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Sample records for dimethyl sulfoxide

  1. Dimethyl sulfoxide complexing with iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovikov, Yu Ya; Serguchev, Yu A; Staninets, V I

    1986-01-01

    Dielectrometry, conductometry, IR-spectroscopy are used to study dimethyl sulfoxide complexing with iodine in binary system and in CCl/sub 4/, C/sub 6/H/sub 6/, C/sub 6/H/sub 5/Cl, C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CF/sub 3/, 1, 2-dichloroethane solutions. Complexes of 1:1 composition are formed in solutions, in the binary system of 2:1 and 2:2 composition. I/sub 2/ molecules add to oxygen atoms. In CCl/sub 4/ and in binary system gradual transformation of so called external charge transfer complexes (CTC-1) to internal ones (CTC-2) that are described by the 1st order reaction kinetic equations is observed. On dissolution of CTC of 2:2 composition they disproportionate into two CTC molecules 1:1. Enthalpy of forming CTC-1 1:1 is approximately 4 kcal/mol, CTC-2 1:1 - 8, CTC-1 2:1 - 8 kcal/mol.

  2. Decryptification of Acid Phosphatase in Arthrospores of Geotrichum Species Treated with Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, David A.; Martel, Anita J.; MacDonald, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Decryptification of acid phosphatase in Geotrichum sp. arthrospores was accomplished using acetone or dimethyl sulfoxide treatment. Both dimethyl sulfoxide and acetone irreversibly destroyed the integrity of the spore membranes without solubilizing acid phosphatase. PMID:1167386

  3. Inactivation of MXR1 Abolishes Formation of Dimethyl Sulfide from Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a sulfur compound of importance for the organoleptic properties of beer, especially some lager beers. Synthesis of DMS during beer production occurs partly during wort production and partly during fermentation. Methionine sulfoxide reductases are the enzymes responsible for reduction of oxidized cellular methionines. These enzymes have been suggested to be able to reduce dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as well, with DMS as the product. A gene for an enzymatic activity lead...

  4. Recommended vapor pressures for thiophene, sulfolane, and dimethyl sulfoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Růžička, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 2 (2011), s. 205-216 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : thiophene sulfolane * dimethyl sulfoxide * vapor pressure * heat capacity * vaporization enthalpy * recommended vapor pressure equation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2011

  5. Radioprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide on two biological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, D.M.L.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Del Mastro, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of dimethyl sulfoxide treatment on two biological systems are examined: a) In vivo, the level of albinic mouse survive from IPEN, when irradiated with 9 Gy of 60 Co., 1 hour after the injection ip of DMSO 0,025M. b) In vivo, molecular level, when DMSO 1M, is added 10 min. before the irradiation with 25.000 Gy of 60 Co, from an aqueous solution of proteins from crystalline bovine. (C.G.C.) [pt

  6. Diapause prevention effect of Bombyx mori by dimethyl sulfoxide.

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    Takayuki Yamamoto

    Full Text Available HCl treatment has been, for about 80 years, the primary method for the prevention of entry into embryonic diapauses of Bombyx mori. This is because no method is as effective as the HCl treatment. In this study, we discovered that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO prevented entry into the diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The effect of diapause prevention was 78% as a result of treatment with 100% DMSO concentration, and the effect was comparable to that of the HCl treatment. In contrast, in the case of non-diapause eggs, hatchability was decreased by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of DMSO was restricted within 24 hours after oviposition of diapause eggs, and the critical period was slightly shorter than the effective period of the HCl treatment. DMSO analogs, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF and dimethyl sulfide (DMS, did little preventive effect against the diapause. Furthermore, we also investigated the permeation effects of chemical compounds by DMSO. When treated with an inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (CK2 dissolved in DMSO, the prevention rate of the diapause was less than 40%. This means that the inhibition effect by the CK2 inhibitor was the inhibition of embryonic development after diapause prevention by DMSO. These data suggest that DMSO has the effects of preventing from entering into the diapause and permeation of chemicals into diapause eggs.

  7. Adducts of rare earth tris-acetylacetonates with dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyubenko, N.G.; Kalenichenko, Yu.V.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1988-01-01

    Adducts of rare earth and yttrium (r.e.e., M) acetylacetonates with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), MA 3 xnDMSO are synthesized. The acetylacetonates of light r.e.e. (M=La-Tb) are shown by different physico-chemical methods to form diadducts of the MA 3 x2DMSOxH 2 O composition, where A - -acetylacetonate-ion, and the acetyl-acetonates of heavy r.e.e. (M=Dy-Lu, Y)-monoadducts MA 3 xDMSO. The estimation of adduct thermal stability is carried out using the values of seeming activation energy of their thermal degradation. Monoadducts are shown to give volatile forms of rare earth acetylacetonates during heating in vacuum, and diadducts do not form volatile forms of acetylacetonates

  8. DFT Study of dimers of dimethyl sulfoxide in gas phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Fazaeli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Density functional (DFT calculations at M05-2x/aug-cc-pVDZ level were used to analyze the interactions between dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO dimers. The structures obtained have been ana-lyzed with the Atoms in Molecules (AIMs and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO methodologies. Four minima were located on the potential energy surface of the dimers. Three types of interac-tions are observed, CH•••O, CH•••S hydrogen bonds and orthogonal interaction between the lone pair of the oxygen with the electron-deficient region of the sulfur atom. Stabilization energies of dimers including BSSE and ZPE are in the range 27–40 kJmol-1. The most stable conformers of dimers at DFT level is cyclic structure with antiparallel orientation of S=O groups pairing with three C–H∙∙∙O and a S∙∙∙O interactions.

  9. cis-Bis(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2N,N′bis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOzinc bis(tetraphenylborate dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate

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    Stefania Tomyn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the mononuclear title complex, [Zn(C10H8N22(C2H6OS2](C24H20B2·C2H6OS, the ZnII ion is coordinated by four N atoms of two bidentate 2,2′-bipyridine molecules and by the O atoms of two cis-disposed dimethyl sulfoxide molecules in a distorted octahedral geometry. The S atom and the methyl groups of one of the coordinated dimethyl sulfoxide molecules are disordered in a 0.509 (2:0.491 (2 ratio. The crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...O hydrogen bonds between the dimethyl sulfoxide solvent molecules and tetraphenylborate anions.

  10. On the Origin of Microheterogeneity : A Mass Spectrometric Study of Dimethyl Sulfoxide-Water Binary Mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, Dong Nam; Wijnen, Jan W.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Wakisaka, Akihiro

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the microscopic solvent structure of dimethyl sulfoxide-water mixtures and its influence on the solvation structure of solute from a clustering point of View, by means of a specially designed mass spectrometric system. It was observed that the propensity to the cluster formation is

  11. Antioxidant properties of dimethyl sulfoxide and its viability as a solvent in the evaluation of neuroprotective antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartín-Suárez, Carolina; Soto-Otero, Ramón; Sánchez-Sellero, Inés; Méndez-Álvarez, Estefanía

    2011-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide is an amphiphilic compound whose miscibility with water and its ability to dissolve lipophilic compounds make it an appreciated solvent in biomedical research. However, its reported antioxidant properties raise doubts about its use as a solvent in evaluating new antioxidants. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate its antioxidant properties and carry out a comparative study on the antioxidant properties of some known neuroprotective antioxidants in the presence and absence of dimethyl sulfoxide. The antioxidant properties of dimethyl sulfoxide were studied in rat brain homogenates by determining its ability to reduce both lipid peroxidation (TBARS formation) and protein oxidation (increase in protein carbonyl content and decrease in free thiol content) induced by ferrous chloride/hydrogen peroxide. Its ability to reduce the production of hydroxyl radicals by 6-hydroxydopamine autoxidation was also estimated. The same study was also performed with three known antioxidants (α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone; 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane; 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide) in the presence and absence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Our results showed that dimethyl sulfoxide is able to reduce both lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation induced by ferrous chloride/hydrogen peroxide in rat brain homogenates. It can also reduce the production of hydroxyl radicals during 6-hydroxydopamine autoxidation. However, it increases the oxidation of protein thiol groups caused by ferrous chloride/hydrogen peroxide in rat brain homogenate. Despite the here reported antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of dimethyl sulfoxide, the results obtained with α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane, and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide corroborate the antioxidant properties attributed to these compounds and support the potential use of dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent in the study of the antioxidant properties of lipophilic compounds. Dimethyl sulfoxide

  12. Enthalpy of solution of potassium iodide in the water-formamide-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, L.N.; Solov'ev, S.N.; Vorob'ev, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Solution enthalpies are measured for potassium iodide in the water-formamide-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures in a sealed oscillating calorimeter with an isothermal shell at a constant water molar fraction equal to 0.3; 0.5 and 0.7 at 298.15 K. A diagram of the dependence of solution enthalpies on the of mixed solvent composition is plotted. Deviations of experimental solution enthalpies from the calculated ones are negative over the entire concentration range studied, which testifies to the preferable solvatation of electrolyte by the formid and dimthyl sulfoxide molecules

  13. Trimesic acid dimethyl sulfoxide solvate: space group revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Bernès

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title solvate, C9H6O6·C2H6OS, was determined 30 years ago [Herbstein, Kapon & Wasserman (1978. Acta Cryst. B34, 1613–1617], with data collected at room temperature, and refined in the space group P21. The present redetermination, based on high-resolution diffraction data, shows that the actual space group is more likely to be P21/m. The crystal structure contains layers of trimesic acid molecules lying on mirror planes. A mirror plane also passes through the S and O atoms of the solvent molecule. The molecules in each layer are interconnected through strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional supramolecular network within each layer. The donor groups are the hydroxyls of the trimesic acid molecules, while the acceptors are the carbonyl or the sulfoxide O atoms.

  14. Composition and particle size of electrolytic copper powders prepared in water-containing dimethyl sulfoxide electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul'; Abzhalov, B. S.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan

    2017-07-01

    The possibility of the electroprecipitation of copper powder via the cathodic reduction of an electrolyte solution containing copper(II) nitrate trihydrate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is shown. The effect electrolysis conditions (current density, concentration and temperature of electrolyte) have on the dimensional characteristics of copper powder is studied. The size and shape of the particles of the powders were determined by means of electron microscopy; the qualitative composition of the powders, with X-ray diffraction.

  15. Dimethyl sulfoxide-inducible cytoplasmic factor involved in erythroid differentiation in mouse erythroleukemia (Friend) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Oishi, M.

    1987-01-01

    A previous report described an intracellular factor (differentiation-inducing factor I, or DIF-I) that seem to play a role in erythroid differentiation in mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. The authors have detected another erythroid-inducing factor in cell-free extracts from dimethyl sulfoxide- or hexamethylenebis(acetamide)-treated MEL cells, which acts synergistically with DIF-I. The partially purified factor (termed DIF-II) triggered erythroid differentiation when introduced into undifferentiated MEL cells that had been potentiated by the induction of DIF-I. The activity in the extracts appeared in an inducible manner after addition of dimethyl sulfoxide or hexamethylenebis(acetamide), reached a maximum at 6 hr, and then rapidly decreased. The induction was inhibited by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and also by cycloheximide. No induction was observed in a mutant MEL cell line defective in erythroid differentiation. These characteristics are consistent with the supposition that DIF-II is one of the putative dimethyl sulfoxide-inducible factors detected in previously reported cell-fusion and cytoplast-fusion experiments. The role of DIF-II in MEL-cell differentiation and in vitro differentiation in general is discussed

  16. Potentiometric investigation of acid dissociation and anionic homoconjugation equilibria of substituted phenols in dimethyl sulfoxide[Substituted phenols; Acid-base equilibria; Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); Potentiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaja, Malgorzata; Kozak, Anna; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech. E-mail: lech@chemik.chem.univ.gda.pl

    2003-10-01

    Standard acidity constants, K{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA), expressed as pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA) values, and anionic homoconjugation constants, K{sup DMSO}{sub AHA{sup -}}, (in the form of lg K{sup DMSO}{sub AHA{sup -}} values) have been determined for 11 substituted phenol-phenolate systems a polar protophilic aprotic solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with a potentiometric titration. A linear relationship has been determined between lg K{sup DMSO}{sub AHA{sup -}} and pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA). The tendency towards anionic homoconjugation in these systems increases with increasing pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA) that is with declining phenol acidity. The pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA) are correlated with both pK{sub a}{sup W} (HA) water and other polar non-aqeous solvents.

  17. Three-body dissociations: The photodissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide at 193 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, D.A.; North, S.W.; Stranges, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    When a molecule with two equivalent chemical bonds is excited above the threshold for dissociation of both bonds, how the rupture of the two bonds is temporally coupled becomes a salient question. Following absorption at 193 nm dimethyl sulfoxide (CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3}) contains enough energy to rupture both C-S bonds. This can happen in a stepwise (reaction 1) or concerted (reaction 2) fashion where the authors use rotation of the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate prior to dissociation to define a stepwise dissociation: (1) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} 2CH{sub 3} + SO; (2a) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} CH{sub 3} + SOCH{sub 3}; and (2b) SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} SO + CH{sub 3}. Recently, the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide following absorption at 193 nm was suggested to involve simultaneous cleavage of both C-S bonds on an excited electronic surface. This conclusion was inferred from laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and resonant multiphoton ionization (2+1 REMPI) measurements of the internal energy content in the CH{sub 3} and SO photoproducts and a near unity quantum yield measured for SO. Since this type of concerted three body dissociation is very interesting and a rather rare event in photodissociation dynamics, the authors chose to investigate this system using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline 9.0.2.1. The soft photoionization provided by the VUV undulator radiation allowed the authors to probe the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate which had not been previously observed and provided good evidence that the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide primarily proceeds via a two step dissociation, reaction 2.

  18. Three-body dissociations: The photodissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide at 193 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, D.A.; North, S.W.; Stranges, D.

    1997-01-01

    When a molecule with two equivalent chemical bonds is excited above the threshold for dissociation of both bonds, how the rupture of the two bonds is temporally coupled becomes a salient question. Following absorption at 193 nm dimethyl sulfoxide (CH 3 SOCH 3 ) contains enough energy to rupture both C-S bonds. This can happen in a stepwise (reaction 1) or concerted (reaction 2) fashion where the authors use rotation of the SOCH 3 intermediate prior to dissociation to define a stepwise dissociation: (1) CH 3 SOCH 3 → 2CH 3 + SO; (2a) CH 3 SOCH 3 → CH 3 + SOCH 3 ; and (2b) SOCH 3 → SO + CH 3 . Recently, the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide following absorption at 193 nm was suggested to involve simultaneous cleavage of both C-S bonds on an excited electronic surface. This conclusion was inferred from laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and resonant multiphoton ionization (2+1 REMPI) measurements of the internal energy content in the CH 3 and SO photoproducts and a near unity quantum yield measured for SO. Since this type of concerted three body dissociation is very interesting and a rather rare event in photodissociation dynamics, the authors chose to investigate this system using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline 9.0.2.1. The soft photoionization provided by the VUV undulator radiation allowed the authors to probe the SOCH 3 intermediate which had not been previously observed and provided good evidence that the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide primarily proceeds via a two step dissociation, reaction 2

  19. Combined experimental and theoretical investigation of interactions between kaolinite inner surface and intercalated dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuai [School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Qinfu, E-mail: lqf@cumtb.edu.cn [School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Cheng, Hongfei [School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Zeng, Fangui [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Snapshot of the kaolinite–DMSO system after equilibrium is reached. - Highlights: • Dimethyl sulfoxide arranges a monolayer structure between kaolinite layers. • Weak hydrogen bonds exist between methyl groups of dimethyl sulfoxide and kaolinite silica layer. • Intercalated dimethyl sulfoxide forms strong hydrogen bonds with kaolinite alumina layer. - Abstract: Kaolinite intercalation complex with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetry–differential scanning calorimetry (TG–DSC) combined with molecular dynamics simulation. The bands assigned to the OH stretching of inner surface of kaolinite were significantly perturbed after intercalation of DMSO into kaolinite. Additionally, the bands attributed to the vibration of gibbsite-like layers of kaolinite shifted to the lower wave number, indicating that the intercalated DMSO were strongly hydrogen bonded to the alumina octahedral surface of kaolinite. The slightly decreased intensity of 1031 cm{sup −1} and 1016 cm{sup −1} band due to the in-plane vibration of Si−O of kaolinite revealed that some DMSO molecules formed weak hydrogen bonds with the silicon tetrahedral surface of kaolinite. Based on the TG result of kaolinite–DMSO intercalation complex, the formula of A1{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}(DMSO){sub 0.7} was obtained, with which the kaolinite–DMSO complex model was constructed. The molecular dynamics simulation of kaolinite–DMSO complex directly confirmed the monolayer structure of DMSO in interlayer space of kaolinite, where the DMSO arranged almost parallel with kaolinite basal surface with all methyl groups being distributed near the interlayer midplane and oxygen atoms orienting toward to the alumina octahedral surface. The radial distribution function between kaolinite and intercalated DMSO verified the strong hydrogen bonds forming between hydroxyl hydrogen

  20. Potentiometric investigations of molecular heteroconjugation equilibria of substituted phenol+n-butylamine systems in dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaja, MaIgorzata; Baginska, Katarzyna; Kozak, Anna; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech

    2005-01-01

    Molecular heteroconjugation constants, K BHA DMSO and K AHB DMSO , expressed as their logarithms, have been determined by potentiometric titration for eleven substituted phenol+n-butylamine systems in a polar protophilic aprotic solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). An increasing tendency towards molecular heteroconjugation in these systems without proton transfer has been found with increasing pK a DMSO (HA), i.e., with decreasing phenol acidity. Moreover, a linear correlation has been established between the determined lgK BHA DMSO values and pK a DMSO (HA). Furthermore, overall stability constants, lgK o DMSO , could be correlated linearly with pK a DMSO (HA) values

  1. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on radiation-induced heteroallelic reversion in diploid yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.R.; Mahajan, J.M.; Krishnan, D.

    1976-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide has cryoprotective and radioprotective properties. It is also an efficient scavenger of radicals produced by radiolysis of water. Gamma-induced reversion of diploid yeast in the presence of this chemical during irradiation have been studied. The dose-modifying factor was in the same range as for survival. When the yeast was irradiated in the frozen state, the observed protection by DMSO disappeared. The results are discussed in terms of direct and indirect actions of radiations and the radical-scavenging ability of this chemical

  2. γ-ray dosimetry using pararosaniline cyanide in dimethyl sulfoxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Assy, N.B.; Roushdy, H.M.; Rageh, M.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Levine, H.

    1982-01-01

    A chemical radiochromic dosimeter using pararosaniline cyanide in dimethyl sulfoxide can be used over a wide absorbed dose range. Experiments show that the dosimeter has a main optical absorption maximum at 554nm, which is 5nm higher than that of other polar solvents. Millimolar solutions of leucodye containing small amounts of carboxylic acid or nitrobenzene show a linear response for absorbed doses up to 11.75kGy. The yield of dye is linear with concentration up to 5mM. At that concentration the upper limit of linear response range can be extended to about 40kGy. The lower dose limit for 50mM concentration of the dye precursor hexahydroxyethyl pararosaniline (lambdasub(max)=608nm) is about 3Gy, with +-5%SD at a 95% confidence level, when using a 5cm pathlength cell. Dye formation yield varies not only with concentration of the leucocyanide, but also with type of oxidizing agent and temperature during irradiation. The latter parameter is especially critical, as dimethyl sulfoxide freezes at 17 0 C. The effect of storage temperature on the color produced after irradiation at different dose levels was also studied. (author)

  3. Electrical conductivity of solutions of copper(II) nitrate crystalohydrate in dimethyl sulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul K.; Mamitova, A. D.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan K.

    2016-06-01

    Conductometry is used to investigate the electric conductivity of Cu(NO3)2 ṡ 3H2O solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide in the 0.01-2.82 M range of concentrations and at temperatures of 288-318 K. The limiting molar conductivity of the electrolyte and the mobility of Cu2+ and NO 3 - ions, the effective coefficients of diffusion of copper(II) ions and nitrate ions, and the degree and constant of electrolytic dissociation are calculated for different temperatures from the experimental results. It is established that solutions containing 0.1-0.6 M copper nitrate trihydrate in DMSO having low viscosity and high electrical conductivity can be used in electrochemical deposition.

  4. Vapor pressure, density, viscosity and refractive index of dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA CIOCIRLAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental results of isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium data between 303.15 and 333.15 K, and densities, viscosities, refractive indices from 298.15 to 323.15 K of the dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system over the entire range of mixture composition. The obtained PTX data were correlated by the Wilson and NRTL models and estimated by the UNIFAC model. The excess Gibbs energy and activity coefficients were calculated and compared with others excess properties. Excess molar volumes, viscosity deviations and deviations in refractivity were calculated from the experimental data; all the computed quantities were fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. The resulting excess functions were interpreted in terms of structure and interactions.

  5. Crystal structure of hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)manganese(II) tetraiodide

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, Mohammed

    2016-11-15

    The title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS)6]I4, is made up from discrete [Mn(DMSO)6]2+ (DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide) units connected through non-classical hydrogen bonds to linear I4 2- tetraiodide anions. The MnII ion in the cation, situated on a position with site symmetry -3., is octahedrally coordinated by O atoms of the DMSO molecule with an Mn - O distance of 2.1808(12)Å. The I4 2- anion contains a neutral I2 molecule weakly coordinated by two iodide ions, forming a linear centrosymmetric tetraiodide anion. The title compound is isotypic with the Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn analogues.

  6. Chemiluminescence of curcumin and quenching effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on its peroxyoxalate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yari, Abdollah, E-mail: a.yari@ymail.co [Lorestan University, Department of Chemistry, Flakalaflak Street, 68178-17133 Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saidikhah, Marzieh [Lorestan University, Department of Chemistry, Flakalaflak Street, 68178-17133 Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The chemiluminescence behavior of the reaction between bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate (TCPO) and hydrogen peroxide, in the presence of curcumin as fluorophore, has been investigated. Experimental factors such as TCPO, sodium salicylate (SS), hydrogen peroxide and curcumin concentration were optimized. The chemiluminescence signal showed a linear decay while dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was added to the peroxyoxalate (PO-CL) system. The reaction resulted in a Stern-Volmer plot with a K{sub q} value of 7.3x10{sup 4}. The evaluated lower and upper detection limits of measurable concentrations of DMSO are 3.50x10{sup -5} and 1.53x10{sup -4} M, respectively. The PO-CL parameters were estimated by computer fitting of the experimental CL intensity to proper models.

  7. Efficient extraction of xylan from delignified corn stover using dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, John; Decker, Stephen R.; Michener, William; Black, Stuart

    2013-09-13

    Xylan can be extracted from biomass using either alkali (KOH or NaOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); however, DMSO extraction is the only method that produces a water-soluble xylan. In this study, DMSO extraction of corn stover was studied at different temperatures with the objective of finding a faster, more efficient extraction method. The temperature and time of extraction were compared followed by a basic structural analysis to ensure that no significant structural changes occurred under different temperatures. The resulting data showed that heating to 70 degrees C during extraction can give a yield comparable to room temperature extraction while reducing the extraction time by ~90 %. This method of heating was shown to be the most efficient method currently available and was shown to retain the important structural characteristics of xylan extracted with DMSO at room temperature.

  8. Crystal structure of hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)manganese(II) tetraiodide

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, Mohammed; Davaasuren, Bambar; Rothenberger, Alexander; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS)6]I4, is made up from discrete [Mn(DMSO)6]2+ (DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide) units connected through non-classical hydrogen bonds to linear I4 2- tetraiodide anions. The MnII ion in the cation, situated on a position with site symmetry -3., is octahedrally coordinated by O atoms of the DMSO molecule with an Mn - O distance of 2.1808(12)Å. The I4 2- anion contains a neutral I2 molecule weakly coordinated by two iodide ions, forming a linear centrosymmetric tetraiodide anion. The title compound is isotypic with the Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn analogues.

  9. Potentiometric investigation of acid dissociation and anionic homoconjugation equilibria of substituted phenols in dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaja, Malgorzata; Kozak, Anna; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech.

    2003-01-01

    Standard acidity constants, K a DMSO (HA), expressed as pK a DMSO (HA) values, and anionic homoconjugation constants, K DMSO AHA - , (in the form of lg K DMSO AHA - values) have been determined for 11 substituted phenol-phenolate systems a polar protophilic aprotic solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with a potentiometric titration. A linear relationship has been determined between lg K DMSO AHA - and pK a DMSO (HA). The tendency towards anionic homoconjugation in these systems increases with increasing pK a DMSO (HA) that is with declining phenol acidity. The pK a DMSO (HA) are correlated with both pK a W (HA) water and other polar non-aqeous solvents

  10. 5,5′-(Ethyne-1,2-diyldiisophthalic acid dimethyl sulfoxide tetrasolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Münch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C18H10O8·4C2H6OS, the mid-point of the triple bond of the main molecule is located on a special position, i.e. about an inversion center. The carboxyl groups are twisted slightly out of the planes of the aromatic rings to which they are attached, making dihedral angles of 24.89 (1 and 7.40 (2°. The cystal packing features strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds, weaker C—H...O interactions and O...S contacts [3.0981 (11 Å] and displays channel-like voids extending along the a-axis direction which contain the dimethyl sulfoxide solvent molecules.

  11. Potentiometric investigations of molecular heteroconjugation equilibria of substituted phenol+n-butylamine systems in dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaja, MaIgorzata [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Baginska, Katarzyna [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Kozak, Anna [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Makowski, Mariusz [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Chmurzynski, Lech [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: lech@chem.univ.gda.pl

    2005-08-15

    Molecular heteroconjugation constants, K{sub BHA}{sup DMSO} and K{sub AHB}{sup DMSO}, expressed as their logarithms, have been determined by potentiometric titration for eleven substituted phenol+n-butylamine systems in a polar protophilic aprotic solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). An increasing tendency towards molecular heteroconjugation in these systems without proton transfer has been found with increasing pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA), i.e., with decreasing phenol acidity. Moreover, a linear correlation has been established between the determined lgK{sub BHA}{sup DMSO} values and pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA). Furthermore, overall stability constants, lgK{sub o}{sup DMSO}, could be correlated linearly with pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA) values.

  12. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Enhances Effectiveness of Skin Antiseptics and Reduces Contamination Rates of Blood Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Paul R.; Han, Xiang-Yang; Rolston, Kenneth V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2012-01-01

    Effective skin antisepsis is of central importance in the prevention of wound infections, colonization of medical devices, and nosocomial transmission of microorganisms. Current antiseptics have a suboptimal efficacy resulting in substantial infectious morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. Here, we introduce an in vitro method for antiseptic testing and a novel alcohol-based antiseptic containing 4 to 5% of the polar aprotic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The DMSO-containing antiseptic resulted in a 1- to 2-log enhanced killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and other microbes in vitro compared to the same antiseptic without DMSO. In a prospective clinical validation, blood culture contamination rates were reduced from 3.04% for 70% isopropanol–1% iodine (control antiseptic) to 1.04% for 70% isopropanol–1% iodine–5% DMSO (P antiseptics containing strongly polarized but nonionizing (polar aprotic) solvents. PMID:22378911

  13. Lack of effect of deferoxamine, dimethyl sulfoxide, and catalase on monocrotaline pyrrole pulmonary injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner, L.H.; Johnson, K.; Carpenter, L.J.; Roth, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP) is a reactive metabolite of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline. MCTP given intravenously to rats causes pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy. Lesions in lungs after MCTP treatment contain macrophages and neutrophils, which may contribute to the damage by generation of reactive oxygen metabolites. Rats were treated with MCTP and agents known to protect against oxygen radical-mediated damage in acute models of neutrophil-dependent lung injury. Rats received MCTP and deferoxamine mesylate (DF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or polyethylene glycol-coupled catalase (PEG-CAT). MCTP/vehicle-treated controls developed lung injury manifested as increased lung weight, release of lactate dehydrogenase into the airway, and sequestration of SVI-labeled bovine serum albumin in the lungs. Cotreatment of rats with DF, DMSO, or PEG-CAT did not protect against the injury due to MCTP. These results suggest that toxic oxygen metabolites do not play an important role in the pathogenesis of MCTP-induced pulmonary injury.

  14. Photofragmentation dynamics of gaseous dimethyl sulfoxide at 15 eV induced by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, A.C.O.; Leite, T.C.M.; Turci, C.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Barros, A.L.F. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, G.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent widely used in chemical and biological laboratories and in industrial processes, as well. DMSO [(H{sub 3}C){sub 2} - SO] is a sulfur analog of acetone [(H{sub 3}C){sub 2} - CO]. Being the simplest alkyl sulfoxide, the DMSO is a model system for the understanding of more complex sulfoxide molecules. In this work the DMSO was excited with synchrotron light and the photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectrum was acquired at 15 eV. Our goal is to study the S-C bonding breaking process, especially in the H{sub 3}CSO{sup +} and CH{sub 3}{sup +} channels. The main question is how the 10a {yields} {infinity} transition affects the cleavage of S-C bond and consequently the production of those fragments. The experiments have been performed using the Toroidal Grating Monochromator (TGM) beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas-SP (research proposal D05A-TGM-11047). High purity samples were obtained commercially and used without any further purification. They were introduced into the Wiley-McLaren time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) from the vapours of the room temperature liquids after removing air and volatile impurities by a series of freeze-pump-thaw cycles. The work pressure was maintained at 1:0 x 10{sup -6} mbar during data acquisition. The basis pressure was 1:0 x 10{sup -8} mbar. The results confirm that at 10a {yields} {infinity} transition the main produced fragment is the H{sub 3}CSO{sup +}. It means that at 15 eV the S-C bonding breaking is the principal photofragmentation process. (author)

  15. Solubility of nicotinic acid in water, ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether, acetonitrile, and dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Elsa M.; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We determined the solubility of nicotinic acid in six solvents by the gravimetric method. ► We found that, regardless of the solvent, the same monoclinic solid phase was in equilibrium with the solution. ► We determined the activity coefficients of nicotinic acid in the six solvents. ► We found that the solubility trends seem to be determined by the polarity and polarizability of the solvent. - Abstract: The mole fraction equilibrium solubility of nicotinic acid in six solvents (water, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, acetonitrile and diethyl ether) differing in polarity, polarizability, and hydrogen-bonding ability, was determined over the temperature range (283 to 333) K, using the gravimetric method. The results obtained led to the solubility order dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ≫ ethanol > water > acetone > diethyl ether > acetonitrile. An analysis based on various solvent descriptors, indicated that this trend seems to be mainly determined by the polarity and polarizability of the solvent. The activity coefficients of nicotinic acid in the different solvents, under saturation conditions, were determined as a function of the temperature and it was found that DMSO exhibits enhanced solubility relative to an ideal solution while the opposite is observed for all other solvents. Both the solvent and the fact that nicotinic acid is primarily zwitterionic in aqueous solution and non-zwitterionic in non-aqueous media, did not affect the nature of the solid phases in equilibrium with the different solutions. Indeed, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that, despite some differences in particle size and morphology, the starting material and the solid products obtained at the end of the solubility studies in the six solvents used in this work were all crystalline and corresponded to the same monoclinic phase.

  16. Membrane permeability of the human granulocyte to water, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Alex M; Higgins, Adam Z

    2014-02-01

    Granulocytes are currently transfused as soon as possible after collection because they rapidly deteriorate after being removed from the body. This short shelf life complicates the logistics of granulocyte collection, banking, and safety testing. Cryopreservation has the potential to significantly increase shelf life; however, cryopreservation of granulocytes has proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigate the membrane permeability properties of human granulocytes, with the ultimate goal of using membrane transport modeling to facilitate development of improved cryopreservation methods. We first measured the equilibrium volume of human granulocytes in a range of hypo- and hypertonic solutions and fit the resulting data using a Boyle-van't Hoff model. This yielded an isotonic cell volume of 378 μm(3) and an osmotically inactive volume of 165 μm(3). To determine the permeability of the granulocyte membrane to water and cryoprotectant (CPA), cells were injected into well-mixed CPA solution while collecting volume measurements using a Coulter Counter. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C for exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. The best-fit water permeability was similar in the presence of all of the CPAs, with an average value at 21°C of 0.18 μmatm(-1)min(-1). The activation energy for water transport ranged from 41 to 61 kJ/mol. The CPA permeability at 21°C was 6.4, 1.0, 8.4, and 4.0 μm/min for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, respectively, and the activation energy for CPA transport ranged between 59 and 68 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. cis-Dichlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS(N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylguanidine-κN′′platinum(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan I. Eliseev

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, cis-[PtCl2(C5H13N3(C2H6OS], the four-coordinate PtII atom is bonded to one N atom of the N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylguanidine ligand, one dimethyl sulfoxide S atom and two chloride ligands, forming a cis-square-planar geometry. The bond lengths and angles of the N—Pt—Cl functionality are typical for imine dichloridoplatinum(II complexes. The H atom of the imino group is oriented towards the O atom of the sulfoxide group of a neighboring molecule and forms an N—H...O hydrogen bond.

  18. A conductivity study of preferential solvation of lithium ion in acetonitrile-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhzhukhina, Nataliia; Longinotti, M. Paula; Corti, Horacio R.; Calvo, Ernesto J.

    2015-01-01

    The electrical mobility of LiPF 6 in acetonitrile–dimethyl sulfoxide (ACN–DMSO) mixtures, a potential electrolyte in oxygen cathodes of lithium-air batteries, has been studied using a very precise conductance technique, which allowed the determination of the infinite dilution molar conductivity and association constant of the salt in the whole composition range. In the search for preferential Li + ion solvation, we also measured the electrical conductivity of tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF 6 ), a salt formed by a bulky cation, over the same composition range. The results show a qualitative change in the curvature of the LiPF 6 molar conductivity composition dependence for ACN molar fraction (x ACN ) ∼ 0.95, which was not observed for TBAPF 6 . The dependence of the measured Li/Li + couple potential with solvent composition also showed a pronounced change around the same composition. We suggest that these observations can be explained by Li + ion preferential solvation by DMSO in ACN–DMSO mixtures with very low molar fractions of DMSO

  19. Dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of refractory cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ba X; Tran, Dao M; Tran, Hung Q; Nguyen, Phuong T M; Pham, Tuan D; Dang, Hong V T; Ha, Trung V; Tran, Hau D; Hoang, Cuong; Luong, Khue N; Shaw, D Graeme

    2011-01-01

    Pain is a major concern of cancer patients and a significant problem for therapy. Pain can become a predominant symptom in advanced cancers. In this open-label clinical study, the authors have treated 26 cancer patients who have been declared as terminal without the option of conventional treatment. These patients suffered from high levels of pain that was poorly managed by all available interventional approaches recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. The results indicate that intravenous infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) solution can be a viable, effective, and safe treatment for refractory pain in cancer patients. These patients had pain due to the disease progression and complication of chemotherapy and radiation. Moreover, the preliminary clinical outcome of 96-day follow-up suggests that the application of DMSO and SB solution intravenously could lead to better quality of life for patients with nontreatable terminal cancers. The data of this clinical observation indicates that further research and application of the DMSO and SB combination may help the development of an effective, safe, and inexpensive therapy to manage cancer pain.

  20. Marmoset induced pluripotent stem cells: Robust neural differentiation following pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The marmoset is an important nonhuman primate model for regenerative medicine. For experimental autologous cell therapy based on induced pluripotent (iPS cells in the marmoset, cells must be able to undergo robust and reliable directed differentiation that will not require customization for each specific iPS cell clone. When marmoset iPS cells were aggregated in a hanging drop format for 3 days, followed by exposure to dual SMAD inhibitors and retinoic acid in monolayer culture for 3 days, we found substantial variability in the response of different iPS cell clones. However, when clones were pretreated with 0.05–2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO for 24 hours, all clones showed a very similar maximal response to the directed differentiation scheme. Peak responses were observed at 0.5% DMSO in two clones and at 1% DMSO in a third clone. When patterns of gene expression were examined by microarray analysis, hierarchical clustering showed very similar responses in all 3 clones when they were pretreated with optimal DMSO concentrations. The change in phenotype following exposure to DMSO and the 6 day hanging drop/monolayer treatment was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Analysis of DNA content in DMSO-exposed cells indicated that it is unlikely that DMSO acts by causing cells to exit from the cell cycle. This approach should be generally valuable in the directed neural differentiation of pluripotent cells for experimental cell therapy.

  1. Thermodynamic parameters of the complexation of uranyl(VI) by diethylenetriamine in dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassol, A.; Bernardo, P. di; Portanova, R.; Tolazzi, M.; Tomat, G.; Zanonato, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for the complex formation reactions between uranyl(VI) ion and diethylenetriamine (dien) in dimethyl sulfoxide have been determined by potentiometric and calorimetric measurements at 25 C in a medium of ionic strength 0.1 mol dm -3 . The amine forms a very stable 1:1 complex which results stabilized only by the highly favourable enthalpy change. Entropy change is negative and opposes the reaction. The comparison of the thermodynamic data concerning complexation of uranyl(VI) by charged and uncharged ligands reveals that in this case (uncharged ligand) the enthalpy contribution is mainly related to the formation of the metal-ligand bonds while the entropy term might be associated with the decrease in the translational and conformational entropy occurring in the complexation of the ligand. FTIR and calorimetric measurements have been carried out to study the effect of traces of water on the equilibria in solution. It has been found that water can interfere in the complexation reaction giving rise to the formation of a dinuclear hydroxo complex in which probably two μ 2 -OH bridges link two monomer moieties. (orig.)

  2. Excess molar volume and viscosity deviation for binary mixtures of γ-butyrolactone with dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowiak, Joanna; Śmiechowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities and viscosities of DMSO-GBL binary liquid mixtures were measured. • The volumetric parameters and excess quantities were obtained. • Ab initio calculations were performed for single molecules and dimers in the studied mixture. • The interactions in solutions are weaker than in pure solvents. - Abstract: The densities of binary liquid mixtures of dimethyl sulfoxide and γ-butyrolactone at (293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 313.15) K and viscosity at T = 298.15 K have been measured at atmospheric pressure over the entire range of concentration. From these data the excess molar volumes V E at (293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 313.15) K and the viscosity deviation, the excess entropy, and the excess Gibbs energy of activation for viscous flow at T = 298.15 K have been determined. These data were mathematically represented by the Redlich-Kister polynomial. Partial and apparent molar volumes have been calculated for better understanding of the interactions in the binary systems. The obtained data indicate the lack of specific interactions between unlike molecules, which seem to be a little weaker as compared to the interactions in pure solvents.

  3. Behavioural effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): changes in sleep architecture in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavas, María; Beltrán, David; Navarro, José F

    2005-07-04

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an efficient solvent for water-insoluble compounds, widely used in biological studies and as a vehicle for drug therapy, but few data on its neurotoxic or behavioural effects is available. The aim of this work is to explore DMSO's effects upon sleep/wake states. Twenty male rats were sterotaxically prepared for polysomnography. Four concentrations of DMSO (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, in saline) were examined. DMSO or saline were administered intraperitoneally at the beginning of the light period. Three hours of polygraphic recording were evaluated for stages of vigilance after treatment. Sleep/wake parameters and EEG power spectral analyses during sleep were investigated. Results show no significant effect after 5% or 10% DMSO treatment. DMSO 15% increased mean episode duration of light slow wave sleep (SWS), decreasing mean episode duration of deep SWS and of quiet wake (QW). DMSO 20% increased light SWS enhancing number of episodes, while decreased deep SWS mean episode duration. EEG power spectra of sigma and delta activity were also affected by DMSO. Therefore, DMSO at 15% and 20% affects sleep architecture in rats, increasing light SWS and reducing deep SWS. Being aware of DMSO behavioural effects seems important since experimental artefacts caused by DMSO can lead to the erroneous interpretation of results.

  4. Lack of effect of deferoxamine, dimethyl sulfoxide, and catalase on monocrotaline pyrrole pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, L.H.; Johnson, K.; Carpenter, L.J.; Roth, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP) is a reactive metabolite of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline. MCTP given intravenously to rats causes pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy. Lesions in lungs after MCTP treatment contain macrophages and neutrophils, which may contribute to the damage by generation of reactive oxygen metabolites. Rats were treated with MCTP and agents known to protect against oxygen radical-mediated damage in acute models of neutrophil-dependent lung injury. Rats received MCTP and deferoxamine mesylate (DF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or polyethylene glycol-coupled catalase (PEG-CAT). MCTP/vehicle-treated controls developed lung injury manifested as increased lung weight, release of lactate dehydrogenase into the airway, and sequestration of 125 I-labeled bovine serum albumin in the lungs. Cotreatment of rats with DF, DMSO, or PEG-CAT did not protect against the injury due to MCTP. These results suggest that toxic oxygen metabolites do not play an important role in the pathogenesis of MCTP-induced pulmonary injury

  5. Singlet oxygen produced by quasi-continuous photo-excitation of hypericin in dimethyl-sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varchola, J.; Želonková, K. [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Chorvat Jr, D. [International Laser Centre, Ilkovicova 3, 841 05 Bratislava (Slovakia); Jancura, D. [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Center for Interdisciplinary Biosciences, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Miskovsky, P. [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); International Laser Centre, Ilkovicova 3, 841 05 Bratislava (Slovakia); Center for Interdisciplinary Biosciences, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); and others

    2016-09-15

    Singlet oxygen (O{sub 2}({sup 1}Δ{sub g})) production by photo-excited hypericin (Hyp) dissolved in dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO) was studied by means of time-resolved phosphorescence measurements. In order to minimize photo-bleaching, the samples were excited in quasi-continuous mode using long-pulse (35 μs) laser excitation. The measured lifetime of singlet oxygen is τ{sub Δ}=5.5±0.3 μs. This result helps to resolve the discrepancy existing in the literature concerning singlet oxygen lifetime in DMSO. The obtained quantum yield of singlet oxygen photosensitized by Hyp in air-saturated DMSO is Φ{sub Δ}=0.4±0.03. The rate constant for Hyp triplet state depopulation in reaction with ground state molecular oxygen is measured to be k{sub q}=1.6±0.3×10{sup 9} M{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  6. Acute dimethyl sulfoxide therapy in brain edema. Part 3: effect of a 3-hour infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bigio, M; James, H E; Camp, P E; Werner, R; Marshall, L F; Tung, H

    1982-01-01

    Albino rabbits with experimental brain edema produced by a combined cryogenic left hemisphere lesion and metabolic 6-aminonicotinamide lesion were administered a 3-hour intravenous infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Simultaneous recording of intracranial pressure (ICP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and central venous pressure (CVP) and electroencephalography were performed while the animals were being ventilated mechanically to produce a constant Pa CO2 value (38-42 torr). At the end of the infusion, the brain water and electrolyte contents were measured. There was a persistent and progressive reduction of ICP during the infusion, the nadir occurring at 3 hours (p less than 0.005 from zero time), with no change in SAP or CVP. There was a reduction of brain water in both hemispheres when compared to untreated controls, but this was significant for the right hemisphere only (p less than 0.005). There was a significant reduction of the brain sodium content for both hemispheres, but no significant change occurred in brain potassium content. The DMSO infusion was effective not only in reducing ICP, but also in sustaining this reduction for 3 hours.

  7. Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of N-Methyl α-Bromoacetanilides with Benzylamines in Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikary, Keshab Kumar; Lee, Hai Whang

    2011-01-01

    Kinetic studies of the reactions of N-methyl-Y-α-bromoacetanilides with substituted X-benzylamines have been carried out in dimethyl sulfoxide at 25.0 .deg. C. The Hammett plots for substituent X variations in the nucleophiles (log k N vs σ X ) are slightly biphasic concave upwards/downwards, while the Bronsted plots (log k N vs pK a ) are biphasic concave downwards with breakpoints at X = H. The Hammett plots for substituent Y variations in the substrates (log k N vs σ Y ) are biphasic concave upwards/downwards with breakpoints at Y = H. The cross-interaction constant ρ XY values are all negative: ρ XY = -0.32 for X = Y = electron-donating: -0.22 for X = electron-withdrawing and Y = electron-donating: -1.80 for X = electron-donating and Y = electronwithdrawing: -1.43 for X = Y = electron-withdrawing substituents. Deuterated kinetic isotope effects are primary normal (k H /k D > 1) for Y = electron-donating, while secondary inverse (k H /k D < 1) for Y = electronwithdrawing substituent. The proposed mechanisms of the benzylaminolyses of N-methyl-Y-α-bromoacetanilides are a concerted mechanism with a five membered ring TS involving hydrogen bonding between hydrogen (deuterium) atom in N-H(D) and oxygen atom in C = O for Y = electron-donating, while a concerted mechanism with an enolate-like TS in which the nucleophile attacks the α-carbon for Y = electronwithdrawing substituents

  8. Microbial activity in aquatic environments measured by dimethyl sulfoxide reduction and intercomparison with commonly used methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebler, C; Slezak, D

    2001-01-01

    A new method to determine microbial (bacterial and fungal) activity in various freshwater habitats is described. Based on microbial reduction of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to dimethyl sulfide (DMS), our DMSO reduction method allows measurement of the respiratory activity in interstitial water, as well as in the water column. DMSO is added to water samples at a concentration (0.75% [vol/vol] or 106 mM) high enough to compete with other naturally occurring electron acceptors, as determined with oxygen and nitrate, without stimulating or inhibiting microbial activity. Addition of NaN(3), KCN, and formaldehyde, as well as autoclaving, inhibited the production of DMS, which proves that the reduction of DMSO is a biotic process. DMSO reduction is readily detectable via the formation of DMS even at low microbial activities. All water samples showed significant DMSO reduction over several hours. Microbially reduced DMSO is recovered in the form of DMS from water samples by a purge and trap system and is quantified by gas chromatography and detection with a flame photometric detector. The DMSO reduction method was compared with other methods commonly used for assessment of microbial activity. DMSO reduction activity correlated well with bacterial production in predator-free batch cultures. Cell-production-specific DMSO reduction rates did not differ significantly in batch cultures with different nutrient regimes but were different in different growth phases. Overall, a cell-production-specific DMSO reduction rate of 1.26 x 10(-17) +/- 0. 12 x 10(-17) mol of DMS per produced cell (mean +/- standard error; R(2) = 0.78) was calculated. We suggest that the relationship of DMSO reduction rates to thymidine and leucine incorporation is linear (the R(2) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.944), whereas there is an exponential relationship between DMSO reduction rates and glucose uptake, as well as incorporation (the R(2) values ranged from 0.821 to 0.931). Based on our results, we

  9. Evaluation of dimethyl sulfoxide and dexamethasone on pulmonary contusion in experimental blunt thoracic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boybeyi, Ozlem; Bakar, Bulent; Aslan, Mustafa Kemal; Atasoy, Pinar; Kisa, Ucler; Soyer, Tutku

    2014-12-01

    A thoracic trauma model was designed to evaluate the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dexamethasone (DX) on histopathologic and oxidative changes in lung parenchyma seen after pulmonary contusion. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were included in the study. They were allocated into control (CG, n=6), sham (SG, n=6), DX (DXG, n=6), and DMSO (DMG, n=6) groups. Only a lung biopsy was performed in CG. In the experimental groups, blunt thoracic trauma was induced by dropping a cylindrical metal weight (0.5 kg) through a stainless steel tube onto the right hemithorax from a height of 0.4 m (E=1.96 J). In the SG, 1 mL of physiologic saline was injected intraperitoneally, in the DXG 10 mg/kg of DX was injected intraperitoneally, and in the DMG 1.2 g/mL of DMSO was injected intraperitoneally 15 minutes after trauma. After 6 hours, lung biopsy was performed for histopathologic and oxidative injury markers. Histopathologically, congestion, hemorrhage, neutrophil infiltration, endothelial-nitric oxide synthase (E-NoS), and total pathologic score were significantly higher in SG, DXG, and DMG when compared with CG (p<0.05). Neutrophil infiltration, total pathologic score, and E-NoS were significantly decreased in DMG when compared with SG and DXG (p<0.05). Biochemically, superoxide dismutase (SOD) level was significantly higher in SG, DXG, and DMG than in CG. SOD level was significantly lower in DXG and DMG than in SG (p<0.05). DMSO prevents further injury by decreasing neutrophil infiltration and endothelial injury in lung contusions. DX may have a role in the progression of inflammation but not in preventing the pathologic disruption of pulmonary parenchyma. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Kinetics and thermodynamics of oxidation mediated reaction in L-cysteine and its methyl and ethyl esters in dimethyl sulfoxide-d6 by NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Ryan J.; Singh, Jaideep; Krishnan, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    L-Cysteine (L-Cys), L-Cysteine methyl ester (L-CysME) or L-Cysteine ethyl ester (L-CysEE), when dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, undergoes an oxidation process. This process is slow enough and leads to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral changes that could be monitored in real time. The oxidation mediated transition is modeled as a pseudo-first order kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters are estimated using the Eyring's formulation. L-Cysteine and their esters are often used as biological models due to the remarkable thiol group that can be found in different oxidation states. This oxidation mediated transition is due to the combination of thiol oxidation to a disulfide followed by solvent-induced effects may be relevant in designing cysteine-based molecular models.

  11. Experimental and theoretical evaluation on the microenvironmental effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on adrenaline in acid aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhang-Yu; Liu, Tao; Guo, Dao-Jun; Liu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Cheng-Bu

    2010-12-01

    The microenvironmental effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on adrenaline was studied by several approaches including the cyclic voltammetry (CV) of adrenaline at a platinum electrode in acid aqueous solution, the chemical shift of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H NMR) of adrenaline, and the change of diffusion coefficient of adrenaline. The experimental results demonstrated that DMSO has significant microenvironmental effect on adrenaline, which was confirmed by the density functional theory (DFT) study on the hydrogen bond (H-bond) complexes of adrenaline with water and DMSO.

  12. Freezing of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates in 6% Dimethyl Sulfoxide: The First Preliminary Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yılmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Transfusion of platelet suspensions is an essential part of patient care for certain clinical indications. In this pioneering study in Turkey, we aimed to assess the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: Seven units of platelet concentrates were obtained by apheresis. Each apheresis platelet concentrate (APC was divided into 2 equal volumes and frozen with 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The 14 frozen units of APCs were kept at -80 °C for 1 day. APCs were thawed at 37 °C and diluted either with autologous plasma or 0.9% NaCl. The volume and residual numbers of leukocytes and platelets were tested in both before-freezing and post-thawing periods. Aggregation and thrombin generation tests were used to analyze the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets. Flow-cytometric analysis was used to assess the presence of frozen treated platelets and their viability. Results: The residual number of leukocytes in both dilution groups was <1x106. The mean platelet recovery rate in the plasma-diluted group (88.1±9.5% was higher than that in the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (63±10%. These results were compatible with the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines quality criteria. Expectedly, there was no aggregation response to platelet aggregation test. The mean thrombin generation potential of postthaw APCs was higher in the plasma-diluted group (2411 nmol/L per minute when compared to both the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (1913 nmol/L per minute and the before-freezing period (1681 nmol/L per minute. The flowcytometric analysis results for the viability of APCs after cryopreservation were 94.9% and 96.6% in the plasma and 0.9% NaCl groups, respectively. Conclusion: Cryopreservation of platelets with 6% DMSO and storage at -80 °C increases their shelf life from 7 days to 2 years. Besides the increase in hemostatic functions of platelets, the cryopreservation process also does not affect their

  13. The action of hyperthermia on gene expression in Friend erythroleukemia cells by dimethyl sulfoxide or X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Azzam, E.I.; Einspenner, M.; Ewing, D.; Borsa, J.

    1982-02-01

    The effect of heat on gene control and on cell killing by X-rays or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was studied in cultured Friend erythroleukemia cells (FELC). FELC are very sensitive to heat and X-rays in terms of survival, as measured by the colony-forming assay. Heat inactivation kinetics are similar for FELC and Chinese hamster cells. Thermal enhancement of cell inactivation by irradiation was observed at 42.0 and 45.0deg C, and increased as a function of heating time. The simultaneous application of heat and X-rays had a greater effect in terms of cell inactivation. Dimethyl sulfoxide could induce FELC to synthesize hemoglobin, and hyperthermia could inhibit this response. Likewise, hyperthermia could affect induction of heme synthesis by irradiation. Heating before irradiation enhanced production of heme synthesis, whereas heating after irradiation inhibited induction of heme synthesis. The effects of hyperthermia on the survival and gene induction endpoints were compared. Thus, heat can affect both cell survival and gene induction by irradiation or DMSO. The two endpoints of gene induction and survival (proliferative capacity) responded differently, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to heat and X-rays, implying that different cellular targets are affected for each of these endpoints

  14. Performance of the SMD and SM8 models for predicting solvation free energy of neutral solutes in methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide and acetonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanith, Caroline C.; Pliego, Josefredo R.

    2015-03-01

    The continuum solvation models SMD and SM8 were developed using 2,346 solvation free energy values for 318 neutral molecules in 91 solvents as reference. However, no solvation data of neutral solutes in methanol was used in the parametrization, while only few solvation free energy values of solutes in dimethyl sulfoxide and acetonitrile were used. In this report, we have tested the performance of the models for these important solvents. Taking data from literature, we have generated solvation free energy, enthalpy and entropy values for 37 solutes in methanol, 21 solutes in dimethyl sulfoxide and 19 solutes in acetonitrile. Both SMD and SM8 models have presented a good performance in methanol and acetonitrile, with mean unsigned error equal or less than 0.66 and 0.55 kcal mol-1 in methanol and acetonitrile, respectively. However, the correlation is worse in dimethyl sulfoxide, where the SMD and SM8 methods present mean unsigned error of 1.02 and 0.95 kcal mol-1, respectively. Our results point out the SMx family of models need be improved for dimethyl sulfoxide solvent.

  15. Measuring the success of combined intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide and triamcinolone for treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafni-Kane, Adam; Botros, Sylvia M; Du, Hongyan; Sand, Robert I; Sand, Peter K

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate change in bladder capacity as a measure of response to combined intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and triamcinolone instillations for the treatment of newly diagnosed bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). 141 newly diagnosed women were identified retrospectively. 79 were treated with weekly DMSO/triamcinolone instillations. Change in bladder capacity with bladder retrofill, daytime urinary frequency, nocturia episodes per night, and Likert scale symptom scores were reviewed. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, Spearman's rank correlations, COX regression analysis, and a Kaplan-Meier survival curve were performed. Significant changes (median (25(th)-percentile to 75(th)-percentile) were noted for bladder capacity (75 mL (25 to 130 mL), p measure of response to intravesical DMSO/triamcinolone for newly diagnosed BPS/IC. Clinical outcomes do not differ based upon presence of DO.

  16. Densities and volumetric properties of a (xylene + dimethyl sulfoxide) at temperature from (293.15 to 353.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haijun; Liu Wei; Huang Jihou

    2004-01-01

    The densities of (o-xylene, or m-xylene, or p-xylene + dimethyl sulfoxide) were measured at temperatures (293.15, 303.15, 313.15, 323.15, 333.15, 343.15, 353.15) K and atmospheric pressure by means of a vibrating-tube densimeter. The excess molar volume V m E calculated from the density data provide the temperature dependence of V m E in the temperature range of (293.15 to 353.15) K. The V m E results were correlated using the fourth-order Redlich-Kister equation, with the maximum likelihood principle being applied for the determination of the adjustable parameters. Also we have calculated partial molar volume and excess partial molar volumes of two components. It was found that the V m E in the systems studied increase with rising temperature

  17. Induction of sister chromatid exchange in the presence of gadolinium-DTPA and its reduction by dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Etsuo; Fukuda, Hozumi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Sho

    1996-01-01

    The authors investigate the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) after the addition of gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA to venous blood samples. Venous blood was obtained from nonsmokers. Samples were incubated with Gd-DTPA alone or in combination with mitomycin C, cytarabine, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and then evaluated for SCEs. The frequency of SCE increased with the concentration of Gd-DTPA and as each chemotherapeutic agent was added. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies were lower when the blood was treated with a combination of Gd-DTPA and DMSO compared with Gd-DTPA alone. The increase in frequency of SCE seen after the addition of Gd-DTPA was decreased by the addition of DMSO, indicating the production of hydroxyl radicals. The effect likely is dissociation-related. 14 refs., 6 tabs

  18. Solvent effects on the photochemistry of dimethyl sulfoxide-Cl complexes studied by combined pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Minegishi, Hideki; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Sawamura, Sadashi

    2006-01-01

    Photolysis of complexes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with chlorine atoms results in rapid and permanent photobleaching which may be due to intramolecular hydrogen abstraction. The effects of solvent polarity were examined in a wide variety of DMSO-carbon tetrachloride mixed solvents. The quantum yields of photobleaching decreased from 0.27 to 0.08 as the solvent polarity increased, while significant changes were observed in the low DMSO concentration range ( -3 ). This cannot be accounted for by simple solvent polarity effects. The effects of polar and nonpolar additives were also examined and it is concluded that the specific solvation effect of DMSO was the main cause of the significant change in quantum yields in the low concentration range of DMSO

  19. Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films from dimethyl sulfoxide solution: Nucleation and growth mechanism, structural and optical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquez, R.; Badan, A.; Grez, P.; Munoz, E.; Vera, J.; Dalchiele, E.A.; Marotti, R.E.; Gomez, H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electrodeposition of CdSe nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films. → Polycrystalline wurtzite structure with a slight (1010) preferred orientation. → Absorption edge shifts in the optical properties due to quantum confinement effects. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films have been synthesized by electrodeposition at controlled potential based in the electrochemical reduction process of molecular selenium in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. The nucleation and growth mechanism of this process has been studied. The XRD pattern shows a characteristic polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with a slight (1 0 1 0) crystallographic preferred orientation. The crystallite size of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films can be simply controlled by the electrodeposition potential. A quantum size effect is deduced from the correlation between the band gap energy and the crystallite size.

  20. The effect of microinjection of dimethyl sulfoxide into the rostral ventromedial medulla on swim stress-induced analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazemi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO is an important solvent for compounds that used in pain research. Rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM plays an important role in modulating nociception and stress-induced analgesia (SIA. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DMSO administration into the RVM on SIA by using formalin test. Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 27 Wistar male rats (200±30 gr were randomly assigned to control, stress and stress+DMSO groups. Animals were placed in a water reservoir (20±1°C for 3 minutes to induce forced swimming stress. Stereotaxic surgery was performed to microinjection of DMSO (0.5μl, 100% into RVM. The pain behavior score was evaluated by subcutaneous injection of formalin 2% in the dorsal plantar region of hid paw. Findings: The pain score of phase 1, interphase and phase 2 of formalin test in swim stress group decreased significantly in comparison to control group (P<0.001, P< 0.05, P<0.001 respectively. In addition, the pain score of three phase of formalin test after DMSO injection in swim stress group decreased significantly in comparison to control and stress group (P<0.001, P<0.05 respectively. Conclusion: Also microinjections of DMSO into the RVM potentiate the swim stress analgesia. According to the analgesic effects of dimethyl sulfoxide, as well as its ability to potentiate stressinduced analgesia, DMSO should be used with caution as a solvent in pain studies. Conclusion: Force swim stress induces analgesia in, and microinjections of DMSO into the RVM potentiate the swim stress analgesia. According to the analgesic effects of DMSO, as well as its ability to potentiate stress-induced analgesia, it should be used with caution as solvent in pain studies.

  1. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) waste residues and municipal waste water odor by dimethyl sulfide (DMS): the north-east WPCP plant of Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Novak, John; Witherspoon, Jay

    2006-01-01

    This study shows for the first time that overlooked mg/L concentrations of industrial dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) waste residues in sewage can cause "rotten cabbage" odor problems bydimethyl sulfide (DMS) in conventional municipal wastewater treatment. In laboratory studies, incubation of activated sludge with 1-10 mg/L DMSO in bottles produced dimethyl sulfide (DMS) at concentrations that exceeded the odor threshold by approximately 4 orders of magnitude in the headspace gas. Aeration at a rate of 6 m3 air/m3 sludge resulted in emission of the DMS into the exhaust air in a manner analogous to that of an activated sludge aeration tank. A field study atthe NEWPCP sewage treatment plant in Philadelphia found DMSO levels intermittently peaking as high as 2400 mg/L in sewage near an industrial discharger. After 3 h, the DMSO concentration in the influent to the aeration tank rose from a baseline level of less than 0.01 mg/L to a level of 5.6 mg/L and the DMS concentration in the mixed liquor rose from less than 0.01 to 0.2 mg/L. Finding this link between the intermittent occurrence of DMSO residues in influent of the treatment plant and the odorant DMS in the aeration tank was the keyto understanding and eliminating the intermittent "canned corn" or "rotten cabbage" odor emissions from the aeration tank that had randomly plagued this plant and its city neighborhood for two decades. Sewage authorities should consider having wastewater samples analyzed for DMSO and DMS to check for this possible odor problem and to determine whether DMSO emission thresholds should be established to limit odor generation at sewage treatment plants.

  2. Gamma-radiolysis of dimethyl sulfoxide. II. Radiolysis yields and possible mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, M. C.; Barrera, R.

    1978-01-01

    As result of quantitative studies on gamma-radiolysis of DMSO at a dose range of 90-850 Mrads, constant G values have been obtained for the following radiolysis compounds: G(-DMSO) - 6.7 ±0.2; G(dimethyl sulphide) - 3.4 ±0.3; G(methane) - 0,75 ± 0.04; G(dimethyl disulphide) -0.33 ±0,03; G(tri methylsulphonium methanesulphonate) - 0.26 ± 0,01; G(methyl methanethiosulphonate) - 0,25 ±0.02; G(dimethyl sulphona)-0.21±0.02; G(H 2 )-0.18±0.02; and G(propane)--0.0092±0.0007. Initial G values have been obtained for other identified compounds: Gi(ethane)-0,46; Gi(CO)-0.052; and Gi(CO 2 )-0.030. Possible mechanisms on the radiolysis process are proposed. (Author) 17 refs

  3. Genomic Analysis of Anaerobic Respiration in the Archaeon Halobacterium sp. Strain NRC-1: Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Trimethylamine N-Oxide as Terminal Electron Acceptors†

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Jochen A.; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated anaerobic respiration of the archaeal model organism Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 by using phenotypic and genetic analysis, bioinformatics, and transcriptome analysis. NRC-1 was found to grow on either dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as the sole terminal electron acceptor, with a doubling time of 1 day. An operon, dmsREABCD, encoding a putative regulatory protein, DmsR, a molybdopterin oxidoreductase of the DMSO reductase family (DmsEABC), and...

  4. Solvation of ionic liquids based on N-alkyl-N-methylmorpholinium cations in N,N-dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide – A volumetric and acoustic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkowski, Łukasz; Szepiński, Emil; Kloskowski, Adam; Namieśnik, Jacek; Warmińska, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • V ϕ of DMSO and DMF solutions of [Mor1,R][BF 4 ] increase with increasing IL concentration at all investigated temperatures. • Ion–ion interaction are stronger for DMF solutions than corresponding for DMSO. • DMSO interacts more effectively with ionic liquids studied than DMF. • Obtained results are the consequence of the cation size of the ionic liquid. - Abstract: Apparent molar volumes and molar isentropic compressibilities for N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholinium and N-decyl-N-methylmorpholinium tetrafluoroborates in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been determined from density and speed of sound measurements over the temperature range T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15 and 328.15) K at experimental pressure p = 0.1 MPa. This data has been used to calculate partial molar volumes and partial molar isentropic compressibilities at infinite dilution. The partial molar expansion coefficients and their secondary derivative have been estimated as well. The obtained results indicate that dimethyl sulfoxide interacts more effectively with ionic liquids studied than N,N-dimetylformamide and ion–ion interaction are stronger for N,N-dimetylformamide solutions than corresponding in dimethyl sulfoxide. Moreover the temperature dependence of the limiting apparent molar volumes and compressibilities is a result of temperature influence on the electrostriction effect, the ordering of a bulk solvent and number solvent molecules in the nearest presence of the salt.

  5. Homogeneous graft copolymerization of styrene onto cellulose in a sulfur dioxide-diethylamine-dimethyl sulfoxide cellulose solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, M.; Hagiwara, I.; Shiraishi, N.; Yokota, T.

    1980-01-01

    Graft copolymerization of styrene onto cellulose was studied in a homogeneous system [SO 2 (liquid)- diethylamine (DEA)-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) medium)] by γ-ray mutual irradiation technique. At the same time, homopolymerization of styrene was also examined separately in DMSO, SO 2 -DMSO, DEA-DMSO, and SO 2 -DEA-DMSO media by the same technique. Polymerization of styrene hardly occurs on concentrations above 10 mole SO 2 -DEA complex per mole glucose unit. Maximum percent grafting was obtained in concentrations of 4 mole, after which it decreased rapidly. Total conversion and percent grafting increased with the irradiation time. The value (=0.55) of the slope of the total conversion rate plotted against the dose was only a little higher than the 1/2 which was expected from normal kinetics. No retardation in homopolymerization of styrene in DMSO, SO 2 -DMSO, and DEA-DMSO was evident, while the retardation of homopolymerization in the SO 2 -DEA-DMSO medium was measurable. Sulfur atoms were detected in the polymers obtained in both of SO 2 -DMSO and SO 2 -DEA-DMSO solutions. All of the molecular weights of polymers obtained in the present experiment were very low

  6. Acid-base equilibrium dynamics in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide probed by two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiho; Son, Hyewon; Park, Sungnam

    2015-07-21

    Two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy, which has been proven to be an excellent experimental method for studying thermally-driven chemical processes, was successfully used to investigate the acid dissociation equilibrium of HN3 in methanol (CH3OH) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for the first time. Our 2DIR experimental results indicate that the acid-base equilibrium occurs on picosecond timescales in CH3OH but that it occurs on much longer timescales in DMSO. Our results imply that the different timescales of the acid-base equilibrium originate from different proton transfer mechanisms between the acidic (HN3) and basic (N3(-)) species in CH3OH and DMSO. In CH3OH, the acid-base equilibrium is assisted by the surrounding CH3OH molecules which can directly donate H(+) to N3(-) and accept H(+) from HN3 and the proton migrates through the hydrogen-bonded chain of CH3OH. On the other hand, the acid-base equilibrium in DMSO occurs through the mutual diffusion of HN3 and N3(-) or direct proton transfer. Our 2DIR experimental results corroborate different proton transfer mechanisms in the acid-base equilibrium in protic (CH3OH) and aprotic (DMSO) solvents.

  7. Palliative treatment for advanced biliary adenocarcinomas with combination dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ba X; Tran, Hung Q; Vu, Ut V; Pham, Quynh T; Shaw, D Graeme

    2014-09-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and cholangiocarcinoma account for 4% and 3%, respectively, of all gastrointestinal cancers. Advanced biliary tract carcinoma has a very poor prognosis with all current available modalities of treatment. In this pilot open-label study, the authors investigated the efficacy and safety of a combination of dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate (DMSO-SB) infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (ademetionine) oral supplementation as palliative pharmacotherapy in nine patients with advanced nonresectable biliary tract carcinomas (ABTCs). Patients with evidence of biliary obstruction with a total serum bilirubin ≤300 μmol/L were allowed to join the study. The results of this 6-month study and follow-up of all nine patients with ABTC indicated that the investigated combination treatment improved pain control, blood biochemical parameters, and quality of life for the patients. Moreover, this method of treatment has led to a 6-month progression-free survival for all investigated patients. The treatment was well tolerated for all patients without major adverse reactions. Given that ABTC is a highly fatal malignancy with poor response to chemotherapy and targeted drugs, the authors consider that the combination of DMSO-SB and ademetionine deserves further research and application as a palliative care and survival-enhancing treatment for this group of patients.

  8. Dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate infusion for palliative care and pain relief in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ba X; Le, Bao T; Tran, Hau D; Hoang, Cuong; Tran, Hung Q; Tran, Dao M; Pham, Cu Q; Pham, Tuan D; Ha, Trung V; Bui, Nga T; Shaw, D Graeme

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (adenocarcinoma of the prostate) is the most widespread cancer in men. It causes significant suffering and mortality due to metastatic disease. The main therapy for metastatic prostate cancer (MPC) includes androgen manipulation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy and/or radioisotopes. However, these therapeutic approaches are considered palliative at this stage, and their significant side effects can cause further decline in patients' quality of life and increase non-cancer-related morbidity/mortality. In this study, the authors have used the infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate (DMSO-SB) to treat 18 patients with MPC. The 90-day follow-up of the patients having undergone the proposed therapeutic regimen showed significant improvement in clinical symptoms, blood and biochemistry tests, and quality of life. There were no major side effects from the treatment. In searching for new and better methods for palliative treatment and pain relief, this study strongly suggested therapy with DMSO-SB infusions could provide a rational alternative to conventional treatment for patients with MPC.

  9. An alternative mechanism for radioprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide. Possible facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashino, Genro; Liu, Yong; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Ono, Koji; Tano, Keizo; Watanabe, Masami

    2010-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been known for many years, and the suppression of hydroxyl (OH) radicals induced by ionizing radiation has been thought to be the main cause of this effect. However, the DMSO concentration used was very high, and might be toxic, in earlier studies. In the present study, we administered a lower, non-toxic concentration (0.5%, id est (i.e.), 64 mM) of DMSO before irradiation and examined its radioprotective effects. Colony formation assay and micronucleus assay showed significant radioprotective effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), but not in xrs5, which is defective in the repair function of DNA double-strand breaks. The levels of phosphorylated H2AX and the formation of 53BP1 foci 15 minutes after irradiation, which might reflect initial DNA double-strand breaks, in DMSO-treated CHO cells were similar to those in non-treated cells, suggesting that the radioprotective effects were not attributable to the suppression of general indirect action in the lower concentration of DMSO. On the other hand, 2 hours after irradiation, the average number of 53BP1 foci, which might reflect residual DNA double-strand breaks, was significantly decreased in DMSO-treated CHO cells compared to non-treated cells. The results indicated that low concentration of DMSO exerts radioprotective effects through the facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair rather than through the suppression of indirect action. (author)

  10. An alternative mechanism for radioprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide; possible facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashino, Genro; Liu, Yong; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Ono, Koji; Tano, Keizo; Watanabe, Masami

    2010-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been known for many years, and the suppression of hydroxyl (OH) radicals induced by ionizing radiation has been thought to be the main cause of this effect. However, the DMSO concentration used was very high, and might be toxic, in earlier studies. In the present study, we administered a lower, non-toxic concentration (0.5%, i.e., 64 mM) of DMSO before irradiation and examined its radioprotective effects. Colony formation assay and micronucleus assay showed significant radioprotective effects in CHO, but not in xrs5, which is defective in the repair function of DNA double-strand breaks. The levels of phosphorylated H2AX and the formation of 53BP1 foci 15 minutes after irradiation, which might reflect initial DNA double-strand breaks, in DMSO-treated CHO cells were similar to those in non-treated cells, suggesting that the radioprotective effects were not attributable to the suppression of general indirect action in the lower concentration of DMSO. On the other hand, 2 hours after irradiation, the average number of 53BP1 foci, which might reflect residual DNA double-strand breaks, was significantly decreased in DMSO-treated CHO cells compared to non-treated cells. The results indicated that low concentration of DMSO exerts radioprotective effects through the facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair rather than through the suppression of indirect action.

  11. Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Cholesterol-Containing Lipid Membranes: A Comparative Study of Experiments In Silico and with Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ménorval, Marie-Amélie; Mir, Lluis M.; Fernández, M. Laura; Reigada, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been known to enhance cell membrane permeability of drugs or DNA. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single-component lipid bilayers predicted the existence of three regimes of action of DMSO: membrane loosening, pore formation and bilayer collapse. We show here that these modes of action are also reproduced in the presence of cholesterol in the bilayer, and we provide a description at the atomic detail of the DMSO-mediated process of pore formation in cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. We also successfully explore the applicability of DMSO to promote plasma membrane permeability to water, calcium ions (Ca2+) and Yo-Pro-1 iodide (Yo-Pro-1) in living cell membranes. The experimental results on cells in culture can be easily explained according to the three expected regimes: in the presence of low doses of DMSO, the membrane of the cells exhibits undulations but no permeability increase can be detected, while at intermediate DMSO concentrations cells are permeabilized to water and calcium but not to larger molecules as Yo-Pro-1. These two behaviors can be associated to the MD-predicted consequences of the effects of the DMSO at low and intermediate DMSO concentrations. At larger DMSO concentrations, permeabilization is larger, as even Yo-Pro-1 can enter the cells as predicted by the DMSO-induced membrane-destructuring effects described in the MD simulations. PMID:22848583

  12. Crystal structure of μ-oxalato-κ2O1:O2-bis[(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOtriphenyltin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serigne Fallou Pouye

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the previously reported [C2O4(SnPh32] complex [Diop et al. (2003. Appl. Organomet. Chem. 17, 881–882.], the SnIV atoms are able to formally complete their coordination by addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO molecules provided by the reaction medium, affording the title complex, [Sn2(C6H56(C2O4(C2H6OS2]. The SnIV atoms are then pentacoordinated, with a common trans trigonal–bipyramidal arrangement. The asymmetric unit contains one half-molecule, which is completed by inversion symmetry in space group type C2/c. The inversion centre is placed at the mid-point of the central bis-monodentate oxalate dianion, C2O42−, which bridges the [(SnPh3(DMSO] moieties. The molecule crystallizes as a disordered system, with two phenyl rings disordered by rotation about their Sn—C bonds, while the DMSO molecule is split over two positions due to a tetrahedral inversion at the S atom. All disordered parts were refined with occupancies fixed of 0.5.

  13. Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Permeation of the Cryoprotectant Dimethyl Sulfoxide to Japanese Whiting Sillago japonica Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sk. Mustafizur; Majhi, Sullip Kumar; Suzuki, Toru; Strussmann, Carlos Augusto; Watanabe, Manabu

    Cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos is a highly desired tool to promote aquaculture production and fisheries resource management, but it is still not technically feasible. The failure to develop successful cryopreservation protocols for fish embryos is largely attributed to poor cryoprotectant permeability. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of CaCl2 to enhance cryoprotectant uptake by fish embryos. In this study, embryos (somites and tail elongation stages) of Japanese whiting Sillago japonica were exposed to 10 and 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in artificial sea water (ASW) or a solution of 0.125M CaCl2 in distilled water for 20 min at 24°C. The toxicity of all solutions was estimated from the hatching rates of the embryos and High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to determine the amount of DMSO taken up during impregnation. The results showed that DMSO incorporation into the embryos was greatly (›50%) enhanced in the presence of CaCl2 compared to ASW. CaCl2 itself was not toxic to the embryos but, probably as a result of the enhanced DMSO uptake, caused decreases in survival of about 14-44% relative to ASW. Somites stage embryos were more tolerant than tail elongation ones to DMSO both as ASW and CaCl2 solutions. The use of CaCl2 as a vehicle for DMSO impregnation could be a promising aid for the successful cryopreservation of fish embryos.

  14. Dimethyl sulfoxide is a potent modulator of estrogen receptor isoforms and xenoestrogen biomarker responses in primary culture of salmon hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, Anne S.; Arukwe, Augustine

    2006-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been frequently used as carrier solvent in toxicological experiments where the most compelling DMSO attributes are its exceptionally low toxicity and environmental impact. We were inspired by recent and consistent observations that ethanol and DMSO modulate endocrine-disruptor biomarker responses in both in vitro and in vivo studies in our laboratory, to take a critical evaluation of these effects. Quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with specific primer pairs was used in this study to measure DMSO-induced time-dependent modulation of estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms, vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata-protein (Zr-protein) gene expression patterns in primary culture of salmon hepatocytes. In addition, immunochemical analysis, using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal (Vtg) and polyclonal (Zr-proteins) antibodies was used to detect and measure Vtg and Zr-proteins secreted in culture media. Salmon hepatocytes were isolated by a two-step collagenase perfusion method and exposed to 0.1% or 10 μL/L of DMSO after 48 h pre-culture. Cells were harvested at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after exposure and analysed for ERα, ERβ, Vtg and Zr-protein gene expression using real-time PCR method. Media samples were collected at similar time-intervals for protein analysis. Our data show that DMSO-induced significant increase in ERα, ERβ, Vtg and Zr-protein genes in a time-dependent manner. Indirect ELISA analysis showed a time-specific effect of DMSO. The use of DMSO as carrier solvent in fish endocrine disruption studies should be re-evaluated. We recommend more investigation, using other endocrine-disruptor biomarkers in order to validate the suitability of common carrier solvents used in toxicology with the aim of setting new maximum allowable concentrations. In particular, given the high sensitivity of genomic approaches in toxicology, these results may have serious consequences for the

  15. The role of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in ex-vivo examination of human skin burn injury treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielesz, Anna; Gawłowski, Andrzej; Biniaś, Dorota; Bobiński, Rafał; Kawecki, Marek; Klama-Baryła, Agnieszka; Kitala, Diana; Łabuś, Wojciech; Glik, Justyna; Paluch, Jadwiga

    2018-05-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is one of the most versatile solvents in biological science, therefore it is frequently used as a solvent in biological studies and as a vehicle for drug therapy. DMSO readily penetrates, diffuses through biological membranes and ipso facto increases fluidity of liposomal membranes modelling stratum corneum. Thermal injury is associated with the appearance of lipid peroxidation products in the burned skin. The influence of DMSO on protein structure and stability is concentration and temperature dependant. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of DMSO on human burn wounds and examine the interactions between DMSO and skin surface. The real problem in burn treatment is hypoalbuminemia. At the level of the laboratory studies there was an attempt at answering the question of whether the DMSO will modify the standard serum solution. In the case of the incubation of skin fragments in 1%-100% DMSO, the following findings were reported: modification of the serum, appearance of low molecular weight oligomer bands, disappearance of albumin bands or reconstruction of native serum bands during incubation in antioxidant solutions. The result of the modification is also the exposure of FTIR 1603 and 1046 cm-1 bands observed in frozen serum solutions. In the case of modification of the burned skin by DMSO solutions or antioxidants - frequency shifts, an increase in the intensity of amide I band as well as the appearance of the 1601 cm-1 band can be specific biomarkers of the tissue regeneration process. In this study the areas 1780-1580 cm-1 and 1418-1250 cm-1 on the Raman spectra are particularly rich in spectral information.

  16. Characteristics of the formation of enzyme-bound ATP from medium inorganic phosphate by mitochondrial F1 adenosinetriphosphatase in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandpal, R.P.; Stempel, K.E.; Boyer, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Addition of dimethyl sulfoxide promotes the formation of enzyme-bound ATP from medium P/sub i/ by mitochondrial F 1 adenosinetriphosphatase that has tightly bound ADP present. Measurements are reported of medium P/sub i/ ↔ H 18 OH exchange and of the dependence of formation of enzyme-bound ATP on P/sub i/ concentration. Attainment of an apparent equilibrium between medium P/sub i/ and bound ATP requires longer than 30 min, even though the rates of P/sub i/ binding and release after apparent equilibrium is reached would suffice for a faster approach to equilibrium. Slow protein conformational changes or other unknown modulating factors may be responsible for the slow rate of bound ATP formation. After apparent equilibrium is reached, each P/sub i/ that binds to the enzyme reversibly forms ATP about 50 times before being released to the medium. The rate of interconversion of bound ATP to bound ADP and P/sub i/ is much slower than that in the absence of dimethyl sulfoxide as measured with sufficient low ATP concentrations so that single-site catalysis is favored. Although the interconversion rate is slowed, the equilibrium constant for bound ATP formation from bound ADP and P/sub i/ is not far from unity. Dimethyl sulfoxide favors the formation of enzyme-bound ATP by promoting the competent binding of P/sub i/ to enzyme with ADP bound at a catalytic site rather than by promoting formation of bound ATP from bound ADP and P/sub i/

  17. Regularities of thermochemical characteristics of 1-1, 2-1, 3-1 electrolyte solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide-water and propylene carbonate water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, A.F.; Monaenkova, A.S.; AlekseeV, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    In an air-tight tilting calorimeter with an isothermal casing enthalpies of praseodymium chloride solution in water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) - water mixtures, contaning 3.86 and 18.53 mol.% DMSO, and propylene carbonate (PC) - water mixtures, containing 1.85 and 3.23 mol.% PC are measured. The enthalpies of praseodymium chloride solution in the given mixtures in case of infinite solution dilution are determined. Solvation enthalpies of praseodymium and neodymium chlorides, as well as alkali earth metal and magnesium chlorides in water and DMSO - water and PC - water mixtures are calculated. Regularities in thermochemical characteristics of solutions of the given salts in DMSO - water and PC - water mixtures are discussed

  18. Crystal structure of chlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κSbis[4-(pyridin-2-ylbenzaldehyde-κ3C2,N]iridium(III acetonitrile monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Peloquin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [IrCl(C12H8NO2{(CH32SO}]·H3CCN or [IrCl(fppy2(DMSO]·H3CCN [where fppy is 4-(pyridin-2-ylbenzaldehyde and DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide], is a mononuclear iridium(III complex including two fppy ligands, a sulfur-coordinating DMSO ligand, and one terminal chloride ligand that define a distorted octahedral coordination sphere. The complex crystallizes from 1:1 DMSO–acetonitrile as an acetonitrile solvate. In the crystal, weak C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen-bonding interactions between adjacent complexes and between the acetonitrile solvent and the complex consolidate the packing.

  19. Lithium isotope effects in cation exchange chromatography of lithium lactate in water-dimethyl sulfoxide and water-acetone mixed solvent media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Takao; Kondoh, Akiko; Ohno, Etsuko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    1993-01-01

    Lithium isotope separation by ion exchange displacement chromatography of lithium lactate in water-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water-acetone mixed solvent media at 25 C was explored. In both the water-DMSO and water-acetone system, the single stage isotope separation factor (S) was a convex function of the mixing ratio of the solvents in the external solution phase; S had its maximum value of 1.00254 at water: DMSO=25:75 v/v and 1.00182 at water: acetone=75:25 v/v. Strong correlations of S with solvent partitions between the solution and the exchanger phases were found in both systems, which was qualitatively explainable by considering the lithium isotope distributions between the two phases based on the fundamental lithium isotope effects and the relative affinities of water, DMSO and acetone towards the lithium ion. (orig.)

  20. Complementary application of neutron and synchrotron radiation for the investigation of dimethyl sulfoxide influence on the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine vesicle structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is widely used in cryobiology, cell biology, radiation biology, veterinary, and therapy of critical situation. DMSO easily penetrates through biological membranes and skin. From 1995 to 2000 contradictory results about DMSO penetration into the lipid membrane were obtained via X-ray diffraction at three different biophysical groups in Great Britain, USA, and Russia. The goal of the present work is to determine more exactly the early obtained results via complementary application of X-ray diffraction and neutron small-angle scattering. It was established that DMSO molecule penetration into the lipid membrane depends on the DMSO concentration in water solution. Membrane defects develop above DMSO mole fraction 0.2. (author)

  1. Second-harmonic generation microscopy used to evaluate the effect of the dimethyl sulfoxide in the cryopreservation process in collagen fibers of differentiated chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli-Risso, M. F.; Duarte, A. S. S.; Ribeiro, T. B.; Bordeaux-Rego, P.; Luzo, A.; Baratti, M. O.; Adur, J.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Pelegati, V. B.; Carvalho, H. F.; Cesar, C. L.; Kharmadayan, P.; Costa, F. F.; Olalla-Saad, S. T.

    2012-03-01

    Cartilaginous lesions are a significant public health problem and the use of adult stem cells represents a promising therapy for this condition. Cryopreservation confers many advantages for practitioners engaged in cell-based therapies. However, conventional slow freezing has always been associated with damage and mortality due to intracellular ice formation, cryoprotectant toxicity, and dehydration. The aim of this work is to observe the effect of the usual Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) cryopreservation process on the architecture of the collagen fiber network of chondrogenic cells from mesenchymal stem cells by Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy. To perform this study we used Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) derived from adipose tissue which presents the capacity to differentiate into other lineages such as osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Mesenchymal stem cells obtained after liposuction were isolated digested by collagenase type I and characterization was carried out by differentiation of mesodermic lineages, and flow cytometry using specific markers. The isolated MSCs were cryopreserved by the DMSO technique and the chondrogenic differentiation was carried out using the micromass technique. We then compared the cryopreserved vs non-cryopreserved collagen fibers which are naturally formed during the differentiation process. We observed that noncryopreserved MSCs presented a directional trend in the collagen fibers formed which was absent in the cryopreserved MSCs. We confirmed this trend quantitatively by the aspect ratio obtained by Fast Fourier Transform which was 0.76 for cryopreserved and 0.52 for non-cryopreserved MSCs, a statistical significant difference.

  2. Spermatozoa from the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) display typical canid hyper-sensitivity to osmotic and freezing-induced injury, but respond favorably to dimethyl sulfoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy E M; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Wildt, David E; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the influences of medium osmolality, cryoprotectant and cooling and warming rate on maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) spermatozoa. Ejaculates were exposed to Ham's F10 medium (isotonic control) or to this medium plus NaCl (350-1000mOsm), sucrose (369 and 479mOsm), 1M glycerol (1086mOsm) or dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO, 1151mOsm) for 10 min. Each sample then was diluted back into Ham's medium and assessed for sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity. Although glycerol and Me2SO had no influence (P>0.05), NaCl and sucrose solutions affected sperm motility (P0.05) to the control. As osmolality of the NaCl solution increased, motility decreased to maned wolf spermatozoa are similar to domestic dog sperm in their sensitivity to osmotic-induced motility damage, the plasma membranes tolerate dehydration, and the cells respond favorably to Me2SO as a cryoprotectant. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A potentiometric study of (acid+base) equilibria in substituted 4-nitropyridine N-oxide systems in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzynski, Lukasz; Puszko, Aniela; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech

    2007-01-01

    The acid dissociation constants for cationic acids conjugated with 4-nitropyridine N-oxides have been determined using potentiometric titration method. The measurements in the systems of thirteen 4-nitropyridine N-oxide derivatives were carried out in the polar amphiprotic methanol (MeOH) and in the aprotic protophilic dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Likewise as in the polar aprotic protophobic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone) it was found that in MeOH for all N-oxides studied the pK a values were readily determinable, whereas in DMSO the pK a values were hardly determinable or indeterminable by using the potentiometric method. In addition, just like in our previous investigations it was revealed that the sequence of the pK a values of the cationic acids in methanol is the same as in the water and the values are lower than those determined in acetonitrile and acetone. Also, it was found that the phenomenon of cationic homoconjugation equilibria was not present in the systems involving 4-nitropyridine N-oxide derivatives in both solvents used. Furthermore, protonation energies, ΔE prot , and Gibbs free enthalpies, ΔG prot , in vacuo have been compared with acid dissociation constants (expressed as pK a MeOH values) of the protonated N-oxides determined by potentiometric titration in methanol to establish a correlation between these magnitudes

  4. Fullerenol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 24} nanoparticles decrease relaxing effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on rat uterus spontaneous contraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavic, Marija, E-mail: marija17@ibiss.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Department for Physiology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' (IBISS) (Serbia); Djordjevic, Aleksandar [University of Novi Sad, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and the Environment, Faculty of Sciences (Serbia); Radojicic, Ratko [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology (Serbia); Milovanovic, Slobodan [University of East Sarajevo, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine at Foca (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana [University of Belgrade, Department for Physiology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' (IBISS) (Serbia); Rakocevic, Zlatko [University of Belgrade, Institute for Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' (Serbia); Spasic, Mihajlo B.; Blagojevic, Dusko [University of Belgrade, Department for Physiology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' (IBISS) (Serbia)

    2013-05-15

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a widely used solvent and cryoprotectant that can cause impaired blood flow, reduction in intracranial pressure, tissue edema, inflammatory reactions, inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, processes which can lead to atherosclerosis of the coronary, peripheral and cerebral circulation. Although the adverse effects are rare when DMSO is administered in clinically established concentrations, there is no safe antagonist for an overdose. In this work, we treated isolated spontaneous and calcium-induced contractile active rat uteri (Wistar, virgo intacta), with DMSO and fullerenol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 24} nanoparticle (FNP) in DMSO. FNP is a water-soluble derivative of fullerene C{sub 60}. Its size is a 1.1 nm in diameter and is a very promising candidate for a drug carrier in nanomedicine. FNP also displays free radical scavenging activity. DMSO decreased both spontaneous and calcium-induced contractions. In contrast, FNP only decreased spontaneous contraction. FNP decreased copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity and prevented the DMSO-induced increase in glutathione reductase activity. Atomic force microscopy detected that FNP aggregated with calcium ions. Our results indicate that FNP has properties that make it a good candidate to be a modulator of DMSO activity which could minimize side effects of the latter.

  5. Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) in the new solvent Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)/Tetrabutylammonium Fluoride (TBAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliza, M. Y.; Shahruddin, M.; Noormaziah, J.; Rosli, W. D. Wan

    2015-06-01

    The surplus of Oil Palm is the most galore wastes in Malaysia because it produced about half of the world palm oil production, which contributes a major disposal problem Synthesis from an empty fruit bunch produced products such as Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC), could apply in diverse application such as for paper coating, food packaging and most recently, the potential as biomaterials has been revealed. In this study, CMC was prepared by firstly dissolved the bleached pulp from OPEFB in mixture solution of dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO)/tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) without any prior chemical modification. It took only 30 minutes to fully dissolve at temperature 60°C before sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were added for activation and monochloroacetateas terrifying agent. The final product is appeared in white powder, which is then will be analyzedby FTIR analysis. FTIR results show peaks appeared at wavenumber between 1609 cm-1 to 1614 cm-1 proved the existence of carboxymethyl groups which substitute OH groups at anhydroglucose(AGU) unit. As a conclusion, mixture solution of DMSO/TBAF is the suitable solvent used for dissolved cellulose before modifying it into CMC with higher Degree of Substitution (DS). Furthermore, the dissolution of the OPEFB bleached pulp was easy, simple and at a faster rate without prior chemical modification at temperature as low as 60°C.

  6. Complex formation reactions of uranyl(VI) with neutral N-donors in dimethyl sulfoxide. Influence of small amounts of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassol, A.; Di Bernardo, P.; Zanonato, P.; Portanova, R.; Tolazzi, M.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative information about the existence and thermodynamic stability of uranyl(VI) ion complexes based solely upon nitrogen coordination has been obtained in the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide. Calorimetric, potentiometric, and FT-IR investigations, under controlled anhydrous conditions, show that the uranyl(VI) ion can form both mono and bis chelates with the ethylenediamine ligand and only a mono chelate of rather low stability with propylenediamine. With the monodentate ligand n-butylamine only a very weak metal-ligand interaction has been detected. The stability constants and the enthalpy and entropy changes have been calculated for the identified coordinated species. All data refer to 25.0 degree C and a tetraethylammonium perchlorate medium of ionic strength 0.1 M. All the complexes are enthalpy stabilized whereas the entropy contributions oppose the complex formation. Calorimetric and FT-IR measurements carried out to investigate the effects of small amounts of water present show that a very low water concentration, comparable to that of the coordinating metal ion, can give rise to hydrolysis reactions that may compete with complex formation. This is due to the combined action of different factors that are discussed. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. Improved in situ saccharification of cellulose pretreated by dimethyl sulfoxide/ionic liquid using cellulase from a newly isolated Paenibacillus sp. LLZ1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongxue; Ju, Xin; Li, Liangzhi; Hu, Cuiying; Yan, Lishi; Wu, Tianyun; Fu, Jiaolong; Qin, Ming

    2016-02-01

    A cellulase producing strain was newly isolated from soil samples and identified as Paenibacillus sp. LLZ1. A novel aqueous-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate ([Emin]DEP)-cellulase system was designed and optimized. In the pretreatment, DMSO was found to be a low-cost substitute of up to 70% ionic liquid to enhance the cellulose dissolution. In the enzymatic saccharification, the optimum pH and temperature of the Paenibacillus sp. LLZ1 cellulase were identified as 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Under the optimized reaction condition, the conversion of microcrystalline cellulose and bagasse cellulose increased by 39.3% and 37.6%, compared with unpretreated cellulose. Compared to current methods of saccharification, this new approach has several advantages including lower operating temperature, milder pH, and less usage of ionic liquid, indicating a marked progress in environmental friendly hydrolysis of biomass-based materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A potentiometric study of (acid+base) equilibria in substituted 4-nitropyridine N-oxide systems in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurzynski, Lukasz [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Puszko, Aniela [Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Economics, Wroclaw (Poland); Makowski, Mariusz [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Chmurzynski, Lech [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: lech@chemik.chem.univ.gda.pl

    2007-02-15

    The acid dissociation constants for cationic acids conjugated with 4-nitropyridine N-oxides have been determined using potentiometric titration method. The measurements in the systems of thirteen 4-nitropyridine N-oxide derivatives were carried out in the polar amphiprotic methanol (MeOH) and in the aprotic protophilic dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Likewise as in the polar aprotic protophobic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone) it was found that in MeOH for all N-oxides studied the pK{sub a} values were readily determinable, whereas in DMSO the pK{sub a} values were hardly determinable or indeterminable by using the potentiometric method. In addition, just like in our previous investigations it was revealed that the sequence of the pK{sub a} values of the cationic acids in methanol is the same as in the water and the values are lower than those determined in acetonitrile and acetone. Also, it was found that the phenomenon of cationic homoconjugation equilibria was not present in the systems involving 4-nitropyridine N-oxide derivatives in both solvents used. Furthermore, protonation energies, {delta}E{sub prot}, and Gibbs free enthalpies, {delta}G{sub prot}, in vacuo have been compared with acid dissociation constants (expressed as pK{sub a}{sup MeOH} values) of the protonated N-oxides determined by potentiometric titration in methanol to establish a correlation between these magnitudes.

  9. Speciation of binary complexes of Pb(II and Cd(II with L-asparagine in dimethyl sulfoxide - water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Rao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation of L-Asparagine complexes of Pb(II and Cd(II in presence of (0-50% v/v dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO-water mixtures has been studied potentiometrically at 303.0 K and at an ionic strength of 0.16 mol L-1. The models containing different number of species were refined by using the computer program MINIQUAD75. The number of species in the models is chosen based on exhaustive modeling. The predominant species formed are of the type ML2, ML2H, and ML2H2. The best fit chemical models were chosen based on statistical parameters. The convenience of the models is ascertained by studying the effect of errors in concentrations of ingredients. The trend in variation of stability constants with change in the composition of medium is explained on the basis of predominant electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces. Chemical speciation was discussed based on the distribution diagrams. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v30i1.6

  10. 1,3-Dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, acetylacetone and dimethyl sulfoxide as solvents for non-aqueous vanadium acetylacetonate redox-flow-batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, T.; Noack, J.; Fischer, P.; Tübke, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Four solvents were employed in a non-aqueous redox flow battery system. • Coulombic efficiencies of 85.9–98.5% and energy efficiencies of 26.6–43.6% were achieved. • Discharge power density was enhanced up to 0.080 mW cm −2 . • Solubility of V(acac) 3 was increased to 0.8 M compared to the acetonitrile system. -- Abstract: A non-aqueous vanadium acetylacetonate redox flow battery with different organic solvents and tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate has been investigated. Cyclic voltammograms show three redox couples in 1,3-dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, acetylacetone and two redox couples in dimethyl sulfoxide. Cell potentials between 2.21 and 2.61 V are measured, depending on the solvent used. Impedance Spectroscopy has been used to determine rate limiting step in the non-aqueous redox flow battery. Experiments in a charge–discharge test cell yielded coulombic and energy efficiencies of 85.9–98.5% and 26.6–43.6%, respectively

  11. Meta-Analysis of the Related Nutritional Supplements Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methylsulfonylmethane in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimethyl sulphoxide and methylsulfonylmethane are two related nutritional supplements used for symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis (OA. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate their efficacy in reducing pain associated with OA. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs, identified by systematic electronic searches, citation tracking and searches of clinical trial registries, assessing these supplements in osteoarthritis of any joint were considered for inclusion. Meta-analysis, based on difference in mean pain related outcomes between treatment and comparator groups, was carried out based on a random effect model. Seven potential trials were identified of which three RCTs, two DMSO and one MSM (total N=326 patients were eligible for inclusion. All three trials were considered high methodological quality. A significant degree of heterogeneity (χ2=6.28, P=.043 was revealed. Two studies demonstrated statistically significant (but not clinically relevant reduction in pain compared with controls; with one showing no group difference. The meta-analysis confirmed a non significant reduction of pain on visual analogue scale of 6.34 mm (SE = 3.49, 95% CI, −0.49, 13.17. The overall effect size of 1.82 was neither statistically nor clinically significant. Current evidence suggests DMSO and MSM are not clinically effective in the reduction of pain in the treatment of OA. No definitive conclusions can currently be drawn from the data due to the mixed findings and the use of inadequate dosing periods.

  12. A contribution to the controversy over dimethyl sulfoxide toxicity: anesthesia monitoring results in patients treated with Onyx embolization for intracranial aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamuk, A.G.; Aypar, U. [Hacettepe University Hospital, Department of Anesthesia, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Saatci, I.; Cekirge, H.S. [Hacettepe University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-05-01

    Onyx injection is a new technique for embolization of cerebral aneurysms that is involved in a controversy about the 'toxicity' of its solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We retrospectively studied 38 patients treated for aneurysms with the liquid polymer, Onyx. Induction was with propofol, fentanyl and vecuronium, and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O. The patients were given 500 ml of fluid after induction, and bradycardia was prevented in order to keep patients hyperdynamic. Electrocardiography (ECG), non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP), pulse oximetry, core temperatures, invasive blood pressure (BP), etCO{sub 2}, and urine output were monitored throughout the intervention. Heart rate and BP changes in response to balloon inflation, DMSO injection, Onyx injection and balloon deflation were recorded. The patients were followed with serial neurological examinations, computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging postoperatively for evidence of any neurological injury. Cumulative DMSO doses were always well under previously implicated doses for systemic toxicity. No changes implicating toxic reactions were observed during DMSO and Onyx injections. Balloon-induced changes returned to baseline within 1 min of balloon deflation. Technique-related permanent morbidity occurred in two patients (worsening of cranial nerve palsies in one and monocular blindness in another) and intracranial hemorrhage with resulting death in one patient. All patients showed a tendency to oxygen desaturation, but this finding did not cause any clinical consequence. Anesthesiologists need to be vigilant in monitoring patients treated with techniques that are new or are being developed. We have seen no evidence of toxicity or any anesthetic complications in our group of patients, our only clinical concern being a tendency to oxygen desaturation, which may be explained by the inhalational elimination of DMSO. (orig.)

  13. Optimization of the etch-and-rinse technique: New perspectives to improve resin-dentin bonding and hybrid layer integrity by reducing residual water using dimethyl sulfoxide pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stape, Thiago Henrique Scarabello; Tjäderhane, Leo; Abuna, Gabriel; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu

    2018-04-13

    To determine whether bonding effectiveness and hybrid layer integrity on acid-etched dehydrated dentin would be comparable to the conventional wet-bonding technique through new dentin biomodification approaches using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Etched dentin surfaces from extracted sound molars were randomly bonded in wet or dry conditions (30s air drying) with DMSO/ethanol or DMSO/H 2 O as pretreatments using a simplified (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE: SU) and a multi-step (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE: SBMP) etch-and-rinse adhesives. Untreated dentin surfaces served as control. Bonded teeth (n=8) were stored in distilled water for 24h and sectioned into resin-dentin beams (0.8mm 2 ) for microtensile bond strength test and quantitative interfacial nanoleakage analysis (n=8) under SEM. Additional teeth (n=2) were prepared for micropermeability assessment by CFLSM under simulated pulpar pressure (20cm H 2 O) using 5mM fluorescein as a tracer. Microtensile data was analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by Tukey Test and nanoleakage by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn-Bonferroni multiple comparison test (α=0.05). While dry-bonding of SBMP produced significantly lower bond strengths than wet-bonding (padhesives to demineralized air-dried dentin beyond conventional wet-bonding. Less porous resin-dentin interfaces with higher bond strengths on air-dried etched dentin were achieved; nonetheless, overall efficiency varied according to DMSO's co-solvent and adhesive type. DMSO pretreatments permit etched dentin to be air-dried before hybridization facilitating residual water removal and thus improving bonding effectiveness. This challenges the current paradigm of wet-bonding requirement for the etch-and-rinse approach creating new possibilities to enhance the clinical longevity of resin-dentin interfaces. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A contribution to the controversy over dimethyl sulfoxide toxicity: anesthesia monitoring results in patients treated with Onyx embolization for intracranial aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamuk, A.G.; Aypar, U.; Saatci, I.; Cekirge, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    Onyx injection is a new technique for embolization of cerebral aneurysms that is involved in a controversy about the 'toxicity' of its solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We retrospectively studied 38 patients treated for aneurysms with the liquid polymer, Onyx. Induction was with propofol, fentanyl and vecuronium, and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in O 2 and N 2 O. The patients were given 500 ml of fluid after induction, and bradycardia was prevented in order to keep patients hyperdynamic. Electrocardiography (ECG), non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP), pulse oximetry, core temperatures, invasive blood pressure (BP), etCO 2 , and urine output were monitored throughout the intervention. Heart rate and BP changes in response to balloon inflation, DMSO injection, Onyx injection and balloon deflation were recorded. The patients were followed with serial neurological examinations, computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging postoperatively for evidence of any neurological injury. Cumulative DMSO doses were always well under previously implicated doses for systemic toxicity. No changes implicating toxic reactions were observed during DMSO and Onyx injections. Balloon-induced changes returned to baseline within 1 min of balloon deflation. Technique-related permanent morbidity occurred in two patients (worsening of cranial nerve palsies in one and monocular blindness in another) and intracranial hemorrhage with resulting death in one patient. All patients showed a tendency to oxygen desaturation, but this finding did not cause any clinical consequence. Anesthesiologists need to be vigilant in monitoring patients treated with techniques that are new or are being developed. We have seen no evidence of toxicity or any anesthetic complications in our group of patients, our only clinical concern being a tendency to oxygen desaturation, which may be explained by the inhalational elimination of DMSO. (orig.)

  15. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in non-obese diabetic mice by inducing differentiation of regulatory T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Gu-Jiun; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Yuan-Wu; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Yu, Chiao-Chi; Chang, Hao-Ming; Chan, De-Chuan; Huang, Shing-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is caused by the destruction of insulin-producing β cells in pancreatic islets by autoimmune T cells. Islet transplantation has been established as an effective therapeutic strategy for T1D. However, the survival of islet grafts can be disrupted by recurrent autoimmunity. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent for organic and inorganic substances and an organ-conserving agent used in solid organ transplantations. DMSO also exerts anti-inflammatory, reactive oxygen species scavenger and immunomodulatory effects and therefore exhibits therapeutic potential for the treatment of several human inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of DMSO in the inhibition of autoimmunity. We treated an animal model of islet transplantation (NOD mice) with DMSO. The survival of the syngeneic islet grafts was significantly prolonged. The population numbers of CD8, DC and Th1 cells were decreased, and regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers were increased in recipients. The expression levels of IFN-γ and proliferation of T cells were also reduced following DMSO treatment. Furthermore, the differentiation of Treg cells from naive CD4 T cells was significantly increased in the in vitro study. Our results demonstrate for the first time that in vivo DMSO treatment suppresses spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in NOD mice by inhibiting the Th1 immune response and inducing the differentiation of Treg cells. - Highlights: • We report a therapeutic potential of DMSO in autoimmune diabetes. • DMSO exhibits an immune modulatory effect. • DMSO treatment increases regulatory T cell differentiation. • The increase in STAT5 signaling pathway explains the effect of DMSO in Tregs

  16. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in non-obese diabetic mice by inducing differentiation of regulatory T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Gu-Jiun [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Sytwu, Huey-Kang [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yu, Jyh-Cherng [Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Yuan-Wu [School of Dentistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Yu-Liang [Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yu, Chiao-Chi [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Hao-Ming; Chan, De-Chuan [Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Shing-Hwa, E-mail: h610129@gmail.com [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-01-15

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is caused by the destruction of insulin-producing β cells in pancreatic islets by autoimmune T cells. Islet transplantation has been established as an effective therapeutic strategy for T1D. However, the survival of islet grafts can be disrupted by recurrent autoimmunity. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent for organic and inorganic substances and an organ-conserving agent used in solid organ transplantations. DMSO also exerts anti-inflammatory, reactive oxygen species scavenger and immunomodulatory effects and therefore exhibits therapeutic potential for the treatment of several human inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of DMSO in the inhibition of autoimmunity. We treated an animal model of islet transplantation (NOD mice) with DMSO. The survival of the syngeneic islet grafts was significantly prolonged. The population numbers of CD8, DC and Th1 cells were decreased, and regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers were increased in recipients. The expression levels of IFN-γ and proliferation of T cells were also reduced following DMSO treatment. Furthermore, the differentiation of Treg cells from naive CD4 T cells was significantly increased in the in vitro study. Our results demonstrate for the first time that in vivo DMSO treatment suppresses spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in NOD mice by inhibiting the Th1 immune response and inducing the differentiation of Treg cells. - Highlights: • We report a therapeutic potential of DMSO in autoimmune diabetes. • DMSO exhibits an immune modulatory effect. • DMSO treatment increases regulatory T cell differentiation. • The increase in STAT5 signaling pathway explains the effect of DMSO in Tregs.

  17. Dimethyl sulfoxide in a 10% concentration has no effect on oxidation stress induced by ovalbumin-sensitization in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolka, P; Mokra, D; Drgova, A; Petras, M; Mokry, J

    2012-04-01

    In allergic asthma, activated cells produce various substances including reactive oxygen species (ROS). As heterogenic pathophysiology of asthma results to different response to the therapy, testing novel interventions continues. Because of water-insolubility of some potentially beneficial drugs, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is often used as a solvent. Based on its antioxidant properties, this study evaluated effects of DMSO on mobilization of leukocytes into the lungs, and oxidation processes induced by ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitization in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma. Guinea-pigs were divided into OVA-sensitized and naive animals. One group of OVA-sensitized animals and one group of naive animals were pretreated with 10% DMSO, the other two groups were given saline. After sacrificing animals, blood samples were taken and total antioxidant status (TAS) in the plasma was determined. Left lungs were saline-lavaged and differential leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) was made. Right lung tissue was homogenized, TAS and products of lipid and protein oxidation were determined in the lung homogenate and in isolated mitochondria. OVA-sensitization increased total number of cells and percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils in BAL fluid; increased lipid and protein oxidation in the lung homogenate and mitochondria, and decreased TAS in the lungs and plasma compared with naive animals. However, no differences were observed in DMSO-instilled animals compared to controls. In conclusion, OVA-sensitization increased mobilization of leukocytes into the lungs and elevated production of ROS, accompanied by decrease in TAS. 10% DMSO had no effect on lipid and protein oxidation in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma.

  18. Dimethyl sulfoxide-caused changes in pro- and anti-angiogenic factor levels could contribute to an anti-angiogenic response in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Ece; Aydemir, Esra Arslan; İmir, Nilüfer; Koçak, Orhan; Kuruoğlu, Aykut; Fışkın, Kayahan

    2015-10-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is widely used in biological research as a general solvent. While it has been previously demonstrated that DMSO possesses a wide range of pharmacological effects, there is no published work regarding the effects of DMSO on pro-angiogenic factor levels. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of DMSO on the levels of three pro-angiogenic factors released from HeLa cells in vitro. Cells were treated with two different and previously determined concentrations of DMSO. The cytotoxic effects of DMSO concentrations on HeLa cells were determined via MTT. Survival rates of DMSO-treated cells were determined by Invitrogen live/dead viability/cytotoxicity kit and trypan blue exclusion assay. Changes in the pro-angiogenic levels in media were evaluated by Cayman's Substance P Enzyme Immunoassay ELISA kit. Vascular endothelial growth factor ELISA kit and interferon gamma ELISA kit for substance P, VEGF and IFNγ respectively. Changes in substance P levels were corrected by standard western blotting. Changes in VEGF and IFNγ levels were corrected both by western blot and real time PCR. Treatment with 1.4 μM DMSO caused a time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation at 24, 48 and 72 h. 1.4 μM DMSO caused a significant reduction in VEGF levels at 72 h of incubation and sharp increases in IFNγ levels at both 48 and 72 h of incubation. According to real time PCR analyses, DMSO (1.4 μM) exhibited an inhibitory effect on VEGF but acted as an augmenter of IFNγ release on HeLa cells in vitro. This is the first report showing that the general solvent DMSO suppressed HeLa cell proliferation, decreased the levels of two pro-angiogenic factors (substance P and VEGF) and increased the release of an anti-angiogenic factor IFNγ in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide in golden hamster embryo cells exposed to γ-rays at 4 and 77 K as studied by electron spin resonance and biological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, T.; Suzuki, K.; Watanabe, M.

    1992-01-01

    Many studies have reported the biological effects of gamma-irradiation on cells. It has been generally accepted that OH radicals produced by radiolysis of water in cells play an important role in the biological effect. OH radicals, however, were not observed directly in these studies. Thus there is some ambiguity in the determination of the reactive species responsible for the biological effect. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on gamma-irradiated golden hamster embryo cells has been studied here at 4 and 77 K by direct observation of free radicals and by biological measurements. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs

  20. Crystal structure of diaquabis(7-diethylamino-3-formyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-olato-κ2O3,O4zinc(II dimethyl sulfoxide disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B. Davis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title coordination complex, [Zn(C14H14NO42(H2O2]·2C2H6OS, shows that the ZnII cation adopts an octahedral geometry and lies on an inversion center. Two organic ligands occupy the equatorial positions of the coordination sphere, forming a chelate ring motif via the O atom on the formyl group and another O atom of the carbonyl group (a pseudo-β-diketone motif. Two water molecules occupy the remaining coordination sites of the ZnII cation in the axial positions. The water molecules are each hydrogen bonded to a single dimethyl sulfoxide molecule that has been entrapped in the crystal lattice.

  1. Trans-ligand-dependent arrangement (bent or linear) of Pt II-bound dialkylcyanamide ligands: Molecular structure of trans-dichloro(dimethylcyanamide)(dimethyl sulfoxide)platinum(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, Tatyana B.; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Fritsky, Igor O.; Haukka, Matti

    2011-11-01

    The title compound, trans-[PtCl 2(NCNMe 2)(Me 2SO)], is the first example of the structurally characterized Pt II species having the nitrile and the sulfoxide ligands in the trans-position to each other. The most significant feature of this structure is the non-linear arrangement of the Pt sbnd N1 sbnd C1 fragment providing the rare case of the bent form of the dialkylcyanamide ligand.

  2. Solute-solvent interactions in 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone isonicotinoylhydrazone solutions in N, N-dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide at 298-313 K on ultrasonic and viscometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikkar, A. B.; Pethe, G. B.; Aswar, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The speed of sound ( u), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) of 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone isonicotinoylhydrazone (DHAIH) have been measured in N, N-dimethyl formamide and dimethyl sulfoxide at equidistance temperatures 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15 K. These data were used to calculate some important ultrasonic and thermodynamic parameters such as apparent molar volume ( V ϕ s st ), apparent molar compressibility ( K ϕ), partial molar volume ( V ϕ 0 ) and partial molar compressibility ( K ϕ 0 ), were estimated by using the values of ( V ϕ 0 ) and ( K ϕ), at infinite dilution. Partial molar expansion at infinite dilution, (ϕ E 0 ) has also been calculated from temperature dependence of partial molar volume V ϕ 0 . The viscosity data have been analyzed using the Jones-Dole equation, and the viscosity, B coefficients are calculated. The activation free energy has been calculated from B coefficients and partial molar volume data. The results have been discussed in the term of solute-solvent interaction occurring in solutions and it was found that DHAIH acts as a structure maker in present systems.

  3. Gamma-radiolysis of dimethyl sulfoxide. II. Radiolysis yields and possible mechanisms; Gamma-Radiolisis del dimetilsulfoxido II. Rendimientos radioloticos y posibles mecanismos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, M C; Barrera, R

    1978-07-01

    As result of quantitative studies on gamma-radiolysis of DMSO at a dose range of 90-850 Mrads, constant G values have been obtained for the following radiolysis compounds: G(-DMSO) - 6.7 {+-}0.2; G(dimethyl sulphide) - 3.4 {+-}0.3; G(methane) - 0,75 {+-} 0.04; G(dimethyl disulphide) -0.33 {+-}0,03; G(tri methylsulphonium methanesulphonate) - 0.26 {+-} 0,01; G(methyl methanethiosulphonate) - 0,25 {+-}0.02; G(dimethyl sulphona)-0.21{+-}0.02; G(H{sub 2})-0.18{+-}0.02; and G(propane)--0.0092{+-}0.0007. Initial G values have been obtained for other identified compounds: Gi(ethane)-0,46; Gi(CO)-0.052; and Gi(CO{sub 2})-0.030. Possible mechanisms on the radiolysis process are proposed. (Author) 17 refs.

  4. Bis[N-(2-aminoethylethane-1,2-diamine-κ3N,N′,N′′]copper(II tris[diamminetetrakis(thiocyanato-κNchromate(III] thiocyanate dimethyl sulfoxide tetradecasolvate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalina M. Nikitina

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The ionic title complex, [Cu(C4H13N32]2[Cr(NCS4(NH32]3(NCS·14C2H6OS·H2O, consists of complex [Cu(dien2]2+ cations [dien is N-(2-aminoethylethane-1,2-diamine], complex [Cr(NCS4(NH32]− anions, an NCS− counter-anion and uncoordinated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and water solvent molecules. One of the Cr atoms lies on an inversion center, while the second Cr atom and the Cu atom lie in general positions. The thiocyanate counter-anion and water molecule are disordered over two positions close to an inversion center. There are several types of hydrogen-bond interactions present in the title compound, which connect the complex cations and anions into bulky [Cu2Cr3] polynuclear species. The four NH3 groups of the complex anions and six bridging DMSO O atoms link the three complex anions via hydrogen bonding into the anionic polynuclear species [Cr(NCS4(NH32]3·6DMSO. The last one is connected by four bridging DMSO O atoms with the two complex copper cations through N—H... O hydrogen bonds between the terminal NH3 groups of the anionic polynuclear species and the NH and NH2 groups of the dien ligand. One additional DMSO molecule is connected via hydrogen bonding to one of the terminal NH3 groups of the anionic polynuclear species. Another DMSO molecule is connected via hydrogen bonding to each Cu(dien2]2+ cation.

  5. Optimization of the freezing process for hematopoietic progenitor cells: effect of precooling, initial dimethyl sulfoxide concentration, freezing program, and storage in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen on in vitro white blood cell quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J; Setroikromo, Airies C; Kraan, Marcha; Gkoumassi, Effimia; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny

    2014-12-01

    Adding dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) causes an exothermic reaction, potentially affecting their viability. The freezing method might also influence this. The aim was to investigate the effect of 1) precooling of DMSO and plasma (D/P) and white blood cell (WBC)-enriched product, 2) DMSO concentration of D/P, 3) freezing program, and 4) storage method on WBC quality. WBC-enriched product without CD34+ cells was used instead of HPCs. This was divided into six or eight portions. D/P (20 or 50%; precooled or room temperature [RT]) was added to the WBC-enriched product (precooled or RT), resulting in 10% DMSO, while monitoring temperature. The product was frozen using controlled-rate freezing ("fast-rate" or "slow-rate") and placed in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen. After thawing, WBC recovery and viability were determined. Temperature increased most for precooled D/P to precooled WBC-enriched product, without influence of 20 or 50% D/P, but remained for all variations below 30°C. WBC recovery for both freezing programs was more than 95%. Recovery of WBC viability was higher for slow-rate freezing compared to fast-rate freezing (74% vs. 61%; p liquid nitrogen was marginal. Based on these results, precooling is not necessary. Fifty percent D/P is preferred over 20% D/P. Slow-rate freezing is preferred over fast-rate freezing. For safety reasons storage in vapor-phase nitrogen is preferred over storage in liquid nitrogen. Additional testing using real HPCs might be necessary. © 2014 AABB.

  6. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on the induction of DNA strand breaks in plasmid DNA and colony formation of PC Cl3 mammalian cells by alpha-, beta-, and Auger electron emitters (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Roswitha; Oehme, Liane; Kotzerke, Jörg; Freudenberg, Robert

    2016-12-01

    DNA damage occurs as a consequence of both direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation. The severity of DNA damage depends on the physical characteristics of the radiation quality, e.g., the linear energy transfer (LET). There are still contrary findings regarding direct or indirect interactions of high-LET emitters with DNA. Our aim is to determine DNA damage and the effect on cellular survival induced by (223)Ra compared to (188)Re and (99m)Tc modulated by the radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Radioactive solutions of (223)Ra, (188)Re, or (99m)Tc were added to either plasmid DNA or to PC Cl3 cells in the absence or presence of DMSO. Following irradiation, single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) in plasmid DNA were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. To determine the radiosensitivity of the rat thyroid cell line (PC Cl3), survival curves were performed using the colony formation assay. Exposure to 120 Gy of (223)Ra, (188)Re, or (99m)Tc leads to maximal yields of SSB (80 %) in plasmid DNA. Irradiation with 540 Gy (223)Ra and 500 Gy (188)Re or (99m)Tc induced 40, 28, and 64 % linear plasmid conformations, respectively. DMSO prevented the SSB and DSB in a similar way for all radionuclides. However, with the α-emitter (223)Ra, a low level of DSB could not be prevented by DMSO. Irradiation of PC Cl3 cells with (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc pre-incubated with DMSO revealed enhanced survival fractions (SF) in comparison to treatment without DMSO. Protection factors (PF) were calculated using the fitted survival curves. These factors are 1.23 ± 0.04, 1.20 ± 0.19, and 1.34 ± 0.05 for (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc, respectively. For (223)Ra, as well as for (188)Re and (99m)Tc, dose-dependent radiation effects were found applicable for plasmid DNA and PC Cl3 cells. The radioprotection by DMSO was in the same range for high- and low-LET emitter. Overall, the results indicate the contribution of mainly indirect radiation

  7. Study into complexing of anhydrous uranyl chloride with organic o-bases in nonaqueous media. Interaction with aliphatic sulfoxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobets, L V; Buchikhin, E P; Klyshevich, R P; Belyachis, G F

    1982-01-01

    The methods of spectrophotometry, conductometry and calorimetry have been used to investigate interaction of uranyl chloride with dimethyl, diamil, dioctyl sulfoxides in the nonaqueous acetone media. Existence of complexes with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 composition for dimethyl sulfoxide and with 1:1, 1:2 composition for diamil-, dioctyl sulfoxides is revealed. The constants of formation and dissociation of these complexes are calculated; the enthalpies of their formation in acetone are determined.

  8. Study into complexing of anhydrous uranyl chloride with organic o-bases in nonaqueous media. Interaction with aliphatic sulfoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobets, L.V.; Buchikhin, E.P.; Klyshevich, R.P.; Belyachis, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    The methods of spectrophotometry, conductometry and calorimetry have been used to investigate interaction of uranyl chloride with dimethyl, diamil, dioctyl sulfoxides in the nonaqueous acetone media. Existence of complexes with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 composition for dimethyl sulfoxide and with 1:1, 1:2 composition for diamil-, dioctyl sulfoxides is revealed. The constants of formation and dissociation of these complexes are calculated; the enthalpies of their formation in acetone are determined

  9. Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar heat capacities of aqueous tetrahydrofuran, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2-dimethoxyethane at temperatures from 278.15 K to 393.15 K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.M.; Blodgett, M.B.; Ziemer, S.P.; Woolley, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    We determined apparent molar volumes V φ at 278.15 ≤ (T/K) ≤ 368.15 and apparent molar heat capacities C p,φ at 278.15 ≤ (T/K) ≤ 393.15 at p = 0.35 MPa for aqueous solutions of tetrahydrofuran at m from (0.016 to 2.5) mol . kg -1 , dimethyl sulfoxide at m from (0.02 to 3.0) mol . kg -1 , 1,4-dioxane at m from (0.015 to 2.0) mol . kg -1 , and 1,2-dimethoxyethane at m from (0.01 to 2.0) mol . kg -1 . Values of V φ were determined from densities measured with a vibrating-tube densimeter, and values of C p,φ were determined with a twin fixed-cell, differential, temperature-scanning calorimeter. Empirical functions of m and T for each compound were fitted to our V φ and C p,φ results

  10. Measurement of the Absolute Raman Cross Sections of Diethyl Phthalate, Dimethyl Phthalate, Ethyl Cinnamate, Propylene Carbonate, Tripropyl Phosphate, 1,3-Cyclohexanedione, 3’-Aminoacetophenone, 3’-Hydroxyacetophenone, Diethyl Acetamidomalonate, Isovanillin, Lactide, Meldrum’s Acid, p-Tolyl Sulfoxide, and Vanillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    Lactide, Meldrum’s Acid , p-Tolyl Sulfoxide, and Vanillin R.L. Aggarwal L.W. Farrar B.G. Saar T.H. Jeys R.B. Goodman 13 September 2013...Aminoacetophenone, 3’-Hydroxyacetophenone, Diethyl Acetamidomalonate, Isovanillin, Lactide, Meldrum’s Acid , p-Tolyl Sulfoxide, and Vanillin R.L...hydroxyacetophenone (HOAP), diethyl acetamidomalonate (DEAM), isovanillin (ISOV), lactide (DODO), Meldrum’s acid (MA), p-tolyl sulfoxide (PTSO), and vanillin

  11. Radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide in two biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del; Bernardes, D.M.L.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.

    1991-03-01

    The present study was conducted: a) to confirm data from others describing a radioprotective capacity of DMSO in mice; b) to establish whether this protective behavior could be evidenced in an in vitro chemical system utilizing bovine crystalline protein as target. Heterozigous female albino mice were used for the 30-day-survival studies after 9 Gy sup(60)Co gamma irradiation (dose rate: 4.5 Gy/min) injected 1 h prior with 2000 mg/kg DMSO intraperitoneally. Total body weight curves during the same period were also analysed. For the molecular level studies 1 M DMSO was added to a series of aqueous protein solutions from bovine lens and 10 min later irradiated with 5 different doses from 5,000 to 25,000 Gy sup(60)Co (average dose rate 14 Gy/min). After irradiation, spectrophotometric reading at 600 nm and free thiol group determinations were performed in order to evaluate the radiation-induced modifications. (author)

  12. Should the standard dimethyl sulfoxide concentration be reduced?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Curly; de Wreede, Liesbeth; Scholten, Marijke

    2014-01-01

    cells, we show that patients in the highest quartile receiving DMSO (mL and mL/kg body weight) had significantly more side effects attributed to DMSO, although this effect was not observed if DMSO was calculated as mL/min. Dividing the myeloma and lymphoma patients each into two equal groups by age we...... and attention to the dose of DMSO received by patients could help reduce the toxicity and morbidity of the transplant procedure....

  13. 21 CFR 524.660b - Dimethyl sulfoxide gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... use—(1) Indications for use. For use on horses and dogs as a topical application to reduce acute... grams per day. Total duration of therapy should not exceed 30 days. (ii) Dogs. Administer 3 or 4 times...

  14. Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on the hydrogen bonding structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar 751 013, India e-mail: .... molecules are modeled by the 4-site P2 model of Luzar and Chandler9 which ..... lifetime of hydrogen bond acceptance by carbonyl oxy-.

  15. Hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOchromium(III trichloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turganbay S. Iskenderov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cr(C2H6OS6]Cl3, each CrIII ion is located on a three-fold inversion axis and is coordinated by six dimethylsulfoxide ligands [Cr—O = 1.970 (2–1.972 (2 Å; O—Cr—O = 88.19 (9 and 91.81 (9°] in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The Cl− anions take part in the formation of weak C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, which contribute to the crystal packing stabilization.

  16. 21 CFR 524.660a - Dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.660a... per day. Total duration of therapy should not exceed 30 days. (ii) In dogs administered 3 or 4 times daily in an amount not to exceed 20 milliliters per day. Total duration of therapy should not exceed 14...

  17. Crystal structures of hibiscus acid and hibiscus acid dimethyl ester isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zheoat, Ahmed M.; Gray, Alexander I.; Igoli, John O.; Kennedy, Alan R.; Ferro, Valerie A.

    2017-01-01

    The biologically active title compounds have been isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa plants, hibiscus acid as a dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate [systematic name: (2S,3R)-3-hy?droxy-5-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetra?hydro?furan-2,3-di?carb?oxy?lic acid dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate], C6H6O7?C2H6OS, (I), and hibiscus acid dimethyl ester [systematic name: dimethyl (2S,3R)-3-hy?droxy-5-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetra?hydro?furan-2,3-di?carboxyl?ate], C8H10O7, (II). Compound (I) forms a layered structure with alternating laye...

  18. Oxygen atom transfer reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. A bonding evolution theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Navarrete, Patricio; Sensato, Fabricio R; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2014-08-07

    In this research, a comprehensive theoretical investigation has been conducted on oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. The joint use of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT) provides a powerful tool to analyze the evolution of chemical events along a reaction pathway. The progress of the reaction has been monitored by structural stability domains from ELF topology while the changes between them are controlled by turning points derived from CT which reveal that the reaction mechanism can be separated in several steps: first, a rupture of the peroxo O1-O2 bond, then a rearrangement of lone pairs of the sulfur atom occurs and subsequently the formation of S-O1 bond. The OAT process involving the oxidation of sulfides and sulfoxides is found to be an asynchronous process where O1-O2 bond breaking and S-O1 bond formation processes do not occur simultaneously. Nucleophilic/electrophilic characters of both dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively, are sufficiently described by our results, which hold the key to unprecedented insight into the mapping of electrons that compose the bonds while the bonds change.

  19. Octakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOcerium(III μ6-oxido-dodeca-μ2-oxido-hexaoxidohexamolybdate(VI dimethyl sulfoxide tetrasolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbia Ben Khélifa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [Ce(C2H6OS8]2[Mo6O19]3·4C2H6OS, was obtained as a byproduct of the reaction of [(C4H94N]2[Mo6O19] with Ce(NO33·6H2O and phthalic acid in dimethylsulfoxide solution. The asymmetric unit consists of a complex [Ce(C2H6OS8]3+ cation, one and a half of the Lindqvist-type [Mo6O19]2− polyanions and two dimethylsulfoxide solvent molecules; the half polyanion lies on an inversion center. The Ce3+ ion is coordinated by eight dimethylsulfoxide ligands through the O atoms in the form of a distorted square antiprism. The Ce—O bond lengths range from 2.429 (6 to 2.550 (5 Å. The cohesion of the structure is ensured by S...O [3.115 (6, 3.242 (10 and 3.12 (3 Å], O...O [3.037 (10 Å] and C—H...O interactions between cations and anions. The S and C atoms of a dmso ligand are disordered over three sites in a 0.45:0.30:0.25 ratio. The dimethylsulfoxide solvent molecules are highly disordered and could not be modelled successfully; their contribution was therefore removed from the refinement using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]. Potential solvent-accessible voids of 500.0 Å3 occur in the crystal structure.

  20. Ruthenium sulfoxides structure and reactivity with nitrogen heterocyclic bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Denise de.

    1990-01-01

    Ruthenium (II) sulfoxides are compounds of great interest in oxidative catalysis and in chemotherapy. In order to contribute for the understanding of the chemistry and electronic structure of this class of compounds, it has been studied a series of [Ru Cl 2 (S-DMSO) 2 L x ] complexes, where x = 1 (polymeric compounds) or 2 (monomers) and L N-heterocyclic ligands (pyridine, pyrazine and imidazole derivatives). The nature of N-heterocyclic ligand and their coordination are of great relevance to the stability, spectroscopic and electrochemical characteristics of the complexes. The trans-interactions are extremely important in this series, influencing the strength of the Ru(II)-> S-DMSO and Ru(II)-> L π-back donation. The DMSO and L ligands are π-acceptors. The metal-> ligand π-back donation is strengthened when the ligand is trans to chloride, which is π-donor, due to trans-cooperative interactions of the type: π-donor -> Ru(II) π-acceptor. Another interesting aspect in the series of [Ru Cl 2 (S-DMSO) 2 L 2 ] complexes is the occurrence of dissociative equilibria in the solution, due to the existence of three types of ligands. It was observed that the trans-N isomer of 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine derivative undergoes thermal substitution, with preferential liabilization of the N-heterocyclic ligand. Chloride ion is the most inert ligand in this complex. (author). 145 refs., 76 figs., 21 tabs

  1. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of N,N-Dimethyl-N'-Picryl-4,4'-Stilbenediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papper, Vladislav; Wu, Yuanyuan; Kharlanov, Vladimir; Sukharaharja, Ayrine; Steele, Terry W J; Marks, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    N,N-dimethyl-N'-picryl-4,4'-stilbenediamine (DMPSDA) was prepared, purified and crystallised in a form of black lustrous crystals, and its absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded in cyclohexane, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide. Non-emissive intramolecular charge transfer state (ICT) was clearly observed in this molecule in all three solvents. Theoretical calculations demonstrating a betaine electronic structure of the trinitrophenyl group in the ground state of the molecule and a charge transfer nature of the long wavelength transition S 0  → S 1 supported the experimental observations of the ICT formation in the molecule.

  2. Cysteine sulfoxide derivatives in Petiveria alliacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubec, R; Musah, R A

    2001-11-01

    Two diastereomers of S-benzyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide have been isolated from fresh roots of Petiveria alliacea. Their structures and absolute configurations have been determined by NMR, MALDI-HRMS, IR and CD spectroscopy and confirmed by comparison with authentic compounds. Both the R(S) and S(S) diastereomers of the sulfoxide are present in all parts of the plant (root, stem, and leaves) with the latter diastereomer being predominant. Their total content greatly varied in different parts of the plant between 0.07 and 2.97 mg g(-1) fr. wt, being by far the highest in the root. S-Benzylcysteine has also been detected in trace amounts (<10 microg g(-1) fr. wt) in all parts of the plant. This represents the first report of the presence of S-benzylcysteine derivatives in nature.

  3. Crystal structures of hibiscus acid and hibiscus acid dimethyl ester isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheoat, Ahmed M; Gray, Alexander I; Igoli, John O; Kennedy, Alan R; Ferro, Valerie A

    2017-09-01

    The biologically active title compounds have been isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa plants, hibiscus acid as a dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate [systematic name: (2 S ,3 R )-3-hy-droxy-5-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-furan-2,3-di-carb-oxy-lic acid dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate], C 6 H 6 O 7 ·C 2 H 6 OS, (I), and hibiscus acid dimethyl ester [systematic name: dimethyl (2 S ,3 R )-3-hy-droxy-5-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-furan-2,3-di-carboxyl-ate], C 8 H 10 O 7 , (II). Compound (I) forms a layered structure with alternating layers of lactone and solvent mol-ecules, that include a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonding construct. Compound (II) has two crystallographically independent and conformationally similar mol-ecules per asymmetric unit and forms a one-dimensional hydrogen-bonding construct. The known absolute configuration for both compounds has been confirmed.

  4. The effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on hepatogenic differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat Alizadeh

    2014-05-01

    The results demonstrate that DMSO speeds up hepatic differentiation of AT-MSCs characterized by rapid changes in morphology, higher expression of hepatic marker gene (AFP in both mRNA and protein level (P

  5. Transcriptional regulation of dimethyl sulfoxide respiration in a haloarchaeon, Haloferax volcanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qiuzi; Ito, Yoshiyasu; Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Fujiwara, Taketomo

    2016-01-01

    The halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii can grow anaerobically by DMSO respiration. DMSO reductase was induced by DMSO respiration not only under anaerobic growth conditions but also in denitrifying cells of H. volcanii. Deletion of the dmsR gene, encoding a putative regulator for the DMSO reductase, resulted in the loss of anaerobic growth by DMSO respiration. Reporter experiments revealed that only the anaerobic condition was essential for transcription of the dmsEABCD genes encoding DMSO reductase and that transcription was enhanced threefold by supplementation of DMSO. In the ∆dmsR mutant, transcription of the dmsEABCD genes induced by the anaerobic condition was not enhanced by DMSO, suggesting that DmsR is a DMSO-responsive regulator. Transcriptions of the dmsR and mgd genes for Mo-bisMGD biosynthesis were regulated in the same manner as the dmsEABCD genes. These results suggest that the genetic regulation of DMSO respiration in H. volcanii is controlled by at least two systems: one is the DMSO-responsive DmsR, and the other is an unknown anaerobic regulator.

  6. CCDC 1515632: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide)-manganese(ii) tetraiodide

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, M.A.; Davaasuren, Bambar; Rothenberger, Alexander; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from

  7. Formation and stability of calcium complexes of dimethyl sulfoxide in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakl, M.; Straka, Michal; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Roithová, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 360, č. 1 (2014), s. 8-14 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-21409P Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0539 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : bonding energies * DFT * ESI-MS * complexation * speciation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.972, year: 2014

  8. Extraction of 14C-labeled photosynthate from aquatic plants with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbin, G.J.; Hough, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    DMSO was tested as a solvent to extract 14 C-labeled photosynthate from three species of aquatic plants in photosynthesis measurements and compared with the dry oxidation method for plant radioassay. Extraction of ca. 300 mg of fresh or rehydrated dry plant tissue samples in 10 ml of reagent-grade DMSO for 8h at 65 0 C resulted in a stable, nonviscous solution with excellent liquid scintillation counting characteristics. Extraction efficiency was in the range of 96-99% of fixed 14 C, and precision was comparable to, or better than, that obtained with dry oxidation. The method is simple and inexpensive, and for fresh tissue the same sample extracts can be used for chlorophyll analyses

  9. In Vitro Toxicological Evaluation of Cigarette Smoke Particulate Matter: Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO as Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the potential to minimize the cytotoxic or genotoxic effects that dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, when used as solvent, has on the in vitro interleukin-8 (IL-8 release, mammalian cell cytotoxicity and micronuclei formation, and bacterial mutagenesis induced by cigarette smoke wet total particulate matter (WTPM. The use of DMSO as a solvent vehicle for test articles of limited water solubility is widely applied in in vitro assays due to its moderate toxicity to test organisms and its excellent solvent properties for both polar and non-polar compounds, such as WTPM. A significant DMSO dose-dependent depletion in the IL-8 release was observed, with or without the addition of WTPM, at concentrations spanning those typically employed in in vitro assays. DMSO at 3.6% reduced cell viability 40-50%. Overall, DMSO at final concentrations of 0.5% and 4.0% resulted in about 50% and 90% depletion of final IL-8 levels, respectively. DMSO-induced cytotoxicity was evident only at concentrations of 1.5% or more, a concentration higher than that typically employed in such testing. The WTPM-induced cytotoxicity was equivalent at low ranges of DMSO concentrations. DMSO concentrations of 3.6% or higher resulted in an increase of cytotoxicity by 20-25%. DMSO alone did not give rise to bacterial mutagenicity at doses from 0% to 3.9%; however, WTPM exposure with increasing levels of DMSO resulted in increased toxicity of the WTPM at doses of DMSO greater than 6.9%, as indicated by lower revertant counts. This effect suggests that for Ames assay analysis of WTPM collected in DMSO, the level of DMSO should be minimized to prevent lower revertant counts due to DMSO-induced toxicity. DMSO alone gave a dose-dependent increase in the background micronuclei percentage, with a statistically significant increase at 4%. In the presence of WTPM, DMSO at 3% concentration resulted in a significantly higher micro-nucleus frequency, suggesting a possible clastogenic role of DMSO or potential cell permeability differences. In conclusion, this study should provide guidance for the range of DMSO concentrations when used as a solvent for WTPM-mediated in vitro toxicological assays and therefore help in properly designing and conducting in vitro studies that utilize DMSO as the extraction solvent of choice.

  10. Dielectric Properties of Binary Solvent Mixtures of Dimethyl Sulfoxide with Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Jun; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Huang, Ka-Ma; Jia, Guo-Zhu; Shang, Hui

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the dielectric properties of water-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) mixtures with different mole ratios have been investigated in the range of 1 GHz to 40 GHz at 298 K by using a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Only one dielectric loss peak was observed in the frequency range and the relaxation in these mixtures can be described by a single relaxation time of the Davidson-Cole. It was observed that within experimental error the dielectric relaxation can be described by the Debye-like model (β ≈ 1, S.M. Puranik, et al. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1992, 88, 433 – 435). In general, the results are very consistent with the experimental measurements. PMID:19399247

  11. Low concentrations of ethanol but not of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) impair reciprocal retinal signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siapich, Siarhei A; Akhtar, Isha; Hescheler, Jürgen; Schneider, Toni; Lüke, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    The model of the isolated and superfused retina provides the opportunity to test drugs and toxins. Some chemicals have to be applied using low concentrations of organic solvents as carriers. Recently, E-/R-type (Cav2.3) and T-type (Cav3.2) voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels were identified as participating in reciprocal inhibitory retinal signaling. Their participation is apparent, when low concentrations of NiCl2 (15 μM) are applied during superfusion leading to an increase of the ERG b-wave amplitude, which is explained by a reduction of amacrine GABA-release onto bipolar neurons. During these investigations, differences were observed for the solvent carrier used. Recording of the transretinal receptor potentials from the isolated bovine retina. The pretreatment of bovine retina with 0.01 % (v/v) dimethylsulfoxide did not impair the NiCl2-mediated increase of the b-wave amplitude, which was 1.31-fold ± 0.03 of initial value (n = 4). However, pretreatment of the retina with the same concentration of ethanol impaired reciprocal signaling (0.96-fold ± 0.05, n = 4). Further, the implicit time of the b-wave was increased, suggesting that ethanol itself but not DMSO may antagonize GABA-receptors. Ethanol itself but not DMSO may block GABA receptors and cause an amplitude increase by itself, so that reciprocal signaling is impaired.

  12. Solution enthalpies of alkali metal halides in water and heavy water mixtures with dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, G.I.

    1994-01-01

    Solution enthalpies of CsF, LiCl, NaI, CsI and some other halides of alkali metals and tetrabutylammonium have been measured by the method of calorimetry. Standard solution enthalpies of all alkali metals (except rubidium) halides in water and heavy water mixtures with dimethylsulfoxide at 298.15 K have been calculated. Isotopic effects in solvation enthalpy of the electrolytes mentioned in aqueous solutions of dimethylsulfoxide have been discussed. 29 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Dielectric Properties of Binary Solvent Mixtures of Dimethyl Sulfoxide with Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun Yang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dielectric properties of water-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO mixtures with different mole ratios have been investigated in the range of 1 GHz to 40 GHz at 298 K by using a molecular dynamics (MD simulation. Only one dielectric loss peak was observed in the frequency range and the relaxation in these mixtures can be described by a single relaxation time of the Davidson-Cole. It was observed that within experimental error the dielectric relaxation can be described by the Debye-like model (β ≈ 1, S.M. Puranik, et al. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans.1992, 88, 433 - 435. In general, the results are very consistent with the experimental measurements.

  14. Diaquabis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κObis(saccharinato-κNcobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezile S. W. Potwana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [Co(C7H4NO3S2(C2H6OS2(H2O2], contains a Co2+ cation in an octahedral coordination environment. The metal atom is surrounded by two different neutral ligands, namely dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO and water, each coordinating through the O atom. The anionic saccharinate (sac; 1,1,3-trioxo-2,3-dihydro-1λ6,2-benzothiazol-2-ide ligand coordinates through the N atom. Each of the three similar ligand pairs is in a trans configuration with respect to each other. The Co atom lies on a crystallographic center of symmetry and the octahedral geometry is not significantly distorted. A short O—H...O hydrogen bond is present between a water H atom and the ketone O atom; two longer hydrogen bonds (intra- and intermolecular are also present between a water H and a sulfonic O atom, forming a supramolecular assembly through head-to-tail aggregation between adjacent complexes.

  15. Micro volume voltammetric determination of 4-nitrophenol in dimethyl sulfoxide at a glassy carbon electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdar, J.; Barek, J.; Fojta, Miroslav; Fischer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 9 (2017), s. 1639-1644 ISSN 0026-9247 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : square-wave voltammetry * nitrobenzene Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  16. Potassium hydroxide/dimethyl sulfoxide promoted intramolecular cyclization for the synthesis of benzimidazol-2-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Astrid; Reucher, Christine M M; Bolm, Carsten

    2011-06-03

    A new protocol for intramolecular N-arylations of ureas to form benzimidazol-2-ones has been developed. The cyclization reaction occurs in the presence of KOH and DMSO at close to ambient temperature. Under these conditions the yields are high and a wide range of functional groups are tolerated.

  17. Conference on Biological Actions and Medical Applications of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), 15-17 September 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    SAAlug/mil 100 S 50 5 0.1 41 A *L05 44001 -- dim bit"~urwy actvty FIGURE 6. The coffetatlon between BAA levels and inflammatory activity in patients...brain infarction, basic considerations. In Undersea Medial Society Report. Hallen- beck & Breenbaum, Eds. (11-15-77): 138-161. *5. DE LA TORRE, J. C...hydrogen peroxide. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 141: 231-241. 8. FLORFS I., D. R. DIBONA, C. H. BECK & A. LEAF. 1975. The rate of cell swelling ischemic renal

  18. Early ontogeny, growth and mortality of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at low concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máchová, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Kroupová, H.; Svobodová, Z.; Mácová, S.; Doleželová, P.; Velíšek, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2009), s. 505-512 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) QH82117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : auxiliary substance * toxicity * fish embryos * larvae Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.403, year: 2009

  19. Antiviral activity of platinum (II) and palladium (II) complexes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Allaf, T.; Rashan, L

    1996-01-01

    The antiviral activity of complexes cis-[Pt(DMSO) 2 CI 2 ] and trans-[Pd(DMSO) 2 CI 2 ] against the reverse transcriptase enzyme, herpes and influenza viruses have been studied in vitro. Both complexes demonstrated some activity against the reverse transcriptase enzyme in which the inhibition concentration (IC 5 0) of the cis-Pt and the trans-Pd complexes were shown to be 37.6 and 35.5 μ g/ml respectively. This activity was compared with that of the standard reference; the phosphonoformate (PFA). On the other hand, both complexes have no antiviral activity against herpes and influenza viruses No cytotoxic effects on the three cell lines, Raji, K562 and Mrc-5 were demonstrated by these complexes at the concentrations studied in vitro. (authors). 16 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  20. CCDC 1515632: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide)-manganese(ii) tetraiodide

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  1. Comparative study between dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso), allopurinol and urate oxidase administration in nephrotoxic rats induced with

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibashy, M.I.A.; El-Nahla, A.M.; Ibrahim, A.I.; Saleh, Sh.Y.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to show whether DMSO, allopurinol and urate oxidase could offer ameliorating effects against abnormal alterations in kidney function tests in gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxic rats . Two experiments were carried out, the first one showed that daily injection of 80 mg GM/kg b. wt interapertonealy (I.P) for two weeks induced acute renal failure indicated by significant elevation in serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, potassium, inorganic phosphorus, TBARS and PTH and a significant decline in serum sodium, total and ionized calcium when compared with their corresponding values in saline injected rats. In the second experiment, comparisons were made between GM induced nephrotoxic rats and other nephrotoxic groups received daily pf I.P injection of DMSO (4 ml/kg b.wt), allopurinol (1.5 mg/100 g b.wt) and urate oxidase (10 mg/100 g b.wt) for 30 days after the incidence of nephrotoxicity. At all intervals, 10,20 and 30 days; serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, potassium, inorganic phosphorus, TBARS and PTH in DMSO, allopurinol and urate oxidase treated groups exhibited significant reduction than nephrotoxic untreated rats. During the same intervals, the levels of serum total and ionized calcium showed an opposite trend. serum sodium level did not show any significant difference between all treated groups except after 20 days , it was increased significantly in urate oxidase treated group and after 30 days in both allopurinol and urate oxidase treated groups. in term time intervals, a significant correction was recorded on the level of most measured parameters. in nephritic rats, the administration of DMSO, allopurinol or urate oxidase led to a significant amelioration effects in the kidney function tests and urate oxidase was the best protective.

  2. Chronic intracerebroventricular administration of dimethyl sulfoxide attenuates streptozotocin-iduced memory loss in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Akbari

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Taken together, the results suggest that DMSO may be appropriate as adjuvant therapies for the prevention of memory impairment in the experimental models of AD. Therefore, use of DMSO as a solvent in AD animal studies should be considered having beneficial effects on cognitive function.

  3. Bis(3-acetyl-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-4-olatobis(dimethyl sulfoxidenickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Djedouani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ni(C8H7O42{(CH32SO}2], the NiII atom is located on a crystallographic centre of symmetry and has a distorted octahedral coordination geometry of type MO6. The bidentate dehydroacetic acid (DHA ligands occupy the equatorial plane of the complex in a trans configuration, and the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO ligands are weakly coordinated through their O atoms in the axial positions.

  4. NaSO2Ph Induced Exclusive Isomerization of 1,2-Allenyl Sulfoxides to 2-Alkynylic Phenyl Sulfoxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅春玲; 麻生明

    2005-01-01

    The clean isomerization of 1,2-allenyl sulfoxides in the presence of NaSO2Ph afforded 2-alkynylic phenyl sulfoxides in good yields and selectivities. Although strong base-catalyzed isomerization of allenes to alkynes is known, the mechanism for the current reaction is interesting for the obvious reason that NaSOEPh is a weak base.

  5. Palladium(II)-catalyzed ortho-olefination of arenes applying sulfoxides as remote directing groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binjie; Shen, Chuang; Yao, Jinzhong; Yin, Hong; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-01-03

    A novel palladium-catalyzed ortho-C(sp(2))-H olefination protocol has been developed by the use of sulfoxide as the directing group. Importantly, relatively remote coordination can be accessed to achieve the ortho olefination of benzyl, 2-arylethyl, and 3-arylpropenyl sulfoxide substrates, and the olefinated sulfoxide can be easily transformed to other functionalities.

  6. An efficency of use phonophoresis with an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate and dimetil sulfoxide at the treatment of patients with arthritis of knee joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Александрович Вишневский

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a frequent disease in people especially of the mean and elderly age.Aim of research: the study of an efficiency of phonophoresis with an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate and dimethyl sulfoxide at treatment of patients with osteoarthritis of knee joints in the outpatient setting.  Material and methods. Research was carried out by the clinical and laboratory examinations of 40 patients with osteoarthritis of knee joints in the outpatient setting.   Patients were distributed between the main and control group depending on an approach to treatment. Indicators before and after treatment in all patients were assessed on 2 scales: the scale of assessment of knee joints (on J.N. Insall et al 1976 - (7 points and 2 Oxford scale for knee joints (on W. Dawson et al, 1998 - (12 point. The level of oxyproline in daily urine was examined in all patients.Results and discussions. The degree of manifestation of pain syndrome, movement amplitude and an everyday motor activity are the parameters of an efficiency of treatment.Author noticed the more apparent efficiency of treatment in patients of the main group who underwent phonophoresis after rubbing an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate in the region of injured knee joint.Disappearance of pains after 10 PhPh with an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate and dimethyl sulfoxide was noticed in 6 (30% patients and diminution of pain intensity in 12 (60% patients. So the general efficiency of treatment is 90% in the main group in relation to 70% of general efficiency of treatment without use this ointment in the control group.Conclusions. 1. Phonophoresis with an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate and dimethyl sulfoxide is a safe and rather effective method of treatment patients with osteoarthritis of knee joints of I-III radiographic stage, an efficiency of treatment is 90%.2. The use of phonophoresis with an ointment containing combination of chondroitin

  7. Now at the Met: fine art of reversible sulfoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilani, Tal; Fass, Deborah

    2013-08-08

    In this issue, Lee et al. (2013) exhibit methionine sulfoxidation in a new light. By bringing together two antagonistic enzymes affecting methionine redox state, the authors demonstrate that methionine oxidation constitutes a reversible, posttranslational regulatory mechanism, akin to protein phosphorylation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous gauche and anomeric effects in α-substituted sulfoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Matheus P

    2012-09-07

    α-Substituted sulfoxides can experience both gauche and anomeric effects, since these compounds have the geometric requirements and strong electron donor and acceptor orbitals which are essential to make operative the hyperconjugative nature of these effects. Indeed, the title effects were calculated to take place for 1,3-oxathiane 3-oxide in polar solution, where dipolar effects are absent or at least minimized, while only the gauche effect is present in 2-fluorothiane 1-oxide. Since the fluorine atom is a suitable probe for structural analysis using NMR, the (1)J(CF) dependence on the rotation around the F-C-S═O dihedral angle of (fluoromethyl)methyl sulfoxide was evaluated; differently from 1,2-difluoroethane and fluoro(methoxy)methane, this coupling constant is at least not exclusively dependent on dipolar interactions (or on hyperconjugation). Because of the nonmonotonic behavior of the (1)J(CF) rotational profile, this coupling constant does not appear to be of significant diagnostic value for probing the conformations of α-fluoro sulfoxides.

  9. In vivo evaluation of the efficacy of albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles against hydatid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadnia, Sara; Moazeni, Mohammad; Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman; Oryan, Ahmad

    2013-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, which in this disease the metacestode develop in visceral organs especially liver and lungs. The disease is present worldwide and affects humans as well as herbivores including cattle, sheep, camels, horses and others. Benzimidazole carbamate derivatives, such as mebendazole and albendazole, are currently used for chemotherapeutic treatment of CE in inoperable patients and have to be applied in high doses for extended periods of time, and therefore adverse side effects are frequently observed. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the in vivo effects of 0.5 mg/kg, BID, albendazole sulfoxide (ricobendazole) and two different therapeutic regimens of 0.5 mg/kg BID and 2 mg/kg every 48 h of albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was prepared by solvent diffusion-evaporation method. Fifty Balb/c mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of protoscoleces and 8 months post infection, the infected mice were treated for 15 days with the above mentioned regimens. They were then euthanized and the size and weight of the cysts as well as their ultrastructural changes were investigated. Although the cysts showed reduced size and weight in the treated animals but these reductions were not statistically significant. The cysts in the animals which received albendazole sulfoxide loaded SLN every 48 h showed more ultrastructural modification. However, these ultrastructural changes should be supported by further biochemical and molecular studies before introducing it as an efficient therapeutic regimen for treatment of human and animal hydatid disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Primary Eye Irritation Potential of the Holston Compounds: Virgin DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide), DMSO Recycle Solvent, and DMSO Evaporator Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    slight deepening of the rugae or light hyperemia of circumeorneal blood vessels), or obvious swelling of the eyelids accompanied by severe...I Markedly deepened rugae , congestion, swelling, moderate circumcorneal hyperemia or injection, any of these or any combination thereof, iris still

  11. The Effect of Diazoxide and Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Behavioral Outcomes and Markers of Pathology Following Controlled Cortical Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    738, 2008. 27. C. C. Giza . and D. A. Hovda, "The neurometabolic cascade of concussion," J Athl Train, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 228-235. 2001. 28. K. E...C. Giza , "The molecular pathophysiology of concussive brain injury," Clin Sports Med, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 33-48, vii-iii, 2011. 31. D. H. Williams...mitochondrial swelling and Ca2+ accumulation in CA 1 pyramidal cells after cerebral ischemia in newborn pigs," Brain Res, vol. 1019, no. 1-2, pp

  12. Photochemical induced growth and aggregation of metal nanoparticles in diode-array spectrophotometer via excited dimethyl-sulfoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidki, Tomer; Cohen, Haim; Meyerstein, Dan

    2010-10-21

    Ag(0) and Au(0) nanoparticles suspended in dilute aqueous solutions containing (CH(3))(2)SO are photochemically unstable. The light source of a diode-array spectrophotometer induces, within less than a minute, particle growth and aggregation. The results indicate that this process is triggered by UV light absorption by the (CH(3))(2)SO.

  13. Crystal structure, optical, magnetic, and photochemical properties of the complex pentakis(dimethyl sulfoxide) nitrosylchromium(2+) hexafluorophosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Anders Rørbæk; Kadziola, Anders; Dethlefsen, Johannes Wied

    2009-01-01

    . Irradiation of a deoxygenated CH3CN solution of [Cr(NCCH3)5(NO)](PF6)2 in the presence of excess of [Fe(S2CNEt2)2] results in a transfer of NO to the iron centre as shown from the characteristic EPR spectrum of [Fe(S2CNEt2)2(NO)] with Aiso(14N) = 12.2´10-4 cm-1. The EPR parameters of 1 were determined: giso...

  14. Pulse radiolysis studies of the reactions of bromine atoms and dimethyl sulfoxide bromine atom complexes with alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Katagiri, Miho; Sawamura, Sadashi

    2007-05-01

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-Br complexes were generated by pulse radiolysis of DMSO/bromomethane mixtures and the formation mechanism and spectral characteristics of the formed complexes were investigated in detail. The rate constant for the reaction of bromine atoms with DMSO and the extinction coefficient of the complex were obtained to be 4.6×10 9 M -1 s -1 and 6300 M -1 cm -1 at the absorption maximum of 430 nm. Rate constants for the reaction of bromine atoms with a series of alcohols were determined in CBrCl 3 solutions applying a competitive kinetic method using the DMSO-Br complex as the reference system. The obtained rate constants were ˜10 8 M -1 s -1, one or two orders larger than those reported for highly polar solvents. Rate constants of DMSO-Br complexes with alcohols were determined to be ˜ 10 7 M -1 s -1. A comparison of the reactivities of Br atoms and DMSO-Br complexes with those of chlorine atoms and chlorine atom complexes which are ascribed to hydrogen abstracting reactants strongly indicates that hydrogen abstraction from alcohols is not the rate determining step in the case of Br atoms and DMSO-Br complexes.

  15. Evaluation of human platelet lysate and dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectants for the cryopreservation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Xiao, Ran; Cao, Yi-Lin; Yin, Hong-Yu

    2017-09-09

    Cryopreservation provides an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) are frequently used as cryoprotectants for this purpose. However, the use of DMSO can result in adverse effects and toxic reactions and FBS can introduce risks of viral, prion, zoonose contaminations and evoke immune responses after injection. It is therefore crucial to reduce DMSO concentrations and use serum-free solution in the cryopreservation process. Human platelet lysate (PL) is a promising candidate for use as an alternative to DMSO and FBS. Therefore, in this study, with an aim to identify a cryoprotective agent for ASC cryopreservation, we determined the viability, proliferation potential, phenotype, and differentiation potential of fresh ASCs and ASCs cryopreserved using different combinations of three cryoprotective agents: fetal bovine serum (FBS), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and human platelet lysate (PL). The viability of the ASCs cryopreserved with 90% FBS and 10% DMSO, 95% FBS and 5% DMSO, and 97% PL and 3% DMSO was >80%, and the proliferation potentials, cell phenotypes, and differentiation potentials of these groups were similar to those of fresh ASCs. Together, our findings suggest that a combination of 97% PL and 3% DMSO is an ideal cryoprotective agent for the efficient cryopreservation of human ASCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. α-chymotrypsin in water-acetone and water-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures: Effect of preferential solvation and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Vladimir A; Kuchierskaya, Alexandra A

    2017-10-01

    We investigated water/organic solvent sorption and residual enzyme activity to simultaneously monitor preferential solvation/hydration of protein macromolecules in the entire range of water content at 25°C. We applied this approach to estimate protein destabilization/stabilization due to the preferential interactions of bovine pancreatic α-chymotrypsin with water-acetone (moderate-strength H-bond acceptor) and water-DMSO (strong H-bond acceptor) mixtures. There are three concentration regimes for the dried α-chymotrypsin. α-Chymotrypsin is preferentially hydrated at high water content. The residual enzyme activity values are close to 100%. At intermediate water content, the dehydrated α-chymotrypsin has a higher affinity for acetone/DMSO than for water. Residual enzyme activity is minimal in this concentration range. The acetone/DMSO molecules are preferentially excluded from the protein surface at the lowest water content, resulting in preferential hydration. The residual catalytic activity in the water-poor acetone is ∼80%, compared with that observed after incubation in pure water. This effect is very small for the water-poor DMSO. Two different schemes are operative for the hydrated enzyme. At high and intermediate water content, α-chymotrypsin exhibits preferential hydration. However, at intermediate water content, in contrast to the dried enzyme, the initially hydrated α-chymotrypsin possesses increased preferential hydration parameters. At low water content, no residual enzyme activity was observed. Preferential binding of DMSO/acetone to α-chymotrypsin was detected. Our data clearly demonstrate that the hydrogen bond accepting ability of organic solvents and the protein hydration level constitute key factors in determining the stability of protein-water-organic solvent systems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Synthesis of Cyclic α-Diazo-β-keto Sulfoxides in Batch and Continuous Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw, Patrick G; Buckley, Naomi M; Eccles, Kevin S; Lawrence, Simon E; Maguire, Anita R; Collins, Stuart G

    2017-04-07

    Diazo transfer to β-keto sulfoxides to form stable isolable α-diazo-β-keto sulfoxides has been achieved for the first time. Both monocyclic and benzofused ketone derived β-keto sulfoxides were successfully explored as substrates for diazo transfer. Use of continuous flow leads to isolation of the desired compounds in enhanced yields relative to standard batch conditions, with short reaction times, increased safety profile, and potential to scale up.

  18. Tandem rhodium catalysis: exploiting sulfoxides for asymmetric transition-metal catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, K G M; Dong, V M

    2015-06-07

    Sulfoxides are uncommon substrates for transition-metal catalysis due to their propensity to inhibit catalyst turnover. In a collaborative effort with Ken Houk, we developed the first dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of allylic sulfoxides using asymmetric rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation. A detailed mechanistic analysis of this transformation using both experimental and theoretical methods revealed rhodium to be a tandem catalyst that promoted both hydrogenation of the alkene and racemization of the allylic sulfoxide. Using a combination of deuterium labelling and DFT studies, a novel mode of allylic sulfoxide racemization via a Rh(III)-π-allyl intermediate was identified.

  19. Photoisomerization Mechanism of Ruthenium Sulfoxide Complexes: Role of the Metal-Centered Excited State in the Bond Rupture and Bond Construction Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huifang; Zhang, Lisheng; Zheng, Lvyin; Li, Xun; Fan, Xiaolin; Zhao, Yi

    2016-09-26

    Phototriggered intramolecular isomerization in a series of ruthenium sulfoxide complexes, [Ru(L)(tpy)(DMSO)](n+) (where tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine; DMSO=dimethyl sulfoxide; L=2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), n=2; N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (tmen) n=2; picolinate (pic), n=1; acetylacetonate (acac), n=1; oxalate (ox), n=0; malonate (mal), n=0), was investigated theoretically. It is observed that the metal-centered ligand field ((3) MC) state plays an important role in the excited state S→O isomerization of the coordinated DMSO ligand. If the population of (3) MCS state is thermally accessible and no (3) MCO can be populated from this state, photoisomerization will be turned off because the (3) MCS excited state is expected to lead to fast radiationless decay back to the original (1) GSS ground state or photodecomposition along the Ru(2+) -S stretching coordinate. On the contrary, if the population of (3) MCS (or (3) MCO ) state is inaccessible, photoinduced S→O isomerization can proceed adiabatically on the potential energy surface of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited states ((3) MLCTS →(3) MLCTO ). It is hoped that these results can provide valuable information for the excited state isomerization in photochromic d(6) transition-metal complexes, which is both experimentally and intellectually challenging as a field of study. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Studies on extraction of uranium (VI) with petroleum sulfoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yanzhao; Sun Sixiu; Bao Borong

    1999-01-01

    The extraction of uranium(VI) with petroleum sulfoxides(PSO) in different diluents is studied. The extraction ability of U(VI) decreases in the following order: benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, heptane, kerosene, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. The influence of the concentrations of nitric acid, PSO, salting out agent, complexing anion and temperature on the extraction equilibrium is also investigated, and the enthalpy of the extraction reaction is obtained. The relationship between the extraction equilibrium constants K ex and the physical parameters of diluents is derived. The extraction mechanism and equilibrium are examined by measurement of IR spectrophotometry

  1. Synthesis of enyne and aryl vinyl sulfoxides: functionalization via Pummerer rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Frederico B; Shamim, Anwar; Argomedo, Luiz M Z; Pimenta, Daniel C; Stefani, Hélio A

    2015-11-01

    An efficient methodology for the synthesis of aryl-substituted vinyl sulfoxides through direct substitution of aryl-substituted alkynyl grignard reagents on menthyl-p-toluenesulfinate followed by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction has been developed. It has also been described that the reaction of alkyl-substituted and cycloalkyl-substituted alkynyl grignard reagents with menthyl-p-toluenesulfinate led to two products, i.e., alkynyl sulfoxide derivatives, as a result of substitution, and enyne sulfoxide derivatives, which resulted from substitution followed by Michael type addition. It was possible to selectively synthesize the enyne sulfoxide derivatives by changing the concentration of the grignard reagent. These alkenyl sulfoxides were transformed into the corresponding [Formula: see text]-thio aldehydes in high yields via additive Pummerer rearrangement.

  2. Enantiomeric behaviour of albendazole and fenbendazole sulfoxides in domestic animals: pharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Bettencourt P S; Virkel, Guillermo L; Lanusse, Carlos E

    2009-09-01

    Albendazole and fenbendazole are methylcarbamate benzimidazole anthelmintics extensively used to control gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals. These parent compounds are metabolised to albendazole sulfoxide and fenbendazole sulfoxide (oxfendazole), respectively. Both sulfoxide derivatives are anthelmintically active and are manufactured for use in animals. They metabolites have an asymmetric centre on their chemical structures and two enantiomeric forms of each sulfoxide have been identified in plasma, tissues of parasite location and within target helminths. Both the flavin-monooxygenase and cytochrome P450 systems are involved in the enantioselective biotransformation of these anthelmintic compounds in ruminant species. A relevant progress on the understanding of the relationship among enantioselective metabolism and systemic availability of each enantiomeric form has been achieved. This article reviews the current knowledge on the pharmacological implications of the enantiomeric behaviour of albendazole sulfoxide and oxfendazole in domestic animals.

  3. Stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide: an investigation of rac-thioridazine biotransformation by some endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Keyller Bastos; De Souza Borges, Warley; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2008-04-14

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide (THD-2-SO) and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide (THD-5-SO) in culture medium and to study the biotransformation of rac-thioridazine (THD) by some endophytic fungi. The simultaneous resolution of THD-2-SO and THD-5-SO diastereoisomers was performed on a CHIRALPAK AS column using a mobile phase of hexane:ethanol:methanol (92:6:2, v/v/v)+0.5% diethylamine; UV detection was carried out at 262 nm. Diethyl ether was used as extractor solvent. The validated method was used to evaluate the biotransformation of THD by 12 endophytic fungi isolated from Tithonia diversifolia, Viguiera arenaria and Viguiera robusta. Among the 12 fungi evaluated, 4 of them deserve prominence for presenting an evidenced stereoselective biotransformation potential: Phomopsis sp. (TD2) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the form (S)-(SE) (12.1%); Glomerella cingulata (VA1) presented greater mono-5-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE)+(R)-(FE) (10.5%); Diaporthe phaseolorum (VR4) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE) and (R)-(FE) (84.4% and 82.5%, respectively) and Aspergillus fumigatus (VR12) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE) and (R)-(SE) (31.5% and 34.4%, respectively).

  4. "Sizing" Heterogeneous Chemistry in the Conversion of Gaseous Dimethyl Sulfide to Atmospheric Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enami, Shinichi; Sakamoto, Yosuke; Hara, Keiichiro; Osada, Kazuo; Hoffmann, Michael R; Colussi, Agustín J

    2016-02-16

    The oxidation of biogenic dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emissions is a global source of cloud condensation nuclei. The amounts of the nucleating H2SO4(g) species produced in such process, however, remain uncertain. Hydrophobic DMS is mostly oxidized in the gas phase into H2SO4(g) + DMSO(g) (dimethyl sulfoxide), whereas water-soluble DMSO is oxidized into H2SO4(g) in the gas phase and into SO4(2-) + MeSO3(-) (methanesulfonate) on water surfaces. R = MeSO3(-)/(non-sea-salt SO4(2-)) ratios would therefore gauge both the strength of DMS sources and the extent of DMSO heterogeneous oxidation if Rhet = MeSO3(-)/SO4(2-) for DMSO(aq) + ·OH(g) were known. Here, we report that Rhet = 2.7, a value obtained from online electrospray mass spectra of DMSO(aq) + ·OH(g) reaction products that quantifies the MeSO3(-) produced in DMSO heterogeneous oxidation on aqueous aerosols for the first time. On this basis, the inverse R dependence on particle radius in size-segregated aerosol collected over Syowa station and Southern oceans is shown to be consistent with the competition between DMSO gas-phase oxidation and its mass accommodation followed by oxidation on aqueous droplets. Geographical R variations are thus associated with variable contributions of the heterogeneous pathway to DMSO atmospheric oxidation, which increase with the specific surface area of local aerosols.

  5. Chamber simulation of photooxidation of dimethyl sulfide and isoprene in the presence of NOx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve the model prediction for the formation of H2SO4 and methanesulfonic acid (MSA, aerosol-phase reactions of gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS oxidation products [e.g., dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO] in aerosol have been included in the DMS kinetic model with the recently reported gas-phase reactions and their rate constants. To determine the rate constants of aerosol-phase reactions of both DMSO and its major gaseous products [e.g., dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2 and methanesulfinic acid (MSIA], DMSO was photooxidized in the presence of NOx using a 2 m3 Teflon film chamber. The rate constants tested in the DMSO kinetic mechanisms were then incorporated into the DMS photooxidation mechanism. The model simulation using the newly constructed DMS oxidation mechanims was compared to chamber data obtained from the phototoxiation of DMS in the presence of NOx. Within 120-min simulation, the predicted concentrations of MSA increase by 200–400% and those of H2SO4, by 50–200% due to aerosol-phase chemistry. This was well substantiated with experimental data. To study the effect of coexisting volatile organic compounds, the photooxidation of DMS in the presence of isoprene and NOx has been simulated using the newly constructed DMS kinetic model integrated with the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM for isoprene oxidation, and compared to chamber data. With the high concentrations of DMS (250 ppb and isoprene (560–2248 ppb, both the model simulation and experimental data showed an increase in the yields of MSA and H2SO4 as the isoprene concentration increased.

  6. Atmospherically Relevant Radicals Derived from the Oxidation of Dimethyl Sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardyukov, Artur; Schreiner, Peter R

    2018-02-20

    The large number and amounts of volatile organosulfur compounds emitted to the atmosphere and the enormous variety of their reactions in various oxidation states make experimental measurements of even a small fraction of them a daunting task. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a product of biological processes involving marine phytoplankton, and it is estimated to account for approximately 60% of the total natural sulfur gases released to the atmosphere. Ocean-emitted DMS has been suggested to play a role in atmospheric aerosol formation and thereby cloud formation. The reaction of ·OH with DMS is known to proceed by two independent channels: abstraction and addition. The oxidation of DMS is believed to be initiated by the reaction with ·OH and NO 3 · radicals, which eventually leads to the formation of sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and methanesulfonic acid (CH 3 SO 3 H). The reaction of DMS with NO 3 · appears to proceed exclusively by hydrogen abstraction. The oxidation of DMS consists of a complex sequence of reactions. Depending on the time of the day or altitude, it may take a variety of pathways. In general, however, the oxidation proceeds via chains of radical reactions. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been reported to be a major product of the addition channel. Dimethyl sulfone (DMSO 2 ), SO 2 , CH 3 SO 3 H, and methanesulfinic acid (CH 3 S(O)OH) have been observed as products of further oxidation of DMSO. Understanding the details of DMS oxidation requires in-depth knowledge of the elementary steps of this seemingly simple transformation, which in turn requires a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. The methylthiyl (CH 3 S·), methylsulfinyl (CH 3 SO·), methylsulfonyl (CH 3 SO 2 ·), and methylsulfonyloxyl (CH 3 SO 3 ·) radicals have been postulated as intermediates in the oxidation of DMS. Therefore, studying the chemistry of sulfur-containing free radicals in the laboratory also is the basis for understanding the mechanism of DMS oxidation in the

  7. Application of lanthanide complexes for the purification of di-isobutyl-sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, V.K.L.; Martinez, S.A.Q.; Silva, R.M.X. da

    1984-01-01

    A new procedure for the purification of sulfoxides based on the selective precipitation of their complexes with class (a) metallic ions is reported. A commercial sample of di-isobutylsulfoxide containing about 5 - 10% of the corresponding sulfone was purified by precipitation with lanthanide perchlorates from alcoholic solutions. The recovery of the sulfoxide from the solid complex was accomplished by dissolving the complex in water and extracting the sulfoxide with chloroform. Alternatively the aqueous solution of the complex was passed successively through columns containing strongly acidic cation-exchanger resin in the H-cycle and strongly basic anionic-exchanger in the OH-cycle. T.L.C. homogeneous sulfoxide was obtained simply by evaporation of the solvent at reduced pressure. (Author) [pt

  8. Injection characteristics of dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glensvig, M.

    1996-09-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has proved to be a new ultra-clean alternative fuel for diesel engines. Engine tests have shown considerably lower NO{sub x} emissions, no particle emissions and lower noise compared to that obtained from normal diesel engine operation. DME also has demonstrated favorable response to Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The purpose of this investigation was to achieve a better understanding of the fundamental spray behavior of DME. Fundamental spray behaviour was characterized by fuel spray penetration and angle, atomization and droplet size and evaporation. The influence of fuel characteristics, nozzle geometry and ambient pressure on the DME and diesel spray behavior was investigated. Fuel was injected into an unheated injection chamber with a ambient pressure of 15 bar and 25 bar, respectively, giving a simplified simulation of the environment in an operating engine. Two nozzles were studied: a single hole nozzle and a pintle nozzle. A conventional fuel injection system was used for both nozzles. Injection parameters of RPM, throttle position, fuel line length and chamber environment were held constant for both nozzles. The sprays were visualized using schlieren and high speed photography. Results show that the general appearance of the DME spray is similar to that of diesel spray. The core of the DME spray seems less dense and the spray tip less sharp compared to diesel spray, indicating smaller droplets with a lower momentum in the core of the DME spray. Schlieren film shows that with both DME and diesel fuel, the spray tip only consists of liquid and that evaporation occurs after a brief time interval. Penetration of DME is about one third that of diesel using the pintle nozzle. Also, the spray angle is considerably larger for the DME spray compared to the diesel spray. A comparatively smaller difference in penetration is observed using the hole nozzle. Differences in penetration for the hole nozzle are within the limit of the penetration

  9. Tunability of photoswitchable ruthenium sulfoxide compounds on the basis of ligand substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicke, Sebastian; Dieckmann, Volker; Springfeld, Kristin; Imlau, Mirco [Deparment of Physics, University of Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Photoswitchable ruthenium sulfoxide compounds provide a light-induced linkage isomerization in combination with pronounced changes in characteristic optical properties. As representative of the ruthenium sulfoxide group the molecular compound [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(R-OSO)]{sup +} (OSO: 2-methylsulfinylbenzoate) can be tuned in its optical properties by the substitution of the photoswitchable ligands (R=Bn, BnCl, BnMe). These modified sulfoxides were studied in respect to their photochromic properties and kinetics of the generation and relaxation of the light-induced isomers. The kinetics were determined by pump-probe technique and show in each case two reversible thermal decay processes following Arrhenius law. The two photo-excited states offer lifetimes in the magnitude of {tau}{sub 1}{approx}10{sup 3} s and {tau}{sub 2}{approx}10{sup 4} s at room temperature with activation energies about E{sub A,I}=0.72 eV to 0.92 eV and E{sub A,II}=0.8 eV to 1.00 eV. Another respresentative of the photoswitchable sulfoxides is the [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(pySO)]{sup 2+} compound. This molecule is the first sulfoxide which allows for reversible switching between the ground and metastable states by light exposure. With this compound the sulfoxides are highly qualified for optical data storage on a molecular scale.

  10. Role of Helicobacter pylori methionine sulfoxide reductase in urease maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Lisa G.; Mahawar, Manish; Sharp, Joshua S.; Benoit, Stéphane; Maier, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The persistence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is due in part to urease and Msr (methionine sulfoxide reductase). Upon exposure to relatively mild (21% partial pressure of O2) oxidative stress, a Δmsr mutant showed both decreased urease specific activity in cell-free extracts and decreased nickel associated with the partially purified urease fraction as compared with the parent strain, yet urease apoprotein levels were the same for the Δmsr and wild-type extracts. Urease activity of the Δmsr mutant was not significantly different from the wild-type upon non-stress microaerobic incubation of strains. Urease maturation occurs through nickel mobilization via a suite of known accessory proteins, one being the GTPase UreG. Treatment of UreG with H2O2 resulted in oxidation of MS-identified methionine residues and loss of up to 70% of its GTPase activity. Incubation of pure H2O2-treated UreG with Msr led to reductive repair of nine methionine residues and recovery of up to full enzyme activity. Binding of Msr to both oxidized and non-oxidized UreG was observed by cross-linking. Therefore we conclude Msr aids the survival of H. pylori in part by ensuring continual UreG-mediated urease maturation under stress conditions. PMID:23181726

  11. Extraction of plutonium(IV) by bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfoxide: a novel branched-chain extractant (Preprint No. ST.23)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.; Kedari, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Di-n-alkyl sulfoxides offer certain distint advantages over other common extractants for use in actinides separation particularly in the presence of high radiation fields. Despite widespread interest in these extractants, practical applications of such sulfoxides in nuclear fuel reprocessing have been seriously hampered owing to their poor solubility in common aliphatic hydrocarbon diluents. Recently a promising new branched-chain sulfoxide extractant, bis( 2-ethylhexyl) sulfoxide (BESO) has been introduced as a novel extracting agent for uranium. It possesses almost all the advantages of other sulfoxides, but excels the rest in terms of its complete miscibility with dodecane and the highest Ksub(H) value reported for any sulfoxide. As a part of comprehensive program to explore its analytical usefulness, data concerning preliminary studies on the extraction of plutonium with BESO form nitric acid solutions are reported. (author)

  12. Dopamine D2 receptor function is compromised in the brain of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Oien, Derek B.; Ortiz, Andrea N.; Rittel, Alexander G.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Johnson, Michael A.; Levant, Beth; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that brain oxidative stress and altered rodent locomotor behavior are linked. We observed bio-behavioral changes in methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mice associated with abnormal dopamine signaling. Compromised ability of these knockout mice to reduce methionine sulfoxide enhances accumulation of sulfoxides in proteins. We examined the dopamine D2-receptor function and expression, which has an atypical arrangement and quantity of methionine residues. Indeed...

  13. 21 CFR 172.133 - Dimethyl dicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... treatment, filtration, or other technologies prior to the use of dimethyl dicarbonate: (1) In wine, dealcoholized wine, and low alcohol wine in an amount not to exceed 200 parts per million. (2) In ready-to-drink...

  14. Determination of albendazole sulfoxide in human plasma by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraner, Nihal; Özkan, Güler Yağmur; Güney, Berrak; Alkan, Erkin; Burul-Bozkurt, Nihan; Sağlam, Onursal; Fikirdeşici, Ezgi; Yıldırım, Mevlüt

    2016-06-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for determination of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZOX) in human plasma. The plasma samples were extracted by protein precipitation using albendazole sulfoxide-d3 as internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation was performed on Waters Xbridge C18Column (100×4.6mm, 3.5μm) with a mobile phase consisting of ammonia solution, water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.70mL/min. ABZOX was detected and identified by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the range of 3-1500ng/mL for ABZOX. This method was successfully applied to the bioequivalence study in human plasma samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reaction of dimethyl hydrogen phosphite with acecyclone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.; Fuzhenkova, A.V.; Tyryshkin, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    In the presence of bases acecyclone reacts with dimethyl hydrogen phosphite with the formation of gamma-keto phosphonates with conjugated and unconjugated structures, and also an enol phosphate, a product containing a bond between oxygen of the cyclone and phosphorus. In the absence of bases, as well as the beta-keto phosphonate, gamma-keto phosphonates of cis and trans structure are formed; they are products of the 1,4 addition of dimethyl hydrogen phosphite to the conjugated fragment C=C-C=O of the cyclone. The compositions of the reaction mixture were determined by IR and NMR spectroscopy and TLC. Full-scale analysis of chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants was performed

  16. Synthesis and spectroscopic behavior of highly luminescent Eu 3+-dibenzoylmethanate (DBM) complexes with sulfoxide ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyama, E.; Brito, H. F.; Cremona, M.; Teotonio, E. E. S.; Reyes, R.; Brito, G. E. S.; Felinto, M. C. F. C.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper the synthesis, characterization and photoluminescent behavior of the [RE(DBM) 3L 2] complexes (RE = Gd and Eu) with a variety of sulfoxide ligands; L = benzyl sulfoxide (DBSO), methyl sulfoxide (DMSO), phenyl sulfoxide (DPSO) and p-tolyl sulfoxide (PTSO) have been investigated in solid state. The emission spectra of the Eu 3+-β-diketonate complexes show characteristics narrow bands arising from the 5D 0 → 7F J ( J = 0-4) transitions, which are split according to the selection rule for C n, C nv or C s site symmetries. The experimental Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters ( Ω2 and Ω4), radiative ( Arad) and non-radiative ( Anrad) decay rates, and R02 for the europium complexes have been determined and compared. The highest value of Ω2 (61.9 × 10 -20 cm 2) was obtained to the complex with PTSO ligand, indicating that Eu 3+ ion is in the highly polarizable chemical environment. The higher values of the experimental quantum yield ( q) and emission quantum efficiency of the emitter 5D 0 level ( η) for the Eu-complexes with DMSO, DBSO and PTSO sulfoxides suggest that these complexes are promising Light Conversion Molecular Devices (LCMDs). The lower value of quantum yield ( q = 1%), for the hydrated complex [Eu(DBM) 3(H 2O)], indicates that the luminescence quenching occurs via multiphonon relaxation by coupling with the OH-oscillators from water molecule coordinated to rare earth ion. The pure red emission of the Eu-complexes has been confirmed by ( x, y) color coordinates.

  17. (α,α-dimethyl)glycyl (dmg) PNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourishankar, Aland; Ganesh, Krishna N.

    2012-01-01

    The design and facile synthesis of sterically constrained new analogs of PNA having gem-dimethyl substitutions on glycine (dmg-PNA-T) is presented. The PNA oligomers [aminoethyl dimethylglycyl (aedmg) and aminopropyl dimethylglycyl (apdmg)] synthesized from the monomers 6 and 12) effected remarkable stabilization of homothyminePNA2:homoadenine DNA/RNA triplexes and mixed base sequence duplexes with target cDNA or RNA. They show a higher binding to DNA relative to that with isosequential RNA. This may be a structural consequence of the sterically rigid gem-dimethyl group, imposing a pre-organized conformation favorable for complex formation with cDNA. The results complement our previous work that had demonstrated that cyclohexanyl-PNAs favor binding with cRNA compared with cDNA and imply that the biophysical and structural properties of PNAs can be directed by introduction of the right rigidity in PNA backbone devoid of chirality. This approach of tweaking selectivity in binding of PNA constructs by installing gem-dimethyl substitution in PNA backbone can be extended to further fine-tuning by similar substitution in the aminoethyl segment as well either individually or in conjunction with present substitution. PMID:22679528

  18. Synthesis of Dimethyl Glutarate from Cyclobutanone and Dimethyl Carbonate over Solid Base Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Chen; Dudu, Wu

    2012-01-01

    A facile route for the synthesis of dimethyl glutarate (DMG) from cyclobutanone and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) in the presence of solid base catalysts has been developed. It was found that the intermediate carbomethoxycyclobutanone (CMCB) was produced from cyclobutanone with DMC in the first step, and then CMCB was further converted to DMG by reacting with a methoxide group. The role of the basic catalysts can be mainly ascribed to the activation of cyclobutanone via the abstraction of a proton in the α-position by base sites, and solid bases with moderate strength, such as MgO, favor the formation of DMG

  19. Synthesis of Dimethyl Glutarate from Cyclobutanone and Dimethyl Carbonate over Solid Base Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Chen; Dudu, Wu [Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan (China)

    2012-06-15

    A facile route for the synthesis of dimethyl glutarate (DMG) from cyclobutanone and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) in the presence of solid base catalysts has been developed. It was found that the intermediate carbomethoxycyclobutanone (CMCB) was produced from cyclobutanone with DMC in the first step, and then CMCB was further converted to DMG by reacting with a methoxide group. The role of the basic catalysts can be mainly ascribed to the activation of cyclobutanone via the abstraction of a proton in the {alpha}-position by base sites, and solid bases with moderate strength, such as MgO, favor the formation of DMG

  20. 1H, 15N and 13C NMR Assignments of Mouse Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Åshild S.; Aachmann, Finn L.; Sal, Lena S.; Kim, Hwa-Young; Del Conte, Rebecca; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Dikiy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A recombinant mouse methionine-r-sulfoxide reductase 2 (MsrB2ΔS) isotopically labeled with 15N and 15N/13C was generated. We report here the 1H, 15N and 13C NMR assignments of the reduced form of this protein. PMID:19636904

  1. The determination of sulfoxide configuration in six-membered rings using NMR specroscopy and DFT calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Slavětínská, Lenka; Janků, J.; Buděšínský, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2011), s. 356-366 ISSN 0957-4166 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1919 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : NMR * calculation of NMR parameters * sulfoxides * configuration Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.652, year: 2011

  2. Correlations between electrochemical and spectrochemical parameters of ruthenium sulfoxides series with N-heterocyclic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, D. de; Toma, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study of Ru Cl sub(2) (DMSO) sub(2) L sub(2) derivates, where L = N-heterocyclic base is described, contributing for a best understanding of chemical behaviour and electronic structure of the ruthenium sulfoxides. The correlations between the electrochemical and the spectroscopical parameters of the serie are presented with more emphasis. (author)

  3. A Click Chemistry Approach towards Flavin-Cyclodextrin Conjugates-Bioinspired Sulfoxidation Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomanová, P.; Šturala, J.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Cibulka, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 11 (2015), s. 19837-19848 ISSN 1420-3049 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : click chemistry * cyclodextrin * flavin * monooxygenase * oxidation * sulfoxides * green chemistry Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015 http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/11/19667/htm

  4. Triclabendazole sulfoxide causes stage-dependent embryolethality in zebrafish and mouse in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Boix

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis and paragonimiasis are widespread foodborne trematode diseases, affecting millions of people in more than 75 countries. The treatment of choice for these parasitic diseases is based on triclabendazole, a benzimidazole derivative which has been suggested as a promising drug to treat pregnant women and children. However, at the moment, this drug is not approved for human use in most countries. Its potential adverse effects on embryonic development have been scarcely studied, and it has not been assigned a pregnancy category by the FDA. Thus, to help in the process of risk-benefit decision making upon triclabendazole treatment during pregnancy, a better characterization of its risks during gestation is needed.The zebrafish embryo test, a preimplantation and a postimplantation rodent whole embryo culture were used to investigate the potential embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of triclabendazole and its first metabolite triclabendazole sulfoxide. Albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide were included as positive controls.Triclabendazole was between 10 and 250 times less potent than albendazole in inducing dysmorphogenic effects in zebrafish or postimplantation rodent embryos, respectively. However, during the preimplantation period, both compounds, triclabendazole and triclabendazole sulfoxide, induced a dose-dependent embryolethal effect after only 24 h of exposure in rodent embryos and zebrafish (lowest observed adverse effect concentrations = 10 μM.In humans, after ingestion of the recommended doses of triclabendazole to treat fascioliasis and paragonimiasis (10 mg/kg, the main compound found in plasma is triclabendazole sulfoxide (maximum concentration 38.6 μM, while triclabendazole concentrations are approximately 30 times lower (1.16 μM. From our results it can be concluded that triclabendazole, at concentrations of the same order of magnitude as the clinically relevant ones, does not entail teratogenic potential in vitro during the

  5. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Delayed dermal burns caused by dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovak, A J; Payne, A R

    1984-07-01

    A chemical operator handling dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) developed delayed and pain-free burns on one of his feet 2 days after a supposed spillage of DMAD. The injuries were confirmed to be associated with DMAD by chemical analysis of the operator's safety boot and patch tests. DMAD easily penetrates some protective clothing and dilute solutions can still be hazardous: the toxic effect is compounded by being delayed and painless. The lachrymatory irritant properties of undiluted DMAD are not adequate warning of its presence or spillage in quantities sufficient to cause significant skin damage.

  7. Footwear contact dermatitis from dimethyl fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švecová, Danka; Šimaljakova, Maria; Doležalová, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an effective inhibitor of mold growth. In very low concentrations, DMF is a potent sensitizer that can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). It has been identified as the agent responsible for furniture contact dermatitis in Europe. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients in Slovakia with footwear ACD associated with DMF, with regard to clinical manifestations, patch test results, and results of chemical analysis of their footwear. Nine patients with suspected footwear contact dermatitis underwent patch testing with the following allergens: samples of their own footwear, commercial DMF, the European baseline, shoe screening, textile and leather dye screening, and industrial biocides series. The results were recorded according to international guidelines. The content of DMF in footwear and anti-mold sachets was analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Acute ACD was observed in nine Caucasian female patients. All patients developed delayed sensitization, as demonstrated by positive patch testing using textile footwear lining. Seven patients were patch tested with 0.1% DMF, and all seven were positive. Chemical analysis of available footwear showed that DMF was present in very high concentrations (25-80 mg/Kg). Dimethyl fumarate is a new footwear allergen and was responsible for severe ACD in our patients. To avoid an increase in the number of cases, the already approved European preventive measures should be accepted and commonly employed. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Iodine-Catalyzed Isomerization of Dimethyl Muconate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settle, Amy E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berstis, Laura R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Shuting [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rorrer, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hu, Haiming [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Crowley, Michael F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-12

    cis,cis-Muconic acid is a platform biobased chemical that can be upgraded to drop-in commodity and novel monomers. Among the possible drop-in products, dimethyl terephthalate can be synthesized via esterification, isomerization, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and dehydrogenation. The isomerization of cis,cis-dimethyl muconate (ccDMM) to the trans,trans-form (ttDMM) can be catalyzed by iodine; however, studies have yet to address (i) the mechanism and reaction barriers unique to DMM, and (ii) the influence of solvent, potential for catalyst recycle, and recovery of high-purity ttDMM. To address this gap, we apply a joint computational and experimental approach to investigate iodine-catalyzed isomerization of DMM. Density functional theory calculations identified unique regiochemical considerations due to the large number of halogen-diene coordination schemes. Both transition state theory and experiments estimate significant barrier reductions with photodissociated iodine. Solvent selection was critical for rapid kinetics, likely due to solvent complexation with iodine. Under select conditions, ttDMM yields of 95% were achieved in <1 h with methanol, followed by high purity recovery (>98%) with crystallization. Lastly, post-reaction iodine can be recovered and recycled with minimal loss of activity. Overall, these findings provide new insight into the mechanism and conditions necessary for DMM isomerization with iodine to advance the state-of-the-art for biobased chemicals.

  9. Dimethyl ether as a drift-chamber gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Casaccia, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; D'Ali, G.; Del Papa, C.; Focardi, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Maccarrone, G.; Massam, T.; Motta, F.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Prisco, G.; Sartorelli, G.; Susinno, G.; Votano, L.; Zichichi, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor; Palermo Univ.

    1986-01-01

    We have continued the testing of dimethyl ether as a drift-chamber gas in order to improve the understanding of its properties. In particular, we report on measurement accuracy, on systematic effects, and some preliminary data on the ageing of a detector filled with dimethyl ether. (orig.)

  10. Stable Overexpression of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor Reduces the Requirement for Culture with Dimethyl Sulfoxide for High Drug Metabolism in HepaRG Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Vincent A; Rudi de Waart, D; Shevchenko, Valery; Elferink, Ronald P J Oude; Chamuleau, Robert A F M; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2017-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) induces cellular differentiation and expression of drug metabolic enzymes in the human liver cell line HepaRG; however, DMSO also induces cell death and interferes with cellular activities. The aim of this study was to examine whether overexpression of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), the nuclear receptor controlling various drug metabolism genes, would sufficiently promote differentiation and drug metabolism in HepaRG cells, optionally without using DMSO. By stable lentiviral overexpression of CAR, HepaRG cultures were less affected by DMSO in total protein content and obtained increased resistance to acetaminophen- and amiodarone-induced cell death. Transcript levels of CAR target genes were significantly increased in HepaRG-CAR cultures without DMSO, resulting in increased activities of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes and bilirubin conjugation to levels equal or surpassing those of HepaRG cells cultured with DMSO. Unexpectedly, CAR overexpression also increased the activities of non-CAR target P450s, as well as albumin production. In combination with DMSO treatment, CAR overexpression further increased transcript levels and activities of CAR targets. Induction of CYP1A2 and CYP2B6 remained unchanged, whereas CYP3A4 was reduced. Moreover, the metabolism of low-clearance compounds warfarin and prednisolone was increased. In conclusion, CAR overexpression creates a more physiologically relevant environment for studies on hepatic (drug) metabolism and differentiation in HepaRG cells without the utilization of DMSO. DMSO still may be applied to accomplish higher drug metabolism, required for sensitive assays, such as low-clearance studies and identification of (rare) metabolites, whereas reduced total protein content after DMSO culture is diminished by CAR overexpression. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Dimethyl sulfoxide potentiates death receptor-mediated apoptosis in the human myeloid leukemia U937 cell line through enhancement of mitochondrial membrane depolarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráček, Jan; Souček, Karel; Sheard, M. A.; Chramostová, Kateřina; Andrysík, Zdeněk; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Kozubík, Alois

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2006), s. 81-89 ISSN 0145-2126 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/03/0766 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : human myeloid leukemia * DMSO * apoptosis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.483, year: 2006

  12. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Decreases Cell Proliferation and TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 Cytokines Production in Cultures of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu Costa, Lucas; Henrique Fernandes Ottoni, Marcelo; Dos Santos, Michaelle Geralda; Meireles, Agnes Batista; Gomes de Almeida, Valéria; de Fátima Pereira, Wagner; Alves de Avelar-Freitas, Bethânia; Eustáquio Alvim Brito-Melo, Gustavo

    2017-11-10

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is an amphipathic molecule composed of a polar domain characterized by the sulfinyl and two nonpolar methyl groups, for this reason it is able to solubilize polar and nonpolar substances and transpose hydrophobic barriers. DMSO is widely used to solubilize drugs of therapeutic applications and studies indicated that 10% v/v concentration did not modify culture viability when used to treat human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, some DMSO concentrations could influence lymphocyte activation and present anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of DMSO on lymphocyte activation parameters. Cell viability analysis, proliferation, and cytokine production were performed on PBMC from six healthy subjects by flow cytometry. The results indicated that 2.5% v/v DMSO concentrations did not modify lymphocytes viability. DMSO at 1% and 2% v/v concentrations reduced the relative proliferation index of lymphocytes and at 5% and 10% v/v concentrations reduced the percentage of total lymphocytes, cluster of differentiation 4⁺ (CD4⁺) T lymphocytes and CD8⁺ T lymphocytes interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) producers. Thus, it was concluded that DMSO has an in vitro anti-inflammatory effect by reducing lymphocyte activation demonstrated with proliferation reduction and the decrease of cytokine production.

  13. Radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide in golden hamster embryo cells exposed to gamma rays at 77 K. I. Radical formation as studied by electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, T.; Hayakawa, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, M.; Watanabe, M.

    1990-01-01

    Formation of free radicals in golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells in the frozen living state by gamma irradiation has been studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy at 4.2 and 77 K. The relative yields of H atoms, OH radicals, and organic radicals trapped in the irradiated GHE cells are 12, 72, and 16%, respectively, of total radical yields. When dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is added to GHE cells at 77 K, a large quantity of CH2SOCH3 radicals (DMSO radicals) are formed after gamma irradiation. The yields of OH radicals are not affected by the addition of DMSO. When the GHE cell-DMSO mixtures are irradiated with gamma rays at 77 K and then warmed to 111 K, the OH radicals decay, whereas the DMSO radicals do not increase complementarily. Moreover, the decay rates of the OH radicals at 111 K do not depend upon the concentration of DMSO. Thus OH radicals do not react with DMSO during warming of the irradiated sample. When H atoms are produced by gamma irradiation of acid ice at 60 K, the decay rates of the H atoms at 77 K increase with increasing DMSO concentration, indicating that DMSO reacts with H atoms (CH3SOCH3 + H----.CH2SOCH3 + H2) at 77 K by quantum-mechanical tunneling. When the GHE cell-DMSO mixture is irradiated with gamma rays at 77 or 4.2 K in the dark, DMSO ions are produced in addition to DMSO radicals. Therefore it is concluded that DMSO does not scavenge OH radicals, but does capture H atoms, holes and/or electrons in the gamma-irradiated cells, resulting in the remarkable formation of DMSO radicals. This scavenger effect of DMSO may be related to the radioprotection of DMSO against cell killing

  14. On the Origin of Microheterogeneity : Mass Spectrometric Studies of Acetonitrile-Water and Dimethyl Sulfoxide-Water Binary Mixtures (Part 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, Dong Nam; Wijnen, Jan W.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Wakisaka, Akihiro

    2002-01-01

    The microscopic structures of acetonitrile-water and DMSO-water binary mixed solvents and their influence on the solvation for solutes (some alcohols and phenol) have been studied on the basis of the cluster structures observed through a specially designed mass spectrometer. In acetonitrile-water

  15. CCDC 860713: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[dimethylammonium (mu-5,5'-ethyne-1,2-diyldiisophthalato)-indium N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl sulfoxide solvate monohydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bing; Sun, Xiaodong; Li, Guanghua; Cairns, Amy J.; Kravtsov, Victor Ch.; Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Yunling; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  16. Low-molecular-weight carbohydrate Pentaisomaltose may replace dimethyl sulfoxide as a safer cryoprotectant for cryopreservation of peripheral blood stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Jesper Dyrendom; Haastrup, Eva Kannik; Reckzeh, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    -related side effects, there is an increasing demand for DMSO-free alternatives. We therefore investigated whether Pentaisomaltose (PIM), a low-molecular-weight carbohydrate (1 kDa), can be used for cryopreservation of peripheral blood stem cells, more specifically hematopoietic progenitor cell apheresis (HPC...

  17. Human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs expressing p21 and cyclin D1 genes retain excellent viability after freezing with (dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Gholizadeh-Ghaleh Aziz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs have features intermediate between embryonic and adult SCs, can differentiate into lineages of all three germ layers, and do not develop into tumors in vivo. Moreover, hAFSCs can be easily obtained in routine procedures and there is no ethical or legal limitations regarding their use for clinical and experimental applications. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of slow freezing/thawing and two different concentrations of DMSO (10% DMSO + 90% fetal bovine serum [FBS] and 5% DMSO + 95% FBS on the survival of hAFSCs. hAFSCs were obtained from 5 pregnant women during amniocentesis at 16–22 weeks of gestation. The expression of pluripotency markers (Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 [Oct4] and NANOG by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and cell surface markers (cluster of differentiation [CD31], CD44, CD45, and CD90 by flow cytometry was analyzed before and after the slow-freezing. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion or MTT assay. Quantitative mRNA expression of Oct4, NANOG, cyclin D1 and p21 was determined by real-time PCR before and after the slow-freezing. Pluripotency of hAFSCs was confirmed by NANOG and POU5F1 (Oct4 gene expression before and after slow-freezing. All hAFSC cultures were positive for CD44 and CD90. A higher viability of hAFSCs was observed after freezing with 90% FBS + 10% DMSO. There was increased expression of NANOG and decreased expression of POU5F1 gene after freezing, compared to control cells (before freezing. DMSO and the process of freezing did not significantly change the expression of p21 and cyclin D1 genes in hAFSCs. Overall, our results indicate the applicability of slow-freezing and DMSO in cryopreservation of SCs.

  18. Crystal structure of μ-oxalodihydroxamato-bis[(2,2′-bipyridyl(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOcopper(II] bis(perchlorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Odarich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The centrosymmetric binuclear complex, [Cu2(C2H2N2O4(C10H8N22(C2H6OS2](ClO42, contains two copper(II ions, connected through an N-deprotonated oxalodihydroxamic acid dianion, two terminal 2,2′-bipyridine ligands, and two apically coordinating dimethylsulfoxide molecules. Two non-coordinating perchlorate anions assure electrical neutrality. The copper(II ions in the complex dication [Cu2(C10H8N22(μ-C2H2N2O4(C2H6SO2]2+ are in an O2N3 square-pyramidal donor environment, the Cu–Cu separation being 5.2949 (4 Å. Two hydroxamate groups in the deprotonated oxalodihydroxamic acid are located trans to one each other. In the crystal, O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the complex cations to the perchlorate anions. Further C—H...O hydrogen bonds combine with π–π contacts with a centroid-to-centroid separation of 3.6371 (12 Å to stack the molecules along the a-axis direction.

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of the antifreeze protein AFP752, trehalose and dimethyl sulfoxide cryoprotection mechanism: correlation with cryopreserved cell viability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvílová, Irena; Golan, Martin; Pomeisl, Karel; Richter, Jan; Sedláková, Silvia; Šebera, Jakub; Mičová, Júlia; Falk, Martin; Falková, Iva; Řeha, David; Elliott, J.R.; Varga, K.; Follett, S.E.; Šimek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 352-360 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05095S; GA MŠk LO1409; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10279S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12454S; GA ČR GBP302/12/G157; GA MZd NV16-29835A Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : X-ray diffraction * DFT * Raman spectroscopy * DSC * cryoprotectants Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  20. CCDC 977701: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (2-(bis(2-Methoxyphenyl)phosphino)-N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)benzenesulfonamidato)-(dimethyl sulfoxide)-methyl-palladium

    KAUST Repository

    Jian, Zhongbao

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  1. Selectivity control of carbonylation of methanol to dimethyl oxalate and dimethyl carbonate over gold anode by electrochemical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakawa, Akiyasu; Yamanaka, Ichiro; Takenaka, Sakae; Otsuka, Kiyoshi

    2004-05-05

    New and unique electrocatalysis of gold for the carbonylation of methanol to dimethyl oxalate (DMO) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was found. The selectivity to DMO and DMC could be controlled over gold anode by electrochemical potential, as you like. Drastic changes of gold electrocatalysis was due to changes of the oxidation state of gold, Au0 or Au3+.

  2. Study on the synthesis of dimethyl 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate by catalytic hydrogenation of dimethyl terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yuanhua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of polymer industry,1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM occupies an important position especially for the synthesis of highly valued polyester products.In industry,CHDM is prepared from dimethyl terephthalate (DMT through a two-step hydrogenation process Palladium supported on magnesium oxide (Pd/MgO was prepared by animpregnation method and was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD,transmission electron microscope (TEM and scan electron microscope (SEM.During the hydrogenation of DMT to synthesize dimethyl 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate (DMCD,the as-prepared Pd/MgO was used as the catalyst with methyl acetate as the solvent.Under optimized reaction conditions (reaction temperature:180 ℃,reaction pressure:4.5 MPa,the conversion of DMT was 100% and the selectivity of DMCD was 99%.Such a catalyst shows a good potential in industrial applications.

  3. Transition-Metal-Free Highly Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Sulfides to Sulfoxides under Mild Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient transition-metal-free catalytic system Br2/NaNO2/H2O has been developed for a robust and economic acid-free aerobic oxidation of sulfides. It is noteworthy that the sulfide function reacts under mild conditions without over-oxidation to sulfone. The role of NaNO2as an efficient NO equivalent for the activation of molecular oxygen was identified. Under the optimal conditions, a broad range of sulfide substrates were converted into their corresponding sulfoxides in high yields by molecular oxygen. The present catalytic system utilizes cheap and readily available agents as the catalysts, exhibits high selectivity for sulfoxide products and releases only innocuous water as the by-products.

  4. ASYMMETRIC SULFOXIDATION OF ALBENDAZOLE TO RICOBENDAZOLE BY FUNGI: EFFECT OF pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barth

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Albendazole (ABZ is an anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of infectious diseases in veterinary and human medicine. This drug is a prochiral drug that after administration, is rapidly oxidized in the pharmacologically active sulfoxide metabolite, which is also known as ricobendazole (ABZSOX. ABZSOX has a stereogenic center and possibly two enantiomers, (+-ABZSOX and (--ABZSOX. In the present work, we investigate the pH effect on the asymmetric stereoselective sulfoxidation of ABZ into ABZSOX by employing the fungi Nigrospora sphaerica, Papulaspora immera Hotson, and Mucor rouxii. The results show a possibility of obtaining the pure enantiomers of the ricobendazole drug using fungi as biocatalytic agents. The three fungi showed a high degree of enantioselectivity expressed by enantiomeric excess. In addition, M. rouxii can be used as an alternative to obtain the (+-ABZSOX enantiomer (ee 89.8%.

  5. Enantioselective synthesis of the novel chiral sulfoxide derivative as a glycogen synthase kinase 3beta inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Morihisa; Kunitomo, Jun; Kimura, Eiji; Yamano, Toru; Itoh, Fumio; Kori, Masakuni

    2010-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) inhibitors are expected to be attractive therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently we discovered sulfoxides (S)-1 as a novel GSK-3beta inhibitor having in vivo efficacy. We investigated practical asymmetric preparation methods for the scale-up synthesis of (S)-1. The highly enantioselective synthesis of (S)-1 (94% ee) was achieved by titanium-mediated oxidation with D-(-)-diethyl tartrate on gram scale.

  6. Corynebacterium diphtheriae methionine sulfoxide reductase a exploits a unique mycothiol redox relay mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossounian, Maria-Armineh; Pedre, Brandán; Wahni, Khadija; Erdogan, Huriye; Vertommen, Didier; Van Molle, Inge; Messens, Joris

    2015-05-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are conserved enzymes that reduce oxidized methionines in proteins and play a pivotal role in cellular redox signaling. We have unraveled the redox relay mechanisms of methionine sulfoxide reductase A of the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd-MsrA) and shown that this enzyme is coupled to two independent redox relay pathways. Steady-state kinetics combined with mass spectrometry of Cd-MsrA mutants give a view of the essential cysteine residues for catalysis. Cd-MsrA combines a nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction with an intramolecular disulfide bond cascade linked to the thioredoxin pathway. Within this cascade, the oxidative equivalents are transferred to the surface of the protein while releasing the reduced substrate. Alternatively, MsrA catalyzes methionine sulfoxide reduction linked to the mycothiol/mycoredoxin-1 pathway. After the nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction, MsrA forms a mixed disulfide with mycothiol, which is transferred via a thiol disulfide relay mechanism to a second cysteine for reduction by mycoredoxin-1. With x-ray crystallography, we visualize two essential intermediates of the thioredoxin relay mechanism and a cacodylate molecule mimicking the substrate interactions in the active site. The interplay of both redox pathways in redox signaling regulation forms the basis for further research into the oxidative stress response of this pathogen. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Studies of a novel cysteine sulfoxide lyase from Petiveria alliacea: the first heteromeric alliinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Rabi A; He, Quan; Kubec, Roman; Jadhav, Abhijit

    2009-11-01

    A novel alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) was detected and purified from the roots of the Amazonian medicinal plant Petiveria alliacea. The isolated enzyme is a heteropentameric glycoprotein composed of two alpha-subunits (68.1 kD each), one beta-subunit (56.0 kD), one gamma-subunit (24.8 kD), and one delta-subunit (13.9 kD). The two alpha-subunits are connected by a disulfide bridge, and both alpha- and beta-subunits are glycosylated. The enzyme has an isoelectric point of 4.78 and pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and approximately 52 degrees C, respectively. Its activation energy with its natural substrate S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide is 64.6 kJ mol(-1). Kinetic studies showed that both K(m) and V(max) vary as a function of substrate structure, with the most preferred substrates being the naturally occurring P. alliacea compounds S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide and S-2-hydroxyethyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide. The alliinase reacts with these substrates to produce S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate and S-(2-hydroxyethyl) 2-hydroxyethanethiosulfinate, respectively.

  8. Sulfoxide stimulation of chondrogenesis in limb mesenchyme is accompanied by an increase in type II collagen enhancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.E. Jr.; Higginbotham, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We have utilized a modification of the limb bud mesenchyme micromass culture system to screen compounds that might stimulate chondrogenesis. Two compounds in the sulfoxide family (methylphenylsulfoxide and p-chlorophenyl methyl sulfoxide) were stimulatory at 10(-2) M and 10(-3) M, respectively; whereas other sulfoxides and organic solvents were not active at these concentrations. In addition, specific growth factors (basic FGF, IGF-I, IGF-II) were not chondroinductive at concentrations that are active in other cell systems. Both sulfoxide compounds stimulated cartilage nodule formation, [ 35 S]sulfate incorporation, and activity of the regulatory sequences of the collagen II gene. In contrast, transforming growth factor beta-1 (10 ng/ml) stimulated sulfate incorporation but produced only a diffuse deposition of cartilage matrix and reduced the ability of the cells to utilize the regulatory sequences of the collagen II gene. The sulfoxides appear to promote the differentiation of limb bud cells to chondrocytes and thus exhibit chondroinductive activity

  9. Radiolabelling and evaluation of a novel sulfoxide as a PET imaging agent for tumor hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurens, Evelyn; Yeoh, Shinn Dee; Rigopoulos, Angela; Cao, Diana; Cartwright, Glenn A.; O'Keefe, Graeme J.; Tochon-Danguy, Henri J.; White, Jonathan M.; Scott, Andrew M.; Ackermann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    [ 18 F]FMISO is the most widely validated PET radiotracer for imaging hypoxic tissue. However, as a result of the pharmacokinetics of [ 18 F]FMISO a 2 h wait between tracer administration and patient scanning is required for optimal image acquisition. In order to develop hypoxia imaging agents with faster kinetics, we have synthesised and evaluated several F-18 labelled anilino sulfoxides. In this manuscript we report on the synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel fluoroethyltriazolyl propargyl anilino sulfoxide. The radiolabelling of the novel tracer was achieved via 2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl azide click chemistry. Radiochemical yields were 23 ± 4% based on 2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl azide and 7 ± 2% based on K[ 18 F]F. The radiotracer did not undergo metabolism or defluorination in an in vitro assay using S9 liver fractions. Imaging studies using SK-RC-52 tumors in BALB/c nude mice have indicated that the tracer may have a higher pO 2 threshold than [ 18 F]FMISO for uptake in hypoxic tumors. Although clearance from muscle was faster than [ 18 F]FMISO, uptake in hypoxic tumors was slower. The average tumor to muscle ratio at 2 h post injection in large, hypoxic tumors with a volume greater than 686 mm 3 was 1.7, which was similar to the observed ratio of 1.75 for [ 18 F]FMISO. Although the new tracer showed improved pharmacokinetics when compared with the previously synthesised sulfoxides, further modifications to the chemical structure need to be made in order to offer significant in vivo imaging advantages over [ 18 F]FMISO

  10. Synthesis and Nrf2 Activating Ability of Thiourea and Vinyl Sulfoxide Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Young Sun; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Nam, Ghilsoo; Choi, Kyung Il [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Thiourea and vinyl sulfoxide derivatives were designed based on the structures of sulforaphene and gallic acid, prepared and tested for HO-1 inducing activity as a measure of Nrf2 activation, and inhibitory effect on NO production as a measure of anti-inflammatory activity. Both series of compounds showed moderate activity on HO-1 induction, and no inhibitory effect on NO production. Interestingly the thiourea compound 6d showed better HO-1 induction (71% SFN) than the corresponding isothiocyanate compound 6a (55% SFN). Overall, it seemed that more efficient electrophile is needed to get more effective Nrf2 activator.

  11. Photochromic ruthenium sulfoxide complexes: evidence for isomerization through a conical intersection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Beth Anne; Mockus, Nicholas V; Butcher, Dennis P; Lutterman, Daniel A; Turro, Claudia; Petersen, Jeffrey L; Rack, Jeffrey J

    2009-09-07

    The complexes [Ru(bpy)(2)(OS)](PF(6)) and [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](PF(6)), where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, OS is 2-methylthiobenzoate, and OSO is 2-methylsulfinylbenzoate, have been studied. The electrochemical and photochemical reactivity of [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) is consistent with an isomerization of the bound sulfoxide from S-bonded (S-) to O-bonded (O-) following irradiation or electrochemical oxidation. Charge transfer excitation of [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) in MeOH results in the appearance of two new metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) maxima at 355 and 496 nm, while the peak at 396 nm diminishes in intensity. The isomerization is reversible at room temperature in alcohol or propylene carbonate solution. In the absence of light, solutions of O-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) revert to S-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+). Kinetic analysis reveals a biexponential decay with rate constants of 5.66(3) x 10(-4) s(-1) and 3.1(1) x 10(-5) s(-1). Cyclic voltammograms of S-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) are consistent with electron-transfer-triggered isomerization of the sulfoxide. Analysis of these voltammograms reveal E(S)(o)' = 0.86 V and E(O)(o)' = 0.49 V versus Ag/Ag(+) for the S- and O-bonded Ru(3+/2+) couples, respectively, in propylene carbonate. We found k(S-->O) = 0.090(15) s(-1) in propylene carbonate and k(S-->O) = 0.11(3) s(-1) in acetonitrile on Ru(III), which is considerably slower than has been reported for other sulfoxide isomerizations on ruthenium polypyridyl complexes following oxidation. The photoisomerization quantum yield (Phi(S-->O) = 0.45, methanol) is quite large, indicating a rapid excited state isomerization rate constant. The kinetic trace at 500 nm is monoexponential with tau = 150 ps, which is assigned to the excited S-->O isomerization rate. There is no spectroscopic or kinetic evidence for an O-bonded (3)MLCT excited state in the spectral evolution of S-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) to O-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+). Thus, isomerization occurs nonadiabatically from an S-bonded (or eta(2

  12. Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine in Hypothyroid Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Messeih, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid diseases may lead to endothelial dysfunction, however, the mechanism underlying the endothelial dysfunction in thyroid disease is still not clear. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), a novel inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), was reported to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from L-arginine. The present study was carried out to investigate ADMA levels together with effects of dislipidemia in sub-clinical and overt hypothyroid females. There were significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and ADMA in hypothyroid females as compared to controls while the levels of NO and free T 4 were significantly decreased than controls. Sub-clinical hypothyroid females had significant high TSH, LDL-c and non-significantly high ADMA levels and total cholesterol as compared to controls while they had significant decrease in NO, HDL-c and non-significant decrease in free T 4 as compared to controls. There were significant negative correlations between NO and both ADMA (r 2 = 0.84) and free T 4 (r 2 = 0.95) in overt hypothyroid group while significant positive correlation (r 2 = 0.85) was detected between TSH and HDL-c in the same group. These results are highly suggestive that the decrease of nitric oxide secondary to accumulation of ADMA represent an important pathogenic factor together with dyslipidemia in endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk especially in hypothyroid females

  13. Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine in Hypothyroid Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Messeih, P. L. [Health Radiation Research Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-01

    Thyroid diseases may lead to endothelial dysfunction, however, the mechanism underlying the endothelial dysfunction in thyroid disease is still not clear. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), a novel inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), was reported to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from L-arginine. The present study was carried out to investigate ADMA levels together with effects of dislipidemia in sub-clinical and overt hypothyroid females. There were significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and ADMA in hypothyroid females as compared to controls while the levels of NO and free T{sub 4} were significantly decreased than controls. Sub-clinical hypothyroid females had significant high TSH, LDL-c and non-significantly high ADMA levels and total cholesterol as compared to controls while they had significant decrease in NO, HDL-c and non-significant decrease in free T{sub 4} as compared to controls. There were significant negative correlations between NO and both ADMA (r{sup 2} = 0.84) and free T{sub 4} (r{sup 2} = 0.95) in overt hypothyroid group while significant positive correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.85) was detected between TSH and HDL-c in the same group. These results are highly suggestive that the decrease of nitric oxide secondary to accumulation of ADMA represent an important pathogenic factor together with dyslipidemia in endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk especially in hypothyroid females.

  14. Spectral and structural correlation for Bis (dibenzoyl methanato) dioxo uranium(VI) diphenyl sulfoxide. [UO2(DBM)2. PhSOPh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Raj, S.S.S.; Fun, Hoong Kun

    2001-01-01

    In the complex [UO 2 (DBM) 2 . PhSOPh]. the sulfoxide ligand is bonded to uranium (VI) ion through sulfoxide oxygen atom and DBM ligands through the oxygen atoms to give a distorted pentagonal bipyramidal geometry. The structural study is in consistence with the spectral studies. (author)

  15. In situ generation of sulfoxides with predetermined chirality via a structural template with a chiral-at-metal ruthenium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Zheng; Yao, Su-Yang; Wu, Jin-Ji; Ye, Bao-Hui

    2014-05-30

    The reaction of Δ/Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2](2+) with a prochiral sulfide ligand, and then in situ oxidation, provide the corresponding Δ-[Ru(bpy)2{(R)-OSO-iPr}](+) and Λ-[Ru(bpy)2{(S)-OSO-iPr}](+) (OSO-iPr = 2-isopropylsulfonylbenzonate) enantiomers in a yield of 83% with 98% ee. The chiral sulfoxides were obtained by treatment of the sulfoxide complexes with TFA in a yield of 90% with 88-91% ee.

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective C-H Olefination of Diaryl Sulfoxides through Parallel Kinetic Resolution and Desymmetrization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Chao; Li, Yan; Zhang, Bo-Chao; Zhang, Feng-Xu; Yang, Yi-Nuo; Wang, Xi-Sheng

    2018-03-07

    The first example of Pd II -catalyzed enantioselective C-H olefination with non-chiral or racemic sulfoxides as directing groups was developed. A variety of chiral diaryl sulfoxides were synthesized with high enantioselectivity (up to 99 %) through both desymmetrization and parallel kinetic resolution (PKR). This is the first report of Pd II -catalyzed enantioselective C(sp 2 )-H functionalization through PKR, and it represents a novel strategy to construct sulfur chiral centers. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Use of sulfoxides for extraction-gravimetric determination of niobium and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, A.I.; Babkin, A.G.; Tkachenko, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    An extraction-gravimetrical technique has been developed for determination of niobium and tantalum. The technique permits simultaneous extraction of tantalum and its concentrating in the aqueous phase; the range of Ta concentrations determined is essentially wider than in case of the routine gravimetric methods. The technique is based upon the fact, that tantalum is extracted by sulfoxides from fluorine-sulphate solutions at lower concentration of Hf and at lower ratios between the volumes of organic and aqueous phases than niobium. Two subsequent extractions by 1M sulfoxide solutions provide for practically complete transfer of tantalum into the organic phase, whereas extraction of niobium is only 3-20%. Sufficient recovery of Ta and Nb from organic phases is provided by re-extraction by NH 4 F solution. The technique is suitable for niobium and tantalum determination at the ratios of their pentoxides from 1:100 to 100:1. The disturbing influence of Fe(3) is suppressed by reductions to Fe(2)

  18. CCDC 974613: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[bis(mu-5,5',5''-(1,3,4,6,7,9,9b-heptaazaphenalene-2,5,8-triyltriimino)triisophthalato)-tris(dimethyl sulfoxide)-triaqua-hexa-copper dimethyl sulfoxide solvate hydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  19. CCDC 1036601: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : bis(dimethyl sulfoxide)-(1,3,6,8,11,13,16,18-octaazapentacyclo[16.2.1.13,6.18,11.113,16]tetracosa-4,9,14,19-tetraene-21,22,23,24-tetraylidene)-iron bis(hexafluorophosphate) dimethyl sulfoxide solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Anneser, Markus R.; Haslinger, Stefan; Pö thig, Alexander; Cokoja, Mirza; Basset, Jean-Marie; Kü hn, Fritz E.

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  20. CCDC 974613: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[bis(mu-5,5',5''-(1,3,4,6,7,9,9b-heptaazaphenalene-2,5,8-triyltriimino)triisophthalato)-tris(dimethyl sulfoxide)-triaqua-hexa-copper dimethyl sulfoxide solvate hydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Weseliński, Łukasz J.; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Chen, Zhijie; Wojtas, Łukasz; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from

  1. Synthesis of dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine-{sup 14}C-2,4 (dimethyl-1-1 biguanide) hydrochloride; Synthese du chlorhydrate de dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine {sup 14}C-2,4 (dimethyl-1-1 biguanide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, M; Pichat, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    A description of the synthesis of dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine-{sup 14}C-2,4 hydrochloride passing through the {sup 14}C{sub 2} dicyandiamide. The overall yield with respect to Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3} is 38 per cent. (author) [French] Description de la synthese du chlorhydrate de dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine {sup 14}C-2,4 par l'intermediaire de la dicyandiamide {sup 14}C{sub 2}. Le rendement global par rapport a {sup 14}CO{sub 3}Ba est de 38 pour cent. (auteur)

  2. Stable isotope dimethyl labelling for quantitative proteomics and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jue-Liang; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Stable-isotope reductive dimethylation, a cost-effective, simple, robust, reliable and easy-to- multiplex labelling method, is widely applied to quantitative proteomics using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This review focuses on biological applications of stable-isotope dimethyl labelling for a large-scale comparative analysis of protein expression and post-translational modifications based on its unique properties of the labelling chemistry. Some other applications of the labelling method for sample preparation and mass spectrometry-based protein identification and characterization are also summarized. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644970

  3. 40 CFR 721.6167 - Piperdinium, 1,1-dimethyl-, chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Piperdinium, 1,1-dimethyl-, chloride... Substances § 721.6167 Piperdinium, 1,1-dimethyl-, chloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as piperdinium, 1,1-dimethyl-, chloride. (PMN...

  4. The OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of divinyl sulfoxide: A theoretical investigation on the reaction mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weichao; Zhang, Dongju

    2012-08-01

    The potential energy surfaces for the OH + divinyl sulfoxide reaction in the presence of O2/NO are theoretically characterized at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d,p)//BH&HLYP/6-311++G(d,p)+ZPE level of theory. Various possible pathways including the direct hydrogen abstraction channels and the addition-elimination channels are considered. The calculations show that the exclusive feasible entrance channel is the formation of adduct CH2(OH)CHS(O)CHdbnd CH2 (IM1) in the initial reaction pathways. In the atmosphere, the newly formed adduct IM1 can further react with O2/NO to form the dominant products HCHO + C(O)HS(O)CHdbnd CH2 (P9). The calculated results confirm the experimental studies.

  5. Complexes between lanthanide (III) and yttrium (III) picrates and tetra methylene sulfoxide as ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.A.A. da.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of addition compounds between lanthanide (III) and yttrium (III) picrates and tetra methylene sulfoxide as ligand were described. The adducts were prepared in the molar relation 1 (salt): 3(ligand) in ethanol. They are microcrystalline with more intense color than those of their respective hydrated salts. At room temperature conditions they are non hygroscopic and do not present perceptible alterations. They became slightly opalescent, when heated between 363 and 423 K. At higher temperatures under several heating ratios, the behavior shown is the same: melting between 439 and 472 K. The characterization of the compounds was made by elemental analysis, electrolytic conductance measurements, X-ray powder patterns, infrared spectroscopy, visible electronic absorption and emission spectra of the neodymium (III) and europium (III), respectively. (author). 116 refs., 17 tabs., 11 figs

  6. Dimethyl ether in diesel engines - progress and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C

    2001-01-01

    A review of recent developments related to the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in engines is presented Research work discussed is in the areas of engine performance and emissions, fuel injection systems, spray and ignition delay, and detailed chemical kinetic modeling. DME's properties and safety asp...

  7. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide. The developed catalyst activates carbon dioxide and delivers over 16% yield of DMC without the use of any dehydrating agent or requirement for azeotropic distillation. Prepared for submission to Nature Scientific reports.

  8. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A deficiency exacerbates acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose induces acute liver injury via enhanced oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) acts as a reactive oxygen species scavenger by catalyzing the cyclic reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide. Herein, we investigated the protective role of MsrA against APAP-induced liver damage using MsrA gene-deleted mice (MsrA −/− ). We found that MsrA −/− mice were more susceptible to APAP-induced acute liver injury than wild-type mice (MsrA +/+ ). The central lobule area of the MsrA −/− liver was more impaired with necrotic lesions. Serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in MsrA −/− than in MsrA +/+ mice after APAP challenge. Deletion of MsrA enhanced APAP-induced hepatic GSH depletion and oxidative stress, leading to increased susceptibility to APAP-induced liver injury in MsrA-deficient mice. APAP challenge increased Nrf2 activation more profoundly in MsrA −/− than in MsrA +/+ livers. Expression and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and its target gene expression were significantly elevated in MsrA −/− than in MsrA +/+ livers after APAP challenge. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MsrA protects the liver from APAP-induced toxicity. The data provided herein constitute the first in vivo evidence of the involvement of MsrA in hepatic function under APAP challenge. - Highlights: • MsrA deficiency increases APAP-induced liver damage. • MsrA deletion enhances APAP-induced hepatic GSH depletion and oxidative stress. • MsrA deficiency induces more profound activation of Nrf2 in response to APAP. • MsrA protects the liver from APAP-induced toxicity.

  9. Effects of dimethyl fumarate on neuroprotection and immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Philipp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal degeneration in multiple sclerosis has been linked to oxidative stress. Dimethyl fumarate is a promising novel oral therapeutic option shown to reduce disease activity and progression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. These effects are presumed to originate from a combination of immunomodulatory and neuroprotective mechanisms. We aimed to clarify whether neuroprotective concentrations of dimethyl fumarate have immunomodulatory effects. Findings We determined time- and concentration-dependent effects of dimethyl fumarate and its metabolite monomethyl fumarate on viability in a model of endogenous neuronal oxidative stress and clarified the mechanism of action by quantitating cellular glutathione content and recycling, nuclear translocation of transcription factors, and the expression of antioxidant genes. We compared this with changes in the cytokine profiles released by stimulated splenocytes measured by ELISPOT technology and analyzed the interactions between neuronal and immune cells and neuronal function and viability in cell death assays and multi-electrode arrays. Our observations show that dimethyl fumarate causes short-lived oxidative stress, which leads to increased levels and nuclear localization of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and a subsequent increase in glutathione synthesis and recycling in neuronal cells. Concentrations that were cytoprotective in neuronal cells had no negative effects on viability of splenocytes but suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines in cultures from C57BL/6 and SJL mice and had no effects on neuronal activity in multi-electrode arrays. Conclusions These results suggest that immunomodulatory concentrations of dimethyl fumarate can reduce oxidative stress without altering neuronal network activity.

  10. Scolicidal and apoptotic activities of albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfoxide-loaded PLGA-PEG as a novel nanopolymeric particle against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Marziyeh; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Spotin, Adel; Akbari, Nagibeh Asl Rahnemaii; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Ahmadpour, Ehsan

    2016-12-01

    Treatment failures of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) with albendazole (ABZ) have attributed to its low solubility and poor drug absorption rate, resulting in low drug level in plasma. The scolicidal effects of ABZ-loaded liposome nanoparticles have recently evaluated; however, these particles have several challenges due to their low encapsulated load. This investigation was designed to evaluate and compare in vitro apoptotic activities of ABZ sulfoxide (ABZs) and ABZs-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-PEG against protoscoleces (PSCs). ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG was prepared by a double-emulsion method (W1/O/W2). Various concentrations of ABZs and ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG (50, 100, 150, and 200 μg/ml) were experimentally tested against PSC of CE at different exposure times (5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min). ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG at concentrations of 150 and 200 μg/ml was able to act at a 100 % scolicidal rate in all exposure times (5 to 60 min), while ABZs at a concentration of 200 μg/ml demonstrated 94, 100, and 100 % mortality rates following 20, 30, and 60 min of exposure times, respectively. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of caspase-3 was assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR after 15 h of exposure. Caspase-3 mRNA expression was higher in both PSC treated with ABZs and PSC treated with ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG than that in control groups (P  0.05). DNA fragmentation assay and ultrastructural changes revealed that ABZs and ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG induced the apoptosis of PSC by activation of caspase-3. The higher permeability and scolicidal rate of ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG can be addressed as an effectual alternative strategy to improve the treatment of human CE.

  11. In vitro susceptibilities of the AIDS-associated microsporidian Encephalitozoon intestinalis to albendazole, its sulfoxide metabolite, and 12 additional benzimidazole derivatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Katiyar, S K; Edlind, T D

    1997-01-01

    Recent reports have described the successful treatment of Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in AIDS patients with albendazole. However, this compound is rapidly metabolized in vivo to albendazole sulfoxide, and furthermore it is only 1 of about 15 commercially developed benzimidazole derivatives. To compare the activities of albendazole, albendazole sulfoxide, and other benzimidazoles, an in vitro system involving infection of green monkey kidney cell (E6) monolayers with E. intestinalis...

  12. Simultaneous densitometric determination of anthelmintic drug albendazole and its metabolite albendazole sulfoxide by HPTLC in human plasma and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Jui J; Sanyal, Mallika; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2017-09-01

    A new, simple, accurate and precise high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of an anthelmintic drug, albendazole, and its active metabolite albendazole, sulfoxide. Planar chromatographic separation was performed on aluminum-backed layer of silica gel 60G F 254 using a mixture of toluene-acetonitrile-glacial acetic acid (7.0:2.9:0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. For quantitation, the separated spots were scanned densitometrically at 225 nm. The retention factors (R f ) obtained under the established conditions were 0.76 ± 0.01 and 0.50 ± 0.01 and the regression plots were linear (r 2  ≥ 0.9997) in the concentration ranges 50-350 and 100-700 ng/band for albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, specificity, accuracy (recovery) and precision, repeatability, stability and robustness. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation found were 9.84 and 29.81 ng/band for albendazole and 21.60 and 65.45 ng/band for albendazole sulfoxide, respectively. For plasma samples, solid-phase extraction of analytes yielded mean extraction recoveries of 87.59 and 87.13% for albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of albendazole in pharmaceutical formulations with accuracy ≥99.32%. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Fragrance material review on 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,2-Dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Methionine sulfoxide profiling of milk proteins to assess the influence of lipids on protein oxidation in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-06-15

    Thermal treatment of milk and milk products leads to protein oxidation, mainly the formation of methionine sulfoxide. Reactive oxygen species, responsible for the oxidation, can be generated by Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars, or lipid peroxidation. The present study investigated the influence of milk fat on methionine oxidation in milk. For this purpose, quantitative methionine sulfoxide profiling of all ten methionine residues of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and αs1-casein was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS-sMRM). Analysis of defatted and regular raw milk samples after heating for up to 8 min at 120 °C and analysis of ultrahigh-temperature milk samples with 0.1%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat revealed that methionine oxidation of the five residues of the whey proteins and of residues M 123, M 135, and M 196 of αs1-casein was not affected or even suppressed in the presence of milk fat. Only the oxidation of residues M 54 and M 60 of αs1-casein was promoted by lipids. In evaporated milk samples, formation of methionine sulfoxide was hardly influenced by the fat content of the samples. Thus, it can be concluded that lipid oxidation products are not the major cause of methionine oxidation in milk.

  15. Studies of a Novel Cysteine Sulfoxide Lyase from Petiveria alliacea: The First Heteromeric Alliinase1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Rabi A.; He, Quan; Kubec, Roman; Jadhav, Abhijit

    2009-01-01

    A novel alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) was detected and purified from the roots of the Amazonian medicinal plant Petiveria alliacea. The isolated enzyme is a heteropentameric glycoprotein composed of two α-subunits (68.1 kD each), one β-subunit (56.0 kD), one γ-subunit (24.8 kD), and one δ-subunit (13.9 kD). The two α-subunits are connected by a disulfide bridge, and both α- and β-subunits are glycosylated. The enzyme has an isoelectric point of 4.78 and pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and approximately 52°C, respectively. Its activation energy with its natural substrate S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide is 64.6 kJ mol−1. Kinetic studies showed that both Km and Vmax vary as a function of substrate structure, with the most preferred substrates being the naturally occurring P. alliacea compounds S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide and S-2-hydroxyethyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide. The alliinase reacts with these substrates to produce S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate and S-(2-hydroxyethyl) 2-hydroxyethanethiosulfinate, respectively. PMID:19789290

  16. Protection against UVB-induced oxidative stress in human skin cells and skin models by methionine sulfoxide reductase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelle, Edward; Maes, Daniel; Huang, Xi; Frenkel, Krystyna; Pernodet, Nadine; Yarosh, Daniel B; Zhang, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Environmental trauma to human skin can lead to oxidative damage of proteins and affect their activity and structure. When methionine becomes oxidized to its sulfoxide form, methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) reduces it back to methionine. We report here the increase in MSRA in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) after ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, as well as the reduction in hydrogen peroxide levels in NHEK pre-treated with MSRA after exposure. Further, when NHEK were pre-treated with a non-cytotoxic pentapeptide containing methionine sulfoxide (metSO), MSRA expression increased by 18.2%. Additionally, when the media of skin models were supplemented with the metSO pentapeptide and then exposed to UVB, a 31.1% reduction in sunburn cells was evident. We conclude that the presence of MSRA or an externally applied peptide reduces oxidative damage in NHEK and skin models and that MSRA contributes to the protection of proteins against UVB-induced damage in skin.

  17. Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA): direct electrochemical oxidation on carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, T A; Oliveira-Brett, A M

    2013-02-01

    The direct electrochemical behaviour of peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) adsorbed on glassy carbon and boron doped diamond electrodes surface, was studied over a wide pH range by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. MsrA oxidation mechanism occurs in three consecutive, pH dependent steps, corresponding to the oxidation of tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine amino acid residues. At the glassy carbon electrode, the first step corresponds to the oxidation of tyrosine and tryptophan residues and occurs for the same potential. The advantage of boron doped diamond electrode was to enable the separation of tyrosine and tryptophan oxidation peaks. On the second step occurs the histidine oxidation, and on the third, at higher potentials, the second tryptophan oxidation. MsrA adsorbs on the hydrophobic carbon electrode surface preferentially through the three hydrophobic domains, C1, C2 and C3, which contain the tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine residues, and tryptophan exists only in these regions, and undergo electrochemical oxidation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of Expression of Oxacillin-Inducible Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Baum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell wall-active antibiotics cause induction of a locus that leads to elevated synthesis of two methionine sulfoxide reductases (MsrA1 and MsrB in Staphylococcus aureus. To understand the regulation of this locus, reporter strains were constructed by integrating a DNA fragment consisting of the msrA1/msrB promoter in front of a promoterless lacZ gene in the chromosome of wild-type and MsrA1-, MsrB-, MsrA1/MsrB-, and SigB-deficient methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strain SH1000 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain COL. These reporter strains were cultured in TSB and the cellular levels of β-galactosidase activity in these cultures were assayed during different growth phases. β-galactosidase activity assays demonstrated that the lack of MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB upregulated the msrA1/msrB promoter in S. aureus strain SH1000. In S. aureus strain COL, the highest level of β-galactosidase activity was observed under the conditions when both MsrA1 and MsrB proteins were absent. The data suggest that the msrA1/msrB locus, in part, is negatively regulated by MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB in S. aureus.

  19. Enantioseparation of novel chiral sulfoxides on chlorinated polysaccharide stationary phases in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Caroline; Konjaria, Mari-Luiza; Shashviashvili, Natia; Lemasson, Elise; Bonnet, Pascal; Kakava, Rusudan; Volonterio, Alessandro; Chankvetadze, Bezhan

    2017-05-26

    Asymmetric sulfoxides is a particular case of chirality that may be found in natural as well as synthetic products. Twenty-four original molecules containing a sulfur atom as a centre of chirality were analyzed in supercritical fluid chromatography on seven polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases (CSP) with carbon dioxide - methanol mobile phases. While all the tested CSP provided enantioseparation for a large part of the racemates, chlorinated cellulosic phases proved to be both highly retentive and highly enantioselective towards these species. Favourable structural features were determined by careful comparison of the enantioseparation of the probe molecules. Molecular modelling studies indicate that U-shaped (folded) conformations were most favorable to achieve high enantioresolution on these CSP, while linear (extended) conformations were not so clearly discriminated. For a subset of these species adopting different conformations, a broad range of mobile phase compositions, ranging from 20 to 100% methanol in carbon dioxide, were investigated. While retention decreased continuously in this range, enantioseparation varied in a non-monotonous fashion. Abrupt changes in the tendency curves of retention and selectivity were observed when methanol proportion reaches about 60%, suggesting that a change in the conformation of the analytes and/or chiral selector is occurring at this point. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal variations in dimethylsulphoniopropionate and dimethyl sulphide in the Zuari estuary, Goa (India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoy, D.M.; Patil, J.S.

    . F., & Wakeham, S. G. (1998). Temporal variability of dimethyl sulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the Sargasso Sea. DeepSeaRes.PartI, 45, 2085– 2104. DeSouza, M. P., & Yoch, D. C. (1996). Differential metabolism of dimethyl...) measurements and a procedure to predict sea surface DMS as a function of latitude, longitude, and month.GlobalBiogeochemicalCycles,13, 399–444. Kiene, R. P. (1990). Dimethyl sulfide production from dimethyl-sulfoniopropionate in coastal seawater samples...

  1. Dimethyl ether production from methanol and/or syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagle, Robert A; Wang, Yong; Baker, Eddie G; Hu, Jianli

    2015-02-17

    Disclosed are methods for producing dimethyl ether (DME) from methanol and for producing DME directly from syngas, such as syngas from biomass. Also disclosed are apparatus for DME production. The disclosed processes generally function at higher temperatures with lower contact times and at lower pressures than conventional processes so as to produce higher DME yields than do conventional processes. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in reactors providing greater surface to volume ratios than the presently used DME reactors. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in systems comprising multiple microchannel reactors.

  2. Performance of long straw tubes using dimethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Guaraldo, C.; Lanaro, A.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Sarwar, S.

    1995-01-01

    A cylindrical tracking detector with an inner radius of one meter employing straw tubes is being envisaged for the FINUDA experiment aimed at hyper-nuclear physics at DAΦNE, the Frascati φ-factory. A prototype using several 10 mm and 20 mm diameter, two meter long aluminized mylar straws has been assembled and tested with a one GeV/c pion beam. While operating with dimethyl ether, gas gain, space resolution, and device systematics have been studied. A simple method of correction for systematics due to straw eccentricity has been developed and, once applied, a space resolution better than 40 μm can be reached. (orig.)

  3. Dimethyl (E-2-(N-phenylacetamidobut-2-enedioate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Bin Wen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H15NO5, was obtained from the reaction of acetanilide with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate in the presence of potassium carbonate. The C=C double bond adopts an E configuration and the geometry around the amide N atom is almost planar rather than pyramidal (mean deviation of 0.0032 Å from the C3N plane. The packing of the molecules in the crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  4. (2E-3-(3,5-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl-1-(2,5-dimethyl-3-thienylprop-2-en-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman A. Khan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (2E-3-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl-1-(2,5-dimethyl-3-thienylprop-2-en-1-one (3 was synthesized in high yield by aldol condensation of 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene and 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazole-4-carboxaldehyde in ethanolic NaOH at room temperature. Its structure was fully characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  5. Controllable Synthesis of Lindqvist Alkoxopolyoxovanadate Clusters as Heterogeneous Catalysts for Sulfoxidation of Sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Kun; Dong, Jing; Wei, Chuan-Ping; Yang, Song; Chi, Ying-Nan; Xu, Yan-Qing; Hu, Chang-Wen

    2017-05-15

    Six alkoxohexavanadate-based Cu- or Co-POVs [Cu(dpa)(acac)(H 2 O)] 2 [V 6 O 13 (OMe) 6 ] (1), [Cu(phen)(acac)(MeOH)] 2 [V 6 O 13 (OMe) 6 ] (2), [Co(dpa)(acac) 2 ] 2 [V 6 O 13 (OMe) 6 ]·2MeOH (3), [Co(phen)(acac) 2 ] 2 [V 6 O 13 (OMe) 6 ] (4), [Cu(dpa)(acac)] 2 [V IV 2 V V 4 O 12 (OMe) 7 ] (5), and [Cu(dpa)(acac)(MeOH)] 2 [V IV 2 V V 4 O 11 (OMe) 8 ] (6) (POV = polyoxovanadate; dpa = 2,2'-dipyridine amine; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; acac = acetylacetone anion) have been synthesized by controlling the reaction conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, element analyses, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In compounds 1-4 and 6, Cu or Co complexes and alkoxohexavanadate anions are assembled through electrostatic interactions. Differently, in compound 5, seven-methoxo-substituted Lindqvist-type [V 6 O 12 (OMe) 7 ] 2- are bridged to Cu complex via terminal O atoms by coordination bonds. All compounds 1-6 exhibit excellent heterogeneous catalytic performance in oxidative desulfurization and CEES ((2-chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a sulfur mustard simulant) abatement with H 2 O 2 as oxidant. Among them, the catalytic activity of 6 [conv. of DBT (dibenzothiophene) up to 100% in 6 h; conv. of CEES reached 100% and selectivity of CEESO ((2-chloroethyl) ethyl sulfoxide) up to 85% after 4 h] outperforms others and can be reused without losing its activity.

  6. Synergistic Roles of Helicobacter pylori Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase and GroEL in Repairing Oxidant-damaged Catalase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Manish; Tran, ViLinh; Sharp, Joshua S.; Maier, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced via the enzyme myeloperoxidase is a major antibacterial oxidant produced by neutrophils, and Met residues are considered primary amino acid targets of HOCl damage via conversion to Met sulfoxide. Met sulfoxide can be repaired back to Met by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme; we show it constitutes 4–5% of the total Helicobacter pylori protein levels. msr and katA strains were about 14- and 4-fold, respectively, more susceptible than the parent to killing by the neutrophil cell line HL-60 cells. Catalase activity of an msr strain was much more reduced by HOCl exposure than for the parental strain. Treatment of pure catalase with HOCl caused oxidation of specific MS-identified Met residues, as well as structural changes and activity loss depending on the oxidant dose. Treatment of catalase with HOCl at a level to limit structural perturbation (at a catalase/HOCl molar ratio of 1:60) resulted in oxidation of six identified Met residues. Msr repaired these residues in an in vitro reconstituted system, but no enzyme activity could be recovered. However, addition of GroEL to the Msr repair mixture significantly enhanced catalase activity recovery. Neutrophils produce large amounts of HOCl at inflammation sites, and bacterial catalase may be a prime target of the host inflammatory response; at high concentrations of HOCl (1:100), we observed loss of catalase secondary structure, oligomerization, and carbonylation. The same HOCl-sensitive Met residue oxidation targets in catalase were detected using chloramine-T as a milder oxidant. PMID:21460217

  7. Entropy Generation Minimization in Dimethyl Ether Synthesis: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Diego; Razzitte, Adrián César

    2018-04-01

    Entropy generation minimization is a method that helps improve the efficiency of real processes and devices. In this article, we study the entropy production (due to chemical reactions, heat exchange and friction) in a conventional reactor that synthesizes dimethyl ether and minimize it by modifying different operating variables of the reactor, such as composition, temperature and pressure, while aiming at a fixed production of dimethyl ether. Our results indicate that it is possible to reduce the entropy production rate by nearly 70 % and that, by changing only the inlet composition, it is possible to cut it by nearly 40 %, though this comes at the expense of greater dissipation due to heat transfer. We also study the alternative of coupling the reactor with another, where dehydrogenation of methylcyclohexane takes place. In that case, entropy generation can be reduced by 54 %, when pressure, temperature and inlet molar flows are varied. These examples show that entropy generation analysis can be a valuable tool in engineering design and applications aiming at process intensification and efficient operation of plant equipment.

  8. Two Approaches to the Synthesis of Dimethyl Fumarate That Demonstrate Fundamental Principles of Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Brian E.; Bennett, Lisa J.

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments are described which lead to the preparation of dimethyl fumarate, a compound currently used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Preparation of a compound with "real-world" applications is believed to increase student interest in the experiment. One experiment involves the isomerization of dimethyl maleate to the…

  9. Efficient and Simple Synthesis of 6-Aryl-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Rault

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic method for the preparation of 6-aryl-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles involving a palladium catalyzed coupling reaction of 1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazole-6-boronic acids and (heteroaryl halides is described.

  10. Direct dimethyl ether fueling of a high temperature polymer fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vassiliev, Anton; Olsen, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Direct dimethyl ether (DME) fuel cells suffer from poor DME–water miscibility and so far peak powers of only 20–40 mW cm−2 have been reported. Based on available literature on solubility of dimethyl ether (DME) in water at ambient pressure it was estimated that the maximum concentration of DME at...

  11. A novel preparation of methyl-β-cyclodextrin from dimethyl carbonate and β-cyclodextrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Yongjiang; Zhang, Yimin; Xiao, Chuanhao

    2011-01-01

    A novel green synthesis process about methyl-β-cyclodextrin has been investigated through the reaction between β-cyclodextrin and dimethyl carbonate by anhydrous potassium carbonate as catalyst in DMF. The influence of experimental factors including the molar ratio of dimethyl carbonate to β-cycl...

  12. Metabolism of the fungicide Denmert (S-n-butyl S'-p-tert-butyl-benzyl N-3-pyridyldithiocarbonimidate, S-1358) and Denmert sulfoxides in liver enzyme systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Hideo; Okihara, Yukiko; Miyamoto, Junshi

    1976-01-01

    On incubation with rat liver microsomes plus MADPH, Denmert (S-n-butyl S'-p-tert-butylbenzyl N-3-pyridyldithiocarbonimidate) underwent at least two different types of oxidation; hydroxylation and sulfoxidation. Hydroxylation of Denmert at the tert-butyl group was one of the major metabolic attacks in mammalian metabolism. Sulfoxidation of Denmert gave two isomers of Denmert sulfoxides which were intermediates in the metabolism and readily transformed into 2-(3'-pyridylimino)-4-carboxylthiazolidine (HM) in the presence of L-cysteine without enzymatic mediation. This type of conjugation with cysteine appears to be a new class of metabolic reactions in mammals. Denmert S-oxide showed increased fungicidal activity when assayed in liquid cultures, but not on plant leaves. (auth.)

  13. Low-Temperature Oxidation of Dimethyl Ether to Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers over CNT-Supported Rhenium Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingde Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its excellent conductivity, good thermal stability and large specific surface area, carbon nano-tubes (CNTs were selected as support to prepare a Re-based catalyst for dimethyl ether (DME direct oxidation to polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (DMMx. The catalyst performance was tested in a continuous flow type fixed-bed reactor. H3PW12O40 (PW12 was used to modify Re/CNTs to improve its activity and selectivity. The effects of PW12 content, reaction temperature, gas hourly space velocity (GHSV and reaction time on DME oxidation to DMMx were investigated. The results showed that modification of CNT-supported Re with 30% PW12 significantly increased the selectivity of DMM and DMM2 up to 59.0% from 6.6% with a DME conversion of 8.9%; besides that, there was no COx production observed in the reaction under the optimum conditions of 513 K and 1800 h−1. The techniques of XRD, BET, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR, XPS, TEM and SEM were used to characterize the structure, surface properties and morphology of the catalysts. The optimum amount of weak acid sites and redox sites promotes the synthesis of DMM and DMM2 from DME direct oxidation.

  14. Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.A. Semelsberger

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

  15. Establishment of Dimethyl Labeling-based Quantitative Acetylproteomics in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichang; Yu, Fengchao; Yang, Zhu; Wang, Tingliang; Xiong, Hairong; Chang, Caren; Yu, Weichuan; Li, Ning

    2018-05-01

    Protein acetylation, one of many types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), is involved in a variety of biological and cellular processes. In the present study, we applied both C sCl d ensity g radient (CDG) centrifugation-based protein fractionation and a dimethyl-labeling-based 4C quantitative PTM proteomics workflow in the study of dynamic acetylproteomic changes in Arabidopsis. This workflow integrates the dimethyl c hemical labeling with c hromatography-based acetylpeptide separation and enrichment followed by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, the extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) quantitation-based c omputational analysis of mass spectrometry data to measure dynamic changes of acetylpeptide level using an in-house software program, named S table isotope-based Qua ntitation- D imethyl labeling (SQUA-D), and finally the c onfirmation of ethylene hormone-regulated acetylation using immunoblot analysis. Eventually, using this proteomic approach, 7456 unambiguous acetylation sites were found from 2638 different acetylproteins, and 5250 acetylation sites, including 5233 sites on lysine side chain and 17 sites on protein N termini, were identified repetitively. Out of these repetitively discovered acetylation sites, 4228 sites on lysine side chain ( i.e. 80.5%) are novel. These acetylproteins are exemplified by the histone superfamily, ribosomal and heat shock proteins, and proteins related to stress/stimulus responses and energy metabolism. The novel acetylproteins enriched by the CDG centrifugation fractionation contain many cellular trafficking proteins, membrane-bound receptors, and receptor-like kinases, which are mostly involved in brassinosteroid, light, gravity, and development signaling. In addition, we identified 12 highly conserved acetylation site motifs within histones, P-glycoproteins, actin depolymerizing factors, ATPases, transcription factors, and receptor-like kinases. Using SQUA-D software, we have quantified 33 ethylene hormone-enhanced and

  16. N-Boc Amines to Oxazolidinones via Pd(II)/Bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted Acid Co-Catalyzed Allylic C–H Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted acid catalyzed allylic C–H oxidation reaction for the synthesis of oxazolidinones from simple N-Boc amines is reported. A range of oxazolidinones are furnished in good yields (avg 63%) and excellent diastereoselectivities (avg 15:1) to furnish products regioisomeric from those previously obtained using allylic C–H amination reactions. Mechanistic studies suggest the role of the phosphoric acid is to furnish a Pd(II)bis-sulfoxide phosphate catalyst that promotes allylic C–H cleavage and π-allylPd functionalization with a weak, aprotic oxygen nucleophile and to assist in catalyst regeneration. PMID:24999765

  17. N-Boc amines to oxazolidinones via Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted acid co-catalyzed allylic C-H oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osberger, Thomas J; White, M Christina

    2014-08-06

    A Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted acid catalyzed allylic C-H oxidation reaction for the synthesis of oxazolidinones from simple N-Boc amines is reported. A range of oxazolidinones are furnished in good yields (avg 63%) and excellent diastereoselectivities (avg 15:1) to furnish products regioisomeric from those previously obtained using allylic C-H amination reactions. Mechanistic studies suggest the role of the phosphoric acid is to furnish a Pd(II)bis-sulfoxide phosphate catalyst that promotes allylic C-H cleavage and π-allylPd functionalization with a weak, aprotic oxygen nucleophile and to assist in catalyst regeneration.

  18. Syntheses and luminescence properties of two novel lanthanide (III) perchlorate complexes with phenacyl p-tolyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shu-Yan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Li, Wen-Xian, E-mail: nmglwx@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Zheng, Yu-Shan [Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Product Quality Inspection Institute, Hohhot 010070 (China); Xin, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Feng; Cao, Xiao-Fang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Two novel solid binary complexes of rare earth perchlorate with phenacyl p-tolyl sulfoxide were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, coordination titration analysis, IR, TG-DSC, {sup 1}HNMR and UV spectra. The results indicated that the composition of these complexes was REL{sub 7} (ClO{sub 4}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O (RE=Eu (III), Tb (III), L=C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COCH{sub 2}SOC{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3}). The study on IR spectra and {sup 1}HNMR spectra revealed that phenacyl p-tolyl sulfoxide bonded with RE{sup 3+} ions by the oxygen atom in sulfinyl group. The emission spectra illustrated that both the Eu (III) and Tb (III) complexes displayed excellent luminescence in solid state, and The most intensive characteristic emission of the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes were 245,400 a.u. and 298,000 a.u. respectively. The slit with was 1 nm. By analysis luminescence and phosphorescence spectrum, it was found that the ligand had the advantage to absorb energy and transfer it to the Eu (III) and Tb (III) ions. The fluorescence lifetimes of the complexes were measured as well as the quantum yield of the Eu (III) complex.

  19. Changes in Dimethyl Sulfide Oceanic Distribution due to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Elliott, S; Maltrud, M; Erickson, D; Wingenter, O

    2011-02-16

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here they report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. They find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associted with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.

  20. Synthesis pf dimethyl carbonate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballivet-Tkatchenko, D.; Plasseraud, L. [Universite de Bourgogne-UFR Sciences et Techniques, Dijon (France). Lab. de Synthese et Electrosynthese Organometalliques]. E-mail: ballivet@u-bourgogne.fr; Ligabue, R.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Pura

    2006-01-15

    The reactivity of carbon dioxide with methanol to form dimethyl carbonate was studied in the presence of the n-butylmethoxytin compounds n-Bu{sub 3}SnOCH{sub 3}, n-Bu{sub 2}Sn(OCH{sub 3}){sub 2}, and [n-Bu{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}O)Sn]{sub 2}O. The reaction occurred under solventless conditions at 423 K and was produced by an increase in CO{sub 2} pressure. This beneficial effect is primarily attributed to phase behavior. The mass transfer under liquid-vapor biphasic conditions was not limiting when the system reached the supercritical state for a CO{sub 2} pressure higher than 16 MPa. Under these conditions, CO{sub 2} acted as a reactant and a solvent. (author)

  1. Fragmentation of dimethyl ether in femtosecond intense field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Guo, Wei; Wang, Yanqiu; Wang, Li

    2006-08-01

    The fragmentation of dimethyl ether (DME) in intense femtosecond laser field has been studied at 810, 405 and 270 nm with intensities up to 2.48 × 10 15, 3.86 × 10 15 and 1.62 × 10 14 W/cm 2, respectively. At 405 nm, DME is possibly firstly ionized by multiphoton absorption, and then parent ion DME + dissociates into fragments via filed-induced dissociation. For 810 and 270 nm laser fields, DME firstly dissociates into CH 3O and CH 3 fragments and then these neutral fragments are ionized by field tunneling. Another possible way for DME to dissociate at 810 and 270 nm is that DME is ionized by intense field ejection of inner valance electron and then the excited DME + dissociates into fragment ions. Ultrafast rearrangement of DME or DME + in intense field may be responsible to the unpredictable fragment ions, CHO+/C2H5+andH2+.

  2. Crystal structure of dichloridobis(dimethyl N-cyanodithioiminocarbonatecobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhamadou Birame Diop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the mononuclear title complex, [{(H3CS2C=NC[triple-bond] N}2CoCl2], consists of a CoII atom coordinated in a distorted tetrahedral manner by two Cl− ligands and the terminal N atoms of two dimethyl N-cyanodithioiminocarbonate ligands. The two organic ligands are almost coplanar, with a dihedral angle of 5.99 (6° between their least-squares planes. The crystal packing features pairs of inversion-related complexes that are held together through C—H...Cl and C—H...S interactions and π–π stacking [centroid-to-centroid distance = 3.515 (su? Å]. Additional C—H...Cl and C—H...S interactions, as well as Cl...S contacts < 3.6 Å, consolidate the crystal packing.

  3. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion of Dimethyl Ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr

    This thesis is based on experimental and numerical studies on the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. The first paper in this thesis was published in 2007 and describes HCCI combustion of pure DME in a small diesel engine. The tests...... were designed to investigate the effect of engine speed, compression ratio and equivalence ratio on the combustion timing and the engine performance. It was found that the required compression ratio depended on the equivalence ratio used. A lower equivalence ratio requires a higher compression ratio...... before the fuel is burned completely, due to lower in-cylinder temperatures and lower reaction rates. The study provided some insight in the importance of operating at the correct compression ratio, as well as the operational limitations and emission characteristics of HCCI combustion. HCCI combustion...

  4. Direct dimethyl ether high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng

    and suffers from low DME solubility in water. When the DME - water mixture is fed as vapour miscibility is no longer a problem. The increased temperature is more beneficial for the kinetics of the direct oxidation of DME than of methanol. The Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) with DME operation was 50 to 100 m......A high temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) polymer fuel cell was fed with dimethyl ether (DME) and water vapour mixture on the anode at ambient pressure with air as oxidant. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm2 was achieved at 200°C. A conventional polymer based direct DME fuel cell is liquid fed......V higher than that of methanol, indicating less fuel crossover....

  5. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The laboratory studies have included work with a Navistar V-8 turbodiesel engine, demonstration of engine operation on DME-diesel blends and instrumentation for evaluating fuel properties. The field studies have involved performance, efficiency and emissions measurements with the Champion Motorcoach ''Defender'' shuttle bus which will be converted to DME-fueling. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have completed engine combustion studies on DME-diesel blends up to 30 wt% DME addition.

  6. Natural 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol®)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilfried Schwab

    2013-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF, furaneol®) and its methyl ether 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMMF) are import aroma chemicals and are considered key flavor compounds in many fruit. Due to their attractive sensory properties they are highly appreciated by the food industry. In fruits 2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanones are synthesized by a series of enzymatic steps whereas HDMF is also a product of the Maillard reaction. Numerous methods for the synthetic preparation of these c...

  7. Mutant form C115H of Clostridium sporogenes methionine γ-lyase efficiently cleaves S-Alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides to antibacterial thiosulfinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Vitalia V; Anufrieva, Natalya V; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Chernov, Alexander S; Telegin, Georgii B; Morozova, Elena A; Demidkina, Tatyana V

    2016-10-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent methionine γ-lyase (MGL) catalyzes the β-elimination reaction of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides to thiosulfinates, which possess antimicrobial activity. Partial inactivation of the enzyme in the course of the reaction occurs due to oxidation of active site cysteine 115 conserved in bacterial MGLs. In this work, the C115H mutant form of Clostridium sporogenes MGL was prepared and the steady-state kinetic parameters of the enzyme were determined. The substitution results in an increase in the catalytic efficiency of the mutant form towards S-substituted l-cysteine sulfoxides compared to the wild type enzyme. We used a sulfoxide/enzyme system to generate antibacterial activity in situ. Two-component systems composed of the mutant enzyme and three S-substituted l-cysteine sulfoxides were demonstrated to be effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and three clinical isolates from mice. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):830-835, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Enhanced fluorescence of Tb(III), Dy(III) perchlorate by salicylic acid in bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide complexes and luminescence mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenxian; Zheng Yushan; Sun Xiaojun; Chai Wenjuan; Ren Tie; Shi Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    Two novel ternary rare earth perchlorate complexes had been synthesized by using bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide as first ligand (L=C 6 H 5 COCH 2 SOCH 2 COC 6 H 5 ), salicylic acid as second ligand (L ' =C 6 H 4 OHCOO - ). The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, TG-DSC and molar conductivities in DMF solution. The composition was suggested as [REL 5 L'](ClO 4 ) 2 .nH 2 O (RE=Tb, Dy; n=6, 8 ). Based on IR, 1 HNMR and UV spectra, it showed that the first ligand, bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide (L), bonded with Tb(III), Dy(III) ions by the oxygen atom of sulfinyl group. The second ligand, salicylic acid group (L'), not only bonded with RE(III) ions by one oxygen atom of carboxyl group but also bonded with RE(III) ions by oxygen atom of phenolic hydroxyl group. In bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide system, fluorescent spectra of the complexes showed that the luminescence of Tb(III), Dy(III) ions was enhanced by the second ligand salicylic acid. The ternary complexes had stronger fluorescence than the binary ones where only bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide acted as ligand. Phosphorescent spectra of the two ligands indicated that the coordination of salicylic acid resulted in the matching extent increasing between the triplet state of ligand and excited state of the rare earths. The relationship between fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence intensity was also discussed.

  9. Brain Damage from Soman-Induced Seizures Is Greatly Exacerbated by Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): Modest Neuroprotection by 2-Aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2- APB), a Transient Receptor Potential Channel Inhibitor and Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-04

    stereotypy, and wet-dog shakes. Overt motor convulsions were characterized by rhythmic clonic jerks of head and forepaws, rearing, salivation and Straub...Dale LB, Bhattacharya M, Anborgh PH , Murdoch B, Bhatia M, Nakanishi S, Ferguson SS. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-mediated desensitization of

  10. CCDC 894987: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (2-(1,3-bis(2,6-Di-isopropylphenyl)-1,3,2-diazaphospholidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonato)-(dimethyl sulfoxide-O)-methyl-palladium(ii)

    KAUST Repository

    Wucher, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  11. Thermochemical study of 2,5-dimethyl-3-furancarboxylic acid, 4,5-dimethyl-2-furaldehyde, and 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylfuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Amaral, Luisa M.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    The standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous state, at T = 298.15 K, for 2,5-dimethyl-3-furancarboxylic acid, 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylfuran, and 4,5-dimethyl-2-furaldehyde were derived from the values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the condensed phase, and the standard molar enthalpies of phase transition from the condensed to the gaseous state. The values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the compounds in the condensed phases were calculated from the measurements of the standard massic energies of combustion obtained by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The enthalpies of vaporization/sublimation were measured by Calvet high temperature microcalorimetry. For 2,5-dimethyl-3-furancarboxylic acid the standard enthalpy of sublimation was also calculated, by the application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, to the temperature dependence of the vapor pressures measured by the Knudsen effusion technique. (table)

  12. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Nanoporous Aluminum-Based Coordination Polymers as Catalysts for Selective Sulfoxidation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhan Vinu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of aluminum-based coordination polymers or metal–organic frameworks (Al–MOFs, i.e., DUT-4, DUT-5, MIL-53, NH2-MIL-53, and MIL-100, have been facile prepared by microwave (MW-assisted reactions and used as catalysts for selective sulfoxidation reactions. The MW-assisted synthesis drastically reduced the reaction time from few days to hours. The prepared MOFs have smaller and uniform particle sizes and better yield compared to conventional hydrothermal method. Furthermore, the Al–MOFs have been successfully demonstrated as catalysts in oxidation reaction of methyl phenyl sulfide with H2O2 as oxidant, even under mild conditions, with more than 95% conversion.

  13. Rate Constants for the Reactions of Hydroxyl Radical with Several Alkanes, Cycloalkanes, and Dimethyl Ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMore, W.; Bayes, K.

    1998-01-01

    Relative rate experiements were used to measure rate constants and temperature denpendencies of the reactions of OH with propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, and dimethyl ether.

  14. USE OF DIMETHYL FUMARATE IN THE TREATMENT OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: CLINICAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Mkrtchyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of an update on the comparative pharmacoeconomic analysis of using dimethyl fumarate in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS in European countries. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation was made to study the use of first-line oral dimethyl fumarate versus another first-line oral teriflunomide in the treatment of MS in the Russian Federation (for 1 year and second-line natalizumab and fingolimod. Among first-line oral drugs, dimethyl fumarate was shown to be superior to teriflunomide in a cost-effectiveness ratio and to be slightly ahead of the MS-modifying drugs (MSMDs  and the second-line drugs natalizumab and fingolimod. According to clinical and economic indicators, dimethyl fumarate is the drug of choise among other MSMDs in the treatment of MS.

  15. Biosynthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol by lipase in dimethyl carbonate as the solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Park, Chang-Ho; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2010-11-01

    Glycerol carbonate was synthesized from renewable glycerol and dimethyl carbonate using lipase in solvent-free reaction system in which excess dimethyl carbonate played as the reaction medium. A variety of lipases have been tested for their abilities to catalyze transesterification reaction, and Candida antartica lipase B and Novozyme 435 exhibited higher catalytic activities. The silica-coated glycerol with a 1:1 ratio was supplied to prevent two-phase formation between hydrophobic dimethyl carbonate and hydrophilic glycerol. Glycerol carbonate was successfully synthesized with more than 90% conversion from dimethyl carbonate and glycerol with a molar ratio of 10 using Novozyme 435-catalyzed transesterification at 70 °C. The Novozyme 435 [5% (w/w) and 20% (w/w)] and silica gel were more than four times recycled with good stability in a repeated batch operation for the solvent-free synthesis of glycerol carbonate.

  16. Kinetics of periodate oxidation of tris -(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) iron(II) in acid medium was investigated. The complex undergoes extensive protonation in acid medium. Both protonated and the unprotonated species undergo electron transfer reaction with the active periodate species ...

  17. The stability study of myristyl dimethyl amine oxide as an amphoteric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stability study of myristyl dimethyl amine oxide as an amphoteric surfactant in strong oxidant media containing 5 % m/m sodium hypochlorite through measurement of decomposing rate using high performance liquid chromatography and two phase titration.

  18. Direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from CO2 and methanol over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from carbon dioxide (CO2) and methanol is ... Zirconia and ceria-based catalysts were most effective ... construction of a validation plant for dialkyl carbonates .... (mmol of MeOH consumed/2).

  19. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon...

  20. Modeling of a Reaction-Distillation-Recycle System to Produce Dimethyl Ether through Methanol Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharam, Y.; Zulkarnain, L. M.; Wirya, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The increase in the dimethyl ether yield through methanol dehydration due to a recycle integration to a reaction-distillation system was studied in this research. A one-dimensional phenomenological model of a methanol dehydration reactor and a shortcut model of distillation columns were used to achieve the aim. Simulation results show that 10.7 moles/s of dimethyl ether is produced in a reaction-distillation system with the reactor length being 4 m, the reactor inlet pressure being 18 atm, the reactor inlet temperature being 533 K, the reactor inlet velocity being 0.408 m/s, and the distillation pressure being 8 atm. The methanol conversion is 90% and the dimethyl ether yield is 48%. The integration of the recycle stream to the system increases the dimethyl ether yield by 8%.

  1. Leishmania major methionine sulfoxide reductase A is required for resistance to oxidative stress and efficient replication in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M Sansom

    Full Text Available Leishmania are protozoan parasites that proliferate within the phagolysome of mammalian macrophages. While a number of anti-oxidant systems in these parasites have been shown to protect against endogenous as well as host-generated reactive oxygen species, the potential role of enzymes involved in the repair of oxidatively damaged proteins remains uncharacterized. The Leishmania spp genomes encode a single putative methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrA that could have a role in reducing oxidized free and proteinogenic methionine residues. A GFP-fusion of L. major MsrA was shown to have a cytoplasmic localization by immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation. An L. major msrA null mutant, generated by targeted replacement of both chromosomal allelles, was viable in rich medium but was unable to reduce exogenous methionine sulfoxide when cultivated in the presence of this amino acid, indicating that msrA encodes a functional MsrA. The ΔmsrA mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to H(2O(2 compared to wild type parasites and was unable to proliferate normally in macrophages. Wild type sensitivity to H(2O(2 and infectivity in macrophages was restored by complementation of the mutant with a plasmid encoding MsrA. Unexpectedly, the ΔmsrA mutant was able to induce normal lesions in susceptible BALB/c indicating that this protein is not essential for pathogenesis in vivo. Our results suggest that Leishmania MsrA contributes to the anti-oxidative defences of these parasites, but that complementary oxidative defence mechansims are up-regulated in lesion amastigotes.

  2. Thermochemical biorefinery based on dimethyl ether as intermediate: Technoeconomic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haro, P.; Ollero, P.; Villanueva Perales, A.L.; Gómez-Barea, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A thermochemical biorefinery based on bio-DME as intermediate is studied. ► The assessed concepts (12) lead to multi-product generation (polygeneration). ► In all concepts DME is converted by carbonylation or hydrocarbonylation. ► Rates of return are similar to or higher than plants producing a single product. -- Abstract: Thermochemical biorefinery based on dimethyl ether (DME) as an intermediate is studied. DME is converted into methyl acetate, which can either be hydrogenated to ethanol or sold as a co-product. Considering this option together with a variety of technologies for syngas upgrading, 12 different process concepts are analyzed. The considered products are ethanol, methyl acetate, H 2 , DME and electricity. The assessment of each alternative includes biomass pretreatment, gasification, syngas clean-up and conditioning, DME synthesis and conversion, product separation, and heat and power integration. A plant size of 500 MW th processing poplar chips is taken as a basis. The resulting energy efficiency to products ranges from 34.9% to 50.2%. The largest internal rate of return (28.74%) corresponds to a concept which produces methyl acetate, DME and electricity (exported to grid). A sensitivity analysis with respect to total plant investment (TPI), total operation costs (TOC) and market price of products was carried out. The overall conclusion is that, despite its greater complexity, this kind of thermochemical biorefinery is more profitable than thermochemical bioprocesses oriented to a single product.

  3. Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate by oxidative carbonylation of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.G.; Han, M.S.; Kim, H.S.; Ahn, B.S.; Park, K.Y.

    1999-07-01

    Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) synthesis reaction by oxidative carbonylation of methanol has been studied using vapor phase flow reaction system in the presence of Cu-based catalysts. A series of Cu-based catalysts were prepared by the conventional impregnation method using activated carbon (AC) as support. The effect of various promoters and reaction conditions on the catalytic reactivities was intensively evaluated in terms of methanol conversion and DMC selectivity. The morphological change of catalysts during the reaction was also compared by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Regardless of catalyst compositions, the optimal reaction temperature for oxidative carbonylation of methanol was found to be around 120--130 C. The reaction rate was too slow below 100 C, while too many by-products were produced above 150 C. Among the various catalysts employed, CuCl{sub 2}/NaOH/AC catalyst with the mole ratio of OH/Cu = 0.5--1.0 has shown the best catalytic performance, which appears to have a strong relationship with the formation of intermediate species, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl.

  4. Photoluminescence of 1,3-dimethyl pyrazoloquinoline derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koscien, E. [1st Liceum, Sobieskiego 22, 42-700 Lubliniec (Poland); Gondek, E.; Pokladko, M. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Krakow, Podhorazych 1, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Jarosz, B. [Department of Chemistry, Hugon Kollotaj Agricultural University, Al. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Vlokh, R.O. [Institute of Physical Optics, Dragomanova 23, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Kityk, A.V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 17, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)], E-mail: kityk@ap.univie.ac.at

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents absorption and photoluminescence of 6-F, 6-Br, 6-Cl, 7-TFM and 6-COOEt derivatives of 1,3-dimethyl-1H-Pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline (DMPQ). The measured absorption and emission spectra are compared with the quantum chemical calculations performed by means of the semi-empirical methods (AM1 or PM3) that are applied either to the equilibrium conformations in vacuo (T = 0 K) or combined with the molecular dynamics simulations (T = 300 K). The spectra calculated by the AM1 method appear to be for all dyes in practically excellent agreement with the measured ones. In particular, the position of the first absorption band is obtained with the accuracy up to a few nanometers, whereas the calculated photoluminescence spectra predict the positions of the emission maxima for a gas phase with the accuracy up to 10-18 nm. The photoemission spectra of DMPQ dyes are considerably less solvatochromic comparing to phenyl-containing pyrazoloquinoline derivatives. According to the quantum chemical analysis the reason for such behaviour lies in a local character of the electronic transitions of DMPQ dyes which are characterized by a relatively small difference between the excited state and ground state dipole moments. Importantly that the rotational dynamics of both methyl subunits does not change this situation.

  5. Penguins are attracted to dimethyl sulphide at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kyran L B; Pichegru, Lorien; Ryan, Peter G

    2011-08-01

    Breeding Spheniscus penguins are central place foragers that feed primarily on schooling pelagic fish. They are visual hunters, but it is unclear how they locate prey patches on a coarse scale. Many petrels and storm petrels (Procellariiformes), the penguins' closest relatives, use olfactory cues to locate prey concentrations at sea, but this has not been demonstrated for penguins. Procellariiforms are attracted to a variety of olfactory cues, including dimethyl sulphide (DMS), an organosulphur compound released when phytoplankton is grazed, as well as fish odorants such as cod liver oil. A recent study found that African penguins Spheniscus demersus react to DMS on land. We confirm this result and show that African penguins are also attracted by DMS at sea. DMS-scented oil slicks attracted 2-3 times more penguins than control slicks, whereas penguins showed no response to slicks containing cod liver oil. The number of penguins attracted to DMS increased for at least 30 min, suggesting penguins could travel up to 2 km to reach scent cues. Repeats of land-based trials confirmed previous results showing DMS sensitivity of penguins on land. Our results also support the hypothesis that African penguins use DMS as an olfactory cue to locate prey patches at sea from a distance, which is particularly important given their slow commuting speed relative to that of flying seabirds.

  6. Electrochemical degradation of dimethyl phthalate ester on a DSA® electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fernanda L.; Aquino, Jose M.; Miwa, Douglas W.; Motheo, Artur J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Rodrigo, Manuel A., E-mail: artur@iqsc.usp.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-03-15

    The electrochemical degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) using a one-compartment filter press flow cell and a commercial dimensionally stable anode (DSA®) is presented. The best electrolysis conditions were determined by the analysis of the influence of the nature and concentration of the support electrolyte, pH, current density and temperature. The abatement of DMP concentration and total organic carbon (TOC) removal were superior in the presence of NaCl, as well as the apparent first order kinetic constants. Using constant ionic strength at 0.15 mol dm{sup -3} by adding Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, DMP concentration decreases faster at relative low NaCl concentrations while the TOC removal after 1 h of electrolysis increases with NaCl concentration. The DMP removal was very similar for all the current densities investigated at acidic solutions. When electric energy saving is considered, since the electrochemical system was under mass transport conditions, the best operational option is to use low current density values. (author)

  7. Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from urea and methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, M.; Kalevaru, V.N.; Martin, A. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Leibniz Institute for Catalysis; Mueller, K.; Arlt, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Strautmann, J.; Kruse, D. [Evonik Industries AG, Marl (Germany). Creavis Technologies and Innovation

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholation of urea with methanol to produce dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is an interesting approach from both the ecological and economical points of view because the urea synthesis usually occurs by the direct use of carbon dioxide. Literature survey reveals that metal oxide catalysts for instance MgO, ZnO, etc. or polyphosphoric acids are mostly used as catalysts for this reaction. In this contribution, we describe the application of ZnO, MgO, CaO, TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts for the above mentioned reaction. The catalytic activity of different metal oxides towards DMC synthesis was checked and additionally a comparison of achieved conversions with that of predictions made by thermodynamic calculations was also carried out. The achieved conversions are in good agreement with those of calculated ones. The test results reveal that the reaction pressure and temperature have a strong influence on the formation of DMC. Higher reaction pressure improved the yield of DMC. Among different catalysts investigated, ZnO displayed the best performance. The conversion of urea in most cases is close to 100 % and methyl carbamate MC is the major product of the reaction. A part of MC is subsequently converted to DMC, which however depends upon the reaction conditions applied and nature of catalyst used. From the best case, a DMC yield of ca. 8 % could be successfully achieved over ZnO catalyst. (orig.)

  8. Dimethyl sulfoxyde diethyl fumarate solution for high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kassiri, H.; Kattan, M.; Daher, Y.

    2007-06-01

    Dosimetric characterization of diethyl fumarate DEF in dimethyl sulfoxyde DMSO solution has been studied spectrophotometrically for possible application at high dose radiation dosimetry in the range (0-225 kGy). The absorption spectra of irradiated solution showed broad absorption bands between (325-400 nm) with a shoulder at 332 nm. The absorption increases as the dose is increased. Absorbance at 332 nm were measured and plotted against absorbed dose. Linear relationship and good response were found between absorbed dose and absorbance of 20% DEF concentration in the range (0-225 kGy) at the wave length, and linearity up to 250 kGy of absorbance at 332 nm .Good dose rate independence was observed in the range (14-33 kGy/h). The effect of post irradiation storage in darkness and indirect daylight conditions were not found to influence the absorption up to 700 h after irradiation. The effect of irradiation temperature within the range (0 to 60 centigrade degree) on the dosimetry performance was discussed.(author)

  9. Prediction of dimethyl disulfide levels from biosolids using statistical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Steven A; Vilalai, Sirapong; Arispe, Susanna; Kim, Hyunook; McConnell, Laura L; Torrents, Alba; Peot, Christopher; Ramirez, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Two statistical models were used to predict the concentration of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) released from biosolids produced by an advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in Washington, DC, USA. The plant concentrates sludge from primary sedimentation basins in gravity thickeners (GT) and sludge from secondary sedimentation basins in dissolved air flotation (DAF) thickeners. The thickened sludge is pumped into blending tanks and then fed into centrifuges for dewatering. The dewatered sludge is then conditioned with lime before trucking out from the plant. DMDS, along with other volatile sulfur and nitrogen-containing chemicals, is known to contribute to biosolids odors. These models identified oxidation/reduction potential (ORP) values of a GT and DAF, the amount of sludge dewatered by centrifuges, and the blend ratio between GT thickened sludge and DAF thickened sludge in blending tanks as control variables. The accuracy of the developed regression models was evaluated by checking the adjusted R2 of the regression as well as the signs of coefficients associated with each variable. In general, both models explained observed DMDS levels in sludge headspace samples. The adjusted R2 value of the regression models 1 and 2 were 0.79 and 0.77, respectively. Coefficients for each regression model also had the correct sign. Using the developed models, plant operators can adjust the controllable variables to proactively decrease this odorant. Therefore, these models are a useful tool in biosolids management at WWTPs.

  10. Biodegradation of Dimethyl Phthalate by Freshwater Unicellular Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Lincong; Zhang, Siping; Pan, Yan; Li, Jing; Pan, Hongwei; Xu, Shiguo; Luo, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The biodegradation characteristics of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) by three freshwater unicellular organisms were investigated in this study. The findings revealed that all the organisms were capable of metabolizing DMP; among them, Cyanothece sp. PCC7822 achieved the highest degradation efficiency. Lower concentration of DMP supported the growth of the Cyanobacteria; however, with the increase of DMP concentration growth of Cyanobacteria was inhibited remarkably. Phthalic acid (PA) was detected to be an intermediate degradation product of DMP and accumulated in the culture solution. The optimal initial pH value for the degradation was detected to be 9.0, which mitigated the decrease of pH resulting from the production of PA. The optimum temperature for DMP degradation of the three species of organisms is 30°C. After 72 hours' incubation, no more than 11.8% of the residual of DMP aggregated in Cyanobacteria cells while majority of DMP remained in the medium. Moreover, esterase was induced by DMP and the activity kept increasing during the degradation process. This suggested that esterase could assist in the degradation of DMP.

  11. Biodegradation of Dimethyl Phthalate by Freshwater Unicellular Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Lincong; Zhang, Siping; Pan, Yan; Li, Jing; Pan, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    The biodegradation characteristics of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) by three freshwater unicellular organisms were investigated in this study. The findings revealed that all the organisms were capable of metabolizing DMP; among them, Cyanothece sp. PCC7822 achieved the highest degradation efficiency. Lower concentration of DMP supported the growth of the Cyanobacteria; however, with the increase of DMP concentration growth of Cyanobacteria was inhibited remarkably. Phthalic acid (PA) was detected to be an intermediate degradation product of DMP and accumulated in the culture solution. The optimal initial pH value for the degradation was detected to be 9.0, which mitigated the decrease of pH resulting from the production of PA. The optimum temperature for DMP degradation of the three species of organisms is 30°C. After 72 hours' incubation, no more than 11.8% of the residual of DMP aggregated in Cyanobacteria cells while majority of DMP remained in the medium. Moreover, esterase was induced by DMP and the activity kept increasing during the degradation process. This suggested that esterase could assist in the degradation of DMP. PMID:28078293

  12. Examining Dimethyl Sulfide Emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, D.; Hughes, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) is a sulfur-containing compound that leads to the formation of aerosols which can lead to the formation of haze and fog. Whole air samples were collected on board the NASA C-23 Sherpa aircraft during the 2017 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) over dairies and agricultural fields in the San Joaquin Valley. Analysis of the samples indicate average DMS concentrations of 23 ± 9 pptv, with a maximum concentration of 49 pptv. When compared with DMS concentrations from previous SARP missions (2009-2016), 2017 by far had the highest frequency of elevated DMS in this region. For this study, agricultural productivity of this region was analyzed to determine whether land use could be contributing to the elevated DMS. Top down and bottom up analysis of agriculture and dairies were used to determine emission rates of DMS in the San Joaquin Valley. Correlations to methane and ethanol were used to determine that DMS emissions were strongly linked to dairies, and resulted in R2 values of 0.61 and 0.43, respectively. These values indicate a strong correlation between dairies and DMS emissions. Combined with NOAA HySPLIT back trajectory data and analysis of ground air samples, results suggest that the contribution of dairies to annual DMS emissions in the San Joaquin Valley exceeds those from corn and alfalfa production.

  13. Metformin (dimethyl-biguanide induced DNA damage in mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubem R. Amador

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin (dimethyl-biguanide is an insulin-sensitizing agent that lowers fasting plasma-insulin concentration, wherefore it's wide use for patients with a variety of insulin-resistant and prediabetic states, including impaired glucose tolerance. During pregnancy it is a further resource for reducing first-trimester pregnancy loss in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. We tested metformin genotoxicity in cells of Chinese hamster ovary, CHO-K1 (chromosome aberrations; comet assays and in mice (micronucleus assays. Concentrations of 114.4 µg/mL and 572 µg/mL were used in in vitro tests, and 95.4 mg/kg, 190.8 mg/kg and 333.9 mg/kg in assaying. Although the in vitro tests revealed no chromosome aberrations in metaphase cells, DNA damage was detected by comet assaying after 24 h of incubation at both concentrations. The frequency of DNA damage was higher at concentrations of 114.4 µg/mL. Furthermore, although mortality was not observed in in vitro tests, the highest dose of metformin suppressed bone marrow cells. However, no statistically significant differences were noted in micronuclei frequencies between treatments. In vitro results indicate that chronic metformin exposure may be potentially genotoxic. Thus, pregnant woman undergoing treatment with metformin should be properly evaluated beforehand, as regards vulnerability to DNA damage.

  14. A highly sensitive and selective dimethyl ether sensor based on cataluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runkun; Cao, Xiaoan; Liu, Yonghui; Peng, Yan

    2010-07-15

    A sensor for detecting dimethyl ether was designed based on the cataluminescence phenomenon when dimethyl ether vapors were passing through the surface of the ceramic heater. The proposed sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity to dimethyl ether at an optimal temperature of 279 degrees C. Quantitative analysis were performed at a wavelength of 425 nm, the flow rate of carrier air is around 300 mL/min. The linear range of the cataluminescence intensity versus concentration of dimethyl ether is 100-6.0x10(3) ppm with a detection limit of 80 ppm. The sensor response time is 2.5 s. Under the optimized conditions, none or only very low levels of interference were observed while the foreign substances such as benzene, formaldehyde, ammonia, methanol, ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acrolein, isopropyl ether, ethyl acetate, glycol ether and 2-methoxyethanol were passing through the sensor. Since the sensor does not need to prepare and fix up the granular catalyst, the simple technology reduces cost, improves stability and extends life span. The method can be applied to facilitate detection of dimethyl ether in the air. The possible mechanism of cataluminescence from the oxidation of dimethyl ether on the surface of ceramic heater was discussed based on the reaction products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Management Strategies to Facilitate Optimal Outcomes for Patients Treated with Delayed-release Dimethyl Fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Lori; Fink, Mary Kay; Sammarco, Carrie; Laing, Lisa

    2018-04-01

    Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate is an oral disease-modifying therapy that has demonstrated significant efficacy in adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Incidences of flushing and gastrointestinal adverse events are common in the first month after delayed-release dimethyl fumarate initiation. Our objective was to propose mitigation strategies for adverse events related to initiation of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. Studies of individually developed mitigation strategies and chart reviews were evaluated. Those results, as well as mitigation protocols developed at multiple sclerosis care centers, are summarized. Key steps to optimize the effectiveness of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate treatment include education prior to and at the time of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate initiation, initiation dose protocol gradually increasing to maintenance dose, dietary suggestions for co-administration with food, gastrointestinal symptom management with over-the-counter medications, flushing symptom management with aspirin, and temporary dose reduction. Using the available evidence from clinical trials and evaluations of post-marketing studies, these strategies to manage gastrointestinal and flushing symptoms can be effective and helpful to the patient when initiating delayed-release dimethyl fumarate.

  16. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  17. Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.

    2018-05-16

    Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether (DME) in laminar nonpremixed jets with high-temperature coflow air have been studied experimentally. When the initial temperature was elevated to over 860 K, an autoignition occurred without requiring an external ignition source. A planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for formaldehyde (CH2O) visualized qualitatively the zone of low temperature kinetics in a premixed flame. Two flame configurations were investigated; (1) autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edge having three distinct branches of a lean and a rich premixed flame wings with a trailing diffusion flame and (2) autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion when the fuel was highly diluted. For the autoignited tribrachial edge flames at critical autoignition conditions, exhibiting repetitive extinction and re-ignition phenomena near a blowout condition, the characteristic flow time (liftoff height scaled with jet velocity) was correlated with the square of the ignition delay time of the stoichiometric mixture. The liftoff heights were also correlated as a function of jet velocity times the square of ignition delay time. Formaldehydes were observed between the fuel nozzle and the lifted flame edge, emphasizing a low-temperature kinetics for autoignited lifted flames, while for a non-autoignited lifted flame, formaldehydes were observed near a thin luminous flame zone.For the autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion, especially at a high temperature, a unique non-monotonic liftoff height behavior was observed; decreasing and then increasing liftoff height with jet velocity. This behavior was similar to the binary mixture fuels of CH4/H2 and CO/H2 observed previously. A transient homogeneous autoignition analysis suggested that such decreasing behavior with jet velocity can be attributed to partial oxidation characteristics of DME in producing appreciable amounts of CH4/CO/H2 ahead of the edge flame region.

  18. Lanthanide extraction with 2,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.

    1977-12-01

    This research is concerned with the solvent extraction into chloroform of the lanthanides, using 2,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid (DMHHA). This acid is the first α-hydroxy aliphatic acid to be studied as an extracting agent for the lanthanides. The chloroform-water DMHHA partition constant was determined to be 1.0 (at 0.1 M ionic strength and 25 0 C). The acid dimerizes in chloroform with a constant of 56. The light lanthanides can be extracted into chloroform by forming complexes with the DMHHA anions. The extracted metal species is highly aggregated. This extraction has a solubility limit which increases with the addition of unionized acid. The resultant extract is also highly aggregated. At unionized acid-to-metal ratios greater than one, extractions first occur followed by the slow precipitation of the lanthanide. At the tracer level, neodymium is extracted primarily as NdA 3 (HA) 5 and (NdA 3 ) 2 (HA)/sub q/. Very small amounts of (NdA 3 ) 2 and other metal aggregates are also present. The heavy lanthanides do not extract from solutions of DMHHA and its potassium salt, but form aqueous emulsions and precipitates. In the presence of the organic soluble tetrabutylammonium ion the heavy lanthanides can be extracted, presumably as ion pairs. The stability constants of the light lanthanides and DMHHA were determined. The separation factors obtained from DMHHA extractions of the light lanthanides were also investigated and found to be comparable to those obtained employing normal aliphatic carboxylic acid

  19. Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.; Choi, Byung Chul; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether (DME) in laminar nonpremixed jets with high-temperature coflow air have been studied experimentally. When the initial temperature was elevated to over 860 K, an autoignition occurred without requiring an external ignition source. A planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for formaldehyde (CH2O) visualized qualitatively the zone of low temperature kinetics in a premixed flame. Two flame configurations were investigated; (1) autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edge having three distinct branches of a lean and a rich premixed flame wings with a trailing diffusion flame and (2) autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion when the fuel was highly diluted. For the autoignited tribrachial edge flames at critical autoignition conditions, exhibiting repetitive extinction and re-ignition phenomena near a blowout condition, the characteristic flow time (liftoff height scaled with jet velocity) was correlated with the square of the ignition delay time of the stoichiometric mixture. The liftoff heights were also correlated as a function of jet velocity times the square of ignition delay time. Formaldehydes were observed between the fuel nozzle and the lifted flame edge, emphasizing a low-temperature kinetics for autoignited lifted flames, while for a non-autoignited lifted flame, formaldehydes were observed near a thin luminous flame zone.For the autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion, especially at a high temperature, a unique non-monotonic liftoff height behavior was observed; decreasing and then increasing liftoff height with jet velocity. This behavior was similar to the binary mixture fuels of CH4/H2 and CO/H2 observed previously. A transient homogeneous autoignition analysis suggested that such decreasing behavior with jet velocity can be attributed to partial oxidation characteristics of DME in producing appreciable amounts of CH4/CO/H2 ahead of the edge flame region.

  20. In Vitro Susceptibilities of the Microsporidia Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Encephalitozoon hellem, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis to Albendazole and Its Sulfoxide and Sulfone Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoux, Olivier; Drancourt, Michel

    1998-01-01

    In vitro comparisons demonstrated that the efficacy of albendazole, albendazole-sulfoxide, and albendazole-sulfone against pathogenic Encephalitozoon species was proportional to the degree of oxidation at a concentration of >10−3 μg/ml. Furthermore, at a concentration of <10−2 μg/ml, benzimidazoles were more effective against Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Encephalitozoon hellem than against Encephalitozoon intestinalis. PMID:9835533

  1. Light-induced racemization: artifacts in the analysis of the diastereoisomeric pairs of thioridazine 5-sulfoxide in the plasma and urine of patients treated with thioridazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eap, C B; Souche, A; Koeb, L; Baumann, P

    1991-07-01

    The ring sulfoxidation of thioridazine (THD), a widely used neuroleptic agent, yields two diastereoisomeric pairs, fast- and slow-eluting (FE and SE) thioridazine 5-sulfoxide (THD 5-SO). Until now, studies in which concentrations of these metabolites were measured in THD-treated patients have revealed no significant differences in their concentrations. Preliminary experiments in our laboratory had shown that sunlight and, to a lesser extent, dim daylight led to racemization and probably also to photolysis of the diastereoisomeric pairs as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Similar results were also obtained with direct UV light (UV lamp). In appropriate light-protected conditions, THD, northioridazine, mesoridazine, sulforidazine, and FE and SE THD 5-SO were measured in 11 patients treated with various doses of THD for at least 1 week. Significantly higher concentrations of the FE stereoisomeric pair were found. The concentration ratios THD 5-SO (FE)/THD 5-SO (SE) ranged from 0.89 to 1.75 in plasma and from 1.15 to 2.05 in urine. Because it is known that the ring sulfoxide contributes to the cardiotoxicity of the drug even more potently than the parent compound does, these results justify further studies to determine whether there is stereoselectivity in the cardiotoxicity of THD 5-SO.

  2. Pra Desain Pabrik Dimethyl Ether (DME dari Gas Alam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Puspitasari Yudiputri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan data PT Pertamina (Persero, total konsumsi LPG 2008 mencapai 1,85 juta ton dan 600.000 ton di antaranya untuk program konversi. Pada 2009 kebutuhan LPG akan meningkat menjadi 3,67 juta ton dan 2 juta ton di antaranya untuk program konversi sampai akhir tahun. Namun, sumber pasokan LPG dari dalam negeri diperkirakan tidak akan beranjak dari angka 1,8 juta ton per tahun dalam beberapa tahun mendatang. Sehingga, Indonesia harus menutup kebutuhan dengan mengimpor LPG dalam jumlah cukup besar. Maka dari itu dibutuhkan bahan bakar gas lain yang mampu mengatasi permasalahan yang ditimbulkan tersebut. Dimethyl Ether (DME merupakan senyawa ether yang paling sederhana dengan rumus kimia CH3OCH3. Produksi DME dapat dihasilkan melalui sintesis gas alam. DME berbentuk gas yang tidak berwarna pada suhu ambien, zat kimia yang stabil, dengan titik didih -25,1oC. Tekanan uap DME sekitar 0,6 Mpa pada 25oC dan dapat dicairkan seperti halnya LPG. Viskositas DME 0,12-0,15 kg/ms, setara dengan viskositas propana dan butane (konstituen utama LPG, sehingga infrastruktur untuk LPG dapat juga digunakan untuk DME. Berdasarkan data Departemen ESDM pada Januari 2012, total cadangan gas alam Indonesia tercatat mencapai 150,70 Trillion Square Cubic Feet (TSCF. Berdasarkan jumlah tersebut, sebanyak 103,35 TSCF merupakan gas alam terbukti, sementara 47,35 TSCF sisanya masih belum terbukti. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, diketahui bahwa senyawa DME merupakan senyawa yang sesuai untuk bahan substitusi LPG. Dan ditinjau dari analisa ekonomi, didapatkan besar Investasi : $ 636,447,074.69 ; Internal Rate of Return\t: 20.51%; POT: 4.13 tahun; BEP : 37.36 %; dan NPV 10 year : $ 518,848,692. Dari ketiga parameter sensitifitas yaitu fluktuasi biaya investasi, harga bahan baku, dan harga jual dari produk, terlihat bahwa ketiganya tidak memberikan pengaruh yang cukup signifikan terhadap kenaikan atau penurunan nilai IRR pabrik. Sehingga pabrik DME dari Gas Alam ini layak untuk

  3. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethylether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operation in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the

  4. Amelioration of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis by a water-soluble bifunctional sulfoxide radiation mitigator (MMS350).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalash, Ronny; Epperly, Michael W; Goff, Julie; Dixon, Tracy; Sprachman, Melissa M; Zhang, Xichen; Shields, Donna; Cao, Shaonan; Franicola, Darcy; Wipf, Peter; Berhane, Hebist; Wang, Hong; Au, Jeremiah; Greenberger, Joel S

    2013-11-01

    A water-soluble ionizing radiation mitigator would have considerable advantages for the management of acute and chronic effects of ionizing radiation. We report that a novel oxetanyl sulfoxide (MMS350) is effective both as a protector and a mitigator of clonal mouse bone marrow stromal cell lines in vitro, and is an effective in vivo mitigator when administered 24 h after 9.5 Gy (LD100/30) total-body irradiation of C57BL/6NHsd mice, significantly improving survival (P = 0.0097). Furthermore, MMS350 (400 μM) added weekly to drinking water after 20 Gy thoracic irradiation significantly decreased: expression of pulmonary inflammatory and profibrotic gene transcripts and proteins; migration into the lungs of bone marrow origin luciferase+/GFP+ (luc+/GFP+) fibroblast progenitors (in both luc+ marrow chimeric and luc+ stromal cell line injected mouse models) and decreased radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (P < 0.0001). This nontoxic and orally administered small molecule may be an effective therapeutic in clinical radiotherapy and as a counter measure against the acute and chronic effects of ionizing radiation.

  5. Deficiency of methionine sulfoxide reductase A causes cellular dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in cardiac myocytes under physical and oxidative stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Changlong; Li, Yuejin; Jean-Charles, Pierre-Yves; Chen, Guozhen; Kreymerman, Alexander; Prentice, Howard; Weissbach, Herbert; Huang, Xupei

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Deficiency of MsrA in the heart renders myocardial cells more sensitive to oxidative stress. → Mitochondrial damage happens in the heart lacking MsrA. → More protein oxidation in myocardial cells lacking MsrA. → MsrA protects the heart against oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is an enzyme that reverses oxidation of methionine in proteins. Using a MsrA gene knockout (MsrA -/- ) mouse model, we have investigated the role of MsrA in the heart. Our data indicate that cellular contractility and cardiac function are not significantly changed in MsrA -/- mice if the hearts are not stressed. However, the cellular contractility, when stressed using a higher stimulation frequency (2 Hz), is significantly reduced in MsrA -/- cardiac myocytes. MsrA -/- cardiac myocytes also show a significant decrease in contractility after oxidative stress using H 2 O 2 . Corresponding changes in Ca 2+ transients are observed in MsrA -/- cardiomyocytes treated with 2 Hz stimulation or with H 2 O 2 . Electron microscope analyses reveal a dramatic morphological change of mitochondria in MsrA -/- mouse hearts. Further biochemical measurements indicate that protein oxidation levels in MsrA -/- mouse hearts are significantly higher than those in wild type controls. Our study demonstrates that the lack of MsrA in cardiac myocytes reduces myocardial cell's capability against stress stimulations resulting in a cellular dysfunction in the heart.

  6. Natural 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wilfried

    2013-06-13

    4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF, furaneol®) and its methyl ether 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMMF) are import aroma chemicals and are considered key flavor compounds in many fruit. Due to their attractive sensory properties they are highly appreciated by the food industry. In fruits 2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanones are synthesized by a series of enzymatic steps whereas HDMF is also a product of the Maillard reaction. Numerous methods for the synthetic preparation of these compounds have been published and are applied by industry, but for the development of a biotechnological process the knowledge and availability of biosynthetic enzymes are required. During the last years substantial progress has been made in the elucidation of the biological pathway leading to HDMF and DMMF. This review summarizes the latest advances in this field.

  7. Gas chromatographic--mass spectrometric quantitation of 16, 16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimov, V.; Green, K.; Bygdeman, M.; Konishi, Y.; Imaki, K.; Hayashi, M.

    1983-02-01

    Di-deuterated and di-tritiated 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 has been synthesized and used for development of a GC-MS method for quantitation of corresponding unlabelled drug in patient plasma. Although these carrier/internal standard molecules only contain 2 deuterium atoms the lower limit of detection at each injection is as low as about 40 pg. The maximum plasma levels of this drug following administration of vaginal suppositories used in clinical studies (1 mg 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 methyl ester in 0.8 g Witepsol S-52) were 100-350 pg/ml i.e. in the same order of magnitude as earlier seen for 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2.

  8. Gas chromatographic--mass spectrometric quantitation of 16, 16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, V.; Green, K.; Bygdeman, M.; Konishi, Y.; Imaki, K.; Hayashi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Di-deuterated and di-tritiated 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 has been synthesized and used for development of a GC-MS method for quantitation of corresponding unlabelled drug in patient plasma. Although these carrier/internal standard molecules only contain 2 deuterium atoms the lower limit of detection at each injection is as low as about 40 pg. The maximum plasma levels of this drug following administration of vaginal suppositories used in clinical studies (1 mg 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 methyl ester in 0.8 g Witepsol S-52) were 100-350 pg/ml i.e. in the same order of magnitude as earlier seen for 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2

  9. Natural 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H-furanone (Furaneol®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Schwab

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H-furanone (HDMF, furaneol® and its methyl ether 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H-furanone (DMMF are import aroma chemicals and are considered key flavor compounds in many fruit. Due to their attractive sensory properties they are highly appreciated by the food industry. In fruits 2,5-dimethyl-3(2H-furanones are synthesized by a series of enzymatic steps whereas HDMF is also a product of the Maillard reaction. Numerous methods for the synthetic preparation of these compounds have been published and are applied by industry, but for the development of a biotechnological process the knowledge and availability of biosynthetic enzymes are required. During the last years substantial progress has been made in the elucidation of the biological pathway leading to HDMF and DMMF. This review summarizes the latest advances in this field.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure, and spectra of 3,3- dimethyl-1-N-(1'-phenyl-2',3'-dimethyl-5'-oxo-3'- pyrazolin-4'-yl)imino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol, V.I.; Ryabov, M.A.; Merkur'eva, N.Yu.; Davydov, V.V.; Zaitsev, B.E.; Shklyaev, Yu.V.; Sergienko, V.S.; Zaitsev, B.E.

    1996-01-01

    The synthesis and the crystal and molecular structure of 3,3-dimethyl-1-N-(1'-phenyl-2',3'- dimethyl-5'-oxo-3'-pyrazolin-4'-yl)imino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline are reported. As is evidenced by the 1H NMR, IR, and electron spectra, the tautomeric form of the compounds observed in the crystal is also retained in solutions

  11. Variability in abundance and fluxes of dimethyl sulphide in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoy, D.M.; DileepKumar, M.

    , 285-300 pp. Dacey, J.W.H. and S.G. Wakeham, 1986. Oceanic dimethyl sulfide: production during zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton. Science, 233, 1314-1316. Dickson, D.M., R.G. Wyn Jones and J. Davenport, 1980. Study-state osmotic adaptation.... Seasonal and short-term variability in dimethyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and biogenic sulfur and sea salt aerosol particles in the arctic marine boundary layer during summer and autumn. Tellus, 48B, 272-299. Liss P.S., G. Malin and S.M. Turner, 1993...

  12. Multicomponent synthesis of 4,4-dimethyl sterol analogues and their effect on eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Fernando; Cirigliano, Adriana M; Dávola, María Eugenia; Cabrera, Gabriela M; García Liñares, Guadalupe E; Labriola, Carlos; Barquero, Andrea A; Ramírez, Javier A

    2014-06-01

    Most sterols, such as cholesterol and ergosterol, become functional only after the removal of the two methyl groups at C-4 from their biosynthetic precursors. Nevertheless, some findings suggest that 4,4-dimethyl sterols might be involved in specific physiological processes. In this paper we present the synthesis of a collection of analogues of 4,4-dimethyl sterols with a diamide side chain and a preliminary analysis of their in vitro activity on selected biological systems. The key step for the synthesis involves an Ugi condensation, a versatile multicomponent reaction. Some of the new compounds showed antifungal and cytotoxic activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. trans-Dichlorido­bis(3,4-dimethyl­pyridine)platinum(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, Alexander N.; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Izotova, Youlia A.; Haukka, Matti

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, trans-[PtCl2(C7H9N)2], the PtII atom is located on an inversion center and is coordinated by two 3,4-dimethyl­pyridine ligands and two chloride ligands, resulting in a typical slightly distorted square-planar geometry. The crystallographic inversion centre forces the value of the C—N—N—C torsion angle to be linear and the 3,4-dimethyl-pyridine ligands to be coplanar. PMID:21581530

  14. Measurement of (vapor + liquid) equilibrium for the systems {methanol + dimethyl carbonate} and {methanol + dimethyl carbonate + tetramethylammonium bicarbonate} at p = (34.43, 67.74) kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Changsheng; Zeng Hao; Yin Xia; Ma Shengyong; Sun Feizhong; Li Yafei; Li Jiao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► VLE data for the binary system and the ternary system were measured. ► Methanol, dimethyl carbonate, and tetramethylammonium bicarbonate were studied. ► Isobaric experimental data were measured at p = (34.43, 67.74) kPa. ► VLE data of binary system were correlated with the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. ► The salt effect of TMAB on the VLE of {methanol + DMC} system was investigated. - Abstract: Isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for the binary system (methanol + dimethyl carbonate) and the ternary system (methanol + dimethyl carbonate + tetramethylammonium bicarbonate) have been measured at p = (34.43, 67.74) kPa using a modified Rose–Williams still. The experimental data for the binary system were well correlated by Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC activity-coefficient models at the two reduced pressures. All the experimental results of the binary system passed the thermodynamic consistency test by the area test of Redlich–Kister and the point test of Van Ness et al. The experimental results of ternary system show that the salt tetramethylammonium bicarbonate has a salting-in effect on methanol. And this effect enhances when the salt concentration increases.

  15. Ketene as a Reaction Intermediate in the Carbonylation of Dimethyl Ether to Methyl Acetate over Mordenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dominik Bjørn; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Temel, Burcin

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented insight into the carbonylation of dimethyl ether over Mordenite is provided through the identification of ketene (CH2CO) as a reaction intermediate. The formation of ketene is predicted by detailed DFT calculations and verified experimentally by the observation of doubly deuterated ...

  16. Enthalpies of potassium iodide dissolution in dimethyl acetamide mixtures with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privalova, N.M.; Gritsenko, S.I.; Vorob'ev, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    Enthalpies of potassium iodide dissolution in mixed dimethyl acetamide - water solvent at 298.15 K in the whole range of dimethyl acetamide compositions are measured by the calorimetric method. From the plots of KI dissolution enthalpy dependence and dependence of experimental ΔH p∞ 0 value deviations from calculational ones on solvent composition, as well as from the results of calculation of solvate shell composition of potassium iodide ions in the mixed solvent, it is obvious that in the region of 0-15 mol% concentrations of dimethyl acetamide insufficient enrichment of solvate ion shells by dimethyl acetamide (DMAA) occurs, in the region of 15-40 mol% DMAA compositions enrichment of solvate shells of ions by water occurs, in the region of 40-100 mol% DMAA enrichment of solvate ion shells by the organic component in comparison with mixture compostion occurs. Maximum enrichment of solvate ion shells by mixture components in three above mentioned regions of the mixed solvent occurs at 10, 30 and 80 mol% DMAA concentrations

  17. Thermodynamicy of Catalytic Formation of Dimethyl Ether from Methanol in Acidic Zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyťha, Marek; Štich, I.; Gale, J. D.; Terakura, K.; Payne, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 12 (2001), s. 2521-2527 ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : dimethyl ether * formation * theoretical study Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.614, year: 2001

  18. 5,5-Dimethyl-2-methylseleno-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Cholewinski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H13O3PSe, was obtained in the reaction of 5,5-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-seleno-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinane potassium salt with methyl iodide. The selenomethyl group is in the axial position in relation to the six-membered dioxaphosphorinane ring.

  19. On-board conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether as an alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, H; Heinzelmann, G; Struis, R; Stucki, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether was investigated for application on-board a methanol fuelled vehicle. Several catalysts have been tested in a fixed bed reactor. Our approach is to develop a small and efficient reactor converting liquid MeOH under pressure and at low reaction temperatures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  20. Structural and spectroscopic studies of 2,9-dimethyl-1,10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crystal structures of the pronated ligand, 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium (DPH) cation with selected counter anions (chloride (1), triflate (2), and gold dicyanide (3)) are reported. The role of a hydrogen bond interaction in influencing the solid state p-p stacking found in all three compounds has been investigated.

  1. Electrochemical stability and transformations of fluorinated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pud, A.A.; Rogalsky, S.P.; Ghapoval, G.S.; Kharitonov, A.P.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fluorination of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) leads to narrowing of its window of electrochemical stability in a cathodic range of potentials. It is found this is connected with appearance of both perfluorinated and incompletely fluorinated units in the polymer. The former units are

  2. The industrial production of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Frank F T; Lammerink, Roy R G J; Heidemann, Casper; Van Der Werff, Michiel P M; Garcia, Taiga Cafiero; Van Der Ham, Louis A G J; Van Den Berg, Henk

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the design of a dimethyl carbonate (DMC) production plant based on methanol and CO2 as feed materials, which are a cheap and environment-friendly feedstock. DMC is a good alternative for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel oxygenating agent, due to its low toxicity and fast

  3. Controls of dimethyl sulphide in the Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot cruise 1998

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoy, D.M.; DileepKumar, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S

    The air-sea exchange is one of the main mechanisms maintaining the abundances of trace gases in the atmosphere. Some of these, such as carbon dioxide and dimethyl sulphide (DMS), will have a bearing on the atmospheric heat budget. While the former...

  4. Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) have been assigned environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation where two important members dimethyl sulfide (CH3)2 S, DMS, and methanethiol, CH3SH, MT, of VOSC group are involved.

  5. Boltorn-Modified Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4,phenylene oxide) Gas Separation Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterescu, D.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Mendes, Eduardo; Kruse, Jan; Rätzke, Klaus; Faupel, Franz; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation, characterization and the permeation properties of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) dense polymer films containing aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters, Boltorn (H20, H30, and H40). The Boltorn are dispersed in PPO at various concentrations. The gas

  6. Characterization of the chemical reactivity and nephrotoxicity of N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide, a potential reactive metabolite of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Roy M; Pinkerton, Marie E; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2013-02-15

    N-Acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NA-DCVC) has been detected in the urine of humans exposed to trichloroethylene and its related sulfoxide, N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (NA-DCVCS), has been detected as hemoglobin adducts in blood of rats dosed with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) or S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS). Because the in vivo nephrotoxicity of NA-DCVCS was unknown, in this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed (i.p.) with 230 μmol/kg b.w. NA-DCVCS or its potential precursors, DCVCS or NA-DCVC. At 24 h post treatment, rats given NA-DCVC or NA-DCVCS exhibited kidney lesions and effects on renal function distinct from those caused by DCVCS. NA-DCVC and NA-DCVCS primarily affected the cortico-medullary proximal tubules (S(2)-S(3) segments) while DCVCS primarily affected the outer cortical proximal tubules (S(1)-S(2) segments). When NA-DCVCS or DCVCS was incubated with GSH in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at 37°C, the corresponding glutathione conjugates were detected, but NA-DCVC was not reactive with GSH. Because NA-DCVCS exhibited a longer half-life than DCVCS and addition of rat liver cytosol enhanced GSH conjugate formation, catalysis of GSH conjugate formation by the liver could explain the lower toxicity of NA-DCVCS in comparison with DCVCS. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that NA-DCVCS formation could play a significant role in DCVC, NA-DCVC, and trichloroethylene nephrotoxicity. They also suggest a role for hepatic metabolism in the mechanism of NA-DCVC nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of albendazole sulfoxide in sheep and goats, and dose-dependent plasma disposition in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksit, Dilek; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Sekkin, Selim; Boyacioğlu, Murat; Cirak, Veli Yilgor; Ayaz, Erol; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2015-05-27

    The aims of this study were to compare the pharmacokinetics of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO, ricobendazole) in goats and sheep at a dose of 5 g/kg bodyweight (BW), after intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations, and to investigate the effects of increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg BW) on the plasma disposition of ABZ-SO in goats following SC administration. A total of 16 goats (Capra aegagrus hircus, eight males and eight females) and 8 sheep (Ovis aries, four males and four females) 12-16 months old and weighing 20-32 kg, were used. The study was designed according to two-phase crossover study protocol. In Phase-1, eight sheep were assigned as Group I and 16 goats were allocated into two groups (Group II and Group III). ABZ-SO was applied to Group I (sheep) and Group II (goats) animals subcutaneously, and to Group III (goats) animals intravenously, all at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW. In Phase-2, the sheep in the Group I received ABZ-SO intravenously in a dose of 5 mg/kg BW; the goats in Group II and Group III received ABZ-SO subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg BW, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at different times between 1 and 120 h after drug administrations. The plasma concentrations of ABZ-SO and its metabolites were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. In goats, the area under the curve, terminal half-life and plasma persistence of ABZ-SO were significantly smaller and shorter, respectively, compared with those observed in sheep following both IV and SC administrations at a dose of 5 mg/kg BW. On the other side, dose-dependent plasma dispositions of ABZ-SO were observed following SC administration at increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg) in goats. Consequently, ABZ-SO might be used at higher doses to provide higher plasma concentration and thus to achieve greater efficacy against the target parasites.

  8. Effect of the water content on the retention and enantioselectivity of albendazole and fenbendazole sulfoxides using amylose-based chiral stationary phases in organic-aqueous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materazzo, Sabrina; Carradori, Simone; Ferretti, Rosella; Gallinella, Bruno; Secci, Daniela; Cirilli, Roberto

    2014-01-31

    Four commercially available immobilized amylose-derived CSPs (Chiralpak IA-3, Chiralpak ID-3, Chiralpak IE-3 and Chiralpak IF-3) were used in the HPLC analysis of the chiral sulfoxides albendazole (ABZ-SO) and fenbendazole (FBZ-SO) and their in vivo sulfide precursor (ABZ and FBZ) and sulfone metabolite (ABZ-SO2 and FBZ-SO2) under organic-aqueous mode. U-shape retention maps, established by varying the water content in the acetonitrile- and ethanol-water mobile phases, were indicative of two retention mechanisms operating on the same CSP. The dual retention behavior of polysaccharide-based CSPs was exploited to design greener enantioselective and chemoselective separations in a short time frame. The enantiomers of ABZ-SO and FBZ-SO were baseline resolved with water-rich mobile phases (with the main component usually being 50-65% water in acetonitrile) on the IF-3 CSP and ethanol-water 100:5 mixture on the IA-3 and IE-3 CSPs. A simultaneous separation of ABZ (or FBZ), enantiomers of the corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone was achieved on the IA-3 using ethanol-water 100:60 (acetonitrile-water 100:100 for FBZ) as a mobile phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Noval 1-substituted-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazole derivatives: Synthesis and pharmacological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Hussain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several-1-carbothioamide-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 2a–d, 1-(pyridine-4-ylcarbonyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 3a–d, 1-(5-chloro-6-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazole-2-ylthiocarbamoyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 4a–d and 1-[(1,2,4-triazole-4-yl carbothioamide]-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 5a–d were synthesized. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were supported by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. These compounds were investigated for their, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, ulcerogenic, lipid peroxidation, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Some of the synthesized compounds showed potent anti-inflammatory activity along with minimal ulcerogenic effect and lipid peroxidation, compared to ibuprofen and flurbiprofen. Some of the tested compounds also showed moderate antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains.

  10. Dimethyl Ether (DME) Assessment of Viscosity Using the New Volatile Fuel Viscometer (VFVM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Sorenson, Spencer C; Jakobsen, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development and test of a viscometer capable of handling dimethyl Ether (DME) and other volatile fuels. DME has excellent combustion characteristics in diesel engines but the injection equipment can break down prematurely due to extensive wear when handling this fuel. It ...... is present in very large proportions. It is not believed that reasonably additised DME can reach the same viscosity and lubricity as diesel oil. The solution is rather to design the pumps so they can handle pure DME.......This paper describes the development and test of a viscometer capable of handling dimethyl Ether (DME) and other volatile fuels. DME has excellent combustion characteristics in diesel engines but the injection equipment can break down prematurely due to extensive wear when handling this fuel...

  11. Systems of cerium(3) nitrate-dimethyl amine nitrate-water and cerium(3) nitrate-dimethyl amine nitrate-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mininkov, N.E.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1976-01-01

    Solubility of solid phases in the systems cerium(3)nitrate-water-dimethyl amine nitrate and cerium(3)nitrate-water-dimethyl amine nitrate has been st ed by the method of isothermal sections at 25 and 50 deo. C. It has been shown that one anhydrous compound is formed in each system with a ratio of cerium(3) nitrate to amine nitrate 1:5. The compounds formed in the systems have been separated from the corresponding solutions and studied by microcrystalloscopic, X-ray phase, thermal and infrared spectroscopic methods. On the basis of spectroscopic studies the following formula has been assigned to the compound: [(CH 3 ) 2 NH 2 + ] 5 x[Ce(NO 3 ) 8 ]. The thermal analysis of the compound has shown that its melting point is 106 deg C. The solubility isotherms in the system Ce(NO 3 ) 3 -H 2 O-(C 2 H 5 ) 2 NHxHNO 3 consist of three branches which intersect in two eutonic points

  12. O-methylation of natural phenolic compounds based on green chemistry using dimethyl carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoso, N. I.; Pangestu, P. H.; Wahyuningsih, T. D.

    2016-02-01

    The alkyl aryl ether compounds, of which methyl eugenol and veratraldehyde are the simplest intermediates can be synthesized by reacting eugenol and vanillin with the green reagent dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The reaction was carried out under mild of temperature and pressure. Excellent yields and selective products were obtained (95-96%) after a few hours. In the end of the reaction, the catalysts (base and Phase Transfer Catalyst) can be recovered and regenerated.

  13. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Studies Of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sorption Into Trisilanolphenyl-Poss Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-06

    QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE STUDIES OF DIMETHYL METHYLPHOSPHONATE SORPTION INTO TRISILANOLPHENYL-POSS FILMS Joshua D. Kittle Thesis ...subsequent DIMP layers form a solid- like phase as a result of nucleated growth around the first layer. Bertilsson et al. studied the adsorption of...of QCMs in liquids,55, 56 opening the door to a variety of applications, including the study of electrodeposition of metals,57,65 electrochemical

  14. Organocatalytic asymmetric michael addition of aldehydes to beta-nitroacroleine dimethyl acetal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Efraim; Vicario, Jose L; Badía, Dolores; Carrillo, Luisa

    2006-12-21

    [Structure: see text] The organocatalytic asymmetric Michael addition of aldehydes to beta-nitroacroleine dimethyl acetal has been studied in detail. The reaction took place with excellent yields and high stereoselectivities when a chiral beta-amino alcohol such as L-prolinol was employed as the catalyst, leaving a formation of highly functionalized enantioenriched compounds containing two differentiated formyl groups together with a nitro moiety.

  15. Nano-Structured Crystalline Te Films by Laser Gas-Phase Pyrolysis of Dimethyl Tellurium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pola, Josef; Pokorná, Veronika; Boháček, Jaroslav; Bastl, Zdeněk; Ouchi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2004), s. 739-746 ISSN 0165-2370 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072107; GA MŠk OC 523.60 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921; CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : dimethyl tellurium * tellurium films * laser Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.352, year: 2004

  16. 2-(5,7-Dimethyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H14O3S, was prepared by alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl 2-(5,7-dimethyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate. In the crystal structure, the carboxyl groups are involved in intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, which link the molecules into centrosymmetric dimers. These dimers are further packed into stacks along the a axis by weak C—H...π interactions.

  17. Accurate spectroscopic characterization of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide isotopologues: a route toward their astrophysical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzzarini, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica, " Giacomo Ciamician," Università diBologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Senent, M. L. [Departamento de Química y Física Teóricas, Institsuto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Domínguez-Gómez, R. [Doctora Vinculada IEM-CSIC, Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Cátedra de Química, E.U.I.T. Obras Públicas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Carvajal, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Unidad Asociada IEM-CSIC-U.Huelva, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Hochlaf, M. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Al-Mogren, M. Mogren, E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it, E-mail: senent@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: rosa.dominguez@upm.es, E-mail: miguel.carvajal@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: majdi.hochlaf@u-pem.fr, E-mail: mmogren@ksu.edu.sa [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-11-20

    Using state-of-the-art computational methodologies, we predict a set of reliable rotational and torsional parameters for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide monosubstituted isotopologues. This includes rotational, quartic, and sextic centrifugal-distortion constants, torsional levels, and torsional splittings. The accuracy of the present data was assessed from a comparison to the available experimental data. Generally, our computed parameters should help in the characterization and the identification of these organo-sulfur molecules in laboratory settings and in the interstellar medium.

  18. Interomolecular interactions in diluted solutions of potassium iodocuprates (1) in dimethyl ether of diethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodinskaya, Eh.Ya.; Mel'nikova, N.B.; Yurin, K.V.

    1991-01-01

    The role of donor solvent in the formation of potassium mononuclear iodocuprates (1) in the system CuI-KI-dimethyl ether of diethylene glycol has been considerd. The calculated values of enthalpy, free energy and entropy of viscous flow activation in the range of temperatures 298-318 K for the solutions testify to decomposition of the solvent structure. Negative deviations of mole volumes from the additivity rule characterized strong molecular interaction

  19. Investigation into dimethyl cadmium decomposition proceeding in form of deflagration combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikheev, V.S.; Orlov, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Results of measuring the maximum explosion pressure of dimethyl cadmium CdMet 2 at 0.1 MPa initial pressure and ∼378 K temperature are presented. The investigation was conducted using the method of constant volume bomb-reactor with central ignition. Experimental value of the pressure increase, equalling to 0.46 MPa, agrees with evaluation, based on reaction adiabatic temperature thrmodynamic calculation. The normal burning rate, determined by the pressure increase, equals to 25±8 cm/s

  20. 2-[(3,5-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene]indane-1,3-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound 2-[(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene]-indane-1,3-dione (3 was synthesized in high yield by reaction of 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde and indane-1,3-dione in ethanol in the presence of pyridine. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and GC-MS spectral analysis.

  1. Optimal conditions in direct dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas utilizing a dual-type fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Ahmad; Eslamloueyan, Reza; Kazerooni, Nooshin Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Concerns over environmental pollution and ever-increasing energy demand have urged the global community to tap clean-burning fuels among which dimethyl ether is a promising candidate for contribution in the transportation sector. Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas, in which methanol production and dehydration take place simultaneously, is arguably the preferred route for large scale production. In this study, direct dimethyl ether synthesis is proposed in an industrial dual-type fluidized bed reactor. This configuration involves two fluidized bed reactors operating in different conditions. In the first catalytic reactor (water-cooled reactor), the synthesis gas is partly converted to methanol after being preheated by the reaction heat in the second reactor (gas-cooled reactor). A two-phase generalized comprehensive reactor model, comprised of the flow in three different regimes is applied and a smooth transition between flow regimes is provided based on the probabilistic averaging approach. The optimal operating conditions are sought by employing differential evolution algorithm as a robust optimization strategy. The dimethyl ether mole fraction is considered as the objective function during the optimization. The results show considerable dimethyl ether enhancement by 16% and 14% compared to the conventional direct dimethyl ether synthesis reactor and dual-type fixed bed dimethyl ether reactor arrangements, respectively. - Highlights: • Dual-type catalytic fluidized bed reactors for dimethyl ether synthesis is studied. • A two-phase comprehensive model comprised of flow in three regimes is used. • Probabilistic averaging approach is applied for smooth transitions between regimes. • Differential evolution method is employed to determine optimal operating conditions. • Production capacity is remarkably enhanced compared to conventional reactor.

  2. Synthesis of methyl acetate from dimethyl ether using group VIII metal salts of phosphotungstic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.; Tartamella, T.

    2002-04-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) can be produced much more efficiently in a single-stage, liquid-phase process from natural gas-based syngas as compared to the conventional process via dehydration of methanol. This process, based on dual catalysts slurried in inert oil, alleviates the chemical equilibrium limitation governing the methanol synthesis reaction and concurrently improves per-pass syngas conversion and reactor productivity. The potential, therefore, for production of methyl acetate via dimethyl ether carbonylation is of industrial importance. In the present study, conversion of dimethyl ether and carbon monoxide to methyl acetate is investigated over a variety of group VIII metal-substituted phosphotungstic acid salts. Experimental results of this catalytic reaction using rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, and palladium catalysts are evaluated and compared in terms of selectivity toward methyl acetate. The effects of active metal, support types, multiple metal loading, and feed conditions on carbonylation activity of DME are examined. Iridium metal substituted phosphotungstic acid supported on Davisil type 643 (pore size 150 A, surface area 279 m{sup 2}/g, mesh size 230-425) silica gel shows the highest activity for DME carbonylation. (author)

  3. Low-Dissipation Thermosets Derived from Oligo(2,6-Dimethyl Phenylene Oxide-Containing Benzoxazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Han Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(2,6-dimethyl phenyl oxide (PPO is known for its low dissipation factor. To achieve insulating materials with low dissipation factors for high-frequency communication applications, a telechelic oligomer-type benzoxazine (P-APPO and a main-chain type benzoxazine polymer (BPA-APPO were prepared from an amine end-capped oligo (2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide (APPO. The APPO was prepared from a nucleophilic substitution of a phenol-end capped oligo (2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide (a commercial product, SA 90 with fluoronitrobenzene, and followed by catalytic hydrogenation. After self-curing or curing with a dicyclopentadiene-phenol epoxy (HP 7200, thermosets with high-Tg and low-dissipation factor can be achieved. Furthermore, the resulting epoxy thermosets show better thermal and dielectric properties than those of epoxy thermoset cured from its precursor SA90, demonstrating it is a successful modification in simultaneously enhancing the thermal and dielectric properties.

  4. The synergistic effects of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil herbicides on weed population in rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ramli Ishak; Sabri Junoh; Ismail Sahid

    2002-01-01

    Four treatments with the herbicides 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil were carried out in two consecutive rice planting seasons, to study the synergistic effect of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil on rice weed populations at Pasir Panjang, the Northwest Selangor Project (PBLS), Projek Barat Laut Selangor) rice granary area. The treatments were control, 1x recommended rate (single dose), 2x recommended rate (double dose) of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and farmer practice. In all plots, propanil herbicide was applied at similar rate. Among the ecological indices measured were Simpson Index of diversity and importance (I.V.). A total number of 19 weed species was identified and the most common important weed was Najas graminae Del. The second most commonly found important weed was Scirpus lateriflorus Gmel. Other important weeds frequently found were Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl. In the rice agroecosystem, species diversity of weeds was affected but total weed biomass was not affected synergistically by the mixture of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil. The negative synergistic effect of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil was to increase the total biomass of Scirpus lateriflorus, at 2x recommended dose rate of 2,4-D dimethyl amine. (Author)

  5. Characterization of the chemical reactivity and nephrotoxicity of N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide, a potential reactive metabolite of trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, Roy M.; Pinkerton, Marie E.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2013-01-01

    N-Acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NA-DCVC) has been detected in the urine of humans exposed to trichloroethylene and its related sulfoxide, N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (NA-DCVCS), has been detected as hemoglobin adducts in blood of rats dosed with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) or S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS). Because the in vivo nephrotoxicity of NA-DCVCS was unknown, in this study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed (i.p.) with 230 μmol/kg b.w. NA-DCVCS or its potential precursors, DCVCS or NA-DCVC. At 24 h post treatment, rats given NA-DCVC or NA-DCVCS exhibited kidney lesions and effects on renal function distinct from those caused by DCVCS. NA-DCVC and NA-DCVCS primarily affected the cortico-medullary proximal tubules (S 2 –S 3 segments) while DCVCS primarily affected the outer cortical proximal tubules (S 1 –S 2 segments). When NA-DCVCS or DCVCS was incubated with GSH in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at 37 °C, the corresponding glutathione conjugates were detected, but NA-DCVC was not reactive with GSH. Because NA-DCVCS exhibited a longer half-life than DCVCS and addition of rat liver cytosol enhanced GSH conjugate formation, catalysis of GSH conjugate formation by the liver could explain the lower toxicity of NA-DCVCS in comparison with DCVCS. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that NA-DCVCS formation could play a significant role in DCVC, NA-DCVC, and trichloroethylene nephrotoxicity. They also suggest a role for hepatic metabolism in the mechanism of NA-DCVC nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: ► NA-DCVCS and NA-DCVC toxicity are distinct from DCVCS toxicity. ► NA-DCVCS readily reacts with GSH to form mono- and di-GSH conjugates. ► Liver glutathione S-transferases enhance NA-DCVCS GSH conjugate formation. ► Renal localization of lesions suggests a role for NA-DCVCS in TCE nephrotoxicity

  6. Characterization of the chemical reactivity and nephrotoxicity of N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide, a potential reactive metabolite of trichloroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, Roy M. [Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Pinkerton, Marie E. [Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Elfarra, Adnan A., E-mail: elfarra@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu [Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    N-Acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NA-DCVC) has been detected in the urine of humans exposed to trichloroethylene and its related sulfoxide, N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (NA-DCVCS), has been detected as hemoglobin adducts in blood of rats dosed with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) or S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS). Because the in vivo nephrotoxicity of NA-DCVCS was unknown, in this study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed (i.p.) with 230 μmol/kg b.w. NA-DCVCS or its potential precursors, DCVCS or NA-DCVC. At 24 h post treatment, rats given NA-DCVC or NA-DCVCS exhibited kidney lesions and effects on renal function distinct from those caused by DCVCS. NA-DCVC and NA-DCVCS primarily affected the cortico-medullary proximal tubules (S{sub 2}–S{sub 3} segments) while DCVCS primarily affected the outer cortical proximal tubules (S{sub 1}–S{sub 2} segments). When NA-DCVCS or DCVCS was incubated with GSH in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at 37 °C, the corresponding glutathione conjugates were detected, but NA-DCVC was not reactive with GSH. Because NA-DCVCS exhibited a longer half-life than DCVCS and addition of rat liver cytosol enhanced GSH conjugate formation, catalysis of GSH conjugate formation by the liver could explain the lower toxicity of NA-DCVCS in comparison with DCVCS. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that NA-DCVCS formation could play a significant role in DCVC, NA-DCVC, and trichloroethylene nephrotoxicity. They also suggest a role for hepatic metabolism in the mechanism of NA-DCVC nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: ► NA-DCVCS and NA-DCVC toxicity are distinct from DCVCS toxicity. ► NA-DCVCS readily reacts with GSH to form mono- and di-GSH conjugates. ► Liver glutathione S-transferases enhance NA-DCVCS GSH conjugate formation. ► Renal localization of lesions suggests a role for NA-DCVCS in TCE nephrotoxicity.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10055 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10055 Section 721.10055 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance and...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN P-03-46; CAS No. 136504-87-5) is subject to...

  8. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E.; Chan, Benny C.; Lill, Daniel T. de

    2015-01-01

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C 6 H 2 O 5 )(C 6 H 3 O 5 )(H 2 O)] n (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented. - Graphical abstract: A new two-dimensional coordination polymer derived from the in-situ hydrolysis of a furan dimethyl ester with lanthanide(III) ions was obtained in order to study its photophysical behavior when constructed from trivalent Eu and Tb. Quantum yields, lifetime measurements, and singlet/triplet state energies values were obtained. The nature of the material's excited state dynamics is examined and correlated to its structure in order to explain the overall luminescent efficiency of the system. - Highlights: • A new lanthanide–furandicarboxylate coordination polymer is presented. • Eu and Tb compounds display luminescent properties, albeit with low quantum yields. • Photophysical behavior explained through the compound's triplet state and structure. • Nonradiative deactivation of luminescence through high-energy oscillators was noted. • Molecular modeling of the organic moiety was conducted

  9. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E. [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Chan, Benny C. [Department of Chemistry, The College of New Jersey, 2000 Pennington Road, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States); Lill, Daniel T. de, E-mail: ddelill@fau.edu [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C{sub 6}H{sub 2}O{sub 5})(C{sub 6}H{sub 3}O{sub 5})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented. - Graphical abstract: A new two-dimensional coordination polymer derived from the in-situ hydrolysis of a furan dimethyl ester with lanthanide(III) ions was obtained in order to study its photophysical behavior when constructed from trivalent Eu and Tb. Quantum yields, lifetime measurements, and singlet/triplet state energies values were obtained. The nature of the material's excited state dynamics is examined and correlated to its structure in order to explain the overall luminescent efficiency of the system. - Highlights: • A new lanthanide–furandicarboxylate coordination polymer is presented. • Eu and Tb compounds display luminescent properties, albeit with low quantum yields. • Photophysical behavior explained through the compound's triplet state and structure. • Nonradiative deactivation of luminescence through high-energy oscillators was noted. • Molecular modeling of the organic moiety was conducted.

  10. A generalized model for the air-sea transfer of dimethyl sulfide at high wind speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Penny; Monahan, Edward C.

    2009-11-01

    The air-sea exchange of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important component of ocean biogeochemistry and global climate models. Both laboratory experiments and field measurements of DMS transfer rates have shown that the air-sea flux of DMS is analogous to that of other significant greenhouse gases such as CO2 at low wind speeds (10 m/s. The result is an attenuation of the dimensionless Henry's Law constant (H) where (Heff = H/(1 + (Cmix/Cw) ΦB) by a solubility enhancement Cmix/Cw, and the fraction of bubble surface area per m2 surface ocean.

  11. Conformational cooling and conformation selective aggregation in dimethyl sulfite isolated in solid rare gases

    OpenAIRE

    Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui

    2006-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfite has three conformers of low energy, GG, GT and GG0, which have significant populations in the gas phase at room temperature. According to theoretical predictions, the GT and GG0 conformers are higher in energy than the GG conformer by 0.83 and 1.18 kJ molK1, respectively, while the barriers associated with the GG0/GT and GT/GG isomerizations are 1.90 and 9.64 kJ molK1, respectively. Experimental data obtained for the compound isolated in solid argon, krypton and xenon demonst...

  12. Role of dimethyl fumarate in oxidative stress of multiple sclerosis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneetha, A; Raja Rajeswari, K

    2016-04-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS affecting both white and grey matter. Inflammation and oxidative stress are also thought to promote tissue damage in multiple sclerosis. Recent data point at an important role of anti-oxidative pathways for tissue protection in chronic MS, particularly involving the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Thus, novel therapeutics enhancing cellular resistance to free radicals could prove useful for MS treatment. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative pathways are important players in MS pathophysiology and constitute a promising target for future MS therapy with dimethyl fumarate. The clinical utility of DMF in multiple sclerosis is being explored through phase III trials with BG-12, which is an oral therapeutic agent. Currently a wide research is going on to find out the exact mechanism of DMF, till date it is not clear. Based on strong signals of nephrotoxicity in non-humans and the theoretical risk of renal cell cancer from intracellular accumulation of fumarate, post-marketing study of a large population of patients will be necessary to fully assess the long-term safety of dimethyl fumarate. The current treatment goals are to shorten the duration and severity of relapses, prolong the time between relapses, and delay progression of disability. In this regard, dimethyl fumarate offers a promising alternative to orally administered fingolimod (GILENYA) or teriflunomide (AUBAGIO), which are currently marketed in the United States under FDA-mandated Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) programs because of serious safety concerns. More clinical experience with all three agents will be necessary to differentiate the tolerability of long-term therapy for patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. This write-up provides the detailed information of dimethyl fumarate in treating the neuro disease, multiple sclerosis and its mechanism involved via

  13. Dimethyl ether reviewed: New results on using this gas in a high-precision drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; D'Ali, G.; Del Papa, C.; Maccarrone, G.; Massam, T.; Motta, F.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Rinaldi, G.; Sartorelli, G.; Spinetti, M.; Susinno, G.; Villa, F.; Voltano, L.; Zichichi, A.

    1985-01-01

    Two years ago, dimethyl ether (DME) was presented, for the first time, as a suitable gas for high-precision drift chambers. In fact our tests show that resolutions can be obtained which are better by at least a factor of 2 compared to what one can get with conventional gases. Moreover, DME is very well quenched. The feared formation of whiskers on the wires has not occurred, at least after months of use with a 10 μCi 106 Ru source. (orig.)

  14. DFT investigation on the adsorption behavior of dimethyl and trimethyl amine molecules on borophene nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, R.; Chandiramouli, R.

    2018-06-01

    The electronic properties of borophene nanotube (BNT) are witnessed and the adsorption properties of dimethyl amine (DMA) and trimethyl amine (TMA) molecules on borophene nanotube are explored through non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) and density functional theory (DFT) method. The device density of states spectrum interprets the change in peak maxima, thus indicating the electron transition between DMA, TMA molecules and BNT base material. I-V characteristics strengthen the adsorption property of DMA and TMA on BNT by pointing out the variation in the current. The present work assures that borophene nanotube (BNT) can be employed as DMA and TMA sensor.

  15. Dependence of crystallinity degree with induced grafting by gamma radiation of N,N'-dimethyl acrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, A.A.A.; Higa, O.Z.; Barrak, E.R.; Giolito, I.

    1991-01-01

    N,N' -dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) graft copolymerization onto polyethylene films was carried out, using a organic solvent as a reaction medium and gamma rays from a 60 Co source for surface activation. Thermal analysis revealed the crystallinity and the grafting inversely proportional. The DSC curves fusion peaks decreased with grafting rate increase, the peak almost disappearing in the curve of PE 440% grafted. It was concluded that the graft occurs not only on the surface but also in the substrate bulk, being the PE absorption of DMAA an important factor for build up of grafted mass. (author)

  16. The liquid–liquid coexistence curves of {x dimethyl adipate + (1 − x) n-hexane} and {x dimethyl adipate + (1 − x) n-heptane} in the critical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhiyun; Cai Li; Huang Meijun; Yin Tianxiang; An Xueqin; Shen Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Coexistence curves of (dimethyl adipate + n-hexane) (+n-heptane) were measured. ► The critical exponent β are consistent with the 3D-Ising value. ► The asymmetry of the coexistence curves were discussed by complete scaling theory. - Abstract: The liquid–liquid coexistence curves for (dimethyl adipate + n-hexane), (dimethyl adipate + n-heptane) have been measured, from which the critical amplitudes and the critical exponents are deduced. The critical exponent β corresponding to the coexistence curves are consistent with the 3D-Ising value. The experimental results have also been analyzed to determine the critical amplitudes of Wegner-correction terms when β and Δ are fixed at their theoretical values, and to examine the asymmetry of the diameters for the coexistence curves.

  17. Dimethyl Fumarate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... memory, or awareness that leads to confusion and personality changes extreme tiredness, loss of appetite, pain in ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of light hydrocarbons produced by radiation degradation of N, N-dimethyl hydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinhua; Bao Borong; Wu Minghong; Sun Xilian; Zhang Xianye; Hu Jingxin; Ye Guoan

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the qualitative and quantitative analysis of light hydrocarbons produced by radiation degradation of N, N-dimethyl hydroxylamine. These analyses were performed on the gas chromatograph, in which porous layer open tubular column coated with aluminum oxide and flame-ionization detector are used. For the doses between 10 and 1000 kGy, the light hydrocarbons produced by radiation degradation of N,N-dimethyl hydroxylamine are methane, ethane, ethene, propane, propene and n-butane. When the concentration of N,N-dimethyl hydroxylamine is 0.2 mol/L, the volume fraction of methane is (9.996-247.5) x 10 -6 , the volume fraction of ethane, propane and n-butane is lower and that of ethene and propene is much lower. With the increase of dose the volume fraction of methane is increased but the volume fraction of ethane, ethene, propane, propene and n-butane is not obviously changed. (authors)

  19. Synthesis and structure of Bis(3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolyl-1) ketoxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol, V.I.; Davydov, V.V.; Shklyaev, Yu.V.; Kartashova, I.V.; Sergienko, V.S.; Zaitsev, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    The reaction of bis(3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolyl-1)methane with NaNO 2 resulted in the formation of bis(3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolyl-1) ketoxime (I). The crystal and molecular structure of I was determined (x-ray structure analysis, Enraf-Nonius CAD-4, MoK α -radiation, graphite monochromator, θ/2θ scan, 2θ max =58 deg. , 4800 unique reflections; a=10.327(4), b=9.070(5), and c=21.62(1) A; β=94.02(3) deg.; V=2020(1) A 3 ; Z=4; and sp. gr. Pn). In the crystal, I exists in the oxime tautomeric form. Two symmetry-independent molecules are bound into a dimer through the intermolecular N=OH···N cycl 3 hydrogen bond. Both molecules are nonplanar; the dihedral angles between the mean planes of their 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline moieties are 72 deg. and 74 deg. According to IR and electron absorption spectra, the tautomeric form of compound I is also retained in solutions, and the π-conjugation between the 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline fragments of I is actually absent

  20. Catalyst activity maintenance study for the liquid phase dimethyl ether process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, X.D.; Toseland, B.A.; Underwood, R.P. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The co-production of dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol from syngas is a process of considerable commercial attractiveness. DME coproduction can double the productivity of a LPMEOH process when using coal-derived syngas. This in itself may offer chemical producers and power companies increased flexibility and more profitable operation. DME is also known as a clean burning liquid fuel; Amoco and Haldor-Topsoe have recently announced the use of DME as an alternative diesel fuel. Moreover, DME can be an interesting intermediate in the production of chemicals such as olefins and vinyl acetate. The current APCl liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) process utilizes a physical mixture of a commercial methanol synthesis catalyst and a dehydration catalyst (e.g., {gamma}-alumina). While this arrangement provides a synergy that results in much higher syngas conversion per pass compared to the methanol-only process, the stability of the catalyst system suffers. The present project is aimed at reducing catalyst deactivation both by understanding the cause(s) of catalyst deactivation and by developing modified catalyst systems. This paper describes the current understanding of the deactivation mechanism.

  1. Asymmetric Arginine dimethylation of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 promotes DNA targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Henrik; Barth, Stephanie; Palermo, Richard D.; Mamiani, Alfredo; Hennard, Christine; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; West, Michelle J.; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Graesser, Friedrich A.

    2010-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) growth-transforms B-lymphocytes. The virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is essential for transformation and activates gene expression by association with DNA-bound transcription factors such as RBPJκ (CSL/CBF1). We have previously shown that EBNA2 contains symmetrically dimethylated Arginine (sDMA) residues. Deletion of the RG-repeat results in a reduced ability of the virus to immortalise B-cells. We now show that the RG repeat also contains asymmetrically dimethylated Arginines (aDMA) but neither non-methylated (NMA) Arginines nor citrulline residues. We demonstrate that only aDMA-containing EBNA2 is found in a complex with DNA-bound RBPJκ in vitro and preferentially associates with the EBNA2-responsive EBV C, LMP1 and LMP2A promoters in vivo. Inhibition of methylation in EBV-infected cells results in reduced expression of the EBNA2-regulated viral gene LMP1, providing additional evidence that methylation is a prerequisite for DNA-binding by EBNA2 via association with the transcription factor RBPJκ.

  2. Steady-state and laser flash photolysis of 1 - benzocyclanones and their α, α - dimethyl derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto-Ferreira, Jose Carlos; Scaiano, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Laser excitation of 0.01 M solutions of 1-indanone (Ia), 1-tetralone )ib), 1-benzo suberone (lc), and their α, α-dimethyl derivatives IIa-c, respectively, in benzene, produced transients with maximum adsorption at 425 nm, and lifetimes ranging from 62 ns (IIIa) to 5.5μs (Ic). Quenching studies using well known triplet quenchers such as 1,3-cyclohexadiene and oxygen demonstrated the triplet nature of these transients. In the presence of hydrogen donors, such as 2-propanol, the triplet state decay of the ketones Ia-c leads to the formation of the corresponding ketyl radicals, IIIa-c, which show absorption spectra very similar to the parent ketone, with λ max at 430 nm and lifetime in excess of 20 μs. Steady state irradiations show that the α, α,-dimethyl ketones IIa form ortho-alkyl benzaldehydes probably derived from an initial α-cleavage of the corresponding triplet excited states. The characterization of products has been carried out using 1 H NMR. (author)

  3. N-(4-Bromobenzyl-2-(5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzo[d]imid-azol-2-ylbenzeneamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dziełak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available N-(4-Bromobenzyl-2-(5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylbenzeneamine was obtained by condensation of N-(4-bromobenzyl-3,1-benzoxazine-2,4-dione (N-(4-bromobenzylisatoic anhydride with 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine in refluxing acetic acid. This is a rare example of condensation of N-substituted 3,1-benzoxazine-2,4-dione with 1,2-phenylenediamine, which resulted in the formation of a benzimidazole derivative with a moderate yield. Crystallographic studies and initial biological screening were performed for the obtained product.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10056 - Benzenemethanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzenemethanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl...-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzenemethanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N,N...

  5. Optimizing the Performance of a 50cc Compression Ignition Two-Stroke Engine Operating on Dimethyl Ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Rene; Dolriis, J.D.; Hansson, C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the optimization of a 50cc crankcase scavenged two-stroke diesel engine operating on dimethyl ether (DME). The optimization is primarily done with respect to engine efficiency. The underlying idea behind the work is that the low weight, low internal friction and low engine...

  6. Evaluation of the binding interaction between bovine serum albumin and dimethyl fumarate, an anti-inflammatory drug by multispectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jattinagoudar, Laxmi; Meti, Manjunath; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa; Chimatadar, Shivamurti

    2016-03-01

    The information of the quenching reaction of bovine serum albumin with dimethyl fumarate is obtained by multi-spectroscopic methods. The number of binding sites, n and binding constants, KA were determined at different temperatures. The effect of increasing temperature on Stern-Volmer quenching constants (KD) indicates that a dynamic quenching mechanism is involved in the interaction. The analysis of thermodynamic quantities namely, ∆H° and ∆S° suggested hydrophobic forces playing a major role in the interaction between dimethyl fumarate and bovine serum albumin. The binding site of dimethyl fumarate on bovine serum albumin was determined by displacement studies, using the site probes viz., warfarin, ibuprofen and digitoxin. The determination of magnitude of the distance of approach for molecular interactions between dimethyl fumarate and bovine serum albumin is calculated according to the theory of Förster energy transfer. The CD, 3D fluorescence spectra, synchronous fluorescence measurements and FT-IR spectral results were indicative of the change in secondary structure of the protein. The influence of some of the metal ions on the binding interaction was also studied.

  7. Notochord in Tilapia nilotica Exposed to Sublethal Dose of Malathion, S[1, 2-Di(EthoxycarbonylEthyl] Dimethyl Phosphorothiolothionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Amparado

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of Tilapia nilotica embryos to sublethal dose of 1.0 ppm commercial grade malathion, S[1,2-di(ethoxycarbonylethyl] dimethyl phosphorothiolothionate from day-10 post fertilization resulted in notochordal aberrations. Pesticide-treated fishes exhibited constriction of the notochordal sheath, folding at the posterior sections and larger notochord than those of the control group.

  8. Voltammetric Determination of N,N-Dimethyl-4-amine-carboxyazobenzene at a Silver Solid Amalgam Electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barek, J.; Dodova, E.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Josypčuk, Bohdan; Novotný, Ladislav; Zima, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 22 (2003), s. 1778-1781 ISSN 1040-0397 Grant - others:GIT(AR) 101/02/U111/CZ Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : N,N-dimethyl-4-amino-carboxyazobenzene * differential pulse voltammetry * silver solid amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.811, year: 2003

  9. 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 increases survival of murine intestinal stem cells when given before photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.R.; Thomas, C.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of prostaglandins (PG) protect the gastric and intestinal mucosa when given before damaging agents as absolute ethanol, acidified taurocholate, boiling water, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAI). A synthetic prostaglandin, 16,16-dimethyl PGE 2 , shown to be cytoprotective at physiologic levels to the above agents was given to mice 1 h before or 15 min after 137 Cs gamma(γ) whole-body irradiation. The survival of intestinal stem cells measured by their ability to form in situ colonies of regenerating epithelium was increased stem cells measured by their ability to form in situ colonies of regenerating epithelium was increased when 16,16-dimethyl PGE 2 was given before but not after 137 Cs γ irradiation. The maximum degree of 16,16-dimethyl PGE 2 -induced radioprotection was seen when the drug was given 1 h before irradiation. No radioprotection was seen when the interval between drug and irradiation was 3 h or longer. When the time between 16,16-dimethyl PGE 2 and irradiation was kept at 1 h, the degree of radioprotection was dependent on the PG drug dose. There was a steep rise in the number of surviving cells at low doses of PG. These results imply that tumors which secrete PGE 2 may in part be protected from the lethal effects of ionizing photon radiation

  10. Perfluoroalkylation of Aryl-N,N-dimethyl Hydrazones Using Hypervalent Iodine(III) Reagents or Perfluoroalkyl Iodides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhsen, Benjamin; Studer, Armido

    2017-11-17

    Radical trifluoromethylation of aryl N,N-dimethyl hydrazones using TBAI as an initiator and Togni's reagent as a trifluoromethyl radical source is described. Cascades proceed via electron-catalysis; this approach is generally more applicable to hydrazone perfluoroalkylation using perfluoroalkyl iodides as the radical precursors in combination with a base under visible-light initiation.

  11. Effect of Dimethyl Carbonate Plasticizer on Ionic Conductivity of Methyl Cellulose-Based Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.F.; Ridwan, N.I.M.; Hatta, F.F.; Yahya, M.Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Influences of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) plasticizer on ionic conductivity, dielectric permittivity and electrical modulus formalism of methyl cellulose (MC)-based polymer electrolytes have been studied. The room temperature electrical conductivity as measured by impedance spectroscopy shows that a methyl cellulose film has a conductivity of ∼10 -10 S cm -1 . In this study, other than KOH ionic dopant, DMC plasticizer is also added to the polymer with the aim of enhancing the electrical conductivity of the polymer. The highest room temperature conductivity of the plasticised sample is ∼10 -5 S cm -1 . The plot of log σ versus 10 3 / T for the highest conducting sample obeys Arrhenius rule indicating that the conductivity occurs by thermally activated mechanism. (author)

  12. 1,2-Diiodo-4,5-dimethyl­benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Bruce A.; Kilgore, Uriah J.; Bond, Marcus R.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, C8H8I2, conforms closely to the mm2 symmetry expected for the free mol­ecule and is the first reported structure of a diiodo­dimethyl­benzene. Repulsion by neighboring I atoms and the neighboring methyl groups opposite to them results in a slight elongation of the mol­ecule along the approximate twofold rotation axis that bis­ects the ring between the two I atoms. In the extended structure, the mol­ecules form inversion-related pairs which are organized in approximately hexa­gonal close-packed layers and the layers then stacked so that mol­ecules in neighboring layers abut head-to-tail in a manner that optimizes dipole–dipole inter­actions. PMID:21583089

  13. 2,9-Dimethyl-1,10-phenanthrolin-1-ium tetrachloridoferrate(III methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Bahojb Noruzi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, (C14H13N2[FeCl4]·CH3OH, the 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthrolin-1-ium cation, FeCl4− anion and methanol solvent molecule lie on a twofold rotation axis. Due to symmetry, the H atom on the N atom of the cation is half-occupied. In the anion, the FeIII atom has a tetrahedral geometry. H atoms of the methanol molecule are disordered over two sets of sites around the twofold axis. In the crystal, π–π contacts between the pyridine rings and between the pyridine and benzene rings [centroid–centroid distances = 3.6535 (16 and 3.5522 (17 Å] and intermolecular O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds stabilize the structure.

  14. C-4 Gem-Dimethylated Oleanes of Gymnema sylvestre and Their Pharmacological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Di Fabio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., one of the most important medicinal plants of the Asclepiadaceae family, is a herb distributed throughout the World, predominantly in tropical countries. The plant, widely used for the treatment of diabetes and as a diuretic in Indian proprietary medicines, possesses beneficial digestive, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and anti-helmentic effects. Furthermore, it is believed to be useful in the treatment of dyspepsia, constipation, jaundice, hemorrhoids, cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis and leucoderma. A literature survey revealed that some other notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as anti-obesity, hypolipidemic, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties have been proven too. This paper aims to summarize the chemical and pharmacological reports on a large group of C-4 gem-dimethylated pentacyclic triterpenoids from Gymnema sylvestre.

  15. XPS and NEXAFS analysis of dimethyl sulfide adsorbed on the Rh(PVP) nanoparticle surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Hironori; Ogawa, Satoshi; Yagi, Shinya; Kutluk, Galif

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the adsorption reaction of dimethyl sulfide (DMS: (CH 3 ) 2 S) on the surface of Rh(PVP) nanoparticles by using AFM, XPS and NEXAFS techniques. The AFM images show the degree of dispersion of the Rh(PVP) nanoparticles depends on the amount of them. The in-situ XPS results indicate that the dissociation reaction of DMS into atomic S does not depend upon the existence of the Rh(PVP) nanoparticles. The NEXAFS results show that there is a strong chemical bonding between Rh(PVP) nanoparticle and atomic S. The ex-situ XPS results show the atomic S adsorbed on the Rh(PVP) nanoparticles partially desorb by exposing to the air. (author)

  16. Establishing a green platform for biodiesel synthesis via strategic utilization of biochar and dimethyl carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Sik Ok, Yong; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-10-01

    To establish a green platform for biodiesel production, this study mainly investigates pseudo-catalytic (non-catalytic) transesterification of olive oil. To this end, biochar from agricultural waste (maize residue) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as an acyl acceptor were used for pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction. Reaction parameters (temperature and molar ratio of DMC to olive oil) were also optimized. The biodiesel yield reached up to 95.4% under the optimal operational conditions (380°C and molar ratio of DMC to olive oil (36:1)). The new sustainable environmentally benign biodiesel production introduced in this study is greener and faster than conventional transesterification reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multivariable model predictive control design of reactive distillation column for Dimethyl Ether production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, A.; Putra, I. G. E. P.

    2018-03-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative clean energy has attracted a growing attention in the recent years. DME production via reactive distillation has potential for capital cost and energy requirement savings. However, combination of reaction and distillation on a single column makes reactive distillation process a very complex multivariable system with high non-linearity of process and strong interaction between process variables. This study investigates a multivariable model predictive control (MPC) based on two-point temperature control strategy for the DME reactive distillation column to maintain the purities of both product streams. The process model is estimated by a first order plus dead time model. The DME and water purity is maintained by controlling a stage temperature in rectifying and stripping section, respectively. The result shows that the model predictive controller performed faster responses compared to conventional PI controller that are showed by the smaller ISE values. In addition, the MPC controller is able to handle the loop interactions well.

  18. Potential toxicity of phthalic acid esters plasticizer: interaction of dimethyl phthalate with trypsin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Guowen; Wang, Langhong

    2015-01-14

    Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) is widely used as a plasticizer in industrial processes and has been reported to possess potential toxicity to the human body. In this study, the interaction between DMP and trypsin in vitro was investigated. The results of fluorescence, UV–vis, circular dichroism, and Fourier transform infrared spectra along with cyclic voltammetric measurements indicated that the remarkable fluorescence quenching and conformational changes of trypsin resulted from the formation of a DMP–trypsin complex, which was driven mainly by hydrophobic interactions. The molecular docking and trypsin activity assay showed that DMP primarily interacted with the catalytic triad of trypsin and led to the inhibition of trypsin activity. The dimensions of the individual trypsin molecules were found to become larger after binding with DMP by atomic force microscopy imaging. This study offers a comprehensive picture of DMP–trypsin interaction, which is expected to provide insights into the toxicological effect of DMP.

  19. Lubrication and wear in diesel engine injection equipment fuelled by dimethyl ether (DME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2003-01-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been recognised as an excellent fuel for diesel engines for over one decade now. DME fueled engines emit virtually no particulate matter even at low NOx levels. DME has thereby the potential of reducing the diesel engine emissions without filters or other devices...... that jeopardise the high efficiency of the engine and increase the manufacturing costs. DME has a low toxicity and can be made from anything containing carbon including biomass. If DME is produced from cheap natural gas from remote locations, the price of this new fuel could even become lower than that of diesel...... oil. Fueling diesel engines with DME presents two significant problems: The injection equipment can break down due to extensive wear and DME attacks nearly all known elastomers. The latter problem renders dynamic sealing diƣult whereas the first one involves the poor lubrication qualities of DME which...

  20. Porous Diatomite-Immobilized Cu–Ni Bimetallic Nanocatalysts for Direct Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of diatomite-immobilized Cu–Ni bimetallic nanocatalysts was prepared under ultrasonication and evaluated for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate under various conditions. Upon being fully characterized by TPR, TPD, BET, SEM, XRD, and XPS methodologies, it is found that the bimetallic composite is effectively alloyed and well immobilized inside or outside the pore of diatomite. Under the optimal conditions of 1.2 MPa and 120∘C, the prepared catalyst with loading of 15% exhibited the highest methanol conversion of 6.50% with DMC selectivity of 91.2% as well as more than 10-hour lifetime. The possible reaction mechanism was proposed and discussed in detail. To our knowledge, this is the first report to use diatomite as a catalyst support for direct DMC synthesis from methanol and CO2.

  1. Dimethyl amiloride improves glucose homeostasis in mouse models of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C; Head, W Steven; Piston, David W

    2008-06-01

    Dimethyl amiloride (DMA) enhances insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell. DMA also enhances time-dependent potentiation (TDP) and enables TDP to occur in situations where it is normally absent. As we have demonstrated before, these effects are mediated in part through inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), resulting in increased availability of arginine. Thus both DMA and arginine have the potential to correct the secretory defect in diabetes by enabling or enhancing TDP. In the current study we have demonstrated the ability of these agents to improve blood glucose homeostasis in three mouse models of type 2 diabetes. The pattern of TDP under different conditions indicates that inhibition of NOS is not the only mechanism through which DMA exerts its positive effects. Thus we also have explored another possible mechanism through which DMA enables/enhances TDP, via the activation of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase.

  2. Removal of dimethyl sulfide by the combination of non-thermal plasma and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z S; Li, H Q; He, J C; Ye, Q H; Huang, Q R; Luo, Y W

    2013-10-01

    A bench scale system integrated with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) and a biotricking filtration (BTF) unit for the treatment of gases containing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was investigated. DMS removal efficiency in the integrated system was up to 96%. Bacterial communities in the BTF were assessed by PCR-DGGE, which play the dominant role in the biological processes of metabolism, sulfur oxidation, sulfate-reducing and carbon oxidation. The addition of ozone from NTP made microbial community in BTF more complicated and active for DMS removal. The NTP oxidize DMS to simple compounds such as methanol and carbonyl sulfide; the intermediate organic products and DMS are further oxidized to sulfate, carbon dioxide, water vapors by biological degradation. These results show that NTP-BTF is achievable and open new possibilities for applying the integrated with NTP and BTF to odour gas treatment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of dimethyl fumarate on heme oxygenase-1 expression in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Kasarełło

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmunological disease leading to neurodegeneration. The etiology of the disease remains unknown, which strongly impedes the development of effective therapy. Most MS treatments focus on modulating the activity of the immune system. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF exerts a broad spectrum of action, such as modulating immune cell differentiation towards anti-inflammatory subtypes, influencing cytokine production, regulating immune cell migration into the central nervous system, and activating intracellular antioxidant mechanisms. It is well established that activation of the nuclear factor E2 (Nrf2-dependent pathway, leading to expression of the second-phase antioxidant enzymes, is influenced by DMF. In our experiments we used female Lewis rats in an animal model of MS – experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE. The rats were fed with dimethyl fumarate to test the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, one of the second-phase antioxidant enzymes, at specific time points of the symptomatic phases of the disease: on the first day of the occurrence of clinical symptoms (10th day post immunization, DPI; at the peak of clinical symptoms (14th DPI; and at the end of the relapse (21st DPI. The results showed that HO-1 expression, at both the mRNA and protein level, is influenced by DMF administration only at the very beginning of the symptomatic phase of EAE, and not at the peak of clinical symptoms, nor at the end of the relapse. This indicates that the regulation of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant pathway by DMF occurs at a certain time interval (early EAE/MS and strongly underlines the importance of the earliest introduction of the therapy to the patient.

  4. The sensitivity of dimethyl sulfide production to simulated climate change in the Eastern Antarctic Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabric, Albert J.; Cropp, Roger; Marchant, Harvey

    2003-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a radiatively active trace gas produced by enzymatic cleavage of its precursor compound, dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP), which is released by marine phytoplankton in the upper ocean. Once ventilated to the atmosphere, DMS is oxidised to form non-sea-salt sulfate and methane sulfonate (MSA) aerosols, which are a major source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in remote marine air and may thus play a role in climate regulation. Here we simulate the change in DMS flux in the Eastern Antarctic ocean from 1960-2086, corresponding to equivalent CO 2 tripling relative to pre-industrial levels. Calibration to contemporary climate conditions was carried out using a genetic algorithm to fit the model to surface chlorophyll from the 4-yr SeaWiFs satellite archive and surface DMS from an existing global database. Following the methodology used previously in the Subantarctic Southern Ocean, we then simulated DMS emissions under enhanced greenhouse conditions by forcing the DMS model with output from a coupled atmospheric-ocean general circulation model (GCM). The GCM was run in transient mode under the IPCC/IS92a radiative forcing scenario. By 2086, the change simulated in annual integrated DMS flux is around 20% in ice-free waters, with a greater increase of 45% in the seasonal ice zone (SIZ). Interestingly, the large increase in flux in the SIZ is not due to higher in situ production but mainly because of a loss of ice cover during summer-autumn and an increase in sea-to-air ventilation of DMS. These proportional changes in areal mean flux (25%) are much higher than previously estimated for the Subantarctic Southern Ocean (5%), and point to the possibility of a significant DMS-climate feedback at high Southern latitudes. Due to the nexus between ice cover and food-web structure, the potential for ecological community shifts under enhanced greenhouse conditions is high, and the implications for DMS production are discussed

  5. Effects of transgenic methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA expression on lifespan and age-dependent changes in metabolic function in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B. Salmon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms that preserve and maintain the cellular proteome are associated with long life and healthy aging. Oxidative damage is a significant contributor to perturbation of proteostasis and is dealt with by the cell through regulation of antioxidants, protein degradation, and repair of oxidized amino acids. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA repairs oxidation of free- and protein-bound methionine residues through enzymatic reduction and is found in both the cytosol and the mitochondria. Previous studies in Drosophila have shown that increasing expression of MsrA can extend longevity. Here we test the effects of increasing MsrA on longevity and healthy aging in two transgenic mouse models. We show that elevated expression of MsrA targeted specifically to the cytosol reduces the rate of age-related death in female mice when assessed by Gompertz analysis. However, neither cytosolic nor mitochondrial MsrA overexpression extends lifespan when measured by log-rank analysis. In mice with MsrA overexpression targeted to the mitochondria, we see evidence for improved insulin sensitivity in aged female mice. With these and our previous data, we conclude that the increasing MsrA expression in mice has differential effects on aging and healthy aging that are dependent on the target of its subcellular localization.

  6. Conformational cooling and conformation selective aggregation in dimethyl sulfite isolated in solid rare gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui

    2006-08-01

    Dimethyl sulfite has three conformers of low energy, GG, GT and GG', which have significant populations in the gas phase at room temperature. According to theoretical predictions, the GT and GG' conformers are higher in energy than the GG conformer by 0.83 and 1.18 kJ mol -1, respectively, while the barriers associated with the GG'→GT and GT→GG isomerizations are 1.90 and 9.64 kJ mol -1, respectively. Experimental data obtained for the compound isolated in solid argon, krypton and xenon demonstrated that the GG'→GT energy barrier is low enough to allow an extensive conversion of the GG' form into the GT conformer during deposition of the matrices, the extent of the conversion increasing along the series Ardimethyl sulfite exhibits conformation selective aggregation, with the most stable form, which has the highest dipole moment, aggregating more easily than the remaining experimentally relevant conformers (GT and GG').

  7. Bis(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)beryllium(II) complex as optoelectronic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Devender, E-mail: devjakhar@gmail.com; Singh, Kapoor; Bhagwan, Shri; Saini, Raman Kumar; Kadyan, Pratap Singh; Singh, Ishwar

    2016-01-15

    Metal complex bis(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)beryllium(II) as a light emissive material had been synthesized and characterized by various spectral techniques. The beryllium complex had high thermal stability (>250 °C) as well as high glass transition temperature (>115 °C). The prepared metal chelate had a strong photoluminescence (PL) emission at 558 nm (FWHM=72 nm) and electroluminescence (EL) at 561 nm (FWHM=55 nm) with good efficiency. Density functional theoretical calculations have been performed to demonstrate the three-dimensional geometries and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of this metal complex. Sublimed metal chelate formed thin transparent film and found appropriate material for exploring their opto-electronic applications. OLED device was fabricated using this metal complex by vacuum deposition technique with the device configuration of ITO/TPD(30 nm)/Be-complex(30 nm)/BCP(6 nm)/Alq{sub 3}(28 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(100 nm). The emitted color of the EL device showed Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates as x=0.625, y=0.366 corresponding to greenish yellow color. The maximum luminescence of the fabricated device was reported 1364 Cd/m{sup 2} at 22 V. The maximum current efficiency and power efficiency were 1.75 Cd/A and 0.51 lm/W at 10 V respectively for the fabricated OLED device. - Highlights: • Novel greenish yellow light emitting beryllium complex with 5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline was prepared. • The prepared metal complex were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. • Electron density distribution and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of resulting metal complex were computed by density functional theory in the course of DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) studies. • Sublimed synthesized metal complex of beryllium

  8. Bis(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)beryllium(II) complex as optoelectronic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Devender; Singh, Kapoor; Bhagwan, Shri; Saini, Raman Kumar; Kadyan, Pratap Singh; Singh, Ishwar

    2016-01-01

    Metal complex bis(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)beryllium(II) as a light emissive material had been synthesized and characterized by various spectral techniques. The beryllium complex had high thermal stability (>250 °C) as well as high glass transition temperature (>115 °C). The prepared metal chelate had a strong photoluminescence (PL) emission at 558 nm (FWHM=72 nm) and electroluminescence (EL) at 561 nm (FWHM=55 nm) with good efficiency. Density functional theoretical calculations have been performed to demonstrate the three-dimensional geometries and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of this metal complex. Sublimed metal chelate formed thin transparent film and found appropriate material for exploring their opto-electronic applications. OLED device was fabricated using this metal complex by vacuum deposition technique with the device configuration of ITO/TPD(30 nm)/Be-complex(30 nm)/BCP(6 nm)/Alq 3 (28 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(100 nm). The emitted color of the EL device showed Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates as x=0.625, y=0.366 corresponding to greenish yellow color. The maximum luminescence of the fabricated device was reported 1364 Cd/m 2 at 22 V. The maximum current efficiency and power efficiency were 1.75 Cd/A and 0.51 lm/W at 10 V respectively for the fabricated OLED device. - Highlights: • Novel greenish yellow light emitting beryllium complex with 5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline was prepared. • The prepared metal complex were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. • Electron density distribution and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of resulting metal complex were computed by density functional theory in the course of DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) studies. • Sublimed synthesized metal complex of beryllium gave greenish

  9. A novel route to synthesis of glycerol dimethyl ether from epichlorohydrin with high selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xiaoshu; Liu, Hao; Yang, Qiusheng; Li, Naihua; Dong, Xiangmo; Wang, Shufang; Zhao, Xinqiang; Wang, Yanji

    2014-01-01

    The effective utilization of glycerol, a by-product in the production of biodiesel, into useful chemicals is desirable from the viewpoint of green chemistry. With this in mind, a novel and highly selective route to synthesizing glycerol dimethyl ether (2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol), a potential fuel additive, from glycerol was proposed. This route uses both glycerol and methanol as starting materials, takes epichlorohydrin as an intermediate product, and utilizes HCl as a recycling agent. Hereinto, the key step of this route is the reaction between epichlorohydrin and methanol to produce 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol which is identified by GC–MS, ESI-MS, IR and NMR. The thermodynamics of this reaction was analyzed and the result showed that the thermodynamics of a reaction was favorable and a high product yield was expected. The effect of various parameters such as kind of acid catalyst, molar ratio of epichlorohydrin to methanol, reaction temperature and reaction time was studied. Among various acid catalysts investigated, the acidic ionic liquid [HSO 3 -b-N(CH 3 ) 3 ]HSO 4 exhibited the highest activity and selectivity: conversion of epichlorohydrin of 100% and selectivity of 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol of 99% at 393 K, 10 h, an initial pressure of 0.1 MPa and a molar ratio of catalyst:ECH:CH 3 OH of 0.01:1:5. After the reaction, [HSO 3 -b-N(CH 3 ) 3 ]HSO 4 was separated by vacuum distillation and then reused for the next cycle directly. The results showed that the product selectivity remained at about 94% but the conversion of epichlorohydrin dropped to 75% after being used five times. Subsequently, a reaction mechanism for the synthesis of 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol from epichlorohydrin and methanol was proposed. - Highlights: • Epichlorohydrin was converted effectively into glycerol dimethyl ether used as potential fuel additive. • The selectivity of 99% and the conversion of 100% under the mild reaction condition. • The reaction was high product selectivity and

  10. The Thioredoxin Domain of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae PilB can use Electrons from DsbD to Reduce Downstream Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brot,N.; Collet, J.; Johnson, L.; Jonsson, T.; Weissbach, H.; Lowther, W.

    2006-01-01

    The PilB protein from Neisseria gonorrhoeae is located in the periplasm and made up of three domains. The N-terminal, thioredoxin-like domain (NT domain) is fused to tandem methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B domains (MsrA/B). We show that the {alpha} domain of Escherichia coli DsbD is able to reduce the oxidized NT domain, which suggests that DsbD in Neisseria can transfer electrons from the cytoplasmic thioredoxin to the periplasm for the reduction of the MsrA/B domains. An analysis of the available complete genomes provides further evidence for this proposition in other bacteria where DsbD/CcdA, Trx, MsrA, and MsrB gene homologs are all located in a gene cluster with a common transcriptional direction. An examination of wild-type PilB and a panel of Cys to Ser mutants of the full-length protein and the individually expressed domains have also shown that the NT domain more efficiently reduces the MsrA/B domains when in the polyprotein context. Within this framework there does not appear to be a preference for the NT domain to reduce the proximal MsrA domain over MsrB domain. Finally, we report the 1.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the NT domain. This structure confirms the presence of a surface loop that makes it different from other membrane-tethered, Trx-like molecules including TlpA, CcmG and ResA. Subtle differences are observed in this loop when compared to the N. meningitidis NT domain structure. The data taken together supports the formation of specific NT domain interactions with the MsrA/B domains and its in vivo recycling partner, DsbD.

  11. Effects of vine water status on dimethyl sulfur potential, ammonium, and amino acid contents in Grenache Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Royer Dupré, N; Schneider, R; Payan, J C; Salançon, E; Razungles, A

    2014-04-02

    We studied the effect of vine water status on the dimethyl sulfur potential (DMSP), ammonium, and amino acid contents of the berry during the maturation of Grenache Noir grapes. Water deficit increased the accumulation of amino acids in berries and favored yeast assimilable amino nitrogen. Similarly, ammonium content was higher in berries from vines subjected to moderate water deficit. DMSP content followed the same trend as yeast assimilable amino acid content, with higher concentrations observed in the berries of vines subjected to water deficit. The high DMSP and yeast assimilable nitrogen contents of musts from vines subjected to water deficit resulted in a better preservation of DMSP during winemaking. The wines produced from these musts had a higher DMSP level and would therefore probably have a higher aroma shelf life, because the DMSP determines the rate of release of dimethyl sulfur during wine storage, and this compound enhances fruity notes.

  12. Adsorption structure of dimethyl ether on silicalite-1 zeolite determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, Shinjiro; Seino, Shintaro; Kamiya, Natsumi; Nishi, Koji; Yokomori, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    The most stable sorption site of dimethyl ether on silicalite-1 is the sinusoidal channel. The configuration of guest molecules (linear or bent) plays an important role in determining where the stable sorption site is situated. The adsorption structures of dimethyl ether (DME) on silicalite-1 zeolite (MFI-type) are determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of low-loaded DME-silicalite-1 indicates that all DME molecules are located in the sinusoidal channel, which is the most stable sorption site based on the van der Waals interaction between DME and the framework. The configuration of guest molecules (linear or bent) plays an important role in determining where the stable sorption site is in the pore system of MFI-type zeolites. Bent molecules favor the sinusoidal channel, while linear molecules favor the straight channel. The contribution of DME–DME interactions is considerable in the high-loaded DME-silicalite-1 structure

  13. Absolute vibrational excitation cross sections for 1-18 eV electron scattering from condensed dimethyl phosphate (DMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, V.; Bass, A. D.; Wagner, J. R.; Sanche, L.

    2017-12-01

    Absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitation by 1-18 eV electrons incident on condensed dimethyl phosphate (DMP) were measured with a high-resolution electron energy loss (EEL) spectrometer. Absolute CSs were extracted from EEL spectra of DMP condensed on multilayer film of Ar held at about 20 K under ultra-high vacuum (˜1 × 10-11 Torr). Structures observed in the energy dependence of the CSs around 2, 4, 7, and 12 eV were compared with previous results of gas- and solid-phase experiments and with theoretical studies on dimethyl phosphate and related molecules. These structures were attributed to the formation of shape resonances.

  14. Use of 2-mercaptopyridine for the determination of alkylating agents in complex matrices: application to dimethyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerheide, J G; Scott, R A

    2005-01-30

    A rapid and sensitive method for the determination of alkylating agents in complex reaction mixtures was developed and characterized. Analyses are based on the alkylation of 2-mercaptopyridine by the analyte; the derivative is separated by RP-HPLC and measured by fluorescence detection. When applied to the determination of dimethyl sulfate, the method is linear over four orders of magnitude: 0.01-10mugmL(-1). By using recrystallized 2-mercaptopyridine, quantitation limits of 10ngmL(-1) can be achieved. Precision of the assay is 2% R.S.D. in the 1-10mugmL(-1) range and about 15% R.S.D. at 10ngmL(-1). Studies on the pH dependence of the derivatization reaction were key to minimizing interference from the dimethyl sulfate degradation product, monomethyl sulfate, in quenched reaction samples.

  15. Coupled cluster evaluation of the frequency dispersion of the first and second hyperpolarizabilities of water, methanol, and dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaujean, Pierre; Champagne, Benoît, E-mail: benoit.champagne@unamur.be [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Unité de Chimie Physique Théorique et Structurale, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2016-07-28

    The static and dynamic first (β{sub ‖}) and second (γ{sub ‖}) hyperpolarizabilities of water, methanol, and dimethyl ether have been evaluated within the response function approach using a hierarchy of coupled cluster levels of approximation and doubly augmented correlation consistent atomic basis sets. For the three compounds, the electronic β{sub ‖} and γ{sub ‖} values calculated at the CCSD and CC3 levels are in good agreement with gas phase electric field-induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. In addition, for dimethyl ether, the frequency dispersion of both properties follows closely recent experimental values [V. W. Couling and D. P. Shelton, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 224307 (2015)] demonstrating the reliability of these methods and levels of approximation. This also suggests that the vibrational contributions to the EFISHG responses of these molecules are small.

  16. A role for repressive complexes and H3K9 di-methylation in PRDM5-associated brittle cornea syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, Louise F; Galli, Giorgio G; Williamson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    skin fibroblasts and retinal tissue from BCS2 patients, to elucidate the epigenetic role of PRDM5 and mechanisms of its dysregulation in disease.First we report abnormal retinal vascular morphology in the eyes of two cousins with BCS2 (PRDM5 Δ exons 9-14) using immunohistochemistry, and mine data from......, and dysregulated H3K9 di-methylation in skin fibroblasts of three patients (p.Arg590*, p.Glu134* and Δ exons 9-14) by western blotting. These findings suggest that defective interaction of PRDM5 with repressive complexes, and dysregulation of H3K9 di-methylation, play a role in PRDM5-associated disease.......Type 2 brittle cornea syndrome (BCS2) is an inherited connective tissue disease with a devastating ocular phenotype caused by mutations in the transcription factor PRDM5 hypothesised to exert epigenetic effects through histone and DNA methylation. Here we investigate clinical samples, including...

  17. Gold-nanoparticle-based catalysts for the oxidative esterification of 1,4-butanediol into dimethyl succinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Gemma L; Miedziak, Peter J; He, Qian; Knight, David W; Edwards, Jennifer K; Taylor, Stuart H; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2013-10-01

    The oxidation of 1,4-butanediol and butyrolactone have been investigated by using supported gold, palladium and gold-palladium nanoparticles. The products of such reactions are valuable chemical intermediates and, for example, can present a viable pathway for the sustainable production of polymers. If both gold and palladium were present, a significant synergistic effect on the selective formation of dimethyl succinate was observed. The support played a significant role in the reaction, with magnesium hydroxide leading to the highest yield of dimethyl succinate. Based on structural characterisation of the fresh and used catalysts, it was determined that small gold-palladium nanoalloys supported on a basic Mg(OH)2 support provided the best catalysts for this reaction. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Characterization and analysis of structural isomers of dimethyl methoxypyrazines in cork stoppers and ladybugs (Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabizki, Petra; Legrum, Charlotte; Meusinger, Reinhard; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2014-10-01

    The three constitutional isomers of dimethyl-substituted methoxypyrazines: 3,5-dimethyl-2-methoxypyrazine 1; 2,5-dimethyl-3-methoxypyrazine 2; and 2,3-dimethyl-5-methoxypyrazine 3 are potent flavor compounds with similar mass spectrometric, gas chromatographic, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic behavior. Therefore, unambiguous analytical determination is critical, particularly in complex matrices. The unequivocal identification of 1-3 could be achieved by homo- and heteronuclear NMR correlation experiments. The observed mass fragmentation for 1-3 is proposed and discussed, benefitting from synthesized partially deuterated 1 and 2. On common polar and apolar stationary phases used in gas chromatography (GC) 1 and 2 show similar behavior whereas 3 can be separated. In our focus on off-flavor analysis with respect to wine aroma, 1 has been described as a "moldy" off-flavor compound in cork and 2 as a constituent in Harmonia axyridis contributing to the so-called "ladybug taint," whereas 3 has not yet been described as a constituent of wine aroma. A successful separation of 1 and 2 could be achieved on octakis-(2,3-di-O-pentyl-6-O-methyl)-γ-cyclodextrin as stationary phase in GC. Applying heart-cut multidimensional GC analysis with tandem mass spectrometric detection we could confirm the presence of 1 as a "moldy" off-flavor compound in cork. However, in the case of Harmonia axyridis, a previous identification of 2 has to be reconsidered. In our experiments we identified the constitutional isomer 1, which was also found in Coccinella septempunctata, another species discussed with respect to the "ladybug taint." The analysis of such structurally related compounds is a demonstrative example for the importance of a chromatographic separation, as mass spectrometric data by itself could not guarantee the unequivocal identification.

  19. DNA replication origin function is promoted by H3K4 di-methylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardi, Lindsay F; Dorn, Elizabeth S; Strahl, Brian D; Cook, Jeanette Gowen

    2012-10-01

    DNA replication is a highly regulated process that is initiated from replication origins, but the elements of chromatin structure that contribute to origin activity have not been fully elucidated. To identify histone post-translational modifications important for DNA replication, we initiated a genetic screen to identify interactions between genes encoding chromatin-modifying enzymes and those encoding proteins required for origin function in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that enzymes required for histone H3K4 methylation, both the histone methyltransferase Set1 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Bre1, are required for robust growth of several hypomorphic replication mutants, including cdc6-1. Consistent with a role for these enzymes in DNA replication, we found that both Set1 and Bre1 are required for efficient minichromosome maintenance. These phenotypes are recapitulated in yeast strains bearing mutations in the histone substrates (H3K4 and H2BK123). Set1 functions as part of the COMPASS complex to mono-, di-, and tri-methylate H3K4. By analyzing strains lacking specific COMPASS complex members or containing H2B mutations that differentially affect H3K4 methylation states, we determined that these replication defects were due to loss of H3K4 di-methylation. Furthermore, histone H3K4 di-methylation is enriched at chromosomal origins. These data suggest that H3K4 di-methylation is necessary and sufficient for normal origin function. We propose that histone H3K4 di-methylation functions in concert with other histone post-translational modifications to support robust genome duplication.

  20. The effect of dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) on lymphocyte counts: A potential contributor to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Bhupendra O; Garland, Jeffery; Berger, Joseph; Kramer, John; Sershon, Lisa; Olapo, Tayo; Sesing, Jean; Dukic, Mary; Rehn, Eileen

    2015-07-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) is an effective therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our study suggests that this drug may have immunosuppressive properties evidenced by significant sustained reduction in CD8 lymphocyte counts and, to a lesser extent, CD4 lymphocyte counts. This observation is relevant in light of the recent case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient receiving this drug. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Laser-Induced Gas-Phase Pyrolysis of Dimethyl Selenium: Chemical Deposition of Selenium and Poly(selenoformaldehyde)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, Dana; Urbanová, Markéta; Bastl, Zdeněk; Šubrt, Jan; Pola, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2004), s. 635-644 ISSN 0165-2370 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072107; GA MŠk OC 523.60 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921; CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : dimethyl selenium * laser pyrolysis * selenium films Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.352, year: 2004

  2. Acute Oral Toxicity of 3-Chloro-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolidinone (Compound 1) in ICR Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Acute Oral Toxicity, N- Chloramine , Mouse, Mammalian Toxicology, Water Disinfectant , 3-Chloro-4, 4 -dimethyl-2...Amer Ind Hyg Assoc Q 1943; 10:93-96. 7. Mora EC, Kohl HH, Wheatley WB, et al. Properties or a new chloramine disinfectant and detoxicant. Poultry Sci...ORGANIZATION Mammalian Toxicology (If applicable) US Army Biomedical Research Division of Toxicology SGRD-ULE- T and Development Laboratory 6c. ADDRESS

  3. 40 CFR 721.10175 - 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-3-sulfo-, N-(C12-18 and C18-unsatd...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2... 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-3-sulfo-, N-(C12-18 and C18-unsatd. acyl... chemical substance identified as 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-3-sulfo-, N-(C12...

  4. Radiation cross-linking of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer functionalized with m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, K.B.; Naesman, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    An ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer was functionalized with m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate using reactive processing in a mixer. The functionalization introduces pendant unsaturation to the polymer, which allows radiation cross-linked to gel contents >70% at radiation doses below 100 kGy. Unfunctionalized ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, on the other hand, forms no gel upon irradiation. The functionalization was completed within a few minutes of reactive mixing, which was confirmed with both FTIR and 13 C-NMR measurements. The oxygen permeability of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer increased with increasing degree of functionalization, and irradiation of the samples formed trapped radicals, which act as oxygen scavengers. Consequently no oxygen permeability was detected. However, radical activity was inhibited by annealing the samples at 110 C resulting in a 24% higher oxygen permeability value for the irradiated unfunctionalized copolymer. The oxygen permeability values of the irradiated functionalized samples were approximately 13% lower. Laminates of m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate functionalized ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer and m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate functionalized ethylene hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer acquired improved adhesive strength both at dry and wet conditions as well as at elevated temperature upon exposure to radiation

  5. Mesoporous silica materials modified with alumina polycations as catalysts for the synthesis of dimethyl ether from methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macina, Daniel; Piwowarska, Zofia; Tarach, Karolina; Góra-Marek, Kinga [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland); Ryczkowski, Janusz [Maria Curie Skłodowska University, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska 2, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Chmielarz, Lucjan, E-mail: chmielar@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Deposition of alumina ologoctaions on mesoporous silicas modified with surface −SO{sub 3}H groups. • Alumina aggregates generated acid properties in the silica supports. • Alumina modified SBA-15 and MCF were active and selective catalysts in DME synthesis. - Abstract: Mesoporous silica materials (SBA-15 and MCF) were used as catalytic supports for the deposition of aggregated alumina species using the method consisting of the following steps: (i) anchoring 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) on the silica surface followed by (ii) oxidation of −SH to−SO{sub 3}H groups and then (iii) deposition of aluminum Keggin oligocations by ion-exchange method and (iv) calcination. The obtained samples were tested as catalysts for synthesis of dimethyl ether from methanol. The modified silicas were characterized with respect to the ordering of their porous structure (XRD), textural properties (BET), chemical composition (EDS, CHNS), structure ({sup 27}Al NMR, FTIR) and location of alumina species (EDX-TEM), surface acidity (NH{sub 3}-TPD, Py-FTIR) and thermal stability (TGA). The obtained materials were found to be active and selective catalysts for methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME) in the MTD process (methanol-to-dimethyl ether).

  6. Liposomes containing cationic dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide: formulation, quality control, and lipofection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Crispin R; Walker, Todd L; Burton, Mark A

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a novel, simple, and relatively inexpensive method to prepare cationic liposomes using an ethanol injection/pressure extrusion method. The study also demonstrated that binding erythrosine dye to cationic liposomes results in a shift of the absorption maximum of the dye from 528 nm to 549 nm at pH 4.25, allowing quantification and visualization of these vesicles. In addition, a relatively simple Ficoll-based gradient centrifugation method for separation of lipoplexes from unbound molecules is presented. Laboratory-formulated dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) containing liposomes were just as efficient in complexing nucleic acids as commercially available types, and binding increased as the positive to neutral lipid ratio was increased. Transfection efficiency of the DDAB-containing liposomes increased as the ratio of cationic to neutral lipid was increased from 1:1 to 4:1 with either PtdChol or DOPE as the neutral lipid. A concomitant increase in cytotoxicity of CSU-SA1 cancer cells was noted as the ratio of positive to neutral lipid of the liposomes was increased. Nevertheless, our present study showed that the 2:1 liposome is a good choice since it delivers functional plasmids at a comparable rate to commercial liposome formulations, has similar toxicities to the less harmful commercial liposomes, and is at least 1000-fold more economical to prepare inhouse, a major factor to be considered in preclinical and clinical studies with these carriers.

  7. CO2 Recycling to Dimethyl Ether: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Catizzone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This review reports recent achievements in dimethyl ether (DME synthesis via CO2 hydrogenation. This gas-phase process could be considered as a promising alternative for carbon dioxide recycling toward a (biofuel as DME. In this view, the production of DME from catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 appears as a technology able to face also the ever-increasing demand for alternative, environmentally-friendly fuels and energy carriers. Basic considerations on thermodynamic aspects controlling DME production from CO2 are presented along with a survey of the most innovative catalytic systems developed in this field. During the last years, special attention has been paid to the role of zeolite-based catalysts, either in the methanol-to-DME dehydration step or in the one-pot CO2-to-DME hydrogenation. Overall, the productivity of DME was shown to be dependent on several catalyst features, related not only to the metal-oxide phase—responsible for CO2 activation/hydrogenation—but also to specific properties of the zeolites (i.e., topology, porosity, specific surface area, acidity, interaction with active metals, distributions of metal particles, … influencing activity and stability of hybridized bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts. All these aspects are discussed in details, summarizing recent achievements in this research field.

  8. Electrochemical incineration of dimethyl phthalate by anodic oxidation with boron-doped diamond electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yining; QU Jiuhui; ZHAO Xu; LIU Huijuan

    2009-01-01

    The anodic oxidation of aqueous solutions containing dimethyl phthalate (DMP) up to 125 mg/L with sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) as supporting electrolyte within the pH range 2.0-10.0 was studied using a one-compartment batch reactor employing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) as anode. Electrolyses were carried out at constant current density (1.5-4.5 mA/cm2). Complete mineralization was always achieved owing to the great concentration of hydroxyl radical (·OH) generated at the BDD surface. The effect of pH, apparent current density and initial DMP concentration on the degradation rate of DMP, the specific charge required for its total mineralization and mineralization current efficiency was investigated systematically. The mineralization rate of DMP was found to be pH-independent and to increase with increasing applied current density. Results indicated that this electrochemical process was subjected, at least partially, to the mass transfer of organics onto the BDD surface. Kinetic analysis of the temporal change of DMP concentration during electrolysis determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed that DMP decay under all tested conditions followed a pseudo first-order reaction. Aromatic intermediates and generated carboxylic acids were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and a general pathway for the electrochemical incineration of DMP on BDD was proposed.

  9. Study of RF-excited Diethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether Plasmas by Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algatti, M A; Mota, R P; Júnior, P W P Moreira; Honda, R Y; Kayama, M E; Kostov, K G

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of the fragmentation process of diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (CH 3 O(CH 2 CH 2 O) 2 CH 3 ) (diglyme here in) molecule in low pressure RF excited plasma discharges. The study was carried out using mass spectrometry. The results showed that for a fixed pressure, the increase of the RF power coupled to the plasma chamber from 1 to 35 W produced a plasma environment much more reactive which increases the population of the ionized species like CH 2 + (15 amu), C 2 H 4 + (28 amu), CH 3 O + (31 amu), C 2 H 4 O + (44 amu), CH 3 OCH 2 CH 2 + (59 amu) and CH 3 OCH 2 CH 2 O + (75 amu). This fact may be attributed to the increase of the electronic temperature that makes predominant the occurrence of inelastic processes that promotes molecular fragmentation. For a fixed value of RF power the increase of pressure from 50 mTorr to 100 mTorr produces the decreasing of the above mentioned chemical species due the lower electronic mean free path. These results suggest that if one wants to keep the monomer's functionality within the plasma deposited films resulting from such kind of discharges one must operate in low power conditions.

  10. Thermal decomposition of dimethoxymethane and dimethyl carbonate catalyzed by solid acids and bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yuchuan; Zhu Haiyan; Shen Jianyi

    2005-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of dimethoxymethane (DMM) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) on MgO, H-ZSM-5, SiO 2 , γ-Al 2 O 3 and ZnO was studied using a fixed bed isothermal reactor equipped with an online gas chromatograph. It was found that DMM was stable on MgO at temperatures up to 623 K, while it was decomposed over the acidic H-ZSM-5 with 99% conversion at 423 K. On the other hand, DMC was easily decomposed on the strong solid base and acid. The conversion of DMC was 76% on MgO at 473 K, and 98% on H-ZSM-5 at 423 K. It was even easier decomposed on the amphoteric γ-Al 2 O 3 . Both DMM and DMC were relatively stable on SiO 2 possessing little surface acidity and basicity. They were even more stable on ZnO with the conversion of DMM and DMC of about 1.5% at 573 K. Thus, metal oxides with either strong acidity or basicity are not suitable for the selective oxidation of DMM to DMC, while ZnO may be used as a component for the reaction

  11. Direct dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis through a thermally coupled heat exchanger reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakili, R.; Pourazadi, E.; Setoodeh, P.; Eslamloueyan, R.; Rahimpour, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Compared to some of the alternative fuel candidates such as methane, methanol and Fischer-Tropsch fuels, dimethyl ether (DME) seems to be a superior candidate for high-quality diesel fuel in near future. The direct synthesis of DME from syngas would be more economical and beneficial in comparison with the indirect process via methanol synthesis. Multifunctional auto-thermal reactors are novel concepts in process intensification. A promising field of applications for these concepts could be the coupling of endothermic and exothermic reactions in heat exchanger reactors. Consequently, in this study, a double integrated reactor for DME synthesis (by direct synthesis from syngas) and hydrogen production (by the cyclohexane dehydrogenation) is modelled based on the heat exchanger reactors concept and a steady-state heterogeneous one-dimensional mathematical model is developed. The corresponding results are compared with the available data for a pipe-shell fixed bed reactor for direct DME synthesis which is operating at the same feed conditions. In this novel configuration, DME production increases about 600 Ton/year. Also, the effects of some operational parameters such as feed flow rates and the inlet temperatures of exothermic and endothermic sections on reactor behaviour are investigated. The performance of the reactor needs to be proven experimentally and tested over a range of parameters under practical operating conditions.

  12. Adsorption and decomposition of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) on expanded graphite/metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wei-Che; Wang, Je-Chuang; Wu, Kuo-Hui

    2018-06-01

    Composites based on expanded graphite (EG) and metal oxides (MOs) were prepared by an explosive combustion and blending method. A metal oxide (Ag2O, CuO or ZnO)-containing phase was employed as a component with reactive functionality, which was supported on EG as a component with adsorptive functionality. The physical properties of the EG/MO composites were examined using SEM and FTIR spectroscopy, the results of which indicated that the MOs were incorporated in the EG matrix after impregnation. Solid state magic angle spinning (MAS) 1H, 31P and cross polarization (CP) MAS 13C NMR studies of the EG/MO composites were performed after adsorption of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The FTIR and NMR data showed that the initial uptake occurred through both molecular and reactive adsorption. Molecular adsorption occurred by van der Waals interaction of M(Zn, Cu, Ag)⋯Odbnd P and hydrogen-bond formation to isolated hydroxyl groups. Reactive chemisorption appeared to occur through interaction with both Lewis acid sites and active oxygen species present on the MO surface. The FTIR and NMR results exhibited a trend of reactivity towards DMMP in the order Ag2O > ZnO > CuO, which indicated stronger interaction between the Lewis acid sites and the phosphoryl O atom of DMMP for Ag2O as compared with ZnO and CuO, with concomitant formation of surface-coordinated DMMP and bridge-bonded Osbnd Psbnd O phosphorus oxide species.

  13. Vapor phase carbonylation of dimethyl ether and methyl acetate with supported transition metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikada, T.; Fujimoto, K.; Tominaga, H.O.

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis of acetic acid (AcOH) from methanol (MeOH) and carbon monoxide has been performed industrially in the liquid phase using a rhodium complex catalyst and an iodide promoter. The selectivity to AcOH is more than 99% under mild conditions (175 0 C, 28 atm). The homogeneous rhodium catalyst has been also effective for the synthesis of acetic anhydride (Ac 2 O) by carbonylation of dimethyl ether (DME) or methyl acetate (AcOMe). However, rhodium is one of the most expensive metals and its proved reserves are quite limited. It is highly desired, therefore, to develop a new catalyst as a substitute for rhodium. The authors have already reported that nickel supported on active carbon exhibits an excellent activity for the vapor phase carbonylation of MeOh in the presence of iodide promoter and under moderately pressurized conditions. In addition, corrosive attack on reactors by iodide compounds is expected to be negligible in the vapor phase system. In the present work, vapor phase carbonylation of DME and AcOMe on nickel-active carbon (Ni/A.C.) and molybdenum-active carbon (Mo/A.C.) catalysts was studied

  14. CFD Simulation of Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Methanol in an Adiabatic Fixed-bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golshadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A computational fluid dynamic (CFD study of methanol (MeOH to dimethyl ether (DME process in an adiabatic fixed-bed reactor is presented. One of the methods of industrial DME production is the catalytic dehydration of MeOH. Kinetic model was derived based on Bercic rate. The parameters of this equation for a specific catalyst were tuned by solving a one-dimensional homogenous model using MATLAB optimization module. A two-dimensional CFD simulation of the reaction is demonstrated and considered as numerical experiments. A sensitivity analysis was run in order to find the effect of temperature, pressure, and WHSV on the reactor performance. Good agreement was achieved between bench experimental data and the model. The results show that the maximum conversion of reaction (about 85.03% is obtained at WHSV=10 h-1 and T=563.15 K, whereas the inlet temperature has a greater effect on methanol conversion. Moreover, the effect of water in inlet feed on methanol conversion is quantitatively studied. It was concluded that the results obtained from CFD analysis give precise guidelines for further studies on the optimization of reactor performance.

  15. Grazing-Activated Production of Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) by two clones of Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Gordon V.; Steinke, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi clones CCMP 370 and CCMP 373 produced similar amounts of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) during axenic exponential growth, averaging 109 mM internal DMSP. Both clones had detectable DMSP lyase activity, as measured by production of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) during in vitro assays of crude cell preparations, but activities and conditions differed considerably between clones. Clone 373 had high activity; clone 370 had low activity and required chloride. For both strains, enzyme activity per cell was constant during exponential growth, but little DMS was produced by healthy cells. Rather, DMS production was activated when cells were subjected to physical or chemical stresses that caused cell lysis. We propose that DMSP lyase and DMSP are segregated within these cells and re-action only under conditions that result in cell stress or damage. Such activation occurs during microzooplankton grazing. When these clones were grazed by the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina, DMS was produced; ungrazed cells, as well as those exposed to grazer exudates and associated bacteria, generated no DMS. Grazing of clone 373 produced much more DMS than grazing of clone 370, consistent with their relative in vitro DMSP lyase activities. DMS was only generated when cells were actually being grazed, indicating that ingested cells were responsible for the DMS formation. We suggest that even low levels of grazing can greatly accelerate DMS production.

  16. Effect of didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride on nitrate reduction in a mixed methanogenic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, U; Pierson, J A; Pavlostathis, S G

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the quaternary ammonium compound, didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), on nitrate reduction was investigated at concentrations up to 100 mg/L in a batch assay using a mixed, mesophilic (35 degrees C) methanogenic culture. Glucose was used as the carbon and energy source and the initial nitrate concentration was 70 mg N/L. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) and to dinitrogen (denitrification) were observed at DDAC concentrations up to 25 mg/L. At and above 50 mg DDAC/L, DNRA was inhibited and denitrification was incomplete resulting in accumulation of nitrous oxide. At DDAC concentrations above 10 mg/L, production of nitrous oxide, even transiently, resulted in complete, long-term inhibition of methanogenesis and accumulation of volatile fatty acids. Fermentation was inhibited at and above 75 mg DDAC/L. DDAC suppressed microbial growth and caused cell lysis at a concentration 50 mg/L or higher. Most of the added DDAC was adsorbed on the biomass. Over 96% of the added DDAC was recovered from all cultures at the end of the 100-days incubation period, indicating that DDAC did not degrade in the mixed methanogenic culture under the conditions of this study.

  17. Matrix-isolation FT-IR spectra and theoretical study of dimethyl sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Simões, Pedro N. N. L.; Fausto, Rui

    2005-05-01

    The preferred conformations of dimethyl sulfate and their vibrational spectra were studied by matrix-isolation FT-IR spectroscopy and theoretical methods (DFT and MP2, with basis sets of different sizes, including the quadruple-zeta, aug-cc-pVQZ basis). Conformer GG (of C 2 symmetry and exhibiting O sbnd S sbnd O sbnd C dihedral angles of 74.3°) was found to be the most stable conformer in both the gaseous phase and isolated in argon. Upon annealing of the matrix, the less stable observed conformer (GT; with C 1 symmetry) quickly converts to the GG conformer, with the resulting species being embedded in a matrix-cage which corresponds to the most stable matrix-site for GG form. The highest energy TT conformer, which was assumed to be the most stable conformer in previous studies, is predicted by the calculations to have a relative energy of ca. 10 kJ mol -1 and was not observed in the spectra of the matrix-isolated compound.

  18. Utilization of dimethyl fumarate and related molecules for treatment of multiple sclerosis, cancer, and other diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzam Maghazachi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Several drugs have been approved for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF is utilized as an oral drug to treat this disease and is proven to be potent with less side effects than several other drugs. On the other hand, monomethyl fumarate (MMF, a related compound has not been examined in greater details although it has the potential as a therapeutic drug for multiple sclerosis and other diseases. The mechanism of action of DMF or MMF is related to their ability to enhance the antioxidant pathways and to inhibit reactive oxygen species. However, other mechanisms have also been described which include effects on monocytes, dendritic cells, T cells, and natural killer cells. It is also reported that DMF might be useful for treating psoriasis, asthma, aggressive breast cancers, hematopoeitic tumors, inflammatory bowel disease, intracerebral hemorrhage, osteoarthritis, chronic pancreatitis, and retinal ischemia. In this article we will touch on some of these diseases with an emphasis on the effects of DMF and MMF on various immune cells.

  19. Microwave Assisted Condensation Reactions of 2-Aryl Hydrazonopropanals with Nucleophilic Reagents and Dimethyl Acetylenedicarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita M. Borik

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of methyl ketones 1a-g with dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMFDMA afforded the enaminones 2a-g, which were coupled with diazotized aromatic amines 3a,b to give the corresponding aryl hydrazones 6a-h. Condensation of compounds 6a-h with some aromatic heterocyclic amines afforded iminoarylhydrazones 9a-m. Enaminoazo compounds 12a,b could be obtained from condensation of 6c with secondary amines. The reaction of 6e,h with benzotriazolylacetone yielded 14a,b. Also, the reaction of 6a,b,d-f,h with glycine and hippuric acid in acetic anhydride afforded pyridazinone derivatives 17a-f. Synthesis of pyridazine carboxylic acid derivatives 22a,b from the reaction of 6b,e with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD in the presence of triphenylphosphine at room temperature is also reported. Most of these reactions were conducted under irradiation in a microwave oven in the absence of solvent in an attempt to improve the product yields and to reduce the reaction times.

  20. Degradation of dimethyl disulphide in soil with or without biochar amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dawei; Yan, Dongdong; Cao, Aocheng; Fang, Wensheng; Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Wang, Qiuxia

    2017-09-01

    Dimethyl disulphide (DMDS) is a new and effective alternative to methyl bromide for soil fumigation. The effect of biochar on the fate of DMDS in soil is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine the degradation kinetics of DMDS in different soils and evaluate the effect of biochar amendment on DMDS degradation using incubation experiments. The degradation half-life of DMDS was between 1.05 and 6.66 days under non-sterile conditions, and 12.63 to 22.67 days under sterile conditions in five types of soil. Seven out of the eight tested biochar amendments (BC-2 to BC-8) delayed the degradation of DMDS in soil, increasing the half-life of DMDS in Fangshan soil from 1.05 to 1.16-5.87 days following amendment with 1% (w/w) biochar. The degradation rate of DMDS in Fangshan soil accelerated as the amendment rate of BC-1 increased, and decreased as the amendment rate of BC-7 increased. Biodegradation is an important degradation route for DMDS in soil, and DMDS degraded faster in alkaline soil. The effects of biochar amendments on DMDS degradation in soil are determined by complex multiple factors (such as surface area, pH and physicochemical composition), rather than by any single property of biochar. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Dimethyl fumarate contact dermatitis of the foot: an increasingly widespread disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Erme, Angelo Massimiliano; Bassi, Andrea; Lotti, Torello; Gola, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has been recognized as an extremely potent irritant and sensitizer found in sachets inside furniture. The first skin manifestations were correlated to contact with sofas, chairs, and other furniture. In these last years, some papers have reported a development of allergic contact dermatitis on the foot caused by DMF present in high concentration in shoes made in China. We report the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with severe eczema on the foot shortly after having bought a new pair of shoes. The diagnosis was performed by patch tests with DMF in several dilutions, with pieces of internal and external parts of the shoes, and by chemical analysis of the shoes. In the last three years, goods containing DMF increased diffusely despite the augmentation on global preventive measures by Europe. Therefore, new cases of contact dermatitis could be dependent on DMF, and it is of note that this allergen is not included in most series for patch testing. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. An in situ infrared study of dimethyl carbonate synthesis from carbon dioxide and methanol over zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyeong Taek; Bell, Alexis T.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) synthesis from methanol and carbon dioxide over monoclinic zirconia has been investigated using in situ infrared spectroscopy. The dissociative adsorption of methanol occurs more slowly than the adsorption of carbon dioxide, but the species formed from methanol are bound more strongly. Upon adsorption, the oxygen atom of methanol binds to coordinately unsaturated Zr4+ cations present at the catalyst surface. Rapid dissociation of the adsorbed methanol leads to the formation of a methoxide group (Zr-OCH3) and the release of a proton, which reacts with a surface hydroxyl group to produce water. Carbon dioxide inserts in the Zr-O bond of the methoxide to form a mondentate methyl carbonate group (Zr-OC(O)OCH3). This process is facilitated by the interactions of C and O atoms in CO2 with Lewis acid-base pairs of sites (Zr4+O2-) on the surface of the catalyst. Methyl carbonate species can also be produced via the reaction of methanol with carbon dioxide adsorbed in the form of bicarbonate species with methanol, a process that results in the transfer of a methyl group to the carbonate and restores a hydroxyl group to the zirconia surface. The decomposition of DMC on monoclinic zirconia has also been investigated and has been observed to occur via the reverse of the processes described for the synthesis of DMC

  3. Decomposition and Mineralization of Dimethyl Phthalate in an Aqueous Solution by Wet Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar-Ren Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimethyl phthalate (DMP was treated via wet oxygen oxidation process (WOP. The decomposition efficiency ηDMP of DMP and mineralization efficiency ηTOC of total organic carbons were measured to evaluate the effects of operation parameters on the performance of WOP. The results revealed that reaction temperature T is the most affecting factor, with a higher T offering higher ηDMP and ηTOC as expected. The ηDMP increases as rotating speed increases from 300 to 500 rpm with stirring enhancement of gas liquid mass transfer. However, it exhibits reduction effect at 700 rpm due to purging of dissolved oxygen by overstirring. Regarding the effects of pressure PT, a higher PT provides more oxygen for the forward reaction with DMP, while overhigh PT increases the absorption of gaseous products such as CO2 and decomposes short-chain hydrocarbon fragments back into the solution thus hindering the forward reaction. For the tested PT of 2.41 to 3.45 MPa, the results indicated that 2.41 MPa is appropriate. A longer reaction time of course gives better performance. At 500 rpm, 483 K, 2.41 MPa, and 180 min, the ηDMP and ηTOC are 93 and 36%, respectively.

  4. Modified Two-Step Dimethyl Ether (DME Synthesis Simulation from Indonesian Brown Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiwahju Sasongko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study was conducted to investigate the performance of dimethyl ether (DME synthesis from coal. This paper presents a model for two-step DME synthesis from brown coal represented by the following processes: drying, gasification, water-gas reaction, acid gas removal, and DME synthesis reactions. The results of the simulation suggest that a feedstock ratio of coal : oxygen : steam of 1 : 0.13 : 0.821 produces the highest DME concentration. The water-gas reactor simulation at a temperature of 400°C and a pressure of 20 bar gave the ratio of H2/CO closest to 2, the optimal value for two-step DME synthesis. As for the DME synthesis reactor simulation, high pressure and low temperature promote a high DME concentration. It is predicted that a temperature of 300°C and a pressure of 140 bar are the optimum conditions for the DME synthesis reaction. This study also showed that the DME concentration produced by the two-step route is higher than that produced by one-step DME synthesis, implying that further improvement and research are needed to apply two-step DME synthesis to production of this liquid fuel.

  5. Extraction of Fucoxanthin from Raw Macroalgae excluding Drying and Cell Wall Disruption by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hideki; Kamo, Yuichi; Machmudah, Siti; Wahyudiono; Goto, Motonobu

    2014-01-01

    Macroalgae are one of potential sources for carotenoids, such as fucoxanthin, which are consumed by humans and animals. This carotenoid has been applied in both the pharmaceutical and food industries. In this study, extraction of fucoxanthin from wet brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (water content was 93.2%) was carried out with a simple method using liquefied dimethyl ether (DME) as an extractant in semi-continuous flow-type system. The extraction temperature and absolute pressure were 25 °C and 0.59 MPa, respectively. The liquefied DME was passed through the extractor that filled by U. pinnatifida at different time intervals. The time of experiment was only 43 min. The amount of fucoxanthin could approach to 390 μg/g dry of wet U. pinnatifida when the amount of DME used was 286 g. Compared with ethanol Soxhlet and supercritical CO2 extraction, which includes drying and cell disruption, the result was quite high. Thus, DME extraction process appears to be a good method for fucoxanthin recovery from U. pinnatifida with improved yields. PMID:24796299

  6. Relevant Features of a Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether-Based Electrolyte for Application in Lithium Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Lorenzo; Di Lecce, Daniele; Gobet, Mallory; Munoz, Stephen; Devany, Matthew; Greenbaum, Steve; Hassoun, Jusef

    2017-05-24

    Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TREGDME) dissolving lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) is studied as a suitable electrolyte medium for lithium battery. Thermal and rheological characteristics, transport properties of the dissolved species, and the electrochemical behavior in lithium cell represent the most relevant investigated properties of the new electrolyte. The self-diffusion coefficients, the lithium transference numbers, the ionic conductivity, and the ion association degree of the solution are determined by pulse field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The study sheds light on the determinant role of the lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) addition for allowing cell operation by improving the electrode/electrolyte interfaces and widening the voltage stability window. Accordingly, an electrochemical activation procedure of the Li/LiFePO 4 cell using the upgraded electrolyte leads to the formation of stable interfaces at the electrodes surface as clearly evidenced by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and ex situ scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, the lithium battery employing the TREGDME-LiCF 3 SO 3 -LiNO 3 solution shows a stable galvanostatic cycling, a high efficiency, and a notable rate capability upon the electrochemical conditions adopted herein.

  7. Raman Spectra of Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Dimethyl ether, Formaldehyde and Propane for Combustion Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Magnotti, G.

    2015-05-09

    Spontaneous Raman scattering measurements of temperature and major species concentration in hydrocarbon-air flames require detailed knowledge of the Raman spectra of the hydrocarbons present when fuels more complex than methane are used. Although hydrocarbon spectra have been extensively studied at room temperature, there are no data available at higher temperatures. Quantum mechanical calculations, when available are not sufficiently accurate for combustion applications. This work presents experimental measurements of spontaneous Stokes-Raman scattering spectra of methane, ethylene, ethane, dimethyl ether, formaldehyde and propane in the temperature range 300-860 K. Raman spectra from heated hydrocarbons jets have been collected with a higher resolution than is generally employed for Raman measurements in combustion applications. A set of synthetic spectra have been generated for each hydrocarbon, providing the basis for extrapolation to higher temperatures. The spectra provided here will enable simultaneous measurements of multiple hydrocarbons in flames. This capability will greatly extend the range of applicability of Raman measurements in combustion applications. In addition, the experimental spectra provide a validation dataset for quantum mechanical models.

  8. Immunotoxicity and allergic potential induced by topical application of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) in a murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Franko, Jennifer; Anderson, Katie L.; Munson, Albert E.; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B. Jean

    2015-01-01

    Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is an industrial chemical, used as a paint and adhesive solvent, with the potential for significant increases in production. Using select immune function assays, the purpose of these studies was to evaluate the immunotoxicity of DMC following dermal exposure using a murine model. Following a 28-day exposure, DMC produced a significant decrease in thymus weight at concentrations of 75% and greater. No effects on body weight, hematological parameters (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and their differentials), or immune cell phenotyping (B-cells, T-cells, and T-cell sub-sets) were identified. The IgM antibody response to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was significantly reduced in the spleen but not the serum. DMC was not identified to be an irritant and evaluation of the sensitization potential, conducted using the local lymph node assay (LLNA) at concentrations ranging from 50–100%, did not identify increases in lymphocyte proliferation. These results demonstrate that dermal exposure to DMC induces immune suppression in a murine model and raise concern about potential human exposure and the need for occupational exposure regulations. PMID:22953780

  9. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Sakuragi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new energy sources has become particularly important from the perspective of energy security and environmental protection. Therefore, the utilization of waste resources such as industrial food wastes (IFWs in energy production is expected. The central research institute of electric power industry (CRIEPI, Tokyo, Japan has recently developed an energy-saving oil-extraction technique involving the use of liquefied dimethyl ether (DME, which is an environmentally friendly solvent. In this study, three common IFWs (spent coffee grounds, soybean, and rapeseed cakes were evaluated with respect to oil yield for biodiesel fuel (BDF production by the DME extraction method. The coffee grounds were found to contain 16.8% bio-oil, whereas the soybean and rapeseed cakes contained only approximately 0.97% and 2.6% bio-oil, respectively. The recovered oils were qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The properties of fatty acid methyl esters derived from coffee oil, such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, and higher heating value (HHV, were also determined. Coffee grounds had the highest oil content and could be used as biofuel. In addition, the robust oil extraction capability of DME indicates that it may be a favourable alternative to conventional oil extraction solvents.

  10. Effects of dimethyl ether on the performance characteristics of a direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sang Hern; Lee, Chang Sik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Activation loss is significantly reduced in fuel cell with DME-methanol. • DME crossover through the membrane reduces. • The open circuit voltage of DME-methanol the fuel cell increases. • The overall efficiency of the mixed fuel cell is higher than that of DMFC. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dimethyl ether (DME) on the performance characteristics of a direct methanol fuel cell. Impedance and crossover experiments were performed in order to investigate the performance losses such as ohmic loss, activation loss and crossover loss accurately. The DME was pressurized to 5 bar to supply with liquid phase was and blended with an aqueous methanol solution. In this experiment, the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was composed of Nafion 115, anode catalyst loaded Pt–Ru and cathode catalyst loaded Pt-Black. Experimental results showed that fuel cells with DME-methanol enhanced performance when compared to fuel cells with methanol only. Such performance enhancement was due to a decrease in activation losses by DME oxidation reactions. As the DME crossover through the membrane was reduced, the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the fuel cell increased. Other output characteristics are also discussed

  11. Raman Spectra of Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Dimethyl ether, Formaldehyde and Propane for Combustion Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Magnotti, G.; KC, Utsav; Varghese, P.L.; Barlow, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman scattering measurements of temperature and major species concentration in hydrocarbon-air flames require detailed knowledge of the Raman spectra of the hydrocarbons present when fuels more complex than methane are used. Although hydrocarbon spectra have been extensively studied at room temperature, there are no data available at higher temperatures. Quantum mechanical calculations, when available are not sufficiently accurate for combustion applications. This work presents experimental measurements of spontaneous Stokes-Raman scattering spectra of methane, ethylene, ethane, dimethyl ether, formaldehyde and propane in the temperature range 300-860 K. Raman spectra from heated hydrocarbons jets have been collected with a higher resolution than is generally employed for Raman measurements in combustion applications. A set of synthetic spectra have been generated for each hydrocarbon, providing the basis for extrapolation to higher temperatures. The spectra provided here will enable simultaneous measurements of multiple hydrocarbons in flames. This capability will greatly extend the range of applicability of Raman measurements in combustion applications. In addition, the experimental spectra provide a validation dataset for quantum mechanical models.

  12. The abundant marine bacterium Pelagibacter simultaneously catabolizes dimethylsulfoniopropionate to the gases dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jing; Todd, Jonathan D.; Thrash, J. Cameron; Qian, Yanping; Qian, Michael C.; Temperton, Ben; Guo, Jiazhen; Fowler, Emily K.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; De Leenheer, Patrick; Payne, Samuel H.; Johnston, Andrew W. B.; Davie-Martin, Cleo L.; Halsey, Kimberly H.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

    2016-05-16

    Marine phytoplankton produce ~109 tons of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) per year1,2, an estimated 10% of which is catabolized by bacteria through the DMSP cleavage pathway to the climatically active gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS)3,4. SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria (order Pelagibacterales), the most abundant chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the oceans, have been shown to assimilate DMSP into biomass, thereby supplying this cell’s unusual requirement for reduced sulfur5,6. Here we report that Pelagibacter HTCC1062 produces the gas methanethiol (MeSH) and that simultaneously a second DMSP catabolic pathway, mediated by a DMSP lyase, shunts as much as 59% of DMSP uptake to DMS production. We propose a model in which the allocation of DMSP between these pathways is kinetically controlled to release increasing amounts of DMS as the supply of DMSP exceeds cellular sulfur demands for biosynthesis. These findings suggest that DMSP supply and demand relationships in Pelagibacter metabolism are important to determining rates of oceanic DMS production.

  13. Combined photolysis and catalytic ozonation of dimethyl phthalate in a high-gravity rotating packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.-C. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chiu, C.-Y. [Department of Cosmetic Science and Application, Lan-Yang Institute of Technology, I-Lan 261, Taiwan (China); Chang, C.-Y. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cychang3@ntu.edu.tw; Chang, C.-F. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-H. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Science, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan (China); Ji, D.-R.; Yu, Y.-H.; Chiang, P.-C. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, a high-gravity rotating packed bed (HGRPB) was used as a catalytic ozonation reactor to decompose dimethyl phthalate (DMP), an endocrine disrupting chemical commonly encountered. The HGRPB is an effective gas-liquid mixing equipment which can enhance the ozone mass transfer coefficient. Platinum-containing catalyst (Pt/-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of Dash 220N and ultra violet (UV) lamp were combined in the high-gravity ozonation (HG-OZ) system to enhance the self-decomposition of molecular ozone in liquid to form highly reactive radical species. Different combinations of HG-OZ with Dash 220N and UV for the degradation of DMP were tested. These include HG-OZ, HG catalytic OZ (HG-Pt-OZ), HG photolysis OZ (HG-UV-OZ) and HG-UV-Pt-OZ. The result indicated that all the above four ozonation processes result in significant decomposition of DMP and mineralization of total organic carbon (TOC) at the applied ozone dosage per volume of liquid sample of 1.2 g L{sup -1}. The UV and Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} combined in HG-OZ can enhance the TOC mineralization efficiency ({eta}{sub TOC}) to 56% (via HG-UV-OZ) and 57% (via HG-Pt-OZ), respectively, while only 45% with ozone only. The process of HG-UV-Pt-OZ offers the highest {eta}{sub TOC} of about 68%.

  14. Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) as a candidate phase change material for high temperature thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuecuekaltun, Engin [Advansa Sasa Polyester San, A.S., Adana (Turkey); Paksoy, Halime; Bilgin, Ramazan; Yuecebilgic, Guezide [Cukurova Univ., Adana (Turkey). Chemistry Dept.; Evliya, Hunay [Cukurova Univ., Adana (Turkey). Center for Environmental Research

    2010-07-01

    Thermal energy storage at elevated temperatures, particularly in the range of 120-250 C is of interest with a significant potential for industrial applications that use process steam at low or intermediate pressures. At given temperature range there are few studies on thermal energy storage materials and most of them are dedicated to sensible heat. In this study, Dimethyl Terephthalate - DMT (CAS No: 120-61-6) is investigated as a candidate phase change material (PCM) for high temperature thermal energy storage. DMT is a monomer commonly used in Polyethylene terephtalate industry and has reasonable cost and availability. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis and heating cooling curves show that DMT melts at 140-146 C within a narrow window. Supercooling that was detected in DSC results was not observed in the cooling curve measurements made with a larger sample. With a latent heat of 193 J/g, DMT is a candidate PCM for high temperature storage. Potential limitations such as, low thermal conductivity and sublimation needs further investigation. (orig.)

  15. Cathodic deposition of CdSe films from dimethyl formamide solution at optimized temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, J. [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103, West Bengal (India)]. E-mail: jayati_datta@rediffmail.com; Bhattacharya, C. [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103, West Bengal (India); Visiting Research Associate, School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW (Australia); Bandyopadhyay, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2006-12-15

    In the present paper, thin film CdSe compound semiconductors have been electroplated on transparent conducting oxide coated glass substrates from nonaqueous dimethyl formamide bath containing CdCl{sub 2}, KI and Se under controlled temperature ranging from 100 to 140 deg. C. Thickness of the deposited films as obtained through focussed ion beam technique as well as their microstructural and photoelectrochemical properties have been found to depend on temperature. The film growth was therefore optimized at a bath temperature {approx}125 deg. C. The formation of crystallites in the range of 100-150 nm size has been ascertained through atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays for the as deposited film confirmed the 1:1 composition of CdSe compound in the matrix exhibiting band-gap energy of 1.74 eV. Microstructural properties of the deposited films have been determined through X-ray diffraction studies, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction pattern analysis. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-potential measurements have been performed to characterize the electrochemical behavior of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. The photo-activity of the films have been recorded in polysulphide solution under illumination and solar conversion efficiency {>=}1% was achieved.

  16. Biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate by Sphingomonas sp. isolated from phthalic-acid-degrading aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ping; Moy, Benjamin Yan-Pui; Song, Yong-Hui; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2008-10-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) contamination in water, air, and soil is one of the major environmental concerns in many countries. Besides the PAE biodegradation process, the PAE degrading bacteria have become one of the focuses of study. This study reports the successful isolation of one kind of indigenous bacterium PA-02 from phthalic acid (PA)-degrading aerobic granules. Based on its 16S ribosomal DNA sequence, isolate PA-02 was identified as Sphingomonas genus with 100% similarity to Sphingomonas sp. strain D84532. Strain PA-02 was a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with strong auto-aggregation ability. In particular, the strain PA-02 possessed PAE-degrading ability without acclimation. Results of growth tests showed that strain PA-02 could degrade dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dibutyl phthalate, and diethylhexyl phthalate. The specific degradation rates of DMP and PA were concentration-dependent with maximum values of 0.4 g-DMP g(-1) biomass h(-1) and 1.3 g-PA g(-1) biomass h(-1), respectively. Kinetic studies also revealed that PA-02 was robust under high concentrations of DMP and PA. Even when the PA concentration was increased to 1,000.0 mg l(-1), the specific PA degradation rate was about 0.25 g-PA g(-1) biomass h(-1). The corresponding value for DMP was 0.067 g-DMP g(-1) biomass h(-1) at 1,000 mg l(-1).

  17. Research on the degradation mechanism of dimethyl phthalate in drinking water by strong ionization discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, ZHAO; Chengwu, YI; Rongjie, YI; Huijuan, WANG; Lanlan, YIN; I, N. MUHAMMAD; Zhongfei, MA

    2018-03-01

    The degradation mechanism of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in the drinking water was investigated using strong ionization discharge technology in this study. Under the optimized condition, the degradation efficiency of DMP in drinking water was up to 93% in 60 min. A series of analytical techniques including high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy were used in the study. It was found that a high concentration of ozone (O3) produced by dielectric barrier discharge reactor was up to 74.4 mg l-1 within 60 min. Tert-butanol, isopropyl alcohol, carbonate ions ({{{{CO}}}3}2-) and bicarbonate ions ({{{{HCO}}}3}-) was added to the sample solution to indirectly prove the presence and effect of hydroxyl radicals (·OH). These analytical findings indicate that mono-methyl phthalate, phthalic acid (PA) and methyl ester PA were detected as the major intermediates in the process of DMP degradation. Finally, DMP and all products were mineralized into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) ultimately. Based on these analysis results, the degradation pathway of DMP by strong ionization discharge technology were proposed.

  18. Enhanced dimethyl phthalate biodegradation by accelerating phthalic acid di-oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yingxia; Zhang, Yongming; Jiang, Ling; Yang, Chao; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2017-12-01

    The aerobic biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) is initiated with two hydrolysis reactions that generate an intermediate, phthalic acid (PA), that is further biodegraded through a two-step di-oxygenation reaction. DMP biodegradation is inhibited when PA accumulates, but DMP's biodegradation can be enhanced by adding an exogenous electron donor. We evaluated the effect of adding succinate, acetate, or formate as an exogenous electron donor. PA removal rates were increased by 15 and 30% for initial PA concentrations of 0.3 and 0.6 mM when 0.15 and 0.30 mM succinate, respectively, were added as exogenous electron donor. The same electron-equivalent additions of acetate and formate had the same acceleration impacts on PA removal. Consequently, the DMP-removal rate, even PA coexisting with DMP simultaneously, was accelerated by 37% by simultaneous addition of 0.3 mM succinate. Thus, lowering the accumulation of PA by addition of an electron increased the rate of DMP biodegradation.

  19. Kinetic evaluation and process performance of a fixed film bioreactor removing phthalic acid and dimethyl phthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Mesdaghinia, Ali-Reza; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar

    2009-08-15

    Phthalate esters are toxic organic contaminants which can enter into the environment through various industrial processes. In this study, a 6-liter fixed film bioreactor was used to examine biodegradation of phthalic acid (PA) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in synthetic wastewater. Effect on the process of two operating factors, namely hydraulic retention time (HRT) (at four levels ranging between 6 and 48 h) and initial phthalate concentrations (at six levels ranging from 10mg to 500 mg/l), was investigated. The process was stable at all operating conditions, except for the condition with influent PA and DMP of 500 mg/l and HRT of 6h. More than 95% removal efficiency was achieved for the conditions with HRT longer than 10h. Remarkable amount of DMP (398 mg/kg of sludge) was adsorbed on the biomass due to its higher hydrophobicity compared to PA (171 mg/kg). The kinetic parameters (mu(m,)K(s), Y and K(d)) were determined and compared for both substrates, PA and DMP.

  20. Capability of the Direct Dimethyl Ether Synthesis Process for the Conversion of Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainara Ateka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME is an ideal process to achieve the environmental objective of CO2 conversion together with the economic objective of DME production. The effect of the reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, space time and feed composition (ternary mixtures of H2 + CO + CO2 with different CO2/CO and H2/COx molar ratios on the reaction indices (COx conversion, product yield and selectivity, CO2 conversion has been studied by means of experiments carried out in a fixed-bed reactor, with a CuO-ZnO-MnO/SAPO-18 catalyst, in order to establish suitable ranges of operating conditions for enhancing the individual objectives of CO2 conversion and DME yield. The optimums of these two objectives are achieved in opposite conditions, and for striking a good balance between both objectives, the following conditions are suitable: 275–300 °C; 20–30 bar; 2.5–5 gcat h (molC−1 and a H2/COx molar ratio in the feed of 3. CO2/CO molar ratio in the feed is of great importance. Ratios below 1/3 are suitable for enhancing DME production, whereas CO2/CO ratios above 1 improve the conversion of CO2. This conversion of CO2 in the overall process of DME synthesis is favored by the reverse water gas shift equation, since CO is more active than CO2 in the methanol synthesis reaction.

  1. Numerical analysis of spray characteristics of dimethyl ether and diethyl ether fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Balaji; Yang, Wenming; Yu, Wenbin; Tay, Kun Lin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermo-physical properties of liquid DME and DEE are reported. • Ether fuels tend to cavitate higher compared to that of diesel fuel. • Spray tip penetration and SMD are found to be lesser for ether fuels. • Ether fuels shows excellent atomization behavior. - Abstract: In this work, the spray characteristics of ether fuels such as dimethyl ether (DME) and diethyl ether (DEE) have been numerically investigated using KIVA-4 CFD code. A new hybrid spray model developed by coupling the standard KHRT model to cavitation sub model was used. The detailed thermo-physical properties of ether fuels have been predicted and validated with experimental results available from literature. The cavitation inception inside the injector nozzle hole has been studied for ether fuels in comparison with diesel fuel. It was found that ether fuels cavitates higher compared to that of conventional diesel fuel because of its low viscosity. The spray tip penetration of diesel fuel was longer than that of ether fuels due to high viscosity and density of diesel fuel. Ether fuels characterized by low Ohnesorge number and high Reynolds number showed better atomization behavior compared to that of the diesel fuel.

  2. An Iterative O-Methyltransferase Catalyzes 1,11-Dimethylation of Aspergillus fumigatus Fumaric Acid Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Daniel; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Schieferdecker, Sebastian; Nett, Markus; Brakhage, Axel A; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2016-10-04

    S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransfer is a common biosynthetic strategy to modify natural products. We investigated the previously uncharacterized Aspergillus fumigatus methyltransferase FtpM, which is encoded next to the bimodular fumaric acid amide synthetase FtpA. Structure elucidation of two new A. fumigatus natural products, the 1,11-dimethyl esters of fumaryl-l-tyrosine and fumaryl-l-phenylalanine, together with ftpM gene disruption suggested that FtpM catalyzes iterative methylation. Final evidence that a single enzyme repeatedly acts on fumaric acid amides came from an in vitro biochemical investigation with recombinantly produced FtpM. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated that this methyltransferase is active as a dimer. As ftpA and ftpM homologues are found clustered in other fungi, we expect our work will help to identify and annotate natural product biosynthesis genes in various species. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Performance of modified H-ZSM-5 zeolite for dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanpour, Samaneh; Taghizadeh, Majid [Department of chemical engineering, Babol University of Technology, P.O. Box 484, 4714871167 Babol (Iran); Yaripour, Fereydoon [Catalyst Research Group, Petrochemical Research and Technology Company, National Petrochemical Company, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-10-15

    The conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether was carried out over various commercial zeolites and modified H-ZSM-5 catalysts to evaluate their catalytic performance. A series of commercially available zeolite samples were used for vapor-phase dehydration of methanol to DME. Catalyst screening tests were performed in a fixed-bed reactor under the same operating conditions (T = 300 S, P = 16 barg, WHSV = 3.8 h{sup -1}). It was found that all the H-form zeolite catalysts in this study were active and selective for DME synthesis. According to the experimental results MDHC-1 catalyst exhibited the highest activity in dehydration of methanol. After finding the most active catalyst, the H-MFI90 zeolite was modified with Na content varying from 0 to 120 mol%, via wet-impregnation method to further improve its selectivity. All of catalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, NH{sub 3}-TPD, ICP, TGA, SEM, FT-IR and TPH techniques. It was found that these materials affected activity of MDHC-1 zeolite by changing its acidity. Ultimately, among all the catalysts studied, Na{sub 100}-modified H-MFI90 zeolite exhibited optimum activity, selectivity and stability at methanol dehydration reaction. (author)

  4. A Hierarchically Micro-Meso-Macroporous Zeolite CaA for Methanol Conversion to Dimethyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical zeolite CaA with microporous, mesoporous and macroporous structure was hydrothermally synthesized by a ”Bond-Blocking” method using organo-functionalized mesoporous silica (MS as a silica source. The characterization by XRD, SEM/TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption techniques showed that the prepared material had well-crystalline zeolite Linde Type A (LTA topological structure, microspherical particle morphologies, and hierarchically intracrystalline micro-meso-macropores structure. With the Bond-Blocking principle, the external surface area and macro-mesoporosity of the hierarchical zeolite CaA can be adjusted by varying the organo-functionalized degree of the mesoporous silica surface. Similarly, the distribution of the micro-meso-macroporous structure in the zeolite CaA can be controlled purposely. Compared with the conventional microporous zeolite CaA, the hierarchical zeolite CaA as a catalyst in the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME, exhibited complete DME selectivity and stable catalytic activity with high methanol conversion. The catalytic performances of the hierarchical zeolite CaA results clearly from the micro-meso-macroporous structure, improving diffusion properties, favoring the access to the active surface and avoiding secondary reactions (no hydrocarbon products were detected after 3 h of reaction.

  5. Surface conjugation of poly (dimethyl siloxane) with itaconic acid-based materials for antibacterial effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birajdar, Mallinath S.; Cho, Hyunjoo; Seo, Youngmin; Choi, Jonghoon; Park, Hansoo

    2018-04-01

    Poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) is widely used in various biomedical applications. However, the PDMS surface is known to cause bacterial adhesion and protein absorption issues due to its high hydrophobicity. Therefore, the development of antibacterial and anti-protein products is necessary to prevent these problems. In this study, to improve its antibacterial property and prevent protein adsorption, PDMS surfaces were conjugated with itaconic acid (IA) and poly (itaconic acid) (PIA) via a chemical method. Additionally, IA and PIA were physically blended with PDMS to compare the antibacterial properties of these materials with those of the chemically conjugated PDMS surfaces. The successful synthesis of the PIA polymer structure was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. The successful conjugation of IA and PIA on PDMS was confirmed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle measurements, and microbicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay analyses. The PDMS surfaces functionalized with IA and PIA by the conjugation method better prevented protein adsorption than the bare PDMS. Therefore, these surface-conjugated PDMS can be used in various biomedical applications.

  6. A Preliminary Study Of The Effect Of Some Pressurising Gasses On The Viscosity Of Dimethyl Ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    -micro glass viscometers, size 25, submerged completely in a constant temperature bath. A kinematic viscosity of 0,188 cSt  0,001 cSt @ 25 C, was found, consistent with the previous and initial result 0,186 cSt   0,002 cSt. Key words: Dimethyl Ether (DME), a clean substitute for diesel oil. DME viscosity......, of glass, has been used. No significant change of the efflux time was found for all the pressurising gasses, except for the gas CO2. A reduction of efflux times was found for the CO2 of about 9 %   0,6 %. The measurement accuracy for all these series was found for this very low viscosity fluid...... to be in the range 0,2 % up to more than 1 %. The previously reported viscosity of DME has been corrected for the surface tension effect. Viscosity determination was initially based on a direct comparison of efflux times of DME with efflux times of distilled water. Assuming an upper limit for the variation...

  7. Wettability, optical properties and molecular structure of plasma polymerized diethylene glycol dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, T C A M; Algatti, M A; Mota, R P; Honda, R Y; Kayama, M E; Kostov, K G; Fernandes, R S [FEG-DFQ-UNESP, Av. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha 333, 12516-410 - Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Cruz, N C; Rangel, E C, E-mail: algatti@feg.unesp.b [UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, 511, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-05-01

    Modern industry has frequently employed ethylene glycol ethers as monomers in plasma polymerization process to produce different types of coatings. In this work we used a stainless steel plasma reactor to grow thin polymeric films from low pressure RF excited plasma of diethylene glycol dimethyl ether. Plasmas were generated at 5W RF power in the range of 16 Pa to 60 Pa. The molecular structure of plasma polymerized films and their optical properties were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy, respectively. The IR spectra show C-H stretching at 3000-2900 cm{sup -1}, C=O stretching at 1730-1650 cm{sup -1}, C-H bending at 1440-1380 cm{sup -1}, C-O and C-O-C stretching at 1200-1000 cm{sup -1}. The refraction index was around 1.5 and the optical gap calculated from absorption coefficient presented value near 3.8 eV. Water contact angle of the films ranged from 40 deg. to 35 deg. with corresponding surface energy from 66 to 73x10{sup -7} J. Because of its favorable optical and hydrophilic characteristics these films can be used in ophthalmic industries as glass lenses coatings.

  8. Electron momentum spectroscopy of dimethyl ether taking account of nuclear dynamics in the electronic ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, Filippo; Deleuze, Michael Simon; Watanabe, Noboru; Kojima, Masataka; Takahashi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The influence of nuclear dynamics in the electronic ground state on the (e,2e) momentum profiles of dimethyl ether has been analyzed using the harmonic analytical quantum mechanical and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics approaches. In spite of fundamental methodological differences, results obtained with both approaches consistently demonstrate that molecular vibrations in the electronic ground state have a most appreciable influence on the momentum profiles associated to the 2b 1 , 6a 1 , 4b 2 , and 1a 2 orbitals. Taking this influence into account considerably improves the agreement between theoretical and newly obtained experimental momentum profiles, with improved statistical accuracy. Both approaches point out in particular the most appreciable role which is played by a few specific molecular vibrations of A 1 , B 1 , and B 2 symmetries, which correspond to C–H stretching and H–C–H bending modes. In line with the Herzberg-Teller principle, the influence of these molecular vibrations on the computed momentum profiles can be unraveled from considerations on the symmetry characteristics of orbitals and their energy spacing

  9. Study on combustion characteristics of dimethyl ether under the moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yinhu; Lu, Tianfeng; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Huang, Xiaomei; Peng, Shini; Yang, Dong; Ji, Xuanyu; Song, Yangfan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxygen content in the flame base increased due to the prolonged ignition delay time. • Flow field in the furnace affected thermal/chemical structure of the flame partially. • Preheating and dilution facilitated moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution regime. • Dominant pollutant formation ways of dimethyl ether in hot dilution were clarified. • Preheating and dilution reduced nitrogen oxide emission of dimethyl ether. - Abstract: Experiments and numerical simulations were conducted in this paper to study the combustion behavior of dimethyl ether in the moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution regime, in terms of thermal/chemical structure and chemical kinetics associated with nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions. Several co-flow temperatures and oxygen concentrations were involved in the experiments to investigate their impacts on the flame behavior systematically. The results show that in the moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution regime, oxygen concentrations in the flame base slightly increased because of the prolonged ignition delay time of the reactant mixture due to oxidizer dilution, which changed the local combustion process and composition considerably. The oxidation rates of hydrocarbons were significantly depressed in the moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution regime, such that a fraction of unburned hydrocarbons at the furnace outlet were recirculated into the outer annulus of the furnace, which changed the local radial profiles of carbon monoxide, methane, and hydrogen partially. Moreover, with the increment in co-flow temperature or oxygen mole fraction, flame temperature, and hydroxyl radical, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen mole fractions across the reaction zone increased gradually. For the dimethyl ether-moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution flame, temperature homogeneity was improved at higher co-flow temperature or lower oxygen mole fraction. The carbon monoxide emission depended on the levels of temperature and

  10. Dimethyl phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) induces glioma regression by inhibiting angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yan-qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Division of Histology and Embryology, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); He, Xiao-dong [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Jun, Li [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Bioengineering Medicine, National Engineering Research Centre of Genetic Medicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chuai, Manli [Division of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Wang, Ju [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Bioengineering Medicine, National Engineering Research Centre of Genetic Medicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Li-jing, E-mail: wanglijing62@163.com [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Division of Histology and Embryology, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-01-15

    1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) is a synthetic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that could reduce airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that DMPP could dramatically inhibit glioma size maintained on the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We first performed MTT and BrdU incorporation experiments on U87 glioma cells in vitro to understand the mechanism involved. We established that DMPP did not significantly affect U87 cell proliferation and survival. We speculated that DMPP directly caused the tumor to regress by affecting the vasculature in and around the implanted tumor on our chick CAM model. Hence, we conducted detailed analysis of DMPP's inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Three vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo models were used in the study which included (1) early chick blood islands formation, (2) chick yolk-sac membrane (YSW) and (3) CAM models. The results revealed that DMPP directly suppressed all developmental stages involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis – possibly by acting through Ang-1 and HIF-2α signaling. In sum, our results show that DMPP could induce glioma regression grown on CAM by inhibiting vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. - Highlights: ●We demonstrated that DMPP inhibited the growth of glioma cells on chick CAM. ●DMPP did not significantly affect the proliferation and survival of U87 cells. ●We revealed that DMPP suppressed vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in chick embryo. ●Angiogenesis in chick CAM was inhibited by DMPP via most probably Ang-1 and HIF-2α. ●DMPP could be potentially developed as an anti-tumor drug in the future.

  11. RNA Polymerase III Output Is Functionally Linked to tRNA Dimethyl-G26 Modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneeshkumar G Arimbasseri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of the differential abundance or activity of tRNAs can be important determinants of gene regulation. RNA polymerase (RNAP III synthesizes all tRNAs in eukaryotes and it derepression is associated with cancer. Maf1 is a conserved general repressor of RNAP III under the control of the target of rapamycin (TOR that acts to integrate transcriptional output and protein synthetic demand toward metabolic economy. Studies in budding yeast have indicated that the global tRNA gene activation that occurs with derepression of RNAP III via maf1-deletion is accompanied by a paradoxical loss of tRNA-mediated nonsense suppressor activity, manifested as an antisuppression phenotype, by an unknown mechanism. We show that maf1-antisuppression also occurs in the fission yeast S. pombe amidst general activation of RNAP III. We used tRNA-HydroSeq to document that little changes occurred in the relative levels of different tRNAs in maf1Δ cells. By contrast, the efficiency of N2,N2-dimethyl G26 (m(22G26 modification on certain tRNAs was decreased in response to maf1-deletion and associated with antisuppression, and was validated by other methods. Over-expression of Trm1, which produces m(22G26, reversed maf1-antisuppression. A model that emerges is that competition by increased tRNA levels in maf1Δ cells leads to m(22G26 hypomodification due to limiting Trm1, reducing the activity of suppressor-tRNASerUCA and accounting for antisuppression. Consistent with this, we show that RNAP III mutations associated with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy decrease tRNA transcription, increase m(22G26 efficiency and reverse antisuppression. Extending this more broadly, we show that a decrease in tRNA synthesis by treatment with rapamycin leads to increased m(22G26 modification and that this response is conserved among highly divergent yeasts and human cells.

  12. Applicability of dimethyl ether (DME) in a compression ignition engine as an alternative fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Su Han; Lee, Chang Sik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overall characteristics of DME fueled engine are reviewed. • Fuel properties characteristics of DME are introduced. • New technologies for DME vehicle are systemically reviewed. • Research trends for the development of DME vehicle in the world are introduced. - Abstract: From the perspectives of environmental conservation and energy security, dimethyl-ether (DME) is an attractive alternative to conventional diesel fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This review article deals with the application characteristics of DME in CI engines, including its fuel properties, spray and atomization characteristics, combustion performance, and exhaust emission characteristics. We also discuss the various technological problems associated with its application in actual engine systems and describe the field test results of developed DME-fueled vehicles. Combustion of DME fuel is associated with low NO x , HC, and CO emissions. In addition, PM emission of DME combustion is very low due to its molecular structure. Moreover, DME has superior atomization and vaporization characteristics than conventional diesel. A high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate can be used in a DME engine to reduce NO x emission without any increase in soot emission, because DME combustion is essentially soot-free. To decrease NO x emission, engine after-treatment devices, such as lean NO x traps (LNTs), urea-selective catalytic reduction, and the combination of EGR and catalyst have been applied. To use DME fuel in automotive vehicles, injector design, fuel feed pump, and the high-pressure injection pump have to be modified, combustion system components, including sealing materials, have to be rigorously designed. To use DME fuel in the diesel vehicles, more research is required to enhance its calorific value and engine durability due to the low lubricity of DME, and methods to reduce NO x emission are also required

  13. Dimethyl fumarate is highly cytotoxic in KRAS mutated cancer cells but spares non-tumorigenic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett Saidu, Nathaniel Edward; Bretagne, Marie; Mansuet, Audrey Lupo; Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Leroy, Karen; Cerles, Olivier; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Nicco, Carole; Damotte, Diane; Alifano, Marco; Borghese, Bruno; Goldwasser, François; Batteux, Frédéric; Alexandre, Jérôme

    2018-01-01

    KRAS mutation, one of the most common molecular alterations observed in adult carcinomas, was reported to activate the anti-oxidant program driven by the transcription factor NRF2 (Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2). We previously observed that the antitumoral effect of Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is dependent of NRF2 pathway inhibition. We used in vitro methods to examine the effect of DMF on cell death and the activation of the NRF2/DJ-1 antioxidant pathway. We report here that DMF is preferentially cytotoxic against KRAS mutated cancer cells. This effect was observed in patient-derived cancer cell lines harbouring a G12V KRAS mutation, compared with cell lines without such a mutation. In addition, KRAS*G12V over-expression in the human Caco-2 colon cancer cell line significantly promoted DMF-induced cell death, as well as DMF-induced- reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and -glutathione (GSH) depletion. Moreover, in contrast to malignant cells, our data confirms that the same concentration of DMF has no significant cytotoxic effects on non-tumorigenic human ARPE-19 retinal epithelial, murine 3T3 fibroblasts and primary mice bone marrow cells; but is rather associated with NRF2 activation, decreased ROS and increased GSH levels. Furthermore, DJ-1 down-regulation experiments showed that this protein does not play a protective role against NRF2 in non-tumorigenic cells, as it does in malignant ones. This, interestingly, could be at the root of the differential effect of DMF observed between malignant and non-tumorigenic cells. Our results suggest for the first time that the dependence on NRF2 observed in mutated KRAS malignant cells makes them more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of DMF, which thus opens up new prospects for the therapeutic applications of DMF. PMID:29507676

  14. Dimethyl fumarate is highly cytotoxic in KRAS mutated cancer cells but spares non-tumorigenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett Saidu, Nathaniel Edward; Bretagne, Marie; Mansuet, Audrey Lupo; Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Leroy, Karen; Cerles, Olivier; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Nicco, Carole; Damotte, Diane; Alifano, Marco; Borghese, Bruno; Goldwasser, François; Batteux, Frédéric; Alexandre, Jérôme

    2018-02-06

    KRAS mutation, one of the most common molecular alterations observed in adult carcinomas, was reported to activate the anti-oxidant program driven by the transcription factor NRF2 (Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2). We previously observed that the antitumoral effect of Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is dependent of NRF2 pathway inhibition. We used in vitro methods to examine the effect of DMF on cell death and the activation of the NRF2/DJ-1 antioxidant pathway. We report here that DMF is preferentially cytotoxic against KRAS mutated cancer cells. This effect was observed in patient-derived cancer cell lines harbouring a G12V KRAS mutation, compared with cell lines without such a mutation. In addition, KRAS*G12V over-expression in the human Caco-2 colon cancer cell line significantly promoted DMF-induced cell death, as well as DMF-induced- reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and -glutathione (GSH) depletion. Moreover, in contrast to malignant cells, our data confirms that the same concentration of DMF has no significant cytotoxic effects on non-tumorigenic human ARPE-19 retinal epithelial, murine 3T3 fibroblasts and primary mice bone marrow cells; but is rather associated with NRF2 activation, decreased ROS and increased GSH levels. Furthermore, DJ-1 down-regulation experiments showed that this protein does not play a protective role against NRF2 in non-tumorigenic cells, as it does in malignant ones. This, interestingly, could be at the root of the differential effect of DMF observed between malignant and non-tumorigenic cells. Our results suggest for the first time that the dependence on NRF2 observed in mutated KRAS malignant cells makes them more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of DMF, which thus opens up new prospects for the therapeutic applications of DMF.

  15. Characterization of lymphopenia in patients with MS treated with dimethyl fumarate and fingolimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaei-Nejad, Maryam; Barilla, David; Lee, Chieh-Hsin; Blevins, Gregg; Giuliani, Fabrizio

    2018-03-01

    Lymphopenia is a common occurrence of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). The aim of this study was to dissect the prevalence of various lymphocyte subsets in patients with RRMS treated with 2 DMTs commonly associated with lymphopenia, dimethyl fumarate (DMF), and fingolimod (FTY). Multicolor flow cytometry and multiplex assays were used to identify up to 50 lymphocyte subpopulations and to examine the expression of multiple cytokines in selected patients. We compared patients untreated (NT) or treated with FTY or DMF who did (DMF-L) or did not (DMF-N) develop lymphopenia. All FTY patients developed lymphopenia in both T-cell and B-cell compartments. CD41 T cells were more affected by this treatment than CD81 cells. In the B-cell compartment, the CD271IgD2 subpopulation was reduced. T cells but not B cells were significantly reduced in DMF-L. However, within the B cells, CD271 cells were significantly lower. Both CD41 and CD81 subpopulations were reduced in DMF-L. Within the remaining CD41 and CD81 compartments, there was an expansion of the naive subpopulation and a reduction of the effector memory subpopulation. Unactivated lymphocyte from DMF-L patients had significantly higher levels of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-1β compared with DMF-N. In plasma, TNFβ was significantly higher in DMF-N and DMF-L compared with NT, whereas CCL17 was significantly higher in DMF-L compared with NT and DMF-N. This study shows that different treatments can target different lymphocyte compartments and suggests that lymphopenia can induce compensatory mechanisms to maintain immune homeostasis.

  16. Production of volatiles by the red seaweed Gelidium arbuscula (Rhodophyta): emission of ethylene and dimethyl sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jimenez, Pilar; Brito-Romano, Olegario; Robaina, Rafael R

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different light conditions and exogenous ethylene on the emission of volatile compounds from the alga Gelidium arbuscula Bory de Saint-Vincent were studied. Special emphasis was placed on the possibility that the emission of ethylene and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) are related through the action of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) lyase. The conversion of DMSP to DMS and acrylate, which is catalyzed by DMSP lyase, can indirectly support the synthesis of ethylene through the transformation of acrylate to ethylene. After mimicking the desiccation of G. arbuscula thalli experienced during low tides, the volatile compounds emitted were trapped in the headspace of 2 mL glass vials for 1 h. Two methods based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that the range of organic volatile compounds released was affected by abiotic factors, such as the availability and spectral quality of light, salinity, and exogenous ethylene. Amines and methyl alkyl compounds were produced after exposure to white light and darkness but not after exposure to exogenous ethylene or red light. Volatiles potentially associated with the oxidation of fatty acids, such as alkenes and low-molecular-weight oxygenated compounds, accumu-lated after exposure to exogenous ethylene and red light. Ethylene was produced in all treatments, especially after exposure to exogenous ethylene. Levels of DMS, the most abundant sulfur-compound that was emitted in all of the conditions tested, did not increase after incubation with ethylene. Thus, although DMSP lyase is active in G. arbuscula, it is unlikely to contribute to ethylene synthesis. The generation of ethylene and DMS do not appear to be coordinated in G. arbuscula. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  17. Environmental assessment of an alkyl dimethyl benyzl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) based mollusicide using laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs, M.G.; Cherry, D.S.; Scott, J.C. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Petrille, J.C. [Betz Water Management Center, Trevose, PA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    A series of acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted to estimate the potential environmental impact of n-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) when used to control zebra mussels and other types of macrofouling organism in industrial cooling systems. The ADBAC-based molluscicide was tested as pure product and often detoxification with bentonite clay. Six flow-through acute tests were conducted to estimate the toxicity of ADBAC. In addition three chronic toxicity tests using Pimephales promelas, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of complexing the ADBAC-based molluscicide with a bentonite clay as a detoxification strategy. A 29-day CO{sub 2} Production test was also conducted to evaluate the biodegradability of the molluscicide. Of the six species tested in acute flow-through experiments, D. magna (LC{sub 50} = 0.02 mg ADBAC/L) was the most sensitive species followed by Mysidopsis bahia (LC{sub 50} = 0.08 mg ADBAC/L), Menidia beryllina (LC{sub 50} = 0.88 mg ADBAC/L), P. promelas (LC{sub 50} = 0.36 mg ADBAC/L), Cyprinodon variegatus (LC{sub 50} = 0.88 mg ADBAC/L), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (LC{sub 50} = 1.01 mg ADBAC/L). In the detoxification studies the three test species were exposed to treatment levels of: 0:0, 2.5:0, 2.5:25, 2.5:37.5, 2.5:50, 2.5:75, and 0:75 as mg/L ADBAC:clay. Bentonite clay was found to be an effective detoxification agent for this molluscicide at all treatment levels, except for the 2.5:25 treatment. In addition, a biodegradation study showed that the ADBAC-based molluscicide was readily biodegradable by unacclimated activated sludge microorganisms releasing 65.9% of the theoretical possible CO{sub 2} after 29 days.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of ω-Halogenated Poly(dimethyl siloxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Farrokhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(dimethyl siloxane (PDMS has received special attention due to its unique properties such as high surface tension, high gas permeability, high hydrophobicity, high chain flexibility at room temperature, good biocompatibility and very low glass transition temperature. One of the simplest methods to impart these properties in copolymers is to use PDMS as a macroinitiator in the controlled radical polymerization. In the present study, hydroxyl-ω PDMS was characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and GPC analyses. The results showed that there is an impurity present in the commercial hydroxyl-ω PDMS. Functionalization reactions were used to investigate the reactivity of the impurities. Hydroxyl-terminated PDMS was brominated via 2-bromopropionyl bromide and α-bromoisobutyryl bromide. Brominated PDMS, used as a macroinitiator in the atom transfer radical polymerization, was then iodinated by sodium iodide in anhydrous acetone as a solvent to prepare iodinated PDMS. Bromination and iodination were verified by FTIR, 1H NMR and GPC analyses. GPC results showed that a high molecular weight impurity present in the sample can be removed after functionalization and purification of PDMS though there may be still impurities remain in the purified product. 1H NMR spectrum of the brominated and iodinated PDMS showed that the peaks related to the impurity do not show any change in intensity and chemical shift in comparison with those appeared in the 1H NMR spectrum of the hydroxyl-ω PDMS, indicating that impure species are not reactive in chemical modifications. In other words, these impurity species do not have any hydroxyl reactive functional group.

  19. Enhancement by dimethyl myleran of donor type chimerism in murine recipients of bone marrow allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, T.; Terenzi, A.; Singer, T.S.; Salomon, O.; Reisner, Y.

    1989-01-01

    A major problem in using murine models for studies of bone marrow allograft rejection in leukemia patients is the narrow margin in which graft rejection can be analyzed. In mice irradiated with greater than 9 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) rejection is minimal, whereas after administration of 8 Gy TBI, which spares a significant number of clonable T cells, a substantial frequency of host stem cells can also be detected. In current murine models, unlike in humans, bone marrow allograft rejection is generally associated with full autologous hematopoietic reconstitution. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the myeloablative drug dimethyl myleran (DMM) on chimerism status following transplantation of T cell-depleted allogenic bone marrow (using C57BL/6 donors and C3H/HeJ recipients, conditioned with 8 Gy TBI). Donor type chimerism 1 to 2 months post-transplant of 1 to 3 x 10(6) bone marrow cells was markedly enhanced by using DMM one day after TBI and prior to transplantation. Conditioning with cyclophosphamide instead of DMM, in combination with 8 Gy TBI, did not enhance engraftment of donor type cells. Artificial reconstitution of T cells, after conditioning with TBI plus DMM, by adding mature thymocytes, or presensitization with irradiated donor type spleen cells 1 week before TBI and DMM, led to strong graft rejection and consequently to severe anemia. The anti-donor responses in these models were proportional to the number of added T cells and to the number of cells used for presensitization, and they could be neutralized by increasing the bone marrow inoculum

  20. An advanced modeling study on the impacts and atmospheric implications of multiphase dimethyl sulfide chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Erik Hans; Tilgner, Andreas; Schrödner, Roland; Bräuer, Peter; Wolke, Ralf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Oceans dominate emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), the major natural sulfur source. DMS is important for the formation of non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42−) aerosols and secondary particulate matter over oceans and thus, significantly influence global climate. The mechanism of DMS oxidation has accordingly been investigated in several different model studies in the past. However, these studies had restricted oxidation mechanisms that mostly underrepresented important aqueous-phase chemical processes. These neglected but highly effective processes strongly impact direct product yields of DMS oxidation, thereby affecting the climatic influence of aerosols. To address these shortfalls, an extensive multiphase DMS chemistry mechanism, the Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism DMS Module 1.0, was developed and used in detailed model investigations of multiphase DMS chemistry in the marine boundary layer. The performed model studies confirmed the importance of aqueous-phase chemistry for the fate of DMS and its oxidation products. Aqueous-phase processes significantly reduce the yield of sulfur dioxide and increase that of methyl sulfonic acid (MSA), which is needed to close the gap between modeled and measured MSA concentrations. Finally, the simulations imply that multiphase DMS oxidation produces equal amounts of MSA and sulfate, a result that has significant implications for nss-SO42− aerosol formation, cloud condensation nuclei concentration, and cloud albedo over oceans. Our findings show the deficiencies of parameterizations currently used in higher-scale models, which only treat gas-phase chemistry. Overall, this study shows that treatment of DMS chemistry in both gas and aqueous phases is essential to improve the accuracy of model predictions. PMID:27688763

  1. Boundary layer and free-tropospheric dimethyl sulfide in the Arctic spring and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremaninezhad, Roghayeh; Norman, Ann-Lise; Croft, Betty; Martin, Randall V.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Burkart, Julia; Rempillo, Ofelia; Bozem, Heiko; Kunkel, Daniel; Thomas, Jennie L.; Aliabadi, Amir A.; Wentworth, Gregory R.; Levasseur, Maurice; Staebler, Ralf M.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Leaitch, W. Richard

    2017-07-01

    Vertical distributions of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS(g)) were sampled aboard the research aircraft Polar 6 near Lancaster Sound, Nunavut, Canada, in July 2014 and on pan-Arctic flights in April 2015 that started from Longyearbyen, Spitzbergen, and passed through Alert and Eureka, Nunavut, and Inuvik, Northwest Territories. Larger mean DMS(g) mixing ratios were present during April 2015 (campaign mean of 116 ± 8 pptv) compared to July 2014 (campaign mean of 20 ± 6 pptv). During July 2014, the largest mixing ratios were found near the surface over the ice edge and open water. DMS(g) mixing ratios decreased with altitude up to about 3 km. During April 2015, profiles of DMS(g) were more uniform with height and some profiles showed an increase with altitude. DMS reached as high as 100 pptv near 2500 m. Relative to the observation averages, GEOS-Chem (www.geos-chem.org) chemical transport model simulations were higher during July and lower during April. Based on the simulations, more than 90 % of the July DMS(g) below 2 km and more than 90 % of the April DMS(g) originated from Arctic seawater (north of 66° N). During April, 60 % of the DMS(g), between 500 and 3000 m originated from Arctic seawater. During July 2014, FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) simulations locate the sampled air mass over Baffin Bay and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago 4 days back from the observations. During April 2015, the locations of the air masses 4 days back from sampling were varied: Baffin Bay/Canadian Archipelago, the Arctic Ocean, Greenland and the Pacific Ocean. Our results highlight the role of open water below the flight as the source of DMS(g) during July 2014 and the influence of long-range transport (LRT) of DMS(g) from further afield in the Arctic above 2500 m during April 2015.

  2. Adsorption Removal of Environmental Hormones of Dimethyl Phthalate Using Novel Magnetic Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chi Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic polyvinyl alcohol adsorbent M-PVAL was employed to remove and concentrate dimethyl phthalate DMP. The M-PVAL was prepared after sequential syntheses of magnetic Fe3O4 (M and polyvinyl acetate (M-PVAC. The saturated magnetizations of M, M-PVAC, and M-PVAL are 57.2, 26.0, and 43.2 emu g−1 with superparamagnetism, respectively. The average size of M-PVAL by number is 0.75 μm in micro size. Adsorption experiments include three cases: (1 adjustment of initial pH (pH0 of solution to 5, (2 no adjustment of pH0 with value in 6.04–6.64, and (3 adjusted pH0 = 7. The corresponding saturated amounts of adsorption of unimolecular layer of Langmuir isotherm are 4.01, 5.21, and 4.22 mg g−1, respectively. Values of heterogeneity factor of Freundlich isotherm are 2.59, 2.19, and 2.59 which are greater than 1, revealing the favorable adsorption of DMP/M-PVAL system. Values of adsorption activation energy per mole of Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm are, respectively, of low values of 7.04, 6.48, and 7.19 kJ mol−1, indicating the natural occurring of the adsorption process studied. The tiny size of adsorbent makes the adsorption take place easily while its superparamagnetism is beneficial for the separation and recovery of micro adsorbent from liquid by applying magnetic field after completion of adsorption.

  3. The solvent effects on dimethyl phthalate investigated by FTIR characterization, solvent parameter correlation and DFT computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Wenzhao; Deng, Chao; Liao, Jian

    2018-06-01

    This study set out with the aim of investigating the solvent effects on dimethyl phthalate (DMP) using FTIR characterization, solvent parameter correlation and DFT calculation. DMP exposed to 17 organic solvents manifested varying shift in the carbonyl stretching vibration frequency (νCdbnd O). Non-alkanols induced Band I and alkanols produced Band I and Band II. Through correlating the νCdbnd O with the empirical solvent scales including acceptor parameter (AN), Schleyer's linear free energy parameter (G), and linear free salvation energy relationships (LSER), Band I was mainly ascribed to non-specific effects from either non-alkanols or alkanol polymers ((alkanol)n). νCdbnd O of the latter indicated minor red shift and less variability compared to the former. An assumption was made and validated about the sequestering of hydroxyl group by the bulky hydrophobic chain in (alkanol)n, creating what we refer to as "screening effects". Ab initio calculation, on the other hand, provided insights for possible hydrogen binding between DMP and (ethanol)n or between ethanol monomers. The two components of Band I observed in inert solvents were assigned to the two Cdbnd O groups adopting differentiated conformations. This in turn prompted our consideration that hydrogen binding was highly selective in favor of lowly associated (alkanol)n and the particular Cdbnd O group having relatively less steric hindrance and stronger electron-donating capacity. Band II was therefore believed to derive from hydrogen-bond interactions mainly in manner of 1:1 and 1:2 DMP-(alkanol)n complexes.

  4. Dimethyl phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) induces glioma regression by inhibiting angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yan-qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu; He, Xiao-dong; Jun, Li; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wang, Ju; Wang, Li-jing; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) is a synthetic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that could reduce airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that DMPP could dramatically inhibit glioma size maintained on the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We first performed MTT and BrdU incorporation experiments on U87 glioma cells in vitro to understand the mechanism involved. We established that DMPP did not significantly affect U87 cell proliferation and survival. We speculated that DMPP directly caused the tumor to regress by affecting the vasculature in and around the implanted tumor on our chick CAM model. Hence, we conducted detailed analysis of DMPP's inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Three vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo models were used in the study which included (1) early chick blood islands formation, (2) chick yolk-sac membrane (YSW) and (3) CAM models. The results revealed that DMPP directly suppressed all developmental stages involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis – possibly by acting through Ang-1 and HIF-2α signaling. In sum, our results show that DMPP could induce glioma regression grown on CAM by inhibiting vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. - Highlights: ●We demonstrated that DMPP inhibited the growth of glioma cells on chick CAM. ●DMPP did not significantly affect the proliferation and survival of U87 cells. ●We revealed that DMPP suppressed vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in chick embryo. ●Angiogenesis in chick CAM was inhibited by DMPP via most probably Ang-1 and HIF-2α. ●DMPP could be potentially developed as an anti-tumor drug in the future

  5. Attribution of atmospheric sulfur dioxide over the English Channel to dimethyl sulfide and changing ship emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) near Plymouth, United Kingdom, between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near Plymouth Sound. A new International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce the maximum allowed sulfur content in ships' fuel 10-fold in sulfur emission control areas such as the English Channel. Our observations suggest a 3-fold reduction in ship-emitted SO2 from 2014 to 2015. Apparent fuel sulfur content calculated from coincidental SO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) peaks from local ship plumes show a high level of compliance to the IMO regulation (> 95 %) in both years (˜ 70 % of ships in 2014 were already emitting at levels below the 2015 cap). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from about one-third in 2014 to about one-half in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  6. Discovery and widespread occurrence of polyhalogenated 1,1'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyrroles (PDBPs) in marine biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauler, Carolin; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Gaus, Caroline; Mueller, Jochen F.; Vetter, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Polyhalogenated 1,1′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyrroles (PDBPs) are halogenated natural products (HNPs) previously shown to bioaccumulate in marine mammals and birds. Since their discovery in 1999, six hexahalogenated and a few lesser halogenated congeners have been identified in diverse marine mammal samples. Here we report the identification of 17 additional hexahalogenated PDBPs in the blubber extract of a humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) from Queensland, Australia. Thirteen of these new PDBPs were also detected in an Australian sea cucumber (Holothuria sp.). Additional samples were also tested positive on several new PDBPs, including an Australian venus tuskfish (Choerodon venustus) as well as a white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) and a sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) from the Northern Hemisphere. GC/ECNI-MS-SIM quantification of the molecular ions was carried out with the help of synthesized standards. The sum concentration of PDBPs was 1.1 mg/kg lipid in the humpback dolphin and 0.48 mg/kg lipid in the sea cucumber. -- Highlights: •Polyhalogenated 1,1′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyrroles (PDBPs) are natural products. •17 New hexahalogenated PDBPs were identified in marine biota from Australia. •A humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) contained 1.1 mg/kg lipid PDBPs. •New PDBPs were also detected in marine mammals from the Northern Hemisphere. -- Detection of new polyhalogenated 1,1′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyrroles indicates a higher toxic risk of these halogenated natural products in the marine environment than previously known

  7. Infrared spectra of complex organic molecules in astronomically relevant ice matrices. I. Acetaldehyde, ethanol, and dimethyl ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, J.; Ligterink, N. F. W.; Boogert, A. C. A.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The number of identified complex organic molecules (COMs) in inter- and circumstellar gas-phase environments is steadily increasing. Recent laboratory studies show that many such species form on icy dust grains. At present only smaller molecular species have been directly identified in space in the solid state. Accurate spectroscopic laboratory data of frozen COMs, embedded in ice matrices containing ingredients related to their formation scheme, are still largely lacking. Aim. This work provides infrared reference spectra of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), ethanol (CH3CH2OH), and dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) recorded in a variety of ice environments and for astronomically relevant temperatures, as needed to guide or interpret astronomical observations, specifically for upcoming James Webb Space Telescope observations. Methods: Fourier transform transmission spectroscopy (500-4000 cm-1/20-2.5 μm, 1.0 cm-1 resolution) was used to investigate solid acetaldehyde, ethanol and dimethyl ether, pure or mixed with water, CO, methanol, or CO:methanol. These species were deposited on a cryogenically cooled infrared transmissive window at 15 K. A heating ramp was applied, during which IR spectra were recorded until all ice constituents were thermally desorbed. Results: We present a large number of reference spectra that can be compared with astronomical data. Accurate band positions and band widths are provided for the studied ice mixtures and temperatures. Special efforts have been put into those bands of each molecule that are best suited for identification. For acetaldehyde the 7.427 and 5.803 μm bands are recommended, for ethanol the 11.36 and 7.240 μm bands are good candidates, and for dimethyl ether bands at 9.141 and 8.011 μm can be used. All spectra are publicly available in the Leiden Database for Ice.

  8. Characterization of the novel dimethyl sulfide-degrading bacterium Alcaligenes sp. SY1 and its biochemical degradation pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yiming; Qiu, Jiguo; Chen, Dongzhi; Ye, Jiexu; Chen, Jianmeng, E-mail: jchen@zjut.edu.cn

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • A novel efficient DMS-degrading bacterium Alcaligenes sp. SY1 was identified. • A RSM was applied to optimize incubation condition of Alcaligenes sp. SY1. • SIP was applied as C{sup 13} labelled DMS to trace intermediates during DMS degradation. • Kinetics of DMS degradation via batch experiment was revealed. • Carbon and sulfur balance were analyzed during DMS degradation process. - Abstract: Recently, the biodegradation of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) has become a burgeoning field, with a growing focus on the reduction of VOSCs. The reduction of VOSCs encompasses both organic emission control and odor control. Herein, Alcaligenes sp. SY1 was isolated from active sludge and found to utilize dimethyl sulfide (DMS) as a growth substrate in a mineral salt medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis was applied to optimize the incubation conditions. The following conditions for optimal degradation were identified: temperature 27.03 °C; pH 7.80; inoculum salinity 0.84%; and initial DMS concentration 1585.39 μM. Under these conditions, approximately 99% of the DMS was degraded within 30 h of incubation. Two metabolic compounds were detected and identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS): dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). The DMS degradation kinetics for different concentrations were evaluated using the Haldane–Andrews model and the pseudo first-order model. The maximum specific growth rate and degradation rate of Alcaligenes sp. SY1 were 0.17 h{sup −1} and 0.63 gs gx{sup −1} h{sup −1}. A possible degradation pathway is proposed, and the results suggest that Alcaligenes sp. SY1 has the potential to control odor emissions under aerobic conditions.

  9. Fragrance material review on 1-(2,4-dimethyl-3-cyclohexenyl)-2,2-dimethylpropan-1-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(2,4-dimethyl-3-cyclohexenyl)-2,2-dimethylpropan-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(2,4-Dimethyl-3-cyclohexenyl)-2,2-dimethylpropan-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(2,4-dimethyl-3-cyclohexenyl)-2,2-dimethylpropan-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients (submitted for publication)) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of the role of microbes as source and sink of Dimethyl Sulphide in Dona Paula bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.S.

    , Rassoulzadegan F, Krajka B, Nguyen BC, Mihalopoulos N, Buat- Menard P (1990) Production of dimethylsulfonium propionate (DMSP) and Dimethylsulfide (DMS) by a microbial food web. Limnology and Oceanography 35:1810 - 1821 Belviso S, Moulin C. Bopp L, Stefels J...-like dimethyl sulfide- producing marine isolate. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61: 21 - 26 de Souza M P &Yoch D C (1996) N-terminal amino acid sequences and comparison of DMSP lyases from Pseudomonas doudoroffii and Alcaligenes strain M3A,. In R P...

  11. Dimethyl 2,2′-[Carbonylbis(azanediyl](2S,2′S-bis[3-(4-hydroxyphenylpropanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Mancuso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The thus-far unknown ureic derivative dimethyl 2,2′-[carbonylbis(azanediyl](2S,2′S-bis[3-(4-hydroxyphenylpropanoate] has been efficiently synthesized by enantiospecific oxidative carbonylation of readily available l-tyrosine methyl ester, using a very simple catalytic system (PdI2 in conjunction with KI under relatively mild conditions (100 °C for 5 h in DME as the solvent and under 20 atm of a 4:1 mixture CO-air.

  12. Treatment of waste gas containing low concentration of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in a bench-scale biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, B S; Mudliar, S N; Deshmukh, S C; Banerjee, S; Pandey, R A

    2010-04-01

    Biological treatment of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) was investigated in a bench-scale biofilter, packed with compost along with wood chips, and enriched with DMS degrading microorganism Bacillus sphaericus. The biofilter could remove 62-74% of the inlet DMS, at an optimum loading of 0.484 g/m(3)/h with optimum empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 384 s and an average moisture range of 65-70%. The biodegradative products of DMS were sulphide, thiosulphate and sulphate. Evaluation of microbiological status of the biofilter indicated the presence of other bacterial cultures viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium, besides B. sphaericus. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction of Dy(III and Sm(III with N,N’-dimethyl-N,N’-dioctylsuccinamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG ZHENWEI

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was focused on the applicability of a new diamide N,N’-dimethyl- N,N’-dioctylsuccinamide (DMDOSA employing cyclohexane as the diluent to extract Dy(III and Sm(III from nitric acid solutions. The extraction from HNO3 was investigated by distributionmeasurements. The stoichiometry of the predominant adducts of DMDOSA with HNO3 is 1:1 (HNO3 .DMDOSA under the studied conditions. The effect of the concentrations of nitric acid, lithium nitrate and extractant on the distribution ratio was investigated. An IR spectral study was also made of the extracted species.

  14. Cryosurgical treatment of warts: dimethyl ether and propane versus liquid nitrogen - case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nicholas V; Burkhart, Craig G

    2011-10-01

    For years, dermatologists have relied on cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen as a safe and effective treatment for warts. More recently, several over-the-counter (OTC) wart-freezing therapies have become available. Manufacturers have substituted liquid nitrogen with dimethyl ether and propane (DMEP), and marketed these new preparations to be safe and effective alternatives to in-office cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. However, data from in vitro studies and comparative studies in humans refute manufacturers' claims that these products reproduce in-office cryotherapy.

  15. Reaction of 1-bromo-3-chloropropane with tellurium and dimethyl telluride in the system of hydrazine hydrate-alkali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russavskaya, N.V.; Levanova, E.P.; Sukhomazova, Eh.N.; Grabel'nykh, V.A.; Elaev, A.V.; Klyba, L.V.; Zhanchipova, E.R.; Albanov, A.I.; Korotaeva, I.M.; Toryashinova, D.S.D.; Korchevin, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis of oligomeric substance of thiocol type, the poly(trimethyleneditelluride), from 1-bromo-3-chloropropane and elemental tellurium is performed using a hydrazine hydrate-alkali system. Reductive splitting of the tellurocol followed by alkylation with methyl iodide give rise to preparation of bis(methyltelluro)propane, which was synthesized also from dimethyl telluride and 1,3-dihalopropanes using the N 2 H 4 ·H 2 O/KOH system. The reaction products were characterized by elementary analysis, NMR, and IR spectra. Mass spectra of the synthesized low molecular weight organotellurium compounds are considered [ru

  16. Interaction of La3+, Ce3+, Pr3+ and Sm3+ with DL-aspartic acid in dimethyl sulphoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, M.C.; Saxena, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III) and Sm(III) form 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with DL-aspartic acid in 20% aq. dimethyl sulphoxide at μ = 0.1M (NaClO 4 ) as revealed by pH-metric and conductometric titrations. Stabilities of the complexes follow the order: La 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ . The overall changes in ΔG, ΔH and ΔS for the metal-ligand interaction have also been reported at 30deg C. (auth.)

  17. catena-Poly[[copper(II)-bis[μ-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyuk, Maksym; Haukka, Matti; Pavlenko, Vadim A.; Fritsky, Igor O.

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, {[Cu(C10H14N4Se)2](ClO4)2}n, the CuII ion is located on a twofold rotation axis and has a tetra­gonally distorted square-planar geometry constituted by four N atoms. A pair of bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) selenide (L) ligands bridges the copper centers into a polymeric chain extending along [001]. The perchlorate anions are involved in inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding, which links the chains into layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:21578140

  18. catena-Poly[[copper(II-bis[μ-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl selenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksym Seredyuk

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Cu(C10H14N4Se2](ClO42}n, the CuII ion is located on a twofold rotation axis and has a tetragonally distorted square-planar geometry constituted by four N atoms. A pair of bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl selenide (L ligands bridges the copper centers into a polymeric chain extending along [001]. The perchlorate anions are involved in intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonding, which links the chains into layers parallel to the bc plane.

  19. Effect of H2 addition on combustion characteristics of dimethyl ether jet diffusion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yinhu; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Gan, Lu; Ji, Xuanyu; Wang, Hu; Guo, Qiang; Song, Decai; Ji, Pengyu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DME- and H 2 -dominated combustion regimes were quantitatively characterized. • The flame structure changed significantly when H 2 addition was above 60 vol.%. • An empirical correlation for normalized flame entrainment rate was developed. • The optimal H 2 addition to DME was 60 vol.% in the practical engineering. - Abstract: In this paper, experiments and numerical calculations were conducted to investigate the effect of H 2 addition on dimethyl ether (DME) jet diffusion flame behaviors, in terms of thermal and chemical structures, reaction zone size, flame entrainment, and NOx and CO emission indices. A wide range of H 2 additions from pure DME to pure H 2 were involved herein, while maintaining the volumetric flow rate of fuel mixture constant. The results indicate that when H 2 mole fraction in the fuel mixture exceeded 60%, the blended fuel was converted to H 2 -dominated. Besides, the flames behaved rather distinctly at the DME- and H 2 -dominated regimes. With the increment in H 2 addition, flame temperature, H 2 , H, O, and OH concentrations increased gradually, but concentrations of the intermediate hydrocarbons (such as CO, CH 2 O, CH 2 , and CH 3 ) decreased on the contrary. Additionally, after the flame became H 2 -dominated, the species concentrations varied increasingly quickly with H 2 addition. The reaction zone length and width decreased nearly linearly with H 2 addition at the DME- and H 2 -dominated regimes. But the decreasing speed of reaction zone length became faster after the flame was converted to H 2 -dominated. At the DME-dominated regime, the dependence of flame entrainment coefficient (C e ) on H 2 addition was rather small. While at the H 2 -dominated regime, C e increased increasingly quickly with H 2 addition. Moreover, with the increment in H 2 addition, NOx emission index increased and CO emission index decreased gradually. In addition, at the DME-dominated regime, NOx emission index increased fairly slowly

  20. Effect of Dimethyl Ether Mixing on Soot Size Distribution in Premixed Ethylene Flame

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zepeng

    2016-04-21

    As a byproduct of incomplete combustion, soot attracts increasing attentions as extensive researches exploring serious health and environmental effects from soot particles. Soot emission reduction requires a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and of soot formation and aging processes. Therefore, advanced experimental techniques and numerical simulations have been conducted to investigate this procedure. In order to investigate the effects of dimethyl ether (DME) mixing on soot particle size distribution functions (PSDFs), DME was mixed in premixed ethylene/oxygen/argon at flames at the equivalence ratio of 2.0 with a range of mixing ratio from 0% to 30% of the total carbon fed. Two series of atmospheric pressure flames were tested in which cold gas velocity was varied to obtain different flame temperatures. The evolution of PSDFs along the centerline of the flame was determined by burner stabilized stagnation probe and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) techniques, yielding the PSDFs for various separation distances above the burner surface. Meanwhile, the flame temperature profiles were carefully measured by a thermocouple and the comparison to that of simulated laminar premixed burner-stabilized stagnation flame was satisfactory. Additionally, to understand the chemical role of DME mixing in soot properties, characterization measurements were conducted on soot samples using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis (EA). Results of the evolution of PSDFs and soot volume fraction showed that adding DME into ethylene flame could reduce soot yield significantly. The addition of DME led to the decrease of both the soot nucleation rate and the particle mass growth rate. To explain the possible mechanism for the observation, numerical simulations were performed. Although DME addition resulted in the slight increase of methyl radicals from pyrolysis, the decrease in acetylene and propargyl radicals

  1. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Dimethyl Fumarate in Astrocytes Involve Glutathione and Haem Oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Xia Lin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available DMF (dimethyl fumarate exerts anti-inflammatory and prometabolic effects in a variety of cell types, and a formulation (BG-12 is being evaluated for monotherapy in multiple sclerosis patients. DMF modifies glutathione (GSH levels that can induce expression of the anti-inflammatory protein HO-1 (haem oxygenase-1. In primary astrocytes and C6 glioma cells, BG-12 dose-dependently suppressed nitrite production induced by either LI [LPS (lipopolysaccharide at 1 μg/ml plus IFNγ (interferon γ at 20 units/ml] or a mixture of proinflammatory cytokines, with greater efficacy in C6 cells. BG-12 reduced NOS2 (nitric oxide synthase 2 mRNA levels and activation of a NOS2 promoter, reduced nuclear levels of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB p65 subunit and attenuated loss of |κBα (inhibitory κBα in both cell types, although with greater effects in astrocytes. In astrocytes, LI decreased mRNA levels for GSHr (GSH reductase and GCL (c-glutamylcysteine synthetase, and slightly suppressed GSHs (GSH synthetase mRNAs. Co-treatment with BG-12 prevented those decreased and increased levels above control values. In contrast, LI reduced GSHp (GSH peroxidase and GCL in C6 cells, and BG-12 had no effect on those levels. BG-12 increased nuclear levels of Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2, an inducer of GSH-related enzymes, in astrocytes but not C6 cells. In astrocytes, GSH was decreased by BG-12 at 2 h and increased at 24 h. Prior depletion of GSH using buthionine-sulfoximine increased the ability of BG-12 to reduce nitrites. In astrocytes, BG-12 increased HO-1 mRNA levels and effects on nitrite levels were blocked by an HO-1 inhibitor. These results demonstrate that BG-12 suppresses inflammatory activation in astrocytes and C6 glioma cells, but with distinct mechanisms, different dependence on GSH and different effects on transcription factor activation.

  2. Boundary layer and free-tropospheric dimethyl sulfide in the Arctic spring and summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghahremaninezhad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical distributions of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS(g were sampled aboard the research aircraft Polar 6 near Lancaster Sound, Nunavut, Canada, in July 2014 and on pan-Arctic flights in April 2015 that started from Longyearbyen, Spitzbergen, and passed through Alert and Eureka, Nunavut, and Inuvik, Northwest Territories. Larger mean DMS(g mixing ratios were present during April 2015 (campaign mean of 116  ±  8 pptv compared to July 2014 (campaign mean of 20  ±  6 pptv. During July 2014, the largest mixing ratios were found near the surface over the ice edge and open water. DMS(g mixing ratios decreased with altitude up to about 3 km. During April 2015, profiles of DMS(g were more uniform with height and some profiles showed an increase with altitude. DMS reached as high as 100 pptv near 2500 m. Relative to the observation averages, GEOS-Chem (www.geos-chem.org chemical transport model simulations were higher during July and lower during April. Based on the simulations, more than 90 % of the July DMS(g below 2 km and more than 90 % of the April DMS(g originated from Arctic seawater (north of 66° N. During April, 60 % of the DMS(g, between 500 and 3000 m originated from Arctic seawater. During July 2014, FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model simulations locate the sampled air mass over Baffin Bay and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago 4 days back from the observations. During April 2015, the locations of the air masses 4 days back from sampling were varied: Baffin Bay/Canadian Archipelago, the Arctic Ocean, Greenland and the Pacific Ocean. Our results highlight the role of open water below the flight as the source of DMS(g during July 2014 and the influence of long-range transport (LRT of DMS(g from further afield in the Arctic above 2500 m during April 2015.

  3. Vibrational spectra and ab initio analysis of tert-butyl, trimethylsilyl, and trimethylgermyl derivatives of 3,3-dimethyl cyclopropene V. 3,3-Dimethyl-1-(trimethylgermyl)cyclopropene

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maré, G. R.; Panchenko, Yu. N.; Abramenkov, A. V.; Baird, M. S.; Tverezovsky, V. V.; Nizovtsev, A. V.; Bolesov, I. G.

    2004-02-01

    3,3-Dimethyl-1-(trimethylgermyl)cyclopropene ( I) was synthesised using a standard procedure. The IR and Raman spectra of I in the liquid phase were measured. The molecular geometry of I was optimised completely at the HF/6-31G* level. The HF/6-31G*//HF/6-31G* force field was calculated and scaled using the set of scale factors transferred from those determined previously for scaling the theoretical force fields of 3,3-dimethylbutene-1 and 1-methyl-, 1,2-dimethyl-, and 3,3-dimethylcyclopropene. The assignments of the observed vibrational bands were performed using the theoretical frequencies calculated from the scaled HF/6-31G*//HF/6-31G* force field and the ab initio values of the IR intensities, Raman cross-sections and depolarisation ratios. The theoretical spectra are given. The completely optimised structural parameters of I and its vibrational frequencies are compared with corresponding data of related molecules.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of 6-Chloro-4,4‧-dimethyl-2,2‧-bipyridine and 4,4‧-Dimethyl 2,2‧-bipyridine N-Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conterosito, Eleonora; Magistris, Claudio; Barolo, Claudia; Croce, Gianluca; Milanesio, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The synthesis, the NMR characterization and the crystal structure of 6-Chloro 4,4‧-dimethyl 2,2‧-bipyridine and of the reaction intermediate 4,4‧-Dimethyl 2,2‧-bipyridine N-Oxide are here reported. The target compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system while the intermediate is monoclinic. In both structures, the molecules are linked by weak interactions. The structure of the reaction intermediate N-oxide is characterized by a dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings of 161.77° while the other is almost planar with a dihedral angle of 179.15°. The crystal packing was investigated, also with the aid of Hirshfeld surface analysis. In the N-oxide reaction intermediate the packing is governed by CH-O interactions, while in the product the packing is simply driven by minimizing the voids and thus maximizing the density, with a prevalence of H•••H and C•••H contacts, as indicated by fingerprint decomposition analysis.

  5. Heat capacities and asymmetric criticality of the (liquid + liquid) coexistence curves for {dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane, or n-tridecane}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhiyun; Shi, Aiqin; Liu, Shixia; Yin, Tianxiang; Shen, Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Coexistence curves of dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane (or + n-tridecane) were measured. • Isobaric heat capacity per unit volume of critical binary solutions dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane (or + n-tridecane) were determined. • The critical exponent β are consistent with the 3D-Ising value. • The asymmetry of the coexistence curves were discussed by the complete scaling theory. - Abstract: The (liquid + liquid) coexistences and the critical behavior of isobaric heat capacity per unit volume for critical binary solutions {dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane, or n-tridecane} have been studied. The critical exponents β and α were deduced and found to be consistent with the 3D-Ising values. The critical amplitudes were determined and used to test the asymmetric criticality of coexistence curves. It was found that the heat capacity does play an important role in describing the asymmetric criticality of the coexistence curves

  6. Synthesis and fluorescence study of sodium-2-(4'-dimethyl-aminocinnamicacyl)-3,3-(1',3'-alkylenedithio) acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Zhenjun; Shao Yun; Li Chunxia; Liu Qun

    2007-01-01

    We synthesized two new compounds: Sodium 2-(4'-dimethyl-aminocinnamicacyl)-3,3-(1',3'- ethyl- enedithio) acrylate (STAA-1) and Sodium 2-(4'-dimethyl-aminocinnamicacyl)-3, 3-(1',3'-propylenedithio) acrylate (STAA-2). The maximum absorption of these compounds ranges from 460 to 520 nm with different molecular structures in different solvents. Meanwhile, the emission peak of these compounds arranges from yellow (510 nm) to red (605 nm). The emission spectra show red shift according to the strength of the hydrogen bonding property of the solvent. But the absorption spectra do not show clearly relationship with the strength of the hydrogen bonding property of the solvent. The Stoke shift of the compounds ranges from 42 to 102 nm. It changes in the following order, EtOH>H 2 O>DMF, and STAA-1>STAA-2 in the same solvent. The fluorescent quantum yield of STAA-1 was measured to be 7.12% with quinine sulphate as the standard compound in ethanol. Furthermore, the relationship of the fluorescence of STAA-1 with pH (ranges form 4 to 14) in water (c=∼10 -4 ) was studied to make sure that these compounds could be used as proton sensors

  7. Degradation of blending vulcanized natural rubber and nitril rubber (NR/NBR) by dimethyl ether through variation of elastomer ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, A. H.; Juneva, S.; Sari, T. I.; Cifriadi, A.

    2018-04-01

    Dimethyl ether can cause degradation of the rubber material seal in some applications. In order to use of natural rubber in industry, research about a blending of natural rubber (NR) and nitrile rubber (NBR) to produce rubber to meet the standard seal material application were conducted. This study will observe the degradation mechanisms that occur in the blending natural rubber and nitrile rubber (NR/NBR) by dimethyl ether. Nitrile rubber types used in this study is medium quality nitrile rubber with 33% of acrylonitrile content (NBR33). The observed parameters are percent change in mass, mechanical properties and surface morphology. This study is limited to see the effect of variation vulcanized blending ratio (NR/NBR33) against to swelling. The increase of nitrile rubber (NBR33) ratio of blending rubber vulcanized can reduce the tensile strength and elongation. The best elastomer variation was obtained after comparing with the standard feasibility material of seal is rubber vulcanized blending (NR/NBR33) with ratio 40:60 NR: NBR.

  8. N,N-dimethyl hexadecylamine and related amines regulate root morphogenesis via jasmonic acid signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya-González, Javier; Velázquez-Becerra, Crisanto; Barrera-Ortiz, Salvador; López-Bucio, José; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo

    2017-05-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are natural inhabitants of roots, colonize diverse monocot and dicot species, and affect several functional traits such as root architecture, adaptation to adverse environments, and protect plants from pathogens. N,N-dimethyl-hexadecylamine (C16-DMA) is a rhizobacterial amino lipid that modulates the postembryonic development of several plants, likely as part of volatile blends. In this work, we evaluated the bioactivity of C16-DMA and other related N,N-dimethyl-amines with varied length and found that inhibition of primary root growth was related to the length of the acyl chain. C16-DMA inhibited primary root growth affecting cell division and elongation, while promoting lateral root formation and root hair growth and density in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) wild-type (WT) seedlings. Interestingly, C16-DMA induced the expression of the jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive gene marker pLOX2:uidA, while JA-related mutants jar1, coi1-1, and myc2 affected on JA biosynthesis and perception, respectively, are compromised in C16-DMA responses. Comparison of auxin-regulated gene expression, root architectural changes in WT, and auxin-related mutants aux1-7, tir1/afb2/afb3, and arf7-1/arf19-1 to C16-DMA shows that the C16-DMA effects occur independently of auxin signaling. Together, these results reveal a novel class of aminolipids modulating root organogenesis via crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway.

  9. Quantum-mechanical study of energies, structures, and vibrational spectra of the H(D)Cl complexed with dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boda, Łukasz, E-mail: lboda@chemia.uj.edu.pl; Boczar, Marek; Gług, Maciej; Wójcik, Marek J. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-11-28

    Interaction energies, molecular structure and vibrational frequencies of the binary complex formed between H(D)Cl and dimethyl ether have been obtained using quantum-chemical methods. Equilibrium and vibrationally averaged structures, harmonic and anharmonic wavenumbers of the complex and its deuterated isotopomer were calculated using harmonic and anharmonic second-order perturbation theory procedures with Density Functional Theory B3LYP and B2PLYP-D and ab initio Møller-Plesset second-order methods, and a 6-311++G(3d,3p) basis set. A phenomenological model describing anharmonic-type vibrational couplings within hydrogen bonds was developed to explain the unique broadening and fine structure, as well as the isotope effect of the Cl–H and Cl–D stretching IR absorption bands in the gaseous complexes with dimethyl ether, as an effect of hydrogen bond formation. Simulations of the rovibrational structure of the Cl–H and Cl–D stretching bands were performed and the results were compared with experimental spectra.

  10. Preparation and characterization of Ni based on natural zeolite catalyst for citronellol conversion to 3,7-Dimethyl-1-Octanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiyarmanto, Hidayati, Luthfiana N.; Kristiani, Anis; Ghaisani, Almira; Sukandar, Dede; Adilina, Indri B.; Tursiloadi, Silvester

    2017-11-01

    Citronella oil is a kind of essential oil that contains three main components, namely citronellal, citronellol, and geraniol. The high demand of citronellal and geraniol derivative prompted scientists to develop methods which are stereo-selective synthesis. A hydrogenation reaction using heterogeneous catalyst is one way of synthesis of citronella oil derivatives. In this research, synthesis of citronellol oil derivatives using Ni based on natural zeolite (Ni/ZAB) catalyst which is expected to produce the compound of 3,7-dimethyl-1-octanol. The catalyst was prepared by supporting Ni on natural zeolite by impregnation method. The physical and chemical properties of Ni/ZAB catalyst have been characterized by TGA, BET, XRD and FTIR instrumentations. Variation of pressure and temperature reactions were conducted to determine the optimum conditions for the hydrogenation of citronellol. The products from this reaction were analyzed using GC-MS instrumentation. The yield and selectivity of 3,7-dimethyl-1-octanol compound were achieved with optimum conditions at 200°C and 20 bar during 3 hours which produced around 51.97% and 47.81% respectively.

  11. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2013-11-26

    The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what

  12. 5-[(3,5-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene]-1,3-diethyl-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman A. Khan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, 5-[(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene]-1,3-diethyl-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H-dione, has been synthesized by condensation of 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid and 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazole-4-carbaldehyde in ethanol in the presence of pyridine. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  13. Asymmetric allylation of α-ketoester-derived N-benzoylhydrazones promoted by chiral sulfoxides/N-oxides Lewis bases: highly enantioselective synthesis of quaternary α-substituted α-allyl-α-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rangel, Gloria; Bandala, Yamir; García-Flores, Fred; Juaristi, Eusebio

    2013-09-01

    Chiral sulfoxides/N-oxides (R)-1 and (R,R)-2 are effective chiral promoters in the enantioselective allylation of α-keto ester N-benzoylhydrazone derivatives 3a-g to generate the corresponding N-benzoylhydrazine derivatives 4a-g, with enantiomeric excesses as high as 98%. Representative hydrazine derivatives 4a-b were subsequently treated with SmI2, and the resulting amino esters 5a-b with LiOH to obtain quaternary α-substituted α-allyl α-amino acids 6a-b, whose absolute configuration was assigned as (S), with fundament on chemical correlation and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. (E-2-((4R,5R-5-((Benzyloxymethyl-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylbut-2-ene-1,4-diol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Carreras

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of (E-2-((4R,5R-5-((benzyloxymethyl-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylbut-2-ene-1,4-diol by a one-step reduction of the appropriate 2-substituted butenolide is reported. Product characterization was carried out by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, elemental analysis and optical rotation.

  15. Transient-Absorption Spectroscopy of Cis-Trans Isomerization of N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-Azodianiline with 3D-Printed Temperature-Controlled Sample Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosenkov, Dmytro; Shaw, James; Zuczek, Jennifer; Kholod, Yana

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory unit demonstrates a project based approach to teaching physical chemistry laboratory where upper-division undergraduates carry out a transient-absorption experiment investigating the kinetics of cis-trans isomerization of N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-azodianiline. Students participate in modification of a standard flash-photolysis spectrometer…

  16. Phase-separation phenomena in solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4 phenylene oxide). II. Differential scanning calorimetry of solutions in toluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The phase-separation phenomena observed in solutions of poly(2,6 dimethyl-1,4 phenylene oxide) in toluene have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. These measurements supplement the experimental evidence in favor of the concept that the phase transitions observed are

  17. Phase-separation phenomena in solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide). I. Thermodynamic parameters of solutions in toluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    New experimental data have been collected on thermodynamic properties of solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) in toluene. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameters g have been determined from light scattering measurements. These values are in agreement with values obtained by

  18. Interaction between poly(vinyl pyridine) and poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) : A copolymer blend miscibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Joost; van Ekenstein, Gert Alberda; ten Brinke, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    The phase behavior of blends of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) with random copolymers of styrene and 2-vinyl pyridine, Poly(S-co-2VP), as well as with random copolymers of styrene and 4-vinyl pyridine, Poly(S-co-4VP), has been investigated in order to estimate the values of the

  19. Genotoxicity evaluation of two kinds of smoke-water and 3,7-dimethyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trinh, C.; Gevaert, L.; Kohout, Ladislav; van Staden, J.; Verschaeve, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 6 (2010), s. 596-602 ISSN 0260-437X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : butenolide * smoke -water * 3,7-dimethyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one * assay * seed germination Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.322, year: 2010

  20. Phase separation phenomena in solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenyleneoxide) in mixtures of trichloroethylene, 1-octanol, and methanol: Relationship to membrane formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijmans, J.G.; Rutten, H.J.J.; Smolders, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The phase boundaries in the quaternary system consisting of the polymer poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenyleneoxide) (PPO[Note ][PPO is a registered trademark of the General Electric Company.]), the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE), and the nonsolvents 1-octanol (OcOH) and methanol (MeOH) are determined.