WorldWideScience

Sample records for diode by-pass circuit

  1. Diode, transistor & fet circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Diode, Transistor and FET Circuits Manual is a handbook of circuits based on discrete semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors, and FETS. The book also includes diagrams and practical circuits. The book describes basic and special diode characteristics, heat wave-rectifier circuits, transformers, filter capacitors, and rectifier ratings. The text also presents practical applications of associated devices, for example, zeners, varicaps, photodiodes, or LEDs, as well as it describes bipolar transistor characteristics. The transistor can be used in three basic amplifier configuration

  2. Testing of high current by-pass diodes for the LHC magnet quench protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berland, V.; Hagedorn, D.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) R and D program, CERN is performing experiments to establish the current carrying capability of irradiated diodes at liquid Helium temperatures for the superconducting magnet protection. Even if the diodes are degraded by radiation dose and neutron fluence, they must be able to support the by-pass current during a magnet quench and the de-excitation of the superconducting magnet ring. During this discharge, the current in the diode reaches a maximum value up to 13 kA and decreased with an exponential time constant of 100 s. Two sets of 75 mm wafer diameter epitaxial diodes, one irradiated and one non-irradiated, were submitted to this experiment. The irradiated diodes have been exposed to radiation in the accelerator environment up to 20 kGy and then annealed at room temperature. After the radiation exposure the diodes had shown a degradation of forward voltage of 50% which reduced to about 14% after the thermal annealing. During the long duration high current tests, one of the diodes was destroyed and the other two irradiated diodes showed a different behavior compared with non-irradiated diodes

  3. Cryogenic Testing of High Current By-Pass Diode Stacks for the Protection of the Superconducting Magnets in the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, A.; Hagedorn, D.; Della Corte, A.; Fiamozzi Zignani, C.; Turtu, S.; Brown, D.; Rout, C.

    2004-06-01

    For the protection of the LHC superconducting magnets, about 2100 specially developed by-pass diodes were manufactured by DYNEX SEMICONDUCTOR LTD (Lincoln, GB) and about 1300 of these diodes were mounted into diode stacks and submitted to tests at cryogenic temperatures. To date about 800 dipole diode stacks and about 250 quadrupole diode stacks for the protection of the superconducting lattice dipole and lattice quadrupole magnets have been assembled at OCEM (Bologna,Italy) and successfully tested in liquid helium at ENEA (Frascati, Italy). This report gives an overview of the test results obtained so far. After a short description of the test installations and test procedures, a statistical analysis is presented for test data during diode production as well as for the performance of the diode stacks during testing in liquid helium, including failure rates and degradation of the diodes.

  4. Wideband 4-diode sampling circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtulewicz, Andrzej; Radtke, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a wide-band sampling circuit. The device should have the ability to collect samples of a very fast signal applied to its input, strengthen it and prepare for further processing. The study emphasizes the method of sampling pulse shaping. The use of ultrafast pulse generator allows sampling signals with a wide frequency spectrum, reaching several gigahertzes. The device uses a pulse transformer to prepare symmetrical pulses. Their final shape is formed with the help of the step recovery diode, two coplanar strips and Schottky diode. Made device can be used in the sampling oscilloscope, as well as other measurement system.

  5. Cryogenic testing of by-pass diode stacks for the superconducting magnets of the large hadron collider at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Corte, A.; Catitti, A.; Chiarelli, S.; Di Ferdinando, E.; Verdini, L.; Gharib, A.; Hagedorn, D.; Turtu, S.; Basile, G. L.; Taddia, G.; Talli, M.; Viola, R.

    2002-01-01

    A dedicated facility prepared by ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy and Environment) for the cryogenic testing of by-pass diodes for the protection of the CERN Large Hadron Collider main magnets will be described. This experimental activity is in the frame of a contract awarded to OCEM, an Italian firm active in the field of electronic devices and power supplies, in collaboration with ENEA, for the manufacture and testing of all the diode stacks. In particular, CERN requests the measurement of the reverse and forward voltage diode characteristics at 300 K and 77 K, and endurance test cycles at liquid helium temperature. The experimental set-up at ENEA and data acquisition system developed for the scope will be described and the test results reported

  6. Radiation Resistance and Life Time Estimates at Cryogenic Temperatures of Series Produced By-Pass Diodes for the LHC Magnet Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denz, R.; Gharib, A.; Hagedorn, D.

    2004-06-01

    For the protection of the LHC superconducting magnets about 2100 specially developed by-pass diodes have been manufactured in industry and more than one thousand of these diodes have been mounted into stacks and tested in liquid helium. By-pass diode samples, taken from the series production, have been submitted to irradiation tests at cryogenic temperatures together with some prototype diodes up to an accumulated dose of about 2 kGy and neutron fluences up to about 3.0 1013 n cm-2 with and without intermediate warm up to 300 K. The device characteristics of the diodes under forward bias and reverse bias have been measured at 77 K and ambient versus dose and the results are presented. Using a thermo-electrical model and new estimates for the expected dose in the LHC, the expected lifetime of the by-pass diodes has been estimated for various positions in the LHC arcs. It turns out that for all of the by-pass diodes across the arc elements the radiation resistance is largely sufficient. In the dispersion suppresser regions of the LHC, on a few diodes annual annealing during the shut down of the LHC must be applied or those diodes may need to be replaced after some time.

  7. Magneto Rheological Semi-Active Damper with External By-pass Circuit in Modular Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Boltoşi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform experimentally studies, in the paper it is presented a simple method which was elaborated to realize reliable, at low cost and reproducible semi-active dampers with magnetorheological fluids, having external magnetic circuit. The main components are common constitutive elements of industrial hydraulic and pneumatic drivers, having the supplementary advantages being manufactured in a large scale of overall dimensions and demanding minimal modifications. As accumulator, a similar type of hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder was used. The work of the whole damper can be optimized by modifying the nitrogen pressure and interior volume of accumulator. Another important advantage of this conception is the possibility to realize a modular structure composed by the damper, accumulator and magnetic field generator, interconnected by flexible elements.

  8. Power saving regulated light emitting diode circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haville, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    A power saving regulated light source circuit, comprising a light emitting diode (LED), a direct current source and a switching transistor connected in series with the LED, a control voltage producing resistor connected in series with the LED to produce a control voltage corresponding to the current through the LED, a storage capacitor connected in parallel with the series combination of the LED and the resistor, a comparator having its output connected to the input of the transistor, the comparator having a reference input and a control input, a stabilized biasing source for supplying a stabilized reference voltage to the reference input, the control input of the comparator being connected to the control voltage producing resistor, the comparator having a high output state when the reference voltage exceeds the control voltage while having a low output state when the control voltage exceeds the reference voltage, the transistor being conductive in response to the high state while being nonconductive in response to the low state, the transistor when conductive being effective to charge the capacitor and to increase the control voltage, whereby the comparator is cycled between the high and low output states while the transistor is cycled between conductive and nonconductive states

  9. Time series analysis in chaotic diode resonator circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanias, M.P. [TEI of Chalkis, GR 34400, Evia, Chalkis (Greece)] e-mail: mhanias@teihal.gr; Giannaris, G. [TEI of Chalkis, GR 34400, Evia, Chalkis (Greece); Spyridakis, A. [TEI of Chalkis, GR 34400, Evia, Chalkis (Greece); Rigas, A. [TEI of Chalkis, GR 34400, Evia, Chalkis (Greece)

    2006-01-01

    A diode resonator chaotic circuit is presented. Multisim is used to simulate the circuit and show the presence of chaos. Time series analysis performed by the method proposed by Grasberger and Procaccia. The correlation and minimum embedding dimension {nu} and m {sub min}, respectively, were calculated. Also the corresponding Kolmogorov entropy was calculated.

  10. Time series analysis in chaotic diode resonator circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanias, M.P.; Giannaris, G.; Spyridakis, A.; Rigas, A.

    2006-01-01

    A diode resonator chaotic circuit is presented. Multisim is used to simulate the circuit and show the presence of chaos. Time series analysis performed by the method proposed by Grasberger and Procaccia. The correlation and minimum embedding dimension ν and m min , respectively, were calculated. Also the corresponding Kolmogorov entropy was calculated

  11. Modelling of optoelectronic circuits based on resonant tunneling diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rei, João. F. M.; Foot, James A.; Rodrigues, Gil C.; Figueiredo, José M. L.

    2017-08-01

    Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) are the fastest pure electronic semiconductor devices at room temperature. When integrated with optoelectronic devices they can give rise to new devices with novel functionalities due to their highly nonlinear properties and electrical gain, with potential applications in future ultra-wide-band communication systems (see e.g. EU H2020 iBROW Project). The recent coverage on these devices led to the need to have appropriated simulation tools. In this work, we present RTD based optoelectronic circuits simulation packages to provide circuit signal level analysis such as transient and frequency responses. We will present and discuss the models, and evaluate the simulation packages.

  12. Protection Scheme for Modular Multilevel Converters under Diode Open-Circuit Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Zhu, Rongwu; Liu, Dong

    2018-01-01

    devices. The diode open-circuit fault in the submodule (SM) is an important issue for the MMC, which would affect the performance of the MMC and disrupt the operation of the MMC. This paper analyzes the impact of diode open-circuit failures in the SMs on the performance of the MMC and proposes...... a protection scheme for the MMC under diode open-circuit faults. The proposed protection scheme not only can effectively eliminate the possible caused high voltage due to the diode open-circuit fault but also can quickly detect the faulty SMs, which effectively avoids the destruction and protects the MMC....... The proposed protection scheme is verified with a downscale MMC prototype in the laboratory. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed protection scheme for the MMC under diode open-circuit faults....

  13. Quantum Effect in a Diode Included Nonlinear Inductance-Capacitance Mesoscopic Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhanyuan; Zhang Xiaohong; Ma Jinying

    2009-01-01

    The mesoscopic nonlinear inductance-capacitance circuit is a typical anharmonic oscillator, due to diodes included in the circuit. In this paper, using the advanced quantum theory of mesoscopic circuits, which based on the fundamental fact that the electric charge takes discrete value, the diode included mesoscopic circuit is firstly studied. Schroedinger equation of the system is a four-order difference equation in p-circumflex representation. Using the extended perturbative method, the detail energy spectrum and wave functions are obtained and verified, as an application of the results, the current quantum fluctuation in the ground state is calculated. Diode is a basis component in a circuit, its quantization would popularize the quantum theory of mesoscopic circuits. The methods to solve the high order difference equation are helpful to the application of mesoscopic quantum theory.

  14. Microscale solid-state thermal diodes enabling ambient temperature thermal circuits for energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Song; Cottrill, Anton L.; Kunai, Yuichiro; Toland, Aubrey R.; Liu, Pingwei; Wang, Wen-Jun; Strano, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    rectifications range from 1.18 to 1.34. We show that such devices perform reliably enough to operate in thermal diode bridges, dynamic thermal circuits capable of transforming oscillating temperature inputs into single polarity temperature differences – analogous

  15. The Pierce diode with an external circuit: II, Non-uniform equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The non-uniform (non-linear) equilibria of the classical (short circuit) Pierce diode and the extended (series RLC external circuit) Pierce diode are described theoretically, and explored via computer simulation. It is found that most equilibria are correctly predicted by theory, but that the continuous set of equilibria of the classical Pierce diode at α = 2π are not observed. The stability characteristics of the non-uniform equilibria are also worked out, and are consistent with the simulations. 8 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  16. An Improved Memristive Diode Bridge-Based Band Pass Filter Chaotic Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By replacing a series resistor in active band pass filter (BPF with an improved memristive diode bridge emulator, a third-order memristive BPF chaotic circuit is presented. The improved memristive diode bridge emulator without grounded limitation is equivalently achieved by a diode bridge cascaded with only one inductor, whose fingerprints of pinched hysteresis loop are examined by numerical simulations and hardware experiments. The memristive BPF chaotic circuit has only one zero unstable saddle point but causes complex dynamical behaviors including period, chaos, period doubling bifurcation, and coexisting bifurcation modes. Specially, it should be highly significant that two kinds of bifurcation routes are displayed under different initial conditions and the coexistence of three different topological attractors is found in a narrow parameter range. Moreover, hardware circuit using discrete components is fabricated and experimental measurements are performed, upon which the numerical simulations are validated. Notably, the proposed memristive BPF chaotic circuit is only third-order and has simple topological structure.

  17. A fast automatic power control circuit for a small form-factor pluggable laser diode drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huan; Wang Zhigong; Xu Jian; Miao Peng; Li Wei [Institute of RF- and OE-ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Luo Yin; Yang Siyong, E-mail: wanghuan@seu.edu.c [Jiangsu Sino-Chip OE-IC Co. Ltd, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A fast automatic power control (APC) circuit for a laser diode driver (LDD) has been implemented in a 0.6-{mu}m BiCMOS process. The APC circuit adopts double-loops and variable-bandwidth techniques to achieve a turn-on time of < 400 {mu}s for most kinds of TOSAs. Thus, it meets the small form-factor pluggable (SFP) agreement. Such techniques make a good tradeoff between stability, accuracy, turn-on time, noise and convenience. The measured results indicate that the APC circuit is suitable for SFP LDD. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Circuit simulation model multi-quantum well laser diodes inducing transport and capture/escape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuber-Okrog, K.

    1996-04-01

    This work describes the development of world's first circuit simulation model for multi-quantum well (MQW) semiconductor lasers comprising caier transport and capture/escape effects. This model can be seen as the application of a new semiconductor device simulator for quasineutral structures including MQW layers with an extension for simple single mode modeling of optical behavior. It is implemented in a circuit simulation program. The model is applied to Fabry-Perot laser diodes and compared to measured data. (author)

  19. Modulation of distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode with the autonomous Chua's circuit: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talla Mbé, Jimmi Hervé; Woafo, Paul

    2018-03-01

    We report on a simple way to generate complex optical waveforms with very cheap and accessible equipments. The general idea consists in modulating a laser diode with an autonomous electronic oscillator, and in the case of this study, we use a distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode pumped with an electronic Chua's circuit. Based on the adiabatic P-I characteristics of the laser diode at low frequencies, we show that when the total pump is greater than the laser threshold, it is possible to convert the electrical waveforms of the Chua's circuit into optical carriers. But, if that is not the case, the on-off dynamical behavior of the laser permits to obtain many other optical waveform signals, mainly pulses. Our numerical results are consistent with experimental measurements. The work presents the advantage of extending the range of possible chaotic dynamics of the laser diodes in the time domains (millisecond) where it is not usually expected with conventional modulation techniques. Moreover, this new technique of laser diodes modulation brings a general benefit in the physical equipment, reduces their cost and congestion so that, it can constitute a step towards photonic integrated circuits.

  20. The Pierce diode with an external circuit. I. Oscillations about nonuniform equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    The nonuniform (nonlinear) equilibria of the classical (short circuit) Pierce diode and the extended (series RLC external circuit) Pierce diode are described, and the spectrum of oscillations (stable and unstable) about these equilibria are worked out. It is found that only the external capacitance alters the equilibria, though all elements alter the spectrum. In particular, the introduction of an external capacitor destabilizes some equilibria that are marginally stable without the capacitor. Computer simulations are performed to test the theoretical predictions for the case of an external capacitor only. It is found that most equilibria are correctly predicted by theory, but that the continuous set of equilibria of the classical Pierce diode at Pierce parameters (α=ω/sub pL//v 0 ) that are multiples of 2π are not observed. This appears to be a failure of the simulation method under the rather singular conditions rather than a failure of the theory

  1. Overview of catastrophic failures of freewheeling diodes in power electronic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Rui; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai

    2013-01-01

    Emerging applications (e.g. electric vehicles, renewable energy systems, more electric aircrafts, etc.) have brought more stringent reliability constrains into power electronic products because of safety requirements and maintenance cost issues. To improve the reliability of power electronics......, better understanding of failure modes and failure mechanisms of reliability–critical components in power electronic circuits are needed. Many efforts have been devoted to the reduction of IGBT failures, while the study on the failures of freewheeling diodes is less impressive. It is of importance...... to investigate the catastrophic failures of freewheeling diodes as they could induce the malfunction of other components and eventually the whole power electronic circuits. This paper presents an overview of those catastrophic failures and gives examples of the corresponding consequences to the circuits....

  2. Microscale solid-state thermal diodes enabling ambient temperature thermal circuits for energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Song

    2017-05-10

    Thermal diodes, or devices that transport thermal energy asymmetrically, analogous to electrical diodes, hold promise for thermal energy harvesting and conservation, as well as for phononics or information processing. The junction of a phase change material and phase invariant material can form a thermal diode; however, there are limited constituent materials available for a given target temperature, particularly near ambient. In this work, we demonstrate that a micro and nanoporous polystyrene foam can house a paraffin-based phase change material, fused to PMMA, to produce mechanically robust, solid-state thermal diodes capable of ambient operation with Young\\'s moduli larger than 11.5 MPa and 55.2 MPa above and below the melting transition point, respectively. Moreover, the composites show significant changes in thermal conductivity above and below the melting point of the constituent paraffin and rectification that is well-described by our previous theory and the Maxwell–Eucken model. Maximum thermal rectifications range from 1.18 to 1.34. We show that such devices perform reliably enough to operate in thermal diode bridges, dynamic thermal circuits capable of transforming oscillating temperature inputs into single polarity temperature differences – analogous to an electrical diode bridge with widespread implications for transient thermal energy harvesting and conservation. Overall, our approach yields mechanically robust, solid-state thermal diodes capable of engineering design from a mathematical model of phase change and thermal transport, with implications for energy harvesting.

  3. Power ion beam production in a magnetic-insulated diode placed in a circuit with an inductive storage with a plasmoerosion circuit breaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'in, P.S.; Karpov, V.B.; Krasik, Ya.E.; Paul', E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of experimental studies of modes of operation of plasma current breaker and magnetic insulated diode, placed parallel in a circuit with inductive storage and microsecond generator, as well as parameters of high-power ion beam, generated in gas-filled diode. Magnetic field of mirror configuration, which enabled to locate the gas-filled diode dose to breaking region was used for decrease of electrodynamic plasma transfer. It is shown that time delay (of the order of ten and more) of power maximum in gas-filled diode with respect to power maximum in plasma breaker is observed when using passive plasma source on anode

  4. Carbon Nanotube Driver Circuit for 6 × 6 Organic Light Emitting Diode Display

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Jianping

    2015-06-29

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is expected to be a very promising material for flexible and transparent driver circuits for active matrix organic light emitting diode (AM OLED) displays due to its high field-effect mobility, excellent current carrying capacity, optical transparency and mechanical flexibility. Although there have been several publications about SWNT driver circuits, none of them have shown static and dynamic images with the AM OLED displays. Here we report on the first successful chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown SWNT network thin film transistor (TFT) driver circuits for static and dynamic AM OLED displays with 6 × 6 pixels. The high device mobility of ~45 cm2V−1s−1 and the high channel current on/off ratio of ~105 of the SWNT-TFTs fully guarantee the control capability to the OLED pixels. Our results suggest that SWNT-TFTs are promising backplane building blocks for future OLED displays.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Driver Circuit for 6 × 6 Organic Light Emitting Diode Display

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Jianping; Zhang, Kang; Li, Jingqi; Zhao, Yongbiao; Wang, Yilei; Pillai, Suresh Kumar Raman; Volkan Demir, Hilmi; Sun, Xiaowei; Chan-Park, Mary B.; Zhang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is expected to be a very promising material for flexible and transparent driver circuits for active matrix organic light emitting diode (AM OLED) displays due to its high field-effect mobility, excellent current carrying capacity, optical transparency and mechanical flexibility. Although there have been several publications about SWNT driver circuits, none of them have shown static and dynamic images with the AM OLED displays. Here we report on the first successful chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown SWNT network thin film transistor (TFT) driver circuits for static and dynamic AM OLED displays with 6 × 6 pixels. The high device mobility of ~45 cm2V−1s−1 and the high channel current on/off ratio of ~105 of the SWNT-TFTs fully guarantee the control capability to the OLED pixels. Our results suggest that SWNT-TFTs are promising backplane building blocks for future OLED displays.

  6. 670-GHz Schottky Diode-Based Subharmonic Mixer with CPW Circuits and 70-GHz IF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lee, Choonsup; Lin, Robert H.; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Sin, Seth; Deal, William; Loi, Kwok K.; Nam, Peta; hide

    2012-01-01

    GaAs-based, sub-harmonically pumped Schottky diode mixers offer a number of advantages for array implementation in a heterodyne receiver system. Since the radio frequency (RF) and local oscillator (LO) signals are far apart, system design becomes much simpler. A proprietary planar GaAs Schottky diode process was developed that results in very low parasitic anodes that have cutoff frequencies in the tens of terahertz. This technology enables robust implementation of monolithic mixer and frequency multiplier circuits well into the terahertz frequency range. Using optical and e-beam lithography, and conventional epitaxial layer design with innovative usage of GaAs membranes and metal beam leads, high-performance terahertz circuits can be designed with high fidelity. All of these mixers use metal waveguide structures for housing. Metal machined structures for RF and LO coupling hamper these mixers to be integrated in multi-pixel heterodyne array receivers for spectroscopic and imaging applications. Moreover, the recent developments of terahertz transistors on InP substrate provide an opportunity, for the first time, to have integrated amplifiers followed by Schottky diode mixers in a heterodyne receiver at these frequencies. Since the amplifiers are developed on a planar architecture to facilitate multi-pixel array implementation, it is quite important to find alternative architecture to waveguide-based mixers.

  7. Microphone triggering circuit for elimination of mechanically induced frequency-jitter in diode laser spectrometers: implications for quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, R L; Fried, A

    1987-09-01

    An electronic timing circuit using a microphone triggering device has been developed for elimination of mechanically induced frequency-jitter in diode laser spectrometers employing closed-cycle refrigerators. Mechanical compressor piston shocks are detected by the microphone and actuate an electronic circuit which ultimately interrupts data acquisition until the mechanical vibrations are completely quenched. In this way, laser sweeps contaminated by compressor frequency-jitter are not co-averaged. Employing this circuit, measured linewidths were in better agreement with that calculated. The importance of eliminating this mechanically induced frequency-jitter when carrying out quantitative diode laser measurements is further discussed.

  8. Intermittency-induced criticality in a resistor-inductor-diode circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potirakis, Stelios M; Contoyiannis, Yiannis; Diakonos, Fotios K; Hanias, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    The current fluctuations of a driven resistor-inductor-diode circuit are investigated here looking for signatures of critical behavior monitored by the driving frequency. The experimentally obtained time series of the voltage drop across the resistor (as directly proportional to the current flowing through the circuit) were analyzed by means of the method of critical fluctuations in analogy to thermal critical systems. Intermittent criticality was revealed for a critical frequency band signifying the transition between the normal rectifier phase in the low frequencies and a full-wave conducting, capacitorlike phase in the high frequencies. The transition possesses critical characteristics with a characteristic exponent p_{l}=1.65. A fractal analysis in terms of the rescale range (R/RSS) and detrended fluctuation analysis methods yielded results fully compatible with the critical dynamics analysis. Suggestions for the interpretation of the observed behavior in terms of p-n junction operation are discussed.

  9. Carbon Nanotube Self-Gating Diode and Application in Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jia; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Fanglin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-07-26

    A nano self-gating diode (SGD) based on nanoscale semiconducting material is proposed, simulated, and realized on semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through a doping-free fabrication process. The relationships between the performance and material/structural parameters of the SGD are explored through numerical simulation and verified by experiment results. Based on these results, performance optimization strategy is outlined, and high performance CNT SGDs are fabricated and demonstrated to surpass other published CNT diodes. In particular the CNT SGD exhibits high rectifier factor of up to 1.4 × 10(6) while retains large on-state current. Benefiting from high yield and stability, CNT SGDs are used for constructing logic and analog integrated circuits. Two kinds of basic digital gates (AND and OR) have been realized on chip through using CNT SGDs and on-chip Ti wire resistances, and a full wave rectifier circuit has been demonstrated through using two CNT SGDs. Although demonstrated here using CNT SGDs, this device structure may in principle be implemented using other semiconducting nanomaterials, to provide ideas and building blocks for electronic applications based on nanoscale materials.

  10. Si and SiC Schottky diodes in smart power circuits: a comparative study by I-V-T and C-V measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadzi-Vukovic, J [Infineon Technologies, Siemensstrasse 2, 9500 Villach (Austria); Jevtic, M [Institute for Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Zemun (Serbia and Montenegro); Rothleitner, H [Infineon Technologies, Siemensstrasse 2, 9500 Villach (Austria); Croce, P Del [Infineon Technologies, Siemensstrasse 2, 9500 Villach (Austria)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a possibility of manufacturing and implementation of Schottky diodes in the smart power circuits. Three different Schottky diodes, in three different technologies, are realized in Si and SiC processes. The electrical characterizations with I-V-T and C-V measurements are done for all structures. It is shown that Si based Schottky diodes also are suitable to be integrated in the typical smart power circuits.

  11. Si and SiC Schottky diodes in smart power circuits: a comparative study by I-V-T and C-V measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzi-Vukovic, J; Jevtic, M; Rothleitner, H; Croce, P Del

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a possibility of manufacturing and implementation of Schottky diodes in the smart power circuits. Three different Schottky diodes, in three different technologies, are realized in Si and SiC processes. The electrical characterizations with I-V-T and C-V measurements are done for all structures. It is shown that Si based Schottky diodes also are suitable to be integrated in the typical smart power circuits

  12. A High Frequency (HF) Inductive Power Transfer Circuit for High Temperature Applications Using SiC Schottky Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jennifer L.; Ponchak, George E.; Spry, David J.; Neudeck, Philip G.

    2018-01-01

    Wireless sensors placed in high temperature environments, such as aircraft engines, are desirable to reduce the mass and complexity of routing wires. While communication with the sensors is straight forward, providing power wirelessly is still a challenge. This paper introduces an inductive wireless power transfer circuit incorporating SiC Schottky diodes and its operation from room temperature (25 C) to 500 C.

  13. Study on boiling heat transfer from diode elements in an integrated circuit chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijikata, Kunio; Nagasaki, Takao; Kurata, Naoki (Tokyo Institute of Technology Faculty of Engineering (Japan))

    1989-02-25

    By temperature measurement of elements in boiling experiments with diodes in an integrated circuit (IC) chip, characteristics of boiling heat transfer from tiny heat generating elements in an IC chip and thermal transfer characteristics of multiple heating elements adjoining positioned were studied. The Package of an IC was removed by acid to expose the IC chip. Electricity is applied to the diode in the IC to study the heat transfer properties. The heat transfer rate from a tiny heating element on an IC is greater than that from the conventional continual heated surface. In the case of heat generation by two adjoining elements, the relationship between the total amount of heat and the temperature of elements shows the same characteristics as in the case with a single element. The boiling heat transfer properties of an element in an IC chip are influenced by such microstructure surrounding the element as the pattern of wiring. Heat transfer increases with the decreasing size of the heating element by the heat transfer to the substrate beneath the element. 10 refs., 15 figs.

  14. Bistability and hysteresis in the emergence of pulses in microstrip Gunn-diode circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurchenko, V. B., E-mail: v.yurchenko@nuim.ie [O. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 12 Proskura St., Kharkiv 61085 (Ukraine); Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Gazi University, Celal Bayar Bulvari, Ankara 06570 (Turkey); Yurchenko, L. V. [O. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 12 Proskura St., Kharkiv 61085 (Ukraine)

    2014-12-15

    We develop time-domain simulations of microwave and THz radiation sources built as arrays of active devices when the radiation wavelength is small as compared to spacing between electronic components. We pursue an approach when the system is represented by equations with time-delay feedback that could generate chaos and other forms of complicated dynamics. The approach simplifies simulations of ultra-wideband effects and exceeds capabilities of frequency-domain methods. As a model case, we simulated a microstrip circuit with Gunn diode and a remote resonator emitting the radiation towards infinity. We observed the emergence of either the continuous waves or the trains of high-frequency pulses depending on the bias conditions. We found bistability and hysteresis in the onset of different oscillation modes that depends on the way of driving the bias voltage into the domain of instability of the given system. The results would allow one to improve the design of THz radiation sources with time-delay coupling between components.

  15. Current, voltage and temperature distribution modeling of light-emitting diodes based on electrical and thermal circuit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J; Shim, J-I; Shin, D-S

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a modeling method based on the three-dimensional electrical and thermal circuit analysis to extract current, voltage and temperature distributions of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In our model, the electrical circuit analysis is performed first to extract the current and voltage distributions in the LED. Utilizing the result obtained from the electrical circuit analysis as distributed heat sources, the thermal circuit is set up by using the duality between Fourier's law and Ohm's law. From the analysis of the thermal circuit, the temperature distribution at each epitaxial film is successfully obtained. Comparisons of experimental and simulation results are made by employing an InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue LED. Validity of the electrical circuit analysis is confirmed by comparing the light distribution at the surface. Since the temperature distribution at each epitaxial film cannot be obtained experimentally, the apparent temperature distribution is compared at the surface of the LED chip. Also, experimentally obtained average junction temperature is compared with the value calculated from the modeling, yielding a very good agreement. The analysis method based on the circuit modeling has an advantage of taking distributed heat sources as inputs, which is essential for high-power devices with significant self-heating. (paper)

  16. Coexistence of multiple attractors and crisis route to chaos in a novel memristive diode bidge-based Jerk circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njitacke, Z.T.; Kengne, J.; Fotsin, H.B.; Negou, A. Nguomkam; Tchiotsop, D.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, a new memristor based oscillator is obtained from the autonomous Jerk circuit [Kengne et al., Nonlinear Dynamics (2016) 83: 751̶765] by substituting the nonlinear element of the original circuit with a first order memristive diode bridge. The model is described by a continuous time four-dimensional autonomous system with smooth nonlinearities. Various nonlinear analysis tools such as phase portraits, time series, bifurcation diagrams, Poincaré section and the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents are exploited to characterize different scenarios to chaos in the novel circuit. It is found that the system experiences period doubling and crisis routes to chaos. One of the major results of this work is the finding of a window in the parameters’ space in which the circuit develops hysteretic behaviors characterized by the coexistence of four different (periodic and chaotic) attractors for the same values of the system parameters. Basins of attractions of various coexisting attractors are plotted showing complex basin boundaries. As far as the authors’ knowledge goes, the novel memristive jerk circuit represents one of the simplest electrical circuits (no analog multiplier chip is involved) capable of four disconnected coexisting attractors reported to date. Both PSpice simulations of the nonlinear dynamics of the oscillator and laboratory experimental measurements are carried out to validate the theoretical analysis.

  17. Low-threshold amplitude discriminator circuit with tunnel diode and two transistors in differential connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryba, J.; Volny, J.

    1973-01-01

    The connection is designed of a low-threshold amplitude discriminator and a tunnel diode with two transistors in differential connection. The discriminator is by its simple connection, its low consumption and high temperature stability suitable especially for portable radiation detectors. The tunnel diode is connected by one pole to a collector clamp and by the other to the supply voltage. A suitable resistor is connected in parallel with the tunnel diode to meet demands for higher sensitivity. (Z.S.)

  18. Performance of the cold powered diodes and diode leads in the main magnets of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Willering, G P; Bajko, M; Bednarek, M; Bottura, L; Charifoulline, Z; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Dib, G; D'Angelo, G; Gharib, A; Grand-Clement, L; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Prin, H; Roger, V; Rowan, S; Savary, F; Tock, J-Ph; Verweij, A

    2015-01-01

    During quench tests in 2011 variations in resistance of an order of magnitude were found in the diode by-pass circuit of the main LHC magnets. An investigation campaign was started to understand the source, the occurrence and the impact of the high resistances. Many tests were performed offline in the SM18 test facility with a focus on the contact resistance of the diode to heat sink contact and the diode wafer temperature. In 2014 the performance of the diodes and diode leads of the main dipole bypass systems in the LHC was assessed during a high current qualification test. In the test a current cycle similar to a magnet circuit discharge from 11 kA with a time constant of 100 s was performed. Resistances of up to 600 μΩ have been found in the diode leads at intermediate current, but in general the high resistances decrease at higher current levels and no sign of overheating of diodes has been seen and the bypass circuit passed the test. In this report the performance of the diodes and in particular the co...

  19. Active quenching circuit for a InGaAs single-photon avalanche diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lixia; Wu Jin; Xi Shuiqing; Shi Longxing; Liu Siyang; Sun Weifeng

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel gated operation active quenching circuit (AQC). In order to simulate the quenching circuit a complete SPICE model of a InGaAs SPAD is set up according to the I–V characteristic measurement results of the detector. The circuit integrated with aROIC (readout integrated circuit) is fabricated in an CSMC 0.5 μm CMOS process and then hybrid packed with the detector. Chip measurement results show that the functionality of the circuit is correct and the performance is suitable for practical system applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. The resolving limit of a three-diode coincidence circuit; Limite de resolution d'un circuit de coincidence a trois diodes; Predel razreshayushchej sposobnosti trekhdiodnoj skhemy sovpadeniya; Poder de resolucion de un circuito de coincidencia de tres diodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, H [University of Marburg, Marburg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1962-04-15

    To investigate the resolving limit of a three-diode coincidence circuit according to De Benedetti and Richings, a complete coincidence device, consisting of diode stage, amplifier, amplitude discriminator, and Univibrator was tested with pulses of 10{sup -9} s risetime and 2 x 10{sup -9} s basal duration. The amplitudes were measured and also the integrals of the pulses received at the amplifier output as well as the resolution curve dependent on the interesting parameters-amplitude of the input pulses, input resistance of the amplifier, operating conditions of the diodes, etc. In order to explain the measurements certain investigations were made. The resolution curve of the coincidence device was deduced and the resolving time calculated. It was calculated how the diode stage, the amplifier noise and the matching of the amplifier to the diode stage determine the resolving time of the coincidence device. An analysis of the measurements and theoretical results yielded 10{sup -11} s as the lowest resolving time-limit which can be realized with a three-diode coincidence device under optimum conditions. The derivation of the resolution curve is given and the measurements are reported. It is shown that experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement. (author) [French] Pour etudier la limite de resolution d'un circuit de coincidence a trois diodes, selon la methode de De Benedetti et Richings, l'auteur a essaye un systeme a coincidences complet comportant un ensemble de diodes, un amplificateur, un selecteur d'amplitude et un univibrateur, pour des impulsions d'un temps de montee de 10{sup -9} s et d'une duree de base de 2 x 10{sup -9} s. Il a mesure les amplitudes et les integrales des impulsions recues a la sortie de l'amplificateur ainsi que la courbe de resolution en fonction des parametres interessants (amplitude des impulsions d'entree, resistance d'entree de l'amplificateur, regime de fonctionnement des diodes, etc.). L'auteur a cherche a expliquer les

  1. A flexible organic active matrix circuit fabricated using novel organic thin film transistors and organic light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gutiérrez-Heredia, Gerardo

    2010-10-04

    We present an active matrix circuit fabricated on plastic (polyethylene naphthalene, PEN) and glass substrates using organic thin film transistors and organic capacitors to control organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The basic circuit is fabricated using two pentacene-based transistors and a capacitor using a novel aluminum oxide/parylene stack (Al2O3/ parylene) as the dielectric for both the transistor and the capacitor. We report that our circuit can deliver up to 15 μA to each OLED pixel. To achieve 200 cd m-2 of brightness a 10 μA current is needed; therefore, our approach can initially deliver 1.5× the required current to drive a single pixel. In contrast to parylene-only devices, the Al2O 3/parylene stack does not fail after stressing at a field of 1.7 MV cm-1 for >10 000 s, whereas \\'parylene only\\' devices show breakdown at approximately 1000 s. Details of the integration scheme are presented. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. A flexible organic active matrix circuit fabricated using novel organic thin film transistors and organic light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gutié rrez-Heredia, Gerardo; Gonzá lez, Luis A.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Gnade, Bruce E.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo

    2010-01-01

    We present an active matrix circuit fabricated on plastic (polyethylene naphthalene, PEN) and glass substrates using organic thin film transistors and organic capacitors to control organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The basic circuit is fabricated using two pentacene-based transistors and a capacitor using a novel aluminum oxide/parylene stack (Al2O3/ parylene) as the dielectric for both the transistor and the capacitor. We report that our circuit can deliver up to 15 μA to each OLED pixel. To achieve 200 cd m-2 of brightness a 10 μA current is needed; therefore, our approach can initially deliver 1.5× the required current to drive a single pixel. In contrast to parylene-only devices, the Al2O 3/parylene stack does not fail after stressing at a field of 1.7 MV cm-1 for >10 000 s, whereas 'parylene only' devices show breakdown at approximately 1000 s. Details of the integration scheme are presented. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Belief propagation decoding of quantum channels by passing quantum messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renes, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is a powerful tool in a wide range of disciplines from statistical physics to machine learning to computational biology, and is ubiquitous in decoding classical error-correcting codes. The algorithm works by passing messages between nodes of the factor graph associated with the code and enables efficient decoding of the channel, in some cases even up to the Shannon capacity. Here we construct the first BP algorithm which passes quantum messages on the factor graph and is capable of decoding the classical–quantum channel with pure state outputs. This gives explicit decoding circuits whose number of gates is quadratic in the code length. We also show that this decoder can be modified to work with polar codes for the pure state channel and as part of a decoder for transmitting quantum information over the amplitude damping channel. These represent the first explicit capacity-achieving decoders for non-Pauli channels. (fast track communication)

  4. Belief propagation decoding of quantum channels by passing quantum messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renes, Joseph M.

    2017-07-01

    The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is a powerful tool in a wide range of disciplines from statistical physics to machine learning to computational biology, and is ubiquitous in decoding classical error-correcting codes. The algorithm works by passing messages between nodes of the factor graph associated with the code and enables efficient decoding of the channel, in some cases even up to the Shannon capacity. Here we construct the first BP algorithm which passes quantum messages on the factor graph and is capable of decoding the classical-quantum channel with pure state outputs. This gives explicit decoding circuits whose number of gates is quadratic in the code length. We also show that this decoder can be modified to work with polar codes for the pure state channel and as part of a decoder for transmitting quantum information over the amplitude damping channel. These represent the first explicit capacity-achieving decoders for non-Pauli channels.

  5. Compact sub-nanosecond pulse seed source with diode laser driven by a high-speed circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Bo; Wang, Junhua; Cheng, Wenyong

    2018-06-01

    A compact sub-nanosecond pulse seed source with 1550 nm diode laser (DL) was obtained by employing a high-speed circuit. The circuit mainly consisted of a short pulse generator and a short pulse driver. The short pulse generator, making up of a complex programmable logic device (CPLD), a level translator, two programmable delay chips and an AND gate chip, output a triggering signal to control metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) switch of the short pulse driver. The MOSFET switch with fast rising time and falling time both shorter than 1 ns drove the DL to emit short optical pulses. Performances of the pulse seed source were tested. The results showed that continuously adjustable repetition frequency ranging from 500 kHz to 100 MHz and pulse duration in the range of 538 ps to 10 ns were obtained, respectively. 537 μW output was obtained at the highest repetition frequency of 100 MHz with the shortest pulse duration of 538 ps. These seed pulses were injected into an fiber amplifier, and no optical pulse distortions were found.

  6. Lifetime measurements by open circuit voltage decay in GaAs and InP diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhimnathwala, H.G.; Tyagi, S.D.; Bothra, S.; Ghandhi, S.K.; Borrego, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Minority carrier lifetimes in the base of solar cells made in GaAs and InP are measured by open circuit voltage decay method. This paper describes the measurement technique and the conditions under which the minority carrier lifetimes can be measured. Minority carrier lifetimes ranging from 1.6 to 34 ns in InP of different doping concentrations are measured. A minority carrier lifetime of 6 ns was measured in n-type GaAs which agrees well with the lifetime of 5.7 ns measured by transient microwave reflection

  7. A Novel LTPS-TFT Pixel Circuit to Compensate the Electronic Degradation for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel pixel driving circuit for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED displays with low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs is studied. The proposed compensation pixel circuit is driven by voltage programming scheme, which is composed of five TFTs and one capacitor, and has been certified to provide uniform output current by the Automatic Integrated Circuit Modeling Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (AIM-SPICE simulator. The results of simulation show excellent performance, such as the low average error rate of OLED current variation (<0.5% and the low average nonuniformity of OLED current variation (<0.8% while the shift of threshold voltage of the driving poly-Si TFT and the OLED are both in the worst case ( V for TFT and  V for OLED. The proposed pixel circuit shows high immunity to the threshold voltage deviation of both the driving poly-Si TFT and the OLED.

  8. A circuital model of switching behaviour of 4H-SiC p+-n-n+ diodes valid at any current and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellone, S; Benedetto, L Di; Licciardo, G D; Corte, F Della

    2014-01-01

    A circuital model of 4H-SiC p + -n-n + diodes is presented, which is able to describe the switching behaviour of the devices in a wide range of current, voltage and temperature, at an arbitrary instant, with comparable accuracy of numerical simulations. The model has been analytically derived under generic conditions and is capable to calculate also the dynamic spatial distribution of minority carriers in the epitaxial layer. The accuracy of the model is shown by comparison with numerical simulations and experimental measurements.

  9. Flexible integrated diode-transistor logic (DTL) driving circuits based on printed carbon nanotube thin film transistors with low operation voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Zhao, Jianwen; Xu, Weiwei; Dou, Junyan; Zhao, Xinluo; Deng, Wei; Wei, Changting; Xu, Wenya; Guo, Wenrui; Su, Wenming; Jie, Jiansheng; Cui, Zheng

    2018-01-03

    Fabrication and application of hybrid functional circuits have become a hot research topic in the field of printed electronics. In this study, a novel flexible diode-transistor logic (DTL) driving circuit is proposed, which was fabricated based on a light emitting diode (LED) integrated with printed high-performance single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The LED, which is made of AlGaInP on GaAs, is commercial off-the-shelf, which could generate free electrical charges upon white light illumination. Printed top-gate TFTs were made on a PET substrate by inkjet printing high purity semiconducting SWCNTs (sc-SWCNTs) ink as the semiconductor channel materials, together with printed silver ink as the top-gate electrode and printed poly(pyromellitic dianhydride-co-4,4'-oxydianiline) (PMDA/ODA) as gate dielectric layer. The LED, which is connected to the gate electrode of the TFT, generated electrical charge when illuminated, resulting in biased gate voltage to control the TFT from "ON" status to "OFF" status. The TFTs with a PMDA/ODA gate dielectric exhibited low operating voltages of ±1 V, a small subthreshold swing of 62-105 mV dec -1 and ON/OFF ratio of 10 6 , which enabled DTL driving circuits to have high ON currents, high dark-to-bright current ratios (up to 10 5 ) and good stability under repeated white light illumination. As an application, the flexible DTL driving circuit was connected to external quantum dot LEDs (QLEDs), demonstrating its ability to drive and to control the QLED.

  10. III-nitride Photonic Integrated Circuit: Multi-section GaN Laser Diodes for Smart Lighting and Visible Light Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-04-01

    The past decade witnessed the rapid development of III-nitride light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs), for smart lighting, visible-light communication (VLC), optical storage, and internet-of-things. Recent studies suggested that the GaN-based LDs, which is free from efficiency droop, outperform LEDs as a viable high-power light source. Conventionally, the InGaN-based LDs are grown on polar, c-plane GaN substrates. However, a relatively low differential gain limited the device performance due to a significant polarization field in the active region. Therefore, the LDs grown on nonpolar m-plane and semipolar (2021)-plane GaN substrates are posed to deliver high-efficiency owing to the entirely or partially eliminated polarization field. To date, the smart lighting and VLC functionalities have been demonstrated based on discrete devices, such as LDs, transverse-transmission modulators, and waveguide photodetectors. The integration of III-nitride photonic components, including the light emitter, modulator, absorber, amplifier, and photodetector, towards the realization of III-nitride photonic integrated circuit (PIC) offers the advantages of small-footprint, high-speed, and low power consumption, which has yet to be investigated. This dissertation presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of the multi-section InGaN laser diodes with integrated functionalities on semipolar (2021)-plane GaN substrates for enabling such photonic integration. The blue-emitting integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode (IWM-LD) exhibits a high modulation efficiency of 2.68 dB/V. A large extinction ratio of 11.3 dB is measured in the violet-emitting IWM-LD. Utilizing an integrated absorber, a high optical power (250mW), droop-free, speckle-free, and large modulation bandwidth (560MHz) blue-emitting superluminescent diode is reported. An integrated short-wavelength semiconductor optical amplifier with the laser diode at ~404 nm is demonstrated with a large gain of 5

  11. Organic Diode Rectifiers Based on a High-Performance Conjugated Polymer for a Near-Field Energy-Harvesting Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stuart G; Agostinelli, Tiziano; Markham, Steve; Whiteman, Robert; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-12-01

    Organic diodes manufactured on a plastic substrate capable of rectifying a high-frequency radio-frequency identification signal (13.56 MHz), with sufficient power to operate an interactive smart tag, are reported. A high-performance conjugated semiconductor (an indacenodithiophene-benzothiadiazole copolymer) is combined with a carefully optimized architecture to satisfy the electrical requirements for an organic-semiconductor-based logic chip. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Simulation of light-induced degradation of μc-Si in a-Si/μc-Si tandem solar cells by the diode equivalent circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weicht, J. A.; Hamelmann, F. U.; Behrens, G.

    2016-02-01

    Silicon-based thin film tandem solar cells consist of one amorphous (a-Si) and one microcrystalline (μc-Si) silicon solar cell. The Staebler - Wronski effect describes the light- induced degradation and temperature-dependent healing of defects of silicon-based solar thin film cells. The solar cell degradation depends strongly on operation temperature. Until now, only the light-induced degradation (LID) of the amorphous layer was examined in a-Si/μc-Si solar cells. The LID is also observed in pc-Si single function solar cells. In our work we show the influence of the light-induced degradation of the μc-Si layer on the diode equivalent circuit. The current-voltage-curves (I-V-curves) for the initial state of a-Si/pc-Si modules are measured. Afterwards the cells are degraded under controlled conditions at constant temperature and constant irradiation. At fixed times the modules are measured at standard test conditions (STC) (AM1.5, 25°C cell temperature, 1000 W/m2) for controlling the status of LID. After the degradation the modules are annealed at dark conditions for several hours at 120°C. After the annealing the dangling bonds in the amorphous layer are healed, while the degradation of the pc-Si is still present, because the healing of defects in pc-Si solar cells needs longer time or higher temperatures. The solar cells are measured again at STC. With this laboratory measured I-V-curves we are able to separate the values of the diode model: series Rs and parallel resistance Rp, saturation current Is and diode factor n.

  13. Characterization of 13 and 30 mum thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon diodes deposited over CMOS integrated circuits for particle detection application

    CERN Document Server

    Despeisse, M; Commichau, S C; Dissertori, G; Garrigos, A; Jarron, P; Miazza, C; Moraes, D; Shah, A; Wyrsch, N; Viertel, Gert M; 10.1016/j.nima.2003.11.022

    2004-01-01

    We present the experimental results obtained with a novel monolithic silicon pixel detector which consists in depositing a n-i-p hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) diode straight above the readout ASIC (this technology is called Thin Film on ASIC, TFA). The characterization has been performed on 13 and 30mum thick a-Si:H films deposited on top of an ASIC containing a linear array of high- speed low-noise transimpedance amplifiers designed in a 0.25mum CMOS technology. Experimental results presented have been obtained with a 600nm pulsed laser. The results of charge collection efficiency and charge collection speed of these structures are discussed.

  14. Low Power Consumption Complementary Inverters with n-MoS2 and p-WSe2 Dichalcogenide Nanosheets on Glass for Logic and Light-Emitting Diode Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Pyo Jin; Kim, Jin Sung; Lim, June Yeong; Cho, Youngsuk; Pezeshki, Atiye; Lee, Hee Sung; Yu, Sanghyuck; Min, Sung-Wook; Im, Seongil

    2015-10-14

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor materials with discrete bandgap become important because of their interesting physical properties and potentials toward future nanoscale electronics. Many 2D-based field effect transistors (FETs) have thus been reported. Several attempts to fabricate 2D complementary (CMOS) logic inverters have been made too. However, those CMOS devices seldom showed the most important advantage of typical CMOS: low power consumption. Here, we adopted p-WSe2 and n-MoS2 nanosheets separately for the channels of bottom-gate-patterned FETs, to fabricate 2D dichalcogenide-based hetero-CMOS inverters on the same glass substrate. Our hetero-CMOS inverters with electrically isolated FETs demonstrate novel and superior device performances of a maximum voltage gain as ∼27, sub-nanowatt power consumption, almost ideal noise margin approaching 0.5VDD (supply voltage, VDD=5 V) with a transition voltage of 2.3 V, and ∼800 μs for switching delay. Moreover, our glass-substrate CMOS device nicely performed digital logic (NOT, OR, and AND) and push-pull circuits for organic light-emitting diode switching, directly displaying the prospective of practical applications.

  15. Fully Integrated Linear Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) Array with Parallel Readout Circuit in a Standard 180 nm CMOS Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, S.; Bull, S.; Pitter, M. C.; Harrison, Ian.

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports on the development of a SPAD device and its subsequent use in an actively quenched single photon counting imaging system, and was fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. A low-doped p- guard ring (t-well layer) encircling the active area to prevent the premature reverse breakdown. The array is a 16×1 parallel output SPAD array, which comprises of an active quenched SPAD circuit in each pixel with the current value being set by an external resistor RRef = 300 kΩ. The SPAD I-V response, ID was found to slowly increase until VBD was reached at excess bias voltage, Ve = 11.03 V, and then rapidly increase due to avalanche multiplication. Digital circuitry to control the SPAD array and perform the necessary data processing was designed in VHDL and implemented on a FPGA chip. At room temperature, the dark count was found to be approximately 13 KHz for most of the 16 SPAD pixels and the dead time was estimated to be 40 ns.

  16. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ...... in the circuit. The performance of the circuit is investigated by means of numerical integration of appropriate differential equations, PSPICE simulations, and hardware experiment.......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  17. III-nitride Photonic Integrated Circuit: Multi-section GaN Laser Diodes for Smart Lighting and Visible Light Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-01-01

    The past decade witnessed the rapid development of III-nitride light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs), for smart lighting, visible-light communication (VLC), optical storage, and internet-of-things. Recent studies suggested that the Ga

  18. Powering laser diode systems

    CERN Document Server

    Trestman, Grigoriy A

    2017-01-01

    This Tutorial Text discusses the competent design and skilled use of laser diode drivers (LDDs) and power supplies (PSs) for the electrical components of laser diode systems. It is intended to help power-electronic design engineers during the initial design stages: the choice of the best PS topology, the calculation of parameters and components of the PS circuit, and the computer simulation of the circuit. Readers who use laser diode systems for research, production, and other purposes will also benefit. The book will help readers avoid errors when creating laser systems from ready-made blocks, as well as understand the nature of the "mystical failures" of laser diodes (and possibly prevent them).

  19. Automatic circuit analysis based on mask information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preas, B.T.; Lindsay, B.W.; Gwyn, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The Circuit Mask Translator (CMAT) code has been developed which converts integrated circuit mask information into a circuit schematic. Logical operations, pattern recognition, and special functions are used to identify and interconnect diodes, transistors, capacitors, and resistances. The circuit topology provided by the translator is compatible with the input required for a circuit analysis program

  20. Arbitrary waveform generator to improve laser diode driver performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jr, Edward Steven

    2015-11-03

    An arbitrary waveform generator modifies the input signal to a laser diode driver circuit in order to reduce the overshoot/undershoot and provide a "flat-top" signal to the laser diode driver circuit. The input signal is modified based on the original received signal and the feedback from the laser diode by measuring the actual current flowing in the laser diode after the original signal is applied to the laser diode.

  1. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  2. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.

    1976-03-16

    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit includes a light emitting diode which from time to time illuminates a photo-transistor, the photo-transistor serving when its output reaches a predetermined value to operate a trigger circuit. In order to allow for aging of the components, the current flow through the diode is increased when the output from the transistor falls below a known level. Conveniently, this is achieved by having a transistor in parallel with the diode, and turning the transistor off when the output from the phototransistor becomes too low. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  3. Economic consequences of extra by-passes in district heating networks. Investment-, running- and maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, P.

    1995-02-01

    For various reasons, extra by-passes are installed in district heating networks to ensure a high flow temperature when the water circulation is insufficient. By 'extra by-pass' we here mean a connection between the distribution pipe and the return pipe. This study mainly deals with extra by-passes to prevent freezing. The estimation of the extra by-pass costs is based on the district heating rates. Our assumption is that an extra by-pass can be regarded as a substation in the district heating network, with regard to the demand for the water flow, heat and power. The reason is the difficulty to obtain available facts to estimate the real costs concerning extra by-passes. Therefore, the method can not claim that the information about the costs is exact but gives an indication of the size of them. The valves in an extra by-pass can be set more or less open. We assume that manual valves in extra by-passes are wide open. Thermostatic valves are, however, assumed to be adjusted in order to cause a very small water flow. 2 refs, 16 figs, 9 tabs, 6 appendices

  4. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  5. The Use of Tygon Tubing Sterilized by Gamma Radiation in Heart-Lung By-Pass Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alladine, M. F.; Gibbons, J. R. P. [London Chest Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1967-09-15

    Tygon tubing is a co-polymer polyvinyl chloride. This tubing is used throughout the circuit of our heart-lung by-pass machines and had been sterilized by autoclaving or exposure to ethylene oxide gas. Tubing sterilized by autoclaving was noted to have a decrease in tensile strength and the transparency of the tubing was affected. Sterilization by ethylene oxide had the disadvantage that gas was often present in the lumen of the tube when connected to the machine. Lengths of Tygon tubing were sterilized by gamma radiation at varying radiation levels and temperatures. Bacteriological studies were done on the tubing and estimation of tensile strength carried out. We have found that a level of radiation of 2. 5 to 3. 0 Mrad at 20°C produces little or no change in tensile strength and the tubing remains bacteriologically sterile. Tygon tubing sterilized in this way has now been used in over sixty heart-lung by-pass machine operations. (author)

  6. Magnetically insulated H- diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Bystritskii, V.; Garate, E.; Prohaska, R.; Rostoker, N.

    1993-01-01

    At the Univ. of California, Irvine, the authors have been studying the production of intense H - beams using pulse power techniques for the past 7 years. Previously, current densities of H - ions for various diode designs at UCI have been a few A/cm 2 . Recently, they have developed diodes similar to the coaxial design of the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, USSR, where current densities of up to 200 A/cm 2 were reported using nuclear activation of a carbon target. In experiments at UCI employing the coaxial diode, current densities of up to 35 A/cm 2 from a passive polyethylene cathode loaded with TiH 2 have been measured using a pinhole camera and CR-39 track recording plastic. The authors have also been working on a self-insulating, annular diode which can generate a directed beam of H - ions. In the annular diode experiments a plasma opening switch was used to provide a prepulse and a current path which self-insulated the diode. These experiments were done on the machine APEX, a 1 MV, 50 ns, 7 Ω pulseline with a unipolar negative prepulse of ∼ 100 kV and 400 ns duration. Currently, the authors are modifying the pulseline to include an external LC circuit which can generate a bipolar, 150 kV, 1 μs duration prepulse (similar prepulse characteristic as in the Lebedev Institute experiments cited above)

  7. An integrated circuit switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, E. L.

    1969-01-01

    Multi-chip integrated circuit switch consists of a GaAs photon-emitting diode in close proximity with S1 phototransistor. A high current gain is obtained when the transistor has a high forward common-emitter current gain.

  8. Logarithmic current-measuring transistor circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Kristian Søe

    1967-01-01

    Describes two transistorized circuits for the logarithmic measurement of small currents suitable for nuclear reactor instrumentation. The logarithmic element is applied in the feedback path of an amplifier, and only one dual transistor is used as logarithmic diode and temperature compensating...... transistor. A simple one-amplifier circuit is compared with a two-amplifier system. The circuits presented have been developed in connexion with an amplifier using a dual m.o.s. transistor input stage with diode-protected gates....

  9. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  10. Stagnant loop syndrome resulting from small-bowel irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swan, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Stagnant or blind-loop syndrome includes vitamin B12 malabsorption, steatorrhea, and bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. A case is presented to demonstrate this syndrome occurring after small-bowel irradiation injury with exaggeration postenterocolic by-pass. Alteration of normal small-bowel flora is basic to development of the stagnant-loop syndrome. Certain strains of bacteria as Bacteriodes and E. coli are capable of producing a malabsorption state. Definitive therapy for this syndrome developing after severe irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass includes antibiotics. Rapid symptomatic relief from diarrhea and improved malabsorption studies usually follow appropriate antibiotic therapy. Recolonization of the loop(s) with the offending bacterial species may produce exacerbation of symptoms. Since antibiotics are effective, recognition of this syndrome is important. Foul diarrheal stools should not be considered a necessary consequence of irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass

  11. Characterization of 13 and 30 μm thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon diodes deposited over CMOS integrated circuits for particle detection application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despeisse, M.; Anelli, G.; Commichau, S.; Dissertori, G.; Garrigos, A.; Jarron, P.; Miazza, C.; Moraes, D.; Shah, A.; Wyrsch, N.; Viertel, G.

    2004-01-01

    We present the experimental results obtained with a novel monolithic silicon pixel detector which consists in depositing a n-i-p hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) diode straight above the readout ASIC (this technology is called Thin Film on ASIC, TFA). The characterization has been performed on 13 and 30 μm thick a-Si:H films deposited on top of an ASIC containing a linear array of high-speed low-noise transimpedance amplifiers designed in a 0.25 μm CMOS technology. Experimental results presented have been obtained with a 600 nm pulsed laser. The results of charge collection efficiency and charge collection speed of these structures are discussed

  12. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  13. Linear variable voltage diode capacitor and adaptive matching networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, L.E.; De Vreede, L.C.N.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated variable voltage diode capacitor topology applied to a circuit providing a variable voltage load for controlling variable capacitance. The topology includes a first pair of anti-series varactor diodes, wherein the diode power-law exponent n for the first pair of anti-series varactor

  14. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.

    1976-03-16

    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit has a light emitting diode which supplies light to a photo-transistor, the light being interrupted from time to time. When the photo-transistor is illuminated, current builds up and when this current reaches a predetermined value, a trigger circuit changes state. The peak output of the photo-transistor is measured and the trigger circuit is arranged to change state when the output of the device is a set proportion of the peak output, so as to allow for aging of the components. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  15. Integrated coincidence circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borejko, V.F.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of two coincidence units employing integral circuits in the VISHNYA standard. The units are distinguished for the coincidence selection element which is essentially a combination of a tunnel diode and microcircuits. The output fast response of the units is at least 90 MHz in the mode of the output signal unshaped in duration and 50 MHz minimum in the mode of the output signal shaping. The resolution time of the units is dependent upon the duration of input signals

  16. Constant-current regulator improves tunnel diode threshold-detector performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancro, C. A.

    1965-01-01

    Grounded-base transistor is placed in a tunnel diode threshold detector circuit, and a bias voltage is applied to the tunnel diode. This provides the threshold detector with maximum voltage output and overload protection.

  17. Trigger circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verity, P.R.; Chaplain, M.D.; Turner, G.D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A monostable trigger circuit comprises transistors TR2 and TR3 arranged with their collectors and bases interconnected. The collector of the transistor TR2 is connected to the base of transistor TR3 via a capacitor C2 the main current path of a grounded base transistor TR1 and resistive means R2,R3. The collector of transistor TR3 is connected to the base of transistor TR2 via resistive means R6, R7. In the stable state all the transistors are OFF, the capacitor C2 is charged, and the output is LOW. A positive pulse input to the base of TR2 switches it ON, which in turn lowers the voltage at points A and B and so switches TR1 ON so that C2 can discharge via R2, R3, which in turn switches TR3 ON making the output high. Thus all three transistors are latched ON. When C2 has discharged sufficiently TR1 switches OFF, followed by TR3 (making the output low again) and TR2. The components C1, C3 and R4 serve to reduce noise, and the diode D1 is optional. (author)

  18. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of the By-Pass Flow in a Catalytic Plate Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    Numerical and experimental study is performed to evaluate the reactant by-pass flow in a catalytic plate reactor with a coated wire mesh catalyst for steam reforming of methane for hydrogen generation. By-pass of unconverted methane is evaluated under different wire mesh catalyst width to reactor...

  19. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  20. The performance study of oxide by-passed(OB) lateral double diffused MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Pan-pan

    2016-10-01

    An SOI LDMOS device structure with Oxide By-passed(OB) was investigated and its breakdown mechanism and characteristic of structure was analyzed. Its performance was verified by 3D numerical simulation with SILVACO TCAD software. The simulated results show that the electrical field element of the device is modulated by the concept of similar Superjunction(SJ) structure. Compared with the SJ LDMOS device, OB LDMOS obtains the same breakdown voltage, simultaneously the specific on-resistance of the OB LDMOS reduces from 3.81mΩ·cm2 to 1.96mΩ·cm2, except for achieving comparable performance and overcoming the high aspect ratio of fabrication structure and the difficulty of accurate concentration match of SJ LDMOS.

  1. Oscillator circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing

  2. Measuring circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for measuring circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listings

  3. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  4. The management of impending myocardial infarction using coronary artery by-pass grafting and an intra-aortic balloon pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P L; Woollard, K; Bartoli, A; Makey, A R

    1980-01-01

    Of 33 patients with impending myocardial infarction 25 were treated using a combination of coronary artery by-pass grafting and intra-aortic balloon pumping. Eight patients were treated with coronary artery by-pass grafting alone. Twenty-two of the 25 patients who were treated with the combined technique made a full recovery. Three patients sustained definite myocardial infarctions and one of these died. Five of the 8 patients treated by grafting alone suffered infarction and of these 3 died. The value of intra-aortic balloon pumping in combination with coronary artery by-pass grafting in the management of impending myocardial infarction is discussed.

  5. Electromagnetic wave analogue of an electronic diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2011-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of rotation of the polarization state and is also a key component in optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinarily strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as the electronic diode function is provided by the nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differs by a factor of 65.

  6. High frequency fishbone driven by passing energetic ions in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, L. M.; Fu, G. Y.; Shen, Wei

    2017-05-01

    High frequency fishbone instability driven by passing energetic ions was first reported in the Princeton beta experiment with tangential neutral-beam-injection (Heidbrink et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 57 835-8). It could play an important role for ITER-like burning plasmas, where α particles are mostly passing particles. In this work, a generalized energetic ion distribution function and finite drift orbit width effect are considered to improve the theoretical model for passing particle driving fishbone instability. For purely passing energetic ions with zero drift orbit width, the kinetic energy δ {{W}k} is derived analytically. The derived analytic expression is more accurate as compared to the result of previous work (Wang 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 5286-8). For a generalized energetic ion distribution function, the fishbone dispersion relation is derived and is solved numerically. Numerical results show that broad and off-axis beam density profiles can significantly increase the beam ion beta threshold {βc} for instability and decrease mode frequency.

  7. A numerical performance assessment of a commercial cardiopulmonary by-pass blood heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Filippo; Fiore, Gianfranco B; Pelosi, Alessandra; Reggiani, Stefano; Redaelli, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    We developed a numerical model, based on multi-physics computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, to assist the design process of a plastic hollow-fiber bundle blood heat exchanger (BHE) integrated within the INSPIRE(TM), a blood oxygenator (OXY) for cardiopulmonary by-pass procedures, recently released by Sorin Group Italia. In a comparative study, we analyzed five different geometrical design solutions of the BHE module. Quantitative geometrical-dependent parameters providing a comprehensive evaluation of both the hemo- and thermo-dynamics performance of the device were extracted to identify the best-performing prototypical solution. A convenient design configuration was identified, characterized by (i) a uniform blood flow pattern within the fiber bundle, preventing blood flow shunting and the onset of stagnation/recirculation areas and/or high velocity pathways, (ii) an enhanced blood heating efficiency, and (iii) a reduced blood pressure drop. The selected design configuration was then prototyped and tested to experimentally characterize the device performance. Experimental results confirmed numerical predictions, proving the effectiveness of CFD modeling as a reliable tool for in silico identification of suitable working conditions of blood handling medical devices. Notably, the numerical approach limited the need for extensive prototyping, thus reducing the corresponding machinery costs and time-to-market. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cern DD4424 ROM Diode Matrix

    CERN Multimedia

    A diode matrix is an extremely low-density form of read-only memory. It's one of the earliest forms of ROMs (dating back to the 1950s). Each bit in the ROM is represented by the presence or absence of one diode. The ROM is easily user-writable using a soldering iron and pair of wire cutters.This diode matrix board is a floppy disk boot ROM for a PDP-11, and consists of 32 16-bit words. When you access an address on the ROM, the circuit returns the represented data from that address.

  9. A Diode Matrix model M792

    CERN Multimedia

    A diode matrix is an extremely low-density form of read-only memory. It's one of the earliest forms of ROMs (dating back to the 1950s). Each bit in the ROM is represented by the presence or absence of one diode. The ROM is easily user-writable using a soldering iron and pair of wire cutters.This diode matrix board is a floppy disk boot ROM for a PDP-11, and consists of 32 16-bit words. When you access an address on the ROM, the circuit returns the represented data from that address.

  10. Equilibrium double layers in extended Pierce diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu-Jassy, C.I.

    1992-01-01

    The extended Pierce diode is similar to the standard (or classical) Pierce diode, but has passive circuit elements in place of the short circuit between the electrodes. This device is important as an approximation to real bounded plasma systems. It consists of two parallel plane electrodes (an emitter located at x=0 and a collector located at x=l) and a collisionless cold electron beam travelling between them. The electrons are neutralized by a background of comoving massive ions. This situation is analysed in this paper and new equilibrium double layer (DL) plasma structures are obtained. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs

  11. Zener diode controls switching of large direct currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    High-current zener diode is connected in series with the positive input terminal of a dc supply to block the flow of direct current until a high-frequency control signal is applied across the zener diode. This circuit controls the switching of large dc signals.

  12. Magnesium sulphate and amiodarone prophylaxis for prevention of postoperative arrhythmia in coronary by-pass operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huysal Kagan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the use of prophylactic magnesium sulphate and amiodarone in treating arrhythmias that may occur following coronary bypass grafting operations. Methods The study population consisted of 192 consecutive patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Sixty-four patients were given 3 g of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 [20 ml = 24.32 mEq/L Mg+2] in 100 cc of isotonic 0.9% solution over 2 hours intravenously at the following times: 12 hours prior to the operation, immediately following the operation, and on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3 (Group 1. Another group of 64 patients was given a preoperative infusion of amiodarone (1200 mg on first post-operative day (Group 2. After the operation amiodarone was administered orally at a dose of 600 mg/day. Sixty-four patients in group 3 (control group had 100 cc. isotonic 0.9% as placebo, during the same time periods. Results In the postoperative period, the magnesium values were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 for all measurements. The use of amiodarone for total arrhythmia was significantly more effective than prophylactic treatment with magnesium sulphate (p = 0.015. There was no difference between the two drugs in preventing supraventricular arrhythmia, although amiodarone significantly delayed the revealing time of atrial fibrillation (p = 0.026. Ventricular arrhythmia, in the form of ventricular extra systole, was more common in the magnesium prophylaxis group. The two groups showed no significant differences in other operative or postoperative measurements. No side effects of the drugs were observed. Conclusion Prophylactic use of magnesium sulphate and amiodarone are both effective at preventing arrhythmia that may occur following coronary by-pass operations. Magnesium sulphate should be used in prophylactic treatment since it may decrease arrhythmia at low doses. If arrhythmia should occur despite this

  13. Logarithmic circuit with wide dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, P. H.; Manus, E. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A circuit deriving an output voltage that is proportional to the logarithm of a dc input voltage susceptible to wide variations in amplitude includes a constant current source which forward biases a diode so that the diode operates in the exponential portion of its voltage versus current characteristic, above its saturation current. The constant current source includes first and second, cascaded feedback, dc operational amplifiers connected in negative feedback circuit. An input terminal of the first amplifier is responsive to the input voltage. A circuit shunting the first amplifier output terminal includes a resistor in series with the diode. The voltage across the resistor is sensed at the input of the second dc operational feedback amplifier. The current flowing through the resistor is proportional to the input voltage over the wide range of variations in amplitude of the input voltage.

  14. By-pass flows and temperature distribution in a hot gas duct internally insulated by carbon stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuk, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to calculate by-pass flows and temperature distribution in a hot gas duct internally insulated by carbon stone rings. The equations of conservation of mass and momentum are solved for a piping system to obtain axial and radial by-pass velocities. The energy equation is solved next by a marching method to obtain the radial temperature distribution along the duct. The results, although qualitative due to simplifications in the model, are useful to study the effects of duct geometry on its performance. (Author) [pt

  15. Hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.

    2001-01-01

    A simple fourth-order hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators is described. ANP3 and PSpice simulations including an eigenvalue study of the linearized Jacobian are presented together with a hardware implementation. The circuit contains two inductors with series resistance, two ideal...... capacitors and one nonlinear active conductor. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm the hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations of the circuit. The nonlinear conductor is realized with a diode. A negative impedance converter and a linear resistor. The performance of the circuit is investigated...... by means of numerical integration of the appropriate differential equations....

  16. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  17. Combination of FVIII and by-passing agent potentiates in vitro thrombin production in haemophilia A inhibitor plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintman, Jenny; Astermark, Jan; Berntorp, Erik

    2010-11-01

    The by-passing agents, recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) and activated prothrombin complex concentrate (APCC), are important tools in the treatment of patients with haemophilia A and high-responding inhibitory antibodies. It has been observed clinically that in some patients undergoing immune tolerance induction the bleeding frequency decreases, hypothetically caused by a transient haemostatic effect of infused FVIII not measurable ex vivo. We evaluated how by-passing agents and factor VIII (FVIII) affect thrombin generation (TG) in vitro using plasma from 11 patients with severe haemophilia A and high titre inhibitors. Samples were spiked with combinations of APCC, rFVIIa and five different FVIII products. Combination of APCC and FVIII showed a synergistic effect in eliciting TG (Pproducts. When rFVIIa and FVIII were combined the interaction between the preparations was found to be additive. APCC and rFVIIa were then combined without FVIII, resulting in an additive effect on thrombin production. Each product separately increased TG above baseline. In conclusion, the amount of thrombin formed in vitro by adding a by-passing agent, was higher in the presence of FVIII. Our findings support the use of FVIII in by-passing therapy to optimize the haemostatic effect. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Measurement of flow by-passing and turbulent mixing in a model of a fast-reactor steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, A.J.; Fallows, T.; Central Electricity Generating Board, Leatherhead

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of measurements of edge by-pass velocities and turbulent mixing in a model of a fast reactor steam generator. The velocity measurements were carried out using a DANTEC triple-split fibre probe which allowed both the speed and flow angle of a velocity vector to be measured in a plane normal to the axis of the probe. The measurements revealed the presence of reverse flows in the by-pass and adjacent in-bank channels downstream of a grid plate. The magnitude of the by-pass flow was reduced considerably by the insertion of a kicker grid at the mid point between grid plates. Turbulent mixing measurements revealed that circumferential mixing in channels near the by-pass channel was up to 5 times greater than the radial mixing. The level of radial mixing at the edge of the bank was similar to that measured near the centre of the bank. A method of transposing mass diffusion measurements in air to thermal diffusivities of sodium is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Liquid diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The liquid diode is designed for a flowmeter chamber which has an inlet and an outlet duct, and a flow chamber with a cross-section which is greater than inlet. In the space between the inlet and outlet are two screens with a number of spheres, which may be of different sizes and weights. The screen on the inlet side is smaller than that at the outlet, so that the spheres are able to block the inlet under reverse flow conditions, but do not block the outlet. The system functions as a non-return valve. (G.C.)

  20. Resonance circuits for adiabatic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlachta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible techniques to reduces the power consumption in digital CMOS circuits is to slow down the charge transport. This slowdown can be achieved by introducing an inductor in the charging path. Additionally, the inductor can act as an energy storage element, conserving the energy that is normally dissipated during discharging. Together with the parasitic capacitances from the circuit a LCresonant circuit is formed.

  1. Electronic circuit encyclopedia 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Ho

    1992-10-01

    This book is composed of 15 chapters, which are amplification of weak signal and measurement circuit audio control and power amplification circuit, data transmission and wireless system, forwarding and isolation, signal converting circuit, counter and comparator, discriminator circuit, oscillation circuit and synthesizer, digital and circuit on computer image processing circuit, sensor drive circuit temperature sensor circuit, magnetic control and application circuit, motor driver circuit, measuring instrument and check tool and power control and stability circuit.

  2. Electronic circuit encyclopedia 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Ho

    1992-10-15

    This book is composed of 15 chapters, which are amplification of weak signal and measurement circuit audio control and power amplification circuit, data transmission and wireless system, forwarding and isolation, signal converting circuit, counter and comparator, discriminator circuit, oscillation circuit and synthesizer, digital and circuit on computer image processing circuit, sensor drive circuit temperature sensor circuit, magnetic control and application circuit, motor driver circuit, measuring instrument and check tool and power control and stability circuit.

  3. Circuit effects on Pierce instabilities revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, S.; Hoerhager, M.; Crystal, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of external circuit effects on Pierce diode instability studied by Raadu and Silevitch is reconsidered. The characteristic equation and the ensuing eigenfrequencies are found to disagree with those given by the authors above, which discrepancy is attributed to the fact that one of their boundary conditions is inconsistent with the model chosen. (author)

  4. Theory and experiment on charging and discharging a capacitor through a reverse-biased diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arijit; Mallick, Abhishek; Adhikari, Aparna; Guin, Priyanka; Chatterjee, Dibyendu

    2018-06-01

    The beauty of a diode lies in its voltage-dependent nonlinear resistance. The voltage on a charging and discharging capacitor through a reverse-biased diode is calculated from basic equations and is found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements. Instead of the exponential dependence of charging and discharging voltages with time for a resistor-capacitor circuit, a linear time dependence is found when the resistor is replaced by a reverse-biased diode. Thus, well controlled positive and negative ramp voltages are obtained from the charging and discharging diode-capacitor circuits. This experiment can readily be performed in an introductory physics and electronics laboratory.

  5. Integrated power conditioning for laser diode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.; Farhoud, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    This compact modulator has demonstated its ability to efficiently and accurately drive a laser diode array. The addition of the crowbar protection circuit is an invaluable addition to the integrated system and is capable of protecting the laser diode array against severe damage. We showed that the correlation between measured data and simulation indicates that our modulator model is valid and can be used as a tool in the design of future systems. The spectrometer measurements that we conducted underline the imprtance of current regulation to stable laser operation

  6. Principles of transistor circuits introduction to the design of amplifiers, receivers and digital circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, S W

    2013-01-01

    For over thirty years, Stan Amos has provided students and practitioners with a text they could rely on to keep them at the forefront of transistor circuit design. This seminal work has now been presented in a clear new format and completely updated to include the latest equipment such as laser diodes, Trapatt diodes, optocouplers and GaAs transistors, and the most recent line output stages and switch-mode power supplies.Although integrated circuits have widespread application, the role of discrete transistors is undiminished, both as important building blocks which students must understand an

  7. The Effect of ringer Lactate as the Priming Solution of the Cardiopulmonary by Pass Circuit on Plasma Potassium Levels after Open Heart Surgery in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Peivandi Yazdi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB due to the higher volume of priming solution in comparison to the total blood volume in children requires careful consideration. Recently attention has been focused on the potential risk of hyperkalemia in these patients. Given its significant effects on cardiac rhythm, hyperkalemia is considered a medical emergency. In this cross-sectional study we aimed to determine the changes in K+ and other electrolytes following CPB in a pediatric cardiac surgery setting. Method: Sixty children scheduled for pediatric cardiac surgery weighing more than 5 kilograms with Hct level above 30% were enrolled. The prime solution used was Ringer-lactate. Venous blood were collected at defined time points: before, during and after CPB and at discharge. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean age of the studied patients was 3.69±2.77 years. A rise in potassium levels during surgery was recorded. Also a significant difference in the potassium levels before surgery and at discharge were observed (p=0.007. A significant drop and a subsequent rise in the Hct level was seen overtime whereas a significant decrease in the PH and bicarbonate levels were detected. 31 experienced cardiac arrhythmia after undergoing CPB. Conclusion: A K+-free crystalloid that will offset the K+ load of stored blood is highly anticipated in these patients

  8. Report on soil tests of the fill used in the Ozuki by-pass, Yamaguchi Prefecture. A report on tests of the effect of water immersion on the fill (coal mine waste) used in the Ozuki by-pass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Samples of the fill (coal mine waste) used in the construction of the Ozuki by-pass were immersed in beakers of water for 15 and 30 day periods. After air drying, the particle size of the samples was measured and test of their liquid and plastic limits were carried out. The results of these tests and of the particle size measurements are reported. Immersion in water resulted in a 1.5% increase in clay content and an increase in the liquid limit. Likewise, the plasticity index increased from 4.3 to 8.3.

  9. Inductive circuit arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, Peter; Coxon, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A switched coil arrangement is connected in a bridge configuration of four switches S 1 , S 2 , S 3 and S 4 which are each shunted by diodes D 1 , D 2 , D 3 and D 4 so that current can flow in either direction through a coil L depending on the setting of the switches. A capacitor C is connected across the bridge through a switch S 5 to receive the inductive energy stored in coil L on breaking the current flow path through the coil. The electrostatic energy stored in capacitor C can then be used to supply current through the coil in the reverse direction either immediately or after a time delay. Coil L may be a superconductive coil. Losses in the circuit can be made up by a trickle charge of capacitor C from a separate supply V 2 . The device may be used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  10. A new AC driving circuit for a top emission AMOLED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongwen; Chen Wenbin; Liu Haohan

    2013-01-01

    A new voltage programmed pixel circuit with top emission design for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays is presented and verified by HSPICE simulations. The proposed pixel circuit consists of five poly-Si TFTs, and can effectively compensate for the threshold voltage variation of the driving TFT. Meanwhile, the proposed pixel circuit offers an AC driving mode for the OLED by the two adjacent pulse voltage sources, which can suppress the degradation of the OLED. Moreover, a high contrast ratio can be achieved by the proposed pixel circuit since the OLED does not emit any light except for the emission period. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. A new step in cement plant bypass technology; Une nouvelle avancee pour les by-pass en cimenterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civiel, G. [Technip, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2001-12-01

    The demand of valorizing more and more waste fuel in cement industry results in an increase of volatile element quantities in kiln system, particularly chlorine. In 'Ciment, Betons, Platres, Chaux' no 849 May-June 2001, we made reference to the two new approaches developed by TECHNIP CL to solve the problem of the volatile elements in clinker burning lines: the raw meal curtain and the Taiheyo by-pass. The following article is focused on the second system. (author)

  12. Coaxial foilless diode

    OpenAIRE

    Long Kong; QingXiang Liu; XiangQiang Li; ShaoMeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    A kind of coaxial foilless diode is proposed in this paper, with the structure model and operating principle of the diode are given. The current-voltage relation of the coaxial foilless diode and the effects of structure parameters on the relation are studied by simulation. By solving the electron motion equation, the beam deviation characteristic in the presence of external magnetic field in transmission process is analyzed, and the relationship between transverse misalignment with diode par...

  13. Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MW Dashiell; JF Beausang; H Ehsani; GJ Nichols; DM Depoy; LR Danielson; P Talamo; KD Rahner; EJ Brown; SR Burger; PM Foruspring; WF Topper; PF Baldasaro; CA Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; J Li; R Martinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryi

    2006-01-01

    In x Ga 1-x As y Sb 1-y thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes were grown lattice-matched to GaSb substrates by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) in the bandgap range of E G = 0.5 to 0.6eV. InGaAsSb TPV diodes, utilizing front-surface spectral control filters, are measured with thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency and power density of η TPV = 19.7% and PD =0.58 W/cm 2 respectively for a radiator temperature of T radiator = 950 C, diode temperature of T diode = 27 C, and diode bandgap of E G = 0.53eV. Practical limits to TPV energy conversion efficiency are established using measured recombination coefficients and optical properties of front surface spectral control filters, which for 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV energy conversion is η TPV = 28% and PD = 0.85W/cm 2 at the above operating temperatures. The most severe performance limits are imposed by (1) diode open-circuit voltage (VOC) limits due to intrinsic Auger recombination and (2) parasitic photon absorption in the inactive regions of the module. Experimentally, the diode V OC is 15% below the practical limit imposed by intrinsic Auger recombination processes. Analysis of InGaAsSb diode electrical performance vs. diode architecture indicate that the V OC and thus efficiency is limited by extrinsic recombination processes such as through bulk defects

  14. Long pulse diode experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenahan, Charles R.; Weber, Gerald J.; Omalley, Martin W.; Stewart, Joseph; Rinehart, Larry F.; Buttram, Malcolm T.

    1990-10-01

    A diode employing a thermionic cathode has produced 80 A beams at 200 kV for at least 6 microseconds. Moreover, the diode operates at rates as high as 1 Hz. EGUN simulations of the experimental geometry agree with the experiments. Finally, simulation of a proposed diode geometry predicts a 1 kA, 500 kV beam.

  15. Economic consequences of extra by-passes in district heating networks. Investment-, running- and maintenance costs; Rundgaangars ekonomiska betydelse foer fjaerrvaermenaeten. Investerings-, drift- och underhaallskostnader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, P. [AaF-Energikonsult Stockholm AB, (Sweden)

    1995-02-01

    For various reasons, extra by-passes are installed in district heating networks to ensure a high flow temperature when the water circulation is insufficient. By `extra by-pass` we here mean a connection between the distribution pipe and the return pipe. This study mainly deals with extra by-passes to prevent freezing. The estimation of the extra by-pass costs is based on the district heating rates. Our assumption is that an extra by-pass can be regarded as a substation in the district heating network, with regard to the demand for the water flow, heat and power. The reason is the difficulty to obtain available facts to estimate the real costs concerning extra by-passes. Therefore, the method can not claim that the information about the costs is exact but gives an indication of the size of them. The valves in an extra by-pass can be set more or less open. We assume that manual valves in extra by-passes are wide open. Thermostatic valves are, however, assumed to be adjusted in order to cause a very small water flow. 2 refs, 16 figs, 9 tabs, 6 appendices

  16. Four-terminal circuit element with photonic core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampayan, Stephen

    2017-08-29

    A four-terminal circuit element is described that includes a photonic core inside of the circuit element that uses a wide bandgap semiconductor material that exhibits photoconductivity and allows current flow through the material in response to the light that is incident on the wide bandgap material. The four-terminal circuit element can be configured based on various hardware structures using a single piece or multiple pieces or layers of a wide bandgap semiconductor material to achieve various designed electrical properties such as high switching voltages by using the photoconductive feature beyond the breakdown voltages of semiconductor devices or circuits operated based on electrical bias or control designs. The photonic core aspect of the four-terminal circuit element provides unique features that enable versatile circuit applications to either replace the semiconductor transistor-based circuit elements or semiconductor diode-based circuit elements.

  17. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  18. Circuit Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jane B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a research-based activity for high school physics students in which they build an LC circuit and find its resonant frequency of oscillation using an oscilloscope. Includes a diagram of the apparatus and an explanation of the procedures. (DDR)

  19. Principles of transistor circuits introduction to the design of amplifiers, receivers and digital circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, S W

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Transistor Circuits: Sixth Edition discusses the principles, concepts, and practices involved integrated circuits. The current edition includes up-to-date circuits, the section on thyristors has been revised to give more information on modern types, and dated information has been eliminated. The book covers related topics such as semiconductors and junction diodes; the principles behind transistors; and common amplifiers. The book also covers bias and DC stabilization; large-signal and small-signal AF amplifiers; DC and pulse amplifiers; sinusoidal oscillators; pulse and sawtooth

  20. Fuel assembly outlet temperature profile influence on core by-pass flow and power distribution determination in WWER -440 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petenyi, V.; Klucarova, K.; Remis, J.

    2003-01-01

    The in core instrumentation of the WWER-440 reactors consists of the thermocouple system and the system of self powered detectors (SPD). The thermocouple systems are positioned about 50 cm above the fuel bundle upper flow-mixing grid. The usual assumption is that, the coolant is well mixed in the Tc location, i.e. the temperature is constant through the flow cross-section area. The present evaluations by using the FLUENT 5.5.14 code reveal that, this assumption is not fulfilled. There exists a temperature profile that depends on fuel assembly geometry and on inner power profile of the fuel assembly. The paper presents the estimation of this effect and its influence on the core power distribution and the core by-pass flow determination. Comparison with measurements in Mochovce NPP will also be a part of this presentation (Authors)

  1. Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diode Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Dashiell; J Beausang; H Ehsani; G Nichols; D DePoy; L Danielson; P Talamo; K Rahner; E Brown; S Burger; P Fourspring; W Topper; P Baldasaro; C Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; Jizhong Li; R Martinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryl

    2005-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes fabricated from InGaAsSb alloys lattice-matched to GaSb substrates are grown by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV diodes utilizing front-surface spectral control filters have been tested in a vacuum cavity and a TPV thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency (η TPV ) and a power density (PD) of η TPV = 19% and PD=0.58 W/cm 2 were measured for T radiator = 950 C and T diode = 27 C. Recombination coefficients deduced from minority carrier measurements and the theory reviewed in this article predict a practical limit to the maximum achievable conversion efficiency and power density for 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV. The limits for the above operating temperatures are projected to be η TPV = 26% and PD = 0.75 W/cm 2 . These limits are extended to η TPV = 30% and PD = 0.85W/cm 2 if the diode active region is bounded by a reflective back surface to enable photon recycling and a two-pass optical path length. The internal quantum efficiency of the InGaAsSb TPV diode is close to the theoretically predicted limits, with the exception of short wavelength absorption in GaSb contact layers. Experiments show that the open circuit voltage of the 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV diodes is not strongly dependent on the device architectures studied in this work where both N/P and P/N double heterostructure diodes have been grown with various acceptor and donor doping levels, having GaSb and AlGaAsSb confinement, and also partial back surface reflectors. Lattice matched InGaAsSb TPV diodes were fabricated with bandgaps ranging from 0.6 to 0.5eV without significant degradation of the open circuit voltage factor, quantum efficiency, or fill factor as the composition approached the miscibility gap. The key diode performance parameter which is limiting efficiency and power density below the theoretical limits in InGaAsSb TPV devices is the open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltages of state-of-the-art 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV diode are ∼10

  2. Radiography of the connection between a LHC magnet and its diode in sector 3-4

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    Fin mars 2015, les équipes du LHC ont réalisé différents tests pour identifier la cause d'un court-circuit vers la terre entre un aimant et sa diode de protection qui retardait le redémarrage du LHC. Le 25 mars, ils ont effectué des radiographies de la connexion. End of March 2015, LHC teams have performed different tests to identify the cause of a short-circuit to ground between a magnet and its protection diode. On 25 March they took an X-ray of the affected diode.

  3. Coaxial foilless diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Long; Liu, QingXiang; Li, XiangQiang; Wang, ShaoMeng [College of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2014-05-15

    A kind of coaxial foilless diode is proposed in this paper, with the structure model and operating principle of the diode are given. The current-voltage relation of the coaxial foilless diode and the effects of structure parameters on the relation are studied by simulation. By solving the electron motion equation, the beam deviation characteristic in the presence of external magnetic field in transmission process is analyzed, and the relationship between transverse misalignment with diode parameters is obtained. These results should be of interest to the area of generation and propagation of radial beam for application of generating high power microwaves.

  4. Coaxial foilless diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Kong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A kind of coaxial foilless diode is proposed in this paper, with the structure model and operating principle of the diode are given. The current-voltage relation of the coaxial foilless diode and the effects of structure parameters on the relation are studied by simulation. By solving the electron motion equation, the beam deviation characteristic in the presence of external magnetic field in transmission process is analyzed, and the relationship between transverse misalignment with diode parameters is obtained. These results should be of interest to the area of generation and propagation of radial beam for application of generating high power microwaves.

  5. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  6. Non-linear thermal fluctuations in a diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, N.G. van

    As an example of non-linear noise the fluctuations in a circuit consisting of a diode and a condenser C are studied. From the master equation for this system the following results are derived. 1. (i) The equilibrium distribution of the voltage is rigorously Gaussian, the average voltage being

  7. Modelling and Simulation of the Diode Split Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Leo

    a significant influence on the picture quality. The most critical component is undoubtedly the diode split transformer (DST). Therefore, if developing a simulation model of the DST is possible, a significant step has been taken in the attempt to model the entire horizontal deflection circuit and to obtain...

  8. The Light-Emitting Diode as a Light Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Hack, W. Nathan; Tran, Kiet; Vira, Zeeshan; Pickett, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A light-emitting diode (LED) and operational amplifier can be used as an affordable method to provide a digital output indicating detection of an intense light source such as a laser beam or high-output LED. When coupled with a microcontroller, the combination can be used as a multiple photogate and timer for under $50. A similar circuit is used…

  9. Duffing–van der Pol oscillator type dynamics in Murali–Lakshmanan–Chua (MLC) circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, K.; Chandrasekar, V.K.; Venkatesan, A.; Raja Mohamed, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposed an electronic circuit with diode based nonlinear element equivalent to a well known Murali–Lakshmanan–Chua (MLC) circuit. • For chosen circuit parameters this circuit admits familiar MLC type attractor and also Duffing–van der Pol circuit type chaotic attractor. • The performance of the circuit is investigated by means of explicit laboratory experiments, numerical simulations and analytical studies. - Abstract: We have constructed a simple second-order dissipative nonautonomous circuit exhibiting ordered and chaotic behaviour. This circuit is the well known Murali–Lakshmanan–Chua(MLC) circuit but with diode based nonlinear element. For chosen circuit parameters this circuit admits familiar MLC type attractor and also Duffing–van der Pol circuit type chaotic attractors. It is interesting to note that depending upon the circuit parameters the circuit shows both period doubling route to chaos and quasiperiodic route to chaos. In our study we have constructed two-parameter bifurcation diagrams in the forcing amplitude–frequency plane, one parameter bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, 0–1 test and phase portrait. The performance of the circuit is investigated by means of laboratory experiments, numerical integration of appropriate mathematical model and explicit analytic studies.

  10. LOGIC CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, G.H.; Faught, M.L.

    1963-12-24

    A device for safety rod counting in a nuclear reactor is described. A Wheatstone bridge circuit is adapted to prevent de-energizing the hopper coils of a ball backup system if safety rods, sufficient in total control effect, properly enter the reactor core to effect shut down. A plurality of resistances form one arm of the bridge, each resistance being associated with a particular safety rod and weighted in value according to the control effect of the particular safety rod. Switching means are used to switch each of the resistances in and out of the bridge circuit responsive to the presence of a particular safety rod in its effective position in the reactor core and responsive to the attainment of a predetermined velocity by a particular safety rod enroute to its effective position. The bridge is unbalanced in one direction during normal reactor operation prior to the generation of a scram signal and the switching means and resistances are adapted to unbalance the bridge in the opposite direction if the safety rods produce a predetermined amount of control effect in response to the scram signal. The bridge unbalance reversal is then utilized to prevent the actuation of the ball backup system, or, conversely, a failure of the safety rods to produce the predetermined effect produces no unbalance reversal and the ball backup system is actuated. (AEC)

  11. The 1/f noise in a p-i-n diode and in a diode laser below threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronen, R.J.; Hooge, F.N.

    1991-01-01

    --A theoretical treatment is given of number fluctuations induced by mobility fluctuations in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode. Mobility fluctuations lead to fluctuations in voltage across the intrinsic region. In the a.c. short-circuit situation, fluctuations across the intrinsic region result

  12. Vertically integrated circuit development at Fermilab for detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R; Deptuch, G; Hoff, J; Khalid, F; Lipton, R; Shenai, A; Trimpl, M; Zimmerman, T

    2013-01-01

    Today vertically integrated circuits, (a.k.a. 3D integrated circuits) is a popular topic in many trade journals. The many advantages of these circuits have been described such as higher speed due to shorter trace lenghts, the ability to reduce cross talk by placing analog and digital circuits on different levels, higher circuit density without the going to smaller feature sizes, lower interconnect capacitance leading to lower power, reduced chip size, and different processing for the various layers to optimize performance. There are some added advantages specifically for MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors) in High Energy Physics: four side buttable pixel arrays, 100% diode fill factor, the ability to move PMOS transistors out of the diode sensing layer, and a increase in channel density. Fermilab began investigating 3D circuits in 2006. Many different bonding processes have been described for fabricating 3D circuits [1]. Fermilab has used three different processes to fabricate several circuits for specific applications in High Energy Physics and X-ray imaging. This paper covers some of the early 3D work at Fermilab and then moves to more recent activities. The major processes we have used are discussed and some of the problems encountered are described. An overview of pertinent 3D circuit designs is presented along with test results thus far.

  13. Short- circuit tests of circuit breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Chorovský, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with short-circuit tests of low voltage electrical devices. In the first part of this paper, there are described basic types of short- circuit tests and their principles. Direct and indirect (synthetic) tests with more details are described in the second part. Each test and principles are explained separately. Oscilogram is obtained from short-circuit tests of circuit breakers at laboratory. The aim of this research work is to propose a test circuit for performing indirect test.

  14. Zener Diode Compact Model Parameter Extraction Using Xyce-Dakota Optimization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilcox, Ian Zachary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandoval, Andrew J [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reza, Shahed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report presents a detailed process for compact model parameter extraction for DC circuit Zener diodes. Following the traditional approach of Zener diode parameter extraction, circuit model representation is defined and then used to capture the different operational regions of a real diode's electrical behavior. The circuit model contains 9 parameters represented by resistors and characteristic diodes as circuit model elements. The process of initial parameter extraction, the identification of parameter values for the circuit model elements, is presented in a way that isolates the dependencies between certain electrical parameters and highlights both the empirical nature of the extraction and portions of the real diode physical behavior which of the parameters are intended to represent. Optimization of the parameters, a necessary part of a robost parameter extraction process, is demonstrated using a 'Xyce-Dakota' workflow, discussed in more detail in the report. Among other realizations during this systematic approach of electrical model parameter extraction, non-physical solutions are possible and can be difficult to avoid because of the interdependencies between the different parameters. The process steps described are fairly general and can be leveraged for other types of semiconductor device model extractions. Also included in the report are recommendations for experiment setups for generating optimum dataset for model extraction and the Parameter Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) for Zener diodes.

  15. Compact pulse topology for adjustable high-voltage pulse generation using an SOS diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, A.B.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Huiskamp, T.; Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a compact circuit topology is presented for pulsed power generation with a semiconductor opening switch (SOS). Such circuits require the generation of a fast forward current through the diode, followed by a reverse current that activates the recovery process. In general, magnetic

  16. Simplified Chua's attractor via bridging a diode pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simplified Chua's circuit is realised by bridging a diode pair between a passive LC (inductance and capacitance in parallel connection - LC oscillator and an active RC (resistance and capacitance in parallel connection - RC filter. The dynamical behaviours of the circuit are investigated by numerical simulations and verified by experimental measurements. It is found that the simplified Chua's circuit generates Chua's attractors similarly and demonstrates complex non-linear phenomena including coexisting bifurcation modes and coexisting attractors in particular.

  17. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  18. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-15

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  19. Nanofluidic Transistor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Cheng, Li-Jing; Yan, Yu; Slouka, Zdenek; Senapati, Satyajyoti

    2012-02-01

    Non-equilibrium ion/fluid transport physics across on-chip membranes/nanopores is used to construct rectifying, hysteretic, oscillatory, excitatory and inhibitory nanofluidic elements. Analogs to linear resistors, capacitors, inductors and constant-phase elements were reported earlier (Chang and Yossifon, BMF 2009). Nonlinear rectifier is designed by introducing intra-membrane conductivity gradient and by asymmetric external depletion with a reverse rectification (Yossifon and Chang, PRL, PRE, Europhys Lett 2009-2011). Gating phenomenon is introduced by functionalizing polyelectrolytes whose conformation is field/pH sensitive (Wang, Chang and Zhu, Macromolecules 2010). Surface ion depletion can drive Rubinstein's microvortex instability (Chang, Yossifon and Demekhin, Annual Rev of Fluid Mech, 2012) or Onsager-Wien's water dissociation phenomenon, leading to two distinct overlimiting I-V features. Bipolar membranes exhibit an S-hysteresis due to water dissociation (Cheng and Chang, BMF 2011). Coupling the hysteretic diode with some linear elements result in autonomous ion current oscillations, which undergo classical transitions to chaos. Our integrated nanofluidic circuits are used for molecular sensing, protein separation/concentration, electrospray etc.

  20. Vortex diode jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.

  1. Circuit parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, R

    2000-03-01

    Circuit parties are extended celebrations, lasting from a day to a week, primarily attended by gay and bisexual men in their thirties and forties. These large-scale dance parties move from city to city and draw thousands of participants. The risks for contracting HIV during these parties include recreational drug use and unsafe sex. Limited data exists on the level of risk at these parties, and participants are skeptical of outside help because of past criticism of these events. Health care and HIV advocates can promote risk-reduction strategies with the cooperation of party planners and can counsel individuals to personally reduce their own risk. To convey the message, HIV prevention workers should emphasize positive and community-centered aspects of the parties, such as taking care of friends and avoiding overdose.

  2. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  3. Quench protection diodes for the large hadron collider LHC at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagedorn, D.; Naegele, W.

    1992-01-01

    For the quench protection of the main ring dipole and quadrupole magnets for the proposed Large Hadron Collider at CERN two lines of approach have been pursued for the realization of a suitable high current by-pass element and liquid helium temperature. Two commercially available diodes of the HERA type connected in parallel can easily meet the requirements if a sufficient good current sharing is imposed by current balancing elements. Design criteria for these current balancing elements are derived from individual diode characteristics. Single diode elements of thin base region, newly developed in industry, have been successfully tested. The results are promising and, if the diodes can be made with reproducible characteristics, they will provide the preferred solution especially in view of radiation hardness

  4. The impact of avoiding cardiopulmonary by-pass during coronary artery bypass surgery in elderly patients: the Danish On-pump Off-pump Randomisation Study (DOORS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlind, Kim; Kjeldsen, Bo Juul; Madsen, Susanne Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operation for ischemic heart disease provides improved quality of life and, in some patients, prolonged survival. Concern has, however, been raised about complications that may be related to the use of cardiopulmonary by-pass (CPB) and aortic cross......-clamping. It has been hypothesized that when coronary artery by-pass grafting is performed without the use of CPB, the rate of serious complications is reduced. METHODS/DESIGN: The trial is designed as an open, randomized, controlled, clinical trial with blinded assessment of end-points. Patients at or above 70...... years of age, referred for surgical myocardial revascularisation, are included and randomised to receive coronary artery by-pass grafting either with or without the use of CPB and aortic cross-clamping. Follow-up is performed by clinical, biochemical, electrocardiographic, and angiographic data...

  5. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  6. Powerful infrared emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogan L. M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Powerful infrared LEDs with emission wavelength 805 ± 10, 870 ± 20 and 940 ± 10 nm developed at SPC OED "OPTEL" are presented in the article. The radiant intensity of beam diode is under 4 W/sr in the continuous mode and under 100 W/sr in the pulse mode. The radiation power of wide-angle LEDs reaches 1 W in continuous mode. The external quantum efficiency of emission IR diodes runs up to 30%. There also has been created infrared diode modules with a block of flat Fresnel lenses with radiant intensity under 70 W/sr.

  7. Development on mini X-ray diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shaoen; Sun Kexu; Peng Nengling; Huang Tianxuan; Cui Yanli; Yi Rongqing; Chen Jiusen

    2004-01-01

    The mini X-ray diode (M-XRD) was developed, and was used in mini soft X-ray spectrometer. Compared with traditional XRD, M-XRD's volume reduces to 1/30. M-XRD's property was experimentally examined on Shenguang II laser facility. The experimental results indicated that the temporal response and sensitivity of M-XRD are basically consistent with traditional XRD. The equivalent circuit of XRD was analyzed, and its response time and linear saturated current were calculated. (authors)

  8. Prevention of short circuits in solution-processed OLED devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolt Oostra, A.; Blom, P.W.M.; Michels, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pinholes in the emitting layer of an organic light emitting diode (OLED), e.g. induced by particle contamination or processing flaws, lead to direct contact between the hole-injection layer (HIL) and the cathode. The resulting short circuits give rise to catastrophic device failure. We demonstrate

  9. Resonant Circuits and Introduction to Vacuum Tubes, Industrial Electronics 2: 9325.03. Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The 135 clock-hour course for the 11th year consists of outlines for blocks of instruction on series resonant circuits, parallel resonant circuits, transformer theory and application, vacuum tube fundamentals, diode vacuum tubes, triode tube construction and parameters, vacuum tube tetrodes and pentodes, beam-power and multisection tubes, and…

  10. Photoresponse of poly(para-phenylenevinylene) light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, X.; Raikh, M.; Vardeny, Z.V.; Yang, Y.; Moses, D.

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the photoresponses of poly(para-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) light-emitting diodes (LED's) with PPV derivatives sandwiched between tin oxide (ITO) and metals including calcium, aluminum, and copper. Under illumination all diodes exhibit relatively large photoconductive I(V) responses which cross the dark I(V) curve at a forward-bias voltage V 0 that scales with the difference in work functions between the ITO and metal electrodes, the open-circuit voltage saturates at V 0 and is temperature independent, and the enhanced electroluminescence intensity of the illuminated LED's correlates with the photocurrent

  11. High-speed dynamic domino circuit implemented with gaas mesfets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long (Inventor); Long, Stephen I. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic logic circuit (AND or OR) utilizes one depletion-mode metal-semiconductor FET for precharging an internal node A, and a plurality of the same type of FETs in series, or a FET in parallel with one or more of the series connected FETs for implementing the logic function. A pair of FETs are connected to provide an output inverter with two series diodes for level shift. A coupling capacitor may be employed with a further FET to provide level shifting required between the inverter and the logic circuit output terminal. These circuits may be cascaded to form a domino chain.

  12. Energy pumping in electrical circuits under avalanche noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Kiyoshi; Sagawa, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2014-07-01

    We theoretically study energy pumping processes in an electrical circuit with avalanche diodes, where non-Gaussian athermal noise plays a crucial role. We show that a positive amount of energy (work) can be extracted by an external manipulation of the circuit in a cyclic way, even when the system is spatially symmetric. We discuss the properties of the energy pumping process for both quasistatic and finite-time cases, and analytically obtain formulas for the amounts of the work and the power. Our results demonstrate the significance of the non-Gaussianity in energetics of electrical circuits.

  13. Equivalent circuit simulation of HPEM-induced transient responses at nonlinear loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kotzev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the equivalent circuit modeling of a nonlinearly loaded loop antenna and its transient responses to HPEM field excitations are investigated. For the circuit modeling the general strategy to characterize the nonlinearly loaded antenna by a linear and a nonlinear circuit part is pursued. The linear circuit part can be determined by standard methods of antenna theory and numerical field computation. The modeling of the nonlinear circuit part requires realistic circuit models of the nonlinear loads that are given by Schottky diodes. Combining both parts, appropriate circuit models are obtained and analyzed by means of a standard SPICE circuit simulator. It is the main result that in this way full-wave simulation results can be reproduced. Furthermore it is clearly seen that the equivalent circuit modeling offers considerable advantages with respect to computation speed and also leads to improved physical insights regarding the coupling between HPEM field excitation and nonlinearly loaded loop antenna.

  14. Memory Applications Using Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Ming-Huei

    Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) producing unique folding current-voltage (I-V) characteristics have attracted considerable research attention due to their promising application in signal processing and multi-valued logic. The negative differential resistance of RTDs renders the operating points self-latching and stable. We have proposed a multiple -dimensional multiple-state RTD-based static random-access memory (SRAM) cell in which the number of stable states can significantly be increased to (N + 1)^ m or more for m number of N-peak RTDs connected in series. The proposed cells take advantage of the hysteresis and folding I-V characteristics of RTD. Several cell designs are presented and evaluated. A two-dimensional nine-state memory cell has been implemented and demonstrated by a breadboard circuit using two 2-peak RTDs. The hysteresis phenomenon in a series of RTDs is also further analyzed. The switch model provided in SPICE 3 can be utilized to simulate the hysteretic I-V characteristics of RTDs. A simple macro-circuit is described to model the hysteretic I-V characteristic of RTD for circuit simulation. A new scheme for storing word-wide multiple-bit information very efficiently in a single memory cell using RTDs is proposed. An efficient and inexpensive periphery circuit to read from and write into the cell is also described. Simulation results on the design of a 3-bit memory cell scheme using one-peak RTDs are also presented. Finally, a binary transistor-less memory cell which is only composed of a pair of RTDs and an ordinary rectifier diode is presented and investigated. A simple means for reading and writing information from or into the memory cell is also discussed.

  15. A New Cross-By-Pass-Torus Architecture Based on CBP-Mesh and Torus Interconnection for On-Chip Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ali Gulzari

    Full Text Available A Mesh topology is one of the most promising architecture due to its regular and simple structure for on-chip communication. Performance of mesh topology degraded greatly by increasing the network size due to small bisection width and large network diameter. In order to overcome this limitation, many researchers presented modified Mesh design by adding some extra links to improve its performance in terms of network latency and power consumption. The Cross-By-Pass-Mesh was presented by us as an improved version of Mesh topology by intelligent addition of extra links. This paper presents an efficient topology named Cross-By-Pass-Torus for further increase in the performance of the Cross-By-Pass-Mesh topology. The proposed design merges the best features of the Cross-By-Pass-Mesh and Torus, to reduce the network diameter, minimize the average number of hops between nodes, increase the bisection width and to enhance the overall performance of the network. In this paper, the architectural design of the topology is presented and analyzed against similar kind of 2D topologies in terms of average latency, throughput and power consumption. In order to certify the actual behavior of proposed topology, the synthetic traffic trace and five different real embedded application workloads are applied to the proposed as well as other competitor network topologies. The simulation results indicate that Cross-By-Pass-Torus is an efficient candidate among its predecessor's and competitor topologies due to its less average latency and increased throughput at a slight cost in network power and energy for on-chip communication.

  16. Extraction of diode parameters of silicon solar cells under high illumination conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Firoz; Baek, Seong-Ho; Park, Yiseul; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We have developed an analytical method to determine the diode parameters of concentrator solar cells under high illumination conditions. The determined values of diode parameters have been used to compute the theoretical values of performance parameters. The computed values of the open circuit voltage, curve factor, and efficiency obtained using diode parameters determined with this method showed good agreement (<2% discrepancy) with their experimental values in the temperature range 298–323 K. Highlights: • An analytical method to extract the diode parameters of concentrated Si solar cells. • This method uses single I–V curve under high illumination conditions. • The theoretical values of performance parameters have been computed. • Theoretical values of parameters matched within 2% discrepancy limit. • This method gives best results among the methods used in this work. - Abstract: An analytical method has been developed to extract all four diode parameters, namely the shunt resistance, series resistance, diode ideality factor, and reverse saturation current density, using a single J–V curve, based on one exponential model of silicon solar cells under high illumination conditions. The slope of the J–V curve (dV/dJ) at a short circuit condition is used to determine the value of the shunt resistance. The slope of the J–V curve at an open circuit condition together with the short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, current density, and voltage at maximum power point have been used to determine the values of the series resistance, diode ideality factor, and reverse saturation current density. The determined values of the diode parameters have been used to compute the theoretical values of the open circuit voltage, curve factor, and efficiency of the solar cell. The theoretical J–V curves matched well with the corresponding experimental curves. This method is applied to determine the diode parameters of concentrator

  17. An optoelectronic integrated device including a laser and its driving circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsueda, H.; Nakano, H.; Tanaka, T.P.

    1984-10-01

    A monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) including a laser diode, photomonitor and driving and detecting circuits has been fabricated on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate. The OEIC has a horizontal integrating structure which is suitable for realising high-density multifunctional devices. The fabricating process and the static and dynamic characteristics of the optical and electronic elements are described. The preliminary results of the co-operative operation of the laser and its driving circuit are also presented.

  18. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  19. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  20. Current limiter circuit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  1. High current, high bandwidth laser diode current driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, David J.; Zimmerman, Robert K., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A laser diode current driver has been developed for free space laser communications. The driver provides 300 mA peak modulation current and exhibits an optical risetime of less than 400 ps. The current and optical pulses are well behaved and show minimal ringing. The driver is well suited for QPPM modulation at data rates up to 440 Mbit/s. Much previous work has championed current steering circuits; in contrast, the present driver is a single-ended on/off switch. This results in twice the power efficiency as a current steering driver. The driver electrical efficiency for QPPM data is 34 percent. The high speed switch is realized with a Ku-band GaAsFET transistor, with a suitable pre-drive circuit, on a hybrid microcircuit adjacent to the laser diode.

  2. Monte Carlo modelling of Schottky diode for rectenna simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernuchon, E.; Aniel, F.; Zerounian, N.; Grimault-Jacquin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Before designing a detector circuit, the electrical parameters extraction of the Schottky diode is a critical step. This article is based on a Monte-Carlo (MC) solver of the Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) including different transport mechanisms at the metal-semiconductor contact such as image force effect or tunneling. The weight of tunneling and thermionic current is quantified according to different degrees of tunneling modelling. The I-V characteristic highlights the dependence of the ideality factor and the current saturation with bias. Harmonic Balance (HB) simulation on a rectifier circuit within Advanced Design System (ADS) software shows that considering non-linear ideality factor and saturation current for the electrical model of the Schottky diode does not seem essential. Indeed, bias independent values extracted in forward regime on I-V curve are sufficient. However, the non-linear series resistance extracted from a small signal analysis (SSA) strongly influences the conversion efficiency at low input powers.

  3. Diode laser pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagerlund, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    A diode laser is pumped or pulsed by a repeated capacitive discharge. A capacitor is periodically charged from a dc voltage source via a transformer, the capacitor being discharged through the diode laser via a controlled switching means after one or more charging periods. During a first interval of each charging period the transformer, while unloaded, stores a specific amount of energy supplied from the dc voltage source. During a subsequent interval of the charging period said specific amount of energy is transmitted from the transformer to the capacitor. The discharging of the capacitor takes place during a first interval of a charging period. (auth)

  4. Performance of single-pass and by-pass multi-step multi-soil-layering systems for low-(C/N)-ratio polluted river water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cai-Jie; Wu, Wei-Zhong

    2018-09-01

    Two kinds of hybrid two-step multi-soil-layering (MSL) systems loaded with different filter medias (zeolite-ceramsite MSL-1 and ceramsite-red clay MSL-2) were set-up for the low-(C/N)-ratio polluted river water treatment. A long-term pollutant removal performance of these two kinds of MSL systems was evaluated for 214 days. By-pass was employed in MSL systems to evaluate its effect on nitrogen removal enhancement. Zeolite-ceramsite single-pass MSL-1 system owns outstanding ammonia removal capability (24 g NH 4 + -Nm -2 d -1 ), 3 times higher than MSL-2 without zeolite under low aeration rate condition (0.8 × 10 4  L m -2 .h -1 ). Aeration rate up to 1.6 × 10 4  L m -2 .h -1 well satisfied the requirement of complete nitrification in first unit of both two MSLs. However, weak denitrification in second unit was commonly observed. By-pass of 50% influent into second unit can improve about 20% TN removal rate for both MSL-1 and MSL-2. Complete nitrification and denitrification was achieved in by-pass MSL systems after addition of carbon source with the resulting C/N ratio up to 2.5. The characters of biofilms distributed in different sections inside MSL-1 system well illustrated the nitrogen removal mechanism inside MSL systems. Two kinds of MSLs are both promising as an appealing nitrifying biofilm reactor. Recirculation can be considered further for by-pass MSL-2 system to ensure a complete ammonia removal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Large-signal modeling method for power FETs and diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Lu; Wang Jiali; Wang Shan; Li Xuezheng; Shi Hui; Wang Na; Guo Shengping, E-mail: sunlu_1019@126.co [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2009-06-01

    Under a large signal drive level, a frequency domain black box model of the nonlinear scattering function is introduced into power FETs and diodes. A time domain measurement system and a calibration method based on a digital oscilloscope are designed to extract the nonlinear scattering function of semiconductor devices. The extracted models can reflect the real electrical performance of semiconductor devices and propose a new large-signal model to the design of microwave semiconductor circuits.

  6. Large-signal modeling method for power FETs and diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lu; Wang Jiali; Wang Shan; Li Xuezheng; Shi Hui; Wang Na; Guo Shengping

    2009-01-01

    Under a large signal drive level, a frequency domain black box model of the nonlinear scattering function is introduced into power FETs and diodes. A time domain measurement system and a calibration method based on a digital oscilloscope are designed to extract the nonlinear scattering function of semiconductor devices. The extracted models can reflect the real electrical performance of semiconductor devices and propose a new large-signal model to the design of microwave semiconductor circuits.

  7. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  8. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    1991-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  9. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  10. [The systemic approach to the rehabilitation of the patients presenting with laryngeal cancer after the resection of the organ and laryngectomy with tracheoesophageal by-pass and endoprosthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, A I; Reshetov, I V; Kozhanov, L G; Sdvizhkov, A M; Kozhanov, A L

    The objective of the present study was to enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation of the patients presenting with laryngeal cancer after the resection of the organ and laryngotomy with tracheoesophageal by-pass and endoprosthetics. Our experience in this field is based on the treatment of 102 patients. They were distributed by the nosological forms as follows: primary laryngeal cancer in 97 patients including T1NoMo - 8 (8.2%), T2NoMo - 63 (65%), T3NoMo - 18 (17.6%), T2N1Mo - 1 (0.9%), T4NoMo - 3 (2.9%), and T4N1M0 - 4 (3.9%), root of the tongue cancer spreading over the vestibular part of the larynx in one patient, laryngeal sarcoma in one patient, relapse of cancer following the full-dose radiotherapy and organ-sparing surgery in 3 patients. Laryngeal resection was performed in 83 patients; 19 patients underwent laryngectomy with tracheoesophageal by-pass and endoprosthetics using a domestically manufactured voice prosthesis. The systemic approach to the rehabilitation of the patients and the use of the proposed treatment algorithm made it possible to restore the function of the larynx by means of organ-sparing surgery in 79 (95.1%) of the 83 patients. The vocal function in the patients following laryngectomy with tracheoesophageal by-pass and endoprosthetics was restored in 18 (94.7%) of the 19 patients.

  11. High performance Schottky diodes based on indium-gallium-zinc-oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Song, Aimin, E-mail: A.Song@manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Xin, Qian [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) Schottky diodes exhibit excellent performance in comparison with conventional devices used in future flexible high frequency electronics. In this work, a high performance Pt IGZO Schottky diode was presented by using a new fabrication process. An argon/oxygen mixture gas was introduced during the deposition of the Pt layer to reduce the oxygen deficiency at the Schottky interface. The diode showed a high barrier height of 0.92 eV and a low ideality factor of 1.36 from the current–voltage characteristics. Even the radius of the active area was 0.1 mm, and the diode showed a cut-off frequency of 6 MHz in the rectifier circuit. Using the diode as a demodulator, a potential application was also demonstrated in this work.

  12. Modeling of SVM Diode Clamping Three-Level Inverter Connected to Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Jieqiong

    2011-01-01

    PLECS is used to model the diode clamping three-level inverter connected to grid and good results are obtained. First the output voltage SVM is described for diode clamping three-level inverter with loads connected to Y. Then the output voltage SVM of diode clamping three-level inverter is simply...... analyzed with loads connected to △. But it will be further researched in the future. Third, PLECS is briefly introduced. Fourth, the modeling of diode clamping three-level inverter is briefly presented with PLECS. Finally, a series of simulations are carried out. The simulation results tell us PLECS...... is very powerful tool to real power circuits and it is very easy to simulate them. They have also verified that SVM control strategy is feasible to control the diode clamping three-level inverter....

  13. A new design of pulsed laser diode driver system for multistate quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. S.; Jamaludin, M. Z.; Witjaksono, G.; Mokhtar, M. H. H.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a new design of laser diode driver system based on MOSFET current mirror and digital signal controller (DSC). The system is designed to emit stream pairs of photons from three semiconductor laser diodes. The DSC is able to switch between the three laser diodes at constant rate. The duty cycle is maintained at 1% in order to reduce its thermal effect and thus prolong the laser diodes' life cycles. The MOSFET current mirror circuits are capable of delivering constant modulation current with peak current up to 58 mA to each laser diode. This laser driver system will allow the generating biphotons automatically with qubit rate around 8-13% for μ less than or equal to 1, thus making it practical for six-states quantum key distribution implementation.

  14. Recombination of charge carriers in the GaAs-based p-i-n diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayzenshtat, G. I.; Yushenko, A. Y.; Gushchin, S. M.; Dmitriev, D. V.; Zhuravlev, K. S.; Toropov, A. I.

    2010-01-01

    It is established that the radiative recombination of charge carriers plays a substantial role in the GaAs-based p-i-n diodes at high densities of the forward current. It is shown experimentally that the diodes operating in microwave integrated circuits intensely emit light in the IR range with wavelengths from 890 to 910 nm. The obtained results indicate the necessity of taking into account the features of recombination processes in the GaAs-based microwave p-i-n diodes.

  15. Switchless charge-discharge circuit for electrical capacitance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryszyn, J; Smolik, W T; Radzik, B; Olszewski, T; Szabatin, R

    2014-01-01

    The main factor limiting the performance of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an extremely low value of inter-electrode capacitances. The charge-discharge circuit is a well suited circuit for a small capacitance measurement due to its immunity to noise and stray capacitance, although it has a problem associated with a charge injected by the analogue switches, which results in a dc offset. This paper presents a new diode-based circuit for capacitance measurement in which a charge transfer method is realized without switches. The circuit was built and tested in one channel configuration with 16 multiplexed electrodes. The performance of the elaborated circuit and a comparison with a classic charge-discharge circuit are presented. The elaborated circuit can be used for sensors with inter-electrode capacitances not lower than 10 fF. The presented approach allows us to obtain a similar performance to the classic charge-discharge circuit, but has a simplified design. A lack of the need to synchronize the analogue switches in the transmitter and the receiver part of this circuit could be a desirable feature in the design of measurement systems integrated with electrodes. (paper)

  16. Design of Integrated Circuits Approaching Terahertz Frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Lei

    In this thesis, monolithic microwave integrated circuits(MMICs) are presented for millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave or terahertz(THz) applications. Millimeter-wave power generation from solid state devices is not only crucial for the emerging high data rate wireless communications but also...... heterodyne receivers with requirements of room temperature operation, low system complexity, and high sensitivity, monolithic integrated Schottky diode technology is chosen for the implementation of submillimeterwave components. The corresponding subharmonic mixer and multiplier for a THz radiometer system...

  17. Improved Short-Circuit Protection for Power Cells in Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2008-01-01

    A scheme for protection against short circuits has been devised for series strings of lithium electrochemical cells that contain built-in short-circuit protection devices, which go into a high-resistance, current-limiting state when heated by excessive current. If cells are simply connected in a long series string to obtain a high voltage and a short circuit occurs, whichever short-circuit protection device trips first is exposed to nearly the full string voltage, which, typically, is large enough to damage the device. Depending on the specific cell design, the damage can defeat the protective function, cause a dangerous internal short circuit in the affected cell, and/or cascade to other cells. In the present scheme, reverse diodes rated at a suitably high current are connected across short series sub-strings, the lengths of which are chosen so that when a short-circuit protection device is tripped, the voltage across it does not exceed its rated voltage. This scheme preserves the resetting properties of the protective devices. It provides for bypassing of cells that fail open and limits cell reversal, though not as well as does the more-expensive scheme of connecting a diode across every cell.

  18. Communication with diode laser: short distance line of sight communication using fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to carry audio signal from transmitting station to a short distance receiving station along line of sight and also communication through fiber optics is performed, using diode laser light as carrier. In this project optical communication system, modulation techniques, basics of laser and causes of using diode laser are discussed briefly. Transmitter circuit and receiver circuit are fully described. Communication was performed using pulse width modulation technique. Optical fiber communication have many advantages over other type of conventional communication techniques. This report contains the description of optical fiber communication and compared with other communication systems. (author)

  19. Performance review and reengineering of the protection diodes of the LHC main superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Savary, F; Bednarek, M J; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; D'Angelo, G; Dib, G; Giloux, C; Grand-Clement, L; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Moron-Ballester, R; Prin, H; Roger, V; Verweij, A; Willering, G

    2014-01-01

    The LHC main superconducting circuits are composed of up to 154 series-connected dipole magnets and 51 series-connected quadrupole magnets. These magnets operate at 1.9 K in superfluid helium at a nominal current of 11.85 kA. Cold diodes are connected in parallel to each magnet in order to bypass the current in case of a quench in the magnet while ramping down the current in the entire circuit. Both the diodes and the diode leads should therefore be capable of conducting this exponentially decaying current with time constants of up to 100 s. The diode stacks consist of the diodes and their heat sinks, and are essential elements of the protection system from which extremely high reliability is expected. The electrical resistance of 24 diode leads was measured in the LHC machine during operation. Unexpectedly high resistances of the order of 40 μΩ were measured at a few locations, which triggered a comprehensive review of the diode behaviour and of the associated current leads and bolted contacts. In this pap...

  20. Diode lasers and arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streifer, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of operation of III-V semiconductor diode lasers, the use of distributed feedback, and high power laser arrays. The semiconductor laser is a robust, miniature, versatile device, which directly converts electricity to light with very high efficiency. Applications to pumping solid-state lasers and to fiber optic and point-to-point communications are reviewed

  1. Deep diode atomic battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, T.R.; Cline, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A deep diode atomic battery is made from a bulk semiconductor crystal containing three-dimensional arrays of columnar and lamellar P-N junctions. The battery is powered by gamma rays and x-ray emission from a radioactive source embedded in the interior of the semiconductor crystal

  2. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Matulková, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2010), s. 408-420 ISSN 1230-3402 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : FTIR spectroscopy * absorption spectroscopy * laser diodes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2010

  3. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  4. Filament supply circuit for particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.C. Jr.; Malone, H.F.

    1975-01-01

    In a particle accelerator of the type employing ac primary power and a voltage multiplication apparatus to achieve the required high dc accelerating voltage, a filament supply circuit is powered by a portion of the ac primary power appearing at the last stage of the voltage multiplier. This ac power is applied across a voltage regulator circuit in the form of two zener diodes connected back to back. The threshold of the zeners is below the lowest peak-to-peak voltage of the ac voltage, so that the regulated voltage remains constant for all settings of the adjustable acceleration voltage. The regulated voltage is coupled through an adjustable resistor and an impedance-matching transformer to the accelerator filament. (auth)

  5. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  6. Analysis and modelling of GaN Schottky-based circuits at millimeter wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, D; Grajal, J

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of the capabilities of GaN Schottky diodes for frequency multipliers and mixers at millimeter wavelengths. By using a Monte Carlo (MC) model of the diode coupled to a harmonic balance technique, the electrical and noise performances of these circuits are investigated. Despite the lower electron mobility of GaN compared to GaAs, multipliers based on GaN Schottky diodes can be competitive in the first stages of multiplier chains, due to the excellent power handling capabilities of this material. The performance of these circuits can be improved by taking advantage of the lateral Schottky diode structures based on AlGaN/GaN HEMT technology. (paper)

  7. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  8. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  9. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  10. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  11. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  12. Push-pull converter with energy saving circuit for protecting switching transistors from peak power stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In a push-pull converter, switching transistors are protected from peak power stresses by a separate snubber circuit in parallel with each comprising a capacitor and an inductor in series, and a diode in parallel with the inductor. The diode is connected to conduct current of the same polarity as the base-emitter juction of the transistor so that energy stored in the capacitor while the transistor is switched off, to protect it against peak power stress, discharges through the inductor when the transistor is turned on, and after the capacitor is discharges through the diode. To return this energy to the power supply, or to utilize this energy in some external circuit, the inductor may be replaced by a transformer having its secondary winding connected to the power supply or to the external circuit.

  13. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  14. Multistability in Chua's circuit with two stable node-foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, B. C.; Wang, N.; Xu, Q.; Li, Q. D.

    2016-01-01

    Only using one-stage op-amp based negative impedance converter realization, a simplified Chua's diode with positive outer segment slope is introduced, based on which an improved Chua's circuit realization with more simpler circuit structure is designed. The improved Chua's circuit has identical mathematical model but completely different nonlinearity to the classical Chua's circuit, from which multiple attractors including coexisting point attractors, limit cycle, double-scroll chaotic attractor, or coexisting chaotic spiral attractors are numerically simulated and experimentally captured. Furthermore, with dimensionless Chua's equations, the dynamical properties of the Chua's system are studied including equilibrium and stability, phase portrait, bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponent spectrum, and attraction basin. The results indicate that the system has two symmetric stable nonzero node-foci in global adjusting parameter regions and exhibits the unusual and striking dynamical behavior of multiple attractors with multistability.

  15. Experimental study of the core grid by-pass orifices inlet pressure drop of the new core of the R A 6 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, V. P; Garcia, J. C; Delmastro, D. F

    2006-01-01

    In this work the core grid by-pass orifices inlet pressure drop of the new core of the R A6 reactor are experimentally studied.The experiments are performed using a 1:1 scale mock-up of an external fuel element cell.Different gaps between fuel elements are considered in order to take into account the design allowances. Different flows are considered to take into account the normal operation flow range.Measurement uncertainties are included.The results will be used to calculate the core flow distribution [es

  16. Mixed-mode chaotic circuit with Wien-bridge configuration: The results of experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Recai [Erciyes University, Department of Electronic Engineering, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: kilic@erciyes.edu.tr

    2007-05-15

    In this paper, we deal with the experimentally implementation of inductorless Wien bridge-based mixed-mode chaotic circuit (MMCC) which is capable to exhibit both linear and nonlinear oscillations. The results of experimental implementation agree with the results of theoretical and computer simulation presented in literature. Since the proposed implementation of MMCC circuit uses different design blocks such as Wien bridge-based autonomous circuit part, CFOA (current feedback operational amplifier)-based floating inductance simulator, CFOA-based Chua's diode and switching mechanism, it offers very versatile chaotic circuit model for studying autonomous and nonautonomous chaotic dynamics.

  17. Mixed-mode chaotic circuit with Wien-bridge configuration: The results of experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Recai

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the experimentally implementation of inductorless Wien bridge-based mixed-mode chaotic circuit (MMCC) which is capable to exhibit both linear and nonlinear oscillations. The results of experimental implementation agree with the results of theoretical and computer simulation presented in literature. Since the proposed implementation of MMCC circuit uses different design blocks such as Wien bridge-based autonomous circuit part, CFOA (current feedback operational amplifier)-based floating inductance simulator, CFOA-based Chua's diode and switching mechanism, it offers very versatile chaotic circuit model for studying autonomous and nonautonomous chaotic dynamics

  18. Design and fabrication of metal-insulator-metal diode for high frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Ibrahim; Ram, Manoj K.; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes play significant role in high speed electronics where high frequency rectification is needed. Quantum based tunneling mechanism helps MIM diodes to rectify at high frequency signals. Rectenna, antenna coupled MIM diodes are becoming popular due to their potential use as IR detectors and energy harvesters. Because of small active area, MIM diodes could easily be incorporated into integrated circuits (IC's). The objective of the work is to design and develop MIM diodes for high frequency rectification. In this work, thin insulating layer of ZnO was fabricated using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique which facilitates ultrathin thin, uniform and pinhole free fabrication of insulating layer. The ZnO layer was synthesized from organic precursor of zinc acetate layer. The optimization in the LB technique of fabrication process led to fabricate MIM diodes with high non-linearity and sensitivity. Moreover, the top and bottom electrodes as well as active area of the diodes were patterned using UV-tunneling conduction mechanism. The highest sensitivity of the diode was measured around 37 (A/W), and the rectification ratio was found around 36 under low applied bias at +/-100 mV.

  19. Diode pumped solid state laser by two diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mingzhong; Zhang Xiaomin; Liang Yue; Man Yongzai; Zhou Pizhang

    1995-01-01

    A Nd: YLF laser is pumped by home-made quantum well diode lasers. Datum of laser output energy 60 μJ and peak power 120 mw are observed at wavelength 1.047 μm. On the same pumping condition, the output power synchronously pumped by two diodes is higher than the total output power pumped by two diodes separately. The fluctuation is <3%. The results agree with theoretical analysis

  20. Spin-Wave Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lan (兰金

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A diode, a device allowing unidirectional signal transmission, is a fundamental element of logic structures, and it lies at the heart of modern information systems. The spin wave or magnon, representing a collective quasiparticle excitation of the magnetic order in magnetic materials, is a promising candidate for an information carrier for the next-generation energy-saving technologies. Here, we propose a scalable and reprogrammable pure spin-wave logic hardware architecture using domain walls and surface anisotropy stripes as waveguides on a single magnetic wafer. We demonstrate theoretically the design principle of the simplest logic component, a spin-wave diode, utilizing the chiral bound states in a magnetic domain wall with a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and confirm its performance through micromagnetic simulations. Our findings open a new vista for realizing different types of pure spin-wave logic components and finally achieving an energy-efficient and hardware-reprogrammable spin-wave computer.

  1. Oxide bipolar electronics: materials, devices and circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, Marius; Klüpfel, Fabian; Karsthof, Robert; Schlupp, Peter; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Splith, Daniel; Yang, Chang; Bitter, Sofie; Von Wenckstern, Holger

    2016-01-01

    We present the history of, and the latest progress in, the field of bipolar oxide thin film devices. As such we consider primarily pn-junctions in which at least one of the materials is a metal oxide semiconductor. A wide range of n-type and p-type oxides has been explored for the formation of such bipolar diodes. Since most oxide semiconductors are unipolar, challenges and opportunities exist with regard to the formation of heterojunction diodes and band lineups. Recently, various approaches have led to devices with high rectification, namely p-type ZnCo 2 O 4 and NiO on n-type ZnO and amorphous zinc-tin-oxide. Subsequent bipolar devices and applications such as photodetectors, solar cells, junction field-effect transistors and integrated circuits like inverters and ring oscillators are discussed. The tremendous progress shows that bipolar oxide electronics has evolved from the exploration of various materials and heterostructures to the demonstration of functioning integrated circuits. Therefore a viable, facile and high performance technology is ready for further exploitation and performance optimization. (topical review)

  2. Assessment of safety engineering of circuits with dc micromotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlyuchenko, L.A.; Starchuk, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an assessment of safety engineering in d.c. micromotors operating as part of actuating devices in mining equipment. These micromotors should have RO (especially explosion proof) protection. The safety engineering should be assessed with an intermittent fault in the power line. Equations are given for calculation of the equivalent inductance of the micromotor circuit with an intermittent power line fault. If the circuit is not intrinsically safe, a diode in the forward direction is recommended for connection in series with the micromotor. If the power line is not intrinsically safe, a diode shunt is recommended. Comparative data for power sources (IBP) and micromotors (DPM, DPR, with permanent magnets) are given in tables. 4 refs.

  3. Circuits and electronics hands-on learning with analog discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Okyere Attia, John

    2018-01-01

    The book provides instructions on building circuits on breadboards, connecting the Analog Discovery wires to the circuit under test, and making electrical measurements. Various measurement techniques are described and used in this book, including: impedance measurements, complex power measurements, frequency response measurements, power spectrum measurements, current versus voltage characteristic measurements of diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and Mosfets. The book includes end-of-chapter problems for additional exercises geared towards hands-on learning, experimentation, comparisons between measured results and those obtained from theoretical calculations.

  4. Power MOSFET-diode-based limiter for high-frequency ultrasound systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojong; Kim, Min Gon; Cummins, Thomas M; Hwang, Jae Youn; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the limiter circuits used in the ultrasound imaging systems is to pass low-voltage echo signals generated by ultrasonic transducers while preventing high-voltage short pulses transmitted by pulsers from damaging front-end circuits. Resistor-diode-based limiters (a 50 Ω resistor with a single cross-coupled diode pair) have been widely used in pulse-echo measurement and imaging system applications due to their low cost and simple architecture. However, resistor-diode-based limiters may not be suited for high-frequency ultrasound transducer applications since they produce large signal conduction losses at higher frequencies. Therefore, we propose a new limiter architecture utilizing power MOSFETs, which we call a power MOSFET-diode-based limiter. The performance of a power MOSFET-diode-based limiter was evaluated with respect to insertion loss (IL), total harmonic distortion (THD), and response time (RT). We compared these results with those of three other conventional limiter designs and showed that the power MOSFET-diode-based limiter offers the lowest IL (-1.33 dB) and fastest RT (0.10 µs) with the lowest suppressed output voltage (3.47 Vp-p) among all the limiters at 70 MHz. A pulse-echo test was performed to determine how the new limiter affected the sensitivity and bandwidth of the transducer. We found that the sensitivity and bandwidth of the transducer were 130% and 129% greater, respectively, when combined with the new power MOSFET-diode-based limiter versus the resistor-diode-based limiter. Therefore, these results demonstrate that the power MOSFET-diode-based limiter is capable of producing lower signal attenuation than the three conventional limiter designs at higher frequency operation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Low level diode laser accelerates wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Munqith S; Salman, Saif Dawood

    2013-05-01

    The effect of wound illumination time by pulsed diode laser on the wound healing process was studied in this paper. For this purpose, the original electronic drive circuit of a 650-nm wavelength CW diode laser was reconstructed to give pulsed output laser of 50 % duty cycle and 1 MHz pulse repetition frequency. Twenty male mice, 3 months old were used to follow up the laser photobiostimulation effect on the wound healing progress. They were subdivided into two groups and then the wounds were made on the bilateral back sides of each mouse. Two sessions of pulsed laser therapy were carried along 15 days. Each mice group wounds were illuminated by this pulsed laser for 12 or 18 min per session during these 12 days. The results of this study were compared with the results of our previous wound healing therapy study by using the same type of laser. The mice wounds in that study received only 5 min of illumination time therapy in the first and second days of healing process. In this study, we found that the wounds, which were illuminated for 12 min/session healed in about 3 days earlier than those which were illuminated for 18 min/session. Both of them were healed earlier in about 10-11 days than the control group did.

  6. Electric circuits and signals

    CERN Document Server

    Sabah, Nassir H

    2007-01-01

    Circuit Variables and Elements Overview Learning Objectives Electric Current Voltage Electric Power and Energy Assigned Positive Directions Active and Passive Circuit Elements Voltage and Current Sources The Resistor The Capacitor The Inductor Concluding Remarks Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Circuit Connections and Laws Overview Learning Objectives Circuit Terminology Kirchhoff's Laws Voltage Division and Series Connection of Resistors Current Division and Parallel Connection of Resistors D-Y Transformation Source Equivalence and Transformation Reduced-Voltage Supply Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics and Examples on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Analysis of Resistive Circuits Overview Learning Objectives Number of Independent Circuit Equations Node-Voltage Analysis Special Considerations in Node-Voltage Analysis Mesh-Current Analysis Special Conside...

  7. [Shunt and short circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.

  8. DC Analysis of an Ideal Diode Network Using Its Decomposed Piecevise-Linear Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kolka

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method of finding the operating points in circuits containing ideal diodes which utilizes the decomposed form of the state model of an one-dimensional piecewise-linear (PWL system is developed. The universal procedure shown gives all the existing solutions quite automatically.

  9. Integrated photonic platform based on semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple section laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-11-30

    The challenges to realizing III-nitride photonic integrated circuit (PIC) are discussed. Utilizing InGaN-based multi-section laser diode (LD) on semipolar GaN substrate, the seamless on-chip integration of III-nitride waveguide photodetector (WPD) in the visible regime has been demonstrated.

  10. Integrated photonic platform based on semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple section laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Lee, Changmin; Ng, Tien Khee; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    The challenges to realizing III-nitride photonic integrated circuit (PIC) are discussed. Utilizing InGaN-based multi-section laser diode (LD) on semipolar GaN substrate, the seamless on-chip integration of III-nitride waveguide photodetector (WPD) in the visible regime has been demonstrated.

  11. An X-band Schottky diode mixer in SiGe technology with tunable Marchand balun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Tamborg, Kjeld M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a double balanced mixer with a tunable Marchand balun. The circuit is designed in a SiGe BiCMOS process using Schottky diodes. The tunability of the Marchand balun is used to enhance critical parameters for double balanced mixers. The local oscillator-IF isolation can...

  12. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  13. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  14. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  15. CMOS circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1995-01-01

    CMOS Circuits Manual is a user's guide for CMOS. The book emphasizes the practical aspects of CMOS and provides circuits, tables, and graphs to further relate the fundamentals with the applications. The text first discusses the basic principles and characteristics of the CMOS devices. The succeeding chapters detail the types of CMOS IC, including simple inverter, gate and logic ICs and circuits, and complex counters and decoders. The last chapter presents a miscellaneous collection of two dozen useful CMOS circuits. The book will be useful to researchers and professionals who employ CMOS circu

  16. Timergenerator circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Timer/Generator Circuits Manual is an 11-chapter text that deals mainly with waveform generator techniques and circuits. Each chapter starts with an explanation of the basic principles of its subject followed by a wide range of practical circuit designs. This work presents a total of over 300 practical circuits, diagrams, and tables.Chapter 1 outlines the basic principles and the different types of generator. Chapters 2 to 9 deal with a specific type of waveform generator, including sine, square, triangular, sawtooth, and special waveform generators pulse. These chapters also include pulse gen

  17. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  18. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  19. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  20. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  1. Rectification of electronic heat current by a hybrid thermal diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, Maria José; Fornieri, Antonio; Giazotto, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Thermal diodes--devices that allow heat to flow preferentially in one direction--are one of the key tools for the implementation of solid-state thermal circuits. These would find application in many fields of nanoscience, including cooling, energy harvesting, thermal isolation, radiation detection and quantum information, or in emerging fields such as phononics and coherent caloritronics. However, both in terms of phononic and electronic heat conduction (the latter being the focus of this work), their experimental realization remains very challenging. A highly efficient thermal diode should provide a difference of at least one order of magnitude between the heat current transmitted in the forward temperature (T) bias configuration (Jfw) and that generated with T-bias reversal (Jrev), leading to ℛ = Jfw/Jrev ≫ 1 or ≪ 1. So far, ℛ ≈ 1.07-1.4 has been reported in phononic devices, and ℛ ≈ 1.1 has been obtained with a quantum-dot electronic thermal rectifier at cryogenic temperatures. Here, we show that unprecedentedly high ratios of ℛ ≈ 140 can be achieved in a hybrid device combining normal metals tunnel-coupled to superconductors. Our approach provides a high-performance realization of a thermal diode for electronic heat current that could be successfully implemented in true low-temperature solid-state thermal circuits.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of 8.87 THz schottky barrier mixer diodes for mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Li, Qian; An, Ning; Tong, Xiaodong; Zeng, Jianping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we report on the fabrication and characterization of GaAs-based THz schottky barrier mixer diodes. Considering the analyzed results as well as fabrication cost and complexity, a group of trade-off parameters was determined. Electron-beam lithography and air-bridge technique have been used to obtain schottky diodes with a cut off frequency of 8.87 THz. Equivalent values of series resistance, ideal factor and junction capacitance of 10.2 (1) Ω, 1.14 (0.03) and 1.76(0.03) respectively have been measured for 0.7um diameter anode devices by DC and RF measurements. The schottky barrier diodes fabrication process is fully planar and very suitable for integration in THz frequency multiplier and mixer circuits. THz Schottky barrier diodes based on such technology with 2 μm diameter anodes have been tested at 1.6 THz in a sub-harmonic mixer.

  3. Common voltage eliminating of SVM diode clamping three-level inverter connected to grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Jieqiong

    2011-01-01

    A novel method of common voltage eliminating is put forward for SVM diode clamping three-level inverter connected to grid by calculation of common voltage of its various switching states. PLECS is used to model this three-level inverter connected to grid and good results are obtained. First...... analysis of common mode voltage for switching states of diode clamping 3-level inverter is given in detail. Second the common mode voltage eliminating control strategy of SVM is described for diode clamping three-level inverter. Third, PLECS is briefly introduced. Fourth, the modeling of diode clamping...... three-level inverter is presented with PLECS. Finally, a series of simulations are carried out. The simulation results tell us PLECS is a very powerful tool to real power circuits modeling. They have also verified that proposed common mode voltage eliminating control strategy of SVM is feasible...

  4. Redesign of emergency water supply system by-pass line from Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and 2 using self regulating valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenescu, Mircea; Bigu, Melania; Nita, Iulian Pavel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper one considered improving the EWS (emergency water supply system) by-pass line in order to replace current manual operated valve with an self operated valve. This change is necessary in order to reduce the human error events in operation of the system in case of a DBE (design basis earthquake). The paper describes a theoretical and practical operation of a system using self regulating flow rate valves. Basically, the elimination of a possible human error in operating a system is important for nuclear safety in case of a DBE because it makes it avoidable in normal reactor cooling systems. The paper describes checking of the functioning of this equipment in operating conditions, investigating how it responds to various operating regimes. (authors)

  5. Circuits on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Vinay, V

    2006-01-01

    We consider the computational power of constant width polynomial size cylindrical circuits and nondeterministic branching programs. We show that every function computed by a Pi2 o MOD o AC0 circuit can also be computed by a constant width polynomial size cylindrical nondeterministic branching pro...

  6. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  7. Personal neutron diode dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthe, J.; Lahaye, T.; Moiseev, T.; Portal, G.

    1993-01-01

    The control and management of neutron doses, received by workers in nuclear power or research facilities, requires a knowledge of cumulated dose equivalent or dose equivalent rate in real time. Individual dosemeters so far developed for this purpose are scarce and not very satisfactory. Passive dosemeters such as TLD systems based on the albedo effect, nuclear emulsions or solid track detectors, do not give sufficiently accurate measurements. Furthermore, the increase in the quality factor and the more restrictive new ICRP recommendations diminish the maximum admissible threshold making currently used systems obsolete. Other than bubble dosemeter systems, based on thermodynamic effects of a superheated gel, no simple electronic device is available at the present time. The development of diode based dosimetric gamma badges, having a size similar to that of credit cards, has stimulated us to design and develop a personal neutron dosemeter based on a double diode system. The results obtained are very encouraging and practical models should become available in the near future. (author)

  8. Polymer light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier-Thianche, Emmmanuelle

    1998-01-01

    We study sandwich type semiconducting polymer light emitting diodes; anode/polymer/cathode. ITO is selected as anode, this polymer is a blend of a commercially available polymer with a high hole transport ability: polyvinyl-carbazole and a laser dye: coumarin-515. Magnesium covered with silver is chosen for the anode. We study the influence of polymer thickness and coumarin doping ratio on electroluminescence spectrum, electric characteristics and quantum efficiency. An important drawback is that diodes lifetime remains low. In the second part of our study we determine degradations causes with X-Ray reflectivity experiments. It may be due to ITO very high roughness. We realize a new type of planar electroluminescent device: a channel type electroluminescent device in which polymer layer is inserted into an aluminium channel. Such a device is by far more stable than using classical sandwich structures with the same polymer composition: indeed, charges are generated by internal-field ionization and there is no injection from the electrode to the polymer. This avoids electrochemical reactions at electrodes, thus reducing degradations routes. (author) [fr

  9. A new poly-Si TFT compensation pixel circuit employing AC driving mode for AMOLED displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xiaofeng; Luo Jianguo; Wu Weijing; Peng Junbiao; Zhou Lei; Zhang Lirong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new poly-Si pixel circuit employing AC driving mode for active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. The proposed pixel circuit, which consists of one driving thin-film transistor (TFT), three switching TFTs, and one storage capacitor, can effectively compensate for the threshold voltage variation in poly-Si and the OLED degradation. As there is no light emission, except for during the emitting period, and a small number of devices used in the proposed pixel circuit, a high contrast ratio and a high pixel aperture ratio can be easily achieved. Simulation results by SMART-SPICE software show that the non-uniformity of the OLED current for the proposed pixel circuit is significantly decreased (< 10%) with an average value of 2.63%, while that of the conventional 2T1C is 103%. Thus the brightness uniformity of AMOLED displays can be improved by using the proposed pixel circuit. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. Electron diode oscillators for high-power RF generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S.

    1989-01-01

    Feedback oscillators have been used since the invention of the vacuum tube. This paper describes the extension of these familiar circuits to the regime of relativistic electron beam diodes. Such devices have potential application for the generation of high power RF radiation in the range 50-250 MHz, 1-10 GW with 20-60% conversion efficiency. This paper reviews the theory of the oscillator and the results of a design study. Calculations for the four-electrode diode with EGUN and EBQ show that good modulations of 30 kA electron beam at 600 kV can be achieved with moderate field stress on the electrodes. Conditions for oscillation have been studied with an in-house transmission line code. A design for a 7.5 GW oscillator at 200 MHz with 25% conversion efficiency is presented

  11. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  12. A perturbation-based model for rectifier circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin B. Vats

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A perturbation-theoretic analysis of rectifier circuits is presented. The governing differential equation of the half-wave rectifier with capacitor filter is analyzed by expanding the output voltage as a Taylor series with respect to an artificially introduced parameter in the nonlinearity of the diode characteristic as is done in quantum theory. The perturbation parameter introduced in the analysis is independent of the circuit components as compared to the method presented by multiple scales. The various terms appearing in the perturbation series are then modeled in the form of an equivalent circuit. This model is subsequently used in the analysis of full-wave rectifier. Matlab simulation results are included which confirm the validity of the theoretical formulations. Perturbation analysis acts a helpful tool in analyzing time-varying systems and chaotic systems.

  13. Ultra Linear Low-loss Varactors & Circuits for Adaptive RF Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, C.

    2010-01-01

    With the evolution of wireless communication, varactors can play an important role in enabling adaptive transceivers as well as phase-diversity systems. This thesis presents various varactor diode-based circuit topologies that facilitate RF adaptivity. The proposed varactor configurations can act as

  14. Monolithically Integrated Light Feedback Control Circuit for Blue/UV LED Smart Package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koladouz Esfahani, Z.; Tohidian, M.; van Zeijl, H.W.; Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza; Zhang, G.Q.

    2017-01-01

    Given the performance decay of high-power light-emitting diode (LED) chips over time and package condition changes, having a reliable output light for sensitive applications is a point of concern. In this study, a light feedback control circuit, including blue-selective photodiodes, for

  15. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  16. Circuit analysis with Multisim

    CERN Document Server

    Baez-Lopez, David

    2011-01-01

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis.It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or bo

  17. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  18. 'Speedy' superconducting circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, T.

    1994-01-01

    The most promising concept for realizing ultra-fast superconducting digital circuits is the Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic. The basic physical principle behind RSFQ logic, which include the storage and transfer of individual magnetic flux quanta in Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), is explained. A Set-Reset flip-flop is used as an example of the implementation of an RSFQ based circuit. Finally, the outlook for high-temperature superconducting materials in connection with RSFQ circuits is discussed in some details. (au)

  19. Computer simulation model of reflex e-beam systems coupled to an external circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungwirth, K.; Stavinoha, P.

    1982-01-01

    Dynamics of ions and relativistic electrons in various high-voltage reflexing systems (reflex diodes and triodes) was investigated numerically by means of 1 1/2-dimensional PIC simulation model OREBIA. Its perfected version OREBIA-REX also accounts for system coupling to an external power source circuit, thus yielding the currents and applied voltage self-consistently. Various modes of operation of reflex diode and triode were studied using both models. It is shown that neglecting the influence of the external circuit can lead to seve--re overestimation of both ion currents and electron accumulation rates. In coupled systems with ions repeated collapses of impedance due to electron-ion relaxation processes are observed. The current and voltage pulses calculated for several reflex diodes and triodes with and without ions are presented. (J.U.)

  20. Atomic spectroscopy with diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tino, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Some applications of semiconductor diode lasers in atomic spectroscopy are discussed by describing different experiments performed with lasers emitting in the visible and in the near-infrared region. I illustrate the results obtained in the investigation of near-infrared transitions of atomic oxygen and of the visible intercombination line of strontium. I also describe how two offset-frequency-locked diode lasers can be used to excite velocity selective Raman transitions in Cs. I discuss the spectral resolution, the accuracy of frequency measurements, and the detection sensitivity achievable with diode lasers. (orig.)

  1. An RF energy harvester system using UHF micropower CMOS rectifier based on a diode connected CMOS transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrani, Mohammad Reza; Khoddam, Mojtaba; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar B; Kamsani, Noor Ain; Rokhani, Fakhrul Zaman; Shafie, Suhaidi Bin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new type diode connected MOS transistor to improve CMOS conventional rectifier's performance in RF energy harvester systems for wireless sensor networks in which the circuits are designed in 0.18  μm TSMC CMOS technology. The proposed diode connected MOS transistor uses a new bulk connection which leads to reduction in the threshold voltage and leakage current; therefore, it contributes to increment of the rectifier's output voltage, output current, and efficiency when it is well important in the conventional CMOS rectifiers. The design technique for the rectifiers is explained and a matching network has been proposed to increase the sensitivity of the proposed rectifier. Five-stage rectifier with a matching network is proposed based on the optimization. The simulation results shows 18.2% improvement in the efficiency of the rectifier circuit and increase in sensitivity of RF energy harvester circuit. All circuits are designed in 0.18 μm TSMC CMOS technology.

  2. Laterally injected light-emitting diode and laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-06-16

    A p-type superlattice is used to laterally inject holes into an III-nitride multiple quantum well active layer, enabling efficient light extraction from the active area. Laterally-injected light-emitting diodes and laser diodes can enable brighter, more efficient devices that impact a wide range of wavelengths and applications. For UV wavelengths, applications include fluorescence-based biological sensing, epoxy curing, and water purification. For visible devices, applications include solid state lighting and projection systems.

  3. The optical characterization of organometallic complex thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry and photovoltaic diode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özaydın, C. [Batman University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Computer Eng., Batman (Turkey); Güllü, Ö., E-mail: omergullu@gmail.com [Batman University, Science and Art Faculty, Department of Physics, Batman (Turkey); Pakma, O. [Batman University, Science and Art Faculty, Department of Physics, Batman (Turkey); Ilhan, S. [Siirt University, Science and Art Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Siirt (Turkey); Akkılıç, K. [Dicle University, Education Faculty, Department of Physics Education, Diyarbakır (Turkey)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Optical properties and thickness of the A novel organometallic complex (OMC) film were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). • Au/OMC/n-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diode has been fabricated • This paper presents the I–V analysis of Au/OMC/n-Si MIS diode. • Current–voltage and photovoltaic properties of the diode were investigated. - Abstract: In this work, organometallic complex (OMC) films have been deposited onto glass or silicon substrates by spin coating technique and their photovoltaic application potential has been investigated. Optical properties and thickness of the film have been investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Also, transmittance spectrum has been taken by UV/vis spectrophotometer. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Also, Au/OMC/n-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diode has been fabricated. Current–voltage and photovoltaic properties of the structure were investigated. The ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φ{sub b}) values of the diode were found to be 2.89 and 0.79 eV, respectively. The device shows photovoltaic behavior with a maximum open-circuit voltage of 396 mV and a short circuit current of 33.8 μA under 300 W light.

  4. The optical characterization of organometallic complex thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry and photovoltaic diode application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özaydın, C.; Güllü, Ö.; Pakma, O.; Ilhan, S.; Akkılıç, K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optical properties and thickness of the A novel organometallic complex (OMC) film were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). • Au/OMC/n-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diode has been fabricated • This paper presents the I–V analysis of Au/OMC/n-Si MIS diode. • Current–voltage and photovoltaic properties of the diode were investigated. - Abstract: In this work, organometallic complex (OMC) films have been deposited onto glass or silicon substrates by spin coating technique and their photovoltaic application potential has been investigated. Optical properties and thickness of the film have been investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Also, transmittance spectrum has been taken by UV/vis spectrophotometer. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Also, Au/OMC/n-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diode has been fabricated. Current–voltage and photovoltaic properties of the structure were investigated. The ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φ_b) values of the diode were found to be 2.89 and 0.79 eV, respectively. The device shows photovoltaic behavior with a maximum open-circuit voltage of 396 mV and a short circuit current of 33.8 μA under 300 W light.

  5. Analogue circuits simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendo, C

    1988-09-01

    Most analogue simulators have evolved from SPICE. The history and description of SPICE-like simulators are given. From a mathematical formulation of the electronic circuit the following analysis are possible: DC, AC, transient, noise, distortion, Worst Case and Statistical.

  6. Printed circuit for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A printed circuit board made by scientists in the ATLAS collaboration for the transition radiaton tracker (TRT). This will read data produced when a high energy particle crosses the boundary between two materials with different electrical properties.

  7. Magnonic logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitun, Alexander; Bao Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L

    2010-01-01

    We describe and analyse possible approaches to magnonic logic circuits and basic elements required for circuit construction. A distinctive feature of the magnonic circuitry is that information is transmitted by spin waves propagating in the magnetic waveguides without the use of electric current. The latter makes it possible to exploit spin wave phenomena for more efficient data transfer and enhanced logic functionality. We describe possible schemes for general computing and special task data processing. The functional throughput of the magnonic logic gates is estimated and compared with the conventional transistor-based approach. Magnonic logic circuits allow scaling down to the deep submicrometre range and THz frequency operation. The scaling is in favour of the magnonic circuits offering a significant functional advantage over the traditional approach. The disadvantages and problems of the spin wave devices are also discussed.

  8. Crossed SMPS MOSFET-based protection circuit for high frequency ultrasound transceivers and transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojong; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-06-12

    The ultrasonic transducer is one of the core components of ultrasound systems, and the transducer's sensitivity is significantly related the loss of electronic components such as the transmitter, receiver, and protection circuit. In an ultrasonic device, protection circuits are commonly used to isolate the electrical noise between an ultrasound transmitter and transducer and to minimize unwanted discharged pulses in order to protect the ultrasound receiver. However, the performance of the protection circuit and transceiver obviously degrade as the operating frequency or voltage increases. We therefore developed a crossed SMPS (Switching Mode Power Supply) MOSFET-based protection circuit in order to maximize the sensitivity of high frequency transducers in ultrasound systems.The high frequency pulse signals need to trigger the transducer, and high frequency pulse signals must be received by the transducer. We therefore selected the SMPS MOSFET, which is the main component of the protection circuit, to minimize the loss in high frequency operation. The crossed configuration of the protection circuit can drive balanced bipolar high voltage signals from the pulser and transfer the balanced low voltage echo signals from the transducer. The equivalent circuit models of the SMPS MOSFET-based protection circuit are shown in order to select the proper device components. The schematic diagram and operation mechanism of the protection circuit is provided to show how the protection circuit is constructed. The P-Spice circuit simulation was also performed in order to estimate the performance of the crossed MOSFET-based protection circuit. We compared the performance of our crossed SMPS MOSFET-based protection circuit with a commercial diode-based protection circuit. At 60 MHz, our expander and limiter circuits have lower insertion loss than the commercial diode-based circuits. The pulse-echo test is typical method to evaluate the sensitivity of ultrasonic transducers

  9. Effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement in a developing country using weigh-in-motion sorting system considering vehicle by-pass and enforcement capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rehan Karim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle overloading has been identified as one of the major contributors to road pavement damage in Malaysia. In this study, the weigh-in-motion (WIM system has been used to function as a vehicle weight sorting tool to complement the exsiting static weigh bridge enforcement station. Data collected from the developed system is used to explore the effectiveness of using WIM system in terms of generating more accurate data for enforcement purposes and at the same time improving safety and reducing the number of vehicle weight violations on the roads. This study specifically focus on the effect of vehicle by-pass and static weigh station enforcement capability on the overall effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement system in a developing country. Results from this study suggest that the WIM system will significantly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the current vehicle weight enforcement, thus generating substantial revenue that would greatly off-set the current road maintenance budget that comes from tax payers money. If there is substantial reduction in overloaded vehicles, the public will still gain through reduction in road maintenance budget, less accident risks involving heavy trucks, and lesser greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions.

  10. Improvements in Low-cost Ultrasonic Measurements of Blood Flow in "by-passes" Using Narrow & Broad Band Transit-time Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Calas, H.; Diez, L.; Moreno, E.; Prohías, J.; Villar, A.; Carrillo, E.; Jiménez, A.; Pereira, W. C. A.; Von Krüger, M. A.

    The cardio-pathology by ischemia is an important cause of death, but the re-vascularization of coronary arteries (by-pass operation) is an useful solution to reduce associated morbidity improving quality of life in patients. During these surgeries, the flow in coronary vessels must be measured, using non-invasive ultrasonic methods, known as transit time flow measurements (TTFM), which are the most accurate option nowadays. TTFM is a common intra-operative tool, in conjunction with classic Doppler velocimetry, to check the quality of these surgery processes for implanting grafts in parallel with the coronary arteries. This work shows important improvements achieved in flow-metering, obtained in our research laboratories (CSIC, ICIMAF, COPPE) and tested under real surgical conditions in Cardiocentro-HHA, for both narrowband NB and broadband BB regimes, by applying results of a CYTED multinational project (Ultrasonic & computational systems for cardiovascular diagnostics). mathematical models and phantoms were created to evaluate accurately flow measurements, in laboratory conditions, before our new electronic designs and low-cost implementations, improving previous ttfm systems, which include analogic detection, acquisition & post-processing, and a portable PC. Both regimes (NB and BB), with complementary performances for different conditions, were considered. Finally, specific software was developed to offer facilities to surgeons in their interventions.

  11. Upper full arch rehabilitation with sinus by-pass with tilted implants via tapered-threaded expanders in low density bone: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasi Bassi, M; Andrisani, C; Lico, S; Ormanier, Z; Arcuri, C

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper the use of tapered-screw bone expanders (TSBEs) is proposed, in combination with the placement of tilted implants, in close proximity to the anterior sinus wall, solving the problem of the reduced height of the alveolar bone in the sub-antral area. The Authors present a case series of full-arch rehabilitations performed with this procedure named: Tilted Implant Expansion Osteotomy (TIEO). 12 patients (5 males and 7 females, average age 58.5 ± 8.1 years) with totally or partially edentulous maxilla were enrolled in this study. For each patient 4 implants were placed, the anterior implants in the area of lateral incisors or canines while, the posterior implants, immediately in front of the maxillary sinus, with an inclined position. Adopting the aforesaid procedure, 48 cylindrical two-piece implants were placed, 24 of which were placed in tilted position, in order to by-pass the maxillary sinus. After a healing period of 6 months, the second stage surgery was performed. The cases were finalized by means of a hybrid metal-acrylic prosthesis. The post finalization follow-up was at 12 months. Survival rate was 100% since none fixtures were lost. At the one-year follow up the clinical and radiological appearance of the soft and hard tissues was optimal and no pathological signs were recorded. TIEO is a promising surgical procedure for full-arch rehabilitation of maxillary edentulous sites and represents a therapeutic alternative to sinus lift techniques.

  12. Maxillary sinus by-pass with tilted implants via tapered-screw bone expanders in low density bone: one year follow -up of a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasi Bassi, M; Andrisani, C; Lopez, M A; Gaudio, R M; Lombardo, L; Lauritano, D

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper the use of tapered-screw bone expanders (TSBEs) is proposed, in combination with the placement of tilted implants in close proximity to the anterior sinus wall, solving the problem of the reduced height of the alveolar bone in the sub-antral area. The Authors named the procedure: Tilted Implant Expansion Osteotomy (TIEO). Fifteen patients (10 females and 5 males, mean age 47.8±8.15 years) with distal edentulous maxillae were enrolled in this study. For each edentulous site 2 implants were placed, the anterior implant in the area of the most anterior missing tooth while, the posterior implant, immediately in front of the maxillary sinus, with an inclined position. Adopting the aforesaid procedure, 34 cylindrical two-piece implants were placed, 17 of which were placed in tilted position, in order to by-pass the maxillary sinus. After a healing period of 4-6 months, the second stage surgery was performed. The cases were finalized by metal-ceramic cementable restorations with a variable number of elements, from 2 to 4, without any cantilever element. The post finalization follow-up was at 12 months. Survival rate was 100% since no fixtures were lost. At the one-year follow-up the clinical and radiological appearance of the soft and hard tissues was optimal and no pathological signs were recorded. TIEO is a promising surgical procedure for oral rehabilitation of maxillary edentulous sites and represents a therapeutic alternative to sinus lift techniques.

  13. Probing photo-carrier collection efficiencies of individual silicon nanowire diodes on a wafer substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, S W; Brönstrup, G; Shalev, G; Srivastava, S K; Bashouti, M Y; Döhler, G H; Christiansen, S H

    2014-07-21

    Vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) diodes are promising candidates for the integration into various opto-electronic device concepts for e.g. sensing or solar energy conversion. Individual SiNW p-n diodes have intensively been studied, but to date an assessment of their device performance once integrated on a silicon substrate has not been made. We show that using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a nano-manipulator and an optical fiber feed-through for tunable (wavelength, power using a tunable laser source) sample illumination, the dark and illuminated current-voltage (I-V) curve of individual SiNW diodes on the substrate wafer can be measured. Surprisingly, the I-V-curve of the serially coupled system composed of SiNW/wafers is accurately described by an equivalent circuit model of a single diode and diode parameters like series and shunting resistivity, diode ideality factor and photocurrent can be retrieved from a fit. We show that the photo-carrier collection efficiency (PCE) of the integrated diode illuminated with variable wavelength and intensity light directly gives insight into the quality of the device design at the nanoscale. We find that the PCE decreases for high light intensities and photocurrent densities, due to the fact that considerable amounts of photo-excited carriers generated within the substrate lead to a decrease in shunting resistivity of the SiNW diode and deteriorate its rectification. The PCE decreases systematically for smaller wavelengths of visible light, showing the possibility of monitoring the effectiveness of the SiNW device surface passivation using the shown measurement technique. The integrated device was pre-characterized using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), TCAD simulations and electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements to validate the properties of the characterized material at the single SiNW diode level.

  14. Color Coding of Circuit Quantities in Introductory Circuit Analysis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Johnson, Amy M.; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis instruction is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study…

  15. Project Circuits in a Basic Electric Circuits Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, James P.; Plumb, Carolyn; Revia, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of project circuits (a photoplethysmograph circuit and a simple audio amplifier), introduced in a sophomore-level electric circuits course utilizing active learning and inquiry-based methods, is described. The development of the project circuits was initiated to promote enhanced engagement and deeper understanding of course content among…

  16. Thermometric Property of a Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Fred W.; Woodruff, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple way to implement the thermometric property of a semiconductor diode to produce a thermometer with a nearly linear dependence upon temperature over a wide range of temperatures. (JRH)

  17. Enhanced vbasis laser diode package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deri, Robert J.; Chen, Diana; Bayramian, Andy; Freitas, Barry; Kotovsky, Jack

    2014-08-19

    A substrate having an upper surface and a lower surface is provided. The substrate includes a plurality of v-grooves formed in the upper surface. Each v-groove includes a first side and a second side perpendicular to the first side. A laser diode bar assembly is disposed within each of the v-grooves and attached to the first side. The laser diode bar assembly includes a first adhesion layer disposed on the first side of the v-groove, a metal plate attached to the first adhesion layer, a second adhesion layer disposed over the metal plate, and a laser diode bar attached to the second adhesion layer. The laser diode bar has a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) substantially similar to that of the metal plate.

  18. Silicon carbide MOSFET integrated circuit technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.M.; Downey, E.; Ghezzo, M.; Kretchmer, J.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Hennessy, W.; Michon, G. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). Corporate Research and Development Center

    1997-07-16

    The research and development activities carried out to demonstrate the status of MOS planar technology for the manufacture of high temperature SiC ICs will be described. These activities resulted in the design, fabrication and demonstration of the World`s first SiC analog IC - a monolithic MOSFET operational amplifier. Research tasks required for the development of a planar SiC MOSFET IC technology included characterization of the SiC/SiO{sub 2} interface using thermally grown oxides: high temperature (350 C) reliability studies of thermally grown oxides: ion implantation studies of donor (N) and acceptor (B) dopants to form junction diodes: epitaxial layer characterization: N channel inversion and depletion mode MOSFETs; device isolation methods and finally integrated circuit design, fabrication and testing of the World`s first monolithic SiC operational amplifier IC. These studies defined a SiC n-channel depletion mode MOSFET IC technology and outlined tasks required to improve all types of SiC devices. For instance, high temperature circuit drift instabilities at 350 C were discovered and characterized. This type of instability needs to be understood and resolved because it affects the high temperature reliability of other types of SiC devices. Improvements in SiC wafer surface quality and the use of deposited oxides instead of thermally grown SiO{sub 2} gate dielectrics will probably be required for enhanced reliability. The slow reverse recovery time exhibited by n{sup +}-p diodes formed by N ion implantation is a problem that needs to be resolved for all types of planar bipolar devices. The reproducibility of acceptor implants needs to be improved before CMOS ICs and many types of power device structures will be manufacturable. (orig.) 51 refs.

  19. Effect of hydrogen on the diode properties of reactively sputtered amorphous silicon Schottky barrier structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, D.L.; Moustakas, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    The diode properties of reactively sputtered hydrogenated amorphous silicon Schottky barrier structures (a-SiH/sub x/ /Pt) have been investigated. We find a systematic relation between the changes in the open circuit voltage, the barrier height, and the diode quality factor. These results are accounted for by assuming that hydrogen incorporation into the amorphous silicon network removes states from the top of the valence band and sharpens the valence-band tail. Interfacial oxide layers play a significant role in the low hydrogen content, and low band-gap regime

  20. Wireless Power Transmission to Organic Light Emitting Diode Lighting Panel with Magnetically Coupled Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hae; Han, Jun-Han; Kang, Seung-Youl; Cheon, Sanghoon; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ahn, Seong-Deok; Zyung, Taehyoung; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Moon, Jaehyun; Chu, Hye Yong

    2012-09-01

    We are successful to lit the organic light emitting diode (OLED) lighting panel through the magnetically coupled wireless power transmission technology. For the wireless power transmission, we used the operation frequency 932 kHz, specially designed double spiral type transmitter, small and thin receiver on the four layered printed circuit board, and schottky diodes for the full bridge rectifier. Our white OLED is a hybrid type, in which phosphorescent and fluorescent organics are used together to generate stable white color. The total efficiency of power transmission is around 72%.

  1. Research on laser detonation pulse circuit with low-power based on super capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-yu; Hong, Jin; He, Aifeng; Jing, Bo; Cao, Chun-qiang; Ma, Yue; Chu, En-yi; Hu, Ya-dong

    2018-03-01

    According to the demand of laser initiating device miniaturization and low power consumption of weapon system, research on the low power pulse laser detonation circuit with super capacitor. Established a dynamic model of laser output based on super capacitance storage capacity, discharge voltage and programmable output pulse width. The output performance of the super capacitor under different energy storage capacity and discharge voltage is obtained by simulation. The experimental test system was set up, and the laser diode of low power pulsed laser detonation circuit was tested and the laser output waveform of laser diode in different energy storage capacity and discharge voltage was collected. Experiments show that low power pulse laser detonation based on super capacitor energy storage circuit discharge with high efficiency, good transient performance, for a low power consumption requirement, for laser detonation system and low power consumption and provide reference light miniaturization of engineering practice.

  2. Low latency asynchronous interface circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Greg

    2017-06-20

    In one form, a logic circuit includes an asynchronous logic circuit, a synchronous logic circuit, and an interface circuit coupled between the asynchronous logic circuit and the synchronous logic circuit. The asynchronous logic circuit has a plurality of asynchronous outputs for providing a corresponding plurality of asynchronous signals. The synchronous logic circuit has a plurality of synchronous inputs corresponding to the plurality of asynchronous outputs, a stretch input for receiving a stretch signal, and a clock output for providing a clock signal. The synchronous logic circuit provides the clock signal as a periodic signal but prolongs a predetermined state of the clock signal while the stretch signal is active. The asynchronous interface detects whether metastability could occur when latching any of the plurality of the asynchronous outputs of the asynchronous logic circuit using said clock signal, and activates the stretch signal while the metastability could occur.

  3. Use of Aerial high resolution visible imagery to produce large river bathymetry: a multi temporal and spatial study over the by-passed Upper Rhine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béal, D.; Piégay, H.; Arnaud, F.; Rollet, A.; Schmitt, L.

    2011-12-01

    Aerial high resolution visible imagery allows producing large river bathymetry assuming that water depth is related to water colour (Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law). In this paper we aim at monitoring Rhine River geometry changes for a diachronic study as well as sediment transport after an artificial injection (25.000 m3 restoration operation). For that a consequent data base of ground measurements of river depth is used, built on 3 different sources: (i) differential GPS acquisitions, (ii) sounder data and (iii) lateral profiles realized by experts. Water depth is estimated using a multi linear regression over neo channels built on a principal component analysis over red, green and blue bands and previously cited depth data. The study site is a 12 km long reach of the by-passed section of the Rhine River that draws French and German border. This section has been heavily impacted by engineering works during the last two centuries: channelization since 1842 for navigation purposes and the construction of a 45 km long lateral canal and 4 consecutive hydroelectric power plants of since 1932. Several bathymetric models are produced based on 3 different spatial resolutions (6, 13 and 20 cm) and 5 acquisitions (January, March, April, August and October) since 2008. Objectives are to find the optimal spatial resolution and to characterize seasonal effects. Best performances according to the 13 cm resolution show a 18 cm accuracy when suspended matters impacted less water transparency. Discussions are oriented to the monitoring of the artificial reload after 2 flood events during winter 2010-2011. Bathymetric models produced are also useful to build 2D hydraulic model's mesh.

  4. Single In x Ga1-x As nanowire/p-Si heterojunction based nano-rectifier diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, K; Palit, M; Guhathakurata, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Banerji, P

    2017-09-20

    Nanoscale power supply units will be indispensable for fabricating next generation smart nanoelectronic integrated circuits. Fabrication of nanoscale rectifier circuits on a Si platform is required for integrating nanoelectronic devices with on-chip power supply units. In the present study, a nanorectifier diode based on a single standalone In x Ga 1-x As nanowire/p-Si (111) heterojunction fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique has been studied. The nanoheterojunction diodes have shown good rectification and fast switching characteristics. The rectification characteristics of the nanoheterojunction have been demonstrated by different standard waveforms of sinusoidal, square, sawtooth and triangular for two different frequencies of 1 and 0.1 Hz. Reverse recovery time of around 150 ms has been observed in all wave response. A half wave rectifier circuit with a simple capacitor filter has been assembled with this nanoheterojunction diode which provides 12% output efficiency. The transport of carriers through the heterojunction is investigated. The interface states density of the nanoheterojunction has also been determined. Occurrence of output waveforms incommensurate with the input is attributed to higher series resistance of the diode which is further explained considering the dimension of p-side and n-side of the junction. The sudden change of ideality factor after 1.7 V bias is attributed to recombination through interface states in space charge region. Low interface states density as well as high rectification ratio makes this heterojunction diode a promising candidate for future nanoscale electronics.

  5. Diagnostic X-Ray dosimeters using standard Float Zone (FZ) and XRA-50 commercial diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, Josemary A.C.; Bueno, Carmen C., E-mail: josemary@ipen.br, E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Asfora, Viviane K.; Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: vikhoury@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Física

    2017-07-01

    The results obtained with a standard float zone (FZ) silicon diode, processed at the Helsinki Institute of Physics, used as on-line diagnostic X-ray dosimeter are described in this work. The device was connected in the short circuit current mode to the input of an integrating electrometer. The response repeatability and the current sensitivity coefficient of the diode were measured with diagnostic X-ray beams in the range of 40-80 kV. The dose-response of the device, evaluated from 10 mGy up to 500 mGy, was linear with high charge sensitivity. Nevertheless, significant energy dependence was observed in the charge sensitivity of FZ device for energies below 70 kV. The dosimetric characteristics of this FZ diode were compared to those of an XRA-50 commercial Si diode, specially designed to X-ray dosimetry. The results obtained with the FZ diode evidenced that it can be an alternative choice for diagnostic X-ray dosimetry, although it needs to be calibrated for individual X-ray beam energies. The studies of long-term stability and the radiation hardness of these diodes are under way. (author)

  6. Features of current-voltage characteristic of nonequilibrium trench MOS barrier Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, R. K.; Aslanova, A. R.

    2018-06-01

    The trench MOS barrier Schottky diodes (TMBS diode) under the influence of the voltage drop of the additional electric field (AEF) appearing in the near-contact region of the semiconductor are in a nonequilibrium state and their closed external circuit flows currents in the absence of an external voltage. When an external voltage is applied to the TMBS diode, the current transmission is described by the thermionic emission theory with a specific feature. Both forward and reverse I-V characteristics of the TMBS diode consist of two parts. In the initial first part of the forward I-V characteristic there are no forward currents, but reverse saturation currents flow, in its subsequent second part the currents increase exponentially with the voltage. In the initial first part of the reverse I-V characteristic, the currents increase in an abrupt way and in the subsequent second part the saturation currents flow under the action of the image force. The mathematical expressions for forward and reverse I-V characteristic of the TMBS diode and also narrow or nanostructure Schottky diode are proposed, which are in good agreement with the results of experimental and calculated I-V characteristics.

  7. Joule-Thief Circuit Performance for Electricity Energy Saving of Emergency Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryanto Budisusila, Eka; Arifin, Bustanul

    2017-04-01

    The alternative energy such as battery as power source is required as energy source failures. The other need is outdoor lighting. The electrical power source is expected to be a power saving, optimum and has long life operating. The Joule-Thief circuit is one of solution method for energy saving by using raised electromagnetic force on cored coil when there is back-current. This circuit has a transistor operated as a switch to cut voltage and current flowing along the coils. The present of current causing magnetic induction and generates energy. Experimental prototype was designed by using battery 1.5V to activate Light Emitting Diode or LED as load. The LED was connected in parallel or serial circuit configuration. The result show that the joule-thief circuit able to supply LED circuits up to 40 LEDs.

  8. A miniature microcontroller curve tracing circuit for space flight testing transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, N; Greer, L; Krasowski, M; Flatico, J; Spina, D

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes a novel miniature microcontroller based curve tracing circuit, which was designed to monitor the environmental effects on Silicon Carbide Junction Field Effect Transistor (SiC JFET) device performance, while exposed to the low earth orbit environment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) as a resident experiment on the 7th Materials on the International Space Station Experiment (MISSE7). Specifically, the microcontroller circuit was designed to operate autonomously and was flown on the external structure of the ISS for over a year. This curve tracing circuit is capable of measuring current vs. voltage (I-V) characteristics of transistors and diodes. The circuit is current limited for low current devices and is specifically designed to test high temperature, high drain-to-source resistance SiC JFETs. The results of each I-V data set are transmitted serially to an external telemetered communication interface. This paper discusses the circuit architecture, its design, and presents example results.

  9. Transferrable monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit for multifunctional optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng; Gao, Xumin; Yuan, Jialei; Zhang, Shuai; Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Fenghua; Jiang, Yuan; Zhu, Hongbo; Wang, Yongjin

    2017-12-01

    A monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit with integrated functionalities was implemented by integrating multiple components with different functions into a single chip. In particular, the III-nitride-on-silicon platform is used as it integrates a transmitter, a waveguide, and a receiver into a suspended III-nitride membrane via a wafer-level procedure. Here, a 0.8-mm-diameter suspended device architecture is directly transferred from silicon to a foreign substrate by mechanically breaking the support beams. The transferred InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well diode (MQW-diode) exhibits a turn-on voltage of 2.8 V with a dominant electroluminescence peak at 453 nm. The transmitter and receiver share an identical InGaN/GaN MQW structure, and the integrated photonic circuit inherently works for on-chip power monitoring and in-plane visible light communication. The wire-bonded monolithic photonic circuit on glass experimentally demonstrates in-plane data transmission at 120 Mb/s, paving the way for diverse applications in intelligent displays, in-plane light communication, flexible optical sensors, and wearable III-nitride optoelectronics.

  10. Effect of Pedot-Pss on Electrical and Photovoltaic Properties of ITO/MEH-PPV:PCBM/Al Organic Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunduz, B.

    2008-01-01

    The photovoltaic and electrical properties of ITO/MEH-PPV:PCBM/Al and ITO/PEDOT-PSS/MEHPPV:PCBM/Al organic diodes have been investigated. The ideality factor, series resistance and shunt resistance values of ITO/MEH-PPV:PCBM/Al and ITO/PEDOT-PSS/MEHPPV:PCBM/Al diodes were found to be 4.6, 6.84x10 6 Ω, 2.2x10 8 Ω and 4.02, 5.8x10 5 Ω, 2x10 7 Ω respectively. The electronic parameters of the ITO/MEH-PPV:PCBM/Al diode were improved using PEDOT-PSS conducting polymer. ITO/MEH-PPV:PCBM/Al and ITO/PEDOT-PSS/MEHPPV:PCBM/Al organic diodes indicate a photovoltaic behaviour with a maximum open circuit voltage V o c and short-circuit current I s c. The photoconductivity sensitivity and responsivity properties of the organic diodes have been characterized by transient-current measurements. The obtained electrical and photovoltaic results indicate that ITO/MEH-PPV:PCBM/Al and ITO/PEDOT-PSS/MEHPPV:PCBM/Al structures are the organic photodiodes with calculated electronic parameters and the electrical properties of the ITO/MEH-PPV:PCBM/Al diode have been improved with PEDOT-PSS conducting polymer

  11. Junction and circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Great strides have been made in Josephson junction fabrication in the four years since the first IC SQUID meeting. Advances in lithography have allowed the production of devices with planar dimensions as small as a few hundred angstroms. Improved technology has provided ultra-high sensitivity SQUIDS, high-efficiency low-noise mixers, and complex integrated circuits. This review highlights some of the new fabrication procedures. The review consists of three parts. Part 1 is a short summary of the requirements on junctions for various applications. Part 2 reviews intergrated circuit fabrication, including tunnel junction logic circuits made at IBM and Bell Labs, and microbridge radiation sources made at SUNY at Stony Brook. Part 3 describes new junction fabrication techniques, the major emphasis of this review. This part includes a discussion of small oxide-barrier tunnel junctions, semiconductor barrier junctions, and microbridge junctions. Part 3 concludes by considering very fine lithography and limitations to miniaturization. (orig.)

  12. Ideality factor of GaN-based light-emitting diodes determined by the measurement of photovoltaic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Joong; Ryu, Geun-Hwan; Yang, Won-Bo; Ryu, Han-Youl [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    We present a method for determining the ideality factor of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by using the measured photovoltaic characteristics. The relation between the short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage is obtained as the incident power of a laser diode emitting at 405 nm is varied, which is used to determine the ideality factor of the LED. From the photovoltaic measurements, the ideality factors of a blue and a green LED are determined to be 1.16 and 1.78, respectively. The ideality factors obtained by using the photovoltaic measurement are found to be much smaller than those obtained by using the I - V curve without illumination, which is believed to result from the different carrier generation and transport mechanisms. Investigating the photovoltaic characteristics of GaN-based LEDs is expected to provide insight into the origin of the high diode ideality factor in GaN-based devices.

  13. Ideality factor of GaN-based light-emitting diodes determined by the measurement of photovoltaic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joong; Ryu, Geun-Hwan; Yang, Won-Bo; Ryu, Han-Youl

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for determining the ideality factor of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by using the measured photovoltaic characteristics. The relation between the short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage is obtained as the incident power of a laser diode emitting at 405 nm is varied, which is used to determine the ideality factor of the LED. From the photovoltaic measurements, the ideality factors of a blue and a green LED are determined to be 1.16 and 1.78, respectively. The ideality factors obtained by using the photovoltaic measurement are found to be much smaller than those obtained by using the I - V curve without illumination, which is believed to result from the different carrier generation and transport mechanisms. Investigating the photovoltaic characteristics of GaN-based LEDs is expected to provide insight into the origin of the high diode ideality factor in GaN-based devices.

  14. Small circuits for cryptography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Draelos, Timothy John; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Miller, Russell D.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-10-01

    This report examines a number of hardware circuit design issues associated with implementing certain functions in FPGA and ASIC technologies. Here we show circuit designs for AES and SHA-1 that have an extremely small hardware footprint, yet show reasonably good performance characteristics as compared to the state of the art designs found in the literature. Our AES performance numbers are fueled by an optimized composite field S-box design for the Stratix chipset. Our SHA-1 designs use register packing and feedback functionalities of the Stratix LE, which reduce the logic element usage by as much as 72% as compared to other SHA-1 designs.

  15. Silicon integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-01

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  16. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  17. Silicon integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-15

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  18. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  19. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  20. Studies of cold protection diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Zeigler, J.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of a passive quench protection system for the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) main ring magnets depends on the radiation resistance and reliability of the diodes used as current bypass elements. These diodes would be located inside the magnet cryostat, subjecting them to liquid helium temperature and a relatively high radiation flux. Experimental and theoretical efforts have identified a commercially available diode which appears to be capable of surviving the cryogenic temperature and radiation environment of the accelerator. High current IV measurements indicate that the usable lifetime of this diode, based on an estimate of the peak junction temperature during a quench pulse, is an order of magnitude greater then than the expected lifetime of the SSC itself. However, an unexpected relationship was discovered between the diode turn-on voltage at 5 K and the most recent reverse voltage or temperature excursion. This turn-on voltage as a function of radiation exposure appears to be erratic and indicates a need for further investigation. 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Studies of cold protection diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Zeigler, J.

    1990-03-01

    The feasibility of a passive quench protection system for the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) main ring magnets depends on the radiation resistance and reliability of the diodes used as current bypass elements. These diodes would be located inside the magnet cryostat, subjecting them to liquid helium temperature and a relatively high radiation flux. Experimental and theoretical efforts have identified a commercially available diode which appears to be capable of surviving the cryogenic temperature and radiation environment of the accelerator. High current 4 measurements indicate that the usable lifetime of this diode, based on an estimate of the peak junction temperature during a quench pulse, is an order of magnitude greater then than the expected lifetime of the SSC itself. However, an unexpected relationship was discovered between the diode turn-on voltage at 5 K and the most recent reverse voltage or temperature excursion. This turn-on voltage as a function of radiation exposure appears to be erratic and indicates a need for further investigation. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and Characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Haiyin

    2012-01-01

    Many optical design technical books are available for many years which mainly deal with image optics design based on geometric optics and using sequential raytracing technique. Some books slightly touched laser beam manipulation optics design. On the other hand many books on laser diodes have been published that extensively deal with laser diode physics with little touching on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. There are some internet resources dealing with laser diode beams. However, these internet resources have not covered enough materials with enough details on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. A technical book concentrated on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations can fit in to the open and provide useful information to laser diode users. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and  Characterizations is concentrated on the very practical side of the subject, it only discusses the basic physics and mathematics that are necessary for the readers in order...

  3. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  4. The test of VLSI circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baviere, Ph.

    Tests which have proven effective for evaluating VLSI circuits for space applications are described. It is recommended that circuits be examined after each manfacturing step to gain fast feedback on inadequacies in the production system. Data from failure modes which occur during operational lifetimes of circuits also permit redefinition of the manufacturing and quality control process to eliminate the defects identified. Other tests include determination of the operational envelope of the circuits, examination of the circuit response to controlled inputs, and the performance and functional speeds of ROM and RAM memories. Finally, it is desirable that all new circuits be designed with testing in mind.

  5. Electronic Circuit Analysis Language (ECAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenghang, C.

    1983-03-01

    The computer aided design technique is an important development in computer applications and it is an important component of computer science. The special language for electronic circuit analysis is the foundation of computer aided design or computer aided circuit analysis (abbreviated as CACD and CACA) of simulated circuits. Electronic circuit analysis language (ECAL) is a comparatively simple and easy to use circuit analysis special language which uses the FORTRAN language to carry out the explanatory executions. It is capable of conducting dc analysis, ac analysis, and transient analysis of a circuit. Futhermore, the results of the dc analysis can be used directly as the initial conditions for the ac and transient analyses.

  6. Automatic sweep circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input is described. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found

  7. Automatic sweep circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  8. "Printed-circuit" rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Rectifying antenna is less bulky structure for absorbing transmitted microwave power and converting it into electrical current. Printed-circuit approach, using microstrip technology and circularly polarized antenna, makes polarization orientation unimportant and allows much smaller arrays for given performance. Innovation is particularly useful with proposed electric vehicles powered by beam microwaves.

  9. Het onzichtbare circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    De chip, of geïntegreerde schakeling, heeft in een razend tempo ons leven ingrijpend veranderd. Het lijkt zo vanzelfsprekend dat er weer een nieuwe generatie smartphones, tablets of computers is. Maar dat is het niet. Prof.dr.ir. Bram Nauta, hoogleraar Integrated Circuit Design, laat in zijn rede

  10. Voltage regulating circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A voltage regulating circuit comprising a rectifier (2) for receiving an AC voltage (Vmains) and for generating a rectified AC voltage (vrec), and a capacitor (3) connected in parallel with said rectified AC voltage for providing a DC voltage (VDC) over a load (5), characterized by a unidirectional

  11. Streaming Reduction Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Molenkamp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Reduction circuits are used to reduce rows of floating point values to single values. Binary floating point operators often have deep pipelines, which may cause hazards when many consecutive rows have to be reduced. We present an algorithm by which any number of consecutive rows of arbitrary lengths

  12. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  13. Performance evaluation of a lossy transmission lines based diode detector at cryogenic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, E; Aja, B; de la Fuente, L; Artal, E

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the design, fabrication, and performance analysis of a square-law Schottky diode detector based on lossy transmission lines working under cryogenic temperature (15 K). The design analysis of a microwave detector, based on a planar gallium-arsenide low effective Schottky barrier height diode, is reported, which is aimed for achieving large input return loss as well as flat sensitivity versus frequency. The designed circuit demonstrates good sensitivity, as well as a good return loss in a wide bandwidth at Ka-band, at both room (300 K) and cryogenic (15 K) temperatures. A good sensitivity of 1000 mV/mW and input return loss better than 12 dB have been achieved when it works as a zero-bias Schottky diode detector at room temperature, increasing the sensitivity up to a minimum of 2200 mV/mW, with the need of a DC bias current, at cryogenic temperature.

  14. A digital optical phase-locked loop for diode lasers based on field programmable gate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhouxiang; Zhang Xian; Huang Kaikai; Lu Xuanhui [Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)

    2012-09-15

    We have designed and implemented a highly digital optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for diode lasers in atom interferometry. The three parts of controlling circuit in this OPLL, including phase and frequency detector (PFD), loop filter and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, are implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip. A structure type compatible with the model MAX9382/MCH12140 is chosen for PFD and pipeline and parallelism technology have been adapted in PID controller. Especially, high speed clock and twisted ring counter have been integrated in the most crucial part, the loop filter. This OPLL has the narrow beat note line width below 1 Hz, residual mean-square phase error of 0.14 rad{sup 2} and transition time of 100 {mu}s under 10 MHz frequency step. A main innovation of this design is the completely digitalization of the whole controlling circuit in OPLL for diode lasers.

  15. A digital optical phase-locked loop for diode lasers based on field programmable gate array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhouxiang; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Kaikai; Lu, Xuanhui

    2012-09-01

    We have designed and implemented a highly digital optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for diode lasers in atom interferometry. The three parts of controlling circuit in this OPLL, including phase and frequency detector (PFD), loop filter and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, are implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip. A structure type compatible with the model MAX9382/MCH12140 is chosen for PFD and pipeline and parallelism technology have been adapted in PID controller. Especially, high speed clock and twisted ring counter have been integrated in the most crucial part, the loop filter. This OPLL has the narrow beat note line width below 1 Hz, residual mean-square phase error of 0.14 rad2 and transition time of 100 μs under 10 MHz frequency step. A main innovation of this design is the completely digitalization of the whole controlling circuit in OPLL for diode lasers.

  16. MMIC Replacement for Gunn Diode Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Thomas W.; Porterfield, David

    2011-01-01

    An all-solid-state replacement for high-frequency Gunn diode oscillators (GDOs) has been proposed for use in NASA s millimeter- and submillimeter-wave sensing instruments. Highly developed microwave oscillators are used to achieve a low-noise and highly stable reference signal in the 10-40-GHz band. Compact amplifiers and high-power frequency multipliers extend the signal to the 100-500-GHz band with minimal added phase noise and output power sufficient for NASA missions. This technology can achieve improved output power and frequency agility, while maintaining phase noise and stability comparable to other GDOs. Additional developments of the technology include: a frequency quadrupler to 145 GHz with 18 percent efficiency and 15 percent fixed tuned bandwidth; frequency doublers featuring 124, 240, and 480 GHz; an integrated 874-GHz subharmonic mixer with a mixer noise temperature of 3,000 K DSB (double sideband) and mixer conversion loss of 11.8 dB DSB; a high-efficiency frequency tripler design with peak output power of 23 mW and 14 mW, and efficiency of 16 and 13 percent, respectively; millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers to the 30-40 GHz band with high DC power efficiency; and an 874-GHz radiometer suitable for airborne observation with state-of-the-art sensitivity at room temperature and less than 5 W of total power consumption.

  17. Voltage-Controlled Square/Triangular Wave Generator with Current Conveyors and Switching Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Janecek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel relaxation oscillator based on integrating the diode-switched currents and Schmitt trigger is presented. It is derived from a known circuit with operational amplifiers where these active elements were replaced by current conveyors. The circuit employs only grounded resistances and capacitance and is suitable for high frequency square and triangular signal generation. Its frequency can be linearly and accurately controlled by voltage that is applied to a high-impedance input. Computer simulation with a model of a manufactured conveyor prototype verifies theoretic assumptions.

  18. Demonstration of a 4H SiC betavoltaic nuclear battery based on Schottky barrier diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Dayong; Yuan Weizheng; Gao Peng; Yao Xianwang; Zang Bo; Zhang Lin; Guo Hui; Zhang Hongjian

    2008-01-01

    A 4H SiC betavoltaic nuclear battery is demonstrated. A Schottky barrier diode is utilized for carrier separation. Under illumination of Ni-63 source with an apparent activity of 4 mCi/cm 2 an open circuit voltage of 0.49 V and a short circuit current density of 29.44 nA/cm 2 are measured. A power conversion efficiency of 1.2% is obtained. The performance of the device is limited by low shunt resistance, backscattering and attenuation of electron energy in air and Schottky electrode. It is expected to be significantly improved by optimizing the design and processing technology of the device. (authors)

  19. Demonstration of a 4H SiC Betavoltaic Nuclear Battery Based on Schottky Barrier Diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da-Yong, Qiao; Wei-Zheng, Yuan; Peng, Gao; Xian-Wang, Yao; Bo, Zang; Lin, Zhang; Hui, Guo; Hong-Jian, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A 4H SiC betavoltaic nuclear battery is demonstrated. A Schottky barrier diode is utilized for carrier separation. Under illumination of Ni-63 source with an apparent activity of 4 mCi/cm 2 an open circuit voltage of 0.49 V and a short circuit current density of 29.44 nA/cm 2 are measured. A power conversion efficiency of 1.2% is obtained. The performance of the device is limited by low shunt resistance, backscattering and attenuation of electron energy in air and Schottky electrode. It is expected to be significantly improved by optimizing the design and processing technology of the device

  20. Cycles of self-pulsations in a photonic integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsaklian Dal Bosco, Andreas; Kanno, Kazutaka; Uchida, Atsushi; Sciamanna, Marc; Harayama, Takahisa; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki

    2015-12-01

    We report experimentally on the bifurcation cascade leading to the appearance of self-pulsation in a photonic integrated circuit in which a laser diode is subjected to delayed optical feedback. We study the evolution of the self-pulsing frequency with the increase of both the feedback strength and the injection current. Experimental observations show good qualitative accordance with numerical results carried out with the Lang-Kobayashi rate equation model. We explain the mechanism underlying the self-pulsations by a phenomenon of beating between successive pairs of external cavity modes and antimodes.

  1. Plasma-filled diode experiments on PBFA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.; Rochau, G.E.; McDaniel, D.H.; Moore, W.B.; Zuchowski, N.; Padilla, R.

    1987-01-01

    The PBFA-II accelerator is designed to use a Plasma Opening Switch (POS) for pulse shaping and voltage multiplication using inductive storage. The vacuum section of the machine consists of a set of short magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) that both act as a voltage adder for series stacking of the pulses out of the 72 parallel plate water lines, and as a 100 nH (total) storage inductor upstream of a biconically shaped POS region. There are two POS plasma injection areas, located above and below an equatorial load, which has consisted of either a short circuit, a blade (electron beam) diode, or an Applied B magnetically insulated ion diode. The POS is designed to conduct up to 6 MA, and open into a 5 ohm diode load in 10 ns or less. Under these conditions, the voltage at the load is predicted to exceed 24 MV. Initial POS experiments using these loads have produced 1) opening times of typically 20 ns or longer, 2) poor current transfer efficiency (less than 50%) when load impedances averaged 2 ohms or more, and 3) differential switch opening in azimuthal segments of the power feed, thought to be caused by poor plasma uniformity across the flashboard plasma source. One possible explanation for 2) is that efficient transfer out of the POS requires that the current carried to the load be magnetically insulated, or else considerable energy will be deposited in the feed region between the POS and load. This had indeed been observed. The problem is further exacerbated by the longer current turn-on times that occur when an ion diode is used as the load

  2. Few-photon optical diode

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Dibyendu

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme of realizing an optical diode at the few-photon level. The system consists of a one-dimensional waveguide coupled asymmetrically to a two-level system. The two or multi-photon transport in this system is strongly correlated. We derive exactly the single and two-photon current and show that the two-photon current is asymmetric for the asymmetric coupling. Thus the system serves as an optical diode which allows transmission of photons in one direction much more efficie...

  3. Comparison of silicon pin diode detector fabrication processes using ion implantation and thermal doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, C.Z.; Warburton, W.K.

    1996-01-01

    Two processes for the fabrication of silicon p-i-n diode radiation detectors are described and compared. Both processes are compatible with conventional integrated-circuit fabrication techniques and yield very low leakage currents. Devices made from the process using boron thermal doping have about a factor of 2 lower leakage current than those using boron ion implantation. However, the boron thermal doping process requires additional process steps to remove boron skins. (orig.)

  4. Modeling and Analysis of a Fractional-Order Generalized Memristor-Based Chaotic System and Circuit Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ningning; Xu, Cheng; Wu, Chaojun; Jia, Rong; Liu, Chongxin

    2017-12-01

    Memristor is a nonlinear “missing circuit element”, that can easily achieve chaotic oscillation. Memristor-based chaotic systems have received more and more attention. Research shows that fractional-order systems are more close to real systems. As an important parameter, the order can increase the flexibility and degree of freedom of the system. In this paper, a fractional-order generalized memristor, which consists of a diode bridge and a parallel circuit with an equivalent unit circuit and a linear resistance, is proposed. Frequency and electrical characteristics of the fractional-order memristor are analyzed. A chain structure circuit is used to implement the fractional-order unit circuit. Then replacing the conventional Chua’s diode by the fractional-order generalized memristor, a fractional-order memristor-based chaotic circuit is proposed. A large amount of research work has been done to investigate the influence of the order on the dynamical behaviors of the fractional-order memristor-based chaotic circuit. Varying with the order, the system enters the chaotic state from the periodic state through the Hopf bifurcation and period-doubling bifurcation. The chaotic state of the system has two types of attractors: single-scroll and double-scroll attractor. The stability theory of fractional-order systems is used to determine the minimum order occurring Hopf bifurcation. And the influence of the initial value on the system is analyzed. Circuit simulations are designed to verify the results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation.

  5. Modeling and simulation of the shading effect on the performance of a photovoltaic module in the presence of the bypass diode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebiri Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In photovoltaic renewable energy production systems where production is dependent on weather conditions, maintaining production at a suitable level is more than essential. The shading effect in photovoltaic panels affects the production of electrical energy by reducing it or even causing the destruction of some or all of the panels. To circumvent this problem, among the solutions proposed in the literature we find the use of by-pass diode and anti-return diode to minimize these consequences.In this paper we present a simulation under Matlab-Simulink of the shading effect and we compare the current voltages characteristics (I-V and power voltage (P-V of a photovoltaic system for different irradiations in the presence and absence of diode by -pass. For modeling, we will use the diode model and the Lambert W-function to solve the implicit equation of the output current. This method allows you to analyze the performance of a panel at different shading levels.

  6. Modeling and simulation of the shading effect on the performance of a photovoltaic module in the presence of the bypass diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebiri, Mohamed; Mediouni, Mohamed; Idadoub, Hicham

    2018-05-01

    In photovoltaic renewable energy production systems where production is dependent on weather conditions, maintaining production at a suitable level is more than essential. The shading effect in photovoltaic panels affects the production of electrical energy by reducing it or even causing the destruction of some or all of the panels. To circumvent this problem, among the solutions proposed in the literature we find the use of by-pass diode and anti-return diode to minimize these consequences.In this paper we present a simulation under Matlab-Simulink of the shading effect and we compare the current voltages characteristics (I-V) and power voltage (P-V) of a photovoltaic system for different irradiations in the presence and absence of diode by -pass. For modeling, we will use the diode model and the Lambert W-function to solve the implicit equation of the output current. This method allows you to analyze the performance of a panel at different shading levels.

  7. The LMT circuit and SPICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamacevicius, Arunas

    2006-01-01

    The state equations of the LMT circuit are modeled as a dedicated analogue computer circuit and solved by means of PSpice. The nonlinear part of the system is studied. Problems with the PSpice program are presented....

  8. Resistor Combinations for Parallel Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTernan, James P.

    1978-01-01

    To help simplify both teaching and learning of parallel circuits, a high school electricity/electronics teacher presents and illustrates the use of tables of values for parallel resistive circuits in which total resistances are whole numbers. (MF)

  9. Detecting short circuits during assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Detector circuit identifies shorts between bus bars of electronic equipment being wired. Detector sounds alarm and indicates which planes are shorted. Power and ground bus bars are scanned continuously until short circuit occurs.

  10. BR-5 primary circuit decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, I.A.; Nikulin, M.P.; Smirnov-Averin, A.P.; Tymosh, B.S.; Shereshkov, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    Results and methodology of steam-water and acid decontamination of the primary coolant circuit SBR-5 reactor in 1971 are discussed. Regeneration process in a cold trap of the primary coolant circuit is discussed

  11. Foundry fabricated photonic integrated circuit optical phase lock loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałakier, Katarzyna; Fice, Martyn J; Ponnampalam, Lalitha; Graham, Chris S; Wonfor, Adrian; Seeds, Alwyn J; Renaud, Cyril C

    2017-07-24

    This paper describes the first foundry-based InP photonic integrated circuit (PIC) designed to work within a heterodyne optical phase locked loop (OPLL). The PIC and an external electronic circuit were used to phase-lock a single-line semiconductor laser diode to an incoming reference laser, with tuneable frequency offset from 4 GHz to 12 GHz. The PIC contains 33 active and passive components monolithically integrated on a single chip, fully demonstrating the capability of a generic foundry PIC fabrication model. The electronic part of the OPLL consists of commercially available RF components. This semi-packaged system stabilizes the phase and frequency of the integrated laser so that an absolute frequency, high-purity heterodyne signal can be generated when the OPLL is in operation, with phase noise lower than -100 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset from the carrier. This is the lowest phase noise level ever demonstrated by monolithically integrated OPLLs.

  12. MOS voltage automatic tuning circuit

    OpenAIRE

    李, 田茂; 中田, 辰則; 松本, 寛樹

    2004-01-01

    Abstract ###Automatic tuning circuit adjusts frequency performance to compensate for the process variation. Phase locked ###loop (PLL) is a suitable oscillator for the integrated circuit. It is a feedback system that compares the input ###phase with the output phase. It can make the output frequency equal to the input frequency. In this paper, PLL ###fomed of MOSFET's is presented.The presented circuit consists of XOR circuit, Low-pass filter and Relaxation ###Oscillator. On PSPICE simulation...

  13. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits, which aims at providing a synthesis flow which uses and tranfers methods from synchronous circuits to asynchronous circuits. We move the synchronous behavioral synthesis abstraction into the asynchronous handshake...... is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration...

  14. Selected collection of circuit drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The many electronics circuits have been constracted in the Electronics Shop for use in nuclear experiments or other purposes of this Institute. The types of these circuits amount to about 500 items in total since 1968. This report describes the electronics circuit diagrams selected from this collection. The circuit details are not presented in this report, because these are already been published in the other technical reports. (auth.)

  15. Simple, fast and accurate two-diode model for photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishaque, Kashif; Salam, Zainal; Taheri, Hamed [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    This paper proposes an improved modeling approach for the two-diode model of photovoltaic (PV) module. The main contribution of this work is the simplification of the current equation, in which only four parameters are required, compared to six or more in the previously developed two-diode models. Furthermore the values of the series and parallel resistances are computed using a simple and fast iterative method. To validate the accuracy of the proposed model, six PV modules of different types (multi-crystalline, mono-crystalline and thin-film) from various manufacturers are tested. The performance of the model is evaluated against the popular single diode models. It is found that the proposed model is superior when subjected to irradiance and temperature variations. In particular the model matches very accurately for all important points of the I-V curves, i.e. the peak power, short-circuit current and open circuit voltage. The modeling method is useful for PV power converter designers and circuit simulator developers who require simple, fast yet accurate model for the PV module. (author)

  16. Analysis of Bernstein's factorization circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Shamir, A.; Tomlinson, J.; Tromer, E.; Zheng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In [1], Bernstein proposed a circuit-based implementation of the matrix step of the number field sieve factorization algorithm. These circuits offer an asymptotic cost reduction under the measure "construction cost x run time". We evaluate the cost of these circuits, in agreement with [1], but argue

  17. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  18. A new rectenna circuit using a bow-tie antenna for the conversion of microwave power to dc power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Michael; Nguyen, Cam

    1993-01-01

    The novel rectenna circuit presented, which integrated a bowtie antenna with a diode, is capable of broadband, high-efficiency operation, and is insensitive to incident field angle. The device is noted, moreover, to behave as a lowpass filter for dc output. For 2.45 GHz operation, a 79-percent conversion efficiency has been demonstrated.

  19. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  20. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  1. Laser diode technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, L.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of semiconductor laser technology, from new laser structures and laser design to applications in communications, remote sensing, and optoelectronics. The authors report on new laser diode physics and applications and present a survey of the state of the art as well as progress in new developments

  2. Spin-photon entangling diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a semiconductor device that can electrically generate entangled electron spin-photon states, providing a building block for entanglement of distant spins. The device consists of a p-i-n diode structure that incorporates a coupled double quantum dot. We show that electronic control of t...

  3. Integrated circuit structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The invention describes the fabrication of integrated circuit structures, such as read-only memory components of field-effect transistors, which may be fabricated and then maintained in inventory, and later selectively modified in accordance with a desired pattern. It is claimed that MOS depletion-mode devices in accordance with the invention can be fabricated at lower cost and at higher yields. (U.K.)

  4. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  5. Semiconductor integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.E.; Schwenker, R.O.; Ziegler, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    An improved method involving ion implantation to form non-epitaxial semiconductor integrated circuits. These are made by forming a silicon substrate of one conductivity type with a recessed silicon dioxide region extending into the substrate and enclosing a portion of the silicon substrate. A beam of ions of opposite conductivity type impurity is directed at the substrate at an energy and dosage level sufficient to form a first region of opposite conductivity within the silicon dioxide region. This impurity having a concentration peak below the surface of the substrate forms a region of the one conductivity type which extends from the substrate surface into the first opposite type region to a depth between the concentration peak and the surface and forms a second region of opposite conductivity type. The method, materials and ion beam conditions are detailed. Vertical bipolar integrated circuits can be made this way when the first opposite type conductivity region will function as a collector. Also circuits with inverted bipolar devices when this first region functions as a 'buried'' emitter region. (U.K.)

  6. High power diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.; Comaskey, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although operational for over twenty years, diode pumped solid state lasers have, for most of their existence, been limited to individual diodes pumping a tiny volume of active medium in an end pumped configuration. More recent years have witnessed the appearance of diode bars, packing around 100 diodes in a 1 cm bar which have enabled end and side pumped small solid state lasers at the few Watt level of output. This paper describes the subsequent development of how proper cooling and stacking of bars enables the fabrication of multi kill average power diode pump arrays with irradiances of 1 kw/cm peak and 250 W/cm 2 average pump power. Since typical conversion efficiencies from the diode light to the pumped laser output light are of order 30% or more, kW average power diode pumped solid state lasers now are possible

  7. Electrical circuit for checking the state of charge of a vehicle battery. Elektrische Schaltung zur Kontrolle des Ladezustandes einer Batterie in Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamulescu, A

    1981-05-27

    The invention concerns an electrical circuit for checking the state of charge of a vehicle battery. The circuit consists of a transistor, whose collector is connected via a series resistance and a Zener diode to the positive pole of the battery. The breakdown voltage of the Zener diode is about 12 volts. The emitter of the transistor is connected via an LED to earth. A second LED is connected in parallel with the collector-emitter circuit of the transistor, which works via a voltage divider. This voltage divider reduces the voltage at the LED with the transistor which is conducting to about 0.7 volts. A second Zener diode connected via a series resistance to the positive pole is also provided. Its breakdown voltage is 15 volts.

  8. The design and manufacture of a notch structure for a planar InP Gunn diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yang; Jia Rui; Wu De-Qi; Jin Zhi; Liu Xin-Yu

    2013-01-01

    A planar InP-based Gunn diode with a notch doping structure is designed and fabricated for integration into millimeter-wave and terahertz integrated circuits. We design two kinds of InP-based Gunn diodes. One has a fixed diameter of cathode area, but has variable spacing between anode and cathode; the other has fixed spacing, but a varying diameter. The threshold voltage and saturated current exhibit their strong dependences on the spacing (10 μm–20 μm) and diameter (40 μm–60 μm) of the InP Gunn diode. The threshold voltage is approximately 4.5 V and the saturated current is in a range of 293 mA–397 mA. In this work, the diameter of the diode and the space between anode and cathode are optimized. The devices are fabricated using a wet etching technique and show excellent performances. The results strongly suggest that low-cost and reliable InP planar Gunn diodes can be used as single chip terahertz sources. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Effect of swift heavy Kr ions on complex permittivity of silicon PIN diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yun; Su, Ping; Yang, Zhimei; Ma, Yao; Gong, Min

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The complex permittivity has been studied on Si PIN irradiated by heavy Kr ions. • DLTS was used to investigate damages formed in PIN diode during irradiation. • The recombination of carriers has important influence on the complex permittivity. - Abstract: The complex permittivity has been researched on silicon PIN diodes irradiated by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in this article. The difference of complex permittivity spectra from 1 to 10^7 Hz between irradiated and unirradiated were observed and discussed. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were measured at room temperature (300 K) to study the change of electrical properties in diode after irradiation. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was used to investigate damages caused by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in diode. Two extra electron traps were observed, which were located at E C -0.31 eV and E C -0.17 eV. It indicated that new defects have been formed in PIN diode during irradiation. A comparison of the results illustrated that not only the carrier density but also the recombination of electron-hole pair have important influences on the properties of complex permittivity. These results offer a further indication of the mechanism about the complex permittivity property of semiconductor device, which could help to make the applications for the semiconductor device controlled by electric signals come true in the fields of optoelectronic integrated circuits, plasma antenna and so on.

  10. Interface Circuit For Printer Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Yadlowsky, Ann B.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic circuit, called printer-port interface circuit (PPI) developed to overcome certain disadvantages of previous methods for connecting IBM PC or PC-compatible computer to other equipment. Has both reading and writing modes of operation. Very simple, requiring only six integrated circuits. Provides for moderately fast rates of transfer of data and uses existing unmodified circuit card in IBM PC. When used with appropriate software, circuit converts printer port on IBM PC, XT, AT, or compatible personal computer to general purpose, 8-bit-data, 16-bit address bus that connects to multitude of devices.

  11. Changes to the shuttle circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    To fit with passengers expectation, there will be some changes to the shuttle circuits as from Monday 10 October. See details on http://cern.ch/ShuttleService (on line on 7 October). Circuit No. 5 is cancelled as circuit No. 1 also stops at Bldg. 33. In order to guarantee shorter travel times, circuit No. 1 will circulate on Meyrin site only and circuit No. 2, with departures from Bldg. 33 and 500, on Prévessin site only. Site Services Section

  12. Thermionic integrated circuits: electronics for hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B.; MacRoberts, M.D.J.; Wilde, D.K.; Dooley, G.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic integrated circuits combine vacuum tube technology with integrated circuit techniques to form integrated vacuum triode circuits. These circuits are capable of extended operation in both high-temperature and high-radiation environments

  13. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  14. Integrated coherent matter wave circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.; Boshier, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through their electric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry

  15. Multistability in Chua's circuit with two stable node-foci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, B. C.; Wang, N.; Xu, Q. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Li, Q. D. [Research Center of Analysis and Control for Complex Systems, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Only using one-stage op-amp based negative impedance converter realization, a simplified Chua's diode with positive outer segment slope is introduced, based on which an improved Chua's circuit realization with more simpler circuit structure is designed. The improved Chua's circuit has identical mathematical model but completely different nonlinearity to the classical Chua's circuit, from which multiple attractors including coexisting point attractors, limit cycle, double-scroll chaotic attractor, or coexisting chaotic spiral attractors are numerically simulated and experimentally captured. Furthermore, with dimensionless Chua's equations, the dynamical properties of the Chua's system are studied including equilibrium and stability, phase portrait, bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponent spectrum, and attraction basin. The results indicate that the system has two symmetric stable nonzero node-foci in global adjusting parameter regions and exhibits the unusual and striking dynamical behavior of multiple attractors with multistability.

  16. Chaotic dynamics with high complexity in a simplified new nonautonomous nonlinear electronic circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulgnanam, A.; Thamilmaran, K.; Daniel, M.

    2009-01-01

    A two dimensional nonautonomous dissipative forced series LCR circuit with a simple nonlinear element exhibiting an immense variety of dynamical features is proposed for the first time. Unlike the usual cases of nonlinear element, the nonlinear element used here possesses three segment piecewise linear character with one positive and one negative slope. This nonlinearity is verified to be sufficient to produce chaos with high complexity in many established nonautonomous nonlinear circuits, such as MLC, MLCV, driven Chua, etc., thus indicating an universal behavior similar to the familiar Chua's diode. The dynamics of the proposed circuit is studied experimentally, confirmed numerically, simulated through PSPICE and proved mathematically. An important feature of the circuit is its ability to show dual chaotic behavior.

  17. Performance of the Main Dipole Magnet Circuits of the LHC during Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A; Ballarino, A; Bellesia, B; Bordry, Frederick; Cantone, A; Casas Lino, M; Castaneda Serra, A; Castillo Trello, C; Catalan-Lasheras, N; Charifoulline, Z; Coelingh, G; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; D'Angelo, G; Denz, R; Fehér, S; Flora, R; Gruwé, M; Kain, V; Khomenko, B; Kirby, G; MacPherson, A; Marqueta Barbero, A; Mess, K H; Modena, M; Mompo, R; Montabonnet, V; le Naour, S; Nisbet, D; Parma, V; Pojer, M; Ponce, L; Raimondo, A; Redaelli, S; Reymond, H; Richter, D; de Rijk, G; Rijllart, A; Romera Ramirez, I; Saban, R; Sanfilippo, S; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Thurel, Y; Thiessen, H; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Vergara Fernandez, A; Wolf, R; Zerlauth, M

    2008-01-01

    During hardware commissioning of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 8 main dipole circuits are tested at 1.9 K and up to their nominal current. Each dipole circuit contains 154 magnets of 15 m length, and has a total stored energy of up to 1.3 GJ. All magnets are wound from Nb-Ti superconducting Rutherford cables, and contain heaters to quickly force the transition to the normal conducting state in case of a quench, and hence reduce the hot spot temperature. In this paper the performance of the first three of these circuits is presented, focussing on quench detection, heater performance, operation of the cold bypass diodes, and magnet-to-magnet quench propagation. The results as measured on the entire circuits will be compared to the test results obtained during the reception tests of the individual magnets.

  18. Magnetomicrofluidics Circuits for Organizing Bioparticle Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh

    Single-cell analysis (SCA) tools have important applications in the analysis of phenotypic heterogeneity, which is difficult or impossible to analyze in bulk cell culture or patient samples. SCA tools thus have a myriad of applications ranging from better credentialing of drug therapies to the analysis of rare latent cells harboring HIV infection or in Cancer. However, existing SCA systems usually lack the required combination of programmability, flexibility, and scalability necessary to enable the study of cell behaviors and cell-cell interactions at the scales sufficient to analyze extremely rare events. To advance the field, I have developed a novel, programmable, and massively-parallel SCA tool which is based on the principles of computer circuits. By integrating these magnetic circuits with microfluidics channels, I developed a platform that can organize a large number of single particles into an array in a controlled manner. My magnetophoretic circuits use passive elements constructed in patterned magnetic thin films to move cells along programmed tracks with an external rotating magnetic field. Cell motion along these tracks is analogous to the motion of charges in an electrical conductor, following a rule similar to Ohm's law. I have also developed asymmetric conductors, similar to electrical diodes, and storage sites for cells that behave similarly to electrical capacitors. I have also developed magnetophoretic circuits which use an overlaid pattern of microwires to switch single cells between different tracks. This switching mechanism, analogous to the operation of electronic transistors, is achieved by establishing a semiconducting gap in the magnetic pattern which can be changed from an insulating state to a conducting state by application of electrical current to an overlaid electrode. I performed an extensive study on the operation of transistors to optimize their geometry and minimize the required gate currents. By combining these elements into

  19. Analysis of a distributed pulse power system using a circuit analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeft, L.O.; BDM Corp., Albuquerque, NM)

    1979-01-01

    A sophisticated computer code (SCEPTRE), used to analyze electronic circuits, was used to evaluate the performance of a large flash x-ray machine. This device was considered to be a transmission line whose impedance varied with position. This distributed system was modeled by lumped parameter sections with time constants of 1 ns. The model was used to interpret voltage, current, and radiation measurements in terms of diode performance. The effects of tube impedance, diode model, switch behavior, and potential geometric modifications were determined. The principal conclusions were that, since radiation output depends strongly on voltage, diode impedance was much more important than the other parameters, and the charge voltage must be accurately known

  20. Modeling and analysis of power extraction circuits for passive UHF RFID applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Bo; Dai Yujie; Zhang Xiaoxing; Lue Yingjie

    2009-01-01

    Modeling and analysis of far field power extraction circuits for passive UHF RF identification (RFID) applications are presented. A mathematical model is derived to predict the complex nonlinear performance of UHF voltage multiplier using Schottky diodes. To reduce the complexity of the proposed model, a simple linear approximation for Schottky diode is introduced. Measurement results show considerable agreement with the values calculated by the proposed model. With the derived model, optimization on stage number for voltage multiplier to achieve maximum power conversion efficiency is discussed. Furthermore, according to the Bode-Fano criterion and the proposed model, a limitation on maximum power up range for passive UHF RFID power extraction circuits is also studied.

  1. New Structure for a Six-Port Reflectometer in Monolithic Microwave Integrated-Circuit Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedmann , Frank; Huyart , Bernard; Bergeault , Eric; Jallet , Louis

    1997-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new structure for a six-port reflectometer which due to its simplicity can be implemented very easily in monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology. It uses nonmatched diode detectors with a high input impedance which are placed around a phase shifter in conjunction with a power divider for the reference detector. The circuit has been fabricated using the F20 GaAs process of the GEC–Marconi foundry and operates between 1.3 GHz and 3...

  2. In-situ fabrication of flexible vertically integrated electronic circuits by inkjet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhuo; Wu Wenwen; Yang Qunbao; Li Yongxiang; Noh, Chang-Ho

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a facile approach for fabricating flexible vertically integrated electronic circuits is demonstrated. A desktop inkjet printer was modified and employed to print silver precursor on a polymer-coated buffer substrates. In-situ reaction was taken place and a conducting line was formed without need of a high temperature treatment. Through this process, several layers of metal integrated circuits were deposited sequentially with polymer buffer layers sandwiched between each layer. Hence, vertically integrated electronic components of diodes, solar cells, flexible flat panel displays, and electrochromic devices can be built with this simple and low-cost technique.

  3. Circuit for Communication over DC Power Line Using High Temperature Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor); Prokop, Norman F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A high temperature communications circuit includes a power conductor for concurrently conducting electrical energy for powering circuit components and transmitting a modulated data signal, and a demodulator for demodulating the data signal and generating a serial bit stream based on the data signal. The demodulator includes an absolute value amplifier for conditionally inverting or conditionally passing a signal applied to the absolute value amplifier. The absolute value amplifier utilizes no diodes to control the conditional inversion or passing of the signal applied to the absolute value amplifier.

  4. Dynamic pulse difference circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    A digital electronic circuit of especial use for subtracting background activity pulses in gamma spectrometry is disclosed which comprises an up-down counter connected to count up with signal-channel pulses and to count down with background-channel pulses. A detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal when the up-down counter has completed one scaling sequence cycle of counts in the up direction. In an alternate embodiment, a detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal upon overflow of the counter

  5. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  6. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  7. Digital logic circuit test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Gil Jung; Yang, Hong Young

    2011-03-15

    This book is about digital logic circuit test, which lists the digital basic theory, basic gate like and, or And Not gate, NAND/NOR gate such as NAND gate, NOR gate, AND and OR, logic function, EX-OR gate, adder and subtractor, decoder and encoder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, flip-flop, counter such as up/down counter modulus N counter and Reset type counter, shift register, D/A and A/D converter and two supplements list of using components and TTL manual and CMOS manual.

  8. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  9. Integrated circuit cell library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    According to the invention, an ASIC cell library for use in creation of custom integrated circuits is disclosed. The ASIC cell library includes some first cells and some second cells. Each of the second cells includes two or more kernel cells. The ASIC cell library is at least 5% comprised of second cells. In various embodiments, the ASIC cell library could be 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, or 95% or more comprised of second cells.

  10. Nano integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-01

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  11. Electronic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  12. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  13. Nano integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-15

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  14. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  15. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1999-01-01

    This manual is a useful single-volume guide specifically aimed at the practical design engineer, technician, and experimenter, as well as the electronics student and amateur. It deals with the subject in an easy to read, down to earth, and non-mathematical yet comprehensive manner, explaining the basic principles and characteristics of the best known devices, and presenting the reader with many practical applications and over 200 circuits. Most of the ICs and other devices used are inexpensive and readily available types, with universally recognised type numbers.The second edition

  16. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals

  17. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lawrence T [Phoenix, AZ; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  18. Performance of the Superconducting Corrector Magnet Circuits during the Commissioning of the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini Delsolaro, W.; Baggiolini, V.; Ballarino, A.; Bellesia, B.; Bordry, F.; Cantone, A.; Casas Lino, M.P.; CastilloTrello, C.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Charifoulline, Zinour; Charrondiere, C.; CERN; Madrid, CIEMAT; Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is a complex machine requiring more than 7400 superconducting corrector magnets distributed along a circumference of 26.7 km. These magnets are powered in 1446 different electrical circuits at currents ranging from 60 A up to 600 A. Among the corrector circuits the 600 A corrector magnets form the most diverse and differentiated group. All together, about 60000 high current connections had to be made. A fault in a circuit or one of the superconducting connections would have severe consequences for the accelerator operation. All magnets are wound from various types of Nb-Ti superconducting strands, and many contain parallel protection resistors to by-pass the current still flowing in the other magnets of the same circuit when they quench. In this paper the performance of these magnet circuits is presented, focusing on the quench behavior of the magnets. Quench detection and the performance of the electrical interconnects will be dealt with. The results as measured on the entire circuits are compared to the test results obtained at the reception of the individual magnets

  19. Performance of the Superconducting Corrector Magnet Circuits during the Commissioning of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Ballarino, A; Bellesia, B; Bordry, Frederick; Cantone, A; Casas Lino, M; Castaneda Serra, A; Castillo Trello, C; Catalan-Lasheras, N; Charifoulline, Z; Charrondiere, C; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; D'Angelo, G; Denz, R; Fehér, S; Flora, R; Gruwé, M; Kain, V; Karppinen, M; Khomenko, B; Kirby, G; MacPherson, A; Marqueta Barbero, A; Mess, K H; Modena, M; Mompo, R; Montabonnet, V; le Naour, S; Nisbet, D; Parma, V; Pojer, M; Ponce, L; Raimondo, A; Redaelli, S; Remondino, V; Reymond, H; de Rijk, G; Rijllart, A; Romera Ramirez, I; Saban, R; Sanfilippo, S; Schirm, K; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Thurel, Y; Thiesen, H; Vergara Fernandez, A; Verweij, A; Wolf, R; Zerlauth, M

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is a complex machine requiring more than 7400 superconducting corrector magnets distributed along a circumference of 26.7 km. These magnets are powered in 1446 different electrical circuits at currents ranging from 60 A up to 600 A. Among the corrector circuits the 600 A corrector magnets form the most diverse and differentiated group. All together, about 60000 high current connections had to be made. A fault in a circuit or one of the superconducting connections would have severe consequences for the accelerator operation. All magnets are wound from various types of Nb-Ti superconducting strands, and many contain parallel protection resistors to by-pass the current still flowing in the other magnets of the same circuit when they quench. In this paper the performance of these magnet circuits is presented, focussing on the quench behaviour of the magnets. Quench detection and the performance of the electrical interconnects will be dealt with. The results as measured on the entire circuits are compar...

  20. Active energy recovery clamping circuit to improve the performance of power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Bret; Barkley, Adam

    2017-05-09

    A regenerative clamping circuit for a power converter using clamping diodes to transfer charge to a clamping capacitor and a regenerative converter to transfer charge out of the clamping capacitor back to the power supply input connection. The regenerative converter uses a switch connected to the midpoint of a series connected inductor and capacitor. The ends of the inductor and capacitor series are connected across the terminals of the power supply to be in parallel with the power supply.

  1. Characterisation of Silicon Pad Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Hodson, Thomas Connor

    2017-01-01

    Silicon pad sensors are used in high luminosity particle detectors because of their excellent timing resolution, radiation tolerance and possible high granularity. The effect of different design decisions on detector performance can be investigated nondestructively through electronic characterisation of the sensor diodes. Methods for making accurate measurements of leakage current and cell capacitance are described using both a standard approach with tungsten needles and an automated approach with a custom multiplexer and probing setup.

  2. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  3. Quantum-Circuit Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    MöTtöNen, Mikko; Tan, Kuan Y.; Masuda, Shumpei; Partanen, Matti; Lake, Russell E.; Govenius, Joonas; Silveri, Matti; Grabert, Hermann

    Quantum technology holds great potential in providing revolutionizing practical applications. However, fast and precise cooling of the functional quantum degrees of freedom on demand remains a major challenge in many solid-state implementations, such as superconducting circuits. We demonstrate direct cooling of a superconducting resonator mode using voltage-controllable quantum tunneling of electrons in a nanoscale refrigerator. In our first experiments on this type of a quantum-circuit refrigerator, we measure the drop in the mode temperature by electron thermometry at a resistor which is coupled to the resonator mode through ohmic losses. To eliminate unwanted dissipation, we remove the probe resistor and directly observe the power spectrum of the resonator output in agreement with the so-called P(E) theory. We also demonstrate in microwave reflection experiments that the internal quality factor of the resonator can be tuned by orders of magnitude. In the future, our refrigerator can be integrated with different quantum electric devices, potentially enhancing their performance. For example, it may prove useful in the initialization of superconducting quantum bits and in dissipation-assisted quantum annealing. We acknowledge European Research Council Grant SINGLEOUT (278117) and QUESS (681311) for funding.

  4. Quasi-Linear Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, William; Bird, Ross; Eldred, Dennis; Zook, Jon; Knowles, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    This work involved developing spacequalifiable switch mode DC/DC power supplies that improve performance with fewer components, and result in elimination of digital components and reduction in magnetics. This design is for missions where systems may be operating under extreme conditions, especially at elevated temperature levels from 200 to 300 degC. Prior art for radiation-tolerant DC/DC converters has been accomplished utilizing classical magnetic-based switch mode converter topologies; however, this requires specific shielding and component de-rating to meet the high-reliability specifications. It requires complex measurement and feedback components, and will not enable automatic re-optimization for larger changes in voltage supply or electrical loading condition. The innovation is a switch mode DC/DC power supply that eliminates the need for processors and most magnetics. It can provide a well-regulated voltage supply with a gain of 1:100 step-up to 8:1 step down, tolerating an up to 30% fluctuation of the voltage supply parameters. The circuit incorporates a ceramic core transformer in a manner that enables it to provide a well-regulated voltage output without use of any processor components or magnetic transformers. The circuit adjusts its internal parameters to re-optimize its performance for changes in supply voltage, environmental conditions, or electrical loading at the output

  5. A single-molecule diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Mark; Ochs, Rolf; Koentopp, Max; Fischer, Matthias; von Hänisch, Carsten; Weigend, Florian; Evers, Ferdinand; Weber, Heiko B.; Mayor, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    We have designed and synthesized a molecular rod that consists of two weakly coupled electronic π -systems with mutually shifted energy levels. The asymmetry thus implied manifests itself in a current–voltage characteristic with pronounced dependence on the sign of the bias voltage, which makes the molecule a prototype for a molecular diode. The individual molecules were immobilized by sulfur–gold bonds between both electrodes of a mechanically controlled break junction, and their electronic transport properties have been investigated. The results indeed show diode-like current–voltage characteristics. In contrast to that, control experiments with symmetric molecular rods consisting of two identical π -systems did not show significant asymmetries in the transport properties. To investigate the underlying transport mechanism, phenomenological arguments are combined with calculations based on density functional theory. The theoretical analysis suggests that the bias dependence of the polarizability of the molecule feeds back into the current leading to an asymmetric shape of the current–voltage characteristics, similar to the phenomena in a semiconductor diode. PMID:15956208

  6. Molecular diodes in optical rectennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duché, David; Palanchoke, Ujwol; Terracciano, Luigi; Dang, Florian-Xuan; Patrone, Lionel; Le Rouzo, Judikael; Balaban, Téodore Silviu; Alfonso, Claude; Charai, Ahmed; Margeat, Olivier; Ackermann, Jorg; Gourgon, Cécile; Simon, Jean-Jacques; Escoubas, Ludovic

    2016-09-01

    The photo conversion efficiencies of the 1st and 2nd generat ion photovoltaic solar cells are limited by the physical phenomena involved during the photo-conversion processes. An upper limit around 30% has been predicted for a monojunction silicon solar cell. In this work, we study 3rd generation solar cells named rectenna which could direct ly convert visible and infrared light into DC current. The rectenna technology is at odds with the actual photovoltaic technologies, since it is not based on the use of semi-conducting materials. We study a rectenna architecture consist ing of plasmonic nano-antennas associated with rectifying self assembled molecular diodes. We first opt imized the geometry of plasmonic nano-antennas using an FDTD method. The optimal antennas are then realized using a nano-imprint process and associated with self assembled molecular diodes in 11- ferrocenyl-undecanethiol. Finally, The I(V) characterist ics in darkness of the rectennas has been carried out using an STM. The molecular diodes exhibit averaged rect ification ratios of 5.

  7. Design of laser diode driver with constant current and temperature control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-cai; Yang, Kai-yong; Wang, Zhi-guo; Fan, Zhen-fang

    2017-10-01

    A laser Diode (LD) driver with constant current and temperature control system is designed according to the LD working characteristics. We deeply researched the protection circuit and temperature control circuit based on thermos-electric cooler(TEC) cooling circuit and PID algorithm. The driver could realize constant current output and achieve stable temperature control of LD. Real-time feedback control method was adopted in the temperature control system to make LD work on its best temperature point. The output power variety and output wavelength shift of LD caused by current and temperature instability were decreased. Furthermore, the driving current and working temperature is adjustable according to specific requirements. The experiment result showed that the developed LD driver meets the characteristics of LD.

  8. Arithmetic circuits for DSP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stouraitis, Thanos

    2017-01-01

    Arithmetic Circuits for DSP Applications is a complete resource on arithmetic circuits for digital signal processing (DSP). It covers the key concepts, designs and developments of different types of arithmetic circuits, which can be used for improving the efficiency of implementation of a multitude of DSP applications. Each chapter includes various applications of the respective class of arithmetic circuits along with information on the future scope of research. Written for students, engineers, and researchers in electrical and computer engineering, this comprehensive text offers a clear understanding of different types of arithmetic circuits used for digital signal processing applications. The text includes contributions from noted researchers on a wide range of topics, including a review o circuits used in implementing basic operations like additions and multiplications; distributed arithmetic as a technique for the multiplier-less implementation of inner products for DSP applications; discussions on look ...

  9. Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.; Holloman, Harry; Koester, Steven

    2017-08-29

    A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channel connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.

  10. Control circuit for transformer relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A control circuit for a transformer relay which will automatically momentarily control the transformer relay to a selected state upon energization of the control circuit. The control circuit has an energy storage element and a current director coupled in series and adapted to be coupled with the secondary winding of the transformer relay. A device for discharge is coupled across the energy storage element. The energy storage element and current director will momentarily allow a unidirectional flow of current in the secondary winding of the transformer relay upon application of energy to the control circuit. When energy is not applied to the control circuit the device for discharge will allow the energy storage element to discharge and be available for another operation of the control circuit

  11. Thermoreflectance temperature imaging of integrated circuits: calibration technique and quantitative comparison with integrated sensors and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessier, G; Polignano, M-L; Pavageau, S; Filloy, C; Fournier, D; Cerutti, F; Mica, I

    2006-01-01

    Camera-based thermoreflectance microscopy is a unique tool for high spatial resolution thermal imaging of working integrated circuits. However, a calibration is necessary to obtain quantitative temperatures on the complex surface of integrated circuits. The spatial and temperature resolutions reached by thermoreflectance are excellent (360 nm and 2.5 x 10 -2 K in 1 min here), but the precision is more difficult to assess, notably due to the lack of comparable thermal techniques at submicron scales. We propose here a Peltier element control of the whole package temperature in order to obtain calibration coefficients simultaneously on several materials visible on the surface of the circuit. Under high magnifications, movements associated with thermal expansion are corrected using a piezo electric displacement and a software image shift. This calibration method has been validated by comparison with temperatures measured using integrated thermistors and diodes and by a finite volume simulation. We show that thermoreflectance measurements agree within a precision of ±2.3% with the on-chip sensors measurements. The diode temperature is found to underestimate the actual temperature of the active area by almost 70% due to the thermal contact of the diode with the substrate, acting as a heat sink

  12. Source-circuit design overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The source circuit is the fundamental electrical building block of a large central-station array; it consists of a series-parallel network of solar cells that develops full system voltage. The array field is generally made up of a large number of parallel source circuits. Source-circuit electrical configuration is driven by a number of design considerations, which must be considered simultaneously. Array fault tolerance and hot spot heating endurance are examined in detail.

  13. Ion diode performance on a positive polarity inductive voltage adder with layered magnetically insulated transmission line flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshelwood, D. D.; Schumer, J. W.; Allen, R. J.; Commisso, R. J.; Jackson, S. L.; Murphy, D. P.; Phipps, D.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Weber, B. V.; Ottinger, P. F.; Apruzese, J. P.; Cooperstein, G.; Young, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    A pinch-reflex ion diode is fielded on the pulsed-power machine Mercury (R. J. Allen, et al., 15th IEEE Intl. Pulsed Power Conf., Monterey, CA, 2005, p. 339), which has an inductive voltage adder (IVA) architecture and a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL). Mercury is operated in positive polarity resulting in layered MITL flow as emitted electrons are born at a different potential in each of the adder cavities. The usual method for estimating the voltage by measuring the bound current in the cathode and anode of the MITL is not accurate with layered flow, and the interaction of the MITL flow with a pinched-beam ion diode load has not been studied previously. Other methods for determining the diode voltage are applied, ion diode performance is experimentally characterized and evaluated, and circuit and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are performed. Results indicate that the ion diode couples efficiently to the machine operating at a diode voltage of about 3.5 MV and a total current of about 325 kA, with an ion current of about 70 kA of which about 60 kA is proton current. It is also found that the layered flow impedance of the MITL is about half the vacuum impedance.

  14. Electron injection in diodes with field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denavit, J.; Strobel, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents self-consistent steady-state solutions of the space charge, transmitted current, and return currents in diodes with electron injection from the cathode and unlimited field emission of electrons and ions from both electrodes. Time-dependent particle simulations of the diode operation confirm the analytical results and show how these steady states are reached. The results are applicable to thermionic diodes and to photodiodes

  15. Thermometric characteristics of silicon semiconductor diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezverkhnyaya, N.S.; Vasil'ev, L.M.; Dmitrevskij, Yu.P.; Mel'nik, Yu.M.

    1975-01-01

    To substantiate the feasibility of using silicon diodes made by the Soviet industry as detectors of temperature in the 15 - 300 K range, 25 different types of silicon diodes have been investigated. The results obtained for the thermometric characteristics of the diodes are presented in tabular form. It is shown that a stability of readings of up to 0.05 deg can be obtained [ru

  16. Laser diode technology for coherent communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channin, D. J.; Palfrey, S. L.; Toda, M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of diode laser characteristics on the overall performance capabilities of coherent communication systems is discussed. In particular, attention is given to optical performance issues for diode lasers in coherent systems, measurements of key performance parameters, and optical requirements for coherent single-channel and multichannel communication systems. The discussion also covers limitations imposed by diode laser optical performance on multichannel system capabilities and implications for future developments.

  17. Thermic diode performance characteristics and design manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, D. E.; Buckley, S.

    1979-01-01

    Thermic diode solar panels are a passive method of space and hot water heating using the thermosyphon principle. Simplified methods of sizing and performing economic analyses of solar heating systems had until now been limited to passive systems. A mathematical model of the thermic diode including its high level of stratification has been constructed allowing its performance characteristics to be studied. Further analysis resulted in a thermic diode design manual based on the f-chart method.

  18. Four-junction superconducting circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yueyin; Xiong, Wei; He, Xiao-Ling; Li, Tie-Fu; You, J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory for the quantum circuit consisting of a superconducting loop interrupted by four Josephson junctions and pierced by a magnetic flux (either static or time-dependent). In addition to the similarity with the typical three-junction flux qubit in the double-well regime, we demonstrate the difference of the four-junction circuit from its three-junction analogue, including its advantages over the latter. Moreover, the four-junction circuit in the single-well regime is also investigated. Our theory provides a tool to explore the physical properties of this four-junction superconducting circuit. PMID:27356619

  19. Focusing experiments with light ion diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    A review of recent experimental and theoretical work at Sandia Laboratories on magnetically insulated single stage ion diodes for inertial confinement fusion experiments is presented. The production, focusing, and numerical simulation of a 0.5 TW annular proton beam using the Proto I dual transmission line generator is described. The modular magnetically insulated ion diode for the Hydra generator is also described along with recent experimental results. A brief description of how an array of modular diodes similar to the Hydra magnetically insulated diode could be used on the EBFA I generator for breakeven fusion experiments is presented

  20. Flexible diodes for radio frequency (RF) electronics: a materials perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Semple, James

    2017-10-30

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in transferring the research advances in radiofrequency (RF) rectifiers, the quintessential element of the chip in the RF identification (RFID) tags, obtained on rigid substrates onto plastic (flexible) substrates. The growing demand for flexible RFID tags, wireless communications applications and wireless energy harvesting systems that can be produced at a low-cost is a key driver for this technology push. In this topical review, we summarise recent progress and status of flexible RF diodes and rectifying circuits, with specific focus on materials and device processing aspects. To this end, different families of materials (e.g. flexible silicon, metal oxides, organic and carbon nanomaterials), manufacturing processes (e.g. vacuum and solution processing) and device architectures (diodes and transistors) are compared. Although emphasis is placed on performance, functionality, mechanical flexibility and operating stability, the various bottlenecks associated with each technology are also addressed. Finally, we present our outlook on the commercialisation potential and on the positioning of each material class in the RF electronics landscape based on the findings summarised herein. It is beyond doubt that the field of flexible high and ultra-high frequency rectifiers and electronics as a whole will continue to be an active area of research over the coming years.

  1. Flexible diodes for radio frequency (RF) electronics: a materials perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Semple, James; Georgiadou, Dimitra G; Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir; Gelinck, Gerwin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in transferring the research advances in radiofrequency (RF) rectifiers, the quintessential element of the chip in the RF identification (RFID) tags, obtained on rigid substrates onto plastic (flexible) substrates. The growing demand for flexible RFID tags, wireless communications applications and wireless energy harvesting systems that can be produced at a low-cost is a key driver for this technology push. In this topical review, we summarise recent progress and status of flexible RF diodes and rectifying circuits, with specific focus on materials and device processing aspects. To this end, different families of materials (e.g. flexible silicon, metal oxides, organic and carbon nanomaterials), manufacturing processes (e.g. vacuum and solution processing) and device architectures (diodes and transistors) are compared. Although emphasis is placed on performance, functionality, mechanical flexibility and operating stability, the various bottlenecks associated with each technology are also addressed. Finally, we present our outlook on the commercialisation potential and on the positioning of each material class in the RF electronics landscape based on the findings summarised herein. It is beyond doubt that the field of flexible high and ultra-high frequency rectifiers and electronics as a whole will continue to be an active area of research over the coming years.

  2. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode; Amplificador espectroscopico para diodo Pin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: bebe.luna_s@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  3. Self-Aligned van der Waals Heterojunction Diodes and Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vinod K; Beck, Megan E; Henning, Alex; Luo, Jiajia; Bergeron, Hadallia; Kang, Junmo; Balla, Itamar; Inbar, Hadass; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Hersam, Mark C

    2018-02-14

    A general self-aligned fabrication scheme is reported here for a diverse class of electronic devices based on van der Waals materials and heterojunctions. In particular, self-alignment enables the fabrication of source-gated transistors in monolayer MoS 2 with near-ideal current saturation characteristics and channel lengths down to 135 nm. Furthermore, self-alignment of van der Waals p-n heterojunction diodes achieves complete electrostatic control of both the p-type and n-type constituent semiconductors in a dual-gated geometry, resulting in gate-tunable mean and variance of antiambipolar Gaussian characteristics. Through finite-element device simulations, the operating principles of source-gated transistors and dual-gated antiambipolar devices are elucidated, thus providing design rules for additional devices that employ self-aligned geometries. For example, the versatility of this scheme is demonstrated via contact-doped MoS 2 homojunction diodes and mixed-dimensional heterojunctions based on organic semiconductors. The scalability of this approach is also shown by fabricating self-aligned short-channel transistors with subdiffraction channel lengths in the range of 150-800 nm using photolithography on large-area MoS 2 films grown by chemical vapor deposition. Overall, this self-aligned fabrication method represents an important step toward the scalable integration of van der Waals heterojunction devices into more sophisticated circuits and systems.

  4. Flexible diodes for radio frequency (RF) electronics: a materials perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, James; Georgiadou, Dimitra G.; Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir; Gelinck, Gerwin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in transferring the research advances in radiofrequency (RF) rectifiers, the quintessential element of the chip in the RF identification (RFID) tags, obtained on rigid substrates onto plastic (flexible) substrates. The growing demand for flexible RFID tags, wireless communications applications and wireless energy harvesting systems that can be produced at a low-cost is a key driver for this technology push. In this topical review, we summarise recent progress and status of flexible RF diodes and rectifying circuits, with specific focus on materials and device processing aspects. To this end, different families of materials (e.g. flexible silicon, metal oxides, organic and carbon nanomaterials), manufacturing processes (e.g. vacuum and solution processing) and device architectures (diodes and transistors) are compared. Although emphasis is placed on performance, functionality, mechanical flexibility and operating stability, the various bottlenecks associated with each technology are also addressed. Finally, we present our outlook on the commercialisation potential and on the positioning of each material class in the RF electronics landscape based on the findings summarised herein. It is beyond doubt that the field of flexible high and ultra-high frequency rectifiers and electronics as a whole will continue to be an active area of research over the coming years.

  5. Progress in semiconductor laser diodes: SPIE volume 723

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichen, E.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains proceedings arranged under the following session headings: High power diode lasers; single emitters and arrays; Ultrahigh speed modulation of semiconductor diode lasers; Coherence and linewidth stabilized semiconductor lasers; and Growth, fabrication, and evaluation of laser diodes

  6. Memristor Circuits and Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-05-01

    Current CMOS-based technologies are facing design challenges related to the continuous scaling down of the minimum feature size, according to Moore’s law. Moreover, conventional computing architecture is no longer an effective way of fulfilling modern applications demands, such as big data analysis, pattern recognition, and vector processing. Therefore, there is an exigent need to shift to new technologies, at both the architecture and the device levels. Recently, memristor devices and structures attracted attention for being promising candidates for this job. Memristor device adds a new dimension for designing novel circuits and systems. In addition, high-density memristor-based crossbar is widely considered to be the essential element for future memory and bio-inspired computing systems. However, numerous challenges need to be addressed before the memristor genuinely replaces current memory and computing technologies, which is the motivation behind this research effort. In order to address the technology challenges, we begin by fabricating and modeling the memristor device. The devices fabricated at our local clean room enriched our understanding of the memristive phenomenon and enabled the experimental testing for our memristor-based circuits. Moreover, our proposed mathematical modeling for memristor behavior is an essential element for the theoretical circuit design stage. Designing and addressing the challenges of memristor systems with practical complexity, however, requires an extra step, which takes the form of a reliable and modular simulation platform. We, therefore, built a new simulation platform for the resistive crossbar, which can simulate realistic size arrays filled with real memory data. In addition, this simulation platform includes various crossbar nonidealities in order to obtain accurate simulation results. Consequently, we were able to address the significant challenges facing the high density memristor crossbar, as the building block for

  7. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  8. ECCS control circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To afford a sufficient margin to pressure vibrations upon starting of an automatic depressurization system by dispersing pressure vibration in suppression water due to the opening action of an automatic releaf valve in the automatic depressurization system thereby reducing the dynamic load exerted to the surface of the suppression walls. Constitution: Upon occurrence of loss of coolant accidents, an automatic releaf valve for automatic depressurization is opened to deliver the steams in the pressure vessel into the suppression pool. Since a plurality of automatic releaf valves have usually been disposed, if they are opened simultaneously, excess dynamic loads are exerted due to the pressure vibrations to the wall surface of the suppression pool. In this invention, a control circuit is disposed such that the opening timing for each of the automatic releaf valves is deviated upon occurrence of a driving signal for the automatic depressurization system to thereby disperse the pressure vibrations in the suppression water. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. A dishwasher for circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    You have always been told that electronic devices fear water. However, at the Surface Mount Devices (SMD) Workshop here at CERN all the electronic assemblies are cleaned with a machine that looks like a… dishwasher.   The circuit dishwasher. Credit: Clara Nellist.  If you think the image above shows a dishwasher, you wouldn’t be completely wrong. Apart from the fact that the whole pumping system and the case itself are made entirely from stainless steel and chemical resistant materials, and the fact that it washes electrical boards instead of dishes… it works exactly like a dishwasher. It’s a professional machine (mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry) designed to clean everything that can be washed with a water-based chemical soap. This type of treatment increases the lifetime of the electronic boards and therefore the LHC's reliability by preventing corrosion problems in the severe radiation and ozone environment of the LHC tunn...

  10. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  11. Factors affecting the energy resolution in alpha particle spectrometry with silicon diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Fabio de.

    2005-01-01

    In this work are presented the studies about the response of a multi-structure guard rings silicon diode for detection and spectrometry of alpha particles. This ion-implanted diode (Al/p + /n/n + /Al) was processed out of 300 μm thick, n type substrate with a resistivity of 3 kΩ·cm and an active area of 4 mm 2 . In order to use this diode as a detector, the bias voltage was applied on the n + side, the first guard ring was grounded and the electrical signals were readout from the p + side. These signals were directly sent to a tailor made preamplifier, based on the hybrid circuit A250 (Amptek), followed by a conventional nuclear electronic. The results obtained with this system for the direct detection of alpha particles from 241 Am showed an excellent response stability with a high detection efficiency (≅ 100 %). The performance of this diode for alpha particle spectrometry was studied and it was prioritized the influence of the polarization voltage, the electronic noise, the temperature and the source-diode distance on the energy resolution. The results showed that the major contribution for the deterioration of this parameter is due to the diode dead layer thickness (1 μm). However, even at room temperature, the energy resolution (FWHM = 18.8 keV) measured for the 5485.6 MeV alpha particles ( 241 Am) is comparable to those obtained with ordinary silicon barrier detectors frequently used for these particles spectrometry. (author)

  12. Influence of Asymmetric Contact Form on Contact Resistance and Schottky Barrier, and Corresponding Applications of Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yudan; Xiao, Xiaoyang; Huo, Yujia; Wang, Yingcheng; Zhang, Tianfu; Jiang, Kaili; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan; Li, Qunqing

    2017-06-07

    We have fabricated carbon nanotube and MoS 2 field-effect transistors with asymmetric contact forms of source-drain electrodes, from which we found the current directionality of the devices and different contact resistances under the two current directions. By designing various structures, we can conclude that the asymmetric electrical performance was caused by the difference in the effective Schottky barrier height (Φ SB ) caused by the different contact forms. A detailed temperature-dependent study was used to extract and compare the Φ SB for both contact forms of CNT and MoS 2 devices; we found that the Φ SB for the metal-on-semiconductor form was much lower than that of the semiconductor-on-metal form and is suitable for all p-type, n-type, or ambipolar semiconductors. This conclusion is meaningful with respect to the design and application of nanomaterial electronic devices. Additionally, using the difference in barrier height caused by the contact forms, we have also proposed and fabricated Schottky barrier diodes with a current ratio up to 10 4 ; rectifying circuits consisting of these diodes were able to work in a wide frequency range. This design avoided the use of complex chemical doping or heterojunction methods to achieve fundamental diodes that are relatively simple and use only a single material; these may be suitable for future application in nanoelectronic radio frequency or integrated circuits.

  13. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  14. Comminution circuits for compact itabirites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ferreira Pinto

    Full Text Available Abstract In the beneficiation of compact Itabirites, crushing and grinding account for major operational and capital costs. As such, the study and development of comminution circuits have a fundamental importance for feasibility and optimization of compact Itabirite beneficiation. This work makes a comparison between comminution circuits for compact Itabirites from the Iron Quadrangle. The circuits developed are: a crushing and ball mill circuit (CB, a SAG mill and ball mill circuit (SAB and a single stage SAG mill circuit (SSSAG. For the SAB circuit, the use of pebble crushing is analyzed (SABC. An industrial circuit for 25 million tons of run of mine was developed for each route from tests on a pilot scale (grinding and industrial scale. The energy consumption obtained for grinding in the pilot tests was compared with that reported by Donda and Bond. The SSSAG route had the lowest energy consumption, 11.8kWh/t and the SAB route had the highest energy consumption, 15.8kWh/t. The CB and SABC routes had a similar energy consumption of 14.4 kWh/t and 14.5 kWh/t respectively.

  15. Current-mode minimax circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The minimum-maximum (minimax) circuit selects the minimum and maximum of two input currents. Four transistors in matched pairs are operated in the saturation region. Because the behavior of the circuit is based on matched devices and is independent of the relationship between the drain current and

  16. Short-circuit impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating the short-circuit impedance in the power grid are investigated for various voltage levels and situations. The short-circuit impedance is measured, preferably from naturally occurring load changes in the grid, and it is shown that such a measurement system faces different...

  17. Cell short circuit, preshort signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.

    1980-01-01

    Short-circuit events observed in ground test simulations of DSCS-3 battery in-orbit operations are analyzed. Voltage signatures appearing in the data preceding the short-circuit event are evaluated. The ground test simulation is briefly described along with performance during reconditioning discharges. Results suggest that a characteristic signature develops prior to a shorting event.

  18. Enhancement of Linear Circuit Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Dabu, Mihaela; Beldiman, Octavian

    1996-01-01

    In this report a preliminary user friendly interface has been added to the LCP2 program making it possible to describe an electronic circuit by actually drawing the circuit on the screen. Component values and other options and parameters can easily be set by the aid of the interface. The interface...

  19. Laser system for testing radiation imaging detector circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycka, Weronika; Kasinski, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Performance and functionality of radiation imaging detector circuits in charge and position measurement systems need to meet tight requirements. It is therefore necessary to thoroughly test sensors as well as read-out electronics. The major disadvantages of using radioactive sources or particle beams for testing are high financial expenses and limited accessibility. As an alternative short pulses of well-focused laser beam are often used for preliminary tests. There are number of laser-based devices available on the market, but very often their applicability in this field is limited. This paper describes concept, design and validation of laser system for testing silicon sensor based radiation imaging detector circuits. The emphasis is put on keeping overall costs low while achieving all required goals: mobility, flexible parameters, remote control and possibility of carrying out automated tests. The main part of the developed device is an optical pick-up unit (OPU) used in optical disc drives. The hardware includes FPGA-controlled circuits for laser positioning in 2 dimensions (horizontal and vertical), precision timing (frequency and number) and amplitude (diode current) of short ns-scale (3.2 ns) light pulses. The system is controlled via USB interface by a dedicated LabVIEW-based application enabling full manual or semi-automated test procedures.

  20. The error analysis of the reverse saturation current of the diode in the modeling of photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang; Zhao, Ke; Qiu, Tian; Yang, Xinsheng; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In the modeling and simulation of photovoltaic modules, especially in calculating the reverse saturation current of the diode, the series and parallel resistances are often neglected, causing certain errors. We analyzed the errors at the open circuit point, and proposed an iterative algorithm to calculate the modified values of the reverse saturation current, series resistance and parallel resistance of the diode, in order to reduce the errors. Assuming independent irradiation and temperature effects, the irradiation-dependence and the temperature-dependence of the open circuit voltage were introduced to obtain the modified formula of the open circuit voltage under any condition. Experimental results show that this modified formula has high accuracy, even at irradiance as low as 40 W/m"2. The errors of open circuit voltage were significantly reduced, indicating that this modified model is suitable for simulations of photovoltaic modules. - Highlights: • We propose a new method for modeling PV modules with higher accuracy. • The errors of open circuit voltage are significantly reduced. • I_o under any condition is calculated.

  1. Destructive Single-Event Effects in Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan C.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Campola, Michael J.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we discuss the observed single-event effects in a variety of types of diodes. In addition, we conduct failure analysis on several Schottky diodes that were heavy-ion irradiated. High- and low-magnitude optical microscope images, infrared camera images, and scanning electron microscope images are used to identify and describe the failure locations.

  2. outcome of diode laser cyclophotocoagulation in neovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duke

    including, ruby, ND:YAG, argon, krypton and, more recently, trans scleral cyclophotocoagulation with the diode laser, which has been shown to be more effective with less side effects than the others. The diode laser, 810nm, has. 4,5 greater melanin absorption compared to other lasers. Of the various cyclodestructive laser ...

  3. Graphene geometric diodes for terahertz rectennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zixu; Joshi, Saumil; Grover, Sachit; Moddel, Garret

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new thin-film graphene diode called a geometric diode that relies on geometric asymmetry to provide rectification at 28 THz. The geometric diode is coupled to an optical antenna to form a rectenna that rectifies incoming radiation. This is the first reported graphene-based antenna-coupled diode working at 28 THz, and potentially at optical frequencies. The planar structure of the geometric diode provides a low RC time constant, on the order of 10 −15 s, required for operation at optical frequencies, and a low impedance for efficient power transfer from the antenna. Fabricated geometric diodes show asymmetric current–voltage characteristics consistent with Monte Carlo simulations for the devices. Rectennas employing the geometric diode coupled to metal and graphene antennas rectify 10.6 µm radiation, corresponding to an operating frequency of 28 THz. The graphene bowtie antenna is the first demonstrated functional antenna made using graphene. Its response indicates that graphene is a suitable terahertz resonator material. Applications for this terahertz diode include terahertz-wave and optical detection, ultra-high-speed electronics and optical power conversion. (paper)

  4. The diode pump: its application to nuclear particle counting and to the detection of rapid neutronic power excursions in atomic piles (1962); La pompe a diodes, son application au comptage de particules nucleaires et a la detection des excursions rapides de puissance neutronique d'une pile atomique (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolo, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-05-15

    This work deals in particular with three applications of an electronic device whose principle is based on that of the diode pump. 1- Linear response circuit 2- Logarithmic response circuit 3- Detection of neutronic power excursions in atomic piles using a circuit or a combination of several circuits of the linear response type. Each of the applications has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Finally, the detection of rapid power excursions is extensively discussed with reference to the many methods available, emphasis being laid on the rapidity of the electronic response. (author) [French] Cet ouvrage traite plus particulierement de trois applications d'un dispositif electronique dont le principe de fonctionnement est base sur celui de la pompe a diodes. 1- Circuit a reponse lineaire 2- Circuit a reponse logarithmique 3- Detection des excursions de puissance neutronique d'une pile atomique a l'aide d'un circuit ou d'une association de plusieurs circuits a reponse lineaire. Chacune des applications fait l'objet d'une etude theorique et experimentale. Enfin, la detection des excursions rapides de puissance est tres largement discutee a travers plusieurs methodes, notamment sur la partie concernant la rapidite de reponse de l'electronique. (auteur)

  5. A No-Arc DC Circuit Breaker Based on Zero-Current Interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xuewei; Chai, Jianyun; Sun, Xudong

    2017-05-01

    A dc system has no natural current zero-crossing point, so a dc arc is more difficult to extinguish than an ac arc. In order to effectively solve the problem of the dc arc, this paper proposes a dc circuit breaker (DCCB) capable of implementing a no-arc interruption. The proposed DCCB includes a main branch consisting of a mechanical switch, a diode and a current-limiting inductor, a semi-period resonance circuit consisting of a diode, an inductor and a capacitor, and a buffer branch consisting of a capacitor, a thyristor and a resistor. The mechanical switch is opened in a zero-current state, and the overvoltage caused by the counter electromotive force of the inductor does not exist. Meanwhile, the capacitor has a buffering effect on the voltage. The rising of the voltage of the mechanical switch is slower than the rising of the insulating strength of a contact gap of the mechanical switch, resulting in the contact gap not able to be broken down. Thus, the arc cannot be generated. The simulation results show that the proposed DCCB does not generate the arc in the interruption process, the rise rate of the short circuit current can be effectively limited, and the short circuit fault point can be rapidly isolated from the dc power supply.

  6. Microwave-signal generation in a planar Gunn diode with radiation exposure taken into account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obolenskaya, E. S., E-mail: bess009@mail.ru, E-mail: obolensk@rf.unn.ru; Tarasova, E. A.; Churin, A. Yu.; Obolensky, S. V. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (NNSU) (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Microwave-signal generation in planar Gunn diodes with a two-dimensional electron gas, in which we previously studied steady-state electron transport, is theoretically studied. The applicability of a control electrode similar to a field-effect transistor gate to control the parameters of the output diode microwave signal is considered. The results of physical-topological modeling of semiconductor structures with different diode active-region structures, i.e., without a quantum well, with one and two quantum wells separated by a potential barrier, are compared. The calculated results are compared with our previous experimental data on recording Gunn generation in a Schottky-gate field-effect transistor. It is theoretically and experimentally shown that the power of the signal generated by the planar Gunn diode with a quantum well and a control electrode is sufficient to implement monolithic integrated circuits of different functionalities. It is theoretically and experimentally shown that the use of a control electrode on account of the introduction of corrective feedback allows a significant increase in the radiation resistance of a microwave generator with Schottky-gate field-effect transistors.

  7. Microwave-signal generation in a planar Gunn diode with radiation exposure taken into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obolenskaya, E. S.; Tarasova, E. A.; Churin, A. Yu.; Obolensky, S. V.; Kozlov, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    Microwave-signal generation in planar Gunn diodes with a two-dimensional electron gas, in which we previously studied steady-state electron transport, is theoretically studied. The applicability of a control electrode similar to a field-effect transistor gate to control the parameters of the output diode microwave signal is considered. The results of physical-topological modeling of semiconductor structures with different diode active-region structures, i.e., without a quantum well, with one and two quantum wells separated by a potential barrier, are compared. The calculated results are compared with our previous experimental data on recording Gunn generation in a Schottky-gate field-effect transistor. It is theoretically and experimentally shown that the power of the signal generated by the planar Gunn diode with a quantum well and a control electrode is sufficient to implement monolithic integrated circuits of different functionalities. It is theoretically and experimentally shown that the use of a control electrode on account of the introduction of corrective feedback allows a significant increase in the radiation resistance of a microwave generator with Schottky-gate field-effect transistors.

  8. Resonant Rectifier ICs for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Using Low-Voltage Drop Diode Equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Amad Ud; Chandrathna, Seneke Chamith; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2017-04-19

    Herein, we present the design technique of a resonant rectifier for piezoelectric (PE) energy harvesting. We propose two diode equivalents to reduce the voltage drop in the rectifier operation, a minuscule-drop-diode equivalent (MDDE) and a low-drop-diode equivalent (LDDE). The diode equivalents are embedded in resonant rectifier integrated circuits (ICs), which use symmetric bias-flip to reduce the power used for charging and discharging the internal capacitance of a PE transducer. The self-startup function is supported by synchronously generating control pulses for the bias-flip from the PE transducer. Two resonant rectifier ICs, using both MDDE and LDDE, are fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and their performances are characterized under external and self-power conditions. Under the external-power condition, the rectifier using LDDE delivers an output power P OUT of 564 μW and a rectifier output voltage V RECT of 3.36 V with a power transfer efficiency of 68.1%. Under self-power conditions, the rectifier using MDDE delivers a P OUT of 288 μW and a V RECT of 2.4 V with a corresponding efficiency of 78.4%. Using the proposed bias-flip technique, the power extraction capability of the proposed rectifier is 5.9 and 3.0 times higher than that of a conventional full-bridge rectifier.

  9. Resonant Rectifier ICs for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Using Low-Voltage Drop Diode Equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Amad Ud; Chandrathna, Seneke Chamith; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we present the design technique of a resonant rectifier for piezoelectric (PE) energy harvesting. We propose two diode equivalents to reduce the voltage drop in the rectifier operation, a minuscule-drop-diode equivalent (MDDE) and a low-drop-diode equivalent (LDDE). The diode equivalents are embedded in resonant rectifier integrated circuits (ICs), which use symmetric bias-flip to reduce the power used for charging and discharging the internal capacitance of a PE transducer. The self-startup function is supported by synchronously generating control pulses for the bias-flip from the PE transducer. Two resonant rectifier ICs, using both MDDE and LDDE, are fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and their performances are characterized under external and self-power conditions. Under the external-power condition, the rectifier using LDDE delivers an output power POUT of 564 μW and a rectifier output voltage VRECT of 3.36 V with a power transfer efficiency of 68.1%. Under self-power conditions, the rectifier using MDDE delivers a POUT of 288 μW and a VRECT of 2.4 V with a corresponding efficiency of 78.4%. Using the proposed bias-flip technique, the power extraction capability of the proposed rectifier is 5.9 and 3.0 times higher than that of a conventional full-bridge rectifier. PMID:28422085

  10. Laser diode package with enhanced cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deri, Robert J [Pleasanton, CA; Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA; Spadaccini, Christopher M [Oakland, CA

    2011-09-13

    A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

  11. Carbon nanotube Schottky diode: an atomic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, P; Li, E; Kurniawan, O; Koh, W S; Lam, K T

    2008-01-01

    The electron transport properties of semiconducting carbon nanotube (SCNT) Schottky diodes are investigated with atomic models using density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function method. We model the SCNT Schottky diode as a SCNT embedded in the metal electrode, which resembles the experimental set-up. Our study reveals that the rectification behaviour of the diode is mainly due to the asymmetric electron transmission function distribution in the conduction and valence bands and can be improved by changing metal-SCNT contact geometries. The threshold voltage of the diode depends on the electron Schottky barrier height which can be tuned by altering the diameter of the SCNT. Contrary to the traditional perception, the metal-SCNT contact region exhibits better conductivity than the other parts of the diode

  12. Tunable diode-pumped-LNA laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassimi, A.; Hardy, V.; Hamel, J.; Leduc, M.

    1987-01-01

    Diode-pumped crystals provided recently new compact laser devices. We report the first end pumping of a La x Nd 1-x MgAl 11 O 19 (LNA) crystal using a 200mW diode array (Spectra Diode Lab). We also report the first results obtained with a 1mW diode (SONY). This C.W. laser can be tuned from 1.048μm to 1.086μm. Without selective elements in the cavity, the laser emits around 1.054μm with a threshold of 24mW and a slope efficiency of 4.4% (output mirror of transmission T = 1%) when pumped by the diode array. With the selective elements, the threshold increases to 100mW and we obtain a power of 4mW for a pump power of 200mW

  13. Stopping atoms with diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, R.N.; Wieman, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The use of light pressure to cool and stop neutral atoms has been an area of considerable interest recently. Cooled neutral atoms are needed for a variety of interesting experiments involving neutral atom traps and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. Laser cooling of sodium has previously been demonstrated using elegant but quite elaborate apparatus. These techniques employed stabilized dye lasers and a variety of additional sophisticated hardware. The authors have demonstrated that a frequency chirp technique can be implemented using inexpensive diode lasers and simple electronics. In this technique the atoms in an atomic beam scatter resonant photons from a counterpropagating laser beam. The momentum transfer from the photons slows the atoms. The primary difficulty is that as the atoms slow their Doppler shift changes, and so they are no longer in resonance with the incident photons. In the frequency chirp technique this is solved by rapidly changing the laser frequency so that the atoms remain in resonance. To achieve the necessary frequency sweep with a dye laser one must use an extremely sophisticated high-speed electrooptic modulator. With a diode laser, however, the frequency can be smoothly and rapidly varied over many gigahertz simply by changing the injection current

  14. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  15. Variational integrators for electric circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober-Blöbaum, Sina; Tao, Molei; Cheng, Mulin; Owhadi, Houman; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, we develop a variational integrator for the simulation of (stochastic and multiscale) electric circuits. When considering the dynamics of an electric circuit, one is faced with three special situations: 1. The system involves external (control) forcing through external (controlled) voltage sources and resistors. 2. The system is constrained via the Kirchhoff current (KCL) and voltage laws (KVL). 3. The Lagrangian is degenerate. Based on a geometric setting, an appropriate variational formulation is presented to model the circuit from which the equations of motion are derived. A time-discrete variational formulation provides an iteration scheme for the simulation of the electric circuit. Dependent on the discretization, the intrinsic degeneracy of the system can be canceled for the discrete variational scheme. In this way, a variational integrator is constructed that gains several advantages compared to standard integration tools for circuits; in particular, a comparison to BDF methods (which are usually the method of choice for the simulation of electric circuits) shows that even for simple LCR circuits, a better energy behavior and frequency spectrum preservation can be observed using the developed variational integrator

  16. A low-power, CMOS peak detect and hold circuit for nuclear pulse spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.N.; Simpson, M.L.; Britton, C.L.; Allen, M.D.; Kroeger, R.A.; Inderhees, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    A low-power CMOS peak detecting track and hold circuit optimized for nuclear pulse spectroscopy is presented. The circuit topology eliminates the need for a rectifying diode, reducing the effect of charge injection into the hold capacitor, incorporates a linear gate at the input to prevent pulse pileup, and uses dynamic bias control that minimizes both pedestal and droop. Both positive-going and negative-going pulses are accommodated using a complementary set of track and hold circuits. Full characterization of the design fabricated in 1.2μm CMOS including dynamic range, integral nonlinearity, droop rate, pedestal, and power measurements is presented. Additionally, analysis and design approaches for optimization of operational characteristics are discussed

  17. Periodicity, chaos, and multiple attractors in a memristor-based Shinriki's circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kengne, J. [Laboratory of Automation and Applied Computer (LAIA), Department of Electrical Engineering, IUT-FV Bandjoun, University of Dschang, Dschang (Cameroon); Njitacke Tabekoueng, Z.; Kamdoum Tamba, V.; Nguomkam Negou, A. [Laboratory of Automation and Applied Computer (LAIA), Department of Electrical Engineering, IUT-FV Bandjoun, University of Dschang, Dschang (Cameroon); Department of Physics, Laboratory of Electronics and Signal Processing (LETS), Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang (Cameroon)

    2015-10-15

    In this contribution, a novel memristor-based oscillator, obtained from Shinriki's circuit by substituting the nonlinear positive conductance with a first order memristive diode bridge, is introduced. The model is described by a continuous time four-dimensional autonomous system with smooth nonlinearities. The basic dynamical properties of the system are investigated including equilibria and stability, phase portraits, frequency spectra, bifurcation diagrams, and Lyapunov exponents' spectrum. It is found that in addition to the classical period-doubling and symmetry restoring crisis scenarios reported in the original circuit, the memristor-based oscillator experiences the unusual and striking feature of multiple attractors (i.e., coexistence of a pair of asymmetric periodic attractors with a pair of asymmetric chaotic ones) over a broad range of circuit parameters. Results of theoretical analyses are verified by laboratory experimental measurements.

  18. Compact self-powered synchronous energy extraction circuit design with enhanced performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiqun; Zhao, Caiyou; Badel, Adrien; Formosa, Fabien; Zhu, Qiao; Hu, Guangdi

    2018-04-01

    Synchronous switching circuit is viewed as an effective solution of enhancing the generator’s performance and providing better adaptability for load variations. A critical issue for these synchronous switching circuits is the self-powered realization. In contrast with other methods, the electronic breaker possesses the advantage of simplicity and reliability. However, beside the energy consumption of the electronic breakers, the parasitic capacitance decreases the available piezoelectric voltage. In this technical note, a new compact design of the self-powered switching circuit using electronic breaker is proposed. The envelope diodes are excluded and only a single envelope capacitor is used. The parasitic capacitance is reduced to half with boosted performance while the components are reduced with cost saved.

  19. Demonstration of a High Open-Circuit Voltage GaN Betavoltaic Microbattery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Zai-Jun; San Hai-Sheng; Chen Xu-Yuan; Liu Bo; Feng Zhi-Hong

    2011-01-01

    A high open-circuit voltage betavoltaic microbattery based on a GaN p-i-n diode is demonstrated. Under the irradiation of a 4×4 mm 2 planar solid 63 Ni source with an activity of 2 mCi, the open-circuit voltage V oc of the fabricated single 2×2mm 2 cell reaches as high as 1.62 V, the short-circuit current density J sc is measured to be 16nA/cm 2 . The microbattery has a fill factor of 55%, and the energy conversion efficiency of beta radiation into electricity reaches to 1.13%. The results suggest that GaN is a highly promising potential candidate for long-life betavoltaic microbatteries used as power supplies for microelectromechanical system devices. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  20. New pixel circuit compensating poly-si TFT threshold-voltage shift for a driving AMOLED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, C. L.; Lin, Y. Y.; Lin, B. S.; Chang, J. Y.; Fan, C. L.; Chang, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a novel pixel circuit that uses only n-type low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) to simplify the fabrication process of active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. The proposed pixel circuit consists of five switching TFTs, one driving TFT (DTFT), and two capacitors. The output current and the OLED anode voltage error rates are about 3% and 0.7%, respectively. Thus, the pixel circuit can realize uniform output current with high immunity to the poly-Si TFT threshold voltage deviation. The proposed novel pixel design has great potential for use in large-size, high-resolution AMOLED displays.

  1. Integrated circuits, and design and manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auracher, Stefan; Pribbernow, Claus; Hils, Andreas

    2006-04-18

    A representation of a macro for an integrated circuit layout. The representation may define sub-circuit cells of a module. The module may have a predefined functionality. The sub-circuit cells may include at least one reusable circuit cell. The reusable circuit cell may be configured such that when the predefined functionality of the module is not used, the reusable circuit cell is available for re-use.

  2. Analytical study on discrete model of virtual cathode in a high-current diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privezentsev, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Interest in investigation of virtual cathode dynamics related to the development of high-current accelerator equipment is caused by the possibility of its application for ion collective acceleration in direct high-current electron beams and generation of power electromagnetic radiation. The Hamiltonian form of a plane sheet model for a high-current flux in a plane diode is investigated. Variables used permit to carry out the investigation of dynamics of the virtual cathode flux by the method of coordinate point transformations in a phase space. The necessity of numerical integration of sheet motion equations is dropped out in this case. Analytical solution of the suggested iterative circuit for total flux passage is presented as an example. The solution obtained is equivalent to the known results of the plane diode theory, obtained in the hydrodynamic approximation

  3. The Maplin electronic circuits handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The Maplin Electronic Circuits Handbook provides pertinent data, formula, explanation, practical guidance, theory and practical guidance in the design, testing, and construction of electronic circuits. This book discusses the developments in electronics technology techniques.Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the common types of passive component. This text then provides the reader with sufficient information to make a correct selection of passive components for use in the circuits. Other chapters consider the various types of the most commonly used semiconductor

  4. Secure integrated circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Verbauwhede, Ingrid MR

    2010-01-01

    On any advanced integrated circuit or 'system-on-chip' there is a need for security. In many applications the actual implementation has become the weakest link in security rather than the algorithms or protocols. The purpose of the book is to give the integrated circuits and systems designer an insight into the basics of security and cryptography from the implementation point of view. As a designer of integrated circuits and systems it is important to know both the state-of-the-art attacks as well as the countermeasures. Optimizing for security is different from optimizations for speed, area,

  5. INTEGRATED SENSOR EVALUATION CIRCUIT AND METHOD FOR OPERATING SAID CIRCUIT

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Jens; Gausa, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    WO15090426A1 Sensor evaluation device and method for operating said device Integrated sensor evaluation circuit for evaluating a sensor signal (14) received from a sensor (12), having a first connection (28a) for connection to the sensor and a second connection (28b) for connection to the sensor. The integrated sensor evaluation circuit comprises a configuration data memory (16) for storing configuration data which describe signal properties of a plurality of sensor control signals (26a-c). T...

  6. Semiconductor device models for circuit simulation power electronics; Modeles de composants semiconducteurs pour la simulation des circuits en electronique de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berraies, M.O.

    1998-09-10

    In this thesis, an alternative strategy based on a regional approach to modeling and a new partition of the model library in the simulation is proposed. The main objective is to substitute for the usual concept of `one device, on model` that of an adaptable assembly of a limited number of submodels associated with well-identified regions of semiconductor structures. In other words, the library will only contain the primitive building-blocks of the power device models. This strategy guarantees the compatibility of the various semiconductor models in terms of physical concepts, validity domain, accuracy, homogeneity of parameter identification procedures, similarly of implementation in the simulator. This approach has been applied to PIN diodes and IGBTs for experimental validation. The next step consisted on the simulation of circuit involving several interacting devices. A simple IGBT/PIN diode chopper cell has been chosen. The results obtained compare well with experiment. This demonstrates the consistency of the proposed approach. (author) 43 refs.

  7. Electric Circuit Model Analogy for Equilibrium Lattice Relaxation in Semiconductor Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujofsa, Tedi; Ayers, John E.

    2018-01-01

    The design and analysis of semiconductor strained-layer device structures require an understanding of the equilibrium profiles of strain and dislocations associated with mismatched epitaxy. Although it has been shown that the equilibrium configuration for a general semiconductor strained-layer structure may be found numerically by energy minimization using an appropriate partitioning of the structure into sublayers, such an approach is computationally intense and non-intuitive. We have therefore developed a simple electric circuit model approach for the equilibrium analysis of these structures. In it, each sublayer of an epitaxial stack may be represented by an analogous circuit configuration involving an independent current source, a resistor, an independent voltage source, and an ideal diode. A multilayered structure may be built up by the connection of the appropriate number of these building blocks, and the node voltages in the analogous electric circuit correspond to the equilibrium strains in the original epitaxial structure. This enables analysis using widely accessible circuit simulators, and an intuitive understanding of electric circuits can easily be extended to the relaxation of strained-layer structures. Furthermore, the electrical circuit model may be extended to continuously-graded epitaxial layers by considering the limit as the individual sublayer thicknesses are diminished to zero. In this paper, we describe the mathematical foundation of the electrical circuit model, demonstrate its application to several representative structures involving In x Ga1- x As strained layers on GaAs (001) substrates, and develop its extension to continuously-graded layers. This extension allows the development of analytical expressions for the strain, misfit dislocation density, critical layer thickness and widths of misfit dislocation free zones for a continuously-graded layer having an arbitrary compositional profile. It is similar to the transition from circuit

  8. Quantum circuit behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulton, D.

    1989-09-01

    Single electron tunnelling in multiply connected weak link systems is considered. Using a second quantised approach the tunnel current, in both normal and superconducting systems, using perturbation theory, is derived. The tunnel currents are determined as a function of an Aharanov-Bohm phase (acquired by the electrons). Using these results, the multiply connected system is then discussed when coupled to a resonant LC circuit. The resulting dynamics of this composite system are then determined. In the superconducting case the results are compared and contrasted with flux mode behaviour seen in large superconducting weak link rings. Systems in which the predicted dynamics may be seen are also discussed. In analogy to the electron tunnelling analysis, the tunnelling of magnetic flux quanta through the weak link is also considered. Here, the voltage across the weak link, due to flux tunnelling, is determined as a function of an externally applied current. This is done for both singly and multiply connected flux systems. The results are compared and contrasted with charge mode behaviour seen in superconducting weak link systems. Finally, the behaviour of simple quantum fluids is considered when subject to an external rotation. Using a microscopic analysis it is found that the microscopic quantum behaviour of the particles is manifest on a macroscopic level. Results are derived for bosonic, fermionic and BCS pair-type systems. The connection between flux quantisation in electromagnetic systems is also made. Using these results, the dynamics of such a quantum fluid is considered when coupled to a rotating torsional oscillator. The results are compared with those found in SQUID devices. A model is also presented which discusses the possible excited state dynamics of such a fluid. (author)

  9. Diode lasers: From laboratory to industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Hira; Jamil, Yasir

    2014-03-01

    The invention of first laser in 1960 triggered the discovery of several new families of lasers. A rich interplay of different lasing materials resulted in a far better understanding of the phenomena particularly linked with atomic and molecular spectroscopy. Diode lasers have gone through tremendous developments on the forefront of applied physics that have shown novel ways to the researchers. Some interesting attributes of the diode lasers like cost effectiveness, miniature size, high reliability and relative simplicity of use make them good candidates for utilization in various practical applications. Diode lasers are being used by a variety of professionals and in several spectroscopic techniques covering many areas of pure and applied sciences. Diode lasers have revolutionized many fields like optical communication industry, medical science, trace gas monitoring, studies related to biology, analytical chemistry including elemental analysis, war fare studies etc. In this paper the diode laser based technologies and measurement techniques ranging from laboratory research to automated field and industry have been reviewed. The application specific developments of diode lasers and various methods of their utilization particularly during the last decade are discussed comprehensively. A detailed snapshot of the current state of the art diode laser applications is given along with a detailed discussion on the upcoming challenges.

  10. A single-molecule diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Mark; Ochs, Rolf; Koentopp, Max; Fischer, Matthias; von Hänisch, Carsten; Weigend, Florian; Evers, Ferdinand; Weber, Heiko B.; Mayor, Marcel

    2005-06-01

    We have designed and synthesized a molecular rod that consists of two weakly coupled electronic π -systems with mutually shifted energy levels. The asymmetry thus implied manifests itself in a current-voltage characteristic with pronounced dependence on the sign of the bias voltage, which makes the molecule a prototype for a molecular diode. The individual molecules were immobilized by sulfur-gold bonds between both electrodes of a mechanically controlled break junction, and their electronic transport properties have been investigated. The results indeed show diode-like current-voltage characteristics. In contrast to that, control experiments with symmetric molecular rods consisting of two identical π -systems did not show significant asymmetries in the transport properties. To investigate the underlying transport mechanism, phenomenological arguments are combined with calculations based on density functional theory. The theoretical analysis suggests that the bias dependence of the polarizability of the molecule feeds back into the current leading to an asymmetric shape of the current-voltage characteristics, similar to the phenomena in a semiconductor diode. Author contributions: F.E., H.B.W., and M.M. designed research; M.E., R.O., M.K., M.F., F.E., H.B.W., and M.M. performed research; M.E., R.O., M.K., M.F., C.v.H., F.W., F.E., H.B.W., and M.M. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; M.E., R.O., M.K., C.v.H., F.E., H.B.W., and M.M. analyzed data; and F.E., H.B.W., and M.M. wrote the paper.This paper was submitted directly (Track II) to the PNAS office.Abbreviations: A, acceptor; D, donor; MCB, mechanically controlled break junction.Data deposition: The atomic coordinates have been deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database, Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre, Cambridge CB2 1EZ, United Kingdom (CSD reference no. 241632).

  11. Transistor and integrated circuit manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colman, D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to the manufacture of transistors and integrated circuits by ion bombardment techniques and is particularly, but not exclusively, of value in the manufacture of so-called integrated injection logic circuitry. (author)

  12. Time domain analog circuit simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnvandraat, J.G.; Houben, S.H.M.J.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Peters, J.M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of new methods for simulating electric circuits are described. Emphasis is put on methods that fit existing datastructures for backward differentiation formulae methods. These methods can be modified to apply to hierarchically organized datastructures, which allows for efficient

  13. Circuit design on plastic foils

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Daniele; Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates a variety of circuit designs on plastic foils and provides all the information needed to undertake successful designs in large-area electronics.  The authors demonstrate architectural, circuit, layout, and device solutions and explain the reasons and the creative process behind each. Readers will learn how to keep under control large-area technologies and achieve robust, reliable circuit designs that can face the challenges imposed by low-cost low-temperature high-throughput manufacturing.   • Discusses implications of problems associated with large-area electronics and compares them to standard silicon; • Provides the basis for understanding physics and modeling of disordered material; • Includes guidelines to quickly setup the basic CAD tools enabling efficient and reliable designs; • Illustrates practical solutions to cope with hard/soft faults, variability, mismatch, aging and bias stress at architecture, circuit, layout, and device levels.

  14. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V [ru

  15. Transistor and integrated circuit manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colman, D

    1978-09-27

    This invention relates to the manufacture of transistors and integrated circuits by ion bombardment techniques and is particularly, but not exclusively, of value in the manufacture of so-called integrated injection logic circuitry.

  16. Ignition circuit for combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H W

    1977-05-26

    The invention refers to the ignition circuit for combustion engines, which are battery fed. The circuit contains a transistor and an oscillator to produce an output voltage on the secondary winding of an output transformer to supply an ignition current. The plant is controlled by an interrupter. The purpose of the invention is to form such a circuit that improved sparks for ignition are produced, on the one hand, and that on the other hand, the plant can continue to function after loss of the oscillator. The problem is solved by the battery and the secondary winding of the output transformers of the oscillator are connected via a rectifier circuit to produce a resultant total voltage with the ignition coil from the battery voltage and the rectified pulsating oscillator output.

  17. Reverse engineering of integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Gregory H.; Eckmann, Steven T.; Lain, Christopher M.; Veroff, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

  18. Simultaneous dual-functioning InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well diode for transferrable optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng; Yuan, Jialei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Yuhuai; Wang, Yongjin

    2017-10-01

    We propose a wafer-level procedure for the fabrication of 1.5-mm-diameter dual functioning InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) diodes on a GaN-on-silicon platform for transferrable optoelectronics. Nitride semiconductor materials are grown on (111) silicon substrates with intermediate Al-composition step-graded buffer layers, and membrane-type MQW-diode architectures are obtained by a combination of silicon removal and III-nitride film backside thinning. Suspended MQW-diodes are directly transferred from silicon to foreign substrates such as metal, glass and polyethylene terephthalate by mechanically breaking the support beams. The transferred MQW-diodes display strong electroluminescence under current injection and photodetection under light irradiation. Interestingly, they demonstrate a simultaneous light-emitting light-detecting function, endowing the 1.5-mm-diameter MQW-diode with the capability of producing transferrable optoelectronics for adjustable displays, wearable optical sensors, multifunctional energy harvesting, flexible light communication and monolithic photonic circuit.

  19. Improvement in recuperative gas cycles by means of a heat generator partly by-passing the recuperator. Application to open and closed cycles and to various kinds of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.; Pierre, B.

    1979-01-01

    A particular arrangement applicable to open or closed recuperative gas cycles and consisting of a heat generator partly by-passing the low pressure side of the recuperator is proven to enhance advantages of gas cycles for energy production. The cogeneration of both power with a high efficiency owing to the recuperator and high temperature process heat becomes possible and economically attractive. Furthermore, additional possibilities appear for power generation by combined gas and steam or ammonia cycles. In any case the overall utilization coefficient of the primary energy is increased and the combined production of low or medium temperature heat can also be improved. The great operation flexibility of the system for combined energy generation is worth being emphasized: the by-pass arrangement involves no significant change in the operation conditions of the main turbocompressor as the heat output varies. Applications of this arrangement are made to: - open and closed gas cycle, power plants; - fossil, nuclear and solar energies. The overall heat conversion efficiency is tentatively estimated in order to appreciate the energy conversion capability of the investigated power plants

  20. Cold cathode diode X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Lanza, R.C.; Sohval, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    A cold cathode diode X-ray source for radiation imaging, especially computed tomography, comprises a rod-like anode and a generally cylindrical cathode, concentric with the anode. The spacing between anode and cathode is so chosen that the diode has an impedance in excess of 100 ohms. The anode may be of tungsten, or of carbon with a tungsten and carbon coating. An array of such diodes may be used with a closely packed array of detectors to produce images of rapidly moving body organs, such as the beating heart. (author)

  1. A Portable Diode Array Spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David

    2016-05-01

    A cheap portable visible light spectrometer is presented. The spectrometer uses readily sourced items and could be constructed by anyone with a knowledge of electronics. The spectrometer covers the wavelength range 450-725 nm with a resolution better than 5 nm. The spectrometer uses a diffraction grating to separate wavelengths, which are detected using a 128-element diode array, the output of which is analyzed using a microprocessor. The spectrum is displayed on a small liquid crystal display screen and can be saved to a micro SD card for later analysis. Battery life (2 × AAA) is estimated to be 200 hours. The overall dimensions of the unit are 120 × 65 × 60 mm, and it weighs about 200 g. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  3. Solid State pH Sensor Based on Light Emitting Diodes (LED) As Detector Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, King Tong; Shepherd, R.; Diamond, Danny; Diamond, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    A low-power, high sensitivity, very low-cost light emitting diode (LED)-based device developed for low-cost sensor networks was modified with bromocresol green membrane to work as a solid-state pH sensor. In this approach, a reverse-biased LED functioning as a photodiode is coupled with a second LED configured in conventional emission mode. A simple timer circuit measures how long (in microsecond) it takes for the photocurrent generated on the detector LED to discharge its capacitance from lo...

  4. Progress in Applying Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy to Scramjet Isolators and Combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    us ing a T exas Instruments OPA380 transimpedance amplifier /op amp for each photodiode. This amplifier with 90 MHz of gain bandwidth is a single...spectra 4 2 Boltzmann plot for Run AC 6 3 CFD Simulations for isolator 7 4 Optical layout for diode laser system 11 5 Optical amplifier circuit 11 6...designed InGaAs photodiode arrays. These custom designed arrays amplify the signal f rom 2m m di ameter FGA21 phot odiodes ( FGA 21 f rom T horLabs

  5. Semiconductor laser diodes and the design of a D.C. powered laser diode drive unit

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuccio, Joseph C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis addresses the design, development and operational analysis of a D.C. powered semiconductor laser diode drive unit. A laser diode requires an extremely stable power supply since a picosecond spike of current or power supply switching transient could result in permanent damage. The design offers stability and various features for operational protection of the laser diode. The ability to intensity modulate (analog) and pulse m...

  6. Evaluation of treatment effects for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells using equivalent circuit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Masaki; Mori, Tatsuo

    2006-01-01

    Equivalent circuit analysis using a one-diode model was carried out as a simpler, more convenient method to evaluate the electric mechanism and to employ effective treatment of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC). Cells treated using acetic acid or 4,t-butylpyridine were measured under irradiation (0.1 W/m 2 , AM 1.5) to obtain current-voltage (I-V) curves. Cell performance and equivalent circuit parameters were calculated from the I-V curves. Evaluation based on residual factors was useful for better fitting of the equivalent circuit to the I-V curve. The diode factor value was often over two for high-performance DSCs. Acetic acid treatment was effective to increase the short-circuit current by decreasing the series resistance of cells. In contrast, 4,t-butylpyridine was effective to increase open-circuit voltage by increasing the cell shunt resistance. Previous explanations considered that acetic acid worked to decrease the internal resistance of the TiO 2 layer and butylpyridine worked to lower the back-electron-transfer from the TiO 2 to the electrolyte

  7. Sensitivity analysis of an LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier via a virtual circuit approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chiarantoni, Ernesto; Aquila, Antonio Dell’

    2004-01-01

    Three-phase active rectifiers based on the voltage source converter topology can successfully replace traditional thyristor based rectifiers or diode bridge plus chopper in interfacing dc-systems to the grid. However, if the application in which they are employed has a high safety issue......, to the grid side stiffness and to the parameters of the controller has never been detailed considered. In this paper the experimental results of an LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier are analysed with the circuit theory approach. A ?virtual circuit? is synthesized in role of the digital controller...

  8. Effect of swift heavy Kr ions on complex permittivity of silicon PIN diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yun [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Su, Ping, E-mail: pingsu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Yang, Zhimei; Ma, Yao [Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); Gong, Min, E-mail: mgong@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Lab of Microelectronics Sichuan Province, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The complex permittivity has been studied on Si PIN irradiated by heavy Kr ions. • DLTS was used to investigate damages formed in PIN diode during irradiation. • The recombination of carriers has important influence on the complex permittivity. - Abstract: The complex permittivity has been researched on silicon PIN diodes irradiated by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in this article. The difference of complex permittivity spectra from 1 to 10^7 Hz between irradiated and unirradiated were observed and discussed. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were measured at room temperature (300 K) to study the change of electrical properties in diode after irradiation. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was used to investigate damages caused by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in diode. Two extra electron traps were observed, which were located at E{sub C}-0.31 eV and E{sub C}-0.17 eV. It indicated that new defects have been formed in PIN diode during irradiation. A comparison of the results illustrated that not only the carrier density but also the recombination of electron-hole pair have important influences on the properties of complex permittivity. These results offer a further indication of the mechanism about the complex permittivity property of semiconductor device, which could help to make the applications for the semiconductor device controlled by electric signals come true in the fields of optoelectronic integrated circuits, plasma antenna and so on.

  9. Spectral Purity Enhancement via Polyphase Multipath Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2004-01-01

    The central question of this paper is: can we enhance the spectral purity of nonlinear circuits by using polyphase multipath circuits? The basic idea behind polyphase multipath circuits is to split the nonlinear circuits into two or more paths and exploit phase differences between these paths to

  10. Distortion Cancellation via Polyphase Multipath Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    The central question of this paper is: can we enhance the spectral purity of nonlinear circuits with the help of polyphase multipath circuits. Polyphase multipath circuits are circuits with two or more paths that exploit phase differences between the paths to cancel unwanted signals. It turns out

  11. Dynamic theory for the mesoscopic electric circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Shen Xiaojuan; Li Youquan; Sun LiLy; Yin Zhujian

    2005-01-01

    The quantum theory for mesoscopic electric circuit with charge discreteness is briefly described. The minibands of quasienergy in LC design mesoscopic electric circuit have been found. In the mesoscopic 'pure' inductance design circuit, just like in the mesoscopic metallic rings, the quantum dynamic characteristics have been obtained explicitly. In the 'pure' capacity design circuit, the Coulomb blockade had also been addressed

  12. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  13. Investigation of MIM Diodes for RF Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    zero bias condition as well as the possibility of realizing them through printing makes them attractive for (Radio Frequency) RF applications. However, MIM diodes have not been explored much for RF applications. One reason preventing their widespread RF

  14. Compact laser-diode-based femtosecond sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C T A; Cataluna, M A; Lagatsky, A A; Rafailov, E U; Agate, M B; Leburn, C G; Sibbett, W

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of compact femtosecond laser systems that are capable of being directly pumped by laser diodes or are based directly on laser diodes. The paper demonstrates the latest results in a highly efficient vibronic based gain medium and a diode-pumped Yb:KYW laser is reported that has a wall plug efficiency >14%. A Cr 4+ :YAG oscillator is described that generates transform-limited pulses of 81 fs duration at a pulse repetition frequency of >4 GHz. The development of Cr 3+ :LiSAF lasers that can be operated using power supplies based on batteries is briefly discussed. We also present a summary of work being carried out on the generation of fs-pulses from laser diodes and discuss the important issues in this area. Finally, we outline results obtained on the generation of pulses as short as 550 fs directly from a two-section quantum dot laser without any external pulse compression

  15. Diode laser (980nm) cartilage reshaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kharbotly, A.; El Tayeb, T.; Mostafa, Y.; Hesham, I.

    2011-03-01

    Loss of facial or ear cartilage due to trauma or surgery is a major challenge to the otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons as the complicated geometric contours are difficult to be animated. Diode laser (980 nm) has been proven effective in reshaping and maintaining the new geometric shape achieved by laser. This study focused on determining the optimum laser parameters needed for cartilage reshaping with a controlled water cooling system. Harvested animal cartilages were angulated with different degrees and irradiated with different diode laser powers (980nm, 4x8mm spot size). The cartilage specimens were maintained in a deformation angle for two hours after irradiation then released for another two hours. They were serially measured and photographed. High-power Diode laser irradiation with water cooling is a cheep and effective method for reshaping the cartilage needed for reconstruction of difficult situations in otorhinolaryngologic surgery. Key words: cartilage,diode laser (980nm), reshaping.

  16. Developments in lead-salt diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partin, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Lead-chalcogenide diode lasers are useful as mid-infrared sources (2-1/2 <λ<30 μm), but have generally operated CW below 100K. A new materials system, PbEuSeTe, has been used to fabricate diode lasers operating from 10K (at 6.5 μm wavelength) up to 174K CW (at 4.4 μm) and up to 280K pulsed (at 3.8 μm). These are large optical cavity single quantum well devices grown by molecular beam epitaxy. These are currently the highest diode laser operating temperatures ever achieved at these wavelengths to our knowledge. Single ended output powers as high as 1 mW single mode (5 mW multimode) have been attained from mesa stripe diodes. These characteristics make these devices attractive for long wavelength fiber optic sensor/communications systems. The performance limits of these devices are discussed

  17. AASERT-97 Development of New Diode Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2001-01-01

    This research explored new ways for diode laser fabrications. Focused was on the development of efficient organic light emitting materials and the fabrication of laser structures incorporating these materials...

  18. An RF Energy Harvester System Using UHF Micropower CMOS Rectifier Based on a Diode Connected CMOS Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shokrani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new type diode connected MOS transistor to improve CMOS conventional rectifier's performance in RF energy harvester systems for wireless sensor networks in which the circuits are designed in 0.18 μm TSMC CMOS technology. The proposed diode connected MOS transistor uses a new bulk connection which leads to reduction in the threshold voltage and leakage current; therefore, it contributes to increment of the rectifier’s output voltage, output current, and efficiency when it is well important in the conventional CMOS rectifiers. The design technique for the rectifiers is explained and a matching network has been proposed to increase the sensitivity of the proposed rectifier. Five-stage rectifier with a matching network is proposed based on the optimization. The simulation results shows 18.2% improvement in the efficiency of the rectifier circuit and increase in sensitivity of RF energy harvester circuit. All circuits are designed in 0.18 μm TSMC CMOS technology.

  19. The waffle: a new photovoltaic diode geometry having high efficiency and backside contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leistiko, Otto

    1994-01-01

    By employing anisotropic etching techniques and advanced device processing it is possible to micromachine new types of mechanical, electronic, and optical devices of silicon, which have unique properties. In this paper the characteristics of a new type of photovoltaic diode fabricated employing...... these processing techniques are described. This novel device has not only high efficiency, but also has both contacts placed on the backside of the cell. The first devices which are only 50 mm in diameter are of relatively good quality with low leakage currents (nA), high breakdown voltages (80 V), and low series...... resistance (mohms). The measured efficiencies at AM 1.5 lie between 12 to 15% with short circuit currents of 25-30 mA/cm2, and open circuit voltages of 0.58-0.6 V...

  20. A New Resonant Capacitor Diode Voltage Multiplier Topology for Pulsed Power Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kebriaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, the pulsed power systems have been employed in many applications. To meet the requirement of user, the pulse generator should enjoy the advantages of compactness, high flexibility, high pulse repetition rate and cost efficiency. Among all of converters that can be used to generate high voltage pulses, capacitance diode voltage multiplier (CDVM is a good candidate to meet the mentioned requirements. In this paper a new converter that is combination of full-bridge inverter, CDVM and resonant circuit is proposed. The performance of developed converter is compared with the conventional circuits and is demonstrated via simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Experimental tests on a prototype setup have verified the capability of this topology.

  1. Application of PIN diodes in Physics Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Jimenez, F. J.; Mondragon-Contreras, L.; Cruz-Estrada, P.

    2006-01-01

    A review of the application of PIN diodes as radiation detectors in different fields of Physics research is presented. The development and research in semiconductor technology, the use of PIN diodes in particle counting, X-and γ-ray spectroscopy, medical applications and charged particle spectroscopy are considered. Emphasis is made in the activities realized in the different research and development Mexican institutions dealing with this kind of radiation detectors

  2. Phase-change radiative thermal diode

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2013-01-01

    A thermal diode transports heat mainly in one preferential direction rather than in the opposite direction. This behavior is generally due to the non-linear dependence of certain physical properties with respect to the temperature. Here we introduce a radiative thermal diode which rectifies heat transport thanks to the phase transitions of materials. Rectification coefficients greater than 70% and up to 90% are shown, even for small temperature differences. This result could have important ap...

  3. Diode lasers and their applications in spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavone, F.S.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of semiconductor diode laser in different fields ranging from communications to spectroscopy is becoming huge and pushes the research into developing sources satisfying the different requirements. For applications related to trace gas detection, the low amplitude noise in the light source of semiconductor diode laser is sufficient to obtain interesting results. Trace gas of molecular species as methane is interesting for different reason: it plays an important role in both radiative transport an photochemistry in the atmosphere

  4. Laser semiconductor diode integrated with frequency doubler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighineanu, I.; Dorogan, V.; Suruceanu, G.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the technology of optoelectronic semiconductor devices and may be used in the production of laser semiconductor diodes integrated with optical nonlinear elements. The laser semiconductor diode integrated with frequency doubler includes a semiconductor substrate, a laser structure with waveguide. metal contacts in the waveguide of the laser structure it is formed a nanostructured field so that the nanostructure provides for the fulfillment of the phase synchronism conditions

  5. Radiation effects in semiconductor laser diode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of radiation events are important for many of the present and future applications that involve optoelectronic components. Laser diodes show a strong resistance to degradation by gamma rays, prompt x-rays and (to a lesser extent), neutrons. This is due to the short carrier lifetime that is associated with stimulated emission and the high current injection conditions that are present in these devices. Radiation-resistant properties should carry over to many of the more recently developed devices such as multi-stripe array and broad area laser diodes. There are, however, additional considerations for radiation tolerance that are introduced by these devices. Arrays and other high power laser diodes have larger active region volumes than lower power single stripe devices. In addition, evanescent field coupling between stripes, the material quality available from newer MOCVD epitaxial growth techniques, and stripe definition methods may all influence the radiation tolerance of the high power laser diode devices. Radiation tests have been conducted on various GaAs-GaAlAs laser diode array and broad area devices. Tests involving total gamma dose have indicated that high power laser diodes and arrays have small degradations in light power output with current input after 4 MRad(Si) of radiation from a Co 60 source. Additional test results involving flash x-rays indicate that high power diode lasers and arrays are tolerant to 10 12 rads(Si)/sec, when observed on microsecond or millisecond time scales. High power diode laser devices were also irradiated with neutrons to a fluence of 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 with some degradation of threshold current level

  6. Instrumentation and test gear circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation and Test Gear Circuits Manual provides diagrams, graphs, tables, and discussions of several types of practical circuits. The practical circuits covered in this book include attenuators, bridges, scope trace doublers, timebases, and digital frequency meters. Chapter 1 discusses the basic instrumentation and test gear principles. Chapter 2 deals with the design of passive attenuators, and Chapter 3 with passive and active filter circuits. The subsequent chapters tackle 'bridge' circuits, analogue and digital metering techniques and circuitry, signal and waveform generation, and p

  7. Logic circuits from zero forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael

    We design logic circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity. Moreover, in the light of applications of zero forcing in quantum mechanics, the link with Boolean functions may suggest a new directions in quantum control theory and in the study of engineered quantum spin systems. It is an open technical problem to verify whether there is a link between zero forcing and computation with contact circuits.

  8. Installations having pressurised fluid circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigg, S.; Grant, J.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to nuclear installations having pressurised coolant flow circuits. Breaches in such circuits may quickly result in much damage to the plant. Devices such as non-return valves, orifice plates, and automatically operated shut-off valves have been provided to prevent or reduce fluid flow through a breached pipe line, but such devices have several disadvantages; they may present large restrictions to normal flow of coolant, and may depend on the operation of ancillary equipment, with consequent delay in bringing them into operation in an emergency. Other expedients that have been adopted to prevent or reduce reverse flow through an upstream breach comprise various forms of hydraulic counter flow brakes. The arrangement described has at least one variable fluid brake comprising a fluidic device connected into a duct in the pressurised circuit, the device having an inlet, an outlet, a vortex chamber between the inlet and outlet, a control jet for introducing fluid into the vortex chamber, connections communicating the inlet and the outlet into one part of the circuit and the control jet into another region at a complementary pressure so that, in the event of a breach in the circuit in one region, fluid passes from the other region to enter the vortex chamber to stimulate pressure to create a flow restricting vortex in the chamber that reduces flow through the breach. The system finds particular application to stream generating pressure tube reactors, such as the steam generating heavy water reactor at UKAEA, Winfrith. (U.K.)

  9. 30 CFR 75.601-1 - Short circuit protection; ratings and settings of circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit protection; ratings and settings... Trailing Cables § 75.601-1 Short circuit protection; ratings and settings of circuit breakers. Circuit breakers providing short circuit protection for trailing cables shall be set so as not to exceed the...

  10. 30 CFR 77.506 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short-circuit protection. 77.506 Section 77.506 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. Automatic circuit-breaking devices or fuses of the correct type and capacity shall be installed so as to protect all electric equipment and circuits against short...

  11. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short circuit protection. 75.518 Section 75.518 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.518 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection... installed so as to protect all electric equipment and circuits against short circuit and overloads. Three...

  12. Multiplication circuit for particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlier, Jean

    1962-01-01

    After having commented some characteristics of the particles present in a cyclotron, and their interactions, this report addresses the development and the implementation of a method and a device for selecting and counting particles. The author presents the principle and existing techniques of selection. In comparison with an existing device, the proportional counter and the scintillator are replaced by junctions: a surface barrier type junction (a silicon N layer with a very thin oxygen layer playing the role of the P layer), and lithium-based junction (a silicon P type layer made intrinsic by migration of lithium). The author then describes the developed circuit and assembly (background of the choice of a multiplication circuit), and their operation. In the next part, he presents the performed tests and discuses the obtained results. He finally outlines the benefits of the herein presented circuit [fr

  13. Wiring of electronic evaluation circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.; Svoboda, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The wiring is described of electronic evaluation circuits for the automatic viewing of photographic paper strip negatives on which line tracks with an angular scatter relative to the spectrograph longitudinal axis were recorded during the oblique flight of nuclear particles during exposure in the spectrograph. In coincidence evaluation, the size of the angular scatter eventually requires that evaluation dead time be increased. The equipment consists of minimally two fixed registers and a block of logic circuits whose output is designed such as will allow connection to equipment for recording signals corresponding to the number of tracks on the film. The connection may be implemented using integrated circuits guaranteeing high operating reliability and life. (J.B.)

  14. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit for propelling a projectile along a railgun the counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit consists of: a railgun having an effective inductance; a source inductor initially charged to an initial current; current means for initially charging the source inductor to the initial current; first current-zero type switching means; second current-zero type switching; third current-zero type switching; muzzle current-zero type switching means; transfer capacitor, the transfer capacitor is for cooperating with the first, second, third, and muzzle current-zero type switching means for providing a resonant circuit for transferring current from the source inductor to the effective inductance of the railgun during the propelling of a projectile along the railgun and for returning current from the effective inductance of the railgun to the source inductance after the projectile has exited the railgun

  15. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  16. Improvement in Brightness Uniformity by Compensating for the Threshold Voltages of Both the Driving Thin-Film Transistor and the Organic Light-Emitting Diode for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel pixel circuit design and driving method for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM-OLED displays that use low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs as driving element. The automatic integrated circuit modeling simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (AIM-SPICE simulator was used to verify that the proposed pixel circuit, which comprises five transistors and one capacitor, can supply uniform output current. The voltage programming method of the proposed pixel circuit comprises three periods: reset, compensation with data input, and emission periods. The simulated results reflected excellent performance. For instance, when ΔVTH=±0.33 V, the average error rate of the OLED current variation was low (<0.8%, and when ΔVTH_OLED=+0.33 V, the error rate of the OLED current variation was 4.7%. Moreover, when the I×R (current × resistance drop voltage of a power line was 0.3 V, the error rate of the OLED current variation was 5.8%. The simulated results indicated that the proposed pixel circuit exhibits high immunity to the threshold voltage deviation of both the driving poly-Si TFTs and OLEDs, and simultaneously compensates for the I×R drop voltage of a power line.

  17. Experimental studies for improvement of thermal effects in a high-power fiber-coupled diode laser module operating at 808 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; Hussein, Khalid; Hassan, Mahmoud F.; Talat, Mahmoud M.

    2012-03-01

    High power diode laser module operating at 808 nm is required for different applications, such as developing an efficient high power Nd3+-doped solid state laser and Tm3+ -doped silica fiber laser, industrial, medical and military applications. Optical and thermal images characterization for a fiber-coupled high power diode laser module is presented experimentally for 6.6 Watt output optical power .An external temperature controller system was designed, which stabilizes the central wavelength at 808 nm at 25°C over a wide range of diode laser driving current from 1A to 6 A. without this cooling system, the wavelength changes by 0.35nm/°C for temperature changes from 20°C to 40°C at the same range of the driving current. In this paper we have present a methodology for temperature reduction of a 808 nm high power diode laser module, based on dynamically thermal control, which is known as dynamic thermal management. Stabilization of the output wavelength has been done by using proportional speed control (PSC) of a CPU cooling fan with certain scheme of straight fins heat sink. Two electronic circuits based on pulse width modulation (PWM) in microcontroller and comparators IC have been used. This technique can be considered as an effective mechanism for reducing temperature and power dissipation to make stabilization of the diode laser output wavelength by preventing heat accumulation from the thermo electric cooling (TEC) inside the diode laser module confirmed by thermal images.

  18. Operation and maintenance manual for diode performance analysis program DIODE0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, W.B.

    1977-03-01

    This program computes diode performance parameters for the e beam fusion accelerators HYDRA, PROTO I and PROTO II. The program works in conjunction with other programs in the data acquisition facility library. It reads the input data produced by the Tekronix R7012 Transient Digitizers off the disc. It then computes and plots the diode corrected voltages, impedances, powers, and energies

  19. Fermionic models with superconducting circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Las Heras, Urtzi; Garcia-Alvarez, Laura; Mezzacapo, Antonio; Lamata, Lucas [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); Solano, Enrique [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method for the efficient quantum simulation of fermionic systems with superconducting circuits. It consists in the suitable use of Jordan-Wigner mapping, Trotter decomposition, and multiqubit gates, be with the use of a quantum bus or direct capacitive couplings. We apply our method to the paradigmatic cases of 1D and 2D Fermi-Hubbard models, involving couplings with nearest and next-nearest neighbours. Furthermore, we propose an optimal architecture for this model and discuss the benchmarking of the simulations in realistic circuit quantum electrodynamics setups. (orig.)

  20. Circuit modeling for electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    Darney, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    Very simply, electromagnetic interference (EMI) costs money, reduces profits, and generally wreaks havoc for circuit designers in all industries. This book shows how the analytic tools of circuit theory can be used to simulate the coupling of interference into, and out of, any signal link in the system being reviewed. The technique is simple, systematic and accurate. It enables the design of any equipment to be tailored to meet EMC requirements. Every electronic system consists of a number of functional modules interconnected by signal links and power supply lines. Electromagnetic interference

  1. Relative ultrasound energy measurement circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, E.Martin I.; Johansson, Jonny; Delsing, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    A relative ultrasound energy estimation circuit has been designed in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS process, to be a part of a thumb size internet connected wireless ultrasound measurement system. This circuit measures the relative energy between received ultrasound pulses, and presents an output signal that is linear to the received energy. Post-layout simulations indicate 7 bit linearity for 500 mV input signals, 5 μsec startup and stop times, 2.6 mW power consumption during active state. The acti...

  2. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  3. Programming languages for circuit design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Yordanov, Boyan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a programming language for Genetic Engineering of Cells (GEC). A GEC program specifies a genetic circuit at a high level of abstraction through constraints on otherwise unspecified DNA parts. The GEC compiler then selects parts which satisfy the constraints from a given parts database. GEC further provides more conventional programming language constructs for abstraction, e.g., through modularity. The GEC language and compiler is available through a Web tool which also provides functionality, e.g., for simulation of designed circuits.

  4. Endogenous money, circuits and financialization

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    2013-01-01

    This paper locates the endogenous money approach in a circuitist framework. It argues for the significance of the credit creation process for the evolution of the economy and the absence of any notion of ‘neutrality of money’. Clearing banks are distinguished from other financial institutions as the providers of initial finance in a circuit whereas other financial institutions operate in a final finance circuit. Financialization is here viewed in terms of the growth of financial assets an...

  5. Implementation of Chua's circuit using simulated inductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopakumar, K.; Premlet, B.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2011-05-01

    In this study we describe how to build an inductorless version of the classic Chua's circuit. A suitable inductor for Chua's circuit is often hard to procure. The required inductor for the circuit is designed using simple circuit elements such as resistors, capacitors and operational amplifiers. The complete circuit can be implemented by using off-the-shelf components, and it can readily be integrated on a single chip. This design of Chua's circuit allows the original dynamics to be slowed down to just a few hertz, enabling implementation of sophisticated control schemes without severe time restrictions. Another novel feature of the circuit is that losses associated with capacitors due to leakages can easily be compensated by providing negative resistance using the same setup. The chaotic behaviour of the circuit is verified by PSpice and Multisim simulation and also by experimental study on a circuit breadboard. The results give excellent agreement with each other and with the results of previous investigators.

  6. Pulsed corona generation using a diode-based pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemen, A. J. M.; Grekhov, I. V.; van Heesch, E. J. M.; Yan, K.; Nair, S. A.; Korotkov, S. V.

    2003-10-01

    Pulsed plasma techniques serve a wide range of unconventional processes, such as gas and water processing, hydrogen production, and nanotechnology. Extending research on promising applications, such as pulsed corona processing, depends to a great extent on the availability of reliable, efficient and repetitive high-voltage pulsed power technology. Heavy-duty opening switches are the most critical components in high-voltage pulsed power systems with inductive energy storage. At the Ioffe Institute, an unconventional switching mechanism has been found, based on the fast recovery process in a diode. This article discusses the application of such a "drift-step-recovery-diode" for pulsed corona plasma generation. The principle of the diode-based nanosecond high-voltage generator will be discussed. The generator will be coupled to a corona reactor via a transmission-line transformer. The advantages of this concept, such as easy voltage transformation, load matching, switch protection and easy coupling with a dc bias voltage, will be discussed. The developed circuit is tested at both a resistive load and various corona reactors. Methods to optimize the energy transfer to a corona reactor have been evaluated. The impedance matching between the pulse generator and corona reactor can be significantly improved by using a dc bias voltage. At good matching, the corona energy increases and less energy reflects back to the generator. Matching can also be slightly improved by increasing the temperature in the corona reactor. More effective is to reduce the reactor pressure.

  7. A GaAs planar Schottky varactor diode for left-handed nonlinear transmission line applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jun-Rong; Yang Hao; Tian Chao; Huang Jie; Zhang Hai-Ying

    2012-01-01

    The left-handed nonlinear transmission line (LH-NLTL) based on monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology possesses significant advantages such as wide frequency band, high operating frequency, high conversion efficiency, and applications in millimeter and submillimeter wave frequency multiplier. The planar Schottky varactor diode (PSVD) is a major limitation to the performance of the LH-NLTL frequency multiplier as a nonlinear component. The design and the fabrication of the diode for such an application are presented. An accurate large-signal model of the diode is proposed. A 16 GHz-39.6 GHz LH-NLTL frequency doubler using our large-signal model is reported for the first time. The measured maximum output powers of the 2nd harmonic are up to 8 dBm at 26.4 GHz, and above 0 dBm from 16 GHz to 39.6 GHz when the input power is 20 dBm. The application of the LH-NLTL frequency doubler furthermore validates the accuracy of the large-signal model of the PSVD. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. Effect of defects on electrical properties of 4H-SiC Schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Karoui, M.; Gharbi, R.; Alzaied, N.; Fathallah, M.; Tresso, E.; Scaltrito, L.; Ferrero, S.

    2008-01-01

    Most of power electronic circuits use power semiconductor switching devices which ideally present infinite resistance when off, zero resistance when on, and switch instantaneously between those two states. Switches and rectifiers are key components in power electronic systems, which cover a wide range of applications, from power transmission to control electronics and power supplies. Typical power switching devices such as diodes, thyristors, and transistors are based on a monocrystalline silicon semiconductor or silicon carbide. Silicon is less expensive, more widely used, and a more versatile processing material than silicon carbide. The silicon carbide (SiC) has properties that allow devices with high power voltage rating and high operating temperatures. The technology overcomes some crystal growth obstacles, by using the hydrogen in the fabrication of 4H-SiC wafers. The presence of structural defects on 4H-SiC wafers was shown by different techniques such as optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of different SiC polytypes inclusions was found by Raman spectroscopy. Schottky diodes were realized on investigated wafers in order to obtain information about the correlation between those defects and electrical properties of the devices. The diodes with voltage breakdown as 600 V and ideality factor as 1.05 were obtained and characterized after packaging

  9. Influence of photo-generated carriers on current spreading in double diode structures for electroluminescent cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radevici, Ivan; Tiira, Jonna; Sadi, Toufik; Oksanen, Jani

    2018-05-01

    Current crowding close to electrical contacts is a common challenge in all optoelectronic devices containing thin current spreading layers (CSLs). We analyze the effects of current spreading on the operation of the so-called double diode structure (DDS), consisting of a light emitting diode (LED) and a photodiode (PD) fabricated within the same epitaxial growth process, and providing an attractive platform for studying electroluminescent (EL) cooling under high bias conditions. We show that current spreading in the common n-type layer between the LED and the PD can be dramatically improved by the strong optical coupling between the diodes, as the coupling enables a photo-generated current through the PD. This reduces the current in the DDS CSL and enables the study of EL cooling using structures that are not limited by the conventional light extraction challenges encountered in normal LEDs. The current spreading in the structures is studied using optical imaging techniques, electrical measurements, simulations, as well as simple equivalent circuit models developed for this purpose. The improved current spreading leads further to a mutual dependence with the coupling efficiency, which is expected to facilitate the process of optimizing the DDS. We also report a new improved value of 63% for the DDS coupling quantum efficiency.

  10. Advanced circuit simulation using Multisim workbench

    CERN Document Server

    Báez-López, David; Cervantes-Villagómez, Ofelia Delfina

    2012-01-01

    Multisim is now the de facto standard for circuit simulation. It is a SPICE-based circuit simulator which combines analog, discrete-time, and mixed-mode circuits. In addition, it is the only simulator which incorporates microcontroller simulation in the same environment. It also includes a tool for printed circuit board design.Advanced Circuit Simulation Using Multisim Workbench is a companion book to Circuit Analysis Using Multisim, published by Morgan & Claypool in 2011. This new book covers advanced analyses and the creation of models and subcircuits. It also includes coverage of transmissi

  11. Digital circuit boards mach 1 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    A unique, practical approach to the design of high-speed digital circuit boards The demand for ever-faster digital circuit designs is beginning to render the circuit theory used by engineers ineffective. Digital Circuit Boards presents an alternative to the circuit theory approach, emphasizing energy flow rather than just signal interconnection to explain logic circuit behavior. The book shows how treating design in terms of transmission lines will ensure that the logic will function, addressing both storage and movement of electrical energy on these lines. It cove

  12. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  13. Unbalanced Neuronal Circuits in Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gen-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Baler, Ruben D.

    2013-01-01

    Through sequential waves of drug-induced neurochemical stimulation, addiction co-opts the brain's neuronal circuits that mediate reward, motivation, , to behavioral inflexibility and a severe disruption of self-control and compulsive drug intake. Brain imaging technologies have allowed neuroscientists to map out the neural landscape of addiction in the human brain and to understand how drugs modify it.

  14. A Low Noise Electronic Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Leenaerts, Dominicus M.W.; de Vreede, Petrus W.H.

    2002-01-01

    An electronic circuit, which can be used as a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), comprises two complementary Field Effect Transistors (M1, M2; M5, M6), each having a gate, a source and a drain. The gates are connected together as a common input terminal, and the drains are connected together as a

  15. Circuit design for RF transceivers

    CERN Document Server

    Leenaerts, Domine; Vaucher, Cicero S

    2007-01-01

    Second edition of this successful 2001 RF Circuit Design book, has been updated, latest technology reviews have been added as well as several actual case studies. Due to the authors being active in industry as well as academia, this should prove to be an essential guide on RF Transceiver Design for students and engineers.

  16. Simulated annealing and circuit layout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Laarhoven, van P.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the problem of approximately sotvlng circuit layout problems by simulated annealing. For this we first summarize the theoretical concepts of the simulated annealing algorithm using Ihe theory of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Markov chains. Next we briefly review general aspects of the

  17. Proposed Use of Zero Bias Diode Arrays as Thermal Electric Noise Rectifiers and Non-Thermal Energy Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valone, Thomas F.

    2009-03-01

    The well known built-in voltage potential for some select semiconductor p-n junctions and various rectifying devices is proposed to be favorable for generating DC electricity at "zero bias" (with no DC bias voltage applied) in the presence of Johnson noise or 1/f noise which originates from the quantum vacuum (Koch et al., 1982). The 1982 Koch discovery that certain solid state devices exhibit measurable quantum noise has also recently been labeled a finding of dark energy in the lab (Beck and Mackey, 2004). Tunnel diodes are a class of rectifiers that are qualified and some have been credited with conducting only because of quantum fluctuations. Microwave diodes are also good choices since many are designed for zero bias operation. A completely passive, unamplified zero bias diode converter/detector for millimeter (GHz) waves was developed by HRL Labs in 2006 under a DARPA contract, utilizing a Sb-based "backward tunnel diode" (BTD). It is reported to be a "true zero-bias diode." It was developed for a "field radiometer" to "collect thermally radiated power" (in other words, 'night vision'). The diode array mounting allows a feed from horn antenna, which functions as a passive concentrating amplifier. An important clue is the "noise equivalent power" of 1.1 pW per root hertz and the "noise equivalent temperature difference" of 10° K, which indicate sensitivity to Johnson noise (Lynch, et al., 2006). There also have been other inventions such as "single electron transistors" that also have "the highest signal to noise ratio" near zero bias. Furthermore, "ultrasensitive" devices that convert radio frequencies have been invented that operate at outer space temperatures (3 degrees above zero point: 3° K). These devices are tiny nanotech devices which are suitable for assembly in parallel circuits (such as a 2-D array) to possibly produce zero point energy direct current electricity with significant power density (Brenning et al., 2006). Photovoltaic p-n junction

  18. Next generation diode lasers with enhanced brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, S.; Rauch, S.; Irmler, L.; Rikels, J.; Killi, A.; Papastathopoulos, E.; Sarailou, E.; Zimer, H.

    2018-02-01

    High-power diode lasers are nowadays well established manufacturing tools in high power materials processing, mainly for tactile welding, surface treatment and cladding applications. Typical beam parameter products (BPP) of such lasers range from 30 to 50 mm·mrad at several kilowatts of output power. TRUMPF offers a product line of diode lasers to its customers ranging from 150 W up to 6 kW of output power. These diode lasers combine high reliability with small footprint and high efficiency. However, up to now these lasers are limited in brightness due to the commonly used spatial and coarse spectral beam combining techniques. Recently diode lasers with enhanced brightness have been presented by use of dense wavelength multiplexing (DWM). In this paper we report on TRUMPF's diode lasers utilizing DWM. We demonstrate a 2 kW and a 4 kW system ideally suited for fine welding and scanner welding applications. The typical laser efficiency is in the range of 50%. The system offers plug and play exchange of the fiber beam delivery cable, multiple optical outputs and integrated cooling in a very compact package. An advanced control system offers flexible integration in any customer's shop floor environment and includes industry 4.0 capabilities (e.g. condition monitoring and predictive maintenance).

  19. Reconfigurable Complementary Monolayer MoTe2 Field-Effect Transistors for Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larentis, Stefano; Fallahazad, Babak; Movva, Hema C P; Kim, Kyounghwan; Rai, Amritesh; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2017-05-23

    Transition metal dichalcogenides are of interest for next generation switches, but the lack of low resistance electron and hole contacts in the same material has hindered the development of complementary field-effect transistors and circuits. We demonstrate an air-stable, reconfigurable, complementary monolayer MoTe 2 field-effect transistor encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride, using electrostatically doped contacts. The introduction of a multigate design with prepatterned bottom contacts allows us to independently achieve low contact resistance and threshold voltage tuning, while also decoupling the Schottky contacts and channel gating. We illustrate a complementary inverter and a p-i-n diode as potential applications.

  20. Design of a Negative Differential Resistance Circuit Element Using Single-Electron Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, D. C.; Heij, C. P.; Hadley, P.; Mooij, J. E.

    1998-03-01

    Electronic circuit elements displaying negative differential resistance (NDR), such as tunnel diodes, have a wide variety of device applications, including oscillators, amplifiers, logic, and memory. We present a two-terminal device using two single-electron transistors (SET's) that demonstrates an NDR profile tuneable with gate voltages. If the capacitive coupling between the SET's is sufficiently larger than the junction capacitances, the device exhibits multiply-peaked NDR, allowing its use as a multi-valued digital element. We will also report recent experimental progress in measurements of such a device, fabricated using standard Al tunnel junctions, but with an additional overlap capacitor to allow the required inter-SET coupling.