCH 3 and CD 3 OCD 2 H on ThO 2 has been studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. CO 2 adsorption gives rise to several types of species: polydentate carbonates, bidentate carboxylates, bidentate carbonates, hydrogenocarbonates, monodentate carbonates and linear CO 2 species. The carbonate species have been identified on the basis of the splitting of the ν 3 vibration and of thermal-stability considerations. These results show that thorium dioxide is a basic oxide. Considering the νsub(a)(CO 2 ) mode of linear CO 2 species, the νsub(8a) mode of pyridine, the ν(CH) band of CD 3 OCD 2 H and the ν(COC) modes of CH 3 OCH 3 , it is concluded that some Th 4+ ions are very weak Lewis-acid sites. The OH groups giving rise to the 3740 cm -1 band are basic (some are involved in the formation of hydrogenocarbonate species), while some of the OH groups corresponding to the 3655 cm -1 band are very weak proton donors. (author)

  12. Automatic Carbon Dioxide-Methane Gas Sensor Based on the Solubility of Gases in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl O. Cadena-Pereda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogas methane content is a relevant variable in anaerobic digestion processing where knowledge of process kinetics or an early indicator of digester failure is needed. The contribution of this work is the development of a novel, simple and low cost automatic carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor based on the solubility of gases in water as the precursor of a sensor for biogas quality monitoring. The device described in this work was used for determining the composition of binary mixtures, such as carbon dioxide-methane, in the range of 0–100%. The design and implementation of a digital signal processor and control system into a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA platform has permitted the successful application of data acquisition, data distribution and digital data processing, making the construction of a standalone carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor possible.

  13. Automatic carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor based on the solubility of gases in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena-Pereda, Raúl O; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Gomez-Melendez, Domingo J; Anaya-Rivera, Ely K

    2012-01-01

    Biogas methane content is a relevant variable in anaerobic digestion processing where knowledge of process kinetics or an early indicator of digester failure is needed. The contribution of this work is the development of a novel, simple and low cost automatic carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor based on the solubility of gases in water as the precursor of a sensor for biogas quality monitoring. The device described in this work was used for determining the composition of binary mixtures, such as carbon dioxide-methane, in the range of 0-100%. The design and implementation of a digital signal processor and control system into a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform has permitted the successful application of data acquisition, data distribution and digital data processing, making the construction of a standalone carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor possible.

  14. Ion implantation to improve mechanical and electrical properties of resistive materials based on ruthenium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeli, A.V.; Shykh, S.K.; Beresina, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the influence of ion implantation, using different chemical species, on the surface micromorphology, wear resistance, coefficient of friction and electrical resistivity, and its variation during friction for resistive materials based on ruthenium dioxide. It is demonstrated that nitrogen and hydrogen ions are the most effective for modifying surface properties. (Author)

  15. NARCISS critical stand experiments for studying the nuclear safety in accident water immersion of highly enriched uranium dioxide fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Glushkov, E.S.; Bubelev, V.G.

    2005-01-01

    A brief description of the Topaz-2 SNPS designed under scientific supervision of RRC KI in Russia, and of the NARCISS critical facility, is given. At the NARCISS critical facility, neutronic peculiarities and nuclear safety issues of the Topaz-2 system reactor were studied experimentally. This work is devoted to a detailed description of experiments on investigation of criticality safety in accident water immersion og highly enriched uranium dioxide fuel elements, performed at the NARCISS facility. The experiments were carried out at water-moderated critical assemblies with varying height, number, and spacing of fuel elements. The results obtained in the critical experiments, computational models of the investigated critical configurations, and comparison of the computational and experimental results are given [ru

  16. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium Sample Handling 8 to 10 Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Ceric Sulfate Titration Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 11 to 18 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion–Thermal Conductivity 19 to 30 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 31 to 38 Sulfur by Distillation Spectrophotometry 39 to 47 Plutonium Isotopic Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earth Elements by Spectroscopy 48 to 55 Trace Elements by Carrier–Distillation Spectroscopy 56 to 63 Impurities by ICP-AES Impurity Elements by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 64 to 70 Moisture by the Coulomet...

  17. The basic discussion on nuclear power safety improvement based on nuclear equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Feiyun; Yao Yangui; Yu Hao; He Yinbiao; Gao Lei; Yao Weida

    2013-01-01

    The safety of strengthening nuclear power design was described based on nuclear equipment design after Fukushima nuclear accident. From these aspects, such as advanced standard system, advanced design method, suitable test means, consideration of beyond design basis event, and nuclear safety culture construction, the importance of nuclear safety improvement was emphatically presented. The enlightenment was given to nuclear power designer. (authors)

  18. Reactors physics. Bases of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diop, Ch.M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of nuclear reactor physics is to quantify the relevant macroscopic data for the characterization of the neutronic state of a reactor core and to evaluate the effects of radiations (neutrons and gamma radiations) on organic matter and on inorganic materials. This first article presents the bases of nuclear physics in the context of nuclear reactors: 1 - reactor physics and nuclear physics; 2 - atomic nucleus - basic definitions: nucleus constituents, dimensions and mass of the atomic nucleus, mass defect, binding energy and stability of the nucleus, strong interaction, nuclear momentums of nucleons and nucleus; 3 - nucleus stability and radioactivity: equation of evolution with time - radioactive decay law; alpha decay, stability limit of spontaneous fission, beta decay, electronic capture, gamma emission, internal conversion, radioactivity, two-body problem and notion of radioactive equilibrium. (J.S.)

  19. Analysis of burnup of Angra 2 PWR nuclear with addition of thorium dioxide fuel using ORIGEN-ARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Isadora C.; Wichrowski, Caio C.; Oliveira, Claudio L. de; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Baptista, Camila O.

    2017-01-01

    It is known that isotope 232 thorium is a fertile nuclide with the ability to convert into 233 uranium, a potentially fissile isotope, after absorbing a neutron. As there is a large stock of available thorium in the world, this element shows great promise in mitigate the world energy crisis, more particularly in the problem of uranium scarcity, besides being an alternative nuclear fuel for those currently used in reactors, and yet presenting advantages as an option for the non-proliferation movement, among others. In this study, the analysis of the remaining nuclides of burnup was carried out for the core configuration of a PWR (pressurized water reactor) reactor, specifically the Angra 2 reactor, using only uranium dioxide, its current configuration, and in different configurations including a mixed oxide of uranium and thorium in three concentrations, allowing a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of the modification of the fuel, the resulting production of 233 uranium, the emergence of 231 protactinium (an isotope that only occurs as a fission product of 232 Th) resulting from burning. The study was carried out using data obtained from FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) of Angra 2, using the SCALE 6.1, a modeling and simulation nuclear code, especially its ORIGEN-ARP module, which analyzes the depletion of isotopes presents in a reactor. (author)

  20. Analysis of burnup of Angra 2 PWR nuclear with addition of thorium dioxide fuel using ORIGEN-ARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Isadora C.; Wichrowski, Caio C.; Oliveira, Claudio L. de; Vellozo, Sergio O.; Baptista, Camila O., E-mail: isadora.goncalves@ime.eb.br, E-mail: wichrowski@ime.eb.br, E-mail: d7luiz@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: vellozo@ime.eb.br, E-mail: camila.oliv.baptista@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    It is known that isotope {sup 232}thorium is a fertile nuclide with the ability to convert into {sup 233}uranium, a potentially fissile isotope, after absorbing a neutron. As there is a large stock of available thorium in the world, this element shows great promise in mitigate the world energy crisis, more particularly in the problem of uranium scarcity, besides being an alternative nuclear fuel for those currently used in reactors, and yet presenting advantages as an option for the non-proliferation movement, among others. In this study, the analysis of the remaining nuclides of burnup was carried out for the core configuration of a PWR (pressurized water reactor) reactor, specifically the Angra 2 reactor, using only uranium dioxide, its current configuration, and in different configurations including a mixed oxide of uranium and thorium in three concentrations, allowing a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of the modification of the fuel, the resulting production of {sup 233}uranium, the emergence of {sup 231}protactinium (an isotope that only occurs as a fission product of {sup 232}Th) resulting from burning. The study was carried out using data obtained from FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) of Angra 2, using the SCALE 6.1, a modeling and simulation nuclear code, especially its ORIGEN-ARP module, which analyzes the depletion of isotopes presents in a reactor. (author)

  1. Average Nuclear properties based on statistical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Jaick, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The rough properties of nuclei were investigated by statistical model, in systems with the same and different number of protons and neutrons, separately, considering the Coulomb energy in the last system. Some average nuclear properties were calculated based on the energy density of nuclear matter, from Weizsscker-Beth mass semiempiric formulae, generalized for compressible nuclei. In the study of a s surface energy coefficient, the great influence exercised by Coulomb energy and nuclear compressibility was verified. For a good adjust of beta stability lines and mass excess, the surface symmetry energy were established. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Supercritical-fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) cleaning of nuclear weapon components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Rubin, J.B.

    1998-05-01

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) has been evaluated as a cleaning solvent for the cleaning of plutonium (Pu) metal parts. The results of the evaluation show that SCCO{sub 2} is an effective alternative to halogenated solvents that are conventionally used for removing organic and inorganic contaminants from the surface of these parts. The cleaning process was demonstrated at the laboratory scale for steel and uranium substrates and has been found to be compatible with Pu. The efficacy of this cleaning method is found to be dependent on process conditions of pressure, temperature, fluid-flow rate, as well as cleaning time. Process parameters of P > 2,500 psi, T > 40 C, and moderate fluid flow rates, produced good cleaning results in less than 10 minutes using a simple flow-through process configuration. Within the parameter range studied, cleaning efficiency generally improved with increasing process pressure and flow rate. SCCO{sub 2} cleaning is suitable for a variety of component cleaning tasks and is adaptable to precision cleaning requirements. The SCCO{sub 2} cleaning process is currently being developed for deployment for weapons production at LANL.

  3. ASSESSMENT of POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE-BASED DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION SYSTEM PERFORMANCE in SINGLE ZONE SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    requirements of a 400 m3 space in a multiuse facility in South Korea using two types of DCV systems—one CO2-based and the other uses a radio frequency...identification (RFID) device to detect zone occupancy 25 (Jeong et al., 2010). A dedicated outdoor air system supplies ventilation air to the zone...use a known control scheme (ASHRAE, 2010b). Carbon Dioxide Sensor Modeling Case Study 2 While the first case study examines a single multiuse

  4. Space nuclear power systems for extraterrestrial basing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, J.R.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of nuclear and non-nuclear power systems for lunar bases are compared with recent studies by others. Power levels from tens of kW e for early base operation up to 2000 kW e for a self-sustaining base with a Closed Environment Life Support System (CELSS) are considered. Permanent lunar or Martian bases will require the use of multiple nuclear units connected to loads with a power transmission and distribution system analogous to earth-based electric utility systems. A methodology used for such systems is applied to the lunar base system to examine the effects of adding 100 kW e SP-100 class and/or larger nuclear units when a reliability criterion is imposed. The results show that resource and logistic burdens can be reduced by using 1000 kW e units early in the base growth scenario without compromising system reliability. Therefore, both technologies being developed in two current programs (SP-100 and NERVA Derivative Reactor (NDR) technology for space power) can be used effectively for extraterrestrial base power systems. Recent developments in NDR design that result in major reductions in reactor mass are also described. (author)

  5. Prediction on carbon dioxide emissions based on fuzzy rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi, Herrini; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-06-01

    There are several ways to predict air quality, varying from simple regression to models based on artificial intelligence. Most of the conventional methods are not sufficiently able to provide good forecasting performances due to the problems with non-linearity uncertainty and complexity of the data. Artificial intelligence techniques are successfully used in modeling air quality in order to cope with the problems. This paper describes fuzzy inference system (FIS) to predict CO2 emissions in Malaysia. Furthermore, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to compare the prediction performance. Data of five variables: energy use, gross domestic product per capita, population density, combustible renewable and waste and CO2 intensity are employed in this comparative study. The results from the two model proposed are compared and it is clearly shown that the ANFIS outperforms FIS in CO2 prediction.

  6. Tetraphenylethylene-based phosphine: tuneable emission and carbon dioxide fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyong; Yang, Qiuli; Zhu, Yixuan; Liu, Haoliang; Chi, Zhenguo; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2014-11-14

    A tetraphenylethylene-based phosphine, 1,1,2,2-tetrakis((4-diphenylphosphino)phenyl)ethylene (TPE-P4), was synthesized and showed novel aggregation-induced and mechano-responsive emission. A mixture of TPE-P4 and Ag(+) could fix atmospheric CO2in situ as carbonate ions in neutral solution to yield a rare 3D metal-organic framework with zeolite-like SOD topology, [Ag2(TPE-P4)CO3]x⊃nH2O (Ag-TPE-P4). Ag-TPE-P4 showed turn-on luminescence of TPE-P4, emitting bright bluish green light in the solid state.

  7. Multi-criteria Generation-Expansion Planning with Carbon dioxide emissions and Nuclear Safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hun Gyu [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Chang [Aju University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) method is developed to aid decision makers in Generation Expansion planning and management. Traditionally, the prime objective of an electric utility's generation-expansion planning has been to determine the minimum cost supply plans that meet expected demands over a planning horizon (typically 10 to 30 years). Today, however, the nature of decision environments has changed substantially. Increased policy attention is given to solve the multiple tradeoff function including environmental and social factors as well as economic one related to nuclear power expansion. In order to deal with this MCDM problem, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Model is applied

  8. PLASMA THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS BASED ON ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE WITH HIGH THERMAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Devoino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents optimization of  processes for obtaining maximum content of tetragonal phase in the initial material and thermal barrier coatings (TBC based on zirconium dioxide and hafnium oxide.  Results of the investigations on phase composition of oxide HfO2 – ZrO2 – Y2O3  system have been given in the paper. The system represents  a microstructure which is similar to  zirconia dioxide and  transformed for its application at 1300 °C. The paper explains a mechanism of hafnium oxide influence on formation of the given microstructure. The research methodology has been based on complex metallography, X – ray diffraction and electron microscopic investigations of  structural elements of the composite plasma coating HfO2 – ZrO2 – Y2O system.In order to stabilize zirconium dioxide  dopant oxide should not only have an appropriate size of  metal ion, but also form a solid solution with the zirconia. This condition severely limits the number of possible stabilizers. In fact, such stabilization is possible only with the help of rare earth oxides (Y2O3, Yb2O3, CeO2, HfO2. Chemical purity of the applied materials plays a significant role for obtaining high-quality thermal barrier coatings. Hafnium oxide has been selected as powder for thermal barrier coatings instead of zirconium dioxide due to their similarities in structural modification, grating, chemical and physical properties and its high temperature structural transformations. It has been established that plasma thermal barrier HfO2 – ZrO2 – Y2O3 coatings consist of  one tetragonal phase. This phase is equivalent to a non-equilibrium tetragonal t' phase in the “zirconium dioxide stabilized with yttrium oxide” system. Affinity of  Hf+4 and Zr+4 cations leads to the formation of identical metastable phases during rapid quenching.

  9. Scenario-based roadmapping assessing nuclear technology development paths for future nuclear energy system scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Durpel, Luc; Roelofs, Ferry; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy may play a significant role in a future sustainable energy mix. The transition from today's nuclear energy system towards a future more sustainable nuclear energy system will be dictated by technology availability, energy market competitiveness and capability to achieve sustainability through the nuclear fuel cycle. Various scenarios have been investigated worldwide each with a diverse set of assumptions on the timing and characteristics of new nuclear energy systems. Scenario-based roadmapping combines the dynamic scenario-analysis of nuclear energy systems' futures with the technology roadmap information published and analysed in various technology assessment reports though integrated within the nuclear technology roadmap Nuclear-Roadmap.net. The advantages of this combination is to allow mutual improvement of scenario analysis and nuclear technology roadmapping providing a higher degree of confidence in the assessment of nuclear energy system futures. This paper provides a description of scenario-based roadmapping based on DANESS and Nuclear-Roadmap.net. (author)

  10. Research-based approaches to nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donev, J.M.K.C.; Carpenter, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching nuclear power requires an expert to communicate a significant number of abstract concepts from diverse disciplines, and assemble these into a larger intellectual framework for the students. Scholarly education research, particularly in individual science disciplines, has provided significant advances in teaching core subject material by breaking away from traditional lecturing. Thus far, however,little work has applied these results to introductory nuclear power classes. This paper explores a method of engaging introductory nuclear students deeply by using a combination of Socratic and mastery methods of teaching. Students develop conceptual understanding of the material through the group work and the use of diverse resources, including textbooks, online references, and computer models that encourage free exploration of these concepts. Marks have improved considerably, and students engage with the material at a significantly deeper level than in previous lecture-based iterations of this course. (author)

  11. MOLECULAR COMPLEXES OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE WITH N,O-CONTAINING ORGANIC BASES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Khoma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature data on the synthesis, stoichiometry, structure and relative stability of molecular  complexes of sulphur dioxide with N,O-containing organic bases have been systematized and  generalized. It was shown that the yield of the reaction product of sulfur dioxide with organic  bases (such as amines are strongly influenced by the conditions of synthesis: the nature of  the solvent (basicity, polarity, the temperature and SO2:L ratio in the reaction medium. The stoichiometry of SO2*nL molecular complexes depends on ligand denticity, as well as its  ability to H-bonding. The reaction of the sulfur oxide (IV with organic bases can give S←N and S←O complexes. With the increase of the value of base proton affinity the decrease ΔrSN values has been marked. Characteristic parameter Δr SN = r SN – a1(rS+ rN (where rSNis the S←N donor-acceptor bond length has been determined by microwave spectroscopy and X-ray analysis, rSand rNwere the tabulated values of the homopolar covalent radii of sulphur and nitrogen heteroatoms. The dependence of formation enthalpy of molecular complexes of basic amines and spectral characteristics has been noted; enthalpy-entropy compensation for S←N and S←O complex-es has been stated. Despite the limited experimental data on the thermodynamics of complex formation and the lengths of donor-acceptor bonds for the same compounds it has been found bond S←N strength in SO2 molecular complexes to depend on the intrinsic value of ΔrSN. The contribution of van der Waals forces and charge transfer forces to the formation of molecular complexes of sulphur dioxide has been stated.

  12. Decomposing the Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia Based on the LMDI Method

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Wu; Jiquan Zhang; Yuhai Bao; Quan Lai; Siqin Tong; Youtao Song

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the influencing factors of industrial sector carbon dioxide emissions is essential to reduce natural and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we applied the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) decomposition method based on the extended Kaya identity to analyze the changes in industrial carbon dioxide emissions resulting from 39 industrial sectors in Inner Mongolia northeast of China over the period 2003–2012. The factors were divided into five types of eff...

  13. Increase of thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide nuclear fuel pellets with beryllium oxide addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarano, D.M.; Mansur, F.A.; Santos, A.M.M. dos; Ferraz, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    The UO 2 fuel is one of the most used nuclear fuel in thermal reactors and has many advantages such as high melting point, chemical compatibility with cladding, etc. However, its thermal conductivity is relatively low, which leads to a premature degradation of the fuel pellets due to a high radial temperature gradient during reactor operation. An alternative to avoid this problem is to increase the thermal conductivity of the fuel pellets, by adding beryllium oxide (BeO). Pellets of UO 2 and UO 2 -BeO were obtained from a homogenized mixture of powders of UO 2 and BeO, containing 2% and 3% by weight of BeO and sintering at 1750 °C for 3 h under H 2 atmosphere after uniaxial pressing at 400 MPa. The pellet densities were obtained by xylol penetration-immersion method and the thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity were determined according to ASTM E-1461 at room temperature (25 deg C) and 100 deg C. The thermal diffusivity measurements were carried out employing the laser flash method. The thermal conductivity obtained at 25 deg C showed an increase with the addition of 2% and 3% of BeO corresponding to 19% and 28%, respectively. As for the measurements carried out at 100 deg C, there was an increase in the thermal conductivity for the same BeO contents of 20% and 31%. These values as a percentage of increased conductivity were obtained in relation to the UO 2 pellets. (author)

  14. U.S. Forward Operating Base Applications of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, George W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a high level overview of current nuclear power technology and the potential use of nuclear power at military bases. The size, power ranges, and applicability of nuclear power units for military base power are reviewed. Previous and current reactor projects are described to further define the potential for nuclear power for military power.

  15. Historical civilian nuclear accident based Nuclear Reactor Condition Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Kaylyn Marie

    There are significant challenges to successfully monitoring multiple processes within a nuclear reactor facility. The evidence for this observation can be seen in the historical civilian nuclear incidents that have occurred with similar initiating conditions and sequences of events. Because there is a current lack within the nuclear industry, with regards to the monitoring of internal sensors across multiple processes for patterns of failure, this study has developed a program that is directed at accomplishing that charge through an innovation that monitors these systems simultaneously. The inclusion of digital sensor technology within the nuclear industry has appreciably increased computer systems' capabilities to manipulate sensor signals, thus making the satisfaction of these monitoring challenges possible. One such manipulation to signal data has been explored in this study. The Nuclear Reactor Condition Analyzer (NRCA) program that has been developed for this research, with the assistance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Graduate Fellowship, utilizes one-norm distance and kernel weighting equations to normalize all nuclear reactor parameters under the program's analysis. This normalization allows the program to set more consistent parameter value thresholds for a more simplified approach to analyzing the condition of the nuclear reactor under its scrutiny. The product of this research provides a means for the nuclear industry to implement a safety and monitoring program that can oversee the system parameters of a nuclear power reactor facility, like that of a nuclear power plant.

  16. Tungsten - Yttrium Based Nuclear Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Chessa, Jack; Martinenz, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    The challenging problem currently facing the nuclear science community in this 21st century is design and development of novel structural materials, which will have an impact on the next-generation nuclear reactors. The materials available at present include reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, dispersion strengthened reduced activation ferritic steels, and vanadium- or tungsten-based alloys. These materials exhibit one or more specific problems, which are either intrinsic or caused by reactors. This work is focussed towards tungsten-yttrium (W-Y) based alloys and oxide ceramics, which can be utilized in nuclear applications. The goal is to derive a fundamental scientific understanding of W-Y-based materials. In collaboration with University of Califonia -- Davis, the project is designated to demonstrate the W-Y based alloys, ceramics and composites with enhanced physical, mechanical, thermo-chemical properties and higher radiation resistance. Efforts are focussed on understanding the microstructure, manipulating materials behavior under charged-particle and neutron irradiation, and create a knowledge database of defects, elemental diffusion/segregation, and defect trapping along grain boundaries and interfaces. Preliminary results will be discussed.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Separation Techniques for Gasification-based Power Generation Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Jones, K.L.; Morsi, B.I. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Heintz, Y.J. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Ilconich, J.B. (Parsons)

    2007-06-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (post-combustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle or IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, dry, regenerable processes based on sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.

  18. Embodied carbon dioxide flow in international trade: A comparative analysis based on China and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ruyin; Li, Jinqiu; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Linling; Li, Qianwen

    2018-03-01

    Carbon dioxide embodied flow in international trade has become an important factor in defining global carbon emission responsibility and climate policy. We conducted an empirical analysis for China and Japan for the years 2000-2014, using a multi-region input-output model and considering the rest of the world as a comparison group. We compared the two countries' direct and complete carbon dioxide emissions intensity and bilateral economic activities such as imports and exports, production and consumption to analyze the difference between China and Japan. The results showed that the intensities of carbon emissions in all sectors of China were higher than that in Japan and that China's annual production-based emissions were greater than consumption-based emissions, the opposite of these relationships in Japan. China was a typical net carbon export country, and carbon embodied in its imports and exports continued to increase throughout the study period. In contrast, Japan's volume and growth rate of embodied carbon emissions were far less than China's and Japan was a typical net carbon import country. Finally, the conclusions of this study support recommendations for the formulation of international carbon emission responsibility allocation, domestic abatement policy as well as China's trade policy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Measurement of methane and carbon dioxide emissions from ruminants based on the NDIR technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xue-Zhi; Long, Rui-Jun; Mi, Jian-Dui; Guo, Xu-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    Methane (CH4) production in the rumen represents a loss of energy for the host animal; in addition, methane eructated by ruminants may contribute to a greenhouse effect or global warming. The dinumal CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from sheep were continuously recorded using the flow-through chamber method. A type new type of non-disperse infrared (NDIR) gas sensors based on pulse IR source was introduced, and by using the high performance pyroelectric IR sensor with built in interference filter and the "single light and two wavelengths" technology, CH4 and CO2 measurement from ruminants was achieved. Animals were given dry oat hay as the basic diet and supplemented concentrate with the ratio of 7 : 3. The results showed that the recovery was 96.7% and 96.2% for CH4 and CO2, respectively. Methane and carbon dioxide output from sheep respectively averaged 15.6 g per day and 184.7 g per day, equivalent to 6.8 and 71.1 kg per animal. Diurnal fluctuations in hourly rates of CH4 and CO2 production in hourly of methane increased during day light to reach a peak at or near sunset and then declined towards sunrise, and consideration was given to the dry matter intake of the animals used in these studies and its possible effects on CH4 production.

  20. Space-Based Detection of Missing Sulfur Dioxide Sources of Global Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world-over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf-and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr(exp -1), or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  1. Carbon dioxide-krypton separation and radon removal from nuclear-fuel-reprocessing off-gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, P.M.; Higuchi, K.Y.; Abraham, L.

    1982-07-01

    General Atomic Company (GA) is conducting pilot-plant-scale tests that simulate the treatment of radioactive and other noxious volatile and gaseous constituents of off-gas streams from nuclear reprocessing plants. This paper reports the results of engineering-scale tests performed on the CO 2 /krypton separation and radon holdup/decay subsystems of the GA integrated off-gas treatment system. Separation of CO 2 from krypton-containing gas streams is necessary to facilitate subsequent waste processing and krypton storage. Molecular sieve 5A achieved this separation in dissolver off-gas streams containing relatively low krypton and CO 2 concentrations and in krypton-rich product streams from processes such as the krypton absorption in liquid carbon dioxide (KALC) process. The CO 2 /krypton separation unit is a 30.5-cm-diameter x 1.8-m-long column containing molecular sieve 5A. The loading capacity for CO 2 was determined for gas mixtures containing 250 ppM to 2.2% CO 2 and 170 to 750 ppM krypton in either N 2 or air. Gas streams rich in CO 2 were diluted with N 2 to reduce the temperature rise from the heat of adsorption, which would otherwise affect loading capacity. The effluent CO 2 concentration prior to breakthrough was less than 10 ppM, and the adsorption capacity for krypton was negligible. Krypton was monitored on-line with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and its concentration determined quantitatively by a method of continuous analysis, i.e., selected-ion monitoring. Radon-220 was treated by holdup and decay on a column of synthetic H-mordenite. The Rn-220 concentration was monitored on-line with flow-through diffused-junction alpha detectors. Single-channel analyzers were utilized to isolate the 6.287-MeV alpha energy band characteristic of Rn-220 decay from energy bands due to daughter products

  2. Carbon dioxide-krypton separation and radon removal from nuclear-fuel-reprocessing off-gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, P.M.; Higuchi, K.Y.; Abraham, L.

    1982-07-01

    General Atomic Company (GA) is conducting pilot-plant-scale tests that simulate the treatment of radioactive and other noxious volatile and gaseous constituents of off-gas streams from nuclear reprocessing plants. This paper reports the results of engineering-scale tests performed on the CO/sub 2//krypton separation and radon holdup/decay subsystems of the GA integrated off-gas treatment system. Separation of CO/sub 2/ from krypton-containing gas streams is necessary to facilitate subsequent waste processing and krypton storage. Molecular sieve 5A achieved this separation in dissolver off-gas streams containing relatively low krypton and CO/sub 2/ concentrations and in krypton-rich product streams from processes such as the krypton absorption in liquid carbon dioxide (KALC) process. The CO/sub 2//krypton separation unit is a 30.5-cm-diameter x 1.8-m-long column containing molecular sieve 5A. The loading capacity for CO/sub 2/ was determined for gas mixtures containing 250 ppM to 2.2% CO/sub 2/ and 170 to 750 ppM krypton in either N/sub 2/ or air. Gas streams rich in CO/sub 2/ were diluted with N/sub 2/ to reduce the temperature rise from the heat of adsorption, which would otherwise affect loading capacity. The effluent CO/sub 2/ concentration prior to breakthrough was less than 10 ppM, and the adsorption capacity for krypton was negligible. Krypton was monitored on-line with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and its concentration determined quantitatively by a method of continuous analysis, i.e., selected-ion monitoring. Radon-220 was treated by holdup and decay on a column of synthetic H-mordenite. The Rn-220 concentration was monitored on-line with flow-through diffused-junction alpha detectors. Single-channel analyzers were utilized to isolate the 6.287-MeV alpha energy band characteristic of Rn-220 decay from energy bands due to daughter products.

  3. Filler masses of zirconium dioxide based on ortho-phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaulov, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    The paper examines the effect of the content of monoclinal ZrO 2 in ramming mass based on zirconium dioxide, and the quantity of orthophosphoric acid, on the properties of mass over a wide temperature range. The addition of monoclinal ZrO 2 reduces the shrinkage of ramming mass and increases its strength in the range 300 - 1,000 0 C. The introduction of monoclinal ZrO 2 into mass based on partly stabilized ZrO 2 with a maximum grain size of 5 mm ensures a complete absence of shrinkage right up to 1,750 0 C. Such masses, however, have a more marked fall in strength at 1,200 0 C (destabilization temperature of ZrO 2 ). Orthophosphoric acid acts as a surface active agent and improves the density of the samples; increasing its quantity from 2 to 5 % (by weight) increases the strength of ramming mass. (author)

  4. Polymer based graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite (GTNC): an emerging and efficient thermoelectric material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Abhijit; Hadavale, Sayali; Khan, Md Abdul Shafeeuulla; More, Priyesh; Khanna, Pawan K; Sikder, Arun Kanti; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2015-11-28

    An ecofriendly procedure for the synthesis of graphene-titanium dioxide nanocomposites (GTNC) has been developed by dispersing nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) and graphene nanosheets (GNSs) in ethanol via ultrasonication followed by microwave irradiation. Such nanohybrids were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. We have also demonstrated the synthesis of highly conductive composites like poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)polystyrene sulphonate ( PSS)-GTNC, polyvinyl acetate (PVAc)-GTNC, PEDOT:PSS-graphene, and PVAc-graphene by ultrasonication followed by hot compaction towards their thermoelectric application. The filler (graphene, GTNC) concentration and polymer matrix were judiciously varied and optimized for the sake of high electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient which leads to a higher power factor (PF). The PVAc based composite with a composition of PVAc (20%) and GTNC (80%) was found to be the most promising material with an electrical conductivity of 2.6 × 10(4) S m(-1) and a Seebeck coefficient of -42 μV K(-1) at room temperature (RT). As a result, the PF reaches 47 μW m(-1) K(-2) at RT which is approximately 37 times, 5 times and 3 times higher than that for the PVAc-graphene based composite, the PSS-GTNC based composite and the PSS-graphene based composite respectively. The origin of the thermoelectric performance of the GTNC composite seems to be from the synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and TiO2 nanoparticles. The composite shows a large power factor value without using any conducting polymer.

  5. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.; Rumble, E.; Rodwell, E.

    2001-01-01

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  6. Semiconductor-Based Photoelectrochemical Conversion of Carbon Dioxide: Stepping Towards Artificial Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hong; Masuda, Takuya; Ye, Jinhua

    2018-01-18

    The photoelectrochemical (PEC) carbon dioxide reduction process stands out as a promising avenue for the conversion of solar energy into chemical feedstocks, among various methods available for carbon dioxide mitigation. Semiconductors derived from cheap and abundant elements are interesting candidates for catalysis. Whether employed as intrinsic semiconductors or hybridized with metallic cocatalysts, biocatalysts, and metal molecular complexes, semiconductor photocathodes exhibit good performance and low overpotential during carbon dioxide reduction. Apart from focusing on carbon dioxide reduction materials and chemistry, PEC cells towards standalone devices that use photohybrid electrodes or solar cells have also been a hot topic in recent research. An overview of the state-of-the-art progress in PEC carbon dioxide reduction is presented and a deep understanding of the catalysts of carbon dioxide reduction is also given. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Decontamination of radioactive clothing using microemulsion in carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jaeryong; Jang, Jina; Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Hongdoo; Kim, Hakwon [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sanghak; Yoon, Weonseob [Ulchin Nuclear Power Site, Ulchin (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear power is intrinsically a clean energy source due to its high energy density and low generation of waste. However, as the nuclear industry grows, a variety of radioactive wastes are increased gradually. Major subjects include contaminated components, tools, equipment, containers and facilities as well as nuclear waste such as uranium scrap and radioactive clothing. The radioactive waste can be classified by its creation. There are Trans-Uranium Nuclides (TRU), Fission Products (FP) and corrosion products. Nuclear decontamination has become an important issue in the nuclear industry. The conventional methods have some problems such as the production of secondary wastes and the use of toxic solvents. We need to develop a new method of decontamination and suggest a use of microemulsion in carbon dioxide to overcome these disadvantages. The microemulsion is the clear solution that contains the water, surfactant and carbon dioxide. The surfactant surrounded the droplet into carbon dioxide and this state is thermodynamically stable. That is, the microemulsion has a structure similar to that of a conventional water-based surfactant system. Generally, the size of droplet is about 5 {approx} 10nm. The microemulsion is able to decontaminate radioactive waste so that the polar substance is removed by water and the non-polar substance is removed by carbon dioxide. After the decontamination process, the microemulsion is separated easily to surfactant and water by decreasing the pressure under the cloud point. This way, only radioactive wastes are left in the system. Cleaned carbon dioxide is then collected and reused. Thus, there are no secondary wastes. Carbon dioxide is considered an alternative process medium. This is because it is non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive and easy to handle. Additionally, the tunable properties of carbon dioxide through pressure and temperature control are versatile for use in extracting organic materials. In this paper, we examine the

  8. Decontamination of radioactive clothing using microemulsion in carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jaeryong; Jang, Jina; Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Hongdoo; Kim, Hakwon; Yim, Sanghak; Yoon, Weonseob

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power is intrinsically a clean energy source due to its high energy density and low generation of waste. However, as the nuclear industry grows, a variety of radioactive wastes are increased gradually. Major subjects include contaminated components, tools, equipment, containers and facilities as well as nuclear waste such as uranium scrap and radioactive clothing. The radioactive waste can be classified by its creation. There are Trans-Uranium Nuclides (TRU), Fission Products (FP) and corrosion products. Nuclear decontamination has become an important issue in the nuclear industry. The conventional methods have some problems such as the production of secondary wastes and the use of toxic solvents. We need to develop a new method of decontamination and suggest a use of microemulsion in carbon dioxide to overcome these disadvantages. The microemulsion is the clear solution that contains the water, surfactant and carbon dioxide. The surfactant surrounded the droplet into carbon dioxide and this state is thermodynamically stable. That is, the microemulsion has a structure similar to that of a conventional water-based surfactant system. Generally, the size of droplet is about 5 ∼ 10nm. The microemulsion is able to decontaminate radioactive waste so that the polar substance is removed by water and the non-polar substance is removed by carbon dioxide. After the decontamination process, the microemulsion is separated easily to surfactant and water by decreasing the pressure under the cloud point. This way, only radioactive wastes are left in the system. Cleaned carbon dioxide is then collected and reused. Thus, there are no secondary wastes. Carbon dioxide is considered an alternative process medium. This is because it is non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive and easy to handle. Additionally, the tunable properties of carbon dioxide through pressure and temperature control are versatile for use in extracting organic materials. In this paper, we examine the

  9. Standard test method for the determination of uranium by ignition and the oxygen to uranium (O/U) atomic ratio of nuclear grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of uranium and the oxygen to uranium atomic ratio in nuclear grade uranium dioxide powder and pellets. 1.2 This test method does not include provisions for preventing criticality accidents or requirements for health and safety. Observance of this test method does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all international, national, or federal, state and local regulations pertaining to possessing, shipping, processing, or using source or special nuclear material. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 This test method also is applicable to UO3 and U3O8 powder.

  10. Space Based Measurements for Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: a New Tool for Monitoring Our Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, David

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and other human activities are now adding almost 40 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere each year. Interestingly, as these emissions have increased over time, natural "sinks" in land biosphere and oceans have absorbed roughly half of this CO2, reducing the rate of atmospheric buildup by a half. Measurements of the increasing acidity (pH) of seawater indicate that the ocean absorbs one quarter of this CO2. Another quarter is apparently being absorbed by the land biosphere, but the identity and location of these natural land CO2 "sinks" are still unknown. The existing ground-based greenhouse gas monitoring network provides an accurate record of the atmospheric buildup, but still does not have the spatial resolution or coverage needed to identify or quantify CO2 sources and sinks.

  11. Nanocomposites based on thermoplastic elastomers with functional basis of nano titanium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yulovskaya, V. D.; Kuz’micheva, G. M., E-mail: galina-kuzmicheva@list.ru [Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “Moscow Technological University” (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Orekhov, A. S.; Zubavichus, Ya. V. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation); Domoroshchina, E. N.; Shegay, A. V. [Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education “Moscow Technological University” (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    Nanocomposites based on a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) (low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and 1,2-polybutadiene in a ratio of 60/40) with functional titanium dioxide nanoparticles of different nature, TiO{sub 2}/TPE, have been prepared and investigated by a complex of methods (X-ray diffraction analysis using X-ray and synchrotron radiation beams, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy). The morphology of the composites is found to be somewhat different, depending on the TiO{sub 2} characteristics. It is revealed that nanocomposites with cellular or porous structures containing nano-TiO{sub 2} aggregates with a large specific surface and large sizes of crystallites and nanoparticles exhibit the best deformation‒strength and fatigue properties and stability to the effect of active media under conditions of ozone and vapor‒air aging.

  12. Classification of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Garcia C, R.M.; Maya M, M.E.; Ita T, A. De; Palacios G, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) and the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy techniques are used with the purpose to achieve a complete identification of phases and mixture of phases of a crystalline material as titanium dioxide. The problem for solving consists of being able to distinguish a sample of titanium dioxide being different than a titanium dioxide pigment. A standard sample of titanium dioxide with NIST certificate is used, which indicates a purity of 99.74% for the TiO 2 . The following way is recommended to proceed: a)To make an analysis by means of X-ray diffraction technique to the sample of titanium dioxide pigment and on the standard of titanium dioxide waiting not find differences. b) To make a chemical analysis by the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy via in a microscope, taking advantage of the high vacuum since it is oxygen which is analysed and if it is concluded that the aluminium oxide appears in a greater proportion to 1% it is established that is a titanium dioxide pigment, but if it is lesser then it will be only titanium dioxide. This type of analysis is an application of the nuclear techniques useful for the tariff classification of merchandise which is considered as of difficult recognition. (Author)

  13. Proprietary, standard, and government-supported nuclear data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncelet, C.G.; Ozer, O.; Harris, D.R.

    1975-07-01

    This study presents an assessment of the complex situation surrounding nuclear data bases for nuclear power technology. Requirements for nuclear data bases are identified as regards engineering functions and system applications for the many and various user groups that rely on nuclear data bases. Current practices in the development and generation of nuclear data sets are described, and the competitive aspect of design nuclear data set development is noted. The past and current role of the federal government in nuclear data base development is reviewed, and the relative merits of continued government involvement are explored. National policies of the United States and other industrial countries regarding the availability of nationally supported nuclear data information are reviewed. Current proprietary policies of reactor vendors regarding design library data sets are discussed along with the basis for such proprietary policies. The legal aspects of protective policies are explored as are their impacts on the nuclear power industry as a whole. The effect of the regulatory process on the availability and documentation of nuclear data bases is examined. Current nuclear data standard developments are reviewed, including a discussion of the standard preparation process. Standards currently proposed or in preparation that directly relate to nuclear data bases are discussed in some detail. (auth)

  14. Enantioselective small molecule synthesis by carbon dioxide fixation using a dual Brønsted acid/base organocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara, Brandon A; Struble, Thomas J; Wang, Weiwei; Dobish, Mark C; Johnston, Jeffrey N

    2015-06-17

    Carbon dioxide exhibits many of the qualities of an ideal reagent: it is nontoxic, plentiful, and inexpensive. Unlike other gaseous reagents, however, it has found limited use in enantioselective synthesis. Moreover, unprecedented is a tool that merges one of the simplest biological approaches to catalysis-Brønsted acid/base activation-with this abundant reagent. We describe a metal-free small molecule catalyst that achieves the three component reaction between a homoallylic alcohol, carbon dioxide, and an electrophilic source of iodine. Cyclic carbonates are formed enantioselectively.

  15. Satellite-based measurements of surface deformation reveal fluid flow associated with the geological storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Rucci, A.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Bissell, R.; Ringrose, P.; Mathieson, A.; Wright, I.

    2009-10-15

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), gathered over the In Salah CO{sub 2} storage project in Algeria, provides an early indication that satellite-based geodetic methods can be effective in monitoring the geological storage of carbon dioxide. An injected volume of 3 million tons of carbon dioxide, from one of the first large-scale carbon sequestration efforts, produces a measurable surface displacement of approximately 5 mm/year. Using geophysical inverse techniques we are able to infer flow within the reservoir layer and within a seismically detected fracture/ fault zone intersecting the reservoir. We find that, if we use the best available elastic Earth model, the fluid flow need only occur in the vicinity of the reservoir layer. However, flow associated with the injection of the carbon dioxide does appear to extend several kilometers laterally within the reservoir, following the fracture/fault zone.

  16. Nuclear energy - Uranium dioxide pellets - Determination of density and volume fraction of open and closed porosity. 2. ed. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This International Standard describes a method for determining the chlorine and fluorine concentrations in uranium dioxide and in sintered fuel pellets by pyrohydrolysis of samples, followed either by liquid ion-exchange chromatography or by selective electrode measurement of chlorine and fluorine ions. Many ion-exchange chromatography systems and ion-selective electrode measurement systems are available

  17. Evaluation of a membrane based carbon dioxide absorber for spacecraft ECLS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, P.H.M.; Eckhard, F.; Witt, J.

    1996-01-01

    In an on-going harmonized ESA/NIVR project, performed by Stork Comprimo and TNO-MEP, the removal of the carbon dioxide with membranes is studied. The use of membrane gas absorption for carbon dioxide removal is currently hampered by the fact that the commonly used alkanolamines result in leakage

  18. Nuclear reaction inputs based on effective interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S.; Peru, S.; Dubray, N.; Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Goriely, S. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP-226, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    Extensive nuclear structure studies have been performed for decades using effective interactions as sole input. They have shown a remarkable ability to describe rather accurately many types of nuclear properties. In the early 2000 s, a major effort has been engaged to produce nuclear reaction input data out of the Gogny interaction, in order to challenge its quality also with respect to nuclear reaction observables. The status of this project, well advanced today thanks to the use of modern computers as well as modern nuclear reaction codes, is reviewed and future developments are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Multiple microprocessor based nuclear reactor power monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.S.; Ethridge, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    The reactor power monitor is a portable multiple-microprocessor controlled data acquisition device being built for the International Atomic Energy Association. Its function is to measure and record the hourly integrated operating thermal power level of a nuclear reactor for the purpose of detecting unannounced plutonium production. The monitor consists of a 3 He proportional neutron detector, a write-only cassette tape drive and control electronics based on two INTEL 8748 microprocessors. The reactor power monitor operates from house power supplied by the plant operator, but has eight hours of battery backup to cover power interruptions. Both the hourly power levels and any line power interruptions are recorded on tape and in memory. Intermediate dumps from the memory to a data terminal or strip chart recorder can be performed without interrupting data collection

  20. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan; Deng, Pengchi; Peng, Feng; Lin, Hongjun; Xu, Youzhi; Cao, Zhixing; Zhou, Tian; Xue, Aiqin; Wang, Yanli; Cen, Xiaobo; Zhao, Ying-Lan

    2010-03-01

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO2 NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg - 1, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO2 NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, α-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO2 NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO2 NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO2 NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  1. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Qian; Lin Hongjun; Xu Youzhi; Cao Zhixing; Zhou Tian; Zhao Yinglan; Yan Guangyan; Cen Xiaobo; Deng Pengchi; Peng Feng; Xue Aiqin; Wang Yanli

    2010-01-01

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO 2 NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg -1 , respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO 2 NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, α-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO 2 NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO 2 NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO 2 NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  2. NMR-based metabonomic study of the sub-acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats after oral administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu Qian; Lin Hongjun; Xu Youzhi; Cao Zhixing; Zhou Tian; Zhao Yinglan [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Yan Guangyan; Cen Xiaobo [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng Pengchi [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Peng Feng [Department of Thoracic Oncology of Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xue Aiqin [Institute of Bioengineering, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University Road 2, Xiasha, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang Yanli, E-mail: alancenxb@sina.com [Tianjin Children' s Hospital, Tianjin 300074 (China)

    2010-03-26

    As titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs) are widely used commercially, their potential toxicity on human health has attracted particular attention. In the present study, the oral toxicological effects of TiO{sub 2} NPs (dosed at 0.16, 0.4 and 1 g kg{sup -1}, respectively) were investigated using conventional approaches and metabonomic analysis in Wistar rats. Serum chemistry, hematology and histopathology examinations were performed. The urine and serum were investigated by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using principal components and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The metabolic signature of urinalysis in TiO{sub 2} NP-treated rats showed increases in the levels of taurine, citrate, hippurate, histidine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), citrulline, {alpha}-ketoglutarate, phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and acetate; moreover, decreases in the levels of lactate, betaine, methionine, threonine, pyruvate, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate (3-D-HB), choline and leucine were observed. The metabonomics analysis of serum showed increases in TMAO, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and 3-D-HB as well as decreases in glutamine, pyruvate, glutamate, acetoacetate, glutathione and methionine after TiO{sub 2} NP treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated and mitochondrial swelling in heart tissue was observed in TiO{sub 2} NP-treated rats. These findings indicate that disturbances in energy and amino acid metabolism and the gut microflora environment may be attributable to the slight injury to the liver and heart caused by TiO{sub 2} NPs. Moreover, the NMR-based metabolomic approach is a reliable and sensitive method to study the biochemical effects of nanomaterials.

  3. A Brief Review of Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation to Methanol Over Copper and Iron Based Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tursunov Obid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and global warming have become a challenging issue affecting not only humanity but also flora and fauna due to an intense increase of CO2 emission in the atmosphere which has gradually led to amplification in the average global temperature. Hence, a number of mechanisms have been promoted to diminish the atmospheric commutation of carbon dioxide. One of the well-known techniques is Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS which mechanism is based on capture and storage vast quantities of CO2, as well as Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU which mechanism is based on CO2 conversion to liquid fuels (e.g. methanol, hydrocarbons, dimethyl carbonate, propylene, dimethyl ether, ethylene, etc.. Particularly, methanol (CH3OH is a key feedstock for industrial chemicals, which further can be converted into high molecular alternative liquid fuels. In this regard, hydrogenation of CO2 is one of the promising, effectual and economic techniques for utilization of CO2 emission. Nevertheless, the reduction/activation of CO2 into useful liquid products is a scientifically challenging issue due to the complexities associated with its high stability. Thus, various catalysts have been applied to reduce the activation energy of the hydrogenation process and transform CO2 into value-added products. Thereby, this review article highlights the progress and the recent advances of research investigation in Cu and Fe-based catalytic conversion of CO2, reaction mechanisms, catalytic reactivity, and influence of operating parameters on product efficiency.

  4. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  5. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  6. Bisphosphine dioxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloy, Kenneth G. (Charleston, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  7. Bisphosphine dioxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  8. Using Demonstrations Involving Combustion and Acid-Base Chemistry to Show Hydration of Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, and Magnesium Oxide and Their Relevance for Environmental Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C. Frank, III; Webb, James W.; Rothenberger, Otis

    2016-01-01

    The nature of acidic and basic (alkaline) oxides can be easily illustrated via a series of three straightforward classroom demonstrations for high school and general chemistry courses. Properties of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and magnesium oxide are revealed inexpensively and safely. Additionally, the very different kinetics of hydration of…

  9. Effects of Carbonization Parameters of Moso-Bamboo-Based Porous Charcoal on Capturing Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hsing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis- based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000°C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120 h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000°C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorption capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon.

  10. Effects of carbonization parameters of Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal on capturing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei-Hsing; Jhan, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Hau-Hsein

    2014-01-01

    This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis-) based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000(°)C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120 h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000(°)C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorpt on capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon.

  11. A New Polymer Electron Acceptor Based on Thiophene-S,S-dioxide Unit for Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bin; Miao, Junhui; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lixiang

    2018-01-01

    For polymer solar cells (PSCs), efficient polymer electron acceptors are always based on strong electron-withdrawing imide unit or boron-nitrogen coordinative bond (B←N). In this paper, a new polymer electron acceptor based on thiophene-S,S-dioxide (TDO) unit is reported. The polymer electron acceptor, PBDT-TDO, consists of alternating TDO unit and 4,8-bis(alkylthienyl)-2-yl]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) unit. For comparison, a control polymer with alternating BDT unit and thiophene unit has also been synthesized. Replacing thiophene unit with TDO unit in the polymer backbone leads to large downshift of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital/highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels by 0.9 eV/0.4 eV, which is attributed to the dearomatization and electron deficiency of TDO unit. The replacement also leads to redshift of absorption spectra by ≈110 nm. PSC device with PBDT-TDO as the electron acceptor shows photovoltaic response with the preliminary power conversion efficiency of 0.64%. This work suggests a new approach to design polymer electron acceptors using the TDO unit. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Adsorption of acids and bases from aqueous solutions onto silicon dioxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Huseyin; Erkan, Belgin

    2009-12-30

    The adsorption of acids and bases onto the surface of silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) particles was systematically studied as a function of several variables, including activation conditions, contact time, specific surface area, particle size, concentration and temperature. The physical properties of SiO(2) particles were investigated, where characterizations were carried out by FT-IR spectroscopy, and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM of samples showed good dispersion and uniform SiO(2) particles with an average diameter of about 1-1.5 microm. The adsorption results revealed that SiO(2) surfaces possessed effective interactions with acids and bases, and greatest adsorption capacity was achieved with NaOH, where the best fit isotherm model was the Freundlich adsorption model. The adsorption properties of raw SiO(2) particles were further improved by ultrasonication. Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of NaOH adsorbate at 25 degrees C on sonicated SiO(2) (182.6 mg/g) was found to be greater than that of the unsonicated SiO(2) (154.3mg/g). The spontaneity of the adsorption process was established by decreases in DeltaG(ads)(0), which varied from -10.5 to -13.6 kJ mol(-1), in the temperature range 283-338K.

  13. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide–Based Sterilization of Decellularized Heart Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan S. Hennessy, MD

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Sterilization of grafts is essential. Supercritical carbon dioxide, electrolyzed water, gamma radiation, ethanol-peracetic acid, and hydrogen peroxide techniques were compared for impact on sterility and mechanical integrity of porcine decellularized aortic valves. Ethanol-peracetic acid– and supercritical carbon dioxide–treated valves were found to be sterile using histology, microbe culture, and electron microscopy assays. The cusp tensile properties of supercritical carbon dioxide–treated valves were higher compared with valves treated with other techniques. Superior sterility and integrity was found in the decellularized valves treated with supercritical carbon dioxide sterilization. This sterilization technique may hold promise for other decellularized soft tissues. Key Words: decellularized, decontamination, heart valve, tensile properties, tissue engineering

  14. Assessment of industrial energy options based on coal and nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.; Bowers, H.I.; Bryan, R.H.; Delene, J.G.; Hise, E.C.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Klepper, O.H.; Reed, S.A.; Spiewak, I.

    1975-07-01

    Industry consumes about 40 percent of the total primary energy used in the United States. Natural gas and oil, the major industrial fuels, are becoming scarce and expensive; therefore, there is a critical national need to develop alternative sources of industrial energy based on the more plentiful domestic fuels--coal and nuclear. This report gives the results of a comparative assessment of nuclear- and coal-based industrial energy systems which includes technical, environmental, economic, and resource aspects of industrial energy supply. The nuclear options examined were large commercial nuclear power plants (light-water reactors or high-temperature gas-cooled reactors) and a small [approximately 300-MW(t)] special-purpose pressurized-water reactor for industrial applications. Coal-based systems selected for study were those that appear capable of meeting environmental standards, especially with respect to sulfur dioxide; these are (1) conventional firing using either low- or high-sulfur coal with stack-gas scrubbing equipment, (2) fluidized-bed combustion using high-sulfur coal, (3) low- and intermediate-Btu gas, (4) high-Btu pipeline-quality gas, (5) solvent-refined coal, (6) liquid boiler fuels, and (7) methanol from coal. Results of the study indicated that both nuclear and coal fuel can alleviate the industrial energy deficit resulting from the decline in availability of natural gas and oil. However, because of its broader range of application and relative ease of implementation, coal is expected to be the more important substitute industrial fuel over the next 15 years. In the longer term, nuclear fuels could assume a major role for supplying industrial steam. (U.S.)

  15. Carbon dioxide utilization in a microalga-based biorefinery: Efficiency of carbon removal and economic performance under carbon taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesberg, Igor Lapenda; Brigagão, George Victor; de Medeiros, José Luiz; de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, Ofélia

    2017-12-01

    Coal-fired power plants are major stationary sources of carbon dioxide and environmental constraints demand technologies for abatement. Although Carbon Capture and Storage is the most mature route, it poses severe economic penalty to power generation. Alternatively, this penalty is potentially reduced by Carbon Capture and Utilization, which converts carbon dioxide to valuable products, monetizing it. This work evaluates a route consisting of carbon dioxide bio-capture by Chlorella pyrenoidosa and use of the resulting biomass as feedstock to a microalgae-based biorefinery; Carbon Capture and Storage route is evaluated as a reference technology. The integrated arrangement comprises: (a) carbon dioxide biocapture in a photobioreactor, (b) oil extraction from part of the produced biomass, (b) gasification of remaining biomass to obtain bio-syngas, and (c) conversion of bio-syngas to methanol. Calculation of capital and operational expenditures are estimated based on mass and energy balances obtained by process simulation for both routes (Carbon Capture and Storage and the biorefinery). Capital expenditure for the biorefinery is higher by a factor of 6.7, while operational expenditure is lower by a factor of 0.45 and revenues occur only for this route, with a ratio revenue/operational expenditure of 1.6. The photobioreactor is responsible for one fifth of the biorefinery capital expenditure, with footprint of about 1000 ha, posing the most significant barrier for technical and economic feasibility of the proposed biorefinery. The Biorefinery and Carbon Capture and Storage routes show carbon dioxide capture efficiency of 73% and 48%, respectively, with capture cost of 139$/t and 304$/t. Additionally, the biorefinery has superior performance in all evaluated metrics of environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon-Based Regenerable Sorbents for the Combined Carbon Dioxide and Ammonia Removal for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Manthina, Venkata; Singh, Prabhakar; Chullen, Cinda

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of reversible sorbents for the combined carbon dioxide and trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Since ammonia is the most important TC to be captured, data on TC sorption presented in this paper are limited to ammonia, with results relevant to other TCs to be reported at a later time. The currently available life support systems use separate units for carbon dioxide, trace contaminants, and moisture control, and the long-term objective is to replace the above three modules with a single one. Furthermore, the current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is non-regenerable, and the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using carbon sorbents for the reversible, concurrent sorption of carbon dioxide and ammonia. Several carbon sorbents were fabricated and tested, and multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, and also a carbon surface conditioning technique that enhances the combined carbon dioxide and ammonia sorption without impairing sorbent regeneration.

  17. Data base of nuclear information and its practical usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-01-01

    It is reported on the development and using in Japan the nuclear data base NUCIA (Nuclear Information Archives). The NUCIA consists of the Web site for presentation of general data and the system for recording the data on the accidents and failures in the field of nuclear power. Possibility of data loading and processing in the XML format is ensured. The data base was putting into operation in October 2003 [ru

  18. [Detection of Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Soil Profile Based on Nondispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhi-hua; Zhao, Yang; Zheng, Li-wen; Jia, Guo-dong; Chen, Li-hua; Yu, Xin-xiao

    2015-04-01

    In order to explore the variation of CO2 concentration and soil respiration in soil profile, the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy technique was applied to continually estimate the soil CO2 concentration in different soil layers (the humus horizon, A-, B-, C-horizon) in situ. The main instrument used in this experiment was silicon-based nondispersive infrared sensor, which could work in severe environment. We collected the Measurement value by NDIR spectroscopy technique throughout 2013. The values of soil carbon flux in different soil layers were calculated based on the model of gradient method and calibrated by measuring with an automated soil CO2 efflux system (LI-8100). The results showed that: a vertical gradient for the carbon dioxide concentration in soil profile was found, and the concentration was highest in the deepest soil horizon. Moreover, A linear correlation between the soil CO2 effluxes was calculated based on model and measurement, and the model prediction correlation coefficient was 0.9069, 0.7185, 0.8382, and 0.9030 in the H-, A-, B-, and C-horizon, respectively. The roots of mean square error (RMSE) were 0.2067, 0.1041, 0.0156, and 0.0096 in the H-, A-, B-, and C-horizon, respectively. These results suggest that the gradient method based on the NDIR spectroscopy technique can be successfully used to measure soil CO2 efflux in different soil layers, which reveal that diffusion and convection transport CO2 between the soil layers. It is a promising sensor for detecting CO2 concentration in soil profile, providing the basic data for calculating the global carbon in soil profile.

  19. MULTILAYER COMPOSITE PLASMA COATINGS ON SCREEN PROTECTION ELEMENTS BASED ON ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Okovity

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of investigations pertaining to an influence of plasma jet parameters (current, spraying distance, consumption of plasma formation gas (nitrogen, fractional composition of initial powder and degree of cooling with compressed air on anti-meteoric coating characteristics. Optimum modes (arc current 600 A; spray distance of 110 mm; consumption of plasma formation gas (nitrogen – 50 l/min; fractional composition of zirconium dioxide powder <50 μm; compressed air consumption for cooling – 1 m3/min; p = 4 bar make it possible to obtain anti-meteoric coatings based on zirconium dioxide with material utilization rate of 62 %, total ceramic layer porosity of 6 %. After exposure of compression plasma flows on a coating in the nitrogen atmosphere a cubic modification of zirconium oxide is considered as the main phase being present in the coating. The lattice parameter of cubic zirconium oxide modification is equal to 0.5174 nm. Taking into consideration usage of nitrogen as plasma formation substance its interaction with zirconium coating atoms occurs and zirconium nitride (ZrN is formed with a cubic crystal lattice (lattice parameter 0.4580 nm. Melting of pre-surface layer takes place and a depth of the melted layer is about 8 μm according to the results of a scanning electron microscopy. Pre-surface layer being crystallized after exposure to compression plasma flows is characterized by a homogeneous distribution of ele-ments and absence of pores formed in the process of coating formation. The coating structure is represented by a set of lar- ge (5–7 μm and small (1–2 μm zirconium oxide particles sintered against each other. Melting of coating surface layer and speed crystallization occur after the impact of compression plasma flows on the formed coating. Cracking of the surface layer arises due to origination of internal mechanical stresses in the crystallized part. While using a scanning electron microscopy a

  20. Development and application of a luminol-based nitrogen dioxide detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendel, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    An instrument for the continuous measurement of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) at all atmospheric concentration ranges and conditions was developed. The detector is based on the chemiluminescent reaction between 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione (luminol) and NO 2 in alkaline aqueous solution. Development included the optimization of the cell design and the solution composition. Sodium sulfite (Na 2 SO 3 ) and methanol (CH 3 OH) were added to the solution to improve sensitivity and specificity. The detector was favorably compared to two different instruments measuring NO 2 by NO + O 3 chemiluminescent and by a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry system. The detector has demonstrated a detection limit of 30 parts-per-trillion by volume (ppt) and a frequency response of 0.3 Hz. The instrument was operated for two one-month periods on Bermuda. The purpose was to study air masses from the East Coast of the United States after transport over the ocean. Average daily values were 400 ppt with values as low as 100 ppt measured. Other field experiments involved monitoring of NO 2 in ambient air in the range of 1 to 60 parts-per-billion by volume

  1. Sensitivity Studies for Space-Based Global Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian-Ping; Kawa, S. Randolph; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is well known as the primary forcing agent of global warming. Although the climate forcing due to CO2 is well known, the sources and sinks of CO2 are not well understood. Currently the lack of global atmospheric CO2 observations limits our ability to diagnose the global carbon budget (e.g., finding the so-called "missing sink") and thus limits our ability to understand past climate change and predict future climate response. Space-based techniques are being developed to make high-resolution and high-precision global column CO2 measurements. One of the proposed techniques utilizes the passive remote sensing of Earth's reflected solar radiation at the weaker vibration-rotation band of CO2 in the near infrared (approx. 1.57 micron). We use a line-by-line radiative transfer model to explore the potential of this method. Results of sensitivity studies for CO2 concentration variation and geophysical conditions (i.e., atmospheric temperature, surface reflectivity, solar zenith angle, aerosol, and cirrus cloud) will be presented. We will also present sensitivity results for an O2 A-band (approx. 0.76 micron) sensor that will be needed along with CO2 to make surface pressure and cloud height measurements.

  2. Study of carbon dioxide gas treatment based on equations of kinetics in plasma discharge reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi-Varaki, Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) as the primary greenhouse gas, is the main pollutant that is warming earth. CO2 is widely emitted through the cars, planes, power plants and other human activities that involve the burning of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas and oil). Thus, there is a need to develop some method to reduce CO2 emission. To this end, this study investigates the behavior of CO2 in dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor. The behavior of different species and their reaction rates are studied using a zero-dimensional model based on equations of kinetics inside plasma reactor. The results show that the plasma reactor has an effective reduction on the CO2 density inside the reactor. As a result of reduction in the temporal variations of reaction rate, the speed of chemical reactions for CO2 decreases and very low concentration of CO2 molecules inside the plasma reactor is generated. The obtained results are compared with the existing experimental and simulation findings in the literature.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of the nanocomposite materials based on a mesoporous silicon dioxide matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor’eva, N. A., E-mail: natali@lns.pnpi.spb.ru [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Eckerlebe, H. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (Germany); Eliseev, A. A.; Lukashin, A. V.; Napol’skii, K. S. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kraje, M. [Reactor Institute Delft (Netherlands); Grigor’ev, S. V. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The structural and magnetic properties of the mesoporous systems based on silicon dioxide with a regular hexagonal arrangement of pores several microns in length and several nanometers in diameter, which are filled with iron compound nanofilaments in various chemical states, are studied in detail. The studies are performed using the following mutually complementary methods: transmission electron microscopy, SQUID magnetometry, electron spin resonance, Mössbauer spectroscopy, polarized neutron small-angle diffraction, and synchrotron radiation diffraction. It is shown that the iron nanoparticles in pores are mainly in the γ phase of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with a small addition of the α phase and atomic iron clusters. The effective magnetic field acting on a nanofilament from other nanofilaments is 11 mT and has a dipole nature, the ferromagnetic–paramagnetic transition temperature is in the range 76–94 K depending on the annealing temperature of the samples, and the temperature that corresponds to the change in the magnetic state of the iron oxide nanofilaments is T ≈ 50–60 K at H = 0 and T ≈ 80 K at H = 300 mT. It is also shown that the magnetization reversal of an array of nanofilaments is caused by the magnetostatic interaction between nanofilaments at the fields that are lower than the saturation field.

  4. A naval nuclear base - the costs to Portsmouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Portsmouth in the United Kingdom is a support and operational home port for the Royal Navy's three Anti-Submarine Warfare Aircraft Carriers, which carry nuclear free fall bombs for their Sea Harrier aircraft, and nuclear depth bombs for their Sea King Helicopters in peacetime. Portsmouth is also home port for eight Type 42 destroyers that are thought to carry nuclear depth bombs. Nuclear weapons may be transferred by road from the armament depot at Dean Hill, Salisbury, to Portsmouth on the infrequent Special Convoys that have been recorded, although it is possible that the aircraft-carriers are loaded with nuclear weapons in Plymouth. Lynx helicopters capable of delivering nuclear depth bombs that are carried on Type 22 frigates (based at Plymouth) and Type 42 destroyers are also based at Portland Naval Air Station. The report considers the likelihood of a serious accident involving a nuclear reactor or nuclear weapon in Portsmouth, and criticises the inadequacies of the Portsmouth 'Public Safety Scheme'. The eventual goal of Greenpeace's Nuclear Free Seas campaign is the multilateral, global elimination of nuclear weapons. A number of recommendations are made to improve Portsmouth's potential to cope more effectively with environmental hazards and to increase awareness about the adverse effects of nuclear activities in the area. (author)

  5. Characteristics of Hydrogen Sensors Based on Thin Tin Dioxide Films Modified with Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaev, A. V.; Gaman, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    Effect of hydrogen in the concentration range from 10 to 2000 ppm on the characteristics of sensors based on thin films of tin dioxide modified with gold (Au/SnO2:Sb, Au) is studied in the thermo-cyclic mode at temperatures from 623 to 773 K and absolute humidity from 2.5 to 20 g/m3. Experimental data are discussed using expressions obtained within the framework of a model that takes into account the presence of three types of adsorbed particles (O¯, OH, and OH¯) on the surface of SnO2 nanocrystals. The characteristics of the sensors based on thin Pt/Pd/SnO2:Sb films (the first series) are compared with those of Au/SnO2:Sb, Au films (the second series). It is found that the degree of dissociation of molecular hydrogen into atoms during adsorption on the sensor under interaction with Au particles on the SnO2 surface is 4 times greater than that under interaction with Pt/Pd particles. The degree of dissociation of H2O molecules into hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups in pure moist air on the surface of the sensors of the second series is 1.6 times greater than that for the sensors of the first series. Thus, gold is a more effective stimulator of the dissociation of H2 and H2O molecules than platinum and palladium. A formula is obtained that describes more accurately the dependence of the response of the sensors of both series to the effect of hydrogen on the concentration of this gas and on the temperature of the measuring devices.

  6. Experience with performance based training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    For non-reactor nuclear facilities, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) does not require that nuclear criticality safety engineers demonstrate qualification for their job. It is likely, however, that more formalism will be required in the future. Current DOE requirements for those positions which do have to demonstrate qualification indicate that qualification should be achieved by using a systematic approach such as performance based training (PBT). Assuming that PBT would be an acceptable mechanism for nuclear criticality safety engineer training in a more formal environment, a site-specific analysis of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job was performed. Based on this analysis, classes are being developed and delivered to a target audience of newer nuclear criticality safety engineers. Because current interest is in developing training for selected aspects of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job, the analysis is incompletely developed in some areas

  7. Nuclear power company activity based costing management analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dan

    2012-01-01

    With Nuclear Energy Industry development, Nuclear Power Company has the continual promoting stress of inner management to the sustainable marketing operation development. In view of this, it is very imminence that Nuclear Power Company should promote the cost management levels and built the nuclear safety based lower cost competitive advantage. Activity based costing management (ABCM) transfer the cost management emphases from the 'product' to the 'activity' using the value chain analysis methods, cost driver analysis methods and so on. According to the analysis of the detail activities and the value chains, cancel the unnecessary activity, low down the resource consuming of the necessary activity, and manage the cost from the source, achieve the purpose of reducing cost, boosting efficiency and realizing the management value. It gets the conclusion from the detail analysis with the nuclear power company procedure and activity, and also with the selection to 'pieces analysis' of the important cost related project in the nuclear power company. The conclusion is that the activities of the nuclear power company has the obviously performance. It can use the management of ABC method. And with the management of the procedure and activity, it is helpful to realize the nuclear safety based low cost competitive advantage in the nuclear power company. (author)

  8. Sensitivity Studies for Space-based Measurement of Atmospheric Total Column Carbon Dioxide Using Reflected Sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianping; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2003-01-01

    A series of sensitivity studies is carried out to explore the feasibility of space-based global carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for global and regional carbon cycle studies. The detection method uses absorption of reflected sunlight in the CO2 vibration-rotation band at 1.58 microns. The sensitivities of the detected radiances are calculated using the line-by-line model (LBLRTM), implemented with the DISORT (Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer) model to include atmospheric scattering in this band. The results indicate that (a) the small (approx.1%) changes in CO2 near the Earth's surface are detectable in this CO2 band provided adequate sensor signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution are achievable; (b) the radiance signal or sensitivity to CO2 change near the surface is not significantly diminished even in the presence of aerosols and/or thin cirrus clouds in the atmosphere; (c) the modification of sunlight path length by scattering of aerosols and cirrus clouds could lead to large systematic errors in the retrieval; therefore, ancillary aerosol/cirrus cloud data are important to reduce retrieval errors; (d) CO2 retrieval requires good knowledge of the atmospheric temperature profile, e.g. approximately 1K RMS error in layer temperature; (e) the atmospheric path length, over which the CO2 absorption occurs, must be known in order to correctly interpret horizontal gradients of CO2 from the total column CO2 measurement; thus an additional sensor for surface pressure measurement needs to be attached for a complete measurement package.

  9. Sensitivity Studies for Space-based Measurements of Atmospheric Total Column Carbon Dioxide Using Reflected Sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianping; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2003-01-01

    A series of sensitivity studies is carried out to explore the feasibility of space-based global carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for global and regional carbon cycle studies. The detection method uses absorption of reflected sunlight in the CO2 vibration-rotation band at 1.58 micron. The sensitivities of the detected radiances are calculated using the line-by-line model (LBLRTM), implemented with the DISORT (Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer) model to include atmospheric scattering in this band. The results indicate that (a) the small (approx.1%) changes in CO2 near the Earth's surface are detectable in this CO2 band provided adequate sensor signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution are achievable; (b) the effects of other interfering constituents, such as water vapor, aerosols and cirrus clouds, on the radiance are significant but the overall effects of the modification of light path length on total back-to-space radiance sensitivity to CO2 change are minor for general cases, which means that generally the total column CO2 can be derived in high precision from the ratio of the on-line center to off-line radiances; (c) together with CO2 gas absorption aerosol/cirrus cloud layer has differential scattering which may result in the modification of on-line to off-line radiance ratio which could lead a large bias in the total column CO2 retrieval. Approaches to correct such bias need further investigation. (d) CO2 retrieval requires good knowledge of the atmospheric temperature profile, e.g. approximately 1K RMS error in layer temperature, which is achievable from new atmospheric sounders in the near future; (e) the atmospheric path length, over which the CO2 absorption occurs, should be known in order to correctly interpret horizontal gradients of CO2 from the total column CO2 measurement; thus an additional sensor for surface pressure measurement needs to be attached for a complete measurement package.

  10. Resistively-Heated Microlith-based Adsorber for Carbon Dioxide and Trace Contaminant Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, S.; Walsh, D.; Perry, J.

    2005-01-01

    An integrated sorber-based Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) and Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) prototype was designed, fabricated and tested. It corresponds to a 7-person load. Performance over several adsorption/regeneration cycles was examined. Vacuum regenerations at effective time/temperature conditions, and estimated power requirements were experimentally verified for the combined CO2/trace contaminant removal prototype. The current paper details the design and performance of this prototype during initial testing at CO2 and trace contaminant concentrations in the existing CDRA, downstream of the drier. Additional long-term performance characterization is planned at NASA. Potential system design options permitting associated weight, volume savings and logistic benefits, especially as relevant for long-duration space flight, are reviewed. The technology consisted of a sorption bed with sorbent- coated metal meshes, trademarked and patented as Microlith by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI). By contrast the current CO2 removal system on the International Space Station employs pellet beds. Preliminary bench scale performance data (without direct resistive heating) for simultaneous CO2 and trace contaminant removal was reviewed in SAE 2004-01-2442. In the prototype, the meshes were directly electrically heated for rapid response and accurate temperature control. This allowed regeneration via resistive heating with the potential for shorter regeneration times, reduced power requirement, and net energy savings vs. conventional systems. A novel flow arrangement, for removing both CO2 and trace contaminants within the same bed, was demonstrated. Thus, the need for a separate trace contaminant unit was eliminated resulting in an opportunity for significant weight savings. Unlike the current disposable charcoal bed, zeolites for trace contaminant removal are amenable to periodic regeneration.

  11. Excellent ammonia sensing performance of gas sensor based on graphene/titanium dioxide hybrid with improved morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zongbiao; Tai, Huiling; Guo, Rui; Yuan, Zhen; Liu, Chunhua; Su, Yuanjie; Chen, Zhi; Jiang, Yadong

    2017-10-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-titanium dioxide (TiO2) hybrid material has been prepared through a facile hydrothermal method for ammonia detection at room temperature. The combined characterizations including X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated the successful formation of rGO-TiO2 hybrid. It also showed that the morphology of graphene sheets was greatly improved to become porous and undulating due to introduction of synthetic titanium dioxide. Accordingly, the hybrid-based sensor showed much more excellent sensing properties in comparison to that of bare graphene film sensor. The mechanism for the improvement could be ascribed to the synergetic effect between rGO sheets and TiO2 nanospheres, specifically, the enrichment of active adsorption sites on account of the supporting function of TiO2 nanospheres.

  12. Philosophy and safety requirements for land-based nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, Otto

    1978-01-01

    The main ideas of safety philosophy for land-based nuclear installations are presented together with their background of protection goals. Today's requirements for design and quality assurance are deductively shown. Finally a proposition is made for a new balancing of safety philosophy according to the high safety level that nuclear installations have reached

  13. A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

  14. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2004-11-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results

  15. Selective Chlorine Evolution Catalysts Based on Mg-Doped Nanoparticulate Ruthenium Dioxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abbott, D. F.; Petrykin, Valery; Okube, Maki; Bastl, Zdeněk; Mukerjee, S.; Krtil, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 1 (2015), H23-H31 ISSN 0013-4651 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 214936 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : chlorine * electrochemistry * nanocrystalline Mg-doped ruthenium dioxide Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.014, year: 2015

  16. Dermal Absorption of Nanomaterials Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide Based Sunscreen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Christiane; Dokkedahl, Karin Stenderup; Wang, Jing

    of nanomaterials in products on the Danish market and their consequences on consumers and the environment. Furthermore, the aim is to clarify possible risks that might be associated with nanomaterials for consumers and the environment. The current project ’Dermal Absorption of Nanomaterials Titanium Dioxide...

  17. ISOL based radioactive nuclear beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, T.

    1991-07-01

    High-intensity and high-quality unstable nuclear beams can be realized by coupling an isotope separator on-line and a proper post accelerator in various primary beams. Some technical features and problems in the production of such beams are discussed. A brief description is given on 'Exotic Nuclei Arena' in Japanese Hadron Project. (author)

  18. Designing a nuclear data base prototype using Oracle and Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviotti-Corcuera, R.; Ford, C.E.; Perez, R.B.

    1988-11-01

    An ever-increasing demand exists for easily accessible nuclear data base systems. The purpose of this work is to analyze the feasibility of using artificial intelligence methods as tools to provide the necessary functionality to extract information from nuclear data files in a user-friendly manner. For the prototype of this work, a sample of data that can be later enlarged to a complete, evaluated nuclear data base has been used. To implement this prototype, two approaches have been followed: a conventional approach using the commercially available Oracle relational data base management system; and an artificial intelligence approach using the Prolog programming language. This prototypic work shows the feasibility of applying artificial intelligence methods to data bases, and represents a first step toward development of intelligent nuclear data base systems. The characteristics of the query language from both approaches make the second one preferable from a user's point of view. 23 refs., 7 tabs

  19. NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, A. V.; Denikin, A. S.; Naumenko, M. A.; Alekseev, A. P.; Rachkov, V. A.; Samarin, V. V.; Saiko, V. V.; Zagrebaev, V. I.

    2017-07-01

    The paper describes the principles of organization and operation of the NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics (http://nrv.jinr.ru/) which integrates a large amount of digitized experimental data on the properties of nuclei and nuclear reaction cross sections with a wide range of computational programs for modeling of nuclear properties and various processes of nuclear dynamics which work directly in the browser of a remote user. The paper also gives an overview of the current situation in the field of application of network information technologies in nuclear physics. The features of the NRV knowledge base are illustrated in detail on the example of the analysis of nucleon transfer reactions within the distorted wave Born approximation.

  20. Nuclear Safety Design Base for License Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-09-29

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111(b) [DIRS 173273] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113(b) and (c) [DIRS 173273] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period.

  1. NUCLEAR SAFETY DESIGN BASES FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-03-08

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111 [DIRS 156605] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113 [DIRS 156605] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period.

  2. Dynamically Switching the Polarization State of Light Based on the Phase Transition of Vanadium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhi-Yong; Shu, Fang-Zhou; Gao, Ya-Jun; Cheng, Feng; Peng, Ru-Wen; Fan, Ren-Hao; Liu, Yongmin; Wang, Mu

    2018-03-01

    There have been great endeavors devoted to manipulating the polarization state of light by plasmonic nanostructures in recent decades. However, the topic of active polarizers has attracted much less attention. We present a composite plasmonic nanostructure consisting of vanadium dioxide that can dynamically modulate the polarization state of the reflected light through a thermally induced phase transition of vanadium dioxide. We design a system consisting of anisotropic plasmonic nanostructures with vanadium dioxide that exhibits distinct reflections subjected to different linearly polarized incidence at room temperature and in the heated state. Under a particular linearly polarized incidence, the polarization state of the reflected light changes at room temperature, and reverts to its original polarization state above the phase-transition temperature. The composite structure can also be used to realize a dynamically switchable infrared image, wherein a pattern can be visualized at room temperature while it disappears above the phase-transition temperature. The composite structure could be potentially used for versatile optical modulators, molecular detection, and polarimetric imaging.

  3. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan

    2001-12-01

    We propose a process that uses sulfur dioxide from coal combustion as a raw material to synthesize polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a water treatment agent. The process uses sodium chlorate as an oxidant and ferrous sulfate as an absorbent. The major chemical mechanisms in this reaction system include oxidation, hydrolysis, and polymerization. Oxidation determines sulfur conversion efficiency while hydrolysis and polymerization control the quality of product. Many factors, including SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, flow rate of simulated flue gas, reaction temperature, addition rate of oxidant and stirring rate, may affect the efficiencies of SO{sub 2} removal. Currently, the effects of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, the flow rate of simulated flue gas and addition rate of flue gas on removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, are being investigated. Experiments shown in this report have demonstrated that the conversion efficiencies of sulfur dioxide with ferrous sulfate as an absorbent are in the range of 60-80% under the adopted process conditions. However, the conversion efficiency of sulfur dioxide may be improved by optimizing reaction conditions to be investigated. Partial quality indices of the synthesized products, including Fe{sup 2+} concentration and total iron concentration, have been evaluated.

  4. Base-promoted coupling of carbon dioxide, amines, and N-tosylhydrazones: a novel and versatile approach to carbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenfang; Qi, Chaorong; He, Haitao; Ouyang, Lu; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2015-03-02

    A base-promoted three-component coupling of carbon dioxide, amines, and N-tosylhydrazones has been developed. The reaction is suggested to proceed via a carbocation intermediate and constitutes an efficient and versatile approach for the synthesis of a wide range of organic carbamates. The advantages of this method include the use of readily available substrates, excellent functional group tolerance, wide substrate scope, and a facile work-up procedure. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Dye-sensitized solar cell architecture based on indium-tin oxide nanowires coated with titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joanni, Ednan; Savu, Raluca; Sousa Goes, Marcio de; Bueno, Paulo Roberto; Nei de Freitas, Jilian; Nogueira, Ana Flavia; Longo, Elson; Varela, Jose Arana

    2007-01-01

    A new architecture for dye-sensitized solar cells is employed, based on a nanostructured transparent conducting oxide protruding from the substrate, covered with a separate active oxide layer. The objective is to decrease electron-hole recombination. The concept was tested by growing branched indium-tin oxide nanowires on glass using pulsed laser deposition followed by deposition of a sputtered titanium dioxide layer covering the wires. The separation of charge generation and charge transport functions opens many possibilities for dye-sensitized solar cell optimization

  6. ICT based training on nuclear technology applications in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mdoe, S.L.; Kimaro, E.

    2006-01-01

    Peaceful application of nuclear technology has contributed to socio-economic resource development in Tanzania. The Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission has taken some active steps for the incorporation and or adoption of ICT-based training modules in nuclear science and technology and its applications. The overall objective of this programme is to establish a sustainable national capability for using the potential of information communication technologies (ICTs) for training and education in the field of nuclear science and technology. This paper reviews some of the experience which the authors gained in the area of ICT based training in nuclear technology applications, it describes some of the challenges experienced, and some proposals to address the issues involved. (author)

  7. Comparison of the antifungal activity of titanium dioxide based nanosilver packaging and conventional polyethylene packaging in consumed bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using titanium dioxide nanosilver packaging which is antibacterial and resistance to the diffusion of gases such as oxygen is increasing in food industry. Therefore we compared the effect of titanium dioxide based nanosilver packaging and conventional polyethylene packaging - on fungal flora of consuming bread in order to increase the shelf life storage of  consuming bread. One hundred forty four samples of 6 different types of loaf of bread randomly obtained from 12 bakeries in District 2 of Tehran. The samples were packaged with 3%, 5% and 10% nano coatings and also conventional polyethylene coatings as control group. The bacterial examination and monitoring of samples, according to the national standards of Iran was carried out 3 times, on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28, of study period.This study showed that the film type and storage period, were main factors which significantly influenced fungal flora of bread. The lowest rate of various fungi growth (%14 was observed in 10% Nano film, while the highest rate of various fungi growth (47% was observed in conventional polyethylene coating (P<0.001. With increasing storage periods,  the number of various fungi increased, however this correlation was not similar in most of breads and fungi types. There were significant difference between them (P = 0.001. According to the results of the present study, due to increasing population growth and in order to improve food security, using packages with nanosilver particles which are based on titanium dioxide, prevails over the polyethylene packages. Therefore using such packages are highly recommended in bakery industry.

  8. Mutation of Spirulina sp. by nuclear irradiation to improve growth rate under 15% carbon dioxide in flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Lu, Hongxiang; He, Xin; Yang, Weijuan; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2017-08-01

    Spirulina sp. was mutated by γ-rays from 60 Co nuclear irradiation to improve growth and CO 2 fixation rate under 15vol.% CO 2 (in flue gas from a power plant). Mutants with enhanced growth phenotype were obtained, with the best strain exhibiting 310% increment in biomass yield on day 4. The mutant was then domesticated with elevated CO 2 concentration, and the biomass yield increased by 500% after domestication under 15vol.% CO 2 , with stable inheritance. Ultrastructure of Spirulina sp. shows that the fractal dimension of Spirulina cells decreased by 23% after mutation. Pore size in the cell wall of Spirulina mutant increased by 33% after 15vol.% CO 2 domestication. This characteristic facilitated the direct penetration of CO 2 into cells, thus improving CO 2 biofixation rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multigroup neutron data base for nuclear geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworak, D.; Loskiewicz, J.

    1989-01-01

    The average group constants for the total, elastic, inelastic and capture cross sections as well as the average cosine of the scattering angle for elastic scattering and the average logarithmic energy decrement for elastic scattering have been obtained at two temperatures (300 and 400 deg K), using the ENDF/B-4 data and the IAEA-NDS pre-processing codes. The extended Abagyan group structure and the weighting spectrum of type 1/E were applied in course of the calculations. Self-shielding effect was not taken into account. All cross sections were Doppler broadened for both, 300 and 400 deg K temperatures. Under above assumptions, the average group constants were obtained for exactly 22 ENDF materials, which are of special importance for nuclear geophysics applications. 10 refs., 15 figs., 44 tabs. (author)

  10. Development of a new nuclear data library based on ROOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-Sun; Min, Kyung Joo; In, Eun Jin; Bak, Sang-In; Hong, Seung-Woo

    2017-09-01

    We develop a new C++ nuclear data library for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) data, which we refer to as TNudy. Main motivation of the development is to provide systematic, powerful and intuitive interfaces and functionalities for browsing, visualizing and manipulating the detailed information embodied in the ENDF. To achieve this aim efficiently, the TNudy project is based on the ROOT system. TNudy is still in the stage of development, and the current status and future plans will be presented.

  11. CFD Simulations of a Regenerative Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture in Advanced Gasification Based Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arastoopour, Hamid [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-07-31

    estimated cost of carbon v capture is in the range of $31-$44/ton, suggesting that a regenerative MgO-Based process can be a viable option for pre-combustion carbon dioxide capture in advanced gasification based power systems.

  12. Capacitor-based detection of nuclear magnetization: nuclear quadrupole resonance of surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorovič, Alan; Apih, Tomaž; Kvasić, Ivan; Lužnik, Janko; Pirnat, Janez; Trontelj, Zvonko; Strle, Drago; Muševič, Igor

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate excitation and detection of nuclear magnetization in a nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) experiment with a parallel plate capacitor, where the sample is located between the two capacitor plates and not in a coil as usually. While the sensitivity of this capacitor-based detection is found lower compared to an optimal coil-based detection of the same amount of sample, it becomes comparable in the case of very thin samples and even advantageous in the proximity of conducting bodies. This capacitor-based setup may find its application in acquisition of NQR signals from the surface layers on conducting bodies or in a portable tightly integrated nuclear magnetic resonance sensor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals; new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Sub-Critical Nuclear Reactor Based on FFAG-Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Seok; Kang, Hung Sik; Lee, Tae Yeon

    2011-01-01

    After the East-Japan earthquake and the subsequent nuclear disaster, the anti-nuclear mood has been wide spread. It is very unfortunate both for nuclear science community and for the future of mankind, which is threatened by two serious challenges, the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect and the shortage of energy cause by the petroleum exhaustion. While the nuclear energy seemed to be the only solution to these problems, it is clear that it has its own problems, one of which broke out so strikingly in Japan. There are also other problems such as the radiotoxic nuclear wastes that survive up to even tens of thousands years and the limited reserves of Uranium. To solve these problems of nuclear fission energy, accelerator-based sub-critical nuclear reactor was once proposed. (Its details will be explained below.) First of all, it is safe in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem because it can use Thorium as its fuel. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of the accelerator-driven nuclear reactor was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty and economical reasons. The accelerator-based system needs 1 GeV, 10 MW power proton accelerator. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. However, recent technologies make it possible to realize that scale accelerator by a reasonable size. That is the fixed-field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator that is described in this article

  15. Analysis of nanowire transistor based nitrogen dioxide gas sensor – A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Saxena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensors sensitivity, selectivity and stability has always been a prime design concern for gas sensors designers. Modeling and simulation of gas sensors aids the designers in improving their performance. In this paper, different routes for the modeling and simulation of a semiconducting gas sensor is presented. Subsequently, by employing one of the route, the response of Zinc Oxide nanowire transistor towards nitrogen dioxide ambient is simulated. In addition to the sensing mechanism, simulation study of gas species desorption by applying a recovery voltage is also presented.

  16. Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode (LED)-Based Sensing of Sulfur Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Anna P M; Kapit, Jason

    2017-05-01

    With the recent development of deep ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) comes the possibility of targeting absorption bands of several gases, including sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). SO 2 has strong absorption bands in the 300 nm spectral region. The low cost and small size of DUV LEDs, coupled with their spectral coverage, makes them viable sources for new gas sensors. Here, we demonstrate the capability to use absorption spectroscopy with a balanced detection scheme using a 300 nm DUV LED source for SO 2 detection at concentrations ranging from less than 1 ppm to 50 ppm.

  17. Data base on nuclear power plant dose reduction research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1986-10-01

    Staff at the ALARA Center of Brookhaven National Laboratory have established a data base of information about current research that is likely to result in lower radiation doses to workers. The data base, concerned primarily with nuclear power generation, is part of a project that the ALARA Center is carrying out for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report describes its current status. A substantial amount of research on reducing occupational exposure is being done in the US and abroad. This research is beginning to have an impact on the collective dose expenditures at nuclear power plants. The collective radiation doses in Europe, Japan, and North America all show downward trends. A large part of the research in the US is either sponsored by the nuclear industry through joint industry organizations such as EPRI and ESEERCO or is done by individual corporations. There is also significant participation by smaller companies. The main emphasis of the research on dose reduction is on engineering approaches aimed at reducing radiation fields or keeping people out of high-exposure areas by using robotics. Effective ALARA programs are also underway at a large number of nuclear plants. Additional attention should be given to non-engineering approaches to dose reduction, which are potentially very useful and cost effective but require quantitative study and analysis based on data from nuclear power plants. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  18. JANIS: NEA JAva-based Nuclear Data Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soppera Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available JANIS (JAva-based Nuclear Data Information System software is developed by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA Data Bank to facilitate the visualization and manipulation of nuclear data, giving access to evaluated nuclear data libraries, such as ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, TENDL etc., and also to experimental nuclear data (EXFOR and bibliographical references (CINDA. It is available as a standalone Java program, downloadable and distributed on DVD and also a web application available on the NEA website. One of the main new features in JANIS is the scripting capability via command line, which notably automatizes plots generation and permits automatically extracting data from the JANIS database. Recent NEA software developments rely on these JANIS features to access nuclear data, for example the Nuclear Data Sensitivity Tool (NDaST makes use of covariance data in BOXER and COVERX formats, which are retrieved from the JANIS database. New features added in this version of the JANIS software are described along this paper with some examples.

  19. JANIS: NEA JAva-based Nuclear Data Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppera, Nicolas; Bossant, Manuel; Cabellos, Oscar; Dupont, Emmeric; Díez, Carlos J.

    2017-09-01

    JANIS (JAva-based Nuclear Data Information System) software is developed by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Data Bank to facilitate the visualization and manipulation of nuclear data, giving access to evaluated nuclear data libraries, such as ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, TENDL etc., and also to experimental nuclear data (EXFOR) and bibliographical references (CINDA). It is available as a standalone Java program, downloadable and distributed on DVD and also a web application available on the NEA website. One of the main new features in JANIS is the scripting capability via command line, which notably automatizes plots generation and permits automatically extracting data from the JANIS database. Recent NEA software developments rely on these JANIS features to access nuclear data, for example the Nuclear Data Sensitivity Tool (NDaST) makes use of covariance data in BOXER and COVERX formats, which are retrieved from the JANIS database. New features added in this version of the JANIS software are described along this paper with some examples.

  20. Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisholoy Goswami

    2005-10-11

    The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

  1. Progress on High-Energy 2-micron Solid State Laser for NASA Space-Based Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center during last fifteen years have resulted in significant advancement of a 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurements from ground, air and space-borne platforms. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  2. Regional carbon dioxide and energy fluxes from airborne observations using flight-path segmentation based on landscape characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vellinga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of regional fluxes obtained with a small aircraft over heterogeneous terrain in the south-west of France, during the large scale field experiment CERES'07. We use a method combining variable flight-path segmentation with basic airborne footprint analysis. The segmentation is based on topography, land use and soil type, using a.o. satellite imagery and digital maps. The segments are delineated using an average footprint length, based on all flights, and segment lengths, which are variable in space but not in time. The method results in segment averaged carbon and energy fluxes, which are shown to be representative of regional fluxes. Our analysis is focussed on carbon dioxide, heat and evaporative fluxes around solar noon. We will show that spatial and seasonal variations in the fluxes can be linked to the underlying landscape. In addition, a comparison between the airborne data and ground flux data is made to support our results. However, due to the incompleteness of ground data for some predominant vegetation types (even in such a data dense context, upscaling of ground data to regional fluxes was not possible. Without the comparison, we are still able to demonstrate that aircraft can provide direct and meaningful estimates of regional fluxes of energy and carbon dioxide.

  3. Carbon dioxide/methanol conversion cycle based on cascade enzymatic reactions supported on superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATERINA G.C. MARQUES NETTO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The conversion of carbon dioxide into important industrial feedstock is a subject of growing interest in modern society. A possible way to achieve this goal is by carrying out the CO2/methanol cascade reaction, allowing the recycle of CO2 using either chemical catalysts or enzymes. Efficient and selective reactions can be performed by enzymes; however, due to their low stability, immobilization protocols are required to improve their performance. The cascade reaction to reduce carbon dioxide into methanol has been explored by the authors, using, sequentially, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FalDH, and formate dehydrogenase (FDH, powered by NAD+/NADH and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH as the co-enzyme regenerating system. All the enzymes have been immobilized on functionalized magnetite nanoparticles, and their reactions investigated separately in order to establish the best performance conditions. Although the stepwise scheme led to only 2.3% yield of methanol per NADH; in a batch system under CO2 pressure, the combination of the four immobilized enzymes increased the methanol yield by 64 fold. The studies indicated a successful regeneration of NADH in situ, envisaging a real possibility of using immobilized enzymes to perform the cascade CO2-methanol reaction.

  4. Investigation variation of carbon dioxide based on GOSAT data in peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, C. K.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.

    2015-10-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an inodorous and transparent gas, and naturally originates in our atmosphere. Due to its optical characteristics, CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas and play a key role in climate change due to an effective thermal infrared (IR) radiation absorber. Satellite observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can significantly improve our knowledge about the sources and sinks of CO2. The remote sensing satellite, namely Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) was employed to investigate the spatial and variations of CO2 column-averaged dry airmole fractions, denoted XCO2 over Peninsular Malaysia from January 2013 to December 2013. The analysis of CO2 in the study area shows the significant differences between northeast monsoon (NEM) and the southwest monsoon (SWM). During NEM season, cold air outbreaks from Siberia spreads to equatorial region in the form of north-easterly cold surge winds and associated with a low-level anticyclone over Southeast Asia. Inversely, air masses from the southwest contribute to long-range air pollution due to transportation of atmospheric CO2 by wind is associated with biomass burning in Sumatra, Indonesia. The GOSAT data and the Satellite measurements are able to measure the increase of the atmosphere CO2 values over different regions.

  5. Can nuclear energy support civilized society in the 21st century? From a civilization based on chemical reactions to a civilization based on nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuji-Ie, Yoichi [Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Nuclear Salon Fujii-e, Tokio (Japan)

    2006-02-15

    The United Nations passed and adopted 'Principles of Sustainable Development' in 1992, as a resolution on the sustainable development of mankind. It advocates maintaining the ecological system to support the earth, while presenting the ethical issue of 'impartiality within a generation', the reduction of absolute poverty and also 'impartiality between generations', in particular 'not leaving a negative legacy to the next generation'. The issue of the appropriate handling of waste is by nature an issue of safety and resources, but is also an ethical issue. Nuclear power generation is more likely to conserve the environment, if the comparison between radioactive waste and carbon dioxide is considered. The creation of hydrogen by nuclear energy resembles the ecological relationship between the sun and the earth in that it consists of the conversion of nuclear energy into chemical energy. Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, particle acceleration and lasers can all be found in the universe. It will be possible to find a future for nuclear energy by learning from and imitating nature. If the future of nuclear energy is seen from the viewpoint of sustainability, it can be expected that energy resources will be secured and the environment will be conserved by a system of nuclear energy, which will hopefully grow into a comprehensive nuclear science and technology that supports the civilization at its roots. (orig.)

  6. Can nuclear energy support civilized society in the 21st century? From a civilization based on chemical reactions to a civilization based on nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji-Ie, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    The United Nations passed and adopted 'Principles of Sustainable Development' in 1992, as a resolution on the sustainable development of mankind. It advocates maintaining the ecological system to support the earth, while presenting the ethical issue of 'impartiality within a generation', the reduction of absolute poverty and also 'impartiality between generations', in particular 'not leaving a negative legacy to the next generation'. The issue of the appropriate handling of waste is by nature an issue of safety and resources, but is also an ethical issue. Nuclear power generation is more likely to conserve the environment, if the comparison between radioactive waste and carbon dioxide is considered. The creation of hydrogen by nuclear energy resembles the ecological relationship between the sun and the earth in that it consists of the conversion of nuclear energy into chemical energy. Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, particle acceleration and lasers can all be found in the universe. It will be possible to find a future for nuclear energy by learning from and imitating nature. If the future of nuclear energy is seen from the viewpoint of sustainability, it can be expected that energy resources will be secured and the environment will be conserved by a system of nuclear energy, which will hopefully grow into a comprehensive nuclear science and technology that supports the civilization at its roots. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of thorium based nuclear fuel. Chemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Blankenvoorde, P.J.A.M.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Bakker, K.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the chemical aspects of a thorium-based fuel cycle. It is part of a series devoted to the study of thorium-based fuel as a means to achieve a considerable reduction of the radiotoxicity of the waste from nuclear power production. Therefore special emphasis is placed on fuel (re-)fabrication and fuel reprocessing in the present work. (orig.)

  8. High Frequency Acoustic Microscopy for the Determination of Porosity and Young's Modulus in High Burnup Uranium Dioxide Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Mara; Laux, Didier; Cappia, Fabiola; Laurie, M.; Van Uffelen, P.; Rondinella, V. V.; Wiss, T.; Despaux, G.

    2016-06-01

    During irradiation UO2 nuclear fuel experiences the development of a non-uniform distribution of porosity which contributes to establish varying mechanical properties along the radius of the pellet. Radial variations of both porosity and elastic properties in high burnup UO2 pellet can be investigated via high frequency acoustic microscopy. For this purpose ultrasound waves are generated by a piezoelectric transducer and focused on the sample, after having travelled through a coupling liquid. The elastic properties of the material are related to the velocity of the generated Rayleigh surface wave (VR). A UO2 pellet with a burnup of 67 GWd/tU was characterized using the acoustic microscope installed in the hot cells of the JRC-ITU at a 90 MHz frequency, with methanol as coupling liquid. VR was measured at different radial positions. A good agreement was found, when comparing the porosity values obtained via acoustic microscopy with those determined using SEM image analysis, especially in the areas close to the centre. In addition, Young's modulus was calculated and its radial profile was correlated to the corresponding burnup profile and to the hardness radial profile data obtained by Vickers micro-indentation.

  9. Contribution to the study of mechanical properties of nuclear fuel: atomistic modelling of the deformation of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossati, P.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical properties of nuclear fuel are a complex problem, involving many coupled mechanisms occurring at different length scales. We used Molecular Dynamics models to bring some light on some of these mechanisms at the atomic scale. We devised a procedure to calculate transition pathways between some UO 2 polymorphs, and then carried out dynamics simulations of these transitions. We confirmed the stability of the cotunnite structure at high pressure using various empirical potentials, the fluorite structure being the most stable at room pressure. Moreover, we showed a reconstructive phase transition between the fluorite and cotunnite structures. We also showed the importance of the major deformation axis on the kind of transition that occur under tensile conditions. Depending on the loading direction, a scrutinyite or rutile phase can appear. We then calculated the elastic behaviour of UO 2 using different potentials. The relative agreement between them was used to produce a set of parameters to be used as input in mesoscale models. We also simulated crack propagation in UO 2 single crystals. These simulations showed secondary phases nucleation at crack tips, and hinted at the importance thereof on crack propagation at higher length-scales. We then described some properties of edge dislocations in UO 2 . The core structures were compared for various glide planes. The critical resolved shear stress was calculated for temperatures up to 2000 K. These calculations showed a link between lattice disorder at the dislocations core and the dislocations mobility. (author)

  10. Experience with performance based training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, new entrants to the practice of nuclear criticality safety have learned their job primarily by on-the-job training (OJT) often by association with an experienced nuclear criticality safety engineer who probably also learned their job by OJT. Typically, the new entrant learned what he/she needed to know to solve a particular problem and accumulated experience as more problems were solved. It is likely that more formalism will be required in the future. Current US Department of Energy requirements for those positions which have to demonstrate qualification indicate that it should be achieved by using a systematic approach such as performance based training (PBT). Assuming that PBT would be an acceptable mechanism for nuclear criticality safety engineer training in a more formal environment, a site-specific analysis of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job was performed. Based on this analysis, classes are being developed and delivered to a target audience of newer nuclear criticality safety engineers. Because current interest is in developing training for selected aspects of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job, the analysis i's incompletely developed in some areas. Details of this analysis are provided in this report

  11. Global radioxenon emission inventory based on nuclear power reactor reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Martin B; Tuma, Matthias P

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric radioactivity is monitored for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, with xenon isotopes 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe and 135Xe serving as important indicators of nuclear explosions. The treaty-relevant interpretation of atmospheric concentrations of radioxenon is enhanced by quantifying radioxenon emissions released from civilian facilities. This paper presents the first global radioxenon emission inventory for nuclear power plants, based on North American and European emission reports for the years 1995-2005. Estimations were made for all power plant sites for which emission data were unavailable. According to this inventory, a total of 1.3PBq of radioxenon isotopes are released by nuclear power plants as continuous or pulsed emissions in a generic year.

  12. Nuclear component design ontology building based on ASME codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shiyi; Zhou Yu; He Shuyan

    2005-01-01

    The adoption of ontology analysis in the study of concept knowledge acquisition and representation for the nuclear component design process based on computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) makes it possible to share and reuse numerous concept knowledge of multi-disciplinary domains. A practical ontology building method is accordingly proposed based on Protege knowledge model in combination with both top-down and bottom-up approaches together with Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). FCA exhibits its advantages in the way it helps establish and improve taxonomic hierarchy of concepts and resolve concept conflict occurred in modeling multi-disciplinary domains. With Protege-3.0 as the ontology building tool, a nuclear component design ontology based ASME codes is developed by utilizing the ontology building method. The ontology serves as the basis to realize concept knowledge sharing and reusing of nuclear component design. (authors)

  13. Knowledge based diagnostics in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldeweg, F.; Fiedler, U.; Weiss, F.P.; Werner, M.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper a special process diagnostic system (PDS) is presented. It must be seen as the result of a long term work on computerized process surveillance and control; it includes a model based system for noise analysis of mechanical vibrations, which has recently been enhanced by using of knowledge based technique (expert systems). The paper discusses the process diagnostic frame concept and emphasize the vibration analysis expert system

  14. Free Energy-Based Coarse-Grained Force Field for Binary Mixtures of Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fenglei; Deetz, Joshua D; Sun, Huai

    2017-01-23

    The free energy based Lennard-Jones 12-6 (FE-12-6) coarse-grained (CG) force field developed for alkanes1 has been extended to model small molecules of light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, propane, butane, and isobutane), nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. The adjustable parameters of the FE-12-6 potential are determined by fitting against experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) curves and heat of vaporization (HOV) data for pure substance liquids. Simulations using the optimized FE-12-6 parameters correctly reproduced experimental measures of the VLE, HOV, density, vapor pressure, compressibility, critical point, and surface tension for pure substances over a wide range of thermodynamic states. The force field parameters optimized for pure substances were tested on methane/butane, nitrogen/decane, and carbon dioxide/decane binary mixtures to predict their vapor-liquid equilibrium phase diagrams. It is found that for nonpolar molecules represented by different sized beads, a common scaling factor (0.08) that reduces the strength of the interaction potential between unlike beads, generated using Lorentz-Berthelot (LB) combination rules, is required to predict vapor-liquid phase equilibria accurately.

  15. Technology advance and the carbon dioxide emission in China – Empirical research based on the rebound effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lisha; Li, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    At present, technology advance is the greatest contributor to the carbon dioxide mitigation. However, the real effect of technology advance on mitigation is worth further studying due to the existence of rebound effect (RE). A key issue is how to quantify the relationship between technology advance and carbon dioxide emission accurately. This paper figures out a comprehensive and modified framework involving around the RE of carbon emission from the macroeconomic perspective. Using this framework, this paper quantitatively evaluates the relationship between technical change and carbon emission based on the data of 30 provinces in China. It is founded that: (1) the carbon RE is about 10–60% in Chinese provinces; (2) the RE of carbon emission differs among the regions in China; (3) carbon reduction and environment issues should be solved step by step regionally in China. (4) According to our results, a reasonable control on total energy consumption and fossil-energy pricing adjustment, should be taken as the supplementary policy in China; at the same time, carbon financing, carbon trading and other aspects of institutional innovation should be taken into account at the appropriate time. - Highlights: • Build a macroresearch framework for carbon emission rebound effect. • Further extend the definition of the technological progress. • The macrocarbon emission rebound effect is distributed between 10% and 60%. • Confirms the regional differences of the carbon emission rebound effect in China.

  16. Active Terahertz Chiral Metamaterials Based on Phase Transition of Vanadium Dioxide (VO2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengxiang; Kang, Lei; Werner, Douglas H

    2018-01-09

    Compared with natural materials, chiral metamaterials have been demonstrated with orders of magnitude stronger chiroptical response, which provides the basis for applications such as ultracompact polarization components and plasmonic-enhanced biosensing. Terahertz chiral metamaterials that allow dynamic polarization control of terahertz waves are of great practical interest, but remain extremely rare. Here, we show that hybrid metamaterials integrated with vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) exhibiting phase transition can enable dynamically tunable chiroptical responses at terahertz frequencies. In particular, a circular dichroism of ~40° and a maximum polarization rotation of ~200°/λ are observed around 0.7 THz. Furthermore, our study also reveals that the chiroptical response from the proposed metamaterials is strongly dependent on the phase transition of VO 2 , leading to actively controllable polarization states of the transmitted terahertz waves. This work paves the way for the development of terahertz metadevices capable of enabling active polarization manipulation.

  17. Performance of titanium dioxide-based cathodes in a lithium polymer electrolyte cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macklin, W.J. (Applied Electrochemistry Dept., AEA Industry Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Neat, R.J. (Applied Electrochemistry Dept., AEA Industry Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    Performance data on two polymorphs of titanium dioxide (anatase and rutile) operating in a lithium polymer electrolyte cell at 120 C are presented. On the first discharge lithium ions can be electrochemically inserted into both forms to an approximate composition LiTiO[sub 2]. However, only the rutile material cycles with a significant capacity ([proportional to] 0.5 Li/TiO[sub 2]) with an average cell voltage of 1.73 V corresponding to a theoretical energy density of [proportional to] 290 W h kg[sup -1]. Our results are in contrast to earlier work reported on the intercalation of lithium into these phases at room temperature, where only the anatase form was found to intercalate lithium. X-ray diffraction data indicate that the rutile form undergoes a structural change during the first discharge resulting in the formation of a hexagonal form of LiTiO[sub 2].

  18. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, N.; Azizah, N.; Hashim, U.

    2016-01-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  19. Electrochemical energy storage device based on carbon dioxide as electroactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Karoly; van Veenendaal, Michel Antonius; Srajer, George

    2013-03-05

    An electrochemical energy storage device comprising a primary positive electrode, a negative electrode, and one or more ionic conductors. The ionic conductors ionically connect the primary positive electrode with the negative electrode. The primary positive electrode comprises carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and a means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2. This means for electrochemically reducing the CO.sub.2 comprises a conductive primary current collector, contacting the CO.sub.2, whereby the CO.sub.2 is reduced upon the primary current collector during discharge. The primary current collector comprises a material to which CO.sub.2 and the ionic conductors are essentially non-corrosive. The electrochemical energy storage device uses CO.sub.2 as an electroactive species in that the CO.sub.2 is electrochemically reduced during discharge to enable the release of electrical energy from the device.

  20. Investigation of titanium dioxide/ tungstic acid -based photocatalyst for human excrement wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Wang, Can; Xiao, Kemeng; Gao, Yufeng; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Heng

    2018-05-01

    An activated carbon (AC) coated with tungstic acid (WO3)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposites photocatalytic material (ACWT) combined with Three-phase Fluidized Bed (TFB) was investigated for human excrement wastewater treatment. Under the ultraviolet (UV) and fluorescent lamp illumination, the ACWT had shown a good performance on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) removal but inefficient on ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) removal. Optimized by Taguchi method, COD and TN removal efficiency was up to 88.39% and 55.07%, respectively. Among all the parameters, the dosage of ACWT had the largest contribution on the process. Bacterial community changes after treatment demonstrated that this photocatalytic system had a great sterilization effect on wastewater. These results confirmed that ACWT could be applied for the human excrement wastewater treatment.

  1. Titanium Dioxide-Based 64∘ YX LiNbO3 Surface Acoustic Wave Hydrogen Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Sadek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2 and gold (Au doped TiO2-based surface acoustic wave (SAW sensors have been investigated as hydrogen gas detectors. The nanocrystal-doped TiO2 films were synthesized through a sol-gel route, mixing a Ti-butoxide-based solution with diluted colloidal gold nanoparticles. The films were deposited via spin coating onto 64∘ YX LiNbO3 SAW transducers in a helium atmosphere. The SAW gas sensors were operated at various temperatures between 150 and 310∘C. It was found that gold doping on TiO2 increased the device sensitivity and reduced the optimum operating temperature.

  2. Data base concepts for managing the DOE nuclear material inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beams, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Information required by nuclear materials managers in the Department of Energy (DOE) is accessible with varying levels of difficulty. Currently, the most readily available information is provided by the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). Information not provided by NMMSS must be obtained either from field site data bases or collected through physical inventory inspections, both very costly and time-consuming alternatives. This paper discusses the possibility of providing more detailed information at DOE headquarters on nuclear material inventories than is provided by NMMSS. In particular, this paper considers some of the issues associated with managing materials at the lowest-level--the item-level--and uses a hypothetical item-level data base to describe some of the advantages and disadvantages of managing information at the item-level

  3. performance-based approach to design and evaluation of nuclear security systems for Brazilian nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Renato L. A.; Filho, Josélio S. M., E-mail: renato.tavares@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: joselio@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioproteção e Segurança Nuclear. Divisão de Normas e Segurança Física; Fontes, Gladson S.; Fiel, J.C.B., E-mail: gsfontes@hotmail.com, E-mail: fiel@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (SE-7/IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Seção de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    This study presents an application of a performance-based approach to definition of requirements, design and evaluation of physical protection systems for nuclear facilities. Such approach considers a probabilistic analysis of the threat, equipment, systems and response forces used to prevent, dissuade and detain malicious acts against the integrity of facilities and the nuclear materials inside them. Nowadays, in the context of Brazilian nuclear facilities licensing, a mostly prescriptive approach is adopted, which despite having advantages such as simplified inspections and homogeneous regulatory requisites amid different fuel cycle facility types, does not consider evolution, dynamism and capacities of external or internal threats to facilities and to Brazilian Nuclear Program itself, neither provides metrics to evaluate system performance facing such threats. In order to preserve actual plans and systems confidentiality, a facility hypothetical model is created, including a research reactor and a waste storage facility. It is expected that the methodology and results obtained in this study serve in the future as a basis to Brazilian nuclear operators, in elaboration process of their Physical Protection Plans, which must comply with future regulation CNEN-NN 2.01, a revision of CNEN-NE 2.01, once that regulation will include performance requisites. (author)

  4. RWE NUKEM's 'Living' Nuclear Compendium eNICE. An internet-based, multifunctional nuclear information platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasny, R.; Max, A.

    2002-01-01

    Information has become a commodity particularly important to industry, science, and politics. Information becomes critical because of its rapid change. The basis and the catalyst of this change in information are the information technologies now available, and the Internet with its varied contents. This makes the Internet a new market place which, although it is open, can quickly turn into an information maze because of its sheer volume. Also the nuclear industry must find its way through this maze. eNICE was created in order to build a bridge between the flood of information in the Internet and the information really needed in a specific case. eNICE (e stands for electronic, and NICE stands for Nuclear Information Compendium Europe), a living Internet-based nuclear compendium in the English language, is a unique combination of a broad spectrum of information and data about the use of nuclear power in Europe. The information and data contained in eNICE are interconnected with the World Wide Web in such a way that structured searching for nuclear information is possible quickly and efficiently. This avoids the difficulties sometimes encountered in searches in the Internet as a consequence of the unstructured volume of information. A monthly update of eNICE ensures that the data available are up to date and reliable. eNICE also offers direct access to the library used by RWE NUKEM for internal purposes. (orig.) [de

  5. (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 93; Issue 2. Phylogeny and biogeography of Alyssum (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Yan Li Yan Kong Zhe Zhang Yanqiang Yin Bin Liu Guanghui Lv Xiyong Wang. Research Article Volume 93 Issue 2 August 2014 pp 313-323 ...

  6. Low-energy nuclear reactions with double-solenoid-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The University of Notre Dame, USA (Becchetti et al, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A505, 377 (2003)) and later the University of São Paulo, Brazil (Lichtenthaler et al, Eur. Phys. J. A25, S-01, 733 (2005)) adopted a system based on superconducting solenoids to produce low-energy radioactive nuclear beams. In these systems ...

  7. Case studies of application of nuclear forensics to analyze nuclear trafficking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrnecek, E.; Mayer, K.; Schubert, A.; Wallenius, M.

    2010-01-01

    Discuses the use of nuclear forensics to identify the source of 14 uranium pellets found in Germany. The pellets were found to be homogeneous typical of western european PWR pellets. Based on geometry Siemens , Germany was identified as the only possible manufacturer. The other case study considered was on a metal can containing of 18 grams of uranium dioxide powder found at ulm together with a lead foil containing 1.8 kilograms of uranium dioxide powder plus pellets of Uranium. Four other case studies are considered. the case studies demonstrates the use of nuclear forensics as a key element in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials.

  8. A framework for AI-based nuclear design support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Kazuo; Kondo, Shunsuke

    1991-01-01

    Nowadays many computer programs are being developed and used for the analytic tasks in nuclear reactor design, but experienced designers are still responsible for most of the synthetic tasks which are not amenable to algorithmic computer processes. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a promising technology to deal with these intractable tasks in design. In development of AI-based design support systems, it is desirable to choose a comprehensive framework based on the scientific theory of design. In this work a framework for AI-based design support systems for nuclear reactor design will be proposed based on an exploration model of design. The fundamental architectures of this framework will be described especially on knowledge representation, context management and design planning. (author)

  9. Framework for AI-based nuclear reactor design support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Kazuo; Kondo, Shunsuke

    1992-01-01

    Nowadays many computer programs are being developed and used for the analytic tasks in nuclear reactor design, but experienced designers are still responsible for most of the synthetic tasks which are not amenable to algorithmic computer processes. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a promising technology to deal with these intractable tasks in design. In development of AI-based design support systems, it is desirable to choose a comprehensive framework based on the scientific theory of design. In this work a framework for AI-based design support systems for nuclear reactor design will be proposed based on an explorative abduction model of design. The fundamental architectures of this framework will be described especially on knowledge representation, context management and design planning. (author)

  10. EPR in functional structures based on doped (nano, meso)-porous silica and titanium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassiba, A [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense LPEC, UMRCNRS 6087 Universite du Maine, Avenue Olivier Messiaen 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9 France (France); Makowska-Janusik, M [Institute of Physics, Al Armii Krajowej 13/15, Akademina Im Jana Dlugosz w Czestochowa, 42200 (Poland); Mehdi, A, E-mail: kassiba@univ-lemans.fr [Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 Chimie Moleculaire et Organisation du Solide, Universite Montpellier II Place E Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2011-04-01

    EPR investigations are performed on mesoporous silica (SBA15) functionalized by Nickel-cyclam complexes (1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane groups chelating nickel ions) and on mesoporous titanium dioxide with nitrogen doping. For functionalized silica, the magnetic behaviour of organometallic groups, their mutual interactions and dispersion in the host matrices are compared with respect to the doping rates and the synthesis procedures. The relaxation processes were analyzed from the thermal evolution of the paramagnetic spin susceptibilities and EPR line-widths. Particularly, some samples show the formation of clusters where phonon assisted one dimensional (1D) ferromagnetic ordering occurs below 45 K. For the mesoporous TiO{sub 2}, systematic EPR investigations were performed on two main classes of materials with regard to the porosity degrees. The EPR experiments point out the efficiency of EPR method to probe the degree of functionalization of mesoporous silica or the nitrogen doping achievement in TiO{sub 2}, and in general to give a valuable feedback to improve the synthesis routes of smart materials.

  11. Vanadium dioxide based Fabry-Perot emitter for dynamic radiative cooling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sydney; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2017-08-01

    An asymmetric Fabry-Perot emitter is proposed with a lossless dielectric spacer inserted between a vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin film and an opaque aluminum substrate. Switchable mid-infrared emittance has been achieved due to the insulator-to-metal transition of VO2. When VO2 is dielectric below 341 K, the structure is highly reflective, thereby minimizing thermal radiation loss. Above 345 K, the VO2 becomes metallic and forms a Fabry-Perot resonance cavity with high broadband emissivity around 10 μm wavelength, providing a radiative cooling effect due to enhanced thermal emission. The radiative properties are calculated via a uniaxial transfer matrix method and Bruggeman effective medium theory. The physical mechanisms that provide the observed absorption enhancements are elucidated by examining the total phase shift in the multilayer structure and the phonon modes of VO2. When experiencing the VO2 phase transition, the radiative power of the proposed coating achieves a 6.5 fold enhancement for extraterrestrial spacecraft systems, and 7.3 fold enhancement for terrestrial systems such as buildings, making it a promising choice for dynamic radiative cooling applications in a variable environment. The findings here will facilitate research and development of novel coating materials for radiative cooling applications.

  12. Structure and dielectric properties in the radio frequency range of polymer composites based on vanadium dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolbunov V.R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composites with active fillers are recently considered to be promising materials for the design of new functional devices with controllable properties and are intensively investigated. Dielectric studies are one of the most effective methods for studying structural features and mechanisms of conductivity formation for this type of two-component systems. The paper presents research results of the dielectric characteristics in the range of radio frequency of 50 kHz — 10 MHz and temperature range of 30—60°C of polyethylene composites of vanadium dioxide with different volume fractions of filler. Two dispersion areas were found: a high-frequency area caused by the Maxwell charge separation on the boundaries of the polyethylene matrix — conductive filler of VI2 crystallites, and a low frequency area associated with the presence of the transition layer at this boundary. The relative permittivity of the composite has a tendency to a decrease in absolute value with increasing temperature. The analysis of the low-frequency dependence of the dielectric constant of the value of the filler’s volume fraction revealed that the investigated composite belongs to two-component statistical mixtures with a transition layer between the components.

  13. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles as Radiosensitisers: An In vitro and Phantom-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youkhana, Esho Qasho; Feltis, Bryce; Blencowe, Anton; Geso, Moshi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Radiosensitisation caused by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs) is investigated using phantoms (PRESAGE ® dosimeters) and in vitro using two types of cell lines, cultured human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and prostate cancer (DU145) cells. Methods: Anatase TiO 2 -NPs were synthesised, characterised and functionalised to allow dispersion in culture-medium for in vitro studies and halocarbons (PRESAGE ® chemical compositions). PRESAGE ® dosimeters were scanned with spectrophotometer to determine the radiation dose enhancement. Clonogenic and cell viability assays were employed to determine cells survival curves from which the dose enhancement levels "radiosensitisation" are deduced. Results: Comparable levels of radiosensitisation were observed in both phantoms and cells at kilovoltage ranges of x-ray energies (slightly higher in vitro) . Significant radiosensitisation (~67 %) of control was also noted in cells at megavoltage energies (commonly used in radiotherapy), compared to negligible levels detected by phantoms. This difference is attributed to biochemical effects, specifically the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radicals ( • OH), which are only manifested in aqueous environments of cells and are non-existent in case of phantoms. Conclusions: This research shows that TiO 2 -NPs improve the efficiency of dose delivery, which has implications for future radiotherapy treatments. Literature shows that Ti 2 O 3 -NPs can be used as imaging agents hence with these findings renders these NPs as theranostic agents.

  14. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2002-10-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. The PFS product was used in pilot-scale tests at a municipal water treatment facility and gave good results in removal of turbidity and superior results in removal of disinfection byproduct precursors (TOC, DOC, UV-254) when compared with equal doses of ferric chloride.

  15. Antibacterial Additive for Polystyrene Based on Silver Nanoparticles Supported on Titanium Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Waldo-Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles supported on titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Ag/TiO2 were incorporated and evaluated as antibacterial additive for polystyrene materials. These particles were synthesized using a deposition-precipitation method by adding silver nitrate as metallic precursor, sodium hydroxide as reducing agent, and commercial TiO2 (P25 as support. Rectangular pieces of polystyrene (PS containing 100, 300, 500, and 700 ppm (wt.% of the additive were made using an extrusion-injection molding process, and they were evaluated for their antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli using the Pour Plate method. Particles were distributed on the PS surface, and PS pieces presented a good antibacterial efficiency at 100, 300, and 500 ppm and decreased for 700 ppm due to an additive agglomeration on the PS surface. These results validate the antibacterial properties of Ag/TiO2, determine a concentration limit at which the additive is well distributed on the PS surface, and assess the importance of Ag in this system.

  16. The Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Atlas (SOCAT) - A Solid Data Base for Carbon Related Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, T.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Currie, K.; Landa, C.; Landschutzer, P.; Metzl, N.; Nakaoka, S. I.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Pfeil, B.; Schuster, U.; Smith, K. M.; Tilbrook, B. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) is an activity by the international marine carbon research community. It improves access to surface water CO2 data by regular releases of quality controlled and documented, synthesis fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) data products for the global surface oceans and coastal seas. The first version of SOCAT was publicly released in September 2011(Bakker et al., 2011) with 6.3 million observations. In June 2013 version 2 was released including already over 10 million observations and in September 2015 SOCAT version 3 was released with more than 14 million observations. With the release of version 3 in September 2015 a big step was made in the direction of an annual updated database by using an automated data ingestion and quality control tool. The database holds now data from 1957 to today which enables SOCAT data products the detection of changes in the ocean carbon sink. Here we present the innovations in version 3 and give an outlook of the next version(s) of SOCAT. A major improvement in version 3 is the inclusion of data from alternative sensors with a lower accuracy (better than 10 µatm) compared to the standard instrumentation (2 µatm), since their number will increase in the future. In addition exemplary studies using the SOCAT database will be presented which demonstrate the potential of the SOCAT database and point out possible improvements for the future.

  17. Chromatin Conformation Capture-Based Analysis of Nuclear Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Stefan; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear organization and higher-order chromosome structure in interphase nuclei are thought to have important effects on fundamental biological processes, including chromosome condensation, replication, and transcription. Until recently, however, nuclear organization could only be analyzed microscopically. The development of chromatin conformation capture (3C)-based techniques now allows a detailed look at chromosomal architecture from the level of individual loci to the entire genome. Here we provide a robust Hi-C protocol, allowing the analysis of nuclear organization in nuclei from different wild-type and mutant plant tissues. This method is quantitative and provides a highly efficient and comprehensive way to study chromatin organization during plant development, in response to different environmental stimuli, and in mutants disrupting a variety of processes, including epigenetic pathways regulating gene expression.

  18. Knowledge Based Help desk System in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Abdul Muin Abdul Rahman; Norzalina Nasirudin; Khairiel Adyani Abdul Ghani; Abdul Aziz Mhd Ramli; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge based (K-based) Help desk system is a knowledge oriented web based system that provides support to business process of the technical service providers. It is a multi-centric system which focuses on end-users, technical workers and higher level management through utilization of knowledge which resides and grows within the system. The objectives of the system are to be a user-friendly, capture technical knowledge for efficient performance and educating users for self reliance. These were achieved through the improvement of the help desk business process and better management of technical knowledge. This system has been tested and implemented in Information Technology Center (IT), Engineering Division (BKJ) and Instrumentation and Automation Center (IAC) at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). Higher levels of user satisfaction and faster growth in technical knowledge repository have been recorded in the system. This paper describes the help desk system in the perspective of management of its technical knowledge contributing to strengthening organizational knowledge asset of Nuclear Malaysia as national nuclear research institution. (Author)

  19. An endohedral fullerene-based nuclear spin quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Chenyong; Suter, Dieter; Du Jiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new scalable quantum computer architecture based on endohedral fullerene molecules. Qubits are encoded in the nuclear spins of the endohedral atoms, which posses even longer coherence times than the electron spins which are used as the qubits in previous proposals. To address the individual qubits, we use the hyperfine interaction, which distinguishes two modes (active and passive) of the nuclear spin. Two-qubit quantum gates are effectively implemented by employing the electronic dipolar interaction between adjacent molecules. The electron spins also assist in the qubit initialization and readout. Our architecture should be significantly easier to implement than earlier proposals for spin-based quantum computers, such as the concept of Kane [B.E. Kane, Nature 393 (1998) 133]. - Research highlights: → We propose an endohedral fullerene-based scalable quantum computer architecture. → Qubits are encoded on nuclear spins, while electron spins serve as auxiliaries. → Nuclear spins are individually addressed using the hyperfine interaction. → Two-qubit gates are implemented through the medium of electron spins.

  20. An internet-based teaching file on clinical nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhong; Wu Jinchang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this project was to develop an internet-based interactive digital teaching file on nuclide imaging in clinical nuclear medicine, with the capability of access to internet. Methods: On the basis of academic teaching contents in nuclear medicine textbook for undergraduates who major in nuclear medicine, Frontpage 2000, HTML language, and JavaScript language in some parts of the contents, were utilized in the internet-based teaching file developed in this study. Results: A practical and comprehensive teaching file was accomplished and may get access with acceptable speed to internet. Besides basic teaching contents of nuclide imagings, a large number of typical and rare clinical cases, questionnaire with answers and update data in the field of nuclear medicine were included in the file. Conclusion: This teaching file meets its goal of providing an easy-to-use and internet-based digital teaching file, characteristically with the contents instant and enriched, and with the modes diversified and colorful

  1. Fuzzy model-based control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Durpel, L.; Ruan, D.

    1994-01-01

    The fuzzy model-based control of a nuclear power reactor is an emerging research topic world-wide. SCK-CEN is dealing with this research in a preliminary stage, including two aspects, namely fuzzy control and fuzzy modelling. The aim is to combine both methodologies in contrast to conventional model-based PID control techniques, and to state advantages of including fuzzy parameters as safety and operator feedback. This paper summarizes the general scheme of this new research project

  2. KNOWBOT: a self-organizing interface for nuclear data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, A.S.; Koen, B.V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a practical intelligent associate, KNOWBOT, designed to act as a surrogate for engineers and scientists in accessing nuclear power industry data bases. The nuclear power industry has developed several safety and reliability data bases to facilitate the exchange of significant safety-related data for enhancement of its performance. The nuclear plant reliability data system and the licensee event reports are instances of such data bases. The creation of these data bases has, nevertheless, been paradoxical. They have provided rapid access to the needed data. Yet they have, at the same time, created their own impediments. Two of these problems that are addressed by the design of KNOWBOT are the interface and dimensionality. The interface problem falls in the broader category of man/machine interaction, which deals with the problems involved with this symbiosis. Dimensionality deals with the rapidly increasing sizes of the data bases and their ability to process queries in a timely fashion. Numerous programs have been developed to address the interface problem, but most have proven inadequate in real-time applications. The dimensionality problem has been approached through the development of faster processors and query optimizers. As these data bases continue to expand, the present solutions are reaching their performance limits, and a new approach such as that offered by KNOWBOT is needed

  3. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Tricastin operational hot base nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the Tricastin operational hot base facility (INB no. 157, Bollene, Vaucluse (FR)), a nuclear workshop for storage and maintenance and qualification operations on some EdF equipments. Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facility are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if some, are reported as well as the effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility is presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  4. Seismic force for base isolated nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabana, Shuichi; Ishida, Katsuhiko

    1997-01-01

    In this report, dynamic and static seismic forces for base isolation system of nuclear power plants are described. First, concept of seismic force in guidelines of base isolated FBR plants, which was edited by CRIEPI in 'Verification Tests of FBR Seismic Isolation Systems' consigned from MITI, are mentioned. Second, proposed seismic spectrum is applied to ground motions in Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake (1995). Assuming amplification factor of soil is 3, proposed seismic spectra agree with these ground motions as a result. Furthermore, calculation methods of static seismic force in which characteristics of seismic isolation systems are taken into account, are presented and the static force for Class A of nuclear power plants is compared with seismic force used in general base isolated buildings. (author)

  5. Developing competence based qualification system in the nuclear energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, Mihail

    2016-01-01

    The Institute for Energy and Transport of the Joint Research Centre, European Commission, developed a strategy and road map for ECVET implementation. The JRC road map for European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) implementation has reached the stage of Competence-Based Qualification System development. The Competence-Based Qualification System can help bridge the gap between Human Resources demand and supply in the nuclear market by structuring qualifications in small independent parts. This very specific ECVET feature of a qualification, facilitates the process of competences accumulation and the lifelong learning, mobility and flexible learning pathways. New developments are presented about the Competence-Based Qualification System development for the nuclear energy sector.

  6. Developing competence based qualification system in the nuclear energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceclan, Mihail [European Commission, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport

    2016-04-15

    The Institute for Energy and Transport of the Joint Research Centre, European Commission, developed a strategy and road map for ECVET implementation. The JRC road map for European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) implementation has reached the stage of Competence-Based Qualification System development. The Competence-Based Qualification System can help bridge the gap between Human Resources demand and supply in the nuclear market by structuring qualifications in small independent parts. This very specific ECVET feature of a qualification, facilitates the process of competences accumulation and the lifelong learning, mobility and flexible learning pathways. New developments are presented about the Competence-Based Qualification System development for the nuclear energy sector.

  7. Development of a nuclear data base for relativistic ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, L.W.; Wong, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The primary limitation on the development of heavy ion beam transport methods is the lack of an accurate nuclear data base. Because of the large number of ion/target combinations, the complexity of the reaction products, and the broad range of energies required, it is unlikely that the data base will ever be compiled from experiments alone. For the last 15 years, relativistic heavy-ion accelerators have been available, but the experimental data base remains inadequate. However, theoretical models of heavy-ion reactions are being derived to provide cross section data for beam transport problems. A concurrent experimental program to provide sufficient experimental data to validate the model is also in progress. Model development and experimental results for model validation are discussed. The need for additional nuclear fragmentation data is identified

  8. SONNE: Solar-Based Man-Made Carbon Cycle and the Carbon Dioxide Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Detlev [Brandenburg Technical Univ., Berlin (Germany)], e-mail: moe@btu-lc.fta-berlin.de

    2012-06-15

    the acceleration of CO{sub 2} release will increase as a result of economic growth. Due to the large CO{sub 2} residence times in air and sea water, we are far away from reaching a steady state (global cycle in-time) and recovery (climate restoration), even after the complete cessation of fossil fuel use. Therefore, forced by climate change and its uncertain, but very likely catastrophic impact after reaching the 'tipping points' than fossil resource limits, we need to transfer into the 'solar era as soon as possible. Nuclear power may be considered as a 'bridging technology' but the risks may not be longer accepted by society. Secondary 'renewable' energy, that has already been in use for long time, such as water and wind (and we should not forget that it was the only significant source of energy before the first industrial revolution), will probably never contribute on a global scale to fit the energy demand. Hence only the direct use of solar energy as proposed, for example, by the desertec conception (http:// www.desertec.org/), can realistically solve the global energy problem and fully replace fossil fuels. Without a doubt, electricity is the unique form of energy in the future and its direct application (also for mobility and heating) will increase, and will replace traditional fuels based on fossil resources to a large extent. The desertec technology is not unlikely to realize within the next few decades and can replace fossil fuels remarkable, if political (and thus financial) willingness is given. However, there are some open questions which have to be answered and transferred into technical solutions to establish the solar era. In this article I put forward an option to create a global closed anthropogenic carbon cycle using only solar energy to: (a) stop the further increase of CO{sub 2} emissions, and to obtain a global zero-carbon budget; (b) solve the problem of electricity storage based on CO{sub 2} utilization; (c

  9. Selective extraction of phospholipids from dairy products by micro-solid phase extraction based on titanium dioxide microcolumns followed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvano, Cosima; Jensen, Ole; Zambonin, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    A new micro-solid phase extraction (micro-SPE) procedure based on titanium dioxide microcolumns was developed for the selective extraction of phospholipids (PLs) from dairy products before matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. All...

  10. Gender-based differences in pediatric nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraki, Adina L; Braithwaite, Kiery A

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based differences commonly encountered in pediatric nuclear medicine reflect both basic embryologic differences of the sexes, which are evident from infancy, and evolving physiological changes due to gender, which occur as the pediatric patient grows, undergoes puberty, and matures to adulthood. It is important for a nuclear medicine physician or radiologist to know both the gender and the age of a patient when interpreting her or his studies. It is also important that the reading physician be familiar with the normally evolving physiological changes that are specific for that patient's stage of development. It is particularly important that the reading physician consider such changes when comparing serial studies of the patient that are acquired during the patient's transitions through her or his different significant stages of development. Many pediatric nuclear medicine imaging protocols are modifications or adaptations of the protocols for adult imaging. Physicians reading pediatric studies must routinely incorporate knowledge on age and gender that is relevant to the patient for any given study. The age-defined gender-based subtleties of potential findings in pediatric nuclear medicine studies are often underrecognized. However, they are often of interest and at times important in the workup of both benign entities and pathologic processes of the pediatric patient.

  11. Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Sorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts, Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) vapor concentrations in a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfort, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxide (MetOx) canisters. Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material that requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications. The vacuum swing units control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed experimentally and documented in previous reports. To support developmental e orts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing sorption technology. For the first time in several decades, a major re-design of Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the extra-vehicular mobility unit (EMU) is underway. NASA at Johnson Space Center built and tested an integrated PLSS test bed of all subsystems under a variety of simulated EVA conditions of which the RCA prototype played a significant role. The efforts documented herein summarize RCA test performance and simulation results for single and variable metabolic rate experiments in an integrated context. In addition, a variety of off-nominal tests were performed to assess the capability of the RCA to function under challenging circumstances. Tests included high water production experiments, degraded vacuum regeneration, and deliberate valve/power failure and recovery.

  12. Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts,Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Boerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) concentrations in the vapor phase of a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfortability, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxides (MetOx). Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material and requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications which control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through a fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed and documented from experimental and theoretical perspectives. To support developmental efforts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing adsorption technology. The efforts documented herein summarize performance characterization and simulation results for several variable metabolic profiles subjected to the RCA. Furthermore, a variety of control methods are explored including timed swing cycles, instantaneous CO2 feedback control, and time-averaged CO2 feedback control. A variety of off-nominal tests are also explored including high/low suit temperatures, increasingly high humidity cases, and dynamic pressure cases simulating the suit pre-breathe protocol. Consequently, this work builds on efforts previous efforts to fully bound the performance of the rapid cycle amine under a variety of nominal and off-nominal conditions.

  13. Monitoring carbon dioxide from space: Retrieval algorithm and flux inversion based on GOSAT data and using CarbonTracker-China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongxu; Zhang, Huifang; Liu, Yi; Chen, Baozhang; Cai, Zhaonan; Lü, Daren

    2017-08-01

    Monitoring atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from space-borne state-of-the-art hyperspectral instruments can provide a high precision global dataset to improve carbon flux estimation and reduce the uncertainty of climate projection. Here, we introduce a carbon flux inversion system for estimating carbon flux with satellite measurements under the support of "The Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences—Climate Change: Carbon Budget and Relevant Issues". The carbon flux inversion system is composed of two separate parts: the Institute of Atmospheric Physics Carbon Dioxide Retrieval Algorithm for Satellite Remote Sensing (IAPCAS), and CarbonTracker-China (CT-China), developed at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) measurements are used in the carbon flux inversion experiment. To improve the quality of the IAPCAS-GOSAT retrieval, we have developed a post-screening and bias correction method, resulting in 25%-30% of the data remaining after quality control. Based on these data, the seasonal variation of XCO2 (column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction) is studied, and a strong relation with vegetation cover and population is identified. Then, the IAPCAS-GOSAT XCO2 product is used in carbon flux estimation by CT-China. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange is -0.34 Pg C yr-1 (±0.08 Pg C yr-1), with a large error reduction of 84%, which is a significant improvement on the error reduction when compared with in situ-only inversion.

  14. Multimegawatt nuclear power system for lunar base applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchyshyn, M.; Pressentin, R.; Trueblood, B.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes a conceptual design for a multimegawatt lunar-based nuclear power system developed by students in the Space Systems Design course at the University of Washington. The design requirements are to produce 3 MWe for an operational lifetime of 10 years without human intervention. The system utilizes an inert-gas-cooled fuel-pin reactor as the heat source, a regenerative Brayton cycle as the power converter and a liquid droplet radiator as the thermal management system, and has a specific power of 66 W/kg. The unique requirements of a lunar base on shielding and siting of a nuclear reactor are discussed. The structural elements, though large, have a relatively small total mass and the liquid droplet radiator is highly adaptable to the moon due to the positive effects of lunar gravity on the droplet collection process. 32 references

  15. Biometrics and smart card based applications for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishanth Reddy, J.; Dheeraj Reddy, J.; Narender Reddy, J.

    2004-01-01

    Biometrics has emerged as a convenient, foolproof and well-accepted technology for identification around the globe. Nucleonix has developed innovative solutions based on finger scan biometrics for various industries. This paper closely looks into the application areas for the nuclear industry and how it will benefit this industry, in terms of identification, access control, security of PCs and applications, attendance, machinery usage control and other custom applications. (author)

  16. Nuclear energy cost data base: A reference data base for nuclear and coal-fired powerplant power generation cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    A reference data base and standard methodology are needed for performing comparative nuclear and fossil power generation cost analyses for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. This report contains such a methodology together with reference assumptions and data to be used with the methodology. It is intended to provide basic guidelines or a starting point for analyses and to serve as a focal point in establishing parameters and methods to be used in economic comparisons of nuclear systems with alternatives. The data base is applicable for economic comparisons of new base load light-water reactors on a once-through cycle, and high- and low-sulfur coal-fired plants, and oil- and natural gas-fired electric generating plants coming on line around the turn of the century. In addition to current generation light-water reactors and fossil fuel-fired plants, preliminary cost information is also presented on improved and advanced light-water reactors, liquid metal reactor plants and fuel cycle facilities. This report includes an updated data base containing proposed technical and economic assumptions to be used in analyses, discussions of a recommended methodology to be used in calculating power generation costs, a sample calculation for illustrative and benchmark purposes and projected power generation costs for fission and coal-fired alternatives. Effects of the 1986 Tax Reform Act are included. 126 refs., 17 figs., 47 tabs

  17. Nuclear Energy Cost Data Base: a reference data base for nuclear and coal-fired powerplant power generation cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    A reference data base and standard methodology are needed for performing comparative nuclear and fossil power generation cost analyses for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. This report contains such a methodology together with reference assumptions and data to be used with the methodology. It is intended to provide basic guidelines or a starting point for analyses and to serve as a focal point in establishing parameters and methods to be used in economic comparisons of nuclear systems with alternatives. The data base is applicable for economic comparisons of new base load light-water reactors on either the current once-through cycle or self-generated recycle, high- and low-sulfur coal-fired plants, and oil- and natural gas-fired electric generating plants coming on line in the last decade of this century. In addition to light-water reactors and fossil fuel-fired plants, preliminary cost information is also presented on liquid metal reactor plants. This report includes a data base containing proposed technical and economic assumptions to be used in analyses, discussions of a recommended methodology to be used in calculating power generation costs, and a sample calculation for illustrative and benchmark purposes

  18. Nuclear Energy Cost Data Base: A reference data base for nuclear and coal-fired powerplant power generation cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Bowers, H.I.

    1986-12-01

    A reference data base and standard methodology are needed for performing comparative nuclear and fossil power generation cost analyses for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. This report contains such a methodology together with reference assumptions and data to be used with the methodology. It is intended to provide basic guidelines or a starting point for analyses and to serve as a focal point in establishing parameters and methods to be used in economic comparisons of nuclear systems with alternatives. The data base is applicable for economic comparisons of new base load light-water reactors on either the current once-through cycle or self-generated recycle, high- and low-sulfur coal-fired plants, and oil- and natural gas-fired electric generating plants coming on line around the turn of the century. In additions to light-water reactors and fossil fuel-fired plants, preliminary cost information is also presented on liquid metal reactor plants. This report includes a data base containing proposed technical and economic assumptions to be used in analyses, discussions of recommended methodology to be used in calculating power generation costs, and a sample calculation for illustrative benchmark purposes

  19. Nuclear energy - Uranium dioxide powder and sintered pellets - Determination of oxygen/uranium atomic ratio by the amperometric method. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard specifies an analytical method for the determination of the oxygen/uranium atomic ratio in uranium dioxide powder and sintered pellets. The method is applicable to reactor grade samples of hyper-stoichiometric uranium dioxide powder and pellets. The presence of reducing agents or residual organic additives invalidates the procedure. The test sample is dissolved in orthophosphoric acid, which does not oxidize the uranium(IV) from UO 2 molecules. Thus, the uranium(VI) that is present in the dissolved solution is from UO 3 and/or U 3 O 8 molecules only, and is proportional to the excess oxygen in these molecules. The uranium(VI) content of the solution is determined by titration with a previously standardized solution of ammonium iron(II) sulfate hexahydrate in orthophosphoric acid. The end-point of the titration is determined amperometrically using a pair of polarized platinum electrodes. The oxygen/uranium ratio is calculated from the uranium(VI) content. A portion, weighing about 1 g, of the test sample is dissolved in orthophosphoric acid. The dissolution is performed in an atmosphere of nitrogen or carbon dioxide when sintered material is being analysed. When highly sintered material is being analysed, the dissolution is performed at a higher temperature in purified phosphoric acid from which the water has been partly removed. The cooled solution is titrated with an orthophosphoric acid solution of ammonium iron(II) sulfate, which has previously been standardized against potassium dichromate. The end-point of the titration is detected by the sudden increase of current between a pair of polarized platinum electrodes on the addition of an excess of ammonium iron(II) sulfate solution. The paper provides information about scope, principle, reactions, reagents, apparatus, preparation of test sample, procedure (uranium dioxide powder, sintered pellets of uranium dioxide, highly sintered pellets of uranium dioxide and determination

  20. Nuclear material safeguards and security system analysis based on measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ign Djoko Irianto

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear material safeguards and security are the important aspect in the nuclear facility management due to the nuclear material could be terrorisms object. The two aspect of nuclear material security are nuclear material safeguards system and physical protection system. The most important in safeguards system is how to report the existence of nuclear material and the quantity of nuclear material. To perform the safeguards system the data of nuclear material are needed. The data of quality and quantity of nuclear material could be found by destructive analysis (DA) technique and non destructive analysis (NDA) technique. The DA technique are used to analysis the nuclear material that forming in powder, the NDA technique are used to analysis the nuclear material in spent fuel. In BATAN, the technique of measurement of nuclear material weight is more dominant than the other technique to be used in nuclear material safeguards and security systems. (author)

  1. Bimetallic electrocatalysts on titanium dioxide-based supports for methanol oxidation and oxygen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Roderick Eliel

    Electrocatalysts are essential for the development of active and durable fuel cells and hydrogen production technologies. Generally, electrochemical processes of energy conversion and hydrogen generation in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) utilize precious metals, such as platinum, iridium and ruthenium, as electrocatalysts. For the methanol oxidation and oxygen evolution reaction, a bimetallic structure can be used to enhance kinetics and increase stability. It is desired to support electrocatalysts to disperse nanoparticles on the surface and promote better catalyst utilization. Traditionally, carbon has been used as an electrochemical support because it has a high surface area and high electrical conductivity. The problem with carbon is that it is not a very stable material and can corrode at voltages more than 0.9 V, affecting performance of the electrochemical reaction. Therefore, it would be useful to support electrocatalysts in a stable material with suitable conductivity. Using titanium dioxide as a support can be advantageous due to its corrosion-resistant capability. TiO2 exhibit different crystalline structures, such as anatase and rutile, which can have an effect on catalytic activity. Unfortunately, it is not conductive; hence, it is not used in electrochemical applications. However, it can be doped with niobium to increase electronic conductivity; but, it usually come at the expense of surface area. In this work, TiO 2 and Nb-TiO2 were studied as platinum/ruthenium and iridium/ruthenium nanoparticles supports for the electrochemical oxidation of methanol and oxygen evolution, respectively. Even though the conductivity of our supports was very low, adding a considerable loading of nanoparticles increased conductivity of the composite material (support + catalyst) to acceptable levels. Using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and direct methanol fuel cell tests creating a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), Pt-Ru supported on Nb-TiO2 and TiO 2 showed superior

  2. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willit, James L [Batavia, IL; Ackerman, John P [Prescott, AZ; Williamson, Mark A [Naperville, IL

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  3. Plasticized Starch Based Bionanocomposites Containing Cellulose Nanowhiskers and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles: Study of Structure and Water Vapor Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Jamshidi Kaljahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The starch-based films have some disadvantages such as weak mechanical and poor water barrier properties that restrict their applications in food packaging. In the present research, to improve the properties of the starch films, a constant level of citric acid and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA (10% with different amounts of glycerol (GLY as a lubricating agent, crystal nanowhiskers (CNW and titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles were used together. Finally, the effects of these compounds on permeability properties of the obtained starch-based bionanocomposites were studied and their optimum values were determined by central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM. The results of X-Ray diffraction (XRD test showed that at low levels of TiO2 and CNW there was no diffractogram peak obtained. However, at high levels of TiO2 and CNW there emerged distinct and sharp peak which was attributed to greater crystalline region and probably non-homogeneity in particle distribution. The Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR data showed that addition of CNW and TiO2 increased hydrogen binding between the nanofillers and biopolymer matrix. The effects of TiO2 and CNW concentrations as quadratic and glycerol concentration as linear and quadratic were significant on water vapor permeability (WVP. The optimum levels of TiO2, CNW and GLY for obtaining minimum WVP corresponded to 0.118, 0.3 g and 1.06 mL, respectively.

  4. Nanoscaled tin dioxide films processed from organotin-based hybrid materials: an organometallic route toward metal oxide gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Laetitia; Babot, Odile; Saadaoui, Hassan; Fuess, Hartmut; Brötz, Joachim; Gurlo, Aleksander; Arveux, Emmanuel; Klein, Andreas; Toupance, Thierry

    2012-10-01

    Nanocrystalline tin dioxide (SnO2) ultra-thin films were obtained employing a straightforward solution-based route that involves the calcination of bridged polystannoxane films processed by the sol-gel process from bis(triprop-1-ynylstannyl)alkylene and -arylene precursors. These films have been thoroughly characterized by FTIR, contact angle measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force (AFM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopies. Annealing at a high temperature gave 30-35 nm thick cassiterite SnO2 films with a mean crystallite size ranging from 4 to 7 nm depending on the nature of the organic linker in the distannylated compound used as a precursor. In the presence of H2 and CO gases, these layers led to highly sensitive, reversible and reproducible responses. The sensing properties were discussed in regard to the crystallinity and porosity of the sensing body that can be tuned by the nature of the precursor employed. Organometallic chemistry combined with the sol-gel process therefore offers new possibilities toward metal oxide nanostructures for the reproducible and sensitive detection of combustible and toxic gases.Nanocrystalline tin dioxide (SnO2) ultra-thin films were obtained employing a straightforward solution-based route that involves the calcination of bridged polystannoxane films processed by the sol-gel process from bis(triprop-1-ynylstannyl)alkylene and -arylene precursors. These films have been thoroughly characterized by FTIR, contact angle measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force (AFM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopies. Annealing at a high temperature gave 30-35 nm thick cassiterite SnO2 films with a mean crystallite size ranging from 4 to 7 nm depending on the nature of the organic linker in the distannylated compound used as a precursor. In the presence of H2 and CO gases, these layers led to highly sensitive, reversible and reproducible

  5. An investigation of a carbon dioxide-based fuel cell system as a power generation alternative for Mars exploration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Mejia, Oscar Roberto

    The possibility of using a bifunctional carbon dioxide-based fuel cell system as the core of a propulsion system for a Mars exploration rotorcraft is investigated here. This concept involves the production of electricity by a stack of fuel cells that rely on carbon monoxide as the fuel and oxygen as the oxidizer. These two reactants are harvested from the Martian atmosphere by employing the same stack of cells as an electrolyzing unit. The general objectives of this research are to: prove the feasibility of the concept, produce a comprehensive model that allows the prediction of performance, and offer recommendations for the successful implementation of the concept. In this work, it is pointed out and demonstrated that, at least in theory, the overall electrochemical reaction required by this concept can be achieved by transporting hydrogen protons, hydroxyl radicals, carbonate radicals, or oxygen ions between the electrodes. Complete sets of reactions are prescribed for different types of fuel cells. Anodic and cathodic reactions are presented for acid, alkaline, carbonate, and solid oxide electrolytes. Subsequently, a more detailed consideration of all relevant phenomena is done by coupling elements of chemical kinetics, electrodics, electrochemistry, and thermodynamics with experimental data, to complete the demonstration of the feasibility of the carbon dioxide-based bifunctional fuel cell system. The understanding and inclusion of key processes and mechanisms allows the construction of a model that predicts the performance of the power generation subsystem advocated here. The model adopted in this work couples mechanistics with elements derived from the application of linear regression modeling techniques. Mechanistics are used to determine: thermodynamic equilibrium potential, overvoltages due to activation, ohmic resistance, and mass transport. This approach is empirical in part because the numerical parametric expressions suggested here have to be precised

  6. AI-based alarm processing for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, N.J.; Kim, I.S.; Hwang, I.K.; Lee, D.Y.; Ham, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    A real-time expert system is implemented using artificial intelligence and object-oriented technology for alarm processing and presentation in a nuclear power plant. The knowledge base is constructed based on some schemes to process and display alarms to the plant operators. The activated alarms are dynamically prioritized by the reasoning rules, and then, presented on the process mimic overview and by some other means. To demonstrate the proposed system, the alarm processing and presentation is carried out in a simulated environment of the TMI-2 accident

  7. Sensitivity-Uncertainty Based Nuclear Criticality Safety Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2016-09-20

    These are slides from a seminar given to the University of Mexico Nuclear Engineering Department. Whisper is a statistical analysis package developed to support nuclear criticality safety validation. It uses the sensitivity profile data for an application as computed by MCNP6 along with covariance files for the nuclear data to determine a baseline upper-subcritical-limit for the application. Whisper and its associated benchmark files are developed and maintained as part of MCNP6, and will be distributed with all future releases of MCNP6. Although sensitivity-uncertainty methods for NCS validation have been under development for 20 years, continuous-energy Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP could not determine the required adjoint-weighted tallies for sensitivity profiles. The recent introduction of the iterated fission probability method into MCNP led to the rapid development of sensitivity analysis capabilities for MCNP6 and the development of Whisper. Sensitivity-uncertainty based methods represent the future for NCS validation – making full use of today’s computer power to codify past approaches based largely on expert judgment. Validation results are defensible, auditable, and repeatable as needed with different assumptions and process models. The new methods can supplement, support, and extend traditional validation approaches.

  8. Computer based aids for operator support in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    In the framework of the Agency's programme on nuclear safety a survey was carried out based on a questionnaire to collect information on computer based aids for operator support in nuclear power plants in Member States. The intention was to put together a state-of-the-art report where different systems under development or already implemented would be described. This activity was also supported by an INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) recommendation. Two consultant's meetings were convened and their work is reflected in the two sections of the technical document. The first section, produced during the first meeting, is devoted to provide some general background material on the overall usability of Computerized Operator Decision Aids (CODAs), their advantages and shortcomings. During this first meeting, the first draft of the questionnaire was also produced. The second section presents the evaluation of the 40 questionnaires received from 11 Member States and comprises a short description of each system and some statistical and comparative observations. The ultimate goal of this activity was to inform Member States, particularly those who are considering implementation of a CODA, on the status of related developments elsewhere. 8 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Nuclear Power Plant Operator Reliability Research Based on Fuzzy Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes use of the concept and theory of fuzzy number in fuzzy mathematics, to research for the response time of operator in accident of Chinese nuclear power plant. Through the quantitative analysis for the performance shape factors (PSFs which influence the response time of operators, the formula of the operator response time is obtained based on the possibilistic fuzzy linear regression model which is used for the first time in this kind of research. The research result shows that the correct research method can be achieved through the analysis of the information from a small sample. This method breaks through the traditional research method and can be used not only for the reference to the safe operation of nuclear power plant, but also in other areas.

  10. Design of nuclear pulse shaped circuit based on proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qianqian; Cheng Yi; Tuo Xianguo

    2011-01-01

    Use the self-developed proportional to sample gas tritium in environment and make the measurement. For this detector, a kind of pulse shape circuit based on second order active low pass filtering circuit realized filtering and shaping nuclear pulse by high-speed operational amplifier, with less stages that has been approved for filter Gaussian wave. Use Multisim 10.0 to simulate the different parameters of the filter circuit. The simulation result was consistent with the theoretical results. The experiments proved the feasibility of this circuit, and at the same time provided a convenient and reliable method for analysis and optimization of the nuclear pulse waveform in order for discriminating by MCA. (authors)

  11. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear Waste Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Cau-di-Coumes, Céline; Frizon, Fabien; Lorente, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    As the re-emergence of nuclear power as an acceptable energy source on an international basis continues, the need for safe and reliable ways to dispose of radioactive waste becomes ever more critical. The ultimate goal for designing a predisposal waste-management system depends on producing waste containers suitable for storage, transportation and permanent disposal. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear-Waste Storage provides a roadmap for the use of cementation as an applied technique for the treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes.Coverage includes, but is not limited to, a comparison of cementation with other solidification techniques, advantages of calcium-silicate cements over other materials and a discussion of the long-term suitability and safety of waste packages as well as cement barriers. This book also: Discusses the formulation and production of cement waste forms for storing radioactive material Assesses the potential of emerging binders to improve the conditioning of problemati...

  12. Establishment of mobile based nuclear safety inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Hyeon; Lee, Yoon; Choi, Keun Ho; Lee, Kwang Pyo; Cha, Gi Hyeon; Gook, Cheol Woong; Park, Tae Joo; Kang, Roc Hyeong; Kim, Ji Young; Yoo, Mi Jung

    2005-03-01

    We have developed the mobile-based atomic energy status real time monitoring system and mobile-based atomic energy accident and trouble retrieval system through this study. The mobile-based atomic energy status real time monitoring system is the system enabling its users to monitor nineteen (19) Nuclear Power Plants under operation in the real time based on the PDA(Personal Digital Assistance) via a wireless communication. We have developed the mobile information providing server program and PDA client program for the purpose of providing the atomic energy status information service on the PDA by linking the real time atomic energy status information collected by the computerized technical advisory system for the radiological emergency installed and operated by the KINS. The mobile based atomic energy accident and trouble retrieval system has been developed under the intention of enabling the site inspector to effectively use the past information upon performing the test works at the sites through the local retrieval of past accidents and troubles occurred in the Nuclear Power Plants at the mobile client(PDA). In this regard, we have developed the client program to retrieve the atomic energy accident and trouble status by installing the accident and trouble information database. We also include the function supporting the rapid site report through the employees' information retrieval, site status image file transmission, e-mail and SMS(Short Message Service)

  13. Establishment of mobile based nuclear safety inspection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Hyeon; Lee, Yoon; Choi, Keun Ho; Lee, Kwang Pyo; Cha, Gi Hyeon; Gook, Cheol Woong; Park, Tae Joo; Kang, Roc Hyeong; Kim, Ji Young; Yoo, Mi Jung [Korea geoSpatial Information and Communication Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    We have developed the mobile-based atomic energy status real time monitoring system and mobile-based atomic energy accident and trouble retrieval system through this study. The mobile-based atomic energy status real time monitoring system is the system enabling its users to monitor nineteen (19) Nuclear Power Plants under operation in the real time based on the PDA(Personal Digital Assistance) via a wireless communication. We have developed the mobile information providing server program and PDA client program for the purpose of providing the atomic energy status information service on the PDA by linking the real time atomic energy status information collected by the computerized technical advisory system for the radiological emergency installed and operated by the KINS. The mobile based atomic energy accident and trouble retrieval system has been developed under the intention of enabling the site inspector to effectively use the past information upon performing the test works at the sites through the local retrieval of past accidents and troubles occurred in the Nuclear Power Plants at the mobile client(PDA). In this regard, we have developed the client program to retrieve the atomic energy accident and trouble status by installing the accident and trouble information database. We also include the function supporting the rapid site report through the employees' information retrieval, site status image file transmission, e-mail and SMS(Short Message Service)

  14. Thorium-based nuclear fuel: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    Until the present time considerable efforts have already been made in the area of fabrication, utilization and reprocessing of Th-based fuels for different types of reactors, namely: by FRG and USA - for HTRs; FRG and Brazil, Italy - for LWRs; India - for HWRs and FBRs. Basic research of thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycles are also being undertaken by Australia, Canada, China, France, FRG, Romania, USSR and other countries. Main emphasis has been given to the utilization of thorium fuels in once-through nuclear fuel cycles, but in some projects closed thorium-uranium or thorium-plutonium fuel cycles are also considered. The purpose of the Technical Committee on the Utilization of Thorium-Based Nuclear Fuel: Current Status and Perspective was to review the world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration, obtained experience in the utilization of Th-based fuels in different types of reactors, basic research, fabrication and reprocessing of Th-based fuels. As a result of the panel discussion the recommendations on future Agency activities and list of major worldwide activities in the area of Th-based fuel were developed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers in this proceedings series

  15. Study on the computer-aided design of high energetic compounds based on the 1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Peng; Yu, Tao; Liu, Ying-Zhe; Ma, Yi-Ding; Lian, Peng; Ge, Zhong-Xue; Lv, Jian

    2017-11-09

    In order to discover more potential high energy compounds, five computer-aided design methods were founded, and 20 high energetic compounds based on the 1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide frame were designed. The first step of computer-aided design methods was to design new frame M. Three combination rules were invented, they were simple double-points rule, complicated double-points rule, and complicated multi-points rule. The second step of computer-aided design methods was to design 1,2,3,4-tetrazine 1,3-dioxides derivants by connecting M to 1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxides. Two combination rules were invented, they were simple single-points rule and double-points rule. All the structures are ring-fused or caged compounds including 1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide. In these compounds, almost half of them have positive or zero oxygen balances, and the nitrogen contents of 17 compounds are over 40%. The densities and detonation velocities of all compounds are over 1.98 g cm -3 and 9500 m s -1 respectively. -N = N- group and -NO 2 group have a major contribution to enthalpy of formation, detonation heat, and power index. -O- group and -ONO 2 group have the main contribution to density, detonation velocity, and detonation pressure.

  16. Regional cooperation based on multilateral international agreements in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Multilateral international agreements have defined the framework of behavior and cooperation in various fields and aspects of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Thus, obligations have been defined in the following areas: nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, physical protection of nuclear material, liability for nuclear damage, nuclear safety, early notification about a nuclear accident and assistance in case of nuclear accident. Obligations regarding radioactive waste management should be defined soon. This paper gives a review of obligations from particular agreements with a special emphasis on those which are being realized through mutual cooperation of concerned countries and are important for safe use of nuclear energy. (author)

  17. A Nuclear Safety System based on Industrial Computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyeon; Oh, Do Young; Lee, Nam Hoon; Kim, Chang Ho; Kim, Jae Hack

    2011-01-01

    The Plant Protection System(PPS), a nuclear safety Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs), generates reactor trip on abnormal reactor condition. The Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) is a safety system that generates and transmits the channel trip signal to the PPS on an abnormal condition. Currently, these systems are designed on the Programmable Logic Controller(PLC) based system and it is necessary to consider a new system platform to adapt simpler system configuration and improved software development process. The CPCS was the first implementation using a micro computer in a nuclear power plant safety protection system in 1980 which have been deployed in Ulchin units 3,4,5,6 and Younggwang units 3,4,5,6. The CPCS software was developed in the Concurrent Micro5 minicomputer using assembly language and embedded into the Concurrent 3205 computer. Following the micro computer based CPCS, PLC based Common-Q platform has been used for the ShinKori/ShinWolsong units 1,2 PPS and CPCS, and the POSAFE-Q PLC platform is used for the ShinUlchin units 1,2 PPS and CPCS. In developing the next generation safety system platform, several factors (e.g., hardware/software reliability, flexibility, licensibility and industrial support) can be considered. This paper suggests an Industrial Computer(IC) based protection system that can be developed with improved flexibility without losing system reliability. The IC based system has the advantage of a simple system configuration with optimized processor boards because of improved processor performance and unlimited interoperability between the target system and development system that use commercial CASE tools. This paper presents the background to selecting the IC based system with a case study design of the CPCS. Eventually, this kind of platform can be used for nuclear power plant safety systems like the PPS, CPCS, Qualified Indication and Alarm . Pami(QIAS-P), and Engineering Safety

  18. Titanium-based zeolitic imidazolate framework for chemical fixation of carbon dioxide

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A titanium-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (Ti-ZIF) with high surface area and porous morphology has been synthesized and its application as a recyclable...

  19. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon...

  20. Molecular–Genetic Imaging: A Nuclear Medicine–Based Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G. Blasberg

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is a relatively new discipline, which developed over the past decade, initially driven by in situ reporter imaging technology. Noninvasive in vivo molecular–genetic imaging developed more recently and is based on nuclear (positron emission tomography [PET], gamma camera, autoradiography imaging as well as magnetic resonance (MR and in vivo optical imaging. Molecular–genetic imaging has its roots in both molecular biology and cell biology, as well as in new imaging technologies. The focus of this presentation will be nuclear-based molecular–genetic imaging, but it will comment on the value and utility of combining different imaging modalities. Nuclear-based molecular imaging can be viewed in terms of three different imaging strategies: (1 “indirect” reporter gene imaging; (2 “direct” imaging of endogenous molecules; or (3 “surrogate” or “bio-marker” imaging. Examples of each imaging strategy will be presented and discussed. The rapid growth of in vivo molecular imaging is due to the established base of in vivo imaging technologies, the established programs in molecular and cell biology, and the convergence of these disciplines. The development of versatile and sensitive assays that do not require tissue samples will be of considerable value for monitoring molecular–genetic and cellular processes in animal models of human disease, as well as for studies in human subjects in the future. Noninvasive imaging of molecular–genetic and cellular processes will complement established ex vivo molecular–biological assays that require tissue sampling, and will provide a spatial as well as a temporal dimension to our understanding of various diseases and disease processes.

  1. The control of base nuclear installations; Le controle des installations nucleaires de base (INB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-04-15

    The Authority of Nuclear Safety ( A.S.N). presents in this column the current events of the control of the nuclear base installations during november, december 2008 and january 2009, classified by nuclear site. This information is also available in real-time on the A.S.N. web site, www.asn.fr, in the column 'news'. We can consult all the notices of significant incident published as well as the following letters of inspection, the notices of information about the reactors shutdown, press releases and the A.S.N. information notes. (N.C.)

  2. Acid-Labile Surfactants Based on Poly(ethylene glycol, Carbon Dioxide and Propylene Oxide: Miniemulsion Polymerization and Degradation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Scharfenberg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Partially degradable, nonionic AB and ABA type di- and triblock copolymers based on poly(propylene carbonate and poly(ethylene glycol blocks were synthesized via immortal copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide, using mPEG or PEG as a macroinitiator, and (R,R-(salcy-CoOBzF5 as a catalyst in a solvent-free one-pot procedure. The amphiphilic surfactants were prepared with molecular weights (Mn between 2800 and 10,000 g·mol−1 with narrow molecular weight distributions (1.03–1.09. The copolymers were characterized using 1H-, 13C- and DOSY-NMR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC. Surface-active properties were determined by surface tension measurements (critical micelle concentration, CMC; CMC range: 1–14 mg·mL−1. Degradation of the acid-labile polycarbonate blocks was investigated in aqueous solution using online 1H-NMR spectroscopy and SEC. The amphiphilic polymers were used as surfactants in a direct miniemulsion polymerization for poly(styrene (PS nanoparticles with mean diameter of 270 to 940 nm. The usage of an acid-triggered precipitation of the emulsion simplified the separation of the particles from the surfactant and purification of the nanoparticles.

  3. First measurements of a carbon dioxide plume from an industrial source using a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R A; Gardiner, T D; Innocenti, F; Finlayson, A; Woods, P T; Few, J F M

    2014-08-01

    The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources is one of the main anthropogenic contributors to the greenhouse effect. Direct remote sensing of CO2 emissions using optical methods offers the potential for the identification and quantification of CO2 emissions. We report the development and demonstration of a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) able to measure the mass emission rate of CO2 in the plume from a power station. To our knowledge DIAL has not previously been successfully applied to the measurement of emission plumes of CO2 from industrial sources. A significant challenge in observing industrial CO2 emission plumes is the ability to discriminate and observe localised concentrations of CO2 above the locally observed background level. The objectives of the study were to modify our existing mobile infrared DIAL system to enable CO2 measurements and to demonstrate the system at a power plant to assess the feasibility of the technique for the identification and quantification of CO2 emissions. The results of this preliminary study showed very good agreement with the expected emissions calculated by the site. The detection limit obtained from the measurements, however, requires further improvement to provide quantification of smaller emitters of CO2, for example for the detection of fugitive emissions. This study has shown that in principle, remote optical sensing technology will have the potential to provide useful direct data on CO2 mass emission rates.

  4. Cell-based cytotoxicity assays for engineered nanomaterials safety screening: exposure of adipose derived stromal cells to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Hadjiargyrou, M; Rafailovich, Miriam; Mironava, Tatsiana

    2017-07-11

    Increasing production of nanomaterials requires fast and proper assessment of its potential toxicity. Therefore, there is a need to develop new assays that can be performed in vitro, be cost effective, and allow faster screening of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Herein, we report that titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) can induce damage to adipose derived stromal cells (ADSCs) at concentrations which are rated as safe by standard assays such as measuring proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Specifically, we demonstrated that low concentrations of TiO 2 NPs, at which cellular LDH, ROS, or proliferation profiles were not affected, induced changes in the ADSCs secretory function and differentiation capability. These two functions are essential for ADSCs in wound healing, energy expenditure, and metabolism with serious health implications in vivo. We demonstrated that cytotoxicity assays based on specialized cell functions exhibit greater sensitivity and reveal damage induced by ENMs that was not otherwise detected by traditional ROS, LDH, and proliferation assays. For proper toxicological assessment of ENMs standard ROS, LDH, and proliferation assays should be combined with assays that investigate cellular functions relevant to the specific cell type.

  5. Use of anionic surfactants for selective polishing of silicon dioxide over silicon nitride films using colloidal silica-based slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penta, Naresh K.; Amanapu, H. P.; Peethala, B. C.; Babu, S. V.

    2013-10-01

    Four different anionic surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate, dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA), dodecyl phosphate and Sodium lauroyl sarcosine, selected from the sulfate, phosphate, and carboxylic family, were investigated as additives in silica dispersions for selective polishing of silicon dioxide over silicon nitride films. We found that all these anionic surfactants suppress the nitride removal rates (RR) for pH ≤4 while more or less maintaining the oxide RRs, resulting in high oxide-to-nitride RR selectivity. The RR data obtained as a function of pH were explained based on pH dependent distributions of surfactant species, change in the zeta potentials of oxide and nitride surfaces, and thermogravimetric data. It appears that the negatively charged surfactant species preferentially adsorb on the positively charged nitride surface below IEP through its electrostatic interactions and form a bilayer adsorption, resulting in the suppression of nitride RRs. In contrast to the surfactants, K2SO4 interacts only weakly with the nitride surface and hence cannot suppress its RR.

  6. For a rational energy transition based on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmin, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    After having recalled the meaning of the concept of energy transition, and stated that this concept is a fuzzy one, this paper addresses the issue of the future of energy through the concept of Energy returned on Energy invested (EROI). It discusses this approach by outlining that energy is the initial driver of economy, and by showing that only hydroelectricity, coal, nuclear and wind energy have a sufficient return rate, and that shale gas is an energy source for the short and medium term. Then, based on data related to world energy resources and consumption, to electric power production from various sources, to pollution health impacts, to electricity prices for industries and for households, it discusses the sustainability of the energy mix regarding energy reserves, health issues, and economic issues. Some examples (Spain, Germany) illustrate economic problems faced by some renewable energies. Finally, the authors outline that, thanks to its nuclear policy, France is the western country which is the most committed in energy transition. Some proposals are made to support nuclear energy, to reduce the use of fossil energies, to launch an ambitious research policy (on energy storage, on photovoltaic energy, on CO 2 hydrogenation, on hydrogen as a fuel), in favour of energy mixes decided at national levels in Europe

  7. Knowledge based systems for nuclear applications in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    1987-01-01

    Several national and international research programs which are dealing with artificial intelligence and other innovative computer applications are in progress in Germany. However in contrast to the development of computer applications in the past, the new research programs are not very much determined from needs of the nuclear industry. Thus, applications of AI techniques in German nuclear industry are not very innovative in the sense of artificial intelligence. They may be divided into two categories: 1. projects which are aimed to explore the new technologies, 2. projects which are aimed to open new areas of work. This situation changes due to the fact that supercomputers with large memory, workstations with cheap disc devices and fast networks are becoming available. These hardware devices allow the connection of locally available knowledge and data bases with powerful central computer capacity. Using such hardware tools new applications can be developed in nuclear engineering using even existing software tools. These new applications may be characterized as integrated systems. The Integral Planning Simulation System IPSS which is under development at the University of Stuttgart is such a system

  8. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  9. Detection of nitrogen dioxide using mixed tungsten oxide-based thick film semiconductor sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, P-G; Ren-Jang, Wu; Fang-Pei, Nieh

    2003-03-10

    The thick film semiconductor sensor for NO(2) gas detection was fabricated by screen-printing method using a mixed WO(3)-based as sensing material. The sensing characteristics, such as response time, response linearity, sensitivity, working range, cross sensitivity, and long-term stability were further studied by using a WO(3)-based mixed with different metal oxides (SnO(2), TiO(2) and In(2)O(3)) and doped with noble metals (Au, Pd and Pt) as sensing materials was observed. The highest sensitivity for low concentrations (SnO(2)-Au as sensing material.

  10. FIREDATA, Nuclear Power Plant Fire Event Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelis, W.T.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FIREDATA contains raw fire event data from 1965 through June 1985. These data were obtained from a number of reference sources including the American Nuclear Insurers, Licensee Event Reports, Nuclear Power Experience, Electric Power Research Institute Fire Loss Data and then collated into one database developed in the personal computer database management system, dBASE III. FIREDATA is menu-driven and asks interactive questions of the user that allow searching of the database for various aspects of a fire such as: location, mode of plant operation at the time of the fire, means of detection and suppression, dollar loss, etc. Other features include the capability of searching for single or multiple criteria (using Boolean 'and' or 'or' logical operations), user-defined keyword searches of fire event descriptions, summary displays of fire event data by plant name of calendar date, and options for calculating the years of operating experience for all commercial nuclear power plants from any user-specified date and the ability to display general plant information. 2 - Method of solution: The six database files used to store nuclear power plant fire event information, FIRE, DESC, SUM, OPEXPER, OPEXBWR, and EXPERPWR, are accessed by software to display information meeting user-specified criteria or to perform numerical calculations (e.g., to determine the operating experience of a nuclear plant). FIRE contains specific searchable data relating to each of 354 fire events. A keyword concept is used to search each of the 31 separate entries or fields. DESC contains written descriptions of each of the fire events. SUM holds basic plant information for all plants proposed, under construction, in operation, or decommissioned. This includes the initial criticality and commercial operation dates, the physical location of the plant, and its operating capacity. OPEXPER contains date information and data on how various plant locations are

  11. Prototype system for the digital technique based nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhale, Devendra; Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    A system consisting of FPGA based digital processing hardware and fast sampling by ADC is reported here. At the heart of the system is a Spartan 2 FPGA. The data is converted in digital domain by 4 MSPS ADC. It is interfaced to computer via CAMAC general purpose IO module. Trigger is accepted from external system for event marking. Input exponential pulse is processed by a CR-RC digital filter implemented in FPGA. Trigger dependant peak detection for radiation energy measurement is done on filtered data. Histogram is generated in the PC by using nuclear DAQ software developed in house. (author)

  12. Modified hyperbolic sine model for titanium dioxide-based memristive thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Raudah; Syahirah Kamarozaman, Nur; Fazlida Hanim Abdullah, Wan; Herman, Sukreen Hana

    2018-03-01

    Since the emergence of memristor as the newest fundamental circuit elements, studies on memristor modeling have been evolved. To date, the developed models were based on the linear model, linear ionic drift model using different window functions, tunnelling barrier model and hyperbolic-sine function based model. Although using hyperbolic-sine function model could predict the memristor electrical properties, the model was not well fitted to the experimental data. In order to improve the performance of the hyperbolic-sine function model, the state variable equation was modified. On the one hand, the addition of window function cannot provide an improved fitting. By multiplying the Yakopcic’s state variable model to Chang’s model on the other hand resulted in the closer agreement with the TiO2 thin film experimental data. The percentage error was approximately 2.15%.

  13. Synthesis of Thiophene, Selenophene and Thiophene- S-Dioxide Based Organic Semiconductors for Organic Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambhati, Devang P.

    Solid materials having electrical conductivity greater than insulators but less than metals are semiconductors. Carbon-based materials that exhibit semiconductor properties are known as organic semiconductors (OSCs). These materials hold promise for flexible, lightweight, inexpensive and easy to fabricate devices. Due to these advantages, OSCs have gained tremendous interest in recent decades for their use in solar cells, thin film transistors and light emitting diodes. OSCs can be broadly classified in two categories: conjugated polymers (CPs) and small molecules. (1) CPs: Organic macromolecules which have a backbone chain of alternating double/triple- and single-Bonds are known as CP. Application and device fabrication is dictated by the Energy gap between highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). Therefore it is a vital parameter for CPs. Here, the synthesis a narrow bandgap conjugated polymer- Poly(3- alkoxy selenophene), inspired from poly(3-alkoxythiophene), will be discussed. Li ion batteries may catch fire due to the conventionally used cathode material, LiCoOn. We have formed a mixture, comprised of poly(3-alkoxy thiophene) and Li salt, as an alternative material for the cathode in Li ion batteries. (2) Small molecules: Small molecules were synthesized based on the electron deficient moiety of Benzodithiophene-S,S-tetraoxide (BDTT) via Cu catalyzed C-H activated direct arylation. Reaction conditions were optimized for various parameters like catalysts, ligands and base. Also, the optoelectronic properties of these molecules were studied.

  14. Dye sensitized solar cells based on nanowire sculptured thin film titanium dioxide photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursel, Sean M.

    Energy harvested from the sun using photovoltaics (PVs) is a renewable resource in high demand. Photovoltaics convert photons into electron-hole pairs which are then separated and used for electrical power. 75 TW of energy arrives from the sun every year onto US soil. Harvesting it all would provide enough energy to power the entire world for more than five years. It is this abundance of energy that makes PVs an attractive alternative to fossil fuels. PVs currently produce 0.15% of the energy consumed in the US. Production needs to grow as the worldwide demand for energy is projected to almost double by 2050. Fundamental and device based PV research have made steady efficiency gains in silicon based devices and thin film devices have started to become commercially viable. However, less expensive devices with suitable efficiency have not been fully developed. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are one such device which has been optimized using standard components. However, device efficiency has not increased significantly since DSSCs were first conceived in 1991. Interestingly, none of the standard components are optimized, but act in a synergistic way in the most efficient devices. This research, along with other parallel research, attempts to optimize a single component of DSSCs with the goal of combining efforts to produce a device with increased efficiency. This research attempts to optimize the TiO2 photoanode used in DSSCs in terms of electron collection, dye coverage, light harvesting, and novel electrolyte infiltration by replacing the standard colloidal structure with nanowires deposited using physical vapor deposition at an oblique angle to form sculptured thin films. The results are quantified through standard photovoltaic testing, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, and general materials characterization techniques. The nanowire photoanodes are engineered during deposition using reactive evaporation, substrate heating

  15. Detection of pollution transport events southeast of Mexico City using ground-based visible spectroscopy measurements of nitrogen dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grutter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents ground based differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the Tenango del Aire research site located to the southeast of Mexico City. The DOAS NO2 column density measurements are used in conjunction with ceilometer, meteorological and surface nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen oxides (NOx and total reactive nitrogen (NOy measurements to analyze pollution transport events to the southeast of Mexico City during the MILARGO field campaign. The study divides the data set into three case study pollution transport events that occurred at the Tenango del Aire research site. The unique data set is then used to provide an in depth analysis of example days of each of the pollution transport events. An in depth analysis of 13 March 2006, a Case One day, shows the transport of several air pollution plumes during the morning through the Tenango del Aire research site when southerly winds are present and demonstrates how DOAS tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCD, surface NO2 mixing ratios and ceilometer data are used to determine the vertical homogeneity of the pollution layer. The analysis of 18 March 2006, a Case Two day, shows that when northerly winds are present for the entire day, the air at the Tenango del Aire research site is relatively clean and no major pollution plumes are detected. Case 3 days are characterized by relatively clean air throughout the morning with large DOAS NO2 enhancements detected in the afternoon. The analysis of 28 March 2006 show the DOAS NO2 enhancements are likely due to lightning activity and demonstrate how suitable ground-based DOAS measruements are for monitoring anthropogenic and natural pollution sources that reside above the mixing layer.

  16. Mid-infrared absorption-spectroscopy-based carbon dioxide sensor network in greenhouse agriculture: development and deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianing; Zheng, Lingjiao; Niu, Xintao; Zheng, Chuantao; Wang, Yiding; Tittel, Frank K

    2016-09-01

    A mid-infrared carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor was experimentally demonstrated for application in a greenhouse farm environment. An optical module was developed using a lamp source, a dual-channel pyre-electrical detector, and a spherical mirror. A multi-pass gas chamber and a dual-channel detection method were adopted to effectively enhance light collection efficiency and suppress environmental influences. The moisture-proof function realized by a breathable waterproof chamber was specially designed for the application of such a sensor in a greenhouse with high humidity. Sensor structure of the optical part and electrical part were described, respectively, and related experiments were carried out to evaluate the sensor performance on CO2 concentration. The limit of detection of the sensor is 30 ppm with an absorption length of 30 cm. The relative detection error is less than 5% within the measurement range of 30-5000 ppm. The fluctuations for the long-term (10 h) stability measurements on a 500 ppm CO2 sample and a 2000 ppm CO2 sample are 1.08% and 3.6%, respectively, indicating a good stability of the sensor. A wireless sensor network-based automatic monitoring system was implemented for greenhouse application using multiple mid-infrared CO2 sensor nodes. A monitor software based on LabVIEW was realized via a laptop for real-time environmental data display, storage, and website sharing capabilities. A field experiment of the sensor network was carried out in the town of Shelin in Jilin Province, China, which proved that the whole monitoring system possesses stable sensing performance for practical application under the circumstances of a greenhouse.

  17. Cyclotron based nuclear science. Progress report, April 1, 1985-March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, D.H.

    1986-08-01

    Progress report for cyclotron based nuclear science cyclotron facility are summarized. Research is described under the headings heavy ion reactions, nuclear theory, atomic studies and activation analysis, superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation. Publications are listed

  18. Photonuclear-based Detection of Nuclear Smuggling in Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. L.; Haskell, K. J.; Hoggan, J. M.; Norman, D. R.; Yoon, W. Y.

    2003-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have performed experiments in La Honda, California and at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho to assess and develop a photonuclear-based detection system for shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. The detection system, measuring photonuclear-related neutron emissions, is planned for integration with the ARACOR Eagle Cargo Container Inspection System (Sunnyvale, CA). The Eagle Inspection system uses a nominal 6-MeV electron accelerator and operates with safe radiation exposure limits to both container stowaways and to its operators. The INEEL has fabricated custom-built, helium-3-based, neutron detectors for this inspection application and is performing an experimental application assessment. Because the Eagle Inspection system could not be moved to LANL where special nuclear material was available, the response of the Eagle had to be determined indirectly so as to support the development and testing of the detection system. Experiments in California have successfully matched the delayed neutron emission performance of the ARACOR Eagle with that of the transportable INEEL electron accelerator (i.e., the Varitron) and are reported here. A demonstration test is planned at LANL using the Varitron and shielded special nuclear materials within a cargo container. Detector results are providing very useful information regarding the challenges of delayed neutron counting near the photofission threshold energy of 5.5 - 6.0 MeV, are identifying the possible utilization of prompt neutron emissions to allow enhanced signal-to-noise measurements, and are showing the overall benefits of using higher electron beam energies.

  19. Conceptual Design of On-line Based Licensing Review and Assesment System of Nuclear Installations and Nuclear Materials ('PRIBEN')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melani, Ai; Chang, Soon Heung

    2008-01-01

    At the present Indonesia has no nuclear power plant in operation yet, although it is expected that the first nuclear power plant will be operated and commercially available in around the year of 2016 to 2017 in Muria Peninsula. There are only three research reactors, one nuclear fuel fabrication plant for research reactors, and one experimental fuel fabrication plant for nuclear power, one isotope production facility and some other research facilities. All the facility is under Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) controlling through regulation, licensing and inspection. The organizations operation submits licensing application to BAPETEN before utilizing the facility. According to the regulation before BAPETEN give license they perform review and assessment for the utility application. Based on the review and assessment result, BAPETEN may stipulate, reject, delay or terminate the license. In anticipation of expansion of the nuclear program in Indonesia, BAPETEN should have an integrated and updated system for review and asses the licensing application. For this reason, an expert system for the review and asses the licensing application, so-called PRIBEN (Perizinan Reaktor, Instalasi dan Bahan Nuklir/Licensing of Reactor, Nuclear Installations and Nuclear Materials), is developed which runs on the online-based reality environment

  20. Computerized based training in nuclear safety in the nuclear research center Negev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shachar, B.; Krubain, H.; Sberlo, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources and Training in the Nuclear Research Center, Negev, in collaboration with the Department of Radiation Protection and Safety used to organize different kinds of training and refresher courses for different aspects of safety in nuclear centers (radiation safety, biological effects of ionizing radiation, industrial safety, fire fighting, emergency procedures, etc.). All radiation workers received a training program of several days in all these subjects, each year. The administrative employees received a shorter training, each second year. The training included only frontal lectures and no quiz or exams were done. No feedback of the employees was received after the training, as well. Recently, a new training program was developed by the NRC-Negev and the CET (Center for Educational Technology), in order to perform the refresher courses. The training includes CBT-s (Computer Based Training), e.g. tutorials and quiz. The tutorial is an interactive course in one subject, including animations, video films and photo stills. The employee gets a simple and clear explanation (including pictures). After each tutorial there is a quiz which includes 7 American style questions. In the following lecture different parts from two of the tutorials used for the refresher courses, will be presented

  1. Pretreatment of guayule biomass using supercritical carbon dioxide-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Narayanan; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2010-12-01

    Guayule, a desert shrub harvested for commercial production of hypoallergenic latex and resins constitutes glucose and 86% for total reducing sugars through both pretreatment and hydrolysis, as compared to 50% for glucose and 52% for total sugars with the dilute-acid pretreatment and 36% for glucose and 52% for total sugars with the delignification pretreatment). The enzymatic hydrolyzates were tested on the cellulase-producing fungus Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30. No inhibitory/toxic effects were apparent in terms of cell growth, sugar consumption, and cellulase and xylanase production. The supercritical CO(2)-based method was found to be very promising for pretreatment of waste biomass as the feedstock for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation to produce value-added bioproducts. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface structured platinum electrodes for the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide in imidazolium based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc-Scherer, Florin A; Montiel, Miguel A; Montiel, Vicente; Herrero, Enrique; Sánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M

    2015-10-07

    The direct CO2 electrochemical reduction on model platinum single crystal electrodes Pt(hkl) is studied in [C2mim(+)][NTf2(-)], a suitable room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) medium due to its moderate viscosity, high CO2 solubility and conductivity. Single crystal electrodes represent the most convenient type of surface structured electrodes for studying the impact of RTIL ion adsorption on relevant electrocatalytic reactions, such as surface sensitive electrochemical CO2 reduction. We propose here based on cyclic voltammetry and in situ electrolysis measurements, for the first time, the formation of a stable adduct [C2mimH-CO2(-)] by a radical-radical coupling after the simultaneous reduction of CO2 and [C2mim(+)]. It means between the CO2 radical anion and the radical formed from the reduction of the cation [C2mim(+)] before forming the corresponding electrogenerated carbene. This is confirmed by the voltammetric study of a model imidazolium-2-carboxylate compound formed following the carbene pathway. The formation of that stable adduct [C2mimH-CO2(-)] blocks CO2 reduction after a single electron transfer and inhibits CO2 and imidazolium dimerization reactions. However, the electrochemical reduction of CO2 under those conditions provokes the electrochemical cathodic degradation of the imidazolium based RTIL. This important limitation in CO2 recycling by direct electrochemical reduction is overcome by adding a strong acid, [H(+)][NTf2(-)], into solution. Then, protons become preferentially adsorbed on the electrode surface by displacing the imidazolium cations and inhibiting their electrochemical reduction. This fact allows the surface sensitive electro-synthesis of HCOOH from CO2 reduction in [C2mim(+)][NTf2(-)], with Pt(110) being the most active electrode studied.

  3. A novel neural networks training algorithm based on PSO:application to nuclear reactors accidents diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elaraby, S.M.; Zaky, M.M.; Emara, M.M.; El-metwally, K.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear plant accidents can cause injuries to operators, public as well as environment. Hence, advanced fault diagnosis techniques for nuclear plants are necessary to early detect, isolate and diagnose faults and accidents. This paper presents a new technique for accidents diagnosis of nuclear plants based on artificial neural networks. A new training technique based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been investigated to train the neural network. Results show the effectiveness of the technique for neural network training to diagnose nuclear reactor accidents

  4. Performance Based Failure Criteria of the Base Isolation System for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil

    2013-01-01

    The realistic approach to evaluate the failure state of the base isolation system is necessary. From this point of view, several concerns are reviewed and discussed in this study. This is the preliminary study for the performance based risk assessment of a base isolated nuclear power plant. The items to evaluate the capacity and response of an individual base isolator and a base isolation system were briefly outlined. However, the methodology to evaluate the realistic fragility of a base isolation system still needs to be specified. For the quantification of the seismic risk for a nuclear power plant structure, the failure probabilities of the structural component for the various seismic intensity levels need to be calculated. The failure probability is evaluated as the probability when the seismic response of a structure exceeds the failure criteria. Accordingly, the failure mode of the structural system caused by an earthquake vibration should be defined first. The type of a base isolator appropriate for a nuclear power plant structure is regarded as an elastometric rubber bearing with a lead core. The failure limit of the lead-rubber bearing (LRB) is not easy to be predicted because of its high nonlinearity and a complex loading condition by an earthquake excitation. Furthermore, the failure mode of the LRB system installed below the nuclear island cannot be simply determined because the basemat can be sufficiently supported if the number of damaged isolator is not much

  5. The role of support and promoter on the oxidation of sulfur dioxide using platinum based catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutsopoulos, Sotiris; Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Eriksen, Kim Michael

    2006-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of SO2 to SO3 was studied over platinum based catalysts in the absence and the presence of dopants. The active metal was supported on silica gel or titania (anatase) by impregnation. The activities of the silica supported catalysts were found to follow the order PtRh/SiO2...... > Pt/SiO2 > Pt-Al/SiO2. For the samples supported on titania the respective order was Pt/TiO2 > Pt-Rh/TiO2 > Pt-Al/TiO2. The size of the particles of the active phase, the presence of dopants and the purity of the catalyst were found to affect the catalytic performance. A careful selection of the p......H of the impregnation solution and of the reduction temperature of the precursor salts resulted in a very active catalyst with average particle size of 1.7 nm. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. PRECISION CLEANING OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES USING CARBON DIOXIDE-BASED FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. RUBIN; L. SIVILS; A. BUSNAINA

    1999-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory, on behalf of the Hewlett-Packard Company, is conducting tests of a closed-loop CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid process, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover (SCORR). We have shown that this treatment process is effective in removing hard-baked, ion-implanted photoresists, and appears to be fully compatible with metallization systems. We are now performing experiments on production wafers to assess not only photoresist removal, but also residual surface contamination due to particulate and trace metals. Dense-phase (liquid or supercritical) CO{sub 2}, since it is non-polar, acts like an organic solvent and therefore has an inherently high volubility for organic compounds such as oils and greases. Also, dense CO{sub 2} has a low-viscosity and a low dielectric constant. Finally, CO{sub 2} in the liquid and supercritical fluid states can solubilize metal completing agents and surfactants. This combination of properties has interesting implications for the removal not only of organic films, but also trace metals and inorganic particulate. In this paper we discuss the possibility of using CO{sub 2} as a precision-cleaning solvent, with particular emphasis on semiconductor surfaces.

  7. Data base on nuclear power plant dose reduction research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains project information on the research and development activities of the nuclear power industry in the area of dose reduction. It is based on a data base of information set up at the ALARA Center of Brookhaven National Laboratory. One purpose of this report is to draw attention to work in progress and to enable researchers and subscribers to obtain further information from the investigators and project managers. Information is provided on 180 projects, divided according to whether they are oriented to Engineering Research or to Health Physics Technology. The report contains indices on main category, project manager, principal investigator, sponsoring organization, contracting organization, and subject. This is an initial report. It is intended that periodic updates be issued whenever sufficient material has been accumulated.

  8. Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from legumes based rotations under conventional and organic practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Fernández, Juan A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study we assessed the effect of two different rotations based on winter (faba bean) or summer (cowpea) legumes on the direct emissions of CO2 and CH4. Faba bean was rotated with the summer melon crop (Cucumis melo) while cowpea was rotated with the winter broccoli crop (Brassica oleracea). We also assessed if different legume cultivars and management practices (conventional and organic) significantly influenced gas emissions. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2, during two complete cycles. Gas samples were taken in different times (0, 30 and 60 minutes) once a week using the static gas chamber technique for each crop. Results showed that cumulative CO2 emissions in broccoli decreased after the rotation with both cowpea cultivars under conventional management practices. Faba bean cultivars and management practices had no influence on cumulative CO2 emissions in melon crop. Cumulative CH4 emissions in broccoli crop were lowest after the rotation with Grey-eyed pea than Black-eyed pea cultivar, under both management practices. However, faba bean cultivars and management practices had no influence on cumulative CH4 emissions in melon crop. Cumulative CH4 emissions in melon crop were highest than in the rest of crops. Cowpea cultivar and management practice influenced cumulative CH4 and CO2 emissions of broccoli crop, respectively. Faba bean cultivar and management practice had no effect on cumulative CH4 and CO2 emissions of melon crop. Acknowledgements: This research was financed by the FP7 European Project Eurolegume (FP7-KBBE-613781).

  9. Tracing China's energy flow and carbon dioxide flow based on Sankey diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyin; Wang, Pengtao; Xu, Xiaomeng; Dong, Lihui; Xue, Honglai; Fu, Shuai [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory for Precise Mining of Intergrown Energy and Resources, Beijing (China); China University of Mining and Technology, Faculty of Resources and Safety Engineering, Beijing (China); Ji, Yingxu [State Grid Jibei Electric Power Company Limited, Langfang Power Supply Company, Langfang (China)

    2017-10-15

    China has promised to optimize its energy structure and reduce its CO{sub 2} emission in the 13th Five-Year Plan. To track the energy structure, the conversions, efficiencies, end consumptions of total energy and coal and the whole CO{sub 2} emission status, the energy flow, coal flow and CO{sub 2} flow in 2015 were, respectively, drawn at the national level based on Sankey diagrams. Besides, each provincial fossil fuel structure, CO{sub 2} structure and CO{sub 2} intensity were calculated and plotted. It is mainly found that China's energy structure consisted of 69.2% of coal, 19.9% of oil, 6.3% of natural gas and 4.7% of non-fossil energy, where 45.5% of energy was consumed by industry and 23.9% by losses and statistical difference; coal was distributed to industry (55.6%), etc., with a utilization rate of 70.1%; and CO{sub 2} were derived from coal (84.7%), oil (11.1%) and natural gas (4.2%), of which 39.0% was released through the process of thermal power generation and 19.4% by industry. The structures of fossil fuels and their CO{sub 2} emissions together with the evolution of CO{sub 2} intensity at the provincial level and the regional level were also given. Besides, two pieces of policy implications were proposed to provide the government with reference. (orig.)

  10. Measurements of nuclear data and possibility to construct the nuclear data production facility based on electron linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkung, Won; Ko, In Soo; Cho, Moo Hyun; Kim, Gui Nyun; Lee, Young Seok; Kang, Heung Sik [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang(Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In order to construct an infrastructure to produce nuclear data, we studied three main items; (1) Study on the possibility to construct a facility for nuclear data production, (2) Production of nuclear data for nuclear power plant, and (3) Pulsed neutron source based on a 100-MeV electron linac at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL). We confirmed the possibility to build a nuclear data production facility utilizing a 100-MeV electron linac at PAL and manpower who wanted to participate the nuclear data production experiments. In order to measure the nuclear data for nuclear power plant, we used several nuclear data production facilities in abroad. We measured total cross sections and neutron caprure cross sections for {sup nat}Dy and {sup nat}Hf using the pulsed neutron facility in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KURRI). The neutron capture cross sections for {sup 161,162,163,164}Dy were measured at KURRI in the neutron energy region between 0.001 eV and several tens keV, and at the fast neutron facility in Tokyo Institute of Technology in the neutron energy region between 10 keV and 100 keV. We also measured the neutron capture cross sections and gamma multiplicity of {sup 232}Th at the IBR30 in Dubna, Russia. We have construct a pulsed neutron source using a 100-MeV electron linac at PAL. We measured neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectra in order to check the characteristics of the pulsed neutron source. We also measured a neutron total cross sections of W and Cu. The pulsed neutron facility can be utilized in the education facility for nuclear data production and the test facility for the R and D purpose of the nuclear data production facility. 29 refs., 57 figs., 22 tabs. (Author)

  11. Effect of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide concentration on structure, morphology and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of calcium hydroxide based sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni; Vignesh, K.; Sreekantan, Srimala; Pung, Swee-Yong; Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto; Othman, Radzali; Thant, Aye Aye; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Salim, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Carbonation conversions of (a) CC, (b) CH-2, (c) CH-4, (d) CH-6, (e) CH-8 precursor adsorbents for 10 cycles. - Highlights: • Ca(OH) 2 precursor was synthesized using precipitation method. • The effect of CTAB concentration on the synthesis of Ca(OH) 2 was studied. • The sorbent synthesized using 0.8 M of CTAB showed good CO 2 adsorption capacity. • The cyclic stability of Ca(OH) 2 was increased with increase of CTAB concentration. - Abstract: Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ) has been proposed as an important material for industrial, architectural, and environmental applications. In this study, calcium acetate was used as a precursor and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a surfactant to synthesize Ca(OH) 2 based adsorbents for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture. The effect of CTAB concentration (0.2–0.8 M) on the structure, morphology and CO 2 adsorption performance of Ca(OH) 2 was studied in detail. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), BET surfaced area and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) techniques. The phase purity, crystallite size, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and CO 2 adsorption performance of Ca(OH) 2 precursor adsorbents were significantly increased when the concentration of CTAB was increased. XRD results showed that pure Ca(OH) 2 phase was obtained at the CTAB concentration of 0.8 M. TGA results exhibited that 0.8 M of CTAB-assisted Ca(OH) 2 precursor adsorbent possessed a residual carbonation conversion of ∼56% after 10 cycles.

  12. Inhibiting properties and adsorption of an amine based fatty acid corrosion inhibitor on carbon steel in aqueous carbon dioxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchweishaija, Joseph

    1997-12-31

    Carbon dioxide corrosion is a major corrosion problem in oil and gas production systems and many organic inhibitors have been tested and used to protect the substrate from corrosion. This thesis studies the mechanism of interaction of the inhibitor molecule with the metallic substrate and how this affects the dissolution rate of the metal. The performance of a commercial amine based fatty acid corrosion inhibitor has been investigated using rotating cylinder electrodes and carbon steel electrodes in CO{sub 2} saturated formation water in the temperature range between 35 to 80{sup o}C. The corrosion process was monitored by electrochemical impedance measurements, and at the end of each experiment full polarization curves were recorded. When the inhibitor was applied on noncorroded electrodes, high inhibitor performance, over 99.7%, was observed independent of temperature. On precorroded electrodes inhibitor performance was found to depend on temperature and time of precorrosion. Above 60{sup o}C, the inhibitor performance decreased with increasing time of precorrosion, presumably because of the formation of a corrosion film of either iron carbonate or a combination of iron carbonate and iron carbide which prevent the inhibitor from reaching the surface. The inhibitor protection efficiency was assumed to be associated with the degree of inhibitor coverage at the material surface, and adsorption isotherms have been calculated in the concentration range between 0.1 ppm and 100 ppm. A Langmuir isotherm was found to give the best fit. The inhibitor performance on a 2 days precorroded rotating electrode was investigated at different solution pH ranging between 4.5 and 6.5 at 35{sup o}C. 130 refs., 80 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. Effect of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide concentration on structure, morphology and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of calcium hydroxide based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni, E-mail: nwenihlaing76@gmail.com [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Vignesh, K., E-mail: vignesh134@gmail.com [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Anano Sphere Sdn Bhd, Lorong Industri 11, Kawasan Industri Bukit Panchor, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Sreekantan, Srimala, E-mail: srimala@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Pung, Swee-Yong [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto [Department of International Development Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Othman, Radzali [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Malacca (Malaysia); Thant, Aye Aye [Department of Physics, University of Yangon, 11041 Kamayut, Yangon (Myanmar); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman [Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Salim, Chris [Department of Environmental Engineering, Surya University, Tangerang 15810, Banten (Indonesia)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Carbonation conversions of (a) CC, (b) CH-2, (c) CH-4, (d) CH-6, (e) CH-8 precursor adsorbents for 10 cycles. - Highlights: • Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor was synthesized using precipitation method. • The effect of CTAB concentration on the synthesis of Ca(OH){sub 2} was studied. • The sorbent synthesized using 0.8 M of CTAB showed good CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity. • The cyclic stability of Ca(OH){sub 2} was increased with increase of CTAB concentration. - Abstract: Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) has been proposed as an important material for industrial, architectural, and environmental applications. In this study, calcium acetate was used as a precursor and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a surfactant to synthesize Ca(OH){sub 2} based adsorbents for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture. The effect of CTAB concentration (0.2–0.8 M) on the structure, morphology and CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of Ca(OH){sub 2} was studied in detail. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), BET surfaced area and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) techniques. The phase purity, crystallite size, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and CO{sub 2} adsorption performance of Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor adsorbents were significantly increased when the concentration of CTAB was increased. XRD results showed that pure Ca(OH){sub 2} phase was obtained at the CTAB concentration of 0.8 M. TGA results exhibited that 0.8 M of CTAB-assisted Ca(OH){sub 2} precursor adsorbent possessed a residual carbonation conversion of ∼56% after 10 cycles.

  14. A simulator-based nuclear reactor emergency response training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward; Bereznai, George; Shaw, John; Chaput, Joseph; Lafortune, Jean-Francois

    Training offsite emergency response personnel basic awareness of onsite control room operations during nuclear power plant emergency conditions was the primary objective of a week-long workshop conducted on a CANDU® virtual nuclear reactor simulator available at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Canada. The workshop was designed to examine both normal and abnormal reactor operating conditions, and to observe the conditions in the control room that may have impact on the subsequent offsite emergency response. The workshop was attended by participants from a number of countries encompassing diverse job functions related to nuclear emergency response. Objectives of the workshop were to provide opportunities for participants to act in the roles of control room personnel under different reactor operating scenarios, providing a unique experience for participants to interact with the simulator in real-time, and providing increased awareness of control room operations during accident conditions. The ability to "pause" the simulator during exercises allowed the instructors to evaluate and critique the performance of participants, and to provide context with respect to potential offsite emergency actions. Feedback from the participants highlighted (i) advantages of observing and participating "hands-on" with operational exercises, (ii) their general unfamiliarity with control room operational procedures and arrangements prior to the workshop, (iii) awareness of the vast quantity of detailed control room procedures for both normal and transient conditions, and (iv) appreciation of the increased workload for the operators in the control room during a transient from normal operations. Based upon participant feedback, it was determined that the objectives of the training had been met, and that future workshops should be conducted.

  15. Fundamental Structure-Activity Relationships of Titanium Dioxide-Based Photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Charles A.

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis has been identified as a means of using renewable solar energy to produce the sustainable, non-carbon fuel H 2 and a variety of useful chemical intermediates. Currently, however, heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions are too inefficient to be industrially relevant and a deeper understanding of the effect of fundamental photocatalytic material properties on photoactivity is needed to further enhance the yields of desired products. In the general field of heterogeneous catalysis, structure-activity relationships aid in the rational design of improved catalysts and this ideology was applied to photocatalytic reactions over TiO2 based photocatalysts and model supported TiO2/SiO2 catalysts in this study. The model supported TiO2/SiO2 catalysts contain well-defined TiOx nanodomain structures that vary in domain size and electronic structure and greatly facilitate the determination of structure-photoactivity relationships. These catalysts were used in reactor studies during photocatalytic water splitting and cyclohexane photo-oxidation, and were monitored for production of H2 and cyclohexanone, respectively. It was found that for both reactions the trend in photoactivity for the TiOx nanodomains proceeded as: pure TiO2 (anatase) (24 nm) > TiO2 (anatase) nanoparticles (4--11 nm) > polymeric surface TiO5 (˜1 nm) > surface isolated TiO4 (˜0.4 nm). Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was employed to yield insight into how exciton generation and recombination are related to TiOx domain size and, thus, to the photoactivity of the examined reactions. Transient PL decay studies determined that the larger bulk structure found in TiO 2 (anatase) nanoparticles (NPs) acts as a reservoir for excitons exhibiting slow recombination kinetics, which have an increased opportunity to participate in photochemistry at the surface active sites. The reactions were also studied using in situ attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared

  16. Legal bases for the installation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Barros, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The role of the National Nuclear Energy Comission, the National Department of Water and Electrical Energy and the 'Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A.' for the installation of Nuclear Power Plants is presented. (A.L.) [pt

  17. Small Nuclear Co-generation Plants Based on Shipbuilding Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyukov, V. I.; Veshnyakov, K. B.; Goryunov, E. V.; Zalugin, V. I.; Panov, Yu. K.; Polunichev, V. I.

    2002-01-01

    The development of nuclear cogeneration plants and power desalination complexes of relatively small power, using proven shipbuilding technology, becomes more and more attractive for solving the power supply problems of remote districts of the Extreme North and the Far East with small and medium power grids and for removing the shortage of fresh water in different world regions. The idea of transportation of the power unit with high degree of readiness to the place of its location with minimum construction and mounting activities at the site is very attractive. Compactness typical of RP based on shipbuilding technology allows to develop floating or ground-based plants at minimum use of water area and territory. Small construction scope at the site under conditions of minimum anthropogenic loads and high ecological indices are important arguments in favor of floating nuclear cogeneration plant based on ship power units against the alternative fossil sources. At present, the activities on floating nuclear cogeneration plant design, which is developed on the basis of floating power unit with two KLT-40S reactor plant, which is a modified option of standard KLT-40-type ship plant for icebreaker fleet in Russia are the most advanced. To date, a detailed design of reactor plant has been developed and approved, design activities on floating power unit are in the stage of completion, the site for its location has been selected and licensing by GAN, Russia, is in progress. Besides OKBM has developed some designs of nuclear cogeneration plants of different power on the basis of integral reactor plants, using the experience of transport and stationary power plants designing. Nuclear cogeneration plant investment analysis showed acceptable social and economical efficiency of the design that creates conditions for commercial construction of floating power units with KLT-40S reactor plan. At the same time the reduction of the design recovering terms, increase of budget income and

  18. Computer-based control of nuclear power information systems at international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniface, Ekechukwu; Okonkwo, Obi

    2011-01-01

    In most highly industrialized countries of the world information plays major role in anti-nuclear campaign. Information and discussions on nuclear power need critical and objective analysis before the structured information presentation to the public to avoid bias anti-nuclear information on one side and neglect of great risk in nuclear power. This research is developing a computer-based information system for the control of nuclear power at international level. The system is to provide easy and fast information highways for the followings: (1) Low Regulatory dose and activity limit as level of high danger for individuals and public. (2) Provision of relevant technical or scientific education among the information carriers in the nuclear power countries. The research is on fact oriented investigation about radioactivity. It also deals with fact oriented education about nuclear accidents and safety. A standard procedure for dissemination of latest findings using technical and scientific experts in nuclear technology is developed. The information highway clearly analyzes the factual information about radiation risk and nuclear energy. Radiation cannot be removed from our environment. The necessity of radiation utilizations defines nuclear energy as two-edge sword. It is therefore, possible to use computer-based information system in projecting and dissemination of expert knowledge about nuclear technology positively and also to use it in directing the public on the safety and control of the nuclear energy. The computer-based information highway for nuclear energy technology is to assist in scientific research and technological development at international level. (author)

  19. A Miniaturized Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensor Based on Sensing of pH-Sensitive Hydrogel Swelling with a Pressure Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, S.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    A measurement concept has been realized for the detection of carbon dioxide, where the CO2 induced pressure generation by an enclosed pH-sensitive hydrogel is measured with a micro pressure sensor. The application of the sensor is the quantification of the partial pressure of CO2 (Pco2) in the

  20. SCC behaviour of nickel based alloys in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    SCC of nickel-based alloys (alloys 600, X-750, 182, 82...) is of great concern to the nuclear power industry. Misjugement on the susceptibility of the alloys to SCC and underestimation of the actual stress level caused a world-wide economical problem for the nuclear reactors. An up-to-date review of the phenomenon is presented on the basis of literature data, with an emphasis on the influence of mechanical, microstructural and chemical parameters on alloy 600 SCC in PWR's environments. The effect of stress and strain rate on crack initiation and propagation is also considered. Further to this survey, the contribution of mechanisms likely to be involved (slip dissolution model, hydrogen-induced-cracking, corrosion-deformation interactions) is examined. Better knowledge of the effect of parameters, such as temperature, stress and the alloy structure, makes it possible to predict fairly well the initiation and propagation time of the cracks and to evaluate the remedial actions to be taken. (author). 41 refs., 8 figs

  1. Trend of computer-based console for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajima, Tsunetaka; Serizawa, Michiya

    1975-01-01

    The amount of informations to be watched by the operators in the central operation room increased with the increase of the capacity of nuclear power generation plants, and the necessity of computer-based consoles, in which the informations are compiled and the rationalization of the interface between the operators and the plants is intended by introducing CRT displays and process computers, became to be recognized. The integrated monitoring and controlling system is explained briefly by taking Dungeness B Nuclear Power Station in Britain as a typical example. This power station comprises two AGRs, and these two plants can be controlled in one central control room, each by one man. Three computers including stand-by one are installed. Each computer has the core memory of 16 K words (24 bits/word), and 4 magnetic drums of 256 K words are installed as the external memory. The peripheral equipments are 12 CRT displays, 6 typewriters, high speed tape reader and tape punch for each plant. The display and record of plant data, the analysis, display and record of alarms, the control of plants including reactors, and post incident record are assigned to the computers. In Hitachi Ltd. in Japan, the introduction of color CRTs, the developments of operating consoles, new data-accessing method, and the consoles for maintenance management are in progress. (Kako, I.)

  2. Industrial Personal Computer based Display for Nuclear Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Aram; Jo, Jung Hee; Kim, Ki Beom; Cheon, Sung Hyun; Cho, Joo Hyun; Sohn, Se Do; Baek, Seung Min

    2014-01-01

    The safety display of nuclear system has been classified as important to safety (SIL:Safety Integrity Level 3). These days the regulatory agencies are imposing more strict safety requirements for digital safety display system. To satisfy these requirements, it is necessary to develop a safety-critical (SIL 4) grade safety display system. This paper proposes industrial personal computer based safety display system with safety grade operating system and safety grade display methods. The description consists of three parts, the background, the safety requirements and the proposed safety display system design. The hardware platform is designed using commercially available off-the-shelf processor board with back plane bus. The operating system is customized for nuclear safety display application. The display unit is designed adopting two improvement features, i.e., one is to provide two separate processors for main computer and display device using serial communication, and the other is to use Digital Visual Interface between main computer and display device. In this case the main computer uses minimized graphic functions for safety display. The display design is at the conceptual phase, and there are several open areas to be concreted for a solid system. The main purpose of this paper is to describe and suggest a methodology to develop a safety-critical display system and the descriptions are focused on the safety requirement point of view

  3. Java-based PACS and reporting system for nuclear medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, Piotr J.; Elliott, Edward; Driedger, Albert A.

    2000-05-01

    In medical imaging practice, images and reports often need be reviewed and edited from many locations. We have designed and implemented a Java-based Remote Viewing and Reporting System (JaRRViS) for a nuclear medicine department, which is deployed as a web service, at the fraction of the cost dedicated PACS systems. The system can be extended to other imaging modalities. JaRRViS interfaces to the clinical patient databases of imaging workstations. Specialized nuclear medicine applets support interactive displays of data such as 3-D gated SPECT with all the necessary options such as cine, filtering, dynamic lookup tables, and reorientation. The reporting module is implemented as a separate applet using Java Foundation Classes (JFC) Swing Editor Kit and allows composition of multimedia reports after selection and annotation of appropriate images. The reports are stored on the server in the HTML format. JaRRViS uses Java Servlets for the preparation and storage of final reports. The http links to the reports or to the patient's raw images with applets can be obtained from JaRRViS by any Hospital Information System (HIS) via standard queries. Such links can be sent via e-mail or included as text fields in any HIS database, providing direct access to the patient reports and images via standard web browsers.

  4. Carbon dioxide production in animal houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Joergensen, H.

    2008-01-01

    , when used in full scale animal buildings as basis for estimation of ventilation flow. Based on the data reviewed in this study, we recommend adding 10% carbon dioxide production to the laboratory based carbon dioxide production for animal houses with slatted or solid floors, provided that indoor manure......This article deals with carbon dioxide production from farm animals; more specifically, it addresses the possibilities of using the measured carbon dioxide concentration in animal houses as basis for estimation of ventilation flow (as the ventilation flow is a key parameter of aerial emissions from......C) has often been used. The article shows that the carbon dioxide production per hpu increases with increasing respiration quotient. As the respiration quotient increases with body mass for growing animals, the carbon dioxide production per heat production unit also increases with increased body mass...

  5. Development of web based performance analysis program for nuclear power plant turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon; Yu, Seung Kyu; Kim, Seong Kun; Ji, Moon Hak; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Seong Ryeol

    2002-01-01

    Performance improvement of turbine cycle affects economic operation of nuclear power plant. We developed performance analysis system for nuclear power plant turbine cycle. The system is based on PTC (Performance Test Code), that is estimation standard of nuclear power plant performance. The system is developed using Java Web-Start and JSP(Java Server Page)

  6. Testing of a nuclear-reactor-based positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Veen, A.; Labohm, F.; Schut, H.; De Roode, J.; Heijenga, T.; Mijnarends, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the testing of a positron beam which is primarily based on copper activation near the core of a nuclear reactor and extraction of the positrons through a beam guide tube. An out-of-core test with a 22 Na source and an in-core test with the reactor at reduced power have been performed. Both tests indicated a high reflectivity of moderated positrons at the tungsten surfaces of the moderation discs which enhanced the expected yield. Secondary electrons generated in the source materials during the in-core test caused electrical field distortions in the electrode system of the system by charging of the insulators. At 100 kW reactor power during one hour, positrons were observed with an intensity of 4.4x10 4 e + s -1 of which 90% was due to positrons created by pair formation and 10% by copper activation

  7. A Computer- Based Digital Signal Processing for Nuclear Scintillator Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashour, M.A.; Abo Shosha, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Computer-based system for the nuclear scintillation signals with exponential decay is presented. The main objective of this work is to identify the characteristics of the acquired signals smoothly, this can be done by transferring the signal environment from random signal domain to deterministic domain using digital manipulation techniques. The proposed system consists of two major parts. The first part is the high performance data acquisition system (DAQ) that depends on a multi-channel Logic Scope. Which is interfaced with the host computer through the General Purpose Interface Board (GPIB) Ver. IEEE 488.2. Also, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been designed for this purpose using the graphical programming facilities. The second of the system is the DSP software Algorithm which analyses, demonstrates, monitoring these data to obtain the main characteristics of the acquired signals; the amplitude, the pulse count, the pulse width, decay factor, and the arrival time

  8. Catalyst based processes at back end of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, T.

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts occupy a pivotal position in chemical industry. Their advanced preparation technology allows us to employ these catalysts for wide range of application. But the deployment of catalyst based radiochemical technology has to address the particular features like aggressive nitric acid media and intensive radiation fields. This put forward the rigid requirements to a choice of catalysts: high chemical and radiation stability of the catalyst and support, mechanical durability, catalytic activity and simplicity of preparation. Hydrogenation process with Pt/SiO 2 has been adopted industrially for making uranous nitrate (U 4+ ) from uranyl nitrate (U 6+ ) in PUREX process at commercial reprocessing plants. Bimetallic catalysts are being explored for the destruction of nitrates generated during nuclear fuel cycle operations

  9. A sensor-based automation system for handling nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Kimberly, H.; Wapman, W.; Darras, D.

    1997-01-01

    An automated system is being developed for handling large payloads of radioactive nuclear materials in an analytical laboratory. The automation system performs unpacking and repacking of payloads from shipping and storage containers, and delivery of the payloads to the stations in the laboratory. The system uses machine vision and force/torque sensing to provide sensor-based control of the automation system in order to enhance system safety, flexibility, and robustness, and achieve easy remote operation. The automation system also controls the operation of the laboratory measurement systems and the coordination of them with the robotic system. Particular attention has been given to system design features and analytical methods that provide an enhanced level of operational safety. Independent mechanical gripper interlock and tool release mechanisms were designed to prevent payload mishandling. An extensive Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the automation system was developed as a safety design analysis tool

  10. gemcWeb: A Cloud Based Nuclear Physics Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelon, Sam

    2017-09-01

    gemcWeb allows users to run nuclear physics simulations from the web. Being completely device agnostic, scientists can run simulations from anywhere with an Internet connection. Having a full user system, gemcWeb allows users to revisit and revise their projects, and share configurations and results with collaborators. gemcWeb is based on simulation software gemc, which is based on standard GEant4. gemcWeb requires no C++, gemc, or GEant4 knowledge. Using a simple but powerful GUI allows users to configure their project from geometries and configurations stored on the deployment server. Simulations are then run on the server, with results being posted to the user, and then securely stored. Python based and open-source, the main version of gemcWeb is hosted internally at Jefferson National Labratory and used by the CLAS12 and Electron-Ion Collider Project groups. However, as the software is open-source, and hosted as a GitHub repository, an instance can be deployed on the open web, or any institution's intra-net. An instance can be configured to host experiments specific to an institution, and the code base can be modified by any individual or group. Special thanks to: Maurizio Ungaro, PhD., creator of gemc; Markus Diefenthaler, PhD., advisor; and Kyungseon Joo, PhD., advisor.

  11. Evaluation of thorium based nuclear fuel. Extended summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, W.M.P.; Bultman, J.H.; Konings, R.J.M.; Wichers, V.A.

    1995-04-01

    Application of thorium based nuclear fuels has been evaluated with emphasis on possible reduction of the actinide waste. As a result three ECN-reports are published, discussing in detail: - The reactor physics aspects, by comparing the operation characteristics of the cores of Pressurized Water Reactors and Heavy Water Reactors with different fuel types, including equilibrium thorium/uranium free, once-through uranium fuel and equilibrium uranium/plutonium fuel, - the chemical aspects of thorium based fuel cycles with emphasis on fuel (re)fabrication and fuel reprocessing, - the possible reduction in actinide waste as analysed for Heavy Water Reactors with various types of thorium based fuels in once-through operation and with reprocessing. These results are summarized in this report together with a short discussion on non-proliferation and uranium resource utilization. It has been concluded that a substantial reduction of actinide radiotoxicity of the disposed waste may be achieved by using thorium based fuels, if very efficient partitioning and multiple recycling of uranium and thorium can be realized. This will, however, require large efforts to develop the technology to the necessary industrial scale of operation. (orig.)

  12. Nitrogen oxides reduction by carbonaceous materials and carbon dioxide separation using regenerative metal oxides from fossil fuel based flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu

    The ever-growing energy demands due to rising global population and continuing lifestyle improvements has placed indispensable emphasis on fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels leads to the emission of harmful gaseous pollutants such as oxides of sulfur (SOx) and nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), mercury, particulate matter, etc. Documented evidence has proved that this air pollution leads to adverse environmental health. This dissertation focuses on the development of technologies for the control of NOx and CO2 emissions. The first part of the thesis (Chapters 2--6) deals with the development of carbon based post combustion NOx reduction technology called CARBONOX process. High temperature combustion oxidizes both atmospheric nitrogen and organic nitrogen in coal to nitric oxide (NO). The reaction rate between graphite and NO is slow and requires high temperature (>900°C). The presence of metallic species in coal char catalyzes the reaction. The reaction temperature is lowered in the presence of oxygen to about 600--850°C. Chemical impregnation, specifically sodium compounds, further lowers the reaction temperature to 350--600°C. Activated high sodium lignite char (HSLC) provided the best performance for NO reduction. The requirement of char for NOx reduction is about 8--12 g carbon/g NO reduced in the presence of 2% oxygen in the inlet gas. The second part of this dissertation (chapter 7--8) focuses on the development of a reaction-based process for the separation of CO2 from combustion flue gas. Certain metal oxides react with CO2 forming metal carbonates under flue gas conditions. They can be calcined separately to yield CO2. Calcium oxide (CaO) has been identified as a viable metal oxide for the carbonation-calcination reaction (CCR) scheme. CaO synthesized from naturally occurring precursors (limestone and dolomite) attained 45--55% of their stoichiometric conversion due to the susceptibility of their microporous structure. High surface area

  13. The European Nuclear Science network touches base at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    ENSAR (European Nuclear Science and Applications Research) is an EU-supported project, which aims at fostering cooperation within the European low-energy nuclear physics community through the active sharing of expertise and best practices. The project also includes a transnational access programme to allow a large community of users to access the participating facilities, which include CERN’s ISOLDE. In the last week of April, CERN hosted the General Assembly and Programme Coordination Committee meetings, about 18 months after the project’s kick-off.   Participants in the ENSAR project. ENSAR involves 30 partner institutes, which include the seven large nuclear physics facilities in Europe. A large part of the European nuclear physics community is represented in ENSAR, in particular scientists who are performing research related to nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and applications of nuclear science. In 2010, the project was awarded 8 million euros from the Europe...

  14. Addition of glass fibers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the acrylic resin denture base material: comparative study with the conventional and high impact types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M; Beyari, Mohammed M

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of addition of glass fibers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the conventional acrylic resin. The tested parameters were monomer release, deflection at fracture, flexural strength, flexural modulus, and toughness. The modified acrylic resin groups were compared to the conventional unmodified and high impact types. The correlation between the tested material properties was also evaluated. The materials used were conventional unmodified and high impact acrylic resins. The conventional acrylic resin was modified using 5% glass fibers and 5% titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Specimens were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions and American Dental Association Specification No. 12. Monomer release was measured using isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography. Deflection at fracture, flexural strength, and flexural modulus were measured using three point-bending test with a universal testing machine. The toughness was related to the total area under the load-deflection curve up to the breaking point. The correlation between the tested properties was clarified. All materials released monomer with varying values. The tested materials exhibited comparable values of deflection at fracture. Specimens modified with glass-fibers showed improved flexural strength and toughness similar to that of the high impact acrylic resin. Specimens modified with titanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibited reduction in the flexural properties and toughness. No significant changes were observed in the flexural modulus. There were positive correlations between the flexural strength, flexural modulus and toughness. On the contrary, there was negative correlation between deflection at fracture and flexural modulus. The most commercially successful method for reinforcement to date is the rubber toughening. The conventional acrylic resin denture base material could be reinforced by glass fibers while titanium dioxide nanoparticles

  15. JANIS-2: An Improved Version of the NEA Java-based Nuclear Data Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soppera, N.; Henriksson, H.; Nagel, P.; Nouri, A.; Dupont, E.

    2005-01-01

    JANIS (JAva-based Nuclear Information Software) is a display program designed to facilitate the visualisation and manipulation of nuclear data. Its objective is to allow the user of nuclear data to access numerical and graphical representations without prior knowledge of the storage format. It offers maximum flexibility for the comparison of different nuclear data sets. Features included in the latest release are described such as direct access to centralised databases through JAVA Servlet technology

  16. Reliability research to nuclear power plant operators based on several methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; Li Fu; Zhao Bingquan

    2009-01-01

    The paper utilizes many kinds of international reliability research methods, and summarizes the review of reliability research of Chinese nuclear power plant operators in past over ten years based on the simulator platform of nuclear power plant. The paper shows the necessity and feasibility of the research to nuclear power plant operators from many angles including human cognition reliability, fuzzy mathematics model and psychological research model, etc. It will be good to the safe operation of nuclear power plant based on many kinds of research methods to the reliability research of nuclear power plant operators. (authors)

  17. Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holladay, D.W.; Haag, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    This invention comprises a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to barium carbonate. The method has several important advantages: it can be conducted effectively at ambient temperature; it provides a very rapid reaction rate over a wide range of carbon dioxide concentrations; it provides high decontamination factors; and it has a high capacity for carbon dioxide. The invention is especially well suited for the removal of radioactive carbon dioxide from off-gases generated by nuclear-fuel reprocessing facilities and nuclear power plants

  18. A Java-based data acquisition system for nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, K.B.; Visser, D.W.; Baris, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Jam is a Java-based user-friendly data acquisition and analysis system developed for CAMAC-based nuclear physics experiments. The system is menu-driven and has been designed to minimize the expertise needed to perform the essential tasks necessary to collect and sort data. The front-end hardware is VME based and includes a MVME167 running VxWorks, which is networked to a Sun workstation. The sorting, display, and control routines are all written in Java, and the front-end code is written in C. With a Sparc 5 workstation, events with 10 parameters, 15 histograms, and 10 gate checks the system can collect and sort data up to event rates of 1 kHz. By only sorting a fraction of the events, but storing all events, it can be run at the front-end limit of 10 kHz. Java's promise of platform independence has been found to be realistic, and Jam has been used with no modifications to sort offline on multiple platforms. Jam has a modular design allowing it to be easily modified. For example, Jam has an interface to allow users to write their own fitting routines. This article discusses the system's design and performance, as well as some advantages and disadvantages of using Java

  19. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  20. The 4D nucleome: Evidence for a dynamic nuclear landscape based on co-aligned active and inactive nuclear compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion; Hübner, Barbara; Strickfaden, Hilmar; Smeets, Daniel; Popken, Jens; Sterr, Michael; Markaki, Yolanda; Rippe, Karsten; Cremer, Christoph

    2015-10-07

    Recent methodological advancements in microscopy and DNA sequencing-based methods provide unprecedented new insights into the spatio-temporal relationships between chromatin and nuclear machineries. We discuss a model of the underlying functional nuclear organization derived mostly from electron and super-resolved fluorescence microscopy studies. It is based on two spatially co-aligned, active and inactive nuclear compartments (ANC and INC). The INC comprises the compact, transcriptionally inactive core of chromatin domain clusters (CDCs). The ANC is formed by the transcriptionally active periphery of CDCs, called the perichromatin region (PR), and the interchromatin compartment (IC). The IC is connected to nuclear pores and serves nuclear import and export functions. The ANC is the major site of RNA synthesis. It is highly enriched in epigenetic marks for transcriptionally competent chromatin and RNA Polymerase II. Marks for silent chromatin are enriched in the INC. Multi-scale cross-correlation spectroscopy suggests that nuclear architecture resembles a random obstacle network for diffusing proteins. An increased dwell time of proteins and protein complexes within the ANC may help to limit genome scanning by factors or factor complexes to DNA exposed within the ANC. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Data warehouse based decision support system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadinic, B.

    2004-01-01

    Safety is an important element in business decision making processes in nuclear power plants. Information about component reliability, structures and systems, data recorded during the nuclear power plant's operation and outage periods, as well as experiences from other power plants are located in different database systems throughout the power plant. It would be possible to create a decision support system which would collect data, transform it into a standardized form and store it in a single location in a format more suitable for analyses and knowledge discovery. This single location where the data would be stored would be a data warehouse. Such data warehouse based decision support system could help make decision making processes more efficient by providing more information about business processes and predicting possible consequences of different decisions. Two main functionalities in this decision support system would be an OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing) and a data mining system. An OLAP system would enable the users to perform fast, simple and efficient multidimensional analysis of existing data and identify trends. Data mining techniques and algorithms would help discover new, previously unknown information from the data as well as hidden dependencies between various parameters. Data mining would also enable analysts to create relevant prediction models that could predict behaviour of different systems during operation and inspection results during outages. The basic characteristics and theoretical foundations of such decision support system are described and the reasons for choosing a data warehouse as the underlying structure are explained. The article analyzes obvious business benefits of such system as well as potential uses of OLAP and data mining technologies. Possible implementation methodologies and problems that may arise, especially in the field of data integration, are discussed and analyzed.(author)

  2. Social networking-based simulations for nuclear security: Strategy assessment following nuclear cyber terror on South Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Kwak, Sang Man

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cyber terror modeling is made by the social networking algorithm. • This is applicable by the social networking service (SNS). • Security of nuclear industry could be controlled by the network theory. • Newly developed complex algorithm can be introduced. • Simplified graphics show the operator easily. - Abstract: Nuclear energy has been studied for the secure power productions, which is based on the simulation study following the incident of nuclear cyber terror attack on South Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). The social networking is used for the terror incident modeling and its prevention strategies. The nuclear industry could be investigated in the aspect of minimizing the dangerous situations caused by possible terror attacks which are considered by the society oriented connectivity among the related people or groups. The social networking circle by system dynamics diagram (SNCSD) is constructed, where the configuration of a model social networking example by system dynamics (SD) is applied. From A to H regions, the values are obtained by the random numbers incorporated with the designed algorithms. The results show the comparative values of terror possibilities which are based on the proposed social networking algorithm. It is possible to prepare for potential terrorism in the nuclear industry

  3. Fabrication and Scale-up of Polybenzimidazole (PBI) Membrane Based System for Precombustion-Based Capture of Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Gopala; Jayaweera, Indira; Sanjrujo, Angel; O' Brien, Kevin; Callahan, Richard; Berchtold, Kathryn; Roberts, Daryl-Lynn; Johnson, Will

    2012-03-31

    The primary objectives of this project are to (1) demonstrate the performance and fabrication of a technically and economically viable pre-combustion-based CO{sub 2} capture system based on the high temperature stability and permeance of PBI membranes, (2) optimize a plan for integration of PBI capture system into an IGCC plant and (3) develop a commercialization plan that addresses technical issues and business issues to outline a clear path for technology transfer of the PBI membrane technology. This report describes research conducted from April 1, 2007 to March 30, 2012 and focused on achieving the above objectives. PBI-based hollow fibers have been fabricated at kilometer lengths and bundled as modules at a bench-scale level for the separation of CO{sub 2} from H{sub 2} at high temperatures and pressures. Long term stability of these fibers has been demonstrated with a relatively high H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity (35 to 50) and H{sub 2} permeance (80 GPU) at temperatures exceeding 225°C. Membrane performance simulations and systems analysis of an IGCC system incorporating a PBI hollow fiber membrane modules have demonstrated that the cost of electricity for CO{sub 2} capture (<10%) using such a high temperature separator. When the cost of transporting, storing, and monitoring the CO{sub 2} is accounted for, the increase in the COE is only 14.4%.

  4. Game-based training environment for nuclear plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung Tamin; Sun Tienlung; Yang Chihwei; Yang Lichen; Cheng Tsungchieh; Wang Jyhgang

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plant's safety is very important problem. In this very conscientious environment if operator has a little mistake, they may threaten with many people influence their safety. Therefore, operating training of control room is very important. However, the operator training is in limited space and time. Each operator must go to simulative control room do some training. If we can let each trainee having more time to do training and does not go to simulative control room. It may have some advantages for trainee. Moreover, in the traditional training ways, each operator may through the video, teaching manual or through the experienced instructor to learn the knowledge. This training way may let operator feel bored and stressful. So, in this paper aims, we hope utilizing virtual reality technology developing a game-based virtual training environment of control room. Finally, we will use presence questionnaire evaluating realism and feasibility of our virtual training environment. Expecting this initial concept of game-based virtual training environment can attract trainees having more learning motivation to do training in off-hour. (author)

  5. Computer-based systems for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humble, P.J.; Welbourne, D.; Belcher, G.

    1995-01-01

    The published intentions of vendors are for extensive touch-screen control and computer-based protection. The software features needed for acceptance in the UK are indicated. The defence in depth needed is analyzed. Current practice in aircraft flight control systems and the software methods available are discussed. Software partitioning and mathematically formal methods are appropriate for the structures and simple logic needed for nuclear power applications. The potential for claims of diversity and independence between two computer-based subsystems of a protection system is discussed. Features needed to meet a single failure criterion applied to software are discussed. Conclusions are given on the main factors which a design should allow for. The work reported was done for the Health and Safety Executive of the UK (HSE), and acknowledgement is given to them, to NNC Ltd and to GEC-Marconi Avionics Ltd for permission to publish. The opinions and recommendations expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of HSE. (Author)

  6. Development of data base system for nuclear material accountancy data at PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, N.; Akiba, Mitsunori; Nakagima, Kiyoshi; Usui, Shinichi; Tosa, Kiyofumi; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki.

    1993-01-01

    PNC is developing a wide area of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, much nuclear material with a various form exists at each facility in the Works, and the controls of the inventory changes and the physical inventories of nuclear material are important. Nuclear material accountancy is a basic measure in safeguards system based on Non-Proliferation Treaty(NPT). In the light of such importance of material accountancy, the data base of nuclear material control and the material accountancy report system for all facilities has been developed by using the computer. By this system, accountancy report to STA is being presented certainly and timely. Property management and rapid corresponding to inquiries from STA can be carried out by the data base system which has free item searching procedure. The present paper introduces 'Development of Data Base System for Nuclear Material Accountancy Data at PNC'. (author)

  7. Toward risk-based control of nuclear power plant configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Veseley, W.E.; Kim, I.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the configuration risks associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant and the approaches to control these risks using risk-based configuration control considerations. In that context, the actual and maximum potential configuration risks at a plant are analyzed and the alternative types criteria for a risk-based configuration control systems are described. The risk-based configuration calculations which are studied here focus on the core-melt frequency impacts from given plant configurations, the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases can be identified and controlled. The duration time in which the configuration can exist can then be limited or the core-melt frequency level associated with the configuration can be reduced by various actions. Futhermore, maintenances and tests can be scheduled to avoid the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases. Present technical specifications do not control many of these configurations which can cause large core-melt frequency increases but instead focus on many risk-unimportant allowed outage times. Hence, risk-based configuration management can be effectively used to reduce core-melt frequency associated risks at a plant and at the same time can provide flexibility in plant operation. The alternative strategies for controlling the core-melt frequency and other risk contributions include: (1) controlling the increased risk level which is associated with the configuration; (2) controlling the individual configuration risk which is associated with a given duration of a configuration; (3) controlling the time period configuration risk from configurations which occur in a time period. (orig.)

  8. Space nuclear reactor system diagnosis: Knowledge-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Y.T.D.

    1990-01-01

    SP-100 space nuclear reactor system development is a joint effort by the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The system is designed to operate in isolation for many years, and is possibly subject to little or no remote maintenance. This dissertation proposes a knowledge based diagnostic system which, in principle, can diagnose the faults which can either cause reactor shutdown or lead to another serious problem. This framework in general can be applied to the fully specified system if detailed design information becomes available. The set of faults considered herein is identified based on heuristic knowledge about the system operation. The suitable approach to diagnostic problem solving is proposed after investigating the most prevalent methodologies in Artificial Intelligence as well as the causal analysis of the system. Deep causal knowledge modeling based on digraph, fault-tree or logic flowgraph methodology would present a need for some knowledge representation to handle the time dependent system behavior. A proposed qualitative temporal knowledge modeling methodology, using rules with specified time delay among the process variables, has been proposed and is used to develop the diagnostic sufficient rule set. The rule set has been modified by using a time zone approach to have a robust system design. The sufficient rule set is transformed to a sufficient and necessary one by searching the whole knowledge base. Qualitative data analysis is proposed in analyzing the measured data if in a real time situation. An expert system shell - Intelligence Compiler is used to develop the prototype system. Frames are used for the process variables. Forward chaining rules are used in monitoring and backward chaining rules are used in diagnosis

  9. Standard specification for uranium oxides with a 235U content of less than 5 % for dissolution prior to conversion to nuclear-grade uranium dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers uranium oxides, including processed byproducts or scrap material (powder, pellets, or pieces), that are intended for dissolution into uranyl nitrate solution meeting the requirements of Specification C788 prior to conversion into nuclear grade UO2 powder with a 235U content of less than 5 %. This specification defines the impurity and uranium isotope limits for such urania powders that are to be dissolved prior to processing to nuclear grade UO2 as defined in Specification C753. 1.2 This specification provides the nuclear industry with a general standard for such uranium oxide powders. It recognizes the diversity of conversion processes and the processes to which such powders are subsequently to be subjected (for instance, by solvent extraction). It is therefore anticipated that it may be necessary to include supplementary specification limits by agreement between the buyer and seller. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for prevent...

  10. Experience-based innovations in management of nuclear power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.L.; Bradbury, R.B.; Freeman, D.V.; Jacobs, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    During 45 years of nuclear technology development and experience, Stone and Webster (S and W) has developed and successfully applied various innovative techniques to numerous nuclear projects. These techniques, developed primarily in response to the increasing scope and complexity of nuclear power plants, have been used and refined to provide efficient management of the two major nuclear project acticities-design and construction. For this paper, these techniques have been divided into: 1) engineering-based innovations, 2) construction-based innovations, and 3) management-based innovations. (author)

  11. Software design of automatic counting system for nuclear track based on mathematical morphology algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yi; Mao Wanchong

    2010-01-01

    The parameter measurement of nuclear track occupies an important position in the field of nuclear technology. However, traditional artificial counting method has many limitations. In recent years, DSP and digital image processing technology have been applied in nuclear field more and more. For the sake of reducing errors of visual measurement in artificial counting method, an automatic counting system for nuclear track based on DM642 real-time image processing platform is introduced in this article, which is able to effectively remove interferences from the background and noise points, as well as automatically extract nuclear track-points by using mathematical morphology algorithm. (authors)

  12. Consensus Based Nuclear Public-Hearing System Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young Wook Lee; Suk Hoon Kim; Young Ho Cho; Hyun Seok Ko; Dong Hoon Shin; Chang Sun Kang; Joo Hyun Moon

    2006-01-01

    Although the government admit the benefit of construction of a nuclear facility for national electric source, related policy could be developed and carried out only if the public, especially who have some stake on it, recognize the benefit and accept the policy. For public participation, Korea has a system of public-hearing in accordance with the law. Because of the absence of the detailed way for public opinion aggregation and for the reflection of the aggregated opinion, Korean public-hearing system is only a conceptual model. Therefore, some specific system for Korean Public-Hearing should be developed and applied. In this study, to share the right of decision making, which is an ultimate concept for public participation, decision making components and the characteristics of each phase are analyzed. The criteria weight for assessment and comparison with alternatives are founded as a valuation factor of the decision making components, which should be based on the social consensus. On these foundations, a system for aggregation and reflection of the public opinion was proposed. The system named 'CPDM' (Consensus based Participatory Decision Making) has three authority groups for decision making. At first, 'advisory experts group' play a role for the technical assessment and the serve utility value on the criteria for each alternatives. Next, 'participatory deliberation group' play a role for consensus building on the relative-importance (weight) between the criteria by feedback to promote degree of consensus. Lastly including gentlemen of the long robe, 'expert group for decision making' play a role to reflect the utility and weight and make a decision with agreement for performance of it. Also, in this study, a mathematical model for the quantification of the degree of consensus was conceptualized using Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) aggregation operator and fuzzy similarity theory, which is a comparison concept. Since this model enables influence of each

  13. Radionuclide release rate inversion of nuclear accidents in nuclear facility based on Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiuhuan; Bao Lihong; Li Hua; Wan Junsheng

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly and continually back-calculating source term is important for nuclear emergency response. The Gaussian multi-puff atmospheric dispersion model was used to produce regional environment monitoring data virtually, and then a Kalman filter was designed to inverse radionuclide release rate of nuclear accidents in nuclear facility and the release rate tracking in real time was achieved. The results show that the Kalman filter combined with Gaussian multi-puff atmospheric dispersion model can successfully track the virtually stable, linear or nonlinear release rate after being iterated about 10 times. The standard error of inversion results increases with the true value. Meanwhile extended Kalman filter cannot inverse the height parameter of accident release as interceptive error is too large to converge. Kalman filter constructed from environment monitoring data and Gaussian multi-puff atmospheric dispersion model can be applied to source inversion in nuclear accident which is characterized by static height and position, short and continual release in nuclear facility. Hence it turns out to be an alternative source inversion method in nuclear emergency response. (authors)

  14. A Microalgae-Based Platform for the Beneficial Re-use of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Mark; Groppo, Jack; Kesner, Stephanie; Mohler, Daniel; Pace, Robby; Santillan-Jimenez, Eduardo; Wilson, Michael; Schambach, Jenna; Stewart, Jennifer; Zeller, Ashton

    2018-02-02

    This project sought to address the technical and economic barriers to carbon dioxide capture and utilization using microalgae. Operating data were collected in 2016 and 2017 during cultivation of Scenedesmus acutus at Duke Energy’s East Bend Station – a coal-fired power plant located in northern Kentucky – using flue gas as the CO2 source. Algae were grown in a 1200 L “cyclic flow” photobioreactor (PBR) designed by the University of Kentucky. A key finding was that the harvested algae contained only very low concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Hg, Se), consistent with heavy metals incorporation from the supplied nutrients. This indicates that algal biomass produced from coal-derived flue gas would be suitable for a variety of applications, including the production of bioplastics, use as fertilizer, etc. A lifecycle assessment showed that the UK-designed PBR employed in this work qualifies as a net CO2 capture technology. Indeed, over a 30-year period, net CO2 capture would equate to 43% of the targeted amount, i.e., the amount captured from the supplied flue gas. A techno-economic analysis indicated that the minimum production cost of Scenedesmus acutus biomass in the US is in the order of $875/ton, excluding the cost of capital. While this figure is not too dissimilar to values reported for open raceway ponds in similar scenarios, it emphasizes that for current cultivation technology any pathway to economic viability will require applications for which algal boimass can be sold at prices in excess of $1,000/ton. Currently, such applications represent relatively small markets, such as pigments (e.g., astaxanthin) and nutraceuticals (ω-3 unsaturated fatty acids), as well as nutritional supplements (whole algae) for human consumption and for use in pet food. Consequently, the commercialization of large-scale algae-based CO2 capture and utilization will require the development of new technologies to reduce the cost of

  15. Note n. SD3-DEM-01 regulations procedures relative to the based nuclear installations dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This note aims to define the regulations procedures relative to the safety of based nuclear installations dismantling defined by the decree of the 11 december 1963 modified. The first part describes the two main phases of a based nuclear installation life, the operating and the dismantling phase. The second part is devoted to the procedures. (A.L.B.)

  16. Nuclear safety culture based on the organizational and individual culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingxi; Ren Ou

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear safety culture is used increasingly and developed by countries that have nu- clear plants all over the world, since the term 'safety culture' was first introduced by IAEA in 1986. Enterprises culture reflects many terms in an enterprise, such as management level and staff quality. The safety culture is the center in a nuclear enterprises culture, and relates directly to the safety and outstanding achievement of operation. This paper discusses the nuclear safety culture from the viewpoints of the organizational and individual cultures. (authors)

  17. Nuclear Research Institute Rez view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biza, K.; Pazdera, F.; Vasa, I.; Zdarek, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the present state and perspectives of nuclear energy in the Czech Republic and in the Slovak Republic. It is concluded that lifetime extension and finalization of Mochovce NPP Units 3 and 4 is the cheapest solution for base load production of electricity and is in line with the European union energy challenges: - decrease of carbon dioxide emissions; dependence on energy sources from politically unstable regions; decrease import dependence on energy sources. Nuclear energy is one of important sources for long term sustainability in energy. GEN IV is successful with meet the new requirements after 2025. We should participate on this long term development effort

  18. Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    2004-10-01

    This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision- making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested in the planning of actions to be taken. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore different types of protective actions should be considered. Altogether six workshops were organised in which all key players were represented, i.e., the authorities, expert organisations, industry and agricultural producers. The participants were those responsible for preparing advice or presenting matters for those responsible for the formal decision-making. Many preparatory meetings were held with various experts to prepare information for the workshops. It was considered essential that the set-up strictly follow the decision- making process to which the key players are accustomed. Key players or stakeholders comprise responsible administrators and organisations, politicians as well as representatives of the citizens affected and other persons who will and are likely to take part in decision-making in nuclear emergencies. The realistic nature and the disciplined process of a facilitated workshop and commitment to decision-making yielded up insight in many radiation protection issues. The objectives and attributes which are considered in a decision on protective actions were discussed in many occasions and were defined for different accident scenario to come. In the workshops intervention levels were derived according justification and optimisation

  19. Establishment of web-based Asian network for education in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K. W.; Lee, E. J.; Kim, Y. T.; Nam, Y. M.; Kim, H. K.

    2004-01-01

    The Korean nuclear community recognizes the importance of nuclear knowledge management and the essential role of nuclear manpower development. International cooperation in the field could be an important vehicle for the promotion of attracting the young generation, facilitating the accessibility of nuclear personnel to the international forum, developing the careers of nuclear personnel, upgrading education and training capabilities, and increasing the mutual benefits. The expected framework of future international cooperation for nuclear education and training may need to focus on the integration and sharing of available resources at national, regional and inter-regional levels. A good example of the IAEA activity set forth echoing the expectation is ANENT (Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology) using the web-based network

  20. Planning of the development of the MMIS core technology based on nuclear-IT convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Hwang, In Koo

    2012-01-01

    - Drive nuclear-IT convergence technologies such as middleware applied new concept nuclear instrumentation and control architecture, automated operation of future nuclear power plant, virtual reality/augmented reality, design and verification technology of a nuclear power plant main control room, software dependability, and cyber security technology - Write state-of-the-art report for the nuclear instrumentation and control based on IT convergence - A prototype which implemented related equipment and software subject to nuclear reactor operator that reside in the main control room (Reactor Operator, RO) order to a on-site operator (Local Operator, LO) and confirm the task performance matches the RO's intention - 'IT Convergence intelligent instrumentation and control technology' project planning for the Fourth Nuclear Power Research and Development in the long-term plan

  1. Construction of APR1000 nuclear power information management system based on international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Hwan [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Deok Yong; Han, Byung Sub [Enesys Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); An, Kyung Ik; Hwang, Jin Sang [PartDB Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In recent years, due to speedy rise of international oil prices, orders of nuclear power plant construction have been in progress by many countries to solve the stable supply of power. Our country has continued to perform nuclear power construction. As only a few developed countries like Japan and European countries have its own nuclear power construction technology, competition among them is keen. Our country has awarded the contract of UAE nuclear power plants based on the accumulated nuclear power plant construction technologies so far. In this regard, KEPCO has recognized the needs of information management system to manage nuclear power information and proceeded the implementation of nuclear power information management system for export-model

  2. Summary session D-3 - Nuclear based electric power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    1991-01-01

    There is a consensus among the authors in this session that nuclear power offers very great environmental benefits over conventional means of electric energy production. The papers deal largely with the key issues involved in capturing these potential benefits. The issues include: nuclear safety, nuclear power economics, and the regulation of the industry. Research and development for the future will concentrate on enhanced safety through simplified designs that reduce hardware, while taking advantage of natural processes for heat removal. Cost reductions will be achieved via simplification and imporved plant capacity. Long-duration generation cycles are anticipated for all reactor designs. An unresolved challenge for the future is the role of nuclear power in lesser developed countries. Current plants are too large and complex for use in small grids. It is unclear whether or not small, easy-to-operate, and ultrasafe systems can be made available. Until the industry regains commercial success, efforts in these directions are unlikely

  3. Standard specification for blended uranium oxides with 235U content of less than 5 % for direct hydrogen reduction to nuclear grade uranium dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers blended uranium trioxide (UO3), U3O8, or mixtures of the two, powders that are intended for conversion into a sinterable uranium dioxide (UO2) powder by means of a direct reduction process. The UO2 powder product of the reduction process must meet the requirements of Specification C 753 and be suitable for subsequent UO2 pellet fabrication by pressing and sintering methods. This specification applies to uranium oxides with a 235U enrichment less than 5 %. 1.2 This specification includes chemical, physical, and test method requirements for uranium oxide powders as they relate to the suitability of the powder for storage, transportation, and direct reduction to UO2 powder. This specification is applicable to uranium oxide powders for such use from any source. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for preventing criticality accidents, for health and safety, or for shipping. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of th...

  4. Extended Nuclear Deterrence for Europe Without Forward-based Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    financial costs of nuclear burden sharing, bolsters safety and security and further reduces proliferation risks. 22 Bibliography Bildt, Carl and... Sagan , Scott D. and Waltz, Kenneth N. The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate Renewed. W. W. Norton and Company New York, NY and London...Point. Center for International Relations, Reports and Analyses. Konrad-Adenauer Foundation, Warsaw, 2011, 2. 30 Bildt, Carl and Sikorski, Radek

  5. Future perspective of thorium based nuclear fuels and thorium potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unak, T.; Yildirim, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Today's nuclear technology has principally been based on the use of fissile U-235 and Pu-239. he existence of thorium in the nature and its potential use in the nuclear technology were not unfortunately into account with a sufficient importance. The global distributions of thorium and uranium reserves indicate that in general some developed countries such as the USA, Canada, Australia, France have considerable uranium reserves, and contrarily only some developing countries such as Turkey, Brazil, India, Egypt have considerable thorium reserves. The studies carried out on the thorium during the last 50 years have clearly showed that the thorium based nuclear fuels have the potential easily use in most of reactor types actually operated with the classical uranium based nuclear fuels without any considerable modification. In the case of the use of thorium based nuclear fuels in future nuclear energy production systems, the serious problems such as the excess of Pu-239, the proliferation potential of nuclear weapons, and also the anxious of nuclear terrorism will probably be resolved, and sustainable nuclear energy production will be realized in the next new century. (authors)

  6. Future perspective of thorium based nuclear fuels and thorium potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unak, T.; Yildirim, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Today's nuclear technology has principally been based on the use of fissile U-235 and Pu-239. The existence of thorium in the nature and its potential use in the nuclear technology were not unfortunately into account with a sufficient importance. The global distributions of thorium and uranium reserves indicate that in general some developed countries such as the USA, Canada, Australia, France have considerable uranium reserves, and contrarily only some developing countries such as Turkey, Brazil, India, Egypt have considerable thorium reserves. The studies carried out on the thorium during the last 50 years have clearly showed that the thorium based nuclear fuels have the potential easily use in most of reactor types actually operated with the classical uranium based nuclear fuels without any considerable modification. In the case of the use of thorium based nuclear fuels in future nuclear energy production systems, the serious problems such as the excess of Pu-239, the proliferation potential of nuclear weapons, and also the anxious of nuclear terrorism will probably be resolved, and sustainable nuclear energy production will be realized in the next new century. (authors)

  7. Differences in reactivity of epoxides in the copolymerisation with carbon dioxide by zinc-based catalysts: propylene oxide versus cyclohexene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehenmeier, Maximilian W; Bruckmeier, Christian; Klaus, Stephan; Dengler, Joachim E; Deglmann, Peter; Ott, Anna-Katharina; Rieger, Bernhard

    2011-08-01

    The homogeneous dinuclear zinc catalyst going back to the work of Williams et al. is to date the most active catalyst for the copolymerisation of cyclohexene oxide and CO(2) at one atmosphere of carbon dioxide. However, this catalyst shows no copolymer formation in the copolymerisation reaction of propylene oxide and carbon dioxide, instead only cyclic carbonate is found. This behaviour is known for many zinc-based catalysts, although the reasons are still unidentified. Within our studies, we focus on the parameters that are responsible for this typical behaviour. A deactivation of the catalyst due to a reaction with propylene oxide turns out to be negligible. Furthermore, the catalyst still shows poly(cyclohexene carbonate) formation in the presence of cyclic propylene carbonate, but the catalyst activity is dramatically reduced. In terpolymerisation reactions of CO(2) with different ratios of cyclohexene oxide to propylene oxide, no incorporation of propylene oxide can be detected, which can only be explained by a very fast back-biting reaction. Kinetic investigations indicate a complex reaction network, which can be manifested by theoretical investigations. DFT calculations show that the ring strains of both epoxides are comparable and the kinetic barriers for the chain propagation even favour the poly(propylene carbonate) over the poly(cyclohexene carbonate) formation. Therefore, the crucial step in the copolymerisation of propylene oxide and carbon dioxide is the back-biting reaction in the case of the studied zinc catalyst. The depolymerisation is several orders of magnitude faster for poly(propylene carbonate) than for poly(cyclohexene carbonate). Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Uranium Dioxides and Debris Fragments Released to the Environment with Cesium-Rich Microparticles from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Asumi; Imoto, Junpei; Suetake, Mizuki; Komiya, Tatsuki; Furuki, Genki; Ikehara, Ryohei; Yamasaki, Shinya; Law, Gareth T W; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Grambow, Bernd; Ewing, Rodney C; Utsunomiya, Satoshi

    2018-03-06

    Trace U was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) during the meltdowns, but the speciation of the released components of the nuclear fuel remains unknown. We report, for the first time, the atomic-scale characteristics of nanofragments of the nuclear fuels that were released from the FDNPP into the environment. Nanofragments of an intrinsic U-phase were discovered to be closely associated with radioactive cesium-rich microparticles (CsMPs) in paddy soils collected ∼4 km from the FDNPP. The nanoscale fuel fragments were either encapsulated by or attached to CsMPs and occurred in two different forms: (i) UO 2+X nanocrystals of ∼70 nm size, which are embedded into magnetite associated with Tc and Mo on the surface and (ii) Isometric (U,Zr)O 2+X nanocrystals of ∼200 nm size, with the U/(U+Zr) molar ratio ranging from 0.14 to 0.91, with intrinsic pores (∼6 nm), indicating the entrapment of vapors or fission-product gases during crystallization. These results document the heterogeneous physical and chemical properties of debris at the nanoscale, which is a mixture of melted fuel and reactor materials, reflecting the complex thermal processes within the FDNPP reactor during meltdown. Still CsMPs are an important medium for the transport of debris fragments into the environment in a respirable form.

  9. Research on development model of nuclear component based on life cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shiyi; Zhou Yu; He Shuyan

    2005-01-01

    At present the development process of nuclear component, even nuclear component itself, is more and more supported by computer technology. This increasing utilization of the computer and software has led to the faster development of nuclear technology on one hand and also brought new problems on the other hand. Especially, the combination of hardware, software and humans has increased nuclear component system complexities to an unprecedented level. To solve this problem, Life Cycle Management technology is adopted in nuclear component system. Hence, an intensive discussion on the development process of a nuclear component is proposed. According to the characteristics of the nuclear component development, such as the complexities and strict safety requirements of the nuclear components, long-term design period, changeable design specifications and requirements, high capital investment, and satisfaction for engineering codes/standards, the development life-cycle model of nuclear component is presented. The development life-cycle model is classified at three levels, namely, component level development life-cycle, sub-component development life-cycle and component level verification/certification life-cycle. The purposes and outcomes of development processes are stated in detailed. A process framework for nuclear component based on system engineering and development environment of nuclear component is discussed for future research work. (authors)

  10. The Status of Development on a Web-Based Nuclear Material Accounting System at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byungdoo; Kim, Inchul; Lee, Seungho; Kim, Hyunjo

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Safeguards (IS) has been applied to 10 nuclear facilities and 1 location outside facility (LOF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since July 2008. One of the major changes in the implementation of safeguards under the IS is to apply the concept of a Random Interim Inspection (RII) instead of an interim inspection. The RII plan is notified within a few hours under the IS. It is thus difficult for facility operators to prepare the inspection documents within a short time if they do not periodically manage and process the nuclear material accounting data at each facility. To resolve these issues, KAERI developed a Web-based accounting system with the function of a near real-time accounting (NRTA) system to effectively and efficiently manage the nuclear material accounting data produced at the nuclear facilities and cope with a short notice inspection under the IS, called KASIS (KAeri Safeguards Information treatment System). The facility operators must input the accounting data on the inventory changes, which are the transfers of nuclear materials among the nuclear facilities and the chemical/physical composition changes, into the KASIS. KAERI also established an RFID system for controlling and managing the transfer of nuclear material and/or radioactive materials between the nuclear facilities for the purpose of nuclear safety management, and developed the nuclear material accounting system with the functions of inventory management of nuclear material at the facility level

  11. Knowledge-based operation guidance system for nuclear power plants based on generic task methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Naoyuki; Chandrasekaran, B.; Bhatnager, R.

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge-based system for operation guidance of nuclear power plants is proposed. The Dynamic Procedure Management System (DPMS) is designed and developed to assist human operators interactively by selecting and modifying predefined operation procedures in a dynamic situation. Unlike most operation guidance systems, DPMS has been built based on Generic Task Methodology, which makes the overall framework of the system perspicuous and also lets domain knowledge be represented in a natural way. This paper describes the organization of the system, the definition of each task, and the form and organization of knowledge, followed by an application example. (author)

  12. Nuclear group constant set FUSION-J3 for fusion reactor nuclear calculations based on JENDL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Koichi; Seki, Yasushi; Kosako, Kazuaki; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu.

    1991-03-01

    Based on evaluated nuclear data file JENDL-3, published in April 1990, we produced a nuclear group constant set 'FUSION-J3' for fusion reactor nuclear calculation by ANISN code instead of GICX40 produced in 1977. The set FUSION-J3 is the coupled group constant set with neutron 125 and gamma-ray 40 group structure, and has the maximum order of 5 as Legendre expansion in scattering cross section. Forty nuclides included in FUSION-J3 can be used in fusion reactor nuclear calculations. Considering mobility in two-dimensional calculations and fixed group structure in induced activity calculation code system as the GICX40 structure, we composed also FUSION-40 group constant set with neutron 42 group and gamma-ray 21 group structure. The set FUSION-40 includes the same maximum order of the Legendre expansion and the same nuclides as FUSION-J3. From the results in experimental analysis and benchmark calculations, it became proved that JENDL-3 is at higher level of accuracy than ENDF/B-IV and -V. The set FUSION-J3 can be clear applicable to fusion reactor nuclear calculations. (author)

  13. Energy payback period and carbon dioxide emissions in different power generation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivistoe, A.

    1995-01-01

    The energy payback period, efficiency factor and carbon dioxide emissions in different power generation methods were studied. Nuclear, coal, peat, natural gas, wind and photovoltaic power were examined. To calculate the energy payback period of power generation, the energy inputs of different power generation methods were examined by using hybrid analysis, which is a combination of process analysis and the input-output method. The energy inputs of power generation were examined starting from raw material and fuel resources in the soil and ending up in the power station. The study also considered the handling of spent fuel and combustion residues. The energy payback periods were as follows: nuclear power 20-33 months, coal power 33 months, peat power 26-27 months, gas power 21-27 months, wind power 7 months and photovoltaic power 60-95 months. The energy payback period of nuclear power was strongly influenced by the uranium enrichment method. In natural gas power the energy payback period was influenced by the amount of natural gas used as fuel in compression stations and production fields and in photovoltaic power by the semiconductor material of the cells. The most significant carbon dioxide emissions were produced in the power generation methods based on combustion. Depending on the way of examination, both nuclear power, wind power and photovoltaic power produce carbon dioxide emissions, but on a significantly lower level. (author)

  14. Carbon dioxide and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  15. Template-Assisted Wet-Combustion Synthesis of Fibrous Nickel-Based Catalyst for Carbon Dioxide Methanation and Methane Steam Reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghayan, M; Potemkin, D I; Rubio-Marcos, F; Uskov, S I; Snytnikov, P V; Hussainova, I

    2017-12-20

    Efficient capture and recycling of CO 2 enable not only prevention of global warming but also the supply of useful low-carbon fuels. The catalytic conversion of CO 2 into an organic compound is a promising recycling approach which opens new concepts and opportunities for catalytic and industrial development. Here we report about template-assisted wet-combustion synthesis of a one-dimensional nickel-based catalyst for carbon dioxide methanation and methane steam reforming. Because of a high temperature achieved in a short time during reaction and a large amount of evolved gases, the wet-combustion synthesis yields homogeneously precipitated nanoparticles of NiO with average particle size of 4 nm on alumina nanofibers covered with a NiAl 2 O 4 nanolayer. The as-synthesized core-shell structured fibers exhibit outstanding activity in steam reforming of methane and sufficient activity in carbon dioxide methanation with 100% selectivity toward methane formation. The as-synthesized catalyst shows stable operation under the reaction conditions for at least 50 h.

  16. A review on the status of development in thorium-based nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Woo; Na, S. H.; Lee, Y. W.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Joung, C.Y

    2000-02-01

    Thorium as an alternative nuclear energy source had been widely investigated in the 1950s-1960s because it is more abundant than uranium, but the studies of thorium nuclear fuel cycle were discontinued by political and economic reasons in the 1970s. Recently, however, renewed interest was vested in thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle because it may generate less long-lived minor actinides and has a lower radiotoxicity of high level wastes after reprocessing compared with the thorium fuel cycle. In this state-of the art report, thorium-based nuclear cycle. In this state-of the art report, thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle and fuel fabrication processes developed so far with different reactor types are reviewed and analyzed to establish basic technologies of thorium fuel fabrication which could meet our situation. (author)

  17. Hydrogen production by dry reforming of methane with carbon dioxide in one-dimensional nickel-based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez U, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is development of nickel catalysts supported over 1D matrix of cerium oxide, to be used in dry reforming methane reaction with carbon dioxide for hydrogen production. The catalysts were characterized by: Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), Scanning Electronic Microscopy (Sem), Surface Area (Bet method) an X Ray Diffraction (XRD). The TPR technique allowed to define reduction temperature of the active phase in the catalyst, Sem technique showed that the CeO 2 matrix had a nano rod morphology. XRD allowed to identify the crystalline phases of the catalysts. Finally, the catalysts were tested in the dry reforming methane reaction, high catalytic activity and hydrogen production were performed at 700 degrees Celsius and the catalyst with 30 wt.% of nickel. (Author)

  18. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, N.; Azizah, N. [Institute of Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar Perlis (Malaysia); Hashim, U., E-mail: uda@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar Perlis (Malaysia); School of Microelctronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  19. Dye sensitized solar cell based on environmental friendly eosin Y dye and Al doped titanium dioxide nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Swati S.; Bodkhe, Gajanan A.; Shirsat, Sumedh M.; Hussaini, S. S.; Shejwal, N. N.; Shirsat, Mahendra D.

    2018-03-01

    Present communication deals with the development of cost effective dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with eco-friendly materials. Eco-friendly Eosin Y dye was used to sensitize photo anode which was fabricated using undoped and Aluminium doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. Undoped and Aluminium doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by simple and cost effective sol-gel method. Aluminium doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, x-ray Diffraction, and Scanning Electron Micrograph with EDX. The photo-voltaic activity of the cell was studied under light irradiation of 100 milliwatt cm-2. Aluminium doped TiO2 nanoparticle photo electrode exhibits more than 60% increase in cell efficiency as compared to the undoped TiO2 nanoparticle photo electrode.

  20. Study of a QCM Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sensor Based on a ZnO-Modified Nanowire-Structured Manganese Dioxide Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhifu; Ma, Xingfa; Ding, Pengfei; Zhang, Wuming; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive, selective and fast detection of chemical warfare agents is necessary for anti-terrorism purposes. In our search for functional materials sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a simulant of sarin and other toxic organophosphorus compounds, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO) modification potentially enhances the absorption of DMMP on a manganese dioxide (MnO2) surface. The adsorption behavior of DMMP was evaluated through the detection of tiny organophosphonate compounds with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors coated with ZnO-modified MnO2 nanofibers and pure MnO2 nanofibers. Experimental results indicated that the QCM sensor coated with ZnO-modified nanostructured MnO2 film exhibited much higher sensitivity and better selectivity in comparison with the one coated with pure MnO2 nanofiber film. Therefore, the DMMP sensor developed with this composite nanostructured material should possess excellent selectivity and reasonable sensitivity towards the tiny gaseous DMMP species. PMID:22163653

  1. In-plant reliability data base for nuclear power plant components: data collection and methodology report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, J.P.; Borkowski, R.J.; Pike, D.H.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1982-07-01

    The development of a component reliability data for use in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessments and reliabiilty studies is presented in this report. The sources of the data are the in-plant maintenance work request records from a sample of nuclear power plants. This data base is called the In-Plant Reliability Data (IPRD) system. Features of the IPRD system are compared with other data sources such as the Licensee Event Report system, the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data system, and IEEE Standard 500. Generic descriptions of nuclear power plant systems formulated for IPRD are given

  2. A multichannel nuclear data acquisition system based on STD Bus microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huanyu

    1989-01-01

    A multichannel nuclear data acquisition system based on STD Bus microcomputer is seated. The system is characterized by advanced performance, great flexibility, compact struture, low power dissipation and easy system expansion and maintenance. It can operate to grim environment and is suitable for intermediate or small scale systems in nuclear physics, particle physics, nuclear medicine, high energy cosmic ray study, astrophysics experiments etc. The system is also able to fit the educational system and front-terminal parts for large scale nuclear experiment system

  3. Nuclear material enrichment identification method based on cross-correlation and high order spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fan; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Mi Deling; Ren Yong

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the sensitivity of nuclear material identification system (NMIS) against the change of nuclear material enrichment, the principle of high order statistic feature is introduced and applied to traditional NMIS. We present a new enrichment identification method based on cross-correlation and high order spectrum algorithm. By applying the identification method to NMIS, the 3D graphs with nuclear material character are presented and can be used as new signatures to identify the enrichment of nuclear materials. The simulation result shows that the identification method could suppress the background noises, electronic system noises, and improve the sensitivity against enrichment change to exponential order with no system structure modification. (authors)

  4. Carbon dioxide disposal in solid form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Sharp, D.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wendt, C.H. [Auxon Corp., (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal reserves can provide for the world`s energy needs for centuries. However, coal`s long term use may be severely curtailed if the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not eliminated. We present a safe and permanent method of carbon dioxide disposal that is based on combining carbon dioxide chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. We discuss the availability of raw materials and potential process designs. We consider our initial rough cost estimate of about 3{cents}/kWh encouraging. The availability of a carbon dioxide fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming, or the perception of global warming, causes severe restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. If the increased energy demand of a growing world population is to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of such a technology would quite likely be unavoidable.

  5. Nuclear reactor power as applied to a space-based radar mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.

    1988-01-01

    A space-based radar mission and spacecraft are examined to determine system requirements for a 300 kWe space nuclear reactor power system. The spacecraft configuration and its orbit, launch vehicle, and propulsion are described. Mission profiles are addressed, and storage in assembly orbit is considered. Dynamics and attitude control and the problems of nuclear and thermal radiation are examined.

  6. Nuclear equipment recalsification based on the service experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geambasu, A.; Segarceanu, D.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents some considerations concerning the need of comparison between equipment performance proven by test and the service experience in Cernavoda Nuclear Plant. Service performance dana obtain partly from service failures (failures times) and partly from service experience without failure (running times) can be statistically analyzed to obtain predictions of the number of failures of unfailed units in specified period of time, means time to first failure, means time of median failure, a.s.o. These informations can be used during the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to estimate when a equipment should be replaced with a new one in order to prevent getting to the life end point. (author)

  7. Nuclear reactor based space systems - 100 kW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.; Kurpanek, D.

    1987-01-01

    The 100-kW-output class nuclear space power reactors presently discussed are not only a cost-effective solution to energy requirements of that magnitude, but also viable in the near future. In the nuclear power systems envisioned, the reactor is used as a heat source for primary power; this thermal power output's conversion to electrical power can be accomplished by such means as the thermionic, thermoelectric, and thermodynamic (heat engine). Attention is presently given to in-reactor-core thermionic, out-of-reactor core thermoelectric, and Stirling cycle out-of-reactor heat engine systems. Each of the three approaches has inherent advantages and penalties

  8. A Web-Based Nuclear Criticality Safety Bibliographic Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, B L; Huang, S

    2007-01-01

    A bibliographic criticality safety database of over 13,000 records is available on the Internet as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) website. This database is easy to access via the Internet and gets substantial daily usage. This database and other criticality safety resources are available at ncsp.llnl.gov. The web database has evolved from more than thirty years of effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), beginning with compilations of critical experiment reports and American Nuclear Society Transactions

  9. Report of the Carbon Dioxide Committee II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Committee was given the task of preparing a suggestion of the acts aimed at reducing the greenhouse gas emissions and increasing the sinks of carbon in Finland. Emissions of all greenhouse gases were in 1990 80 million tons. calculated as carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide emissions were about 58 million tons of the total. The increase of forest resources binds carbon from the atmosphere and reduces thereby net emissions of Finland at present by nearly 30 million tons of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide emissions will grow during the next decades, unless strong measures to control them will not be taken. As a result of the Commissions examination, acts will be needed both in the production of energy and in its consumption. Emissions can be reduced by replacing fossil fuels with nuclear energy, bioenergy and other renewable energy sources. Saving of energy and improvement of energy efficiency will limit carbon dioxide emissions. The Commission has made suggestions both to change the structure of energy production and to control the consumption of energy. (orig.)

  10. Status of Nuclear Science Education and the Needs for Competency Based Education at the Beginning of Nuclear Power Programme in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yücel, H.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In Turkey, in recent years, public opinion is mostly positive towards the establishment of NPPs because electricity demand is ever-increasing with a growing population and developing economy. For peaceful nuclear energy use, Turkey ratified the NPT in 1979 and has had a safeguards agreement, and its Additional Protocol since 2001. However, Turkey has not accumulated the essential nuclear knowledge and experience until now. The present nuclear education and training programmes are not focused on nuclear safety and power technology. There is lack of competencies concerned with measuring and monitoring, instrumentation and control for a safe operation of a reactor, and other specific nuclear equipment and facilities on site. The urgent needs should be determined to commence a competency based education in which the younger generations will instill confidence to nuclear technology. In nuclear training and education programs, it should be given a priority to nuclear safety and security culture. This should be a key requirement for newcomers to nuclear technology. In this presentation, the present status of nuclear science education in Turkey is discussed briefly and the fundamental arguments are dealt to focus on competency based nuclear education. Within international community, Turkey can seek collaborations and can consider the new challenges to tackle with the present difficulties in nuclear education programmes as a newcomer country. (author

  11. Nuclear reactor power control system based on flexibility model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gang; Zhao Fuyu; Li Chong; Tai Yun

    2011-01-01

    Design the nuclear reactor power control system in this paper to cater to a nonlinear nuclear reactor. First, calculate linear power models at five power levels of the reactor as five local models and design controllers of the local models as local controllers. Every local controller consists of an optimal controller contrived by the toolbox of Optimal Controller Designer (OCD) and a proportion-integration-differentiation (PID) controller devised via Genetic Algorithm (GA) to set parameters of the PID controller. According to the local models and controllers, apply the principle of flexibility model developed in the paper to obtain the flexibility model and the flexibility controller at every power level. Second, the flexibility model and the flexibility controller at a level structure the power control system of this level. The set of the whole power control systems corresponding to global power levels is to approximately carry out the power control of the reactor. Finally, the nuclear reactor power control system is simulated. The simulation result shows that the idea of flexibility model is feasible and the nuclear reactor power control system is effective. (author)

  12. Nuclear track-based biosensors with the enzyme laccase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia-Arellano, H.; Fink, Dietmar; Hernandez, G. M.; Vacík, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Alfonta, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 310, SI (2014), s. 66-76 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Biosensor * Laaccase * nuclear tracks * Phenolic compounds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  13. Low-energy nuclear reactions with double-solenoid- based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solenoids to produce low-energy radioactive nuclear beams. In these systems the solenoids act as thick lenses to collect, select, and focus the secondary beam into a scattering cham- ber. Many experiments with radioactive light particle beams (RNB) such as 6He, 7Be,. 8Li, 8B have been performed at these two facilities.

  14. Decommissioning process of nuclear power plants and legislative base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachovsky, J.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper contains some considerations about applicability and completeness of existing Regulation No. 10 in the field of decommissioning of nuclear power plants. No pretence exists for comprehensiveness, representativeness, or even applicability of these considerations. This paper presents personal views of the author and not official position of Risk Engineering Ltd

  15. An investigation on technical bases of emergency plan zone determination of Qinshan Nuclear Power Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Xuyi

    2000-01-01

    According to the general principal and the basic method of determination of emergency zone and safety criteria and in the light of the environmental and accidental release characteristic of Qinshan Nuclear Power Base, the expectation dose of assumed accident of each plant was compared and analyzed. In consideration of the impact factor of the size of emergency plan zone and referring to the information of emergency plan zone determination of other country in the world, the suggestions of determination method of emergency plan zone are proposed

  16. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.

    1990-01-01

    Written from the basis of neutrality, neither for nor against nuclear power this book considers whether there are special features of nuclear power which mean that its development should be either promoted or restrained by the State. The author makes it dear that there are no easy answers to the questions raised by the intervention of nuclear power but calls for openness in the nuclear decision making process. First, the need for energy is considered; most people agree that energy is the power to progress. Then the historicalzed background to the current position of nuclear power is given. Further chapters consider the fuel cycle, environmental impacts including carbon dioxide emission and the greenhouse effect, the costs, safety and risks and waste disposal. No conclusion either for or against nuclear power is made. The various shades of opinion are outlined and the arguments presented so that readers can come to their own conclusions. (UK)

  17. Virucidal Activity of Fogged Chlorine Dioxide- and Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Disinfectants against Human Norovirus and Its Surrogate, Feline Calicivirus, on Hard-to-Reach Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Montazeri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human norovirus (NoV is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Norovirus is shed in high numbers in the feces and vomitous of infected individuals. Contact surfaces contaminated with bodily fluids harboring infectious virus particles serve as vehicles for pathogen transmission. Environmental stability of NoV and its resistance to many conventional disinfectants necessitate effective inactivation strategies to control the spread of virus. We investigated the efficacy of two commercial disinfectants, hydrogen peroxide (7.5% and a chlorine dioxide (0.2%-surfactant-based product using a fogging delivery system against human NoV GI.6 and GII.4 Sydney strains as well as the cultivable surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV dried on stainless steel coupons. Log10 reductions in human NoV and FCV were calculated utilizing RNase RT-qPCR and infectivity (plaque assay, respectively. An improved antiviral activity of hydrogen peroxide as a function of disinfectant formulation concentration in the atmosphere was observed against both GII.4 and FCV. At 12.4 ml/m3, hydrogen peroxide achieved a respective 2.5 ± 0.1 and 2.7 ± 0.3 log10 reduction in GI.6 and GII.4 NoV genome copies, and a 4.3 ± 0.1 log10 reduction in infectious FCV within 5 min. At the same disinfectant formulation concentration, chlorine dioxide-surfactant-based product resulted in a respective 1.7 ± 0.2, 0.6 ± 0.0, and 2.4 ± 0.2 log10 reduction in GI.6, GII.4, and FCV within 10 min; however, increasing the disinfectant formulation concentration to 15.9 ml/m3 negatively impacted its efficacy. Fogging uniformly delivered the disinfectants throughout the room, and effectively decontaminated viruses on hard-to-reach surfaces. Hydrogen peroxide delivered by fog showed promising virucidal activity against FCV by meeting the United States EPA 4-log10 reduction criteria for an anti-noroviral disinfectant; however, fogged chlorine dioxide-surfactant-based product did not achieve

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of EdF's Tricastin operational hot base nuclear facilities (BCOT) - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the Tricastin operational hot base facility (INB no. 157, Bollene, Vaucluse (FR)), a nuclear workshop for storage and maintenance and qualification operations on some EdF equipments. Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facility are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, if some, are reported as well as the effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility is presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  19. Carbon dioxide as chemical feedstock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aresta, M

    2010-01-01

    ... Dioxide as an Inert Solvent for Chemical Syntheses 15 Alessandro Galia and Giuseppe Filardo Introduction 15 Dense Carbon Dioxide as Solvent Medium for Chemical Processes 15 Enzymatic Catalysis in Dense Carbon Dioxide 18 Other Reactions in Dense Carbon Dioxide 19 Polymer Synthesis in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide 20 Chain Polymerizations: Synt...

  20. The virtual digital nuclear power plant: A modern tool for supporting the lifecycle of VVER-based nuclear power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadov, G. V.; Zhukavin, A. P.; Kroshilin, A. E.; Parshikov, I. A.; Solov'ev, S. L.; Shishov, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The article describes the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based Nuclear Power Plant" computerized system comprising a totality of verified initial data (sets of input data for a model intended for describing the behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) systems in design and emergency modes of their operation) and a unified system of new-generation computation codes intended for carrying out coordinated computation of the variety of physical processes in the reactor core and NPP equipment. Experiments with the demonstration version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system has shown that it is in principle possible to set up a unified system of computation codes in a common software environment for carrying out interconnected calculations of various physical phenomena at NPPs constructed according to the standard AES-2006 project. With the full-scale version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system put in operation, the concerned engineering, design, construction, and operating organizations will have access to all necessary information relating to the NPP power unit project throughout its entire lifecycle. The domestically developed commercial-grade software product set to operate as an independently operating application to the project will bring about additional competitive advantages in the modern market of nuclear power technologies.

  1. Sampling-based nuclear data uncertainty quantification for continuous energy Monte-Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, T.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the uncertainty of nuclear data is motivated by practical necessity. Nuclear data uncertainties can propagate through nuclear system simulations into operation and safety related parameters. The tolerance for uncertainties in nuclear reactor design and operation can affect the economic efficiency of nuclear power, and essentially its sustainability. The goal of the present PhD research is to establish a methodology of nuclear data uncertainty quantification (NDUQ) for MCNPX, the continuous-energy Monte-Carlo (M-C) code. The high fidelity (continuous-energy treatment and flexible geometry modelling) of MCNPX makes it the choice of routine criticality safety calculations at PSI/LRS, but also raises challenges for NDUQ by conventional sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) methods. For example, only recently in 2011, the capability of calculating continuous energy κ eff sensitivity to nuclear data was demonstrated in certain M-C codes by using the method of iterated fission probability. The methodology developed during this PhD research is fundamentally different from the conventional S/U approach: nuclear data are treated as random variables and sampled in accordance to presumed probability distributions. When sampled nuclear data are used in repeated model calculations, the output variance is attributed to the collective uncertainties of nuclear data. The NUSS (Nuclear data Uncertainty Stochastic Sampling) tool is based on this sampling approach and implemented to work with MCNPX’s ACE format of nuclear data, which also gives NUSS compatibility with MCNP and SERPENT M-C codes. In contrast, multigroup uncertainties are used for the sampling of ACE-formatted pointwise-energy nuclear data in a groupwise manner due to the more limited quantity and quality of nuclear data uncertainties. Conveniently, the usage of multigroup nuclear data uncertainties allows consistent comparison between NUSS and other methods (both S/U and sampling-based) that employ the same

  2. A web-based e-learning framework for public perception and acceptance on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yangping; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Liu Jingquan; Ouyang, Jun; Lu Daogang

    2005-01-01

    Now, public acceptance plays a central role in the nuclear energy. Public concerns on safety and sustainability of nuclear energy, ground nuclear power in many countries and territories to a stop or even a downfall. In this study, an e-learning framework by using Internet, is proposed for public education in order to boost public perception on nuclear energy, which will certainly affect public acceptance toward it. This study aims at investigating public perception and acceptance on nuclear energy in a continuous and accurate manner. In addition, this e-learning framework can promote public perception on nuclear energy by using teaching material with a graphical hierarchy about knowledge of nuclear energy. This web-based e-learning framework mainly consists of two components: (1) an e-learning support module which continuously investigates public perception and acceptance toward nuclear energy and teaches public knowledge about nuclear energy; (2) an updating module which may improve the education materials by analyzing the effect of education or proving the materials submitted by the visitors through Wiki pages. Advantages and future work of this study are also generally described. (author)

  3. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laser-Based Characterization of Nuclear Fuel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Smith; David L. Cottle; Barry H. Rabin

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring the integrity of fuel-clad and clad-clad bonding in nuclear fuels is important for safe reactor operation and assessment of fuel performance, yet the measurement of bond strengths in actual fuels has proved challenging. The laser shockwave technique (LST) originally developed to characterize structural adhesion in composites is being employed to characterize interface strength in a new type of plate fuel being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large-amplitude acoustic waves and is well suited for application to both fresh and irradiated nuclear-fuel plates. This paper will report on initial characterization results obtained from fresh fuel plates manufactured by different processes, including hot isostatic pressing, friction stir welding, and hot rolling.

  5. Nuclear power plant safety improvement based on hydrogen technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Aminov, R.Z.; Yurin, V.E.

    2015-01-01

    An effective application for hydrogen technologies at nuclear power plants is proposed, which improves the plant maneuverability during normal operation, and provides for in-house power supply during the plant blackout. The reliability of the NPP's emergency power supply was assessed probabilistically for the plant blackout conditions with the simultaneous use of an auxiliary full-time operating steam turbine and the emergency power supply system channels with diesel generators. The proposed ...

  6. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: new applications in the quantification and assessment of polysaccharide-based vaccine intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, Raine; Velez, Herman; Verez, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance has become the choice for structural studies, identity assays and simultaneous quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredient of different polysaccharide-based vaccine. In the last two decades, the application of quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance had an increasing impact to support several quantification necessities. The technique involves experiments with several modified parameters in order to obtain spectra with quantifiable signals. The present review is supported by some recent relevant reports and it discusses several applications of NMR in carbohydrate-based vaccines. Moreover, it emphasizes and describes several parameters and applications of quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

  7. Graphics-based nuclear facility modeling and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rod, S.R.

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear waste management facilities are characterized by their complexity, many unprecedented features, and numerous competing design requirements. This paper describes the development of comprehensive descriptive databases and three-dimensional models of nuclear waste management facilities and applies the database/model to an example facility. The important features of the facility database/model are its abilities to (1) process large volumes of site data, plant data, and nuclear material inventory data in an efficient, integrated manner; (2) produce many different representations of the data to fulfill information needs as they arise; (3) create a complete three-dimensional solid model of the plant with all related information readily accessible; and (4) support complete, consistent inventory control and plant configuration control. While the substantive heart of the system is the database, graphic visualization of the data vastly improves the clarity of the information presented. Graphic representations are a convenient framework for the presentation of plant and inventory data, allowing all types of information to be readily located and presented in a manner that is easily understood. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Glow Discharge Plasma-Assisted Preparation of Nickel-Based Catalyst for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Chu, Wei; Xu, Jun-qiang; Zhong, Lin

    2008-10-01

    A plasma-assisted method was employed to prepare Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalyst for carbon dioxide reforming of methane reaction. The novel catalyst possessed higher activity and better coke-suppression performance than those of the conventional calcination catalyst. To achieve the same CH4 conversion, the conventional catalyst needed higher reaction temperature, about 50°C higher than that of the N2 plasma-treated catalyst. After the evaluation test, the deactivation rate of the novel catalyst was 1.7%, compared with 15.2% for the conventional catalyst. Different from the characterization results of the calcined catalyst, a smaller average pore diameter and a higher specific surface area were obtained for the plasma-treated catalyst. The variations of the reduction peak temperatures and areas indicated that the catalyst reducibility was promoted by plasma assistance. The dispersion of nickel was also remarkably improved, which was helpful for controlling the ensemble size of metal atoms on the catalyst surface. The modification effect of plasma-assisted preparation on the surface property of alumina supported catalyst was speculated to account for the concentration increase of absorbed CO2. An enhancement of CO2 adsorption was propitious to the inhibition of carbon formation. The coke amount deposited on plasma treated catalyst was much smaller than that on the conventional catalyst.

  9. Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) Phenol Compounds Degradation by Means of a Visible Light Activated Titanium Dioxide-Based Photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Francesca; Venditti, Francesco; Cinelli, Giuseppe; Ceglie, Andrea; Lopez, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    The use of titanium dioxide as heterogeneous photocatalyst is drawing considerable attention for water and air purification and remediation. Recently, TiO2 particles have been modified in order to make this material attractive for industrial and environmental remediation usage. In the present study, phenolic compounds of olive mill wastewater (OMW) were degraded in the presence of glucose-doped titanium particles (CDT) through a photocatalysis process activated by visible light. The photocatalyst effectiveness towards the polluted wastewater from olive oil industry was tested on systems having different initial concentrations of phenols and in the presence of different amounts of CDT. For kinetic analysis the role of Ti/TPh ratio (amount of catalyst/amount of total phenols) was investigated. The rate constant (k2) and the amounts of species adsorbed on adsorbent at equilibrium (qe) of each reaction were calculated by fitting kinetics data to a second-order kinetic adsorption model. The results collected at different Ti/TPh ratios showed that the amount of phenols that can be removed from the water solution linearly increases with the Ti/TPh ratio till a maximum value (optimal ratio) at which no further degradation of phenolic compounds was obtainable. Such kind of parameter allows to identify the optimal value of catalyst and the initial substrate concentration for a high level of degradation. The results showed in this study can have an important impact for an applicative point of view.

  10. Comparison and analysis of zinc and cobalt-based systems as catalytic entities for the hydration of carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Y Lau

    Full Text Available In nature, the zinc metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase II (CAII efficiently catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2 to bicarbonate under physiological conditions. Many research efforts have been directed towards the development of small molecule mimetics that can facilitate this process and thus have a beneficial environmental impact, but these efforts have met very limited success. Herein, we undertook quantum mechanical calculations of four mimetics, 1,5,9-triazacyclododedacane, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododedacane, tris(4,5-dimethyl-2-imidazolylphosphine, and tris(2-benzimidazolylmethylamine, in their complexed form either with the Zn(2+ or the Co(2+ ion and studied their reaction coordinate for CO2 hydration. These calculations demonstrated that the ability of the complex to maintain a tetrahedral geometry and bind bicarbonate in a unidentate manner were vital for the hydration reaction to proceed favorably. Furthermore, these calculations show that the catalytic activity of the examined zinc complexes was insensitive to coordination states for zinc, while coordination states above four were found to have an unfavorable effect on product release for the cobalt counterparts.

  11. Comparison and analysis of zinc and cobalt-based systems as catalytic entities for the hydration of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edmond Y; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Bearinger, Jane P; Koziol, Lucas; Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Joseph H; Aines, Roger D; Lightstone, Felice C

    2013-01-01

    In nature, the zinc metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) efficiently catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to bicarbonate under physiological conditions. Many research efforts have been directed towards the development of small molecule mimetics that can facilitate this process and thus have a beneficial environmental impact, but these efforts have met very limited success. Herein, we undertook quantum mechanical calculations of four mimetics, 1,5,9-triazacyclododedacane, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododedacane, tris(4,5-dimethyl-2-imidazolyl)phosphine, and tris(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine, in their complexed form either with the Zn(2+) or the Co(2+) ion and studied their reaction coordinate for CO2 hydration. These calculations demonstrated that the ability of the complex to maintain a tetrahedral geometry and bind bicarbonate in a unidentate manner were vital for the hydration reaction to proceed favorably. Furthermore, these calculations show that the catalytic activity of the examined zinc complexes was insensitive to coordination states for zinc, while coordination states above four were found to have an unfavorable effect on product release for the cobalt counterparts.

  12. The Development of Non-Enzymatic Glucose Biosensors Based on Electrochemically Prepared Polypyrrole–Chitosan–Titanium Dioxide Nanocomposite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. A. Abdul Amir AL-Mokaram

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a modified electrode of nanocomposite films consisting of polypyrrole–chitosan–titanium dioxide (Ppy-CS-TiO2 has been explored for the developing a non-enzymatic glucose biosensors. The synergy effect of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs and conducting polymer on the current responses of the electrode resulted in greater sensitivity. The incorporation of TiO2 NPs in the nanocomposite films was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS spectra. FE-SEM and HR-TEM provided more evidence for the presence of TiO2 in the Ppy-CS structure. Glucose biosensing properties were determined by amperommetry and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The interfacial properties of nanocomposite electrodes were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The developed biosensors showed good sensitivity over a linear range of 1–14 mM with a detection limit of 614 μM for glucose. The modified electrode with Ppy-CS nanocomposite also exhibited good selectivity and long-term stability with no interference effect. The Ppy-CS-TiO2 nanocomposites films presented high electron transfer kinetics. This work shows the role of nanomaterials in electrochemical biosensors and describes the process of their homogeneous distribution in composite films by a one-step electrochemical process, where all components are taken in a single solution in the electrochemical cell.

  13. Physical-chemical properties of nanocomposites based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Natália F.; da Silva, Ana Paula; Moraes Arantes, Tatiane; Lemes, Ana Paula; Cristovan, Fernando Henrique

    2018-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) was reinforced with titanium dioxide (TiO2) in concentrations of 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% (m/m) to produce nanocomposites by the solvent casting technique. TiO2 was synthesized by a hydrothermal treatment to produce nanoparticles. The nanostructure of the nanoparticles was studied by x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD confirmed TiO2 crystalline nanoparticles, with a mixture of anatase and rutile phases. Through TEM analysis, the formation of TiO2 nanorod agglomerates with an average diameter and length of 40 and 12 nm, respectively, was observed. The thermal and mechanical properties of the pure PHBV and nanocomposite films were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis. The DSC analysis showed that the glass transition temperature decreased with the inclusion of TiO2 in the PHBV matrix in relation to pure PHBV. The results of biodegradation assays for the PHBV and nanocomposites in an aqueous medium and in soil showed morphological and structural changes for all samples, indicating a high biodegradation rate for this material. The most important conclusion is that the biodegradation of the PHBV was not affected by the addition of nanoparticles, thus enabling the use of nanocomposites in applications requiring biodegradable materials.

  14. Study of a QCM Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sensor Based on a ZnO-Modified Nanowire-Structured Manganese Dioxide Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Li

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive, selective and fast detection of chemical warfare agents is necessary for anti-terrorism purposes. In our search for functional materials sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP, a simulant of sarin and other toxic organophosphorus compounds, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO modification potentially enhances the absorption of DMMP on a manganese dioxide (MnO2 surface. The adsorption behavior of DMMP was evaluated through the detection of tiny organophosphonate compounds with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensors coated with ZnO-modified MnO2 nanofibers and pure MnO2 nanofibers. Experimental results indicated that the QCM sensor coated with ZnO-modified nanostructured MnO2 film exhibited much higher sensitivity and better selectivity in comparison with the one coated with pure MnO2 nanofiber film. Therefore, the DMMP sensor developed with this composite nanostructured material should possess excellent selectivity and reasonable sensitivity towards the tiny gaseous DMMP species.

  15. Development of an Integrated Education/Training based Nuclear Outreach Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyongwon; Nam, Youngmi; Hwang, Ina; Lee, Jisuk; Ko, Hansuk; Lee, Taejoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The Korean nuclear community also recognizes the importance of outreach from its experience with rad waste and nuclear power programs. Accordingly, nationwide programs dealing with public information, support for local community development, and HRD are implemented continuously involving a number of organizations concerned. The Nuclear Training and Education Center (NTC) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), with its unique function and capability as a national research organization, has needs for the enhancement of public acceptance for KAERI programs, a better contribution to the national effort, and addressing the emerging needs for international education/training on nuclear outreach. This paper presents an integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model with a set of reference program, which is developed for NTC. An integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model for NTC is developed addressing the increasing needs for public acceptance on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, in terms of supporting KAERI activities, contributing to the national nuclear outreach efforts, and promoting international education and training on nuclear outreach. The model, harmonized with the national nuclear outreach system, consists of objectives, target audiences, a set of reference program supported by infrastructure and networking, and an evaluation system. The program is further specified into sub-programs with detailed design for the respective audiences. The developed model with a reference program is characterized by its integrity in terms of encompassing the whole outreach process cycle, and setting up of a target audience based total program structure with existing and new sub-programs. Also, it intends to be sustainable by addressing future generations' needs as well as innovative in the program delivery. The model will be continuously upgraded and applied addressing respective needs of the audiences.

  16. Development of an Integrated Education/Training based Nuclear Outreach Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kyongwon; Nam, Youngmi; Hwang, Ina; Lee, Jisuk; Ko, Hansuk; Lee, Taejoon

    2013-01-01

    The Korean nuclear community also recognizes the importance of outreach from its experience with rad waste and nuclear power programs. Accordingly, nationwide programs dealing with public information, support for local community development, and HRD are implemented continuously involving a number of organizations concerned. The Nuclear Training and Education Center (NTC) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), with its unique function and capability as a national research organization, has needs for the enhancement of public acceptance for KAERI programs, a better contribution to the national effort, and addressing the emerging needs for international education/training on nuclear outreach. This paper presents an integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model with a set of reference program, which is developed for NTC. An integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model for NTC is developed addressing the increasing needs for public acceptance on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, in terms of supporting KAERI activities, contributing to the national nuclear outreach efforts, and promoting international education and training on nuclear outreach. The model, harmonized with the national nuclear outreach system, consists of objectives, target audiences, a set of reference program supported by infrastructure and networking, and an evaluation system. The program is further specified into sub-programs with detailed design for the respective audiences. The developed model with a reference program is characterized by its integrity in terms of encompassing the whole outreach process cycle, and setting up of a target audience based total program structure with existing and new sub-programs. Also, it intends to be sustainable by addressing future generations' needs as well as innovative in the program delivery. The model will be continuously upgraded and applied addressing respective needs of the audiences

  17. Model-Based Calculations of the Probability of a Country's Nuclear Proliferation Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David N.

    2007-01-01

    explain the occurrences of proliferation decisions. However, predicting major historical proliferation events using model-based predictions has been unreliable. Nuclear proliferation decisions by a country is affected by three main factors: (1) technology; (2) finance; and (3) political motivation [1]. Technological capability is important as nuclear weapons development needs special materials, detonation mechanism, delivery capability, and the supporting human resources and knowledge base. Financial capability is likewise important as the development of the technological capabilities requires a serious financial commitment. It would be difficult for any state with a gross national product (GNP) significantly less than that of about $100 billion to devote enough annual governmental funding to a nuclear weapon program to actually achieve positive results within a reasonable time frame (i.e., 10 years). At the same time, nuclear proliferation is not a matter determined by a mastery of technical details or overcoming financial constraints. Technology or finance is a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition for nuclear proliferation. At the most fundamental level, the proliferation decision by a state is controlled by its political motivation. To effectively address the issue of predicting proliferation events, all three of the factors must be included in the model. To the knowledge of the authors, none of the exiting models considered the 'technology' variable as part of the modeling. This paper presents an attempt to develop a methodology for statistical modeling and predicting a country's nuclear proliferation decisions. The approach is based on the combined use of data on a country's nuclear technical capability profiles economic development status, security environment factors and internal political and cultural factors. All of the information utilized in the study was from open source literature. (authors)

  18. Applications of computer based safety systems in Korea nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won Young Yun

    1998-01-01

    With the progress of computer technology, the applications of computer based safety systems in Korea nuclear power plants have increased rapidly in recent decades. The main purpose of this movement is to take advantage of modern computer technology so as to improve the operability and maintainability of the plants. However, in fact there have been a lot of controversies on computer based systems' safety between the regulatory body and nuclear utility in Korea. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), technical support organization for nuclear plant licensing, is currently confronted with the pressure to set up well defined domestic regulatory requirements from this aspect. This paper presents the current status and the regulatory activities related to the applications of computer based safety systems in Korea. (author)

  19. Actin-myosin–based contraction is responsible for apoptotic nuclear disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Daniel R.; Coleman, Mathew L.; Li, Shuixing; Robertson, David; Sullivan, Teresa; Stewart, Colin L.; Olson, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Membrane blebbing during the apoptotic execution phase results from caspase-mediated cleavage and activation of ROCK I. Here, we show that ROCK activity, myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, MLC ATPase activity, and an intact actin cytoskeleton, but not microtubular cytoskeleton, are required for disruption of nuclear integrity during apoptosis. Inhibition of ROCK or MLC ATPase activity, which protect apoptotic nuclear integrity, does not affect caspase-mediated degradation of nuclear proteins such as lamins A, B1, or C. The conditional activation of ROCK I was sufficient to tear apart nuclei in lamin A/C null fibroblasts, but not in wild-type fibroblasts. Thus, apoptotic nuclear disintegration requires actin-myosin contractile force and lamin proteolysis, making apoptosis analogous to, but distinct from, mitosis where nuclear disintegration results from microtubule-based forces and from lamin phosphorylation and depolymerization. PMID:15657395

  20. Uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawidzki, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    Sintered uranium dioxide pellets composed of particles of size > 50 microns suitable for power reactor use are made by incorporating a small amount of sulphur into the uranium dioxide before sintering. The increase in grain size achieved results in an improvement in overall efficiency when such pellets are used in a power reactor. (author)

  1. Design of nuclear spectroscopy electronics based on the EUROsystem standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahor, J.

    1987-11-01

    The development of modular nuclear instruments in the EUROcard system has been continued by the design of a staircase generator; such an instrument is needed for accurate testing of spectroscopy amplifiers. The generator provides very precisely defined steps with the period between them varying from 8 to 50 microseconds, the output voltage continuously variable from 2 to 5 V, and attenuated ion steps between 1 and 100. Great care was taken that individual steps exhibit no overshot, thus providing a very clean signal to the input of a tested amplifier. The circuitry is kept simple, and it can be easily constructed in any electronics laboratory. Figs

  2. Computer based training simulator for Hunterston Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, R.S.M.; Hacking, D.

    1978-01-01

    For reasons which are stated, the Hunterston-B nuclear power station automatic control system includes a manual over-ride facility. It is therefore essential for the station engineers to be trained to recognise and control all feasible modes of plant and logic malfunction. A training simulator has been built which consists of a replica of the shutdown monitoring panel in the Central Control Room and is controlled by a mini-computer. This paper highlights the computer aspects of the simulator and relevant derived experience, under the following headings: engineering background; shutdown sequence equipment; simulator equipment; features; software; testing; maintenance. (U.K.)

  3. An international data base of nuclear concrete containment ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seni, C.; Ianko, L.

    1994-01-01

    The ageing of nuclear structures is of special interest because of the extended service life expected of these structures, and the potential impact of their deterioration on safety and reliability. Although there are databases about concrete, they address properties in general, not performance. In 1992, the IAEA, in collaboration with AECL, set out to create a new database that would fill the gap. Functional ageing, i.e. deterioration of leak-tightness, was to be included, not just structural ageing, i.e. deterioration of load-bearing capacity. This paper outlines the project of creating the database

  4. A highly integrated FPGA-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kazuyuki

    2007-03-01

    The digital circuits required for a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer, including a pulse programmer, a direct digital synthesizer, a digital receiver, and a PC interface, have been built inside a single chip of the field-programmable gate-array (FPGA). By combining the FPGA chip with peripheral analog components, a compact, laptop-sized homebuilt spectrometer has been developed, which is capable of a rf output of up to 400 MHz with amplitude-, phase-, frequency-, and pulse-modulation. The number of rf channels is extendable up to three without further increase in size.

  5. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB; Carmack, Jon [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  6. Assessment of morphology, topography and chemical composition of water-repellent films based on polystyrene/titanium dioxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolvardi, Beleta [Chemical Engineering Department, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyfi, Javad, E-mail: Jseyfi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 36155-163, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hejazi, Iman, E-mail: Imanhe64@gmail.com [Applied Science Nano Research Group, ASNARKA, P.C. 1619948753, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Otadi, Maryam [Chemical Engineering Department, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, Hossein Ali [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Drechsler, Astrid; Holzschuh, Matthias [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Self-cleaning behavior was attained for PS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films. • A modified phase separation process resulted in a hierarchical morphology. • A proper level of uniformity in surface roughness is mandatory for superhydrophobicity. • The required amount of nanoparticles was highly reduced via the presented method. - Abstract: In this study, polystyrene (PS)/titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) films were fabricated through simple solution casting technique via a modified phase separation process. The presented approach resulted in a remarkable reduction in the required amount of nanoparticles for achieving superhydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 3D confocal microscopy were utilized to characterize surface morphology and topography of samples, respectively. An attempt was made to give an in-depth analysis on the surface rough structure using 3D roughness profiles. It was found that high inclusions of non-solvent and nanoparticles resulted in a stable self-cleaning behavior due to the strong presence of hydrophobic TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the surface. Quite unexpectedly, low inclusions of nanoparticles and non-solvent also resulted in superhydrophobic property mainly due to the proper level of induced surface roughness. XPS analysis was also utilized to determine the chemical composition of the films’ surfaces. The results of falling drop experiments showed that the sample containing a higher level of nanoparticles had a much lower mechanical resistance against the induced harsh conditions. All in all, the presented method has shown promising potential in fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with self-cleaning behavior using the lowest content of nanoparticles.

  7. Low-cost Photoacoustic-based Measurement System for Carbon Dioxide Fluxes with the Potential for large-scale Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, L. T.; Bierer, B.; Ortiz Perez, A.; Woellenstein, J.; Sachs, T.; Palzer, S.

    2016-12-01

    The determination of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere is crucial for understanding ecological processes on regional and global scales. High quality data sets with full uncertainty estimates are needed to evaluate model simulations. However, current flux monitoring techniques are unsuitable to provide reliable data of a large area at both a detailed level and an appropriate resolution, at best in combination with a high sampling rate. Currently used sensing technologies, such as non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas analyzers, cannot be deployed in large numbers to provide high spatial resolution due to their costs and complex maintenance requirements. Here, we propose a novel CO2 measurement system, whose gas sensing unit is made up of low-cost, low-power consuming components only, such as an IR-LED and a photoacoustic detector. The sensor offers a resolution of sensor response of just a few seconds. Since the sensor can be applied in-situ without special precautions, it allows for environmental monitoring in a non-invasive way. Its low energy consumption enables long-term measurements. The low overall costs favor the manufacturing in large quantities. This allows the operation of multiple sensors at a reasonable price and thus provides concentration measurements at any desired spatial coverage and at high temporal resolution. With appropriate 3D configuration of the units, vertical and horizontal fluxes can be determined. By applying a closely meshed wireless sensor network, inhomogeneities as well as CO2 sources and sinks in the lower atmosphere can be monitored. In combination with sensors for temperature, pressure and humidity, our sensor paves the way towards the reliable and extensive monitoring of ecosystem-atmosphere exchange rates. The technique can also be easily adapted to other relevant greenhouse gases.

  8. Carbon dioxide emissions from Tucuruí reservoir (Amazon biome): New findings based on three-dimensional ecological model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtarelli, Marcelo Pedroso; Ogashawara, Igor; de Araújo, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Lorenzzetti, João Antônio; Leão, Joaquim Antônio Dionísio; Alcântara, Enner; Stech, José Luiz

    2016-05-01

    We used a three-dimensional model to assess the dynamics of diffusive carbon dioxide flux (F(CO2)) from a hydroelectric reservoir located at Amazon rainforest. Our results showed that for the studied periods (2013 summer/wet and winter/dry seasons) the surface averaged F(CO2) presented similar behaviors, with regular emissions peaks. The mean daily surface averaged F(CO2) showed no significant difference between the seasons (p>0.01), with values around -1338mg Cm-2day-1 (summer/wet) and -1395mg Cm-2day-1 (winter/dry). At diel scale, the F(CO2) was large during the night and morning and low during the afternoon in both seasons. Regarding its spatial distribution, the F(CO2) showed to be more heterogeneous during the summer/wet than during the winter/dry season. The highest F(CO2) were observed at transition zone (-300mg Cm-2h-1) during summer and at littoral zone (-55mg Cm-2h-1) during the winter. The total CO2 emitted by the reservoir along 2013 year was estimated to be 1.1Tg C year-1. By extrapolating our results we found that the total carbon emitted by all Amazonian reservoirs can be around 7Tg C year-1, which is 22% lower than the previous published estimate. This significant difference should not be neglected in the carbon inventories since the carbon emission is a key factor when comparing the environmental impacts of different sources of electricity generation and can influences decision makers in the selection of the more appropriate source of electricity and, in case of hydroelectricity, the geographical position of the reservoirs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of morphology, topography and chemical composition of water-repellent films based on polystyrene/titanium dioxide nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolvardi, Beleta; Seyfi, Javad; Hejazi, Iman; Otadi, Maryam; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Drechsler, Astrid; Holzschuh, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-cleaning behavior was attained for PS/TiO 2 nanocomposite films. • A modified phase separation process resulted in a hierarchical morphology. • A proper level of uniformity in surface roughness is mandatory for superhydrophobicity. • The required amount of nanoparticles was highly reduced via the presented method. - Abstract: In this study, polystyrene (PS)/titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films were fabricated through simple solution casting technique via a modified phase separation process. The presented approach resulted in a remarkable reduction in the required amount of nanoparticles for achieving superhydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 3D confocal microscopy were utilized to characterize surface morphology and topography of samples, respectively. An attempt was made to give an in-depth analysis on the surface rough structure using 3D roughness profiles. It was found that high inclusions of non-solvent and nanoparticles resulted in a stable self-cleaning behavior due to the strong presence of hydrophobic TiO 2 nanoparticles on the surface. Quite unexpectedly, low inclusions of nanoparticles and non-solvent also resulted in superhydrophobic property mainly due to the proper level of induced surface roughness. XPS analysis was also utilized to determine the chemical composition of the films’ surfaces. The results of falling drop experiments showed that the sample containing a higher level of nanoparticles had a much lower mechanical resistance against the induced harsh conditions. All in all, the presented method has shown promising potential in fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with self-cleaning behavior using the lowest content of nanoparticles.

  10. A Light-Emitting Diode- (LED-) Based Absorption Sensor for Simultaneous Detection of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Kyle; Loparo, Zachary; Partridge, William; Vasu, Subith S

    2016-06-01

    A sensor was developed for simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluctuations in internal combustion engine exhaust gases. This sensor utilizes low-cost and compact light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that emit in the 3-5 µm wavelength range. An affordable, fast response sensor that can measure these gases has a broad application that can lead to more efficient, fuel-flexible engines and regulation of harmful emissions. Light emission from LEDs is spectrally broader and more spatially divergent when compared to that of lasers, which presented many design challenges. Optical design studies addressed some of the non-ideal characteristics of the LED emissions. Measurements of CO and CO2 were conducted using their fundamental absorption bands centered at 4.7 µm and 4.3 µm, respectively, while a 3.6 µm reference LED was used to account for scattering losses (due to soot, window deposits, etc.) common to the three measurement LEDs. Instrument validation and calibration was performed using a laboratory flow cell and bottled-gas mixtures. The sensor was able to detect CO2 and CO concentration changes as small as 30 ppm and 400 ppm, respectively. Because of the many control and monitor species with infra-red absorption features, which can be measured using the strategy described, this work demonstrates proof of concept for a wider range of fast (250 Hz) and low-cost sensors for gas measurement and process monitoring. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. The anti-nuclear movement and its critics: the social base of support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglin, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The nature of the anti-nuclear movement can be defined in terms of its current status and those actively involved in it, with the aim of delineating areas for combatting anti-nuclear protest. The ωnatural' course of a social movement tends to be cyclical. The anti-nuclear movement is apparently in the coalescence or second stage of progression. The Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility (CCNR) is a movement having many issues, concerns and strategies which typify the anti-nuclear movement. The strategy of the CCNR is to attempt to make the environment a major political issue which will polarize the public around nuclear power in Canada. The Canadian movement cannot achieve the status of that in the U.S. without first developing a tighter organizational structure and greater co-ordination, a large base of numbers and resources, extended division of labour, and regular political thrusts. It may also have to shed its environmentalist image and become a social and political movement. As environmentalists are the chief critics of nuclear power a sociological profile has been developed for them, including a breakdown of typical aims, beliefs, background and position on issues within the movement, as an aid to anticipating future actions against the nuclear industry. (J.T.A.)

  12. Practice and exploration: build nuclear science and technology information resources management system based on the TRS platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jing; Meng Xu

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science and technology information has played a very important role in the development of Chinese nuclear industry. In information explosion and information technology swift development's today, how to use information technology method to management and shared the nuclear information of nuclear research institutes, nuclear power plants and other nuclear-related units, become an important subject of nuclear information work. TRS information resource management platform provide a doable solution to manage and share the nuclear science and technology information. Nuclear Power Institute of China has built a nuclear science and technology information resources management system based on the TRS platform, through some steps just like system design, re-development and resource building. This management system has served for the research, testing, production and operation. (authors)

  13. Risk-based safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Prohaska, G.; Flodin, Y.; Grint, G.; Habermacher, H.; Hallman, A.; Isasia, R.; Melendez, E.; Verduras, E.; Karsa, Z.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Koeberlein, K.; Schwaeger, C.; Matahri, N.; Moravcik, I.; Tkac, M.; Preston, J.

    2003-01-01

    In a Concerted Action (CA), sponsored by the European Commission within its 5th Framework Program, a consortium of eleven partners from eight countries has reviewed and evaluated the application of Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs), which - in combination with other tools - can be used to monitor and improve the safety of nuclear power plants. The project was aimed at identification of methods that can be used in a risk-informed regulatory system and environment, and to exploit PSA techniques for the development and use of meaningful additional/alternative SPIs. The CA included the review of existing indicator systems, and the collection of information on the experience from indicator systems by means of a specific questionnaire. One of the most important and challenging issues for nuclear plant owners and/or regulators is to recognize early signs of deterioration in safety performance, caused by influences from management, organization and safety culture (MOSC), before actual events and/or mishaps take place. Most of the existing SPIs as proposed by various organizations are considered as 'lagging' indicators, that is, they are expected to show an impact only when a downward trend has already started. Furthermore, most of the available indicators are at a relatively high level, such that they will not provide useful information on fundamental weaknesses causing the problem in the first place. Regulators' and utilities' views on the use of a Safety Performance Indicator System have also been a part of the development of the CA. (author)

  14. Nuclear track-based biosensors with the enzyme laccase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Arellano, H. [Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Lerma, Av. de las Garzas No. 10, Col. El Panteón, Lerma de Villada, Municipio de Lerma, Estado de México, C.P. 52005 (Mexico); Fink, D., E-mail: fink@xanum.uam.mx [Division de Ciencias Naturales e Ingeneria, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Hidalgo, Del. Álvaro Obregón C.P. 01120, México, D.F. (Mexico); Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Muñoz Hernández, G. [Division de Ciencias Naturales e Ingeneria, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Hidalgo, Del. Álvaro Obregón C.P. 01120, México, D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, D.F. (Mexico); Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Alfonta, L. [Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We construct a biosensor using polymer foils with laccase-clad etched nuclear tracks. • We use the biosensor for quantitation of phenolic compounds. • The biosensor can detect picomolar concentrations for some phenolic compounds. - Abstract: A new type of biosensors for detecting phenolic compounds is presented here. These sensors consist of thin polymer foils with laccase-clad etched nuclear tracks. The presence of suitable phenolic compounds in the sensors leads to the formation of enzymatic reaction products in the tracks, which differ in their electrical conductivities from their precursor materials. These differences correlate with the concentrations of the phenolic compounds. Corresponding calibration curves have been established for a number of compounds. The sensors thus produced are capable to cover between 5 and 9 orders of magnitude in concentration – in the best case down to some picomoles. The sensor's detection sensitivity strongly depends on the specific compound. It is highest for caffeic acid and acid blue 74, followed by ABTS and ferulic acid.

  15. High performance hydrophobic solvent, carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulwala, Hunaid; Luebke, David

    2017-05-09

    Methods and compositions useful, for example, for physical solvent carbon capture. A method comprising: contacting at least one first composition comprising carbon dioxide with at least one second composition to at least partially dissolve the carbon dioxide of the first composition in the second composition, wherein the second composition comprises at least one siloxane compound which is covalently modified with at least one non-siloxane group comprising at least one heteroatom. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials and ethylene-glycol based materials have high carbon dioxide solubility but suffer from various problems. PDMS is hydrophobic but suffers from low selectivity. Ethylene-glycol based systems have good solubility and selectivity, but suffer from high affinity to water. Solvents were developed which keep the desired combinations of properties, and result in a simplified, overall process for carbon dioxide removal from a mixed gas stream.

  16. Design of Korean nuclear reliability data-base network using a two-stage Bayesian concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.W.; Jeong, K.S.; Chae, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    In an analysis of probabilistic risk, safety, and reliability of a nuclear power plant, the reliability data base (DB) must be established first. As the importance of the reliability data base increases, event reporting systems such as the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Licensee Event Report and the International Atomic Energy Agency's Incident Reporting System have been developed. In Korea, however, the systematic reliability data base is not yet available. Therefore, foreign data bases have been directly quoted in reliability analyses of Korean plants. In order to develop a reliability data base for Korean plants, the problem is which methodology is to be used, and the application limits of the selected method must be solved and clarified. After starting the commercial operation of Korea Nuclear Unit-1 (KNU-1) in 1978, six nuclear power plants have begun operation. Of these, only KNU-3 is a Canada Deuterium Uranium pressurized heavy-water reactor, and the others are all pressurized water reactors. This paper describes the proposed reliability data-base network (KNRDS) for Korean nuclear power plants in the context of two-stage Bayesian (TSB) procedure of Kaplan. It describes the concept of TSB to obtain the Korean-specific plant reliability data base, which is updated with the incorporation of both the reported generic reliability data and the operation experiences of similar plants

  17. Research of nuclear power plant in-service maintenance based on virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yong; Kuang Weijun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of constructing nuclear power plant in-service maintenance virtual simulation scene and virtual maintenance process. Taking air baffles dismantling process of CAP1400(China Advanced Passive 1400) nuclear power plant as an instance, this paper discusses ergonomics, space analysis, time assessment based on virtual reality in the process of in-service maintenance. It demonstrates the advantage of using VR technology to design and verify in-service maintenance process of nuclear power plant compared to the conventional way. (author)

  18. Nuclear facilities of EdF's operational hot base of Tricastin. 2009 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This annual report is established on account of article 21 of the 2006-686 French law from June 13, 2006, relative to the transparency and safety in the nuclear domain. It describes, first, the nuclear facilities of the EdF operational hot base of Tricastin, then, the measures taken to ensure their safety (personnel radioprotection, actions implemented for nuclear safety improvement, organisation in crisis situation, external and internal controls, technical assessment of the facilities), and finally the procedures of management of radioactive wastes. A glossary and the viewpoint of the Committee of Hygiene, safety and working conditions about the content of the document conclude the report. (J.S.)

  19. Energy-analysis of the total nuclear energy cycle based on light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistemaker, J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy economy of the total nuclear energy cycle is investigated. Attention is paid to the importance of fossil fuel saving by using nuclear energy. The energy analysis is based on the construction and operation of power plants with an electric output of 1000MWe. Light water moderated reactors with a 2.7 - 3.2% enriched uranium core are considered. Additionally, the whole fuel cycle including ore winning and refining, enrichment and fuel element manufacturing and reprocessing has been taken into account. Neither radioactive waste storage problems nor safety problems related to the nuclear energy cycle and safeguarding have been dealt with, as exhaustive treatments can be found elswhere

  20. Renal artery intervention utilizing carbon dioxide angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Alan A; Afsar, Baris; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2017-12-01

    Carbon dioxide angiography is an established non-nephrotoxic option for imaging of the infradiaphragmatic arteries and veins. Safe performance of the technique once required a somewhat cumbersome system, however, recent innovations have simplified implementation and expanded the user base for this technique. As such, patient access has also increased. In this issue, Hameed et al. provide initial feasibility data regarding carbon dioxide angiography and renal denervation therapy. This experience may be translated into future renovascular interventions in patients with limited renal reserve.

  1. Surface and bulk conductivity of vanadium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutov, E. A.; Manannikov, A. V.; Al-Khafaji, H. I.; Zlomanov, V. P.

    2017-03-01

    The dc and ac resistances of a TR-68 thermistor based on the vanadium dioxide film have been measured and the temperature dependence of the resistance in the semiconductor-metal transition region under adsorption has been studied. The energy band model has been proposed, which explains the anomalous response to adsorption of donor gases by the inversion of the conductivity type of vanadium dioxide surface layers.

  2. Piezomagnetism and magnetoelastic memory in uranium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, M; Saul, A; Salamon, M; Zapf, V S; Harrison, N; Durakiewicz, T; Lashley, J C; Andersson, D A; Stanek, C R; Smith, J L; Gofryk, K

    2017-07-24

    The thermal and magnetic properties of uranium dioxide, a prime nuclear fuel and thoroughly studied actinide material, remain a long standing puzzle, a result of strong coupling between magnetism and lattice vibrations. The magnetic state of this cubic material is characterized by a 3-k non-collinear antiferromagnetic structure and multidomain Jahn-Teller distortions, likely related to its anisotropic thermal properties. Here we show that single crystals of uranium dioxide subjected to strong magnetic fields along threefold axes in the magnetic state exhibit the abrupt appearance of positive linear magnetostriction, leading to a trigonal distortion. Upon reversal of the field the linear term also reverses sign, a hallmark of piezomagnetism. A switching phenomenon occurs at ±18 T, which persists during subsequent field reversals, demonstrating a robust magneto-elastic memory that makes uranium dioxide the hardest piezomagnet known. A model including a strong magnetic anisotropy, elastic, Zeeman, Heisenberg exchange, and magnetoelastic contributions to the total energy is proposed.The nuclear fuel uranium dioxide is of intrinsic interest due to its industrial applications but it also exhibits intriguing electronic and magnetic properties. Here, the authors demonstrate how its complex magnetic structure and interactions give rise to a strong piezomagnetic effect.

  3. Elevated carbon dioxide and warming impact silicon and phenolic-based defences differently in native and exotic grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott N; Hartley, Susan E

    2017-11-03

    Global climate change may increase invasions of exotic plant species by directly promoting the success of invasive/exotic species or by reducing the competitive abilities of native species. Changes in plant chemistry, leading to altered susceptibility to stress, could mediate these effects. Grasses are hyper-accumulators of silicon, which play a crucial function in the alleviation of diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. It is unknown how predicted increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and air temperature affect silicon accumulation in grasses, especially in relation to primary and secondary metabolites. We tested how elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) (+240 ppm) and temperature (eT) (+4°C) affected chemical composition (silicon, phenolics, carbon and nitrogen) and plant growth in eight grass species, either native or exotic to Australia. eCO 2 increased phenolic concentrations by 11%, but caused silicon accumulation to decline by 12%. Moreover, declines in silicon occurred mainly in native species (-19%), but remained largely unchanged in exotic species. Conversely, eT increased silicon accumulation in native species (+19%) but decreased silicon accumulation in exotic species (-10%). Silicon and phenolic concentrations were negatively correlated with each other, potentially reflecting a defensive trade-off. Moreover, both defences were negatively correlated with plant mass, compatible with a growth-defence trade-off. Grasses responded in a species-specific manner, suggesting that the relative susceptibility of different species may differ under future climates compared to current species rankings of resource quality. For example, the native Microlaena stipoides was less well defended under eCO 2 in terms of both phenolics and silicon, and thus could suffer greater vulnerability to herbivores. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the impacts of eCO 2 and eT on silicon accumulation in grasses. We speculate that the greater plasticity in silicon uptake

  4. Enterprise KM System: IT based Tool for Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan; Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of right and suitable tool for enterprise Knowledge Management (KM) system to an organization is not an easy task. Everything needs to be taken into account before its implementation come true. One of them is to ensure full cooperation is given by the whole entire organization to succeed the knowledge sharing culture utilizing the tool. From selection of potential tools until the implementation and deployment strategies, these shall be thoroughly and carefully organized. A study of choosing the suitable tools and those strategies has been done in Nuclear Malaysia as resulted from Process Oriented Knowledge Management (POKM) project. As far as enterprise KM system is concerned, Microsoft Share Point technology is one of the potential tools in this context. This paper articulates approach and methodology of choosing the technology including its planning, deployment and implementation strategies. (author)

  5. Nuclear track-based biosensors with the enzyme laccase

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arellano, H.; Fink, D.; Muñoz Hernández, G.; Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Alfonta, L.

    2014-08-01

    A new type of biosensors for detecting phenolic compounds is presented here. These sensors consist of thin polymer foils with laccase-clad etched nuclear tracks. The presence of suitable phenolic compounds in the sensors leads to the formation of enzymatic reaction products in the tracks, which differ in their electrical conductivities from their precursor materials. These differences correlate with the concentrations of the phenolic compounds. Corresponding calibration curves have been established for a number of compounds. The sensors thus produced are capable to cover between 5 and 9 orders of magnitude in concentration - in the best case down to some picomoles. The sensor's detection sensitivity strongly depends on the specific compound. It is highest for caffeic acid and acid blue 74, followed by ABTS and ferulic acid.

  6. Accelerator-based systems for plutonium destruction and nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerator-base systems are described that can eliminate long-lived nuclear materials. The impact of these systems on global issues relating to plutonium minimization and nuclear waste disposal can be significant. An overview of the components that comprise these systems is given, along with discussion of technology development status and needs. A technology development plan is presented with emphasis on first steps that would demonstrate technical performance

  7. Recognition of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake based on neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Jia Weimin

    2000-01-01

    Many features are extracted to improve the identified rate and reliability of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake. But how to synthesize these characters is the key of pattern recognition. Based on the improved Delta algorithm, features of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake are inputted into BP neural network, and friendship functions are constructed to identify the output values. The identified rate is up to 92.0%, which shows that: the way is feasible

  8. The Integration Process for Incorporating Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research Results into the National Nuclear Security Administration Knowledge Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GALLEGOS, DAVID P.; CARR, DORTHE B.; HERRINGTON, PRESTON B.; HARRIS, JAMES M.; EDWARDS, C.L.; TAYLOR, STEVEN R.; WOGMAN, NED A.; ANDERSON, DALE N.; CASEY, LESLIE A.

    2002-09-01

    The process of developing the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Knowledge Base (KB) must result in high-quality Information Products in order to support activities for monitoring nuclear explosions consistent with United States treaty and testing moratoria monitoring missions. The validation, verification, and management of the Information Products is critical to successful scientific integration, and hence, will enable high-quality deliveries to be made to the United States National Data Center (USNDC) at the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC). As an Information Product passes through the steps necessary to become part of a delivery to AFTAC, domain experts (including technical KB Working Groups that comprise NNSA and DOE laboratory staff and the customer) will provide coordination and validation, where validation is the determination of relevance and scientific quality. Verification is the check for completeness and correctness, and will be performed by both the Knowledge Base Integrator and the Scientific Integrator with support from the Contributor providing two levels of testing to assure content integrity and performance. The Information Products and their contained data sets will be systematically tracked through the integration portion of their life cycle. The integration process, based on lessons learned during its initial implementations, is presented in this report.

  9. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions based on a hybrid of mixed data sampling regression model and back propagation neural network in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Han, Meng; Ding, Lili; Calin, Adrian Cantemir

    2018-01-01

    The accurate forecast of carbon dioxide emissions is critical for policy makers to take proper measures to establish a low carbon society. This paper discusses a hybrid of the mixed data sampling (MIDAS) regression model and BP (back propagation) neural network (MIDAS-BP model) to forecast carbon dioxide emissions. Such analysis uses mixed frequency data to study the effects of quarterly economic growth on annual carbon dioxide emissions. The forecasting ability of MIDAS-BP is remarkably better than MIDAS, ordinary least square (OLS), polynomial distributed lags (PDL), autoregressive distributed lags (ADL), and auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) models. The MIDAS-BP model is suitable for forecasting carbon dioxide emissions for both the short and longer term. This research is expected to influence the methodology for forecasting carbon dioxide emissions by improving the forecast accuracy. Empirical results show that economic growth has both negative and positive effects on carbon dioxide emissions that last 15 quarters. Carbon dioxide emissions are also affected by their own change within 3 years. Therefore, there is a need for policy makers to explore an alternative way to develop the economy, especially applying new energy policies to establish a low carbon society.

  10. The roles and functions of a lunar base Nuclear Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. A., Jr.

    This paper describes the roles and functions of a special Nuclear Technology Center which is developed as an integral part of a permanent lunar base. Numerous contemporary studies clearly point out that nuclear energy technology will play a major role in any successful lunar/Mars initiative program and in the overall establishment of humanity's solar system civilization. The key role of nuclear energy in the providing power has been recognized. A Nuclear Technology Center developed as part of a permanent lunar base can also help bring about many other nuclear technology applications, such as producing radioisotopes for self-illumination, food preservation, waste sterilization, and medical treatment; providing thermal energy for mining, materials processing and agricultural; and as a source of emergency habitat power. Designing such a center will involve the deployment, operation, servicing and waste product management and disposal of megawatt class reactor power plants. This challenge must be met with a minimum of direct human support at the facility. Furthermore, to support the timely, efficient integration of this Nuclear Technology Center in the evolving lunar base infrastructure, an analog of such a facility will be needed here on Earth.

  11. The roles and functions of a lunar base Nuclear Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the roles and functions of a special Nuclear Technology Center which is developed as an integral part of a permanent lunar base. Numerous contemporary studies clearly point out that nuclear energy technology will play a major role in any successful lunar/Mars initiative program and in the overall establishment of humanity's solar system civilization. The key role of nuclear energy in the providing power has been recognized. A Nuclear Technology Center developed as part of of a permanent lunar base can also help bring about many other nuclear technology applications, such as producing radioisotopes for self-illumination, food preservation, waste sterilization, and medical treatment; providing thermal energy for mining, materials processing and agricultural; and as a source of emergency habitat power. Designing such a center will involve the deployment, operation, servicing and waste product management and disposal of megawatt class reactor power plants. This challenge must be met with a minimum of direct human support at the facility. Furthermore, to support the timely, efficient integration of this Nuclear Technology Center in the evolving lunar base infrastructure, an analog of such a facility will be needed here on Earth. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Nuclear Versus Coal plus CCS. A Comparison of Two Competitive Base-Load Climate Control Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavoni, F.; Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relative importance and mutual behavior of two competing base-load electricity generation options that each are capable of contributing significantly to the abatement of global CO2 emissions: nuclear energy and coal-based power production complemented with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). We also investigate how, in scenarios developed with an integrated assessment model that simulates the economics of a climate-constrained world, the prospects for nuclear energy would change if exogenous limitations on the spread of nuclear technology were relaxed. Using the climate change economics model World Induced Technical Change Hybrid, we find that until 2050 the growth rates of nuclear electricity generation capacity would become comparable to historical rates observed during the 1980s. Given that nuclear energy continues to face serious challenges and contention, we inspect how extensive the improvements of coal-based power equipped with CCS technology would need to be if our economic optimization model is to significantly scale down the construction of new nuclear power plants.

  13. Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War. Papers Based on a Symposium of the Forum on Physics and Society of the American Physical Society, (Washington, D.C., April 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Philip; And Others

    Three papers on nuclear weapons and nuclear war, based on talks given by distinguished physicists during an American Physical Society-sponsored symposium, are provided in this booklet. They include "Caught Between Asymptotes" (Philip Morrison), "We are not Inferior to the Soviets" (Hans A. Bethe), and "MAD vs. NUTS"…

  14. An 8-year, high-resolution reanalysis of atmospheric carbon dioxide mixing ratios based on OCO-2 and GOSAT-ACOS retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, B.; Chatterjee, A.; Ott, L. E.; Pawson, S.

    2017-12-01

    This talk presents an overview of results from the GEOS-Carb reanalysis of retrievals of average-column carbon dioxide (XCO2) from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) satellite missions. The reanalysis is a Level 3 (L3) product: a collection of 3D fields of carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios every 6 hours beginning in April 2009 going until the present on a grid with a 0.5 degree horizontal resolution and 72 vertical levels from the surface to 0.01 hPa. Using an assimilation methodology based on the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) atmospheric data assimilation system (ADAS), the L3 fields are weighted averages of the two satellite retrievals and predictions from the GEOS general circulation model driven by assimilated meteorology from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2). In places and times where there are a dense number of soundings, the observations dominate the predicted mixing ratios, while the model is used to fill in locations with fewer soundings, e.g., high latitudes and the Amazon. Blending the satellite observations with model predictions has at least two notable benefits. First, it provides a bridge for evaluating the satellite retrievals and their uncertainties against a heterogeneous collection of observations including those from surface sites, towers, aircraft, and soundings from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Extensive evaluations of the L3 reanalysis clearly demonstrate both the strength and the deficiency of the satellite retrievals. Second, it is possible to estimate variables from the reanalysis without introducing bias due to spatiotemporal variability in sounding coverage. For example, the assimilated product provides robust estimates of the monthly CO2 global growth rate. These monthly growth rate estimates show significant differences from estimates based on in situ observations, which have sparse coverage

  15. Establishment of nuclear knowledge-information base; development of courseware on introductory nuclear engineering and establishment of digital education platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Na, Mang Yun; Lee, Goung Jin; Yang, Won Sik [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    In this research, there are two major tasks. The first one is a development of digital course-ware program for introductory nuclear engineering. For this task, a development of lecture note is followed by lecture Slide files in html file format, which is based on web. For this purpose, following activities were performed; collection of related materials. planning of overall courseware, writing of lecture note and exercise plan, and securing the computer programs and codes needed. The second task of this research is to plan and install several hardwares in a multimedia class room as a digital education platform. The platform includes smart board with touch screen functionality, network server and personal computers. The digital education platform was established as a multimedia class room in the 2nd College of Engineering building, room 16210 by using the Server-Client environment and smart board, personal computer, and internet was connected by a TCP/IP way. For the courseware, hypertext was supported to be web-based, and photo, picture, data and related web links including text were developed in a close relation, it is possible for students to study big amounts of information in a systemized way and to maximize the learning efficiency. The whole range of introductory nuclear engineering course was divided into nuclear fuel cycle, reactor theory, heat transport, and reactor control, and digital contents were developed by each experts, but the final format of the courseware was maintained consistently for easy understanding . Also, the reactor experiment courseware developed by Kyunghee University can be utilized on this platform. 5 refs., 36 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  16. The development of a neuroscience-based methodology for the nuclear energy learning/teaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, Roberta de C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2015-01-01

    When compared to other energy sources such as fossil fuels, coal, oil, and gas, nuclear energy has perhaps the lowest impact on the environment. Moreover, nuclear energy has also benefited other fields such as medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and agriculture, among others. However, despite all benefits that result from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the theme is still addressed with prejudice. Education may be the starting point for public acceptance of nuclear energy as it provides pedagogical approaches, learning environments, and human resources, which are essential conditions for effective learning. So far nuclear energy educational researches have been conducted using only conventional assessment methods. The global educational scenario has demonstrated absence of neuroscience-based methods for the teaching of nuclear energy, and that may be an opportunity for developing new strategic teaching methods that will help demystifying the theme consequently improving public acceptance of this type of energy. This work aims to present the first step of a methodology in progress based on researches in neuroscience to be applied to Brazilian science teachers in order to contribute to an effective teaching/learning process. This research will use the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to verify implicit attitudes of science teachers concerning nuclear energy. Results will provide data for the next steps of the research. The literature has not reported a similar neuroscience-based methodology applied to the nuclear energy learning/teaching process; therefore, this has demonstrated to be an innovating methodology. The development of the methodology is in progress and the results will be presented in future works. (author)

  17. The development of a neuroscience-based methodology for the nuclear energy learning/teaching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, Roberta de C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: robertabarabas@usp.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    When compared to other energy sources such as fossil fuels, coal, oil, and gas, nuclear energy has perhaps the lowest impact on the environment. Moreover, nuclear energy has also benefited other fields such as medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and agriculture, among others. However, despite all benefits that result from the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the theme is still addressed with prejudice. Education may be the starting point for public acceptance of nuclear energy as it provides pedagogical approaches, learning environments, and human resources, which are essential conditions for effective learning. So far nuclear energy educational researches have been conducted using only conventional assessment methods. The global educational scenario has demonstrated absence of neuroscience-based methods for the teaching of nuclear energy, and that may be an opportunity for developing new strategic teaching methods that will help demystifying the theme consequently improving public acceptance of this type of energy. This work aims to present the first step of a methodology in progress based on researches in neuroscience to be applied to Brazilian science teachers in order to contribute to an effective teaching/learning process. This research will use the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to verify implicit attitudes of science teachers concerning nuclear energy. Results will provide data for the next steps of the research. The literature has not reported a similar neuroscience-based methodology applied to the nuclear energy learning/teaching process; therefore, this has demonstrated to be an innovating methodology. The development of the methodology is in progress and the results will be presented in future works. (author)

  18. A full life cycle nuclear knowledge management framework based on digital system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Minglu; Zheng, Mingguang; Tian, Lin; Qiu, Zhongming; Li, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A full life cycle nuclear power plant knowledge management framework is introduced. • This framework benefits the safe design, construction, operation and maintenance. • This framework enhances safety, economy and reliability of nuclear power plant. - Abstract: The nuclear power plant is highly knowledge-intensive facility. With the rapid advent and development of modern information and communication technology, knowledge management in nuclear industry has been provided with new approaches and possibilities. This paper introduces a full cycle nuclear power plant knowledge management framework based on digital system and tries to find solutions to knowledge creation, sharing, transfer, application and further innovation in nuclear industry. This framework utilizes information and digital technology to build top-tier object driven work environment, automatic design and analysis integration platform, digital dynamic performance Verification & Validation (V&V) platform, collaborative manufacture procedure, digital construction platform, online monitoring and configuration management which benefit knowledge management in NPP full life cycle. The suggested framework will strengthen the design basis of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) and will ensure the safety of the NPP design throughout the whole lifetime of the plant.

  19. Study on integrated approach of Nuclear Accident Hazard Predicting, Warning, and Optimized Controlling System based on GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lijuan; Huang Shunxiang; Wang Xinming

    2012-01-01

    The issue of nuclear safety becomes the attention focus of international society after the nuclear accident happened in Fukushima. Aiming at the requirements of the prevention and controlling of Nuclear Accident establishment of Nuclear Accident Hazard Predicting, Warning and optimized Controlling System (NAPWS) is a imperative project that our country and army are desiderating, which includes multiple fields of subject as nuclear physics, atmospheric science, security science, computer science and geographical information technology, etc. Multiplatform, multi-system and multi-mode are integrated effectively based on GIS, accordingly the Predicting, Warning, and Optimized Controlling technology System of Nuclear Accident Hazard is established. (authors)

  20. Pre-polarization enhancement by dynamic nuclear polarization in SQUID-based ultra-low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong-Joo; Kim, Kiwoong; Kang, Chan Seok; Hwang, Seong-min; Lee, Yong-Ho, E-mail: kwkim@kriss.re.k [Brain and Cognition Measurement Laboratory, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Doryong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We achieved enhanced pre-polarization in a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)-based microtesla nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment by using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The pre-polarization field is necessary to provide enough signal to noise to perform SQUID-based ultra-low-field (ULF) NMR/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments. However, it is quite tricky to deal with the strong transient magnetic field when operating the SQUID in a magnetically shielded room (MSR); besides the direct interference with the sensitive SQUID sensor, the strong magnetic field and its abrupt change generate magnetization in local areas in the MSR and eddy currents along the wall, which makes the NMR measurement difficult. The enhanced {sup 1}H NMR signals of water in TEMPOL and TEMPO solutions were obtained with a relatively weak radio-frequency (rf) field and double-relaxation oscillation SQUIDs (DROS) at a few mT pre-polarization fields. In our experimental condition, the enhancement factor was near ten in spite of the rf power far below the saturation in both samples.

  1. Pre-polarization enhancement by dynamic nuclear polarization in SQUID-based ultra-low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Joo; Kim, Kiwoong; Kang, Chan Seok; Hwang, Seong-min; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2010-11-01

    We achieved enhanced pre-polarization in a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)-based microtesla nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment by using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The pre-polarization field is necessary to provide enough signal to noise to perform SQUID-based ultra-low-field (ULF) NMR/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments. However, it is quite tricky to deal with the strong transient magnetic field when operating the SQUID in a magnetically shielded room (MSR); besides the direct interference with the sensitive SQUID sensor, the strong magnetic field and its abrupt change generate magnetization in local areas in the MSR and eddy currents along the wall, which makes the NMR measurement difficult. The enhanced 1H NMR signals of water in TEMPOL and TEMPO solutions were obtained with a relatively weak radio-frequency (rf) field and double-relaxation oscillation SQUIDs (DROS) at a few mT pre-polarization fields. In our experimental condition, the enhancement factor was near ten in spite of the rf power far below the saturation in both samples.

  2. Installation and evaluation of a nuclear power plant operator advisor based on artificial intelligence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on a Nuclear Power Plant operator advisor based on artificial Intelligence Technology; Workstation conversion; Software Conversion; V ampersand V Program Development Development; Simulator Interface Development; Knowledge Base Expansion; Dynamic Testing; Database Conversion; Installation at the Perry Simulator; Evaluation of Operator Interaction; Design of Man-Machine Interface; and Design of Maintenance Facility

  3. An adaptive interface (KNOWBOT) for nuclear power industry data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive interface, KNOWBOT, has been designed to solve some of the problems that face the users of large centralized databases. The interface applies the neural network approach to information retrieval from a database. The database is a subset of the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). KNOWBOT preempts an existing database interface and works in conjunction with it. By design, KNOWBOT starts as a tabula rasa but acquires knowledge through its interactions with the user and the database. The interface uses its gained knowledge to personalize the database retrieval process and to induce new queries. In addition, the interface forgets the information that is no longer needed by the user. These self-organizing features of the interface reduce the scope of the database to the subsets that are highly relevant to the user needs. A proof-of-principle version of this interface has been implemented in Common LISP on a Texas Instruments Explorer I workstation. Experiments with KNOWBOT have successfully demonstrated the robustness of the model especially with induction and self-organization

  4. A microstructurally based fracture model for nuclear graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the physical basis of, and assumptions behind, a fracture model for nuclear graphites. Microstructurally related inputs, such as filler particle size, filler particle fracture toughness (K Ic ), density, pore size distribution, number of pores and specimen geometry (size and volume), are utilized in the model. The model has been applied to two graphites, Great Lakes Carbon Corporation grade H-451 and Toyo Tanso grade IG-110. For each graphite, the predicted tensile failure probabilities are compared with experimental data generated using ASTM Standard C-749 tensile test specimens. The predicted failure probabilities are in close agreement with the experimental data, particularly in the case of the H-451. The model is also shown to qualitatively predict the influence on the failure probabilities of changes in filler particle size, density, pore size, pore size distribution, number of pores and specimen geometry (stressed volume). The good performance is attributed to the sound physical basis of the model, which recognizes the dominant role of porosity in controlling crack initiation and propagation during graphite fracture. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  5. Evaluating the effects of terrestrial ecosystems, climate and carbon dioxide on weathering over geological time: a global-scale process-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Banwart, Steve A.; Valdes, Paul J.; Leake, Jonathan R.; Beerling, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Global weathering of calcium and magnesium silicate rocks provides the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on a timescale of millions of years by causing precipitation of calcium carbonates on the seafloor. Catchment-scale field studies consistently indicate that vegetation increases silicate rock weathering, but incorporating the effects of trees and fungal symbionts into geochemical carbon cycle models has relied upon simple empirical scaling functions. Here, we describe the development and application of a process-based approach to deriving quantitative estimates of weathering by plant roots, associated symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and climate. Our approach accounts for the influence of terrestrial primary productivity via nutrient uptake on soil chemistry and mineral weathering, driven by simulations using a dynamic global vegetation model coupled to an ocean–atmosphere general circulation model of the Earth's climate. The strategy is successfully validated against observations of weathering in watersheds around the world, indicating that it may have some utility when extrapolated into the past. When applied to a suite of six global simulations from 215 to 50 Ma, we find significantly larger effects over the past 220 Myr relative to the present day. Vegetation and mycorrhizal fungi enhanced climate-driven weathering by a factor of up to 2. Overall, we demonstrate a more realistic process-based treatment of plant fungal–geosphere interactions at the global scale, which constitutes a first step towards developing ‘next-generation’ geochemical models. PMID:22232768

  6. Study of visualized simulation and analysis of nuclear fuel cycle system based on multilevel flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingquan; Yoshikawa, H.; Zhou Yangping

    2005-01-01

    Complex energy and environment system, especially nuclear fuel cycle system recently raised social concerns about the issues of economic competitiveness, environmental effect and nuclear proliferation. Only under the condition that those conflicting issues are gotten a consensus between stakeholders with different knowledge background, can nuclear power industry be continuingly developed. In this paper, a new analysis platform has been developed to help stakeholders to recognize and analyze various socio-technical issues in the nuclear fuel cycle sys- tem based on the functional modeling method named Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) according to the cognition theory of human being, Its character is that MFM models define a set of mass, energy and information flow structures on multiple levels of abstraction to describe the functional structure of a process system and its graphical symbol representation and the means-end and part-whole hierarchical flow structure to make the represented process easy to be understood. Based upon this methodology, a micro-process and a macro-process of nuclear fuel cycle system were selected to be simulated and some analysis processes such as economics analysis, environmental analysis and energy balance analysis related to those flows were also integrated to help stakeholders to understand the process of decision-making with the introduction of some new functions for the improved Multilevel Flow Models Studio, and finally the simple simulation such as spent fuel management process simulation and money flow of nuclear fuel cycle and its levelised cost analysis will be represented as feasible examples. (authors)

  7. Radiation protection in nuclear facilities; Dossier: Radioprotection et installations nucleaires de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechowski, J. [Direction Generale de la Sante, 75 - Paris (France); Lochard, J.; Lefaure, Ch.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, Th [Centre d`Etude sur l`evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire (CEPN), 75 - Paris (France); Lecomte, J.F. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Massuelle, M.H.; Hubert, Ph. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de la Sante de l`Homme et de la Dosimetrie (DPHD); Delmont, D. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France). Service de Protection contre les Rayonnements et de Surveillance de l`Environnement (SPRSE); Boitel, S.; Le Fauconnier, J.P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France). Dept. de Support Technique et Administratif; Kalimbadjian, J. [Cogema la Hague, 50 (France). Service de Prevention et de Radioprotection; Laize, J. [Cogema la Hague, 50 (France). Groupe Radioprotection atelier T7; Blain, A. [Framatome, 69 - Lyon (France). Dept. Radioprotection Securite des Services Nucleaires; Cassou, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 13 - Marseille (France). Projet RGV; Jacq, V.; Champion, D. [Ministere de l`Industrie, des Postes et Telecommunications et du Commerce Exterieur, 75-Paris (France). Direction de la Surete des Installations Nucleaires; Spira, A.; Bouton, O. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Paris-11 Univ. (France); Sugier, A [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Bishop, A.J. [Commission de Controle de l`Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France); Zerbib, J.C. [Conseil superieur de la Surete et de l`information Nucleaires, 75 - Paris (France); Barbey, P. [Association pour le Controle de la Radioactivite dans l`Ouest, ACRO (France)

    1998-06-01

    Close ties exist between nuclear safety and radiation protection. Nuclear safety is made up of all the arrangements taken to prevent accidents occurring in nuclear facilities, these accidents would certainly involved a radiological aspect. Radiation protection is made up of all the arrangements taken to evaluate and reduce the impact of radiation on workers or population in normal situations or in case of accident. In the fifties the management of radiological hazards was based on the quest for minimal or even zero risk. This formulation could lead to call some activities in question whereas the benefits for the whole society were evident. Now a new attitude more aware of the real risks and of no wasting resources prevails. This attitude is based on the ALARA principle whose purpose is to maintain the exposure to radiation as low as reasonably achievable taking into account social and economic concerns. This document regroups articles illustrating different aspects of the radiation protection in nuclear facilities such as a research center, a waste vitrification workshop and a nuclear power plant. The surveillance of radiological impacts of nuclear sites on environment is examined, a point is made about the pending epidemiologic studies concerning La Hague complex. (A.C.) 20 refs.

  8. Risk assessment and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodansky, D.

    1982-01-01

    The range of risk perceptions involving nuclear power is so great that there is little hope of bridging extreme positions, but a consensus based upon reasoned discussion among uncommitted people could determine a sensible path. Our concerns over the uncertainties of risk assessment have made it increasingly difficult to make responsible decisions fast enough to deal with modern needs. The result is an immobility in energy matters that can point to a 2% reduction in oil use as its only triumph. The risk of nuclear war as a result of military action over energy issues suggests to some that the solution is to abolish nuclear power (however impractical) and to others that a rapid spread of nuclear power will eliminate energy as an incentive for war. If nuclear war is the major risk to consider, risk assessments need to include the risks of war, as well as those of carbon dioxide buildup and socio-economic disruptions, all of which loom larger than the risks of nuclear-plant accidents. Energy choices should be aimed at diminishing these major risks, even if they include the use of nuclear power. 26 references

  9. Neutron-based measurements for nondestructive assay of minor actinides produced in nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.E.; Eccleston, G.W.; Ensslin, N.; Cremers, T.L.; Foster, L.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Rinard, P.M.

    1996-10-01

    Because of their impacts on long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste and their value as nuclear fuels, measurement and accounting of the minor actinides produced in nuclear power reactors are becoming significant issues. This paper briefly reviews the commercial nuclear fuel cycle with emphasis on reprocessing plants and key measurement points therein. Neutron signatures and characteristics are compared and contrasted for special nuclear materials (SNMs) and minor actinides (MAs). The paper focuses on application of neutron-based nondestructive analysis (NDA) methods that can be extended for verification of MAs. We describe current IAEA methods for NDA of SNMs and extension of these methods to satisfy accounting requirements for MAs in reprocessing plant dissolver solutions, separated products, and high-level waste. Recommendations for further systems studies and development of measurement methods are also included

  10. Automatic start-up system of nuclear reactor based on sequence control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yao; Zhang Dafa; Peng Huaqing

    2009-01-01

    A conceptive design of an automatic start-up system based on the sequence control for the nuclear reactors is given in this paper, so as to solve the problems during the start-up process, such as the long operation time, low automatic control level and high accident rate. The start-up process and its requirements are analyzed in detail at first. Then,the principle, the architecture, the key technologies of the automatic start-up system of nuclear reactors are designed and discussed. With the designed system, the automatic start-up of the nuclear reactor can be realized,the work load of the operator can be reduced,and the safety and efficiency of the nuclear power plant during its start-up can be improved. (authors)

  11. A simulator-independent optimization tool based on genetic algorithm applied to nuclear reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu Pereira, Claudio Marcio Nascimento do; Schirru, Roberto; Martinez, Aquilino Senra

    1999-01-01

    Here is presented an engineering optimization tool based on a genetic algorithm, implemented according to the method proposed in recent work that has demonstrated the feasibility of the use of this technique in nuclear reactor core designs. The tool is simulator-independent in the sense that it can be customized to use most of the simulators which have the input parameters read from formatted text files and the outputs also written from a text file. As the nuclear reactor simulators generally use such kind of interface, the proposed tool plays an important role in nuclear reactor designs. Research reactors may often use non-conventional design approaches, causing different situations that may lead the nuclear engineer to face new optimization problems. In this case, a good optimization technique, together with its customizing facility and a friendly man-machine interface could be very interesting. Here, the tool is described and some advantages are outlined. (author)

  12. Nuclear-Spin Gyroscope Based on an Atomic Co-Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romalis, Michael; Komack, Tom; Ghost, Rajat

    2008-01-01

    An experimental nuclear-spin gyroscope is based on an alkali-metal/noblegas co-magnetometer, which automatically cancels the effects of magnetic fields. Whereas the performances of prior nuclear-spin gyroscopes are limited by sensitivity to magnetic fields, this gyroscope is insensitive to magnetic fields and to other external perturbations. In addition, relative to prior nuclear-spin gyroscopes, this one exhibits greater sensitivity to rotation. There is commercial interest in development of small, highly sensitive gyroscopes. The present experimental device could be a prototype for development of nuclear spin gyroscopes suitable for navigation. In comparison with fiber-optic gyroscopes, these gyroscopes would draw less power and would be smaller, lighter, more sensitive, and less costly.

  13. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  14. Carbon dioxide removal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  15. Activities to maintain, strengthen and hand down the nuclear technology base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Makoto; Oketani, Koichiro

    2009-01-01

    The recent worldwide 'Nuclear Renaissance' is encouraging the globalization of our nuclear business and making us aware of the increasing importance of the human education and trainings for it. The basic concept of MHI's human resource development and its improvement is 'The improvement in the skills and motivation of each employee leads to the strengthening of the company-wide technology base'. Under this concept we are improving our job efficiency continuously by means of information technology, institutionalizing the means to improve the individual skills and motivation and investing for the effective succession of the skills. In order to take real advantage of those efforts for maintaining, strengthening and effectively handing down the nuclear technology base, it is imperative to keep the volume of actual jobs. So, we have to keep in mind that having actual business continuously is extremely important to keep the sound and solid technology base. (author)

  16. MHI's activities to maintain, strengthen and hand down the nuclear technology base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigemitsu; Kanda, Makoto; Oketani, Koichiro; Hamasaki, Manabu; Uchida, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    The recent worldwide 'Nuclear Renaissance' is encouraging the globalization of our nuclear business and making us aware of the increasing importance of the human education and trainings for it. The basic concept of MHI's human resource development and its improvement is 'The improvement in the skills and motivation of each employee leads to the strengthening of the company-wide technology base'. Under this concept we are improving our job efficiency continuously by means of information technology, institutionalizing the means to improve the individual skills and motivation and investing for the effective succession of the skills. In order to take real advantage of those efforts for maintaining, strengthening and effectively handing down the nuclear technology base, it is imperative to keep the volume of actual jobs. So, we have to keep in mind that having actual business continuously is extremely important to keep the sound and solid technology base. (author)

  17. Creation of Nuclear Data Base up to 150 MeV and corresponding scaling approach for ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubin, Y. N.; Gai, E. V.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Lunev, V. P.

    1997-01-01

    The status of nuclear data in the energy region up to 150 MeV is outlined. The specific physical reasons for the detailed investigations of nuclear structure effects is noted out. The necessity of the development of Nuclear Data System for ADS is stressed. The program for the creation of nuclear data base up to 150 MeV and corresponding scaling approach for ADS is proposed. (Author) 14 refs

  18. Classification of titanium dioxide; Clasificacion del dioxido de titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia C, R.M.; Maya M, M.E. [Secretaria de Hacienda y Credito Publico de Mexico, Mexico (Mexico); Ita T, A. De [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Mexico (Mexico); Palacios G, J. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    In this work the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) and the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy techniques are used with the purpose to achieve a complete identification of phases and mixture of phases of a crystalline material as titanium dioxide. The problem for solving consists of being able to distinguish a sample of titanium dioxide being different than a titanium dioxide pigment. A standard sample of titanium dioxide with NIST certificate is used, which indicates a purity of 99.74% for the TiO{sub 2}. The following way is recommended to proceed: a)To make an analysis by means of X-ray diffraction technique to the sample of titanium dioxide pigment and on the standard of titanium dioxide waiting not find differences. b) To make a chemical analysis by the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy via in a microscope, taking advantage of the high vacuum since it is oxygen which is analysed and if it is concluded that the aluminium oxide appears in a greater proportion to 1% it is established that is a titanium dioxide pigment, but if it is lesser then it will be only titanium dioxide. This type of analysis is an application of the nuclear techniques useful for the tariff classification of merchandise which is considered as of difficult recognition. (Author)

  19. Projected costs of nuclear and conventional base load electricity generation in some IAEA Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The cost of nuclear and conventional electricity is one of the most important parameters for power system planning, and in particular for decisions on base load power projects. This study reviews the projected levelized electricity generation costs of the base load power generation options expected to be available in the medium term, using an agreed common economic methodology. Cost projections were obtained and evaluated for nuclear and fossil fuelled (mainly coal-fired) plants that could be commissioned in the mid- to late 1990s in 10 IAEA Member States. 27 refs, figs and tabs

  20. Reliability analysis of microcomputer boards and computer based systems important to safety of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrikhande, S.V.; Patil, V.K.; Ganesh, G.; Biswas, B.; Patil, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Computer Based Systems (CBS) are employed in Indian nuclear plants for protection, control and monitoring purpose. For forthcoming CBS, Reactor Control Division has designed and developed a new standardized family of microcomputer boards qualified to stringent requirements of nuclear industry. These boards form the basic building blocks of CBS. Reliability analysis of these boards is being carried out using analysis package based on MIL-STD-217Plus methodology. The estimated failure rate values of these standardized microcomputer boards will be useful for reliability assessment of these systems. The paper presents reliability analysis of microcomputer boards and case study of a CBS system built using these boards. (author)

  1. Enhanced Serum Carbon Dioxide Measurements with a Silicone Rubber-Based Carbonate Ion-Selective Electrode and a High-pH Dilution Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J H; Sakong, D S; Nam, H; Cha, G S

    1996-01-01

    A new silicone rubber matrix carbonate-selective membrane and a high-pH buffer diluent are used to enhance the performance of the electrode measurements for serum carbon dioxide. The proposed membrane employs one-component silicone rubber as the matrix and trifluoroacetyl-p-decylbenzene as the neutral ionophore. The optimized membrane formulation incorporates as high as 21.9 wt % plasticizer (e.g., bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate). The highly plasticized silicone rubber membranes not only function equivalently, in terms of the carbonate response, to the conventional PVC matrix membranes, but they also exhibit substantially reduced interfering response toward salicylate. Furthermore, the silicone rubber membrane exhibits better adhesion to the solid surface than do PVC or PU membranes. The use of higher pH buffers (e.g., 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP)-H(2)SO(4), pH 9.5-10.5) further enhances the selectivity of the carbonate electrode measurement system for total CO(2) species over other anions. It is shown that the combined use of the silicone rubber matrix membrane and the high-pH AMP buffer provides a carbonate sensor system that is substantially less subject to interference from salicylate and chloride than is the conventional measurement system employing the PVC-based electrode with the lower pH (8.4-8.8) buffer diluent.

  2. Rational design of hierarchically porous birnessite-type manganese dioxides nanosheets on different one-dimensional titania-based nanowires for high performance supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yu Xin

    2014-12-01

    A facile and large-scale strategy of mesoporous birnessite-type manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheets on one-dimension (1D) H2Ti 3O7 and anatase/TiO2 (B) nanowires (NWs) is developed for high performance supercapacitors. The morphological characteristics of MnO2 nanoflakes on H2Ti 3O7 and anatase/TiO2 (B) NWs could be rationally designed with various characteristics (e.g., the sheet thickness, surface area). Interestingly, the MnO2/TiO2 NWs exhibit a more optimized electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 120 F g-1 at current density of 0.1 A g-1 (based on MnO 2 + TiO2) than MnO2/H2Ti 3O7 NWs. An asymmetric supercapacitor of MnO 2/TiO2//activated graphene (AG) yields a better energy density of 29.8 Wh kg-1 than MnO2/H2Ti 3O7//AG asymmetric supercapacitor, while maintaining desirable cycling stability. Indeed, the pseudocapacitive difference is related to the substrates, unique structure and surface area. Especially, the anatase/TiO2 (B) mixed-phase system can provide good electronic conductivity and high utilization of MnO2 nanosheets. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Oxide Coating on Performance of Copper-Zinc Oxide-Based Catalyst for Methanol Synthesis via Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umegaki, Tetsuo; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Omata, Kohji

    2015-11-16

    The effect of oxide coating on the activity of a copper-zinc oxide-based catalyst for methanol synthesis via the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide was investigated. A commercial catalyst was coated with various oxides by a sol-gel method. The influence of the types of promoters used in the sol-gel reaction was investigated. Temperature-programmed reduction-thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the reduction peak assigned to the copper species in the oxide-coated catalysts prepared using ammonia shifts to lower temperatures than that of the pristine catalyst; in contrast, the reduction peak shifts to higher temperatures for the catalysts prepared using L(+)-arginine. These observations indicated that the copper species were weakly bonded with the oxide and were easily reduced by using ammonia. The catalysts prepared using ammonia show higher CO₂ conversion than the catalysts prepared using L(+)-arginine. Among the catalysts prepared using ammonia, the silica-coated catalyst displayed a high activity at high temperatures, while the zirconia-coated catalyst and titania-coated catalyst had high activity at low temperatures. At high temperature the conversion over the silica-coated catalyst does not significantly change with reaction temperature, while the conversion over the zirconia-coated catalyst and titania-coated catalyst decreases with reaction time. From the results of FTIR, the durability depends on hydrophilicity of the oxides.

  4. Effect of Oxide Coating on Performance of Copper-Zinc Oxide-Based Catalyst for Methanol Synthesis via Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Umegaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxide coating on the activity of a copper-zinc oxide–based catalyst for methanol synthesis via the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide was investigated. A commercial catalyst was coated with various oxides by a sol-gel method. The influence of the types of promoters used in the sol-gel reaction was investigated. Temperature-programmed reduction-thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the reduction peak assigned to the copper species in the oxide-coated catalysts prepared using ammonia shifts to lower temperatures than that of the pristine catalyst; in contrast, the reduction peak shifts to higher temperatures for the catalysts prepared using L(+-arginine. These observations indicated that the copper species were weakly bonded with the oxide and were easily reduced by using ammonia. The catalysts prepared using ammonia show higher CO2 conversion than the catalysts prepared using L(+-arginine. Among the catalysts prepared using ammonia, the silica-coated catalyst displayed a high activity at high temperatures, while the zirconia-coated catalyst and titania-coated catalyst had high activity at low temperatures. At high temperature the conversion over the silica-coated catalyst does not significantly change with reaction temperature, while the conversion over the zirconia-coated catalyst and titania-coated catalyst decreases with reaction time. From the results of FTIR, the durability depends on hydrophilicity of the oxides.

  5. Beyond integrated safeguards: Performance-based assessments for future nuclear controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Budlong Sylvester, Kory W.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In the future, if the nuclear nonproliferation and arms control agendas are to advance, they will likely become increasingly seen as parallel undertakings with the objective of comprehensive cradle-to-grave controls over nuclear materials and possibly even warheads removed from defense programs along with materials in civilian use. This 'back to the future' prospect was envisioned in the Acheson-Lillienthal Report and the Baruch Plan, and more modestly in the Atoms-for-Peace Proposal. Unlike the grand plans of the early nuclear years, today's and tomorrow's undertakings will more likely consist of a series of incremental steps with the goal of expanding nuclear controls. These steps will be undertaken at a time of fundamental change in the IAEA safeguards system, and they will be influenced by those changes in profound ways. This prospective influence needs to be taken into account as the IAEA develops and implements integrated safeguards, including its efforts to establish new safeguards criteria, undertake technological and administrative improvements in safeguards, implement credible capabilities for the detection of undeclared nuclear facilities and activities and, perhaps, provide for a more intensive involvement in applying safeguards in new roles such as the verification of a Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty. Performance-based criteria offer one promising way to address the effectiveness of integrated safeguards and to provide a common means of assessing the other key areas of a comprehensive approach to nuclear controls as these develop independently and to the extent that they are coordinated in the future. (author)

  6. Science communication from women in nuclear fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    In India, nuclear fuel is required for operating both nuclear research reactors and power reactors. Indian women are extensively involved in nuclear fuel research and production activities. However, the nature and extent of their involvement differs based only on the job required and not on any gender basis. Excluding a few specific safety and security issues, therefore, science and technology communication really does not change according to the gender of the scientist or technologist. Presently in India, nuclear grade uranium metal is required for fuelling research reactors and nuclear grade uranium oxide is being utilized as fuel for power reactors. Hydrometallurgical operations using specific solvents are being used for achieving 'nuclear grade' in both sectors. For production of uranium oxide, purified uranium compounds need to get calcined and reduced for obtaining uranium dioxide of various qualities

  7. Defining nuclear medical file format based on DICOM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Bin; Jin Yongjie; Li Yulan

    2000-01-01

    With the wide using of computer technology in medical area, DICOM is becoming the standard of digital imaging and communication. The author discusses how to define medical imaging file format based on DICOM standard. It also introduces the file format of ANMIS system authors defined and the validity and integrality of this format

  8. Defining nuclear medical file formal based on DICOM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Bin; Jin Yongjie; Li Yulan

    2001-01-01

    With the wide application of computer technology in medical area, DICOM is becoming the standard of digital imaging and communication. The author discusses how to define medical imaging file formal based on DICOM standard. It also introduces the format of ANMIS system the authors defined the validity and integrality of this format

  9. Fiber-Based Laser Transmitter at 1.57 Micrometers for Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide from Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Abshire, James B.; Stephen, Mark A.; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Wu, Stewart; Gonzalez, Brayler; Han, Lawrence; Numata, Kenji; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William; hide

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, NASA Goddard has successfully developed space-based lidar for remote sensing studies of the Earth and planets. The lidar in all missions to date have used diode pumped Nd:YAG laser transmitters. Recently we have been concentrating work on developing integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar to measure greenhouse gases, with the goal of measurements from space. Due to the absorption spectrum of CO2 a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser with a tunable seed source is an attractive laser choice. Fiber-based lasers offer a number of potential advantages for space, but since they are relatively new, challenges exist in developing them. In order to reduce risks for new missions using fiber-based lasers, we developed a 30- month plan to mature the technology of a candidate laser transmitter for space-based CO2 measurements to TRL-6. This work is also intended to reduce development time and costs and increase confidence in future mission success.

  10. An AI-based layout design system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Kikuo; Akagi, Shinsuke; Nakatogawa, Tetsundo; Tanaka, Kazuo; Takeuchi, Makoto.

    1991-01-01

    An AI-based layout design system for nuclear power plants has been developed. The design of the layout of nuclear power plants is a time-consuming task requiring expertise, in which a lot of machinery and equipment must be arranged in a plant building considering various kinds of design constraints, i.e. spatial, functional, economical etc. Computer aided layout design systems have been widely expected and the application of AI technology is expected as a promising approach for the synthesis phase of this task. In this paper, we present an approach to the layout design of nuclear power plants based on a constraint-directed search; one of the AI techniques. In addition, we show how it was implemented with an object-oriented programming technique and give an example of its application. (author)

  11. Thoria-based nuclear fuels thermophysical and thermodynamic properties, fabrication, reprocessing, and waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, S R

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art on thermophysical and thermochemical properties, fabrication methodologies, irradiation behaviours, fuel reprocessing procedures, and aspects of waste management for oxide fuels in general and for thoria-based fuels in particular. The book covers all the essential features involved in the development of and working with nuclear technology. With the help of key databases, many of which were created by the authors, information is presented in the form of tables, figures, schematic diagrams and flow sheets, and photographs. This information will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the nuclear field, particularly for design and simulation, and for establishing the technology. One special feature is the inclusion of the latest information on thoria-based fuels, especially on the use of thorium in power generation, as it has less proliferation potential for nuclear weapons. Given its natural abundance, thorium offers a future alternative to uranium fuels in nuc...

  12. Life-cycle cost assessment of seismically base-isolated structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Weng, Dagen; Lu, Xilin; Lu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The life-cycle cost of seismic base-isolated nuclear power plants is modeled. • The change law of life-cycle cost with seismic fortification intensity is studied. • The initial cost of laminated lead rubber bearings can be expressed as the function of volume. • The initial cost of a damper can be expressed as the function of its maximum displacement and tonnage. • The use of base-isolation can greatly reduce the expected damage cost, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost. -- Abstract: Evaluation of seismically base-isolated structural life-cycle cost is the key problem in performance based seismic design. A method is being introduced to address the life-cycle cost of base-isolated reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Each composition of life-cycle cost is analyzed including the initial construction cost, the isolators cost and the excepted damage cost over life-cycle of the structure. The concept of seismic intensity is being used to estimate the expected damage cost, greatly simplifying the calculation. Moreover, French Cruas nuclear power plant is employed as an example to assess its life-cycle cost, compared to the cost of non-isolated plant at the same time. The results show that the proposed method is efficient and the expected damage cost is enormously reduced because of the application of isolators, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost of nuclear power plants

  13. Perspectives of nuclear energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederle, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2007), s. 59-65 ISSN N. [Promises of Science. Prague, 13.01.2006-15.01.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 839 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : perspectives of nuclear energy, carbon dioxide emissions , climate changes, generation IV reactors system * carbon dioxide emissions * climate changes Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  14. OMI and Ground-Based In-Situ Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Observations over Several Important European Cities during 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiru Paraschiv

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 content over several important European cities during 2005–2014 using space observations and ground-based in-situ measurements. The NO2 content was derived using the daily observations provided by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, while the NO2 volume mixing ratio measurements were obtained from the European Environment Agency (EEA air quality monitoring stations database. The European cities selected are: Athens (37.98° N, 23.72° E, Berlin (52.51° N, 13.41° E, Bucharest (44.43° N, 26.10° E, Madrid (40.38° N, 3.71° W, Lisbon (38.71° N, 9.13° W, Paris (48.85° N, 2.35° E, Rome (41.9° N, 12.50° E, and Rotterdam (51.91° N, 4.46° E. We show that OMI NO2 tropospheric column data can be used to assess the evolution of NO2 over important European cities. According to the statistical analysis, using the seasonal variation, we found good correlations (R > 0.50 between OMI and ground-based in-situ observations for all of the cities presented in this work. Highest correlation coefficients (R > 0.80 between ground-based monitoring stations and OMI observations were calculated for the cities of Berlin, Madrid, and Rome. Both types of observations, in-situ and remote sensing, show an NO2 negative trend for all of locations presented in this study.

  15. Comparing Mass Balance and Adjoint-Based 4D-VAR Methods for Inverse Modeling of Nitrogen Dioxide Columns for Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M.; Martin, R.; Henze, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) emission inventories can be improved through top-down constraints provided by inverse modeling of observed nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns. Here we compare two methods of inverse modeling for emissions of NOx from synthetic NO2 columns generated from known emissions using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint. We treat the adjoint-based 4D-VAR approach for estimating top-down emissions as a benchmark against which to evaluate variations on the mass balance method. We find that the standard mass balance algorithm can be improved by using an iterative process and using finite difference to calculate the local sensitivity of a change in NO2 columns to a change in emissions, resulting in a factor of two reduction in inversion error. In a simplified case study to recover local emission perturbations, horizontal smearing effects due to NOx transport were better resolved by the adjoint-based approach than by mass balance. For more complex emission changes that reflect real world scenarios, the iterative finite difference mass balance and adjoint methods produce similar top-down inventories when inverting hourly synthetic observations, both reducing the a priori error by factors of 3-4. Inversions of data sets that simulate satellite observations from low Earth and geostationary orbits also indicate that both the mass balance and adjoint inversions produce similar results, reducing a priori error by a factor of 3. As the iterative finite difference mass balance method provides similar accuracy as the adjoint-based 4D-VAR method, it offers the ability to efficiently estimate top-down emissions using models that do not have an adjoint.

  16. Applying computer-based procedures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mauro V. de; Carvalho, Paulo V.R. de; Santos, Isaac J.A.L. dos; Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Bruno, Diego S.

    2009-01-01

    Plant operation procedures are used to guide operators in coping with normal, abnormal or emergency situations in a process control system. Historically, the plant procedures have been paper-based (PBP), with the digitalisation trend in these complex systems computer-based procedures (CBPs) are being developed to support procedure use. This work shows briefly the research on CBPs at the Human-System Interface Laboratory (LABIHS). The emergency operation procedure EOP-0 of the LABIHS NPP simulator was implemented in the ImPRO CBP system. The ImPRO system was chosen for test because it is available for download in the Internet. A preliminary operation test using the implemented procedure in the CBP system was realized and the results were compared to the operation through PBP use. (author)

  17. Risk-based prioritization at Hanford Nuclear Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, W.A.; Mosely, M.T.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the method used to incorporate risk-based decision making into the Hanford resource allocation process. This method, the Revised Priority Planning Grid, is used as a tool to calculate benefits and benefit-to-cost ratios for comparison of environmental cleanup activities. The tool is based on Hanford Site objectives. Benefits are determined by estimating the impact on those objectives resulting from funding specific environmental management activities. Impacts are also a function of the weights associated with the objectives. These weights in the Revised Priority Planning Grid reflect US Development of Energy management values, which were obtained through a formal value-elicitation process. With modification to the objectives and weights, the Revised Priority Planning Grid could be used in different situations. By factoring in environmental, safety, and health risk and assigning higher scores to those activities that provide the most benefit, the Revised Priority Planning Grid is a reproducible, scientific way of scoring competing activities or interests

  18. Functional relationship based alarm processing system for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsberg, D.; Sebo, D.

    1986-01-01

    At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), two knowledge-based systems, Alarm Filtering System (AFS) and Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS), are being developed to address the problem of information overload faced by operators during major plant transients. This paper discusses those systems, their strengths and weaknesses, and how their basic methodologies can be combined into a system that can better support the operator in identifying the plant state

  19. A predictive estimation method for carbon dioxide transport by data-driven modeling with a physically-based data model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jina; Park, Eungyu; Han, Weon Shik; Kim, Kue-Young; Jun, Seong-Chun; Choung, Sungwook; Yun, Seong-Taek; Oh, Junho; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a data-driven method for predicting CO2 leaks and associated concentrations from geological CO2 sequestration is developed. Several candidate models are compared based on their reproducibility and predictive capability for CO2 concentration measurements from the Environment Impact Evaluation Test (EIT) site in Korea. Based on the data mining results, a one-dimensional solution of the advective-dispersive equation for steady flow (i.e., Ogata-Banks solution) is found to be most representative for the test data, and this model is adopted as the data model for the developed method. In the validation step, the method is applied to estimate future CO2 concentrations with the reference estimation by the Ogata-Banks solution, where a part of earlier data is used as the training dataset. From the analysis, it is found that the ensemble mean of multiple estimations based on the developed method shows high prediction accuracy relative to the reference estimation. In addition, the majority of the data to be predicted are included in the proposed quantile interval, which suggests adequate representation of the uncertainty by the developed method. Therefore, the incorporation of a reasonable physically-based data model enhances the prediction capability of the data-driven model. The proposed method is not confined to estimations of CO2 concentration and may be applied to various real-time monitoring data from subsurface sites to develop automated control, management or decision-making systems.

  20. Nitrosamines and Nitramines in Amine-Based Carbon Dioxide Capture Systems: Fundamentals, Engineering Implications, and Knowledge Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun; Mitch, William A; Dai, Ning

    2017-10-17

    Amine-based absorption is the primary contender for postcombustion CO 2 capture from fossil fuel-fired power plants. However, significant concerns have arisen regarding the formation and emission of toxic nitrosamine and nitramine byproducts from amine-based systems. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding these byproducts in CO 2 capture systems. In the absorber, flue gas NO x drives nitrosamine and nitramine formation after its dissolution into the amine solvent. The reaction mechanisms are reviewed based on CO 2 capture literature as well as biological and atmospheric chemistry studies. In the desorber, nitrosamines are formed under high temperatures by amines reacting with nitrite (a hydrolysis product of NO x ), but they can also thermally decompose following pseudo-first order kinetics. The effects of amine structure, primarily amine order, on nitrosamine formation and the corresponding mechanisms are discussed. Washwater units, although intended to control emissions from the absorber, can contribute to additional nitrosamine formation when accumulated amines react with residual NO x . Nitramines are much less studied than nitrosamines in CO 2 capture systems. Mitigation strategies based on the reaction mechanisms in each unit of the CO 2 capture systems are reviewed. Lastly, we highlight research needs in clarifying reaction mechanisms, developing analytical methods for both liquid and gas phases, and integrating different units to quantitatively predict the accumulation and emission of nitrosamines and nitramines.

  1. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.; Sandoval, Marisa N.

    2011-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  2. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  3. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2006-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  4. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  5. Research-based learning for nuclear engineering education in Gadjah Mada University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putero, Susetyo Hario; Kusnanto; Harto, Andang Widi

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear engineering education in Gadjah Mada University has been operated since 1977 in order to prepare Indonesian people facing up nuclear era in Indonesia. Until 1995, most of the alumni work in National Nuclear Energy Board, but recently many of them have been taking advanced study abroad. To improve our quality of education, since the last 3 years Gadjah Mada University has implemented Research-Based Learning (RBL). RBL for nuclear engineering student is conducted by providing challenges to the student related to the critical issues in public acceptance of nuclear power plant (NPP) in Indonesia that is waste management. Students should join in a group to complete the assignment. Within the group, they discuss and produce new idea in order to manage radioactive waste of new generation NPP. So, they are stimulated to think the future based on the state of the art of waste technology. This method could increase student's knowledge and soft skills, simultaneously. Some students also continue to explore and to refine the task as their thesis topic. Therefore, implementation of RBL also succeeds in increasing student's efficiency study. (author)

  6. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  7. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  8. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F [Editor

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  9. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  10. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2010-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  11. Consensus based Nuclear Public-Hearing system Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Wook; Cho, Young Ho; Shin, Dong Hoon; Ko, Hyun Seok; Kim, Suk Hoon; Kang, Chang Sun

    2006-01-01

    For public participation, Korea has a system of Public-Hearing in accordance with the law. Because of the absence of the detailed way for public opinion aggregation and for the reflection of the aggregated opinion, Korean Public-Hearing system is only a concept model. In this study, to share the right of decision making, which is an ultimate concept for public participation, components of decision making and the characteristics of each phase are analyzed. It could be said that the relative weight of attributes for assessment and comparison with alternatives are founded as a valuation factor of the decision making, which should be based on the social consensus

  12. Hypertext-based integration for nuclear plant maintenance and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.H.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is presented that uses fuzzy graphs in the emerging paradigm of hypertext for the purpose of integrating data, information and multifaceted knowledge resources abounding in power plant operations and maintenance. A hypertext system is viewed as a set of nodes and links where with each link we associate membership functions embodying context-dependent criteria for navigating large information spaces. A general framework for navigation is outlined and graph-theory navigational tools are developed. A numerical example and a HyperCard-based prototype for monitoring special material in the MHTGR-NPR are included. 10 refs., 12 figs

  13. The potential of knowledge based systems in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The integration of the knowledge based systems (KBS) with processes is a new challenge for artificial intelligence developments. Integration requires improved robustness of the KBS, using methodologies which cater for building well structured, modular applications, and for verification and validation. The following key points related to KBS development were discussed during the meeting: state of the art in knowledge representation and reasoning; methods for building KBS; tools and computers used for building and implementing KBS; requirements for verification and validation; communication between KBS and the process, and between the KBS and the operators. 9 papers were presented by participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers. Refs and figs

  14. Nuclear energy cost data base. A reference data base for nuclear and coal-fired powerplant power-generation cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    A reference data base and standard methodology are needed for performing comparative nuclear and fossil power generation cost analyses for DOE/NE. Proposals are presented for such a methodology and for reference assumptions and data to be used with the methodology. This report is intended to provide basic guidelines or a starting point for analysis and to serve as a focal point in establishing parameters and methods to be used in economic comparisons of nuclear systems with alternatives. The data base is applicable for economic comparisons of new base-load light water reactors on either a current once-through cycle or self-generated recycle, high- and low-sulfur coal-fired plants, and oil and natural gas-fired electric generating plant coming on line in the last decade of this century. This paper includes a data base containing proposed technical and economic assumptions to be used in analyses, discussions of a recommended methodology to be used in calculating power generation costs, and a sample calculation for illustrative and benchmark purposes

  15. Updating and using the international non-neutron experimental nuclear data base in ''Generalized EXFOR'' format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravleva, G.M.; Chukreev, F.E.

    1985-10-01

    A software system for the automatic preparation of non-formalized textual information for the international exchange of nuclear data in the ''Generalized Exchange Format (EXFOR)'' is described. The ''Generalized EXFOR'' format is briefly outlined and data are given on the size of the international non-neutron experimental data base in this format. (author)

  16. Radioactive Release from Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel in Basin Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The report provides an evaluation of: (1) the release rate of radionuclides through minor cladding penetrations (breaches) on aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (AL SNF), and (2) the consequences of direct storage of breached AL SNF relative to the authorization basis for SRS basin operation

  17. Computer-based measurement and automatizatio aplication research in nuclear technology fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hongfei; Zhang Xiangyang

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces computer-based measurement and automatization application research in nuclear technology fields. The emphasis of narration are the role of software in the development of system, and the network measurement and control software model which has optimistic application foreground. And presents the application examples of research and development. (authors)

  18. Web-Based Search and Plot System for Nuclear Reaction Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otuka, N.; Nakagawa, T.; Fukahori, T.; Katakura, J.; Aikawa, M.; Suda, T.; Naito, K.; Korennov, S.; Arai, K.; Noto, H.; Ohnishi, A.; Kato, K.

    2005-01-01

    A web-based search and plot system for nuclear reaction data has been developed, covering experimental data in EXFOR format and evaluated data in ENDF format. The system is implemented for Linux OS, with Perl and MySQL used for CGI scripts and the database manager, respectively. Two prototypes for experimental and evaluated data are presented

  19. Discriminator based on voltage comparator for nuclear physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, V.A.; Kiselev, A.A.; Kuz'min, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a simple discriminator of low-level pulses with integral discrimination based on a K521SA3 comparator. The discriminator can be used to record pulses with durations of ≥ 0.1 usec and amplitudes of ≥ 1 mV. the input-pulse amplitude must not exceed the supply-voltage amplitude. A schematic diagram of the discriminator is given. For operation of the NGR spectrometer in the constant-velocity mode, the comparator was gated by the bipolar vibrator-velocity signal. The described circuit is reliable under laboratory conditions and its use is promising in multi-input systems such as those with multisection coordinate detectors

  20. Acid-base regulation, metabolism and energetics in sipunculus nudus as a function of ambient carbon dioxide level

    Science.gov (United States)

    PORtner; ReipschlAGerY; n

    1998-01-01

    Changes in the rates of oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion, in intra- and extracellular acid-base status and in the rate of H+-equivalent ion transfer between animals and ambient water were measured during environmental hypercapnia in the peanut worm Sipunculus nudus. During exposure to 1 % CO2 in air, intracellular and coelomic plasma PCO2 values rose to levels above those expected from the increase in ambient CO2 tension. Simultaneously, coelomic plasma PO2 was reduced below control values. The rise in PCO2 also induced a fall in intra- and extracellular pH, but intracellular pH was rapidly and completely restored. This was achieved during the early period of hypercapnia at the expense of a non-respiratory increase in the extracellular acidosis. The pH of the extracellular space was only partially compensated (by 37 %) during long-term hypercapnia. The net release of basic equivalents under control conditions turned to a net release of protons to the ambient water before a net, albeit reduced, rate of base release was re-established after a new steady state had been achieved with respect to acid-base parameters. Hypercapnia also affected the mode and rate of metabolism. It caused the rate of oxygen consumption to fall, whereas the rate of ammonium excretion remained constant or even increased, reflecting a reduction of the O/N ratio in both cases. The transient intracellular acidosis preceded a depletion of the phosphagen phospho-l-arginine, an accumulation of free ADP and a decrease in the level of Gibbs free energy change of ATP hydrolysis, before replenishment of phosphagen and restoration of pHi and energy status occurred in parallel. In conclusion, long-term hypercapnia in vivo causes metabolic depression, a parallel shift in acid-base status and increased gas partial pressure gradients, which are related to a reduction in ventilatory activity. The steady-state rise in H+-equivalent ion transfer to the environment reflects an increased rate of

  1. Fundamental Science-Based Simulation of Nuclear Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-10-04

    This report presents a hierarchical multiscale modeling scheme based on two-way information exchange. To account for all essential phenomena in waste forms over geological time scales, the models have to span length scales from nanometer to kilometer and time scales from picoseconds to millenia. A single model cannot cover this wide range and a multi-scale approach that integrates a number of different at-scale models is called for. The approach outlined here involves integration of quantum mechanical calculations, classical molecular dynamics simulations, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field methods at the mesoscale, and continuum models. The ultimate aim is to provide science-based input in the form of constitutive equations to integrated codes. The atomistic component of this scheme is demonstrated in the promising waste form xenotime. Density functional theory calculations have yielded valuable information about defect formation energies. This data can be used to develop interatomic potentials for molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage. Potentials developed in the present work show a good match for the equilibrium lattice constants, elastic constants and thermal expansion of xenotime. In novel waste forms, such as xenotime, a considerable amount of data needed to validate the models is not available. Integration of multiscale modeling with experimental work is essential to generate missing data needed to validate the modeling scheme and the individual models. Density functional theory can also be used to fill knowledge gaps. Key challenges lie in the areas of uncertainty quantification, verification and validation, which must be performed at each level of the multiscale model and across scales. The approach used to exchange information between different levels must also be rigorously validated. The outlook for multiscale modeling of wasteforms is quite promising.

  2. Implantation of silicon dioxide-based nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and pure phase beta-tricalciumphosphate bone substitute granules in caprine muscle tissue does not induce new bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanaati Shahram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoinductive bone substitutes are defined by their ability to induce new bone formation even at heterotopic implantation sites. The present study was designed to analyze the potential osteoinductivity of two different bone substitute materials in caprine muscle tissue. Materials and methods One gram each of either a porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP or an hydroxyapatite/silicon dioxide (HA/SiO2-based nanocrystalline bone substitute material was implanted in several muscle pouches of goats. The biomaterials were explanted at 29, 91 and 181 days after implantation. Conventional histology and special histochemical stains were performed to detect osteoblast precursor cells as well as mineralized and unmineralized bone matrix. Results Both materials underwent cellular degradation in which tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive osteoclast-like cells and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells were involved. The ß-TCP was completely resorbed within the observation period, whereas some granules of the HA-groups were still detectable after 180 days. Neither osteoblasts, osteoblast precursor cells nor extracellular bone matrix were found within the implantation bed of any of the analyzed biomaterials at any of the observed time points. Conclusions This study showed that ß-TCP underwent a faster degradation than the HA-based material. The lack of osteoinductivity for both materials might be due to their granular shape, as osteoinductivity in goat muscle has been mainly attributed to cylindrical or disc-shaped bone substitute materials. This hypothesis however requires further investigation to systematically analyze various materials with comparable characteristics in the same experimental setting.

  3. Strategic Plan for Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-10-01

    The Nuclear Energy Computational Fluid Dynamics Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-CAMS) system is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with Bettis Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Utah State University (USU), and other interested parties with the objective of developing and implementing a comprehensive and readily accessible data and information management system for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) verification and validation (V&V) in support of nuclear energy systems design and safety analysis. The two key objectives of the NE-CAMS effort are to identify, collect, assess, store and maintain high resolution and high quality experimental data and related expert knowledge (metadata) for use in CFD V&V assessments specific to the nuclear energy field and to establish a working relationship with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop a CFD V&V database, including benchmark cases, that addresses and supports the associated NRC regulations and policies on the use of CFD analysis. In particular, the NE-CAMS system will support the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program, which aims to develop and deploy advanced modeling and simulation methods and computational tools for reliable numerical simulation of nuclear reactor systems for design and safety analysis. Primary NE-CAMS Elements There are four primary elements of the NE-CAMS knowledge base designed to support computer modeling and simulation in the nuclear energy arena as listed below. Element 1. The database will contain experimental data that can be used for CFD validation that is relevant to nuclear reactor and plant processes, particularly those important to the nuclear industry and the NRC. Element 2. Qualification standards for data evaluation and classification will be incorporated and applied such that validation data sets will result in well

  4. Risk assessment model for nuclear accident emergency protection countermeasure based on fuzzy matter-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Jing; Tang Huaqing; Zhang Yinghua; Zhang Limin

    2009-01-01

    A risk assessment model of nuclear accident emergency protection countermeasure based on fuzzy matter-element analysis and Euclid approach degree is proposed in the paper. The weight of assessed index is determined by information entropy and the scoring by experts, which could not only make full use of the inherent information of the indexes adequately, but reduce subjective assumption in the course of assessment effectively. The applied result shows that it is reasonable that the model is adopted to make risk assessment for nuclear accident emergency protective countermeasure,and it could be a kind of effective analytical method and decision making basis to choose the optimum protection countermeasure. (authors)

  5. Sustainable Forward Operating Base Nuclear Power Evaluation (Relationship Mapping System) Users’ Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2012-01-01

    The Sustainable Forward Operating Base (FOB) Nuclear Power Evaluation was developed by the Idaho National Laboratory Systems Engineering Department to support the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in assessing and demonstrating the viability of deploying small-scale reactors in support of military operations in theatre. This document provides a brief explanation of how to access and use the Sustainable FOB Nuclear Power Evaluation utility to view assessment results as input into developing and integrating the program elements needed to create a successful demonstration.

  6. Seismic fragility analyses of nuclear power plant structures based on the recorded earthquake data in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Yang Hee; Cho, Sung Gook

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces an improved method for evaluating seismic fragilities of components of nuclear power plants in Korea. Engineering characteristics of small magnitude earthquake spectra recorded in the Korean peninsula during the last several years are also discussed in this paper. For the purpose of evaluating the effects of the recorded earthquake on the seismic fragilities of Korean nuclear power plant structures, several cases of comparative studies have been performed. The study results show that seismic fragility analysis based on the Newmark's spectra in Korea might over-estimate the seismic capacities of Korean facilities. (author)

  7. Influence of various parameters on effectiveness of seismic base isolation of nuclear equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, K.; Kameoka, H.; Takenouchi, I.; Kajiki, S.

    1995-01-01

    Authors developed a methodology and EBISA code for evaluating the applicability and the effectiveness of seismic base isolation of nuclear equipment. In order to investigate the influence of various parameters on the effectiveness of seismic base isolation, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for an emergency transformer with the base isolation devices. It was proved that seismic base isolation of equipment is very effective. This effectiveness can be influenced by the differences of the base isolation devices and the direction of the input seismic wave. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Uranium dioxide preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, G.W.; Baugh, D.W. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    An actinide dioxide, e.g., uranium dioxide, is prepared by reacting an actinide nitrate or hydrate or tetrahydrofuranate thereof, e.g., uranyl nitrate, a hydrate of uranyl nitrate, or a tetrahydrofuranate of uranyl nitrate with an alkali or alkaline earth metal adduct of a monocyclic or polycyclic hydrocarbon in the presence of an inert organic solvent. Typically, the starting material may be uranyl nitrate dihydrate or uranyl nitrate ditetrahydrofuranate (the latter material is a novel composition of matter) with a reactant such as the sodium adduct of naphthalene in the presence of a solvent such as tetrahydrofuran. The resultant uranium dioxide may be further purified by heating it in the presence of hydrogen. 15 claims

  9. Identification, design and synthesis of oxygenated hydrocarbon-based carbon dioxide-soluble polymers for chemical and petroleum engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lei

    Over the past two decades the use of sub/supercritical CO2 has received much attention as a green alternative to organic solvents for chemical processes because of its pressure-tunable physicochemical properties and economic advantages. However the advantages are diminished because of a relative narrow range of CO2-soluble materials. The goal of this work is to identify, design and synthesize oxygenated hydrocarbon-based CO 2-soluble polymers that are able to serve as construction blocks for copolymers, dispersants, surfactants, and thickeners. Without concerning on the cost and the environmental persistence like fluorinated materials, the inexpensive and environmentally benign materials would significantly enhance the viability of sub/supercritical CO2-based technology. Based on both experimental heuristics and ab initio simulation of molecular modeling (performed by Dr. Johnson's group), we proposed specific new polymer structures: poly (3-acetoxy oxetane) (PAO), poly (vinyl methoxymethyl ether) (PVMME), poly (vinyl 1-methoxyethyl ether) (PVMEE), and cellulose triacetate (CTA) oligomers. Phase behavior studies were also performed with novel CO 2-philic compounds containing vinyl acetate, propylene glycol, or multiple tert-butyl groups. PAO, PVMME and PVMME were soluble in CO2, but not as soluble as poly (vinyl acetate). Oligomers of cellulose triacetate with as many as four repeat units solubilized into dense CO2 less than 14 MPa in the concentration range of 1-5 wt%. Phase behaviors of more than twenty compounds in dense CO2 were studied in this project. A new type of phase behavior for solid CO2-philes that melt and dissolve in CO 2 was detailed using a model binary mixture of beta-D-maltose octaacetate and CO2. Copolymers of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and vinyl acetate (VAc) exhibited lower miscibility pressures than either of the homopolymers, probably due to quadradentate binding configurations with CO 2. Phase behavior investigation of poly (propylene glycol

  10. Carbon sequestration by mangrove forest: One approach for managing carbon dioxide emission from coal-based power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Raghab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Mangroves are known as natural carbon sinks, taking CO2 out of the atmosphere and store it in their biomass for many years. This study aimed to investigate the capacity of world's largest mangrove, the Sundarbans (Indian part) to sequester anthropogenic CO2 emitted from the proximate coal-based thermal power plant in Kolaghat (∼100 km away from mangrove site). Study also includes Kolkata, one of the largest metropolises of India (∼150 km away from mangrove site) for comparing micrometeorological parameters, biosphere-atmosphere CO2 exchange fluxes and atmospheric pollutants between three distinct environments: mangrove-power plant-metropolis. Hourly sampling of atmospheric CO2 in all three sites (late December 2011 and early January 2012) revealed that CO2 concentrations and emission fluxes were maximum around the power plant (360-621 ppmv, 5.6-56.7 mg m-2s-1 respectively) followed by the metropolis (383-459 ppmv, 3.8-20.4 mg m-2s-1 respectively) and mangroves (277-408 ppmv, -8.9-11.4 mg m-2s-1, respectively). Monthly coal consumption rates (41-57, in 104 ton month-1) were converted to CO2 suggesting that 2.83 Tg C was added to the atmosphere in 2011 for the generation of 7469732 MW energy from the power plant. Indian Sundarbans (4264 km2) sequestered total of 2.79 Tg C which was 0.64% of the annual fossil fuel emission from India in the same time period. Based on these data from 2010 to 2011, it is calculated that about 4328 km2 mangrove forest coverage is needed to sequester all CO2 emitted from the Kolaghat power plant.

  11. A New Pentiptycene-Based Dianhydride and Its High-Free-Volume Polymer for Carbon Dioxide Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsabadi, Ahmad Arabi; Seidi, Farzad; Nozari, Mohammad; Soroush, Masoud

    2018-01-23

    In addition to possessing excellent chemical, mechanical, and thermal stability, polyimides and polyetherimides have excellent solubility in many solvents, which renders them suitable for membrane preparation. Two new monomers [a pentiptycene-based dianhydride (PPDAn) and a pentiptycene imide-containing diamine (PPImDA)] and a pentiptycene-based polyimide [PPImDA-4,4'-hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic anhydride (PPImDA-6FDA)] have been synthesized and characterized by FTIR and 1 H NMR spectroscopy, gel-permeation chromatography, mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, BET surface area, and X-ray diffraction. High-molecular-weight PPImDA-6FDA has remarkable thermal stability and excellent solubility in common organic solvents. It also has an extraordinarily high fractional free volume (0.233) owing to the presence of -C(CF 3 ) 2 - units, the rigid diamine, and the pentiptycene moiety in the polymer structure. It has high CO 2 permeability (812 Barrer) owing to poor chain packing, which is caused by the fact that its rigid groups veil the influence of the ethereal oxygen groups in its backbone. It has the highest CO 2 permeability among all reported pentiptycene-containing polymers (about six times higher than that of the most permeable one) without sacrificing selectivity. The high free volume, good microporosity, high solubility in many solvents, and remarkable thermal stability of PPImDA-6FDA point to the great potential of this polymer for CO 2 removal. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Carbon dioxide and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed ''An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO 2 Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO 2 concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration

  13. Alternative Anodes for the Electrolytic Reduction of Uranium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwin, Augustus

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is an essential step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. In order to consume current stockpiles, ceramic uranium dioxide spent nuclear fuel will be subjected to an electrolytic reduction process. The current reduction process employs a platinum anode and a stainless steel alloy 316 cathode in a molten salt bath consisting of LiCl-2wt% Li 2O and occurs at 700°C. A major shortcoming of the existing process is the degradation of the platinum anode under the severely oxidizing conditions encountered during electrolytic reduction. This work investigates alternative anode materials for the electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide. The high temperature and extreme oxidizing conditions encountered in these studies necessitated a unique set of design constraints on the system. Thus, a customized experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. The electrochemical experiments were performed in an electrochemical reactor placed inside a furnace. This entire setup was housed inside a glove box, in order to maintain an inert atmosphere. This study investigates alternative anode materials through accelerated corrosion testing. Surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was characterized using energy dispersive spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electrochemical behavior of candidate materials was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization characteristics. After narrowing the number of candidate electrode materials, ferrous stainless steel alloy 316, nickel based Inconel 718 and elemental tungsten were chosen for further investigation. Of these materials only tungsten was found to be sufficiently stable at the anodic potential required for electrolysis of uranium dioxide in molten salt. The tungsten anode and stainless steel alloy 316 cathode electrode system was studied at the required reduction potential for UO2 with varying lithium oxide concentrations. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

  14. The knowledge-based off-site emergency response system for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, L.W.; Loa, W.W.; Wang, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    A knowledge-based expert system for a nuclear power plant off-site emergency response system is described. The system incorporates the knowledge about the nuclear power plant behaviours, site environment and site geographic factors, etc. The system is developed using Chinshan nuclear power station of Taipower Company, Taiwan, ROC as a representative model. The objectives of developing this system are to provide an automated intelligent system with functions of accident simulation, prediction and with learning capabilities to supplement the actions of the emergency planners and accident managers in order to protect the plant personnel and the surrounding population, and prevent or mitigate property damages resulting from the plant accident. The system is capable of providing local and national authorities with rapid retrieval data from the site characteristics and accident progression. The system can also provide the framework for allocation of available resources and can handle the uncertainties in data and models

  15. New JEF/EFF based MATXS-formatted nuclear data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vontobel, P.; Pelloni, S.

    1989-01-01

    Using the NJOY nuclear data processing system, three multigroup MATXS-formatted nuclear data libraries were generated based on the European data files JEF-1 and EFF-1. After processing with TRAMIX, TRANSX, or TRANSX-CTR, these libraries can be read into most transport and diffusion codes. For the neutron analysis of gas-cooled or water-moderated thermal reactor systems (including high converter pressurized water reactors), a 70-group WIMS-BOXER structured library was generated. A general-purpose fine-group library in 308 groups is provided for thermal as well as for fast reactor systems. A coupled 175 neturon/42 photon-group library in VITAMIN-J structure was created for the analysis of shielding problems and fusion blanket design. The three MATSX files can be requested from the Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank

  16. Analysis on nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement based on human factor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Feng; Liu Yanzi; Sun Yongbin

    2014-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plant control room system is a process of improvement with the implementation of human factor engineering theory and guidance. The method of implementation human factor engineering principles into the nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement was discussed in this paper. It is recommended that comprehensive address should be done from control room system function, human machine interface, digital procedure, control room layout and environment design based on the human factor engineering theory and experience. The main issues which should be paid more attention during the control room system design and improvement also were addressed in this paper, and then advices and notices for the design and improvement of the nuclear power plant control room system were afforded. (authors)

  17. Ship-Based Nuclear Energy Systems for Accelerating Developing World Socioeconomic Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Robert; Wood, Lowell

    2014-07-01

    Technological, economic, and policy aspects of supplying energy to newly industrializing and developing countries using ship-deployed nuclear energy systems are described. The approach analyzed comprises nuclear installations of up to gigawatt scale deployed within currently mass-produced large ship hulls which are capable of flexibly supplying energy for electricity, water desalination and district heating-&-cooling with low latencies and minimized shoreside capital expenditures. Nuclear energy is uniquely suited for mobile deployment due to its combination of extraordinary energy density and high power density, which enable enormous supplies of energy to be deployed at extremely low marginal costs. Nuclear installations on ships also confer technological advantages by essentially eliminating risk from earthquakes, tsunamis, and floods; taking advantage of assured access to an effectively unlimited amount of cooling water, and involving minimal onshore preparations and commitments. Instances of floating nuclear power stations that have been proposed in the past, some of which are currently being pursued, have generally been based on conventional LWR technology, moreover without flexibility or completeness of power output options. We consider nuclear technology options for their applicability to the unique opportunities and challenges of a marine environment, with special attention given to low-pressure, high thermal margin systems with continuous and assured afterheat dissipation into the ambient seawater. Such systems appear promising for offering an exceptionally high degree of safety while using a maximally simple set of components. We furthermore consider systems tailored to Developing World contexts, which satisfy societal requirements beyond electrification, e.g., flexible sourcing of potable water and HVAC services, servicing time-varying user requirements, and compatibility with the full spectrum of local renewable energy supplies, specifically including

  18. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1989-05-01

    This is the third volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose-reduction research and health physics technology for nuclear power plants. The information is taken from data base maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory's ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report presents information on 80 new projects, covering a wide area of activities. Projects on steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvement in reactor materials, and inspection techniques, among others, are described in the research section. The section on health physics technology includes some simple and very cost-effective projects to reduce radiation exposures. Collective dose data from the United States and other countries are also presented. In the conclusion, we suggest that although new advanced reactor design technology will eventually reduce radiation exposures at nuclear power plants to levels below serious concern, in the interim an aggressive approach to dose reduction remains necessary. 20 refs.

  19. Analysis in nuclear power accident emergency based on random network and particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Dichen; Fang Fang; Ding Weicheng; Chen Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The GERT random network model of nuclear power accident emergency was built in this paper, and the intelligent computation was combined with the random network based on the analysis of Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan. The emergency process was divided into the series link and parallel link, and the parallel link was the part of series link. The overall allocation of resources was firstly optimized, and then the parallel link was analyzed. The effect of the resources for emergency used in different links was analyzed, and it was put forward that the corresponding particle velocity vector was limited under the condition of limited emergency resources. The resource-constrained particle swarm optimization was obtained by using velocity projection matrix to correct the motion of particles. The optimized allocation of resources in emergency process was obtained and the time consumption of nuclear power accident emergency was reduced. (authors)

  20. Neural network ensemble based supplier evaluation model in line with nuclear safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yonggang; Chang Baosheng

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear safety is the most critical target for nuclear power plant operation. Besides the rigid operation procedures established, evaluation of suppliers working with plants can be another important aspects. Selection and evaluation of suppliers can be classified with qualitative analysis and quantitative management. The indicators involved are coupled with each other in a very complicated manner, therefore the relevant data show the strong characteristic of non-linearity. The article is based on the research and analysis of the real conditions of the Daya Bay nuclear power plant operation management. Through study and analysis of the information home and abroad, and with reference to the neural network ensemble technology, the supplier evaluation system and model are established as illustrated within the paper, thus to heighten objectivity of the supplier selection. (authors)