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Sample records for dimethyl sulfoxide solution

  1. Enthalpy of solution of potassium iodide in the water-formamide-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, L.N.; Solov'ev, S.N.; Vorob'ev, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Solution enthalpies are measured for potassium iodide in the water-formamide-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures in a sealed oscillating calorimeter with an isothermal shell at a constant water molar fraction equal to 0.3; 0.5 and 0.7 at 298.15 K. A diagram of the dependence of solution enthalpies on the of mixed solvent composition is plotted. Deviations of experimental solution enthalpies from the calculated ones are negative over the entire concentration range studied, which testifies to the preferable solvatation of electrolyte by the formid and dimthyl sulfoxide molecules

  2. γ-ray dosimetry using pararosaniline cyanide in dimethyl sulfoxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Assy, N.B.; Roushdy, H.M.; Rageh, M.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Levine, H.

    1982-01-01

    A chemical radiochromic dosimeter using pararosaniline cyanide in dimethyl sulfoxide can be used over a wide absorbed dose range. Experiments show that the dosimeter has a main optical absorption maximum at 554nm, which is 5nm higher than that of other polar solvents. Millimolar solutions of leucodye containing small amounts of carboxylic acid or nitrobenzene show a linear response for absorbed doses up to 11.75kGy. The yield of dye is linear with concentration up to 5mM. At that concentration the upper limit of linear response range can be extended to about 40kGy. The lower dose limit for 50mM concentration of the dye precursor hexahydroxyethyl pararosaniline (lambdasub(max)=608nm) is about 3Gy, with +-5%SD at a 95% confidence level, when using a 5cm pathlength cell. Dye formation yield varies not only with concentration of the leucocyanide, but also with type of oxidizing agent and temperature during irradiation. The latter parameter is especially critical, as dimethyl sulfoxide freezes at 17 0 C. The effect of storage temperature on the color produced after irradiation at different dose levels was also studied. (author)

  3. Electrical conductivity of solutions of copper(II) nitrate crystalohydrate in dimethyl sulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul K.; Mamitova, A. D.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan K.

    2016-06-01

    Conductometry is used to investigate the electric conductivity of Cu(NO3)2 ṡ 3H2O solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide in the 0.01-2.82 M range of concentrations and at temperatures of 288-318 K. The limiting molar conductivity of the electrolyte and the mobility of Cu2+ and NO 3 - ions, the effective coefficients of diffusion of copper(II) ions and nitrate ions, and the degree and constant of electrolytic dissociation are calculated for different temperatures from the experimental results. It is established that solutions containing 0.1-0.6 M copper nitrate trihydrate in DMSO having low viscosity and high electrical conductivity can be used in electrochemical deposition.

  4. Dimethyl sulfoxide complexing with iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovikov, Yu Ya; Serguchev, Yu A; Staninets, V I

    1986-01-01

    Dielectrometry, conductometry, IR-spectroscopy are used to study dimethyl sulfoxide complexing with iodine in binary system and in CCl/sub 4/, C/sub 6/H/sub 6/, C/sub 6/H/sub 5/Cl, C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CF/sub 3/, 1, 2-dichloroethane solutions. Complexes of 1:1 composition are formed in solutions, in the binary system of 2:1 and 2:2 composition. I/sub 2/ molecules add to oxygen atoms. In CCl/sub 4/ and in binary system gradual transformation of so called external charge transfer complexes (CTC-1) to internal ones (CTC-2) that are described by the 1st order reaction kinetic equations is observed. On dissolution of CTC of 2:2 composition they disproportionate into two CTC molecules 1:1. Enthalpy of forming CTC-1 1:1 is approximately 4 kcal/mol, CTC-2 1:1 - 8, CTC-1 2:1 - 8 kcal/mol.

  5. Experimental and theoretical evaluation on the microenvironmental effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on adrenaline in acid aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhang-Yu; Liu, Tao; Guo, Dao-Jun; Liu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Cheng-Bu

    2010-12-01

    The microenvironmental effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on adrenaline was studied by several approaches including the cyclic voltammetry (CV) of adrenaline at a platinum electrode in acid aqueous solution, the chemical shift of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H NMR) of adrenaline, and the change of diffusion coefficient of adrenaline. The experimental results demonstrated that DMSO has significant microenvironmental effect on adrenaline, which was confirmed by the density functional theory (DFT) study on the hydrogen bond (H-bond) complexes of adrenaline with water and DMSO.

  6. Performance of the SMD and SM8 models for predicting solvation free energy of neutral solutes in methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide and acetonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanith, Caroline C.; Pliego, Josefredo R.

    2015-03-01

    The continuum solvation models SMD and SM8 were developed using 2,346 solvation free energy values for 318 neutral molecules in 91 solvents as reference. However, no solvation data of neutral solutes in methanol was used in the parametrization, while only few solvation free energy values of solutes in dimethyl sulfoxide and acetonitrile were used. In this report, we have tested the performance of the models for these important solvents. Taking data from literature, we have generated solvation free energy, enthalpy and entropy values for 37 solutes in methanol, 21 solutes in dimethyl sulfoxide and 19 solutes in acetonitrile. Both SMD and SM8 models have presented a good performance in methanol and acetonitrile, with mean unsigned error equal or less than 0.66 and 0.55 kcal mol-1 in methanol and acetonitrile, respectively. However, the correlation is worse in dimethyl sulfoxide, where the SMD and SM8 methods present mean unsigned error of 1.02 and 0.95 kcal mol-1, respectively. Our results point out the SMx family of models need be improved for dimethyl sulfoxide solvent.

  7. Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films from dimethyl sulfoxide solution: Nucleation and growth mechanism, structural and optical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquez, R.; Badan, A.; Grez, P.; Munoz, E.; Vera, J.; Dalchiele, E.A.; Marotti, R.E.; Gomez, H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electrodeposition of CdSe nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films. → Polycrystalline wurtzite structure with a slight (1010) preferred orientation. → Absorption edge shifts in the optical properties due to quantum confinement effects. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films have been synthesized by electrodeposition at controlled potential based in the electrochemical reduction process of molecular selenium in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. The nucleation and growth mechanism of this process has been studied. The XRD pattern shows a characteristic polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with a slight (1 0 1 0) crystallographic preferred orientation. The crystallite size of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films can be simply controlled by the electrodeposition potential. A quantum size effect is deduced from the correlation between the band gap energy and the crystallite size.

  8. Solution enthalpies of alkali metal halides in water and heavy water mixtures with dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, G.I.

    1994-01-01

    Solution enthalpies of CsF, LiCl, NaI, CsI and some other halides of alkali metals and tetrabutylammonium have been measured by the method of calorimetry. Standard solution enthalpies of all alkali metals (except rubidium) halides in water and heavy water mixtures with dimethylsulfoxide at 298.15 K have been calculated. Isotopic effects in solvation enthalpy of the electrolytes mentioned in aqueous solutions of dimethylsulfoxide have been discussed. 29 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Radioprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide on two biological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, D.M.L.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Del Mastro, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of dimethyl sulfoxide treatment on two biological systems are examined: a) In vivo, the level of albinic mouse survive from IPEN, when irradiated with 9 Gy of 60 Co., 1 hour after the injection ip of DMSO 0,025M. b) In vivo, molecular level, when DMSO 1M, is added 10 min. before the irradiation with 25.000 Gy of 60 Co, from an aqueous solution of proteins from crystalline bovine. (C.G.C.) [pt

  10. Regularities of thermochemical characteristics of 1-1, 2-1, 3-1 electrolyte solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide-water and propylene carbonate water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, A.F.; Monaenkova, A.S.; AlekseeV, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    In an air-tight tilting calorimeter with an isothermal casing enthalpies of praseodymium chloride solution in water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) - water mixtures, contaning 3.86 and 18.53 mol.% DMSO, and propylene carbonate (PC) - water mixtures, containing 1.85 and 3.23 mol.% PC are measured. The enthalpies of praseodymium chloride solution in the given mixtures in case of infinite solution dilution are determined. Solvation enthalpies of praseodymium and neodymium chlorides, as well as alkali earth metal and magnesium chlorides in water and DMSO - water and PC - water mixtures are calculated. Regularities in thermochemical characteristics of solutions of the given salts in DMSO - water and PC - water mixtures are discussed

  11. Decryptification of Acid Phosphatase in Arthrospores of Geotrichum Species Treated with Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, David A.; Martel, Anita J.; MacDonald, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Decryptification of acid phosphatase in Geotrichum sp. arthrospores was accomplished using acetone or dimethyl sulfoxide treatment. Both dimethyl sulfoxide and acetone irreversibly destroyed the integrity of the spore membranes without solubilizing acid phosphatase. PMID:1167386

  12. Inactivation of MXR1 Abolishes Formation of Dimethyl Sulfide from Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a sulfur compound of importance for the organoleptic properties of beer, especially some lager beers. Synthesis of DMS during beer production occurs partly during wort production and partly during fermentation. Methionine sulfoxide reductases are the enzymes responsible for reduction of oxidized cellular methionines. These enzymes have been suggested to be able to reduce dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as well, with DMS as the product. A gene for an enzymatic activity lead...

  13. Recommended vapor pressures for thiophene, sulfolane, and dimethyl sulfoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Růžička, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 2 (2011), s. 205-216 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : thiophene sulfolane * dimethyl sulfoxide * vapor pressure * heat capacity * vaporization enthalpy * recommended vapor pressure equation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2011

  14. On the Origin of Microheterogeneity : A Mass Spectrometric Study of Dimethyl Sulfoxide-Water Binary Mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, Dong Nam; Wijnen, Jan W.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Wakisaka, Akihiro

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the microscopic solvent structure of dimethyl sulfoxide-water mixtures and its influence on the solvation structure of solute from a clustering point of View, by means of a specially designed mass spectrometric system. It was observed that the propensity to the cluster formation is

  15. Solute-solvent interactions in 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone isonicotinoylhydrazone solutions in N, N-dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide at 298-313 K on ultrasonic and viscometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikkar, A. B.; Pethe, G. B.; Aswar, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The speed of sound ( u), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) of 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone isonicotinoylhydrazone (DHAIH) have been measured in N, N-dimethyl formamide and dimethyl sulfoxide at equidistance temperatures 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15 K. These data were used to calculate some important ultrasonic and thermodynamic parameters such as apparent molar volume ( V ϕ s st ), apparent molar compressibility ( K ϕ), partial molar volume ( V ϕ 0 ) and partial molar compressibility ( K ϕ 0 ), were estimated by using the values of ( V ϕ 0 ) and ( K ϕ), at infinite dilution. Partial molar expansion at infinite dilution, (ϕ E 0 ) has also been calculated from temperature dependence of partial molar volume V ϕ 0 . The viscosity data have been analyzed using the Jones-Dole equation, and the viscosity, B coefficients are calculated. The activation free energy has been calculated from B coefficients and partial molar volume data. The results have been discussed in the term of solute-solvent interaction occurring in solutions and it was found that DHAIH acts as a structure maker in present systems.

  16. Composition and particle size of electrolytic copper powders prepared in water-containing dimethyl sulfoxide electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul'; Abzhalov, B. S.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan

    2017-07-01

    The possibility of the electroprecipitation of copper powder via the cathodic reduction of an electrolyte solution containing copper(II) nitrate trihydrate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is shown. The effect electrolysis conditions (current density, concentration and temperature of electrolyte) have on the dimensional characteristics of copper powder is studied. The size and shape of the particles of the powders were determined by means of electron microscopy; the qualitative composition of the powders, with X-ray diffraction.

  17. Diapause prevention effect of Bombyx mori by dimethyl sulfoxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Yamamoto

    Full Text Available HCl treatment has been, for about 80 years, the primary method for the prevention of entry into embryonic diapauses of Bombyx mori. This is because no method is as effective as the HCl treatment. In this study, we discovered that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO prevented entry into the diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The effect of diapause prevention was 78% as a result of treatment with 100% DMSO concentration, and the effect was comparable to that of the HCl treatment. In contrast, in the case of non-diapause eggs, hatchability was decreased by DMSO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of DMSO was restricted within 24 hours after oviposition of diapause eggs, and the critical period was slightly shorter than the effective period of the HCl treatment. DMSO analogs, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF and dimethyl sulfide (DMS, did little preventive effect against the diapause. Furthermore, we also investigated the permeation effects of chemical compounds by DMSO. When treated with an inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (CK2 dissolved in DMSO, the prevention rate of the diapause was less than 40%. This means that the inhibition effect by the CK2 inhibitor was the inhibition of embryonic development after diapause prevention by DMSO. These data suggest that DMSO has the effects of preventing from entering into the diapause and permeation of chemicals into diapause eggs.

  18. Adducts of rare earth tris-acetylacetonates with dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyubenko, N.G.; Kalenichenko, Yu.V.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1988-01-01

    Adducts of rare earth and yttrium (r.e.e., M) acetylacetonates with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), MA 3 xnDMSO are synthesized. The acetylacetonates of light r.e.e. (M=La-Tb) are shown by different physico-chemical methods to form diadducts of the MA 3 x2DMSOxH 2 O composition, where A - -acetylacetonate-ion, and the acetyl-acetonates of heavy r.e.e. (M=Dy-Lu, Y)-monoadducts MA 3 xDMSO. The estimation of adduct thermal stability is carried out using the values of seeming activation energy of their thermal degradation. Monoadducts are shown to give volatile forms of rare earth acetylacetonates during heating in vacuum, and diadducts do not form volatile forms of acetylacetonates

  19. DFT Study of dimers of dimethyl sulfoxide in gas phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Fazaeli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Density functional (DFT calculations at M05-2x/aug-cc-pVDZ level were used to analyze the interactions between dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO dimers. The structures obtained have been ana-lyzed with the Atoms in Molecules (AIMs and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO methodologies. Four minima were located on the potential energy surface of the dimers. Three types of interac-tions are observed, CH•••O, CH•••S hydrogen bonds and orthogonal interaction between the lone pair of the oxygen with the electron-deficient region of the sulfur atom. Stabilization energies of dimers including BSSE and ZPE are in the range 27–40 kJmol-1. The most stable conformers of dimers at DFT level is cyclic structure with antiparallel orientation of S=O groups pairing with three C–H∙∙∙O and a S∙∙∙O interactions.

  20. cis-Bis(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2N,N′bis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOzinc bis(tetraphenylborate dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Tomyn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the mononuclear title complex, [Zn(C10H8N22(C2H6OS2](C24H20B2·C2H6OS, the ZnII ion is coordinated by four N atoms of two bidentate 2,2′-bipyridine molecules and by the O atoms of two cis-disposed dimethyl sulfoxide molecules in a distorted octahedral geometry. The S atom and the methyl groups of one of the coordinated dimethyl sulfoxide molecules are disordered in a 0.509 (2:0.491 (2 ratio. The crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...O hydrogen bonds between the dimethyl sulfoxide solvent molecules and tetraphenylborate anions.

  1. Solubility of nicotinic acid in water, ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether, acetonitrile, and dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Elsa M.; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We determined the solubility of nicotinic acid in six solvents by the gravimetric method. ► We found that, regardless of the solvent, the same monoclinic solid phase was in equilibrium with the solution. ► We determined the activity coefficients of nicotinic acid in the six solvents. ► We found that the solubility trends seem to be determined by the polarity and polarizability of the solvent. - Abstract: The mole fraction equilibrium solubility of nicotinic acid in six solvents (water, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, acetonitrile and diethyl ether) differing in polarity, polarizability, and hydrogen-bonding ability, was determined over the temperature range (283 to 333) K, using the gravimetric method. The results obtained led to the solubility order dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ≫ ethanol > water > acetone > diethyl ether > acetonitrile. An analysis based on various solvent descriptors, indicated that this trend seems to be mainly determined by the polarity and polarizability of the solvent. The activity coefficients of nicotinic acid in the different solvents, under saturation conditions, were determined as a function of the temperature and it was found that DMSO exhibits enhanced solubility relative to an ideal solution while the opposite is observed for all other solvents. Both the solvent and the fact that nicotinic acid is primarily zwitterionic in aqueous solution and non-zwitterionic in non-aqueous media, did not affect the nature of the solid phases in equilibrium with the different solutions. Indeed, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that, despite some differences in particle size and morphology, the starting material and the solid products obtained at the end of the solubility studies in the six solvents used in this work were all crystalline and corresponded to the same monoclinic phase.

  2. Membrane permeability of the human granulocyte to water, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Alex M; Higgins, Adam Z

    2014-02-01

    Granulocytes are currently transfused as soon as possible after collection because they rapidly deteriorate after being removed from the body. This short shelf life complicates the logistics of granulocyte collection, banking, and safety testing. Cryopreservation has the potential to significantly increase shelf life; however, cryopreservation of granulocytes has proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigate the membrane permeability properties of human granulocytes, with the ultimate goal of using membrane transport modeling to facilitate development of improved cryopreservation methods. We first measured the equilibrium volume of human granulocytes in a range of hypo- and hypertonic solutions and fit the resulting data using a Boyle-van't Hoff model. This yielded an isotonic cell volume of 378 μm(3) and an osmotically inactive volume of 165 μm(3). To determine the permeability of the granulocyte membrane to water and cryoprotectant (CPA), cells were injected into well-mixed CPA solution while collecting volume measurements using a Coulter Counter. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C for exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. The best-fit water permeability was similar in the presence of all of the CPAs, with an average value at 21°C of 0.18 μmatm(-1)min(-1). The activation energy for water transport ranged from 41 to 61 kJ/mol. The CPA permeability at 21°C was 6.4, 1.0, 8.4, and 4.0 μm/min for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, respectively, and the activation energy for CPA transport ranged between 59 and 68 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant properties of dimethyl sulfoxide and its viability as a solvent in the evaluation of neuroprotective antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartín-Suárez, Carolina; Soto-Otero, Ramón; Sánchez-Sellero, Inés; Méndez-Álvarez, Estefanía

    2011-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide is an amphiphilic compound whose miscibility with water and its ability to dissolve lipophilic compounds make it an appreciated solvent in biomedical research. However, its reported antioxidant properties raise doubts about its use as a solvent in evaluating new antioxidants. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate its antioxidant properties and carry out a comparative study on the antioxidant properties of some known neuroprotective antioxidants in the presence and absence of dimethyl sulfoxide. The antioxidant properties of dimethyl sulfoxide were studied in rat brain homogenates by determining its ability to reduce both lipid peroxidation (TBARS formation) and protein oxidation (increase in protein carbonyl content and decrease in free thiol content) induced by ferrous chloride/hydrogen peroxide. Its ability to reduce the production of hydroxyl radicals by 6-hydroxydopamine autoxidation was also estimated. The same study was also performed with three known antioxidants (α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone; 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane; 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide) in the presence and absence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Our results showed that dimethyl sulfoxide is able to reduce both lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation induced by ferrous chloride/hydrogen peroxide in rat brain homogenates. It can also reduce the production of hydroxyl radicals during 6-hydroxydopamine autoxidation. However, it increases the oxidation of protein thiol groups caused by ferrous chloride/hydrogen peroxide in rat brain homogenate. Despite the here reported antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of dimethyl sulfoxide, the results obtained with α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane, and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide corroborate the antioxidant properties attributed to these compounds and support the potential use of dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent in the study of the antioxidant properties of lipophilic compounds. Dimethyl sulfoxide

  4. Trimesic acid dimethyl sulfoxide solvate: space group revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Bernès

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title solvate, C9H6O6·C2H6OS, was determined 30 years ago [Herbstein, Kapon & Wasserman (1978. Acta Cryst. B34, 1613–1617], with data collected at room temperature, and refined in the space group P21. The present redetermination, based on high-resolution diffraction data, shows that the actual space group is more likely to be P21/m. The crystal structure contains layers of trimesic acid molecules lying on mirror planes. A mirror plane also passes through the S and O atoms of the solvent molecule. The molecules in each layer are interconnected through strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional supramolecular network within each layer. The donor groups are the hydroxyls of the trimesic acid molecules, while the acceptors are the carbonyl or the sulfoxide O atoms.

  5. Dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of refractory cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ba X; Tran, Dao M; Tran, Hung Q; Nguyen, Phuong T M; Pham, Tuan D; Dang, Hong V T; Ha, Trung V; Tran, Hau D; Hoang, Cuong; Luong, Khue N; Shaw, D Graeme

    2011-01-01

    Pain is a major concern of cancer patients and a significant problem for therapy. Pain can become a predominant symptom in advanced cancers. In this open-label clinical study, the authors have treated 26 cancer patients who have been declared as terminal without the option of conventional treatment. These patients suffered from high levels of pain that was poorly managed by all available interventional approaches recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. The results indicate that intravenous infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) solution can be a viable, effective, and safe treatment for refractory pain in cancer patients. These patients had pain due to the disease progression and complication of chemotherapy and radiation. Moreover, the preliminary clinical outcome of 96-day follow-up suggests that the application of DMSO and SB solution intravenously could lead to better quality of life for patients with nontreatable terminal cancers. The data of this clinical observation indicates that further research and application of the DMSO and SB combination may help the development of an effective, safe, and inexpensive therapy to manage cancer pain.

  6. Dimethyl sulfoxide-inducible cytoplasmic factor involved in erythroid differentiation in mouse erythroleukemia (Friend) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Oishi, M.

    1987-01-01

    A previous report described an intracellular factor (differentiation-inducing factor I, or DIF-I) that seem to play a role in erythroid differentiation in mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. The authors have detected another erythroid-inducing factor in cell-free extracts from dimethyl sulfoxide- or hexamethylenebis(acetamide)-treated MEL cells, which acts synergistically with DIF-I. The partially purified factor (termed DIF-II) triggered erythroid differentiation when introduced into undifferentiated MEL cells that had been potentiated by the induction of DIF-I. The activity in the extracts appeared in an inducible manner after addition of dimethyl sulfoxide or hexamethylenebis(acetamide), reached a maximum at 6 hr, and then rapidly decreased. The induction was inhibited by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and also by cycloheximide. No induction was observed in a mutant MEL cell line defective in erythroid differentiation. These characteristics are consistent with the supposition that DIF-II is one of the putative dimethyl sulfoxide-inducible factors detected in previously reported cell-fusion and cytoplast-fusion experiments. The role of DIF-II in MEL-cell differentiation and in vitro differentiation in general is discussed

  7. Thermodynamic parameters of the complexation of uranyl(VI) by diethylenetriamine in dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassol, A.; Bernardo, P. di; Portanova, R.; Tolazzi, M.; Tomat, G.; Zanonato, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for the complex formation reactions between uranyl(VI) ion and diethylenetriamine (dien) in dimethyl sulfoxide have been determined by potentiometric and calorimetric measurements at 25 C in a medium of ionic strength 0.1 mol dm -3 . The amine forms a very stable 1:1 complex which results stabilized only by the highly favourable enthalpy change. Entropy change is negative and opposes the reaction. The comparison of the thermodynamic data concerning complexation of uranyl(VI) by charged and uncharged ligands reveals that in this case (uncharged ligand) the enthalpy contribution is mainly related to the formation of the metal-ligand bonds while the entropy term might be associated with the decrease in the translational and conformational entropy occurring in the complexation of the ligand. FTIR and calorimetric measurements have been carried out to study the effect of traces of water on the equilibria in solution. It has been found that water can interfere in the complexation reaction giving rise to the formation of a dinuclear hydroxo complex in which probably two μ 2 -OH bridges link two monomer moieties. (orig.)

  8. Excess molar volume and viscosity deviation for binary mixtures of γ-butyrolactone with dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowiak, Joanna; Śmiechowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities and viscosities of DMSO-GBL binary liquid mixtures were measured. • The volumetric parameters and excess quantities were obtained. • Ab initio calculations were performed for single molecules and dimers in the studied mixture. • The interactions in solutions are weaker than in pure solvents. - Abstract: The densities of binary liquid mixtures of dimethyl sulfoxide and γ-butyrolactone at (293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 313.15) K and viscosity at T = 298.15 K have been measured at atmospheric pressure over the entire range of concentration. From these data the excess molar volumes V E at (293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 313.15) K and the viscosity deviation, the excess entropy, and the excess Gibbs energy of activation for viscous flow at T = 298.15 K have been determined. These data were mathematically represented by the Redlich-Kister polynomial. Partial and apparent molar volumes have been calculated for better understanding of the interactions in the binary systems. The obtained data indicate the lack of specific interactions between unlike molecules, which seem to be a little weaker as compared to the interactions in pure solvents.

  9. Potentiometric investigation of acid dissociation and anionic homoconjugation equilibria of substituted phenols in dimethyl sulfoxide[Substituted phenols; Acid-base equilibria; Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); Potentiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaja, Malgorzata; Kozak, Anna; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech. E-mail: lech@chemik.chem.univ.gda.pl

    2003-10-01

    Standard acidity constants, K{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA), expressed as pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA) values, and anionic homoconjugation constants, K{sup DMSO}{sub AHA{sup -}}, (in the form of lg K{sup DMSO}{sub AHA{sup -}} values) have been determined for 11 substituted phenol-phenolate systems a polar protophilic aprotic solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with a potentiometric titration. A linear relationship has been determined between lg K{sup DMSO}{sub AHA{sup -}} and pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA). The tendency towards anionic homoconjugation in these systems increases with increasing pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA) that is with declining phenol acidity. The pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA) are correlated with both pK{sub a}{sup W} (HA) water and other polar non-aqeous solvents.

  10. Three-body dissociations: The photodissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide at 193 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, D.A.; North, S.W.; Stranges, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    When a molecule with two equivalent chemical bonds is excited above the threshold for dissociation of both bonds, how the rupture of the two bonds is temporally coupled becomes a salient question. Following absorption at 193 nm dimethyl sulfoxide (CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3}) contains enough energy to rupture both C-S bonds. This can happen in a stepwise (reaction 1) or concerted (reaction 2) fashion where the authors use rotation of the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate prior to dissociation to define a stepwise dissociation: (1) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} 2CH{sub 3} + SO; (2a) CH{sub 3}SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} CH{sub 3} + SOCH{sub 3}; and (2b) SOCH{sub 3} {r_arrow} SO + CH{sub 3}. Recently, the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide following absorption at 193 nm was suggested to involve simultaneous cleavage of both C-S bonds on an excited electronic surface. This conclusion was inferred from laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and resonant multiphoton ionization (2+1 REMPI) measurements of the internal energy content in the CH{sub 3} and SO photoproducts and a near unity quantum yield measured for SO. Since this type of concerted three body dissociation is very interesting and a rather rare event in photodissociation dynamics, the authors chose to investigate this system using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline 9.0.2.1. The soft photoionization provided by the VUV undulator radiation allowed the authors to probe the SOCH{sub 3} intermediate which had not been previously observed and provided good evidence that the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide primarily proceeds via a two step dissociation, reaction 2.

  11. Three-body dissociations: The photodissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide at 193 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, D.A.; North, S.W.; Stranges, D.

    1997-01-01

    When a molecule with two equivalent chemical bonds is excited above the threshold for dissociation of both bonds, how the rupture of the two bonds is temporally coupled becomes a salient question. Following absorption at 193 nm dimethyl sulfoxide (CH 3 SOCH 3 ) contains enough energy to rupture both C-S bonds. This can happen in a stepwise (reaction 1) or concerted (reaction 2) fashion where the authors use rotation of the SOCH 3 intermediate prior to dissociation to define a stepwise dissociation: (1) CH 3 SOCH 3 → 2CH 3 + SO; (2a) CH 3 SOCH 3 → CH 3 + SOCH 3 ; and (2b) SOCH 3 → SO + CH 3 . Recently, the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide following absorption at 193 nm was suggested to involve simultaneous cleavage of both C-S bonds on an excited electronic surface. This conclusion was inferred from laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and resonant multiphoton ionization (2+1 REMPI) measurements of the internal energy content in the CH 3 and SO photoproducts and a near unity quantum yield measured for SO. Since this type of concerted three body dissociation is very interesting and a rather rare event in photodissociation dynamics, the authors chose to investigate this system using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline 9.0.2.1. The soft photoionization provided by the VUV undulator radiation allowed the authors to probe the SOCH 3 intermediate which had not been previously observed and provided good evidence that the dissociation of dimethyl sulfoxide primarily proceeds via a two step dissociation, reaction 2

  12. Combined experimental and theoretical investigation of interactions between kaolinite inner surface and intercalated dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuai [School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Qinfu, E-mail: lqf@cumtb.edu.cn [School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Cheng, Hongfei [School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Zeng, Fangui [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Snapshot of the kaolinite–DMSO system after equilibrium is reached. - Highlights: • Dimethyl sulfoxide arranges a monolayer structure between kaolinite layers. • Weak hydrogen bonds exist between methyl groups of dimethyl sulfoxide and kaolinite silica layer. • Intercalated dimethyl sulfoxide forms strong hydrogen bonds with kaolinite alumina layer. - Abstract: Kaolinite intercalation complex with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetry–differential scanning calorimetry (TG–DSC) combined with molecular dynamics simulation. The bands assigned to the OH stretching of inner surface of kaolinite were significantly perturbed after intercalation of DMSO into kaolinite. Additionally, the bands attributed to the vibration of gibbsite-like layers of kaolinite shifted to the lower wave number, indicating that the intercalated DMSO were strongly hydrogen bonded to the alumina octahedral surface of kaolinite. The slightly decreased intensity of 1031 cm{sup −1} and 1016 cm{sup −1} band due to the in-plane vibration of Si−O of kaolinite revealed that some DMSO molecules formed weak hydrogen bonds with the silicon tetrahedral surface of kaolinite. Based on the TG result of kaolinite–DMSO intercalation complex, the formula of A1{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}(DMSO){sub 0.7} was obtained, with which the kaolinite–DMSO complex model was constructed. The molecular dynamics simulation of kaolinite–DMSO complex directly confirmed the monolayer structure of DMSO in interlayer space of kaolinite, where the DMSO arranged almost parallel with kaolinite basal surface with all methyl groups being distributed near the interlayer midplane and oxygen atoms orienting toward to the alumina octahedral surface. The radial distribution function between kaolinite and intercalated DMSO verified the strong hydrogen bonds forming between hydroxyl hydrogen

  13. Potentiometric investigations of molecular heteroconjugation equilibria of substituted phenol+n-butylamine systems in dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaja, MaIgorzata; Baginska, Katarzyna; Kozak, Anna; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech

    2005-01-01

    Molecular heteroconjugation constants, K BHA DMSO and K AHB DMSO , expressed as their logarithms, have been determined by potentiometric titration for eleven substituted phenol+n-butylamine systems in a polar protophilic aprotic solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). An increasing tendency towards molecular heteroconjugation in these systems without proton transfer has been found with increasing pK a DMSO (HA), i.e., with decreasing phenol acidity. Moreover, a linear correlation has been established between the determined lgK BHA DMSO values and pK a DMSO (HA). Furthermore, overall stability constants, lgK o DMSO , could be correlated linearly with pK a DMSO (HA) values

  14. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on radiation-induced heteroallelic reversion in diploid yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.R.; Mahajan, J.M.; Krishnan, D.

    1976-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide has cryoprotective and radioprotective properties. It is also an efficient scavenger of radicals produced by radiolysis of water. Gamma-induced reversion of diploid yeast in the presence of this chemical during irradiation have been studied. The dose-modifying factor was in the same range as for survival. When the yeast was irradiated in the frozen state, the observed protection by DMSO disappeared. The results are discussed in terms of direct and indirect actions of radiations and the radical-scavenging ability of this chemical

  15. Solvation of ionic liquids based on N-alkyl-N-methylmorpholinium cations in N,N-dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide – A volumetric and acoustic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkowski, Łukasz; Szepiński, Emil; Kloskowski, Adam; Namieśnik, Jacek; Warmińska, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • V ϕ of DMSO and DMF solutions of [Mor1,R][BF 4 ] increase with increasing IL concentration at all investigated temperatures. • Ion–ion interaction are stronger for DMF solutions than corresponding for DMSO. • DMSO interacts more effectively with ionic liquids studied than DMF. • Obtained results are the consequence of the cation size of the ionic liquid. - Abstract: Apparent molar volumes and molar isentropic compressibilities for N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholinium and N-decyl-N-methylmorpholinium tetrafluoroborates in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been determined from density and speed of sound measurements over the temperature range T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15 and 328.15) K at experimental pressure p = 0.1 MPa. This data has been used to calculate partial molar volumes and partial molar isentropic compressibilities at infinite dilution. The partial molar expansion coefficients and their secondary derivative have been estimated as well. The obtained results indicate that dimethyl sulfoxide interacts more effectively with ionic liquids studied than N,N-dimetylformamide and ion–ion interaction are stronger for N,N-dimetylformamide solutions than corresponding in dimethyl sulfoxide. Moreover the temperature dependence of the limiting apparent molar volumes and compressibilities is a result of temperature influence on the electrostriction effect, the ordering of a bulk solvent and number solvent molecules in the nearest presence of the salt.

  16. Radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide in two biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del; Bernardes, D.M.L.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.

    1991-03-01

    The present study was conducted: a) to confirm data from others describing a radioprotective capacity of DMSO in mice; b) to establish whether this protective behavior could be evidenced in an in vitro chemical system utilizing bovine crystalline protein as target. Heterozigous female albino mice were used for the 30-day-survival studies after 9 Gy sup(60)Co gamma irradiation (dose rate: 4.5 Gy/min) injected 1 h prior with 2000 mg/kg DMSO intraperitoneally. Total body weight curves during the same period were also analysed. For the molecular level studies 1 M DMSO was added to a series of aqueous protein solutions from bovine lens and 10 min later irradiated with 5 different doses from 5,000 to 25,000 Gy sup(60)Co (average dose rate 14 Gy/min). After irradiation, spectrophotometric reading at 600 nm and free thiol group determinations were performed in order to evaluate the radiation-induced modifications. (author)

  17. Vapor pressure, density, viscosity and refractive index of dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA CIOCIRLAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental results of isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium data between 303.15 and 333.15 K, and densities, viscosities, refractive indices from 298.15 to 323.15 K of the dimethyl sulfoxide + 1,4-dimethylbenzene system over the entire range of mixture composition. The obtained PTX data were correlated by the Wilson and NRTL models and estimated by the UNIFAC model. The excess Gibbs energy and activity coefficients were calculated and compared with others excess properties. Excess molar volumes, viscosity deviations and deviations in refractivity were calculated from the experimental data; all the computed quantities were fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. The resulting excess functions were interpreted in terms of structure and interactions.

  18. Crystal structure of hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)manganese(II) tetraiodide

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, Mohammed

    2016-11-15

    The title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS)6]I4, is made up from discrete [Mn(DMSO)6]2+ (DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide) units connected through non-classical hydrogen bonds to linear I4 2- tetraiodide anions. The MnII ion in the cation, situated on a position with site symmetry -3., is octahedrally coordinated by O atoms of the DMSO molecule with an Mn - O distance of 2.1808(12)Å. The I4 2- anion contains a neutral I2 molecule weakly coordinated by two iodide ions, forming a linear centrosymmetric tetraiodide anion. The title compound is isotypic with the Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn analogues.

  19. Chemiluminescence of curcumin and quenching effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on its peroxyoxalate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yari, Abdollah, E-mail: a.yari@ymail.co [Lorestan University, Department of Chemistry, Flakalaflak Street, 68178-17133 Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saidikhah, Marzieh [Lorestan University, Department of Chemistry, Flakalaflak Street, 68178-17133 Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The chemiluminescence behavior of the reaction between bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate (TCPO) and hydrogen peroxide, in the presence of curcumin as fluorophore, has been investigated. Experimental factors such as TCPO, sodium salicylate (SS), hydrogen peroxide and curcumin concentration were optimized. The chemiluminescence signal showed a linear decay while dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was added to the peroxyoxalate (PO-CL) system. The reaction resulted in a Stern-Volmer plot with a K{sub q} value of 7.3x10{sup 4}. The evaluated lower and upper detection limits of measurable concentrations of DMSO are 3.50x10{sup -5} and 1.53x10{sup -4} M, respectively. The PO-CL parameters were estimated by computer fitting of the experimental CL intensity to proper models.

  20. Efficient extraction of xylan from delignified corn stover using dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, John; Decker, Stephen R.; Michener, William; Black, Stuart

    2013-09-13

    Xylan can be extracted from biomass using either alkali (KOH or NaOH) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); however, DMSO extraction is the only method that produces a water-soluble xylan. In this study, DMSO extraction of corn stover was studied at different temperatures with the objective of finding a faster, more efficient extraction method. The temperature and time of extraction were compared followed by a basic structural analysis to ensure that no significant structural changes occurred under different temperatures. The resulting data showed that heating to 70 degrees C during extraction can give a yield comparable to room temperature extraction while reducing the extraction time by ~90 %. This method of heating was shown to be the most efficient method currently available and was shown to retain the important structural characteristics of xylan extracted with DMSO at room temperature.

  1. Crystal structure of hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κO)manganese(II) tetraiodide

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, Mohammed; Davaasuren, Bambar; Rothenberger, Alexander; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The title salt, [Mn(C2H6OS)6]I4, is made up from discrete [Mn(DMSO)6]2+ (DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide) units connected through non-classical hydrogen bonds to linear I4 2- tetraiodide anions. The MnII ion in the cation, situated on a position with site symmetry -3., is octahedrally coordinated by O atoms of the DMSO molecule with an Mn - O distance of 2.1808(12)Å. The I4 2- anion contains a neutral I2 molecule weakly coordinated by two iodide ions, forming a linear centrosymmetric tetraiodide anion. The title compound is isotypic with the Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn analogues.

  2. Potentiometric investigation of acid dissociation and anionic homoconjugation equilibria of substituted phenols in dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaja, Malgorzata; Kozak, Anna; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech.

    2003-01-01

    Standard acidity constants, K a DMSO (HA), expressed as pK a DMSO (HA) values, and anionic homoconjugation constants, K DMSO AHA - , (in the form of lg K DMSO AHA - values) have been determined for 11 substituted phenol-phenolate systems a polar protophilic aprotic solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with a potentiometric titration. A linear relationship has been determined between lg K DMSO AHA - and pK a DMSO (HA). The tendency towards anionic homoconjugation in these systems increases with increasing pK a DMSO (HA) that is with declining phenol acidity. The pK a DMSO (HA) are correlated with both pK a W (HA) water and other polar non-aqeous solvents

  3. 5,5′-(Ethyne-1,2-diyldiisophthalic acid dimethyl sulfoxide tetrasolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Münch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C18H10O8·4C2H6OS, the mid-point of the triple bond of the main molecule is located on a special position, i.e. about an inversion center. The carboxyl groups are twisted slightly out of the planes of the aromatic rings to which they are attached, making dihedral angles of 24.89 (1 and 7.40 (2°. The cystal packing features strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds, weaker C—H...O interactions and O...S contacts [3.0981 (11 Å] and displays channel-like voids extending along the a-axis direction which contain the dimethyl sulfoxide solvent molecules.

  4. Potentiometric investigations of molecular heteroconjugation equilibria of substituted phenol+n-butylamine systems in dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaja, MaIgorzata [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Baginska, Katarzyna [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Kozak, Anna [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Makowski, Mariusz [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Chmurzynski, Lech [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: lech@chem.univ.gda.pl

    2005-08-15

    Molecular heteroconjugation constants, K{sub BHA}{sup DMSO} and K{sub AHB}{sup DMSO}, expressed as their logarithms, have been determined by potentiometric titration for eleven substituted phenol+n-butylamine systems in a polar protophilic aprotic solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). An increasing tendency towards molecular heteroconjugation in these systems without proton transfer has been found with increasing pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA), i.e., with decreasing phenol acidity. Moreover, a linear correlation has been established between the determined lgK{sub BHA}{sup DMSO} values and pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA). Furthermore, overall stability constants, lgK{sub o}{sup DMSO}, could be correlated linearly with pK{sub a}{sup DMSO} (HA) values.

  5. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Enhances Effectiveness of Skin Antiseptics and Reduces Contamination Rates of Blood Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Paul R.; Han, Xiang-Yang; Rolston, Kenneth V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2012-01-01

    Effective skin antisepsis is of central importance in the prevention of wound infections, colonization of medical devices, and nosocomial transmission of microorganisms. Current antiseptics have a suboptimal efficacy resulting in substantial infectious morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. Here, we introduce an in vitro method for antiseptic testing and a novel alcohol-based antiseptic containing 4 to 5% of the polar aprotic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The DMSO-containing antiseptic resulted in a 1- to 2-log enhanced killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and other microbes in vitro compared to the same antiseptic without DMSO. In a prospective clinical validation, blood culture contamination rates were reduced from 3.04% for 70% isopropanol–1% iodine (control antiseptic) to 1.04% for 70% isopropanol–1% iodine–5% DMSO (P antiseptics containing strongly polarized but nonionizing (polar aprotic) solvents. PMID:22378911

  6. Lack of effect of deferoxamine, dimethyl sulfoxide, and catalase on monocrotaline pyrrole pulmonary injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner, L.H.; Johnson, K.; Carpenter, L.J.; Roth, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP) is a reactive metabolite of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline. MCTP given intravenously to rats causes pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy. Lesions in lungs after MCTP treatment contain macrophages and neutrophils, which may contribute to the damage by generation of reactive oxygen metabolites. Rats were treated with MCTP and agents known to protect against oxygen radical-mediated damage in acute models of neutrophil-dependent lung injury. Rats received MCTP and deferoxamine mesylate (DF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or polyethylene glycol-coupled catalase (PEG-CAT). MCTP/vehicle-treated controls developed lung injury manifested as increased lung weight, release of lactate dehydrogenase into the airway, and sequestration of SVI-labeled bovine serum albumin in the lungs. Cotreatment of rats with DF, DMSO, or PEG-CAT did not protect against the injury due to MCTP. These results suggest that toxic oxygen metabolites do not play an important role in the pathogenesis of MCTP-induced pulmonary injury.

  7. Photofragmentation dynamics of gaseous dimethyl sulfoxide at 15 eV induced by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, A.C.O.; Leite, T.C.M.; Turci, C.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Barros, A.L.F. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, G.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent widely used in chemical and biological laboratories and in industrial processes, as well. DMSO [(H{sub 3}C){sub 2} - SO] is a sulfur analog of acetone [(H{sub 3}C){sub 2} - CO]. Being the simplest alkyl sulfoxide, the DMSO is a model system for the understanding of more complex sulfoxide molecules. In this work the DMSO was excited with synchrotron light and the photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectrum was acquired at 15 eV. Our goal is to study the S-C bonding breaking process, especially in the H{sub 3}CSO{sup +} and CH{sub 3}{sup +} channels. The main question is how the 10a {yields} {infinity} transition affects the cleavage of S-C bond and consequently the production of those fragments. The experiments have been performed using the Toroidal Grating Monochromator (TGM) beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas-SP (research proposal D05A-TGM-11047). High purity samples were obtained commercially and used without any further purification. They were introduced into the Wiley-McLaren time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) from the vapours of the room temperature liquids after removing air and volatile impurities by a series of freeze-pump-thaw cycles. The work pressure was maintained at 1:0 x 10{sup -6} mbar during data acquisition. The basis pressure was 1:0 x 10{sup -8} mbar. The results confirm that at 10a {yields} {infinity} transition the main produced fragment is the H{sub 3}CSO{sup +}. It means that at 15 eV the S-C bonding breaking is the principal photofragmentation process. (author)

  8. cis-Dichlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS(N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylguanidine-κN′′platinum(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan I. Eliseev

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, cis-[PtCl2(C5H13N3(C2H6OS], the four-coordinate PtII atom is bonded to one N atom of the N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylguanidine ligand, one dimethyl sulfoxide S atom and two chloride ligands, forming a cis-square-planar geometry. The bond lengths and angles of the N—Pt—Cl functionality are typical for imine dichloridoplatinum(II complexes. The H atom of the imino group is oriented towards the O atom of the sulfoxide group of a neighboring molecule and forms an N—H...O hydrogen bond.

  9. Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Permeation of the Cryoprotectant Dimethyl Sulfoxide to Japanese Whiting Sillago japonica Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sk. Mustafizur; Majhi, Sullip Kumar; Suzuki, Toru; Strussmann, Carlos Augusto; Watanabe, Manabu

    Cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos is a highly desired tool to promote aquaculture production and fisheries resource management, but it is still not technically feasible. The failure to develop successful cryopreservation protocols for fish embryos is largely attributed to poor cryoprotectant permeability. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of CaCl2 to enhance cryoprotectant uptake by fish embryos. In this study, embryos (somites and tail elongation stages) of Japanese whiting Sillago japonica were exposed to 10 and 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in artificial sea water (ASW) or a solution of 0.125M CaCl2 in distilled water for 20 min at 24°C. The toxicity of all solutions was estimated from the hatching rates of the embryos and High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to determine the amount of DMSO taken up during impregnation. The results showed that DMSO incorporation into the embryos was greatly (›50%) enhanced in the presence of CaCl2 compared to ASW. CaCl2 itself was not toxic to the embryos but, probably as a result of the enhanced DMSO uptake, caused decreases in survival of about 14-44% relative to ASW. Somites stage embryos were more tolerant than tail elongation ones to DMSO both as ASW and CaCl2 solutions. The use of CaCl2 as a vehicle for DMSO impregnation could be a promising aid for the successful cryopreservation of fish embryos.

  10. A conductivity study of preferential solvation of lithium ion in acetonitrile-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhzhukhina, Nataliia; Longinotti, M. Paula; Corti, Horacio R.; Calvo, Ernesto J.

    2015-01-01

    The electrical mobility of LiPF 6 in acetonitrile–dimethyl sulfoxide (ACN–DMSO) mixtures, a potential electrolyte in oxygen cathodes of lithium-air batteries, has been studied using a very precise conductance technique, which allowed the determination of the infinite dilution molar conductivity and association constant of the salt in the whole composition range. In the search for preferential Li + ion solvation, we also measured the electrical conductivity of tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF 6 ), a salt formed by a bulky cation, over the same composition range. The results show a qualitative change in the curvature of the LiPF 6 molar conductivity composition dependence for ACN molar fraction (x ACN ) ∼ 0.95, which was not observed for TBAPF 6 . The dependence of the measured Li/Li + couple potential with solvent composition also showed a pronounced change around the same composition. We suggest that these observations can be explained by Li + ion preferential solvation by DMSO in ACN–DMSO mixtures with very low molar fractions of DMSO

  11. Marmoset induced pluripotent stem cells: Robust neural differentiation following pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The marmoset is an important nonhuman primate model for regenerative medicine. For experimental autologous cell therapy based on induced pluripotent (iPS cells in the marmoset, cells must be able to undergo robust and reliable directed differentiation that will not require customization for each specific iPS cell clone. When marmoset iPS cells were aggregated in a hanging drop format for 3 days, followed by exposure to dual SMAD inhibitors and retinoic acid in monolayer culture for 3 days, we found substantial variability in the response of different iPS cell clones. However, when clones were pretreated with 0.05–2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO for 24 hours, all clones showed a very similar maximal response to the directed differentiation scheme. Peak responses were observed at 0.5% DMSO in two clones and at 1% DMSO in a third clone. When patterns of gene expression were examined by microarray analysis, hierarchical clustering showed very similar responses in all 3 clones when they were pretreated with optimal DMSO concentrations. The change in phenotype following exposure to DMSO and the 6 day hanging drop/monolayer treatment was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Analysis of DNA content in DMSO-exposed cells indicated that it is unlikely that DMSO acts by causing cells to exit from the cell cycle. This approach should be generally valuable in the directed neural differentiation of pluripotent cells for experimental cell therapy.

  12. Behavioural effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): changes in sleep architecture in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavas, María; Beltrán, David; Navarro, José F

    2005-07-04

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an efficient solvent for water-insoluble compounds, widely used in biological studies and as a vehicle for drug therapy, but few data on its neurotoxic or behavioural effects is available. The aim of this work is to explore DMSO's effects upon sleep/wake states. Twenty male rats were sterotaxically prepared for polysomnography. Four concentrations of DMSO (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, in saline) were examined. DMSO or saline were administered intraperitoneally at the beginning of the light period. Three hours of polygraphic recording were evaluated for stages of vigilance after treatment. Sleep/wake parameters and EEG power spectral analyses during sleep were investigated. Results show no significant effect after 5% or 10% DMSO treatment. DMSO 15% increased mean episode duration of light slow wave sleep (SWS), decreasing mean episode duration of deep SWS and of quiet wake (QW). DMSO 20% increased light SWS enhancing number of episodes, while decreased deep SWS mean episode duration. EEG power spectra of sigma and delta activity were also affected by DMSO. Therefore, DMSO at 15% and 20% affects sleep architecture in rats, increasing light SWS and reducing deep SWS. Being aware of DMSO behavioural effects seems important since experimental artefacts caused by DMSO can lead to the erroneous interpretation of results.

  13. Lack of effect of deferoxamine, dimethyl sulfoxide, and catalase on monocrotaline pyrrole pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, L.H.; Johnson, K.; Carpenter, L.J.; Roth, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP) is a reactive metabolite of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline. MCTP given intravenously to rats causes pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy. Lesions in lungs after MCTP treatment contain macrophages and neutrophils, which may contribute to the damage by generation of reactive oxygen metabolites. Rats were treated with MCTP and agents known to protect against oxygen radical-mediated damage in acute models of neutrophil-dependent lung injury. Rats received MCTP and deferoxamine mesylate (DF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or polyethylene glycol-coupled catalase (PEG-CAT). MCTP/vehicle-treated controls developed lung injury manifested as increased lung weight, release of lactate dehydrogenase into the airway, and sequestration of 125 I-labeled bovine serum albumin in the lungs. Cotreatment of rats with DF, DMSO, or PEG-CAT did not protect against the injury due to MCTP. These results suggest that toxic oxygen metabolites do not play an important role in the pathogenesis of MCTP-induced pulmonary injury

  14. Singlet oxygen produced by quasi-continuous photo-excitation of hypericin in dimethyl-sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varchola, J.; Želonková, K. [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Chorvat Jr, D. [International Laser Centre, Ilkovicova 3, 841 05 Bratislava (Slovakia); Jancura, D. [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Center for Interdisciplinary Biosciences, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Miskovsky, P. [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); International Laser Centre, Ilkovicova 3, 841 05 Bratislava (Slovakia); Center for Interdisciplinary Biosciences, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); and others

    2016-09-15

    Singlet oxygen (O{sub 2}({sup 1}Δ{sub g})) production by photo-excited hypericin (Hyp) dissolved in dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO) was studied by means of time-resolved phosphorescence measurements. In order to minimize photo-bleaching, the samples were excited in quasi-continuous mode using long-pulse (35 μs) laser excitation. The measured lifetime of singlet oxygen is τ{sub Δ}=5.5±0.3 μs. This result helps to resolve the discrepancy existing in the literature concerning singlet oxygen lifetime in DMSO. The obtained quantum yield of singlet oxygen photosensitized by Hyp in air-saturated DMSO is Φ{sub Δ}=0.4±0.03. The rate constant for Hyp triplet state depopulation in reaction with ground state molecular oxygen is measured to be k{sub q}=1.6±0.3×10{sup 9} M{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  15. Acute dimethyl sulfoxide therapy in brain edema. Part 3: effect of a 3-hour infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bigio, M; James, H E; Camp, P E; Werner, R; Marshall, L F; Tung, H

    1982-01-01

    Albino rabbits with experimental brain edema produced by a combined cryogenic left hemisphere lesion and metabolic 6-aminonicotinamide lesion were administered a 3-hour intravenous infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Simultaneous recording of intracranial pressure (ICP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and central venous pressure (CVP) and electroencephalography were performed while the animals were being ventilated mechanically to produce a constant Pa CO2 value (38-42 torr). At the end of the infusion, the brain water and electrolyte contents were measured. There was a persistent and progressive reduction of ICP during the infusion, the nadir occurring at 3 hours (p less than 0.005 from zero time), with no change in SAP or CVP. There was a reduction of brain water in both hemispheres when compared to untreated controls, but this was significant for the right hemisphere only (p less than 0.005). There was a significant reduction of the brain sodium content for both hemispheres, but no significant change occurred in brain potassium content. The DMSO infusion was effective not only in reducing ICP, but also in sustaining this reduction for 3 hours.

  16. Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of N-Methyl α-Bromoacetanilides with Benzylamines in Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikary, Keshab Kumar; Lee, Hai Whang

    2011-01-01

    Kinetic studies of the reactions of N-methyl-Y-α-bromoacetanilides with substituted X-benzylamines have been carried out in dimethyl sulfoxide at 25.0 .deg. C. The Hammett plots for substituent X variations in the nucleophiles (log k N vs σ X ) are slightly biphasic concave upwards/downwards, while the Bronsted plots (log k N vs pK a ) are biphasic concave downwards with breakpoints at X = H. The Hammett plots for substituent Y variations in the substrates (log k N vs σ Y ) are biphasic concave upwards/downwards with breakpoints at Y = H. The cross-interaction constant ρ XY values are all negative: ρ XY = -0.32 for X = Y = electron-donating: -0.22 for X = electron-withdrawing and Y = electron-donating: -1.80 for X = electron-donating and Y = electronwithdrawing: -1.43 for X = Y = electron-withdrawing substituents. Deuterated kinetic isotope effects are primary normal (k H /k D > 1) for Y = electron-donating, while secondary inverse (k H /k D < 1) for Y = electronwithdrawing substituent. The proposed mechanisms of the benzylaminolyses of N-methyl-Y-α-bromoacetanilides are a concerted mechanism with a five membered ring TS involving hydrogen bonding between hydrogen (deuterium) atom in N-H(D) and oxygen atom in C = O for Y = electron-donating, while a concerted mechanism with an enolate-like TS in which the nucleophile attacks the α-carbon for Y = electronwithdrawing substituents

  17. Homogeneous graft copolymerization of styrene onto cellulose in a sulfur dioxide-diethylamine-dimethyl sulfoxide cellulose solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, M.; Hagiwara, I.; Shiraishi, N.; Yokota, T.

    1980-01-01

    Graft copolymerization of styrene onto cellulose was studied in a homogeneous system [SO 2 (liquid)- diethylamine (DEA)-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) medium)] by γ-ray mutual irradiation technique. At the same time, homopolymerization of styrene was also examined separately in DMSO, SO 2 -DMSO, DEA-DMSO, and SO 2 -DEA-DMSO media by the same technique. Polymerization of styrene hardly occurs on concentrations above 10 mole SO 2 -DEA complex per mole glucose unit. Maximum percent grafting was obtained in concentrations of 4 mole, after which it decreased rapidly. Total conversion and percent grafting increased with the irradiation time. The value (=0.55) of the slope of the total conversion rate plotted against the dose was only a little higher than the 1/2 which was expected from normal kinetics. No retardation in homopolymerization of styrene in DMSO, SO 2 -DMSO, and DEA-DMSO was evident, while the retardation of homopolymerization in the SO 2 -DEA-DMSO medium was measurable. Sulfur atoms were detected in the polymers obtained in both of SO 2 -DMSO and SO 2 -DEA-DMSO solutions. All of the molecular weights of polymers obtained in the present experiment were very low

  18. The role of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in ex-vivo examination of human skin burn injury treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielesz, Anna; Gawłowski, Andrzej; Biniaś, Dorota; Bobiński, Rafał; Kawecki, Marek; Klama-Baryła, Agnieszka; Kitala, Diana; Łabuś, Wojciech; Glik, Justyna; Paluch, Jadwiga

    2018-05-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is one of the most versatile solvents in biological science, therefore it is frequently used as a solvent in biological studies and as a vehicle for drug therapy. DMSO readily penetrates, diffuses through biological membranes and ipso facto increases fluidity of liposomal membranes modelling stratum corneum. Thermal injury is associated with the appearance of lipid peroxidation products in the burned skin. The influence of DMSO on protein structure and stability is concentration and temperature dependant. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of DMSO on human burn wounds and examine the interactions between DMSO and skin surface. The real problem in burn treatment is hypoalbuminemia. At the level of the laboratory studies there was an attempt at answering the question of whether the DMSO will modify the standard serum solution. In the case of the incubation of skin fragments in 1%-100% DMSO, the following findings were reported: modification of the serum, appearance of low molecular weight oligomer bands, disappearance of albumin bands or reconstruction of native serum bands during incubation in antioxidant solutions. The result of the modification is also the exposure of FTIR 1603 and 1046 cm-1 bands observed in frozen serum solutions. In the case of modification of the burned skin by DMSO solutions or antioxidants - frequency shifts, an increase in the intensity of amide I band as well as the appearance of the 1601 cm-1 band can be specific biomarkers of the tissue regeneration process. In this study the areas 1780-1580 cm-1 and 1418-1250 cm-1 on the Raman spectra are particularly rich in spectral information.

  19. Microbial activity in aquatic environments measured by dimethyl sulfoxide reduction and intercomparison with commonly used methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebler, C; Slezak, D

    2001-01-01

    A new method to determine microbial (bacterial and fungal) activity in various freshwater habitats is described. Based on microbial reduction of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to dimethyl sulfide (DMS), our DMSO reduction method allows measurement of the respiratory activity in interstitial water, as well as in the water column. DMSO is added to water samples at a concentration (0.75% [vol/vol] or 106 mM) high enough to compete with other naturally occurring electron acceptors, as determined with oxygen and nitrate, without stimulating or inhibiting microbial activity. Addition of NaN(3), KCN, and formaldehyde, as well as autoclaving, inhibited the production of DMS, which proves that the reduction of DMSO is a biotic process. DMSO reduction is readily detectable via the formation of DMS even at low microbial activities. All water samples showed significant DMSO reduction over several hours. Microbially reduced DMSO is recovered in the form of DMS from water samples by a purge and trap system and is quantified by gas chromatography and detection with a flame photometric detector. The DMSO reduction method was compared with other methods commonly used for assessment of microbial activity. DMSO reduction activity correlated well with bacterial production in predator-free batch cultures. Cell-production-specific DMSO reduction rates did not differ significantly in batch cultures with different nutrient regimes but were different in different growth phases. Overall, a cell-production-specific DMSO reduction rate of 1.26 x 10(-17) +/- 0. 12 x 10(-17) mol of DMS per produced cell (mean +/- standard error; R(2) = 0.78) was calculated. We suggest that the relationship of DMSO reduction rates to thymidine and leucine incorporation is linear (the R(2) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.944), whereas there is an exponential relationship between DMSO reduction rates and glucose uptake, as well as incorporation (the R(2) values ranged from 0.821 to 0.931). Based on our results, we

  20. Evaluation of dimethyl sulfoxide and dexamethasone on pulmonary contusion in experimental blunt thoracic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boybeyi, Ozlem; Bakar, Bulent; Aslan, Mustafa Kemal; Atasoy, Pinar; Kisa, Ucler; Soyer, Tutku

    2014-12-01

    A thoracic trauma model was designed to evaluate the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dexamethasone (DX) on histopathologic and oxidative changes in lung parenchyma seen after pulmonary contusion. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were included in the study. They were allocated into control (CG, n=6), sham (SG, n=6), DX (DXG, n=6), and DMSO (DMG, n=6) groups. Only a lung biopsy was performed in CG. In the experimental groups, blunt thoracic trauma was induced by dropping a cylindrical metal weight (0.5 kg) through a stainless steel tube onto the right hemithorax from a height of 0.4 m (E=1.96 J). In the SG, 1 mL of physiologic saline was injected intraperitoneally, in the DXG 10 mg/kg of DX was injected intraperitoneally, and in the DMG 1.2 g/mL of DMSO was injected intraperitoneally 15 minutes after trauma. After 6 hours, lung biopsy was performed for histopathologic and oxidative injury markers. Histopathologically, congestion, hemorrhage, neutrophil infiltration, endothelial-nitric oxide synthase (E-NoS), and total pathologic score were significantly higher in SG, DXG, and DMG when compared with CG (p<0.05). Neutrophil infiltration, total pathologic score, and E-NoS were significantly decreased in DMG when compared with SG and DXG (p<0.05). Biochemically, superoxide dismutase (SOD) level was significantly higher in SG, DXG, and DMG than in CG. SOD level was significantly lower in DXG and DMG than in SG (p<0.05). DMSO prevents further injury by decreasing neutrophil infiltration and endothelial injury in lung contusions. DX may have a role in the progression of inflammation but not in preventing the pathologic disruption of pulmonary parenchyma. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Kinetics and thermodynamics of oxidation mediated reaction in L-cysteine and its methyl and ethyl esters in dimethyl sulfoxide-d6 by NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Ryan J.; Singh, Jaideep; Krishnan, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    L-Cysteine (L-Cys), L-Cysteine methyl ester (L-CysME) or L-Cysteine ethyl ester (L-CysEE), when dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, undergoes an oxidation process. This process is slow enough and leads to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral changes that could be monitored in real time. The oxidation mediated transition is modeled as a pseudo-first order kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters are estimated using the Eyring's formulation. L-Cysteine and their esters are often used as biological models due to the remarkable thiol group that can be found in different oxidation states. This oxidation mediated transition is due to the combination of thiol oxidation to a disulfide followed by solvent-induced effects may be relevant in designing cysteine-based molecular models.

  2. Lithium isotope effects in cation exchange chromatography of lithium lactate in water-dimethyl sulfoxide and water-acetone mixed solvent media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Takao; Kondoh, Akiko; Ohno, Etsuko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    1993-01-01

    Lithium isotope separation by ion exchange displacement chromatography of lithium lactate in water-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water-acetone mixed solvent media at 25 C was explored. In both the water-DMSO and water-acetone system, the single stage isotope separation factor (S) was a convex function of the mixing ratio of the solvents in the external solution phase; S had its maximum value of 1.00254 at water: DMSO=25:75 v/v and 1.00182 at water: acetone=75:25 v/v. Strong correlations of S with solvent partitions between the solution and the exchanger phases were found in both systems, which was qualitatively explainable by considering the lithium isotope distributions between the two phases based on the fundamental lithium isotope effects and the relative affinities of water, DMSO and acetone towards the lithium ion. (orig.)

  3. Freezing of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates in 6% Dimethyl Sulfoxide: The First Preliminary Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yılmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Transfusion of platelet suspensions is an essential part of patient care for certain clinical indications. In this pioneering study in Turkey, we aimed to assess the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: Seven units of platelet concentrates were obtained by apheresis. Each apheresis platelet concentrate (APC was divided into 2 equal volumes and frozen with 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The 14 frozen units of APCs were kept at -80 °C for 1 day. APCs were thawed at 37 °C and diluted either with autologous plasma or 0.9% NaCl. The volume and residual numbers of leukocytes and platelets were tested in both before-freezing and post-thawing periods. Aggregation and thrombin generation tests were used to analyze the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets. Flow-cytometric analysis was used to assess the presence of frozen treated platelets and their viability. Results: The residual number of leukocytes in both dilution groups was <1x106. The mean platelet recovery rate in the plasma-diluted group (88.1±9.5% was higher than that in the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (63±10%. These results were compatible with the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines quality criteria. Expectedly, there was no aggregation response to platelet aggregation test. The mean thrombin generation potential of postthaw APCs was higher in the plasma-diluted group (2411 nmol/L per minute when compared to both the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (1913 nmol/L per minute and the before-freezing period (1681 nmol/L per minute. The flowcytometric analysis results for the viability of APCs after cryopreservation were 94.9% and 96.6% in the plasma and 0.9% NaCl groups, respectively. Conclusion: Cryopreservation of platelets with 6% DMSO and storage at -80 °C increases their shelf life from 7 days to 2 years. Besides the increase in hemostatic functions of platelets, the cryopreservation process also does not affect their

  4. The action of hyperthermia on gene expression in Friend erythroleukemia cells by dimethyl sulfoxide or X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Azzam, E.I.; Einspenner, M.; Ewing, D.; Borsa, J.

    1982-02-01

    The effect of heat on gene control and on cell killing by X-rays or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was studied in cultured Friend erythroleukemia cells (FELC). FELC are very sensitive to heat and X-rays in terms of survival, as measured by the colony-forming assay. Heat inactivation kinetics are similar for FELC and Chinese hamster cells. Thermal enhancement of cell inactivation by irradiation was observed at 42.0 and 45.0deg C, and increased as a function of heating time. The simultaneous application of heat and X-rays had a greater effect in terms of cell inactivation. Dimethyl sulfoxide could induce FELC to synthesize hemoglobin, and hyperthermia could inhibit this response. Likewise, hyperthermia could affect induction of heme synthesis by irradiation. Heating before irradiation enhanced production of heme synthesis, whereas heating after irradiation inhibited induction of heme synthesis. The effects of hyperthermia on the survival and gene induction endpoints were compared. Thus, heat can affect both cell survival and gene induction by irradiation or DMSO. The two endpoints of gene induction and survival (proliferative capacity) responded differently, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to heat and X-rays, implying that different cellular targets are affected for each of these endpoints

  5. Complementary application of neutron and synchrotron radiation for the investigation of dimethyl sulfoxide influence on the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine vesicle structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is widely used in cryobiology, cell biology, radiation biology, veterinary, and therapy of critical situation. DMSO easily penetrates through biological membranes and skin. From 1995 to 2000 contradictory results about DMSO penetration into the lipid membrane were obtained via X-ray diffraction at three different biophysical groups in Great Britain, USA, and Russia. The goal of the present work is to determine more exactly the early obtained results via complementary application of X-ray diffraction and neutron small-angle scattering. It was established that DMSO molecule penetration into the lipid membrane depends on the DMSO concentration in water solution. Membrane defects develop above DMSO mole fraction 0.2. (author)

  6. 21 CFR 524.660a - Dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.660a... per day. Total duration of therapy should not exceed 30 days. (ii) In dogs administered 3 or 4 times daily in an amount not to exceed 20 milliliters per day. Total duration of therapy should not exceed 14...

  7. Measuring the success of combined intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide and triamcinolone for treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafni-Kane, Adam; Botros, Sylvia M; Du, Hongyan; Sand, Robert I; Sand, Peter K

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate change in bladder capacity as a measure of response to combined intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and triamcinolone instillations for the treatment of newly diagnosed bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). 141 newly diagnosed women were identified retrospectively. 79 were treated with weekly DMSO/triamcinolone instillations. Change in bladder capacity with bladder retrofill, daytime urinary frequency, nocturia episodes per night, and Likert scale symptom scores were reviewed. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, Spearman's rank correlations, COX regression analysis, and a Kaplan-Meier survival curve were performed. Significant changes (median (25(th)-percentile to 75(th)-percentile) were noted for bladder capacity (75 mL (25 to 130 mL), p measure of response to intravesical DMSO/triamcinolone for newly diagnosed BPS/IC. Clinical outcomes do not differ based upon presence of DO.

  8. Densities and volumetric properties of a (xylene + dimethyl sulfoxide) at temperature from (293.15 to 353.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haijun; Liu Wei; Huang Jihou

    2004-01-01

    The densities of (o-xylene, or m-xylene, or p-xylene + dimethyl sulfoxide) were measured at temperatures (293.15, 303.15, 313.15, 323.15, 333.15, 343.15, 353.15) K and atmospheric pressure by means of a vibrating-tube densimeter. The excess molar volume V m E calculated from the density data provide the temperature dependence of V m E in the temperature range of (293.15 to 353.15) K. The V m E results were correlated using the fourth-order Redlich-Kister equation, with the maximum likelihood principle being applied for the determination of the adjustable parameters. Also we have calculated partial molar volume and excess partial molar volumes of two components. It was found that the V m E in the systems studied increase with rising temperature

  9. Induction of sister chromatid exchange in the presence of gadolinium-DTPA and its reduction by dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Etsuo; Fukuda, Hozumi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Sho

    1996-01-01

    The authors investigate the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) after the addition of gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA to venous blood samples. Venous blood was obtained from nonsmokers. Samples were incubated with Gd-DTPA alone or in combination with mitomycin C, cytarabine, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and then evaluated for SCEs. The frequency of SCE increased with the concentration of Gd-DTPA and as each chemotherapeutic agent was added. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies were lower when the blood was treated with a combination of Gd-DTPA and DMSO compared with Gd-DTPA alone. The increase in frequency of SCE seen after the addition of Gd-DTPA was decreased by the addition of DMSO, indicating the production of hydroxyl radicals. The effect likely is dissociation-related. 14 refs., 6 tabs

  10. Solvent effects on the photochemistry of dimethyl sulfoxide-Cl complexes studied by combined pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Minegishi, Hideki; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Sawamura, Sadashi

    2006-01-01

    Photolysis of complexes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with chlorine atoms results in rapid and permanent photobleaching which may be due to intramolecular hydrogen abstraction. The effects of solvent polarity were examined in a wide variety of DMSO-carbon tetrachloride mixed solvents. The quantum yields of photobleaching decreased from 0.27 to 0.08 as the solvent polarity increased, while significant changes were observed in the low DMSO concentration range ( -3 ). This cannot be accounted for by simple solvent polarity effects. The effects of polar and nonpolar additives were also examined and it is concluded that the specific solvation effect of DMSO was the main cause of the significant change in quantum yields in the low concentration range of DMSO

  11. The effect of microinjection of dimethyl sulfoxide into the rostral ventromedial medulla on swim stress-induced analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazemi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO is an important solvent for compounds that used in pain research. Rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM plays an important role in modulating nociception and stress-induced analgesia (SIA. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DMSO administration into the RVM on SIA by using formalin test. Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 27 Wistar male rats (200±30 gr were randomly assigned to control, stress and stress+DMSO groups. Animals were placed in a water reservoir (20±1°C for 3 minutes to induce forced swimming stress. Stereotaxic surgery was performed to microinjection of DMSO (0.5μl, 100% into RVM. The pain behavior score was evaluated by subcutaneous injection of formalin 2% in the dorsal plantar region of hid paw. Findings: The pain score of phase 1, interphase and phase 2 of formalin test in swim stress group decreased significantly in comparison to control group (P<0.001, P< 0.05, P<0.001 respectively. In addition, the pain score of three phase of formalin test after DMSO injection in swim stress group decreased significantly in comparison to control and stress group (P<0.001, P<0.05 respectively. Conclusion: Also microinjections of DMSO into the RVM potentiate the swim stress analgesia. According to the analgesic effects of dimethyl sulfoxide, as well as its ability to potentiate stressinduced analgesia, DMSO should be used with caution as a solvent in pain studies. Conclusion: Force swim stress induces analgesia in, and microinjections of DMSO into the RVM potentiate the swim stress analgesia. According to the analgesic effects of DMSO, as well as its ability to potentiate stress-induced analgesia, it should be used with caution as solvent in pain studies.

  12. Octakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOcerium(III μ6-oxido-dodeca-μ2-oxido-hexaoxidohexamolybdate(VI dimethyl sulfoxide tetrasolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbia Ben Khélifa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [Ce(C2H6OS8]2[Mo6O19]3·4C2H6OS, was obtained as a byproduct of the reaction of [(C4H94N]2[Mo6O19] with Ce(NO33·6H2O and phthalic acid in dimethylsulfoxide solution. The asymmetric unit consists of a complex [Ce(C2H6OS8]3+ cation, one and a half of the Lindqvist-type [Mo6O19]2− polyanions and two dimethylsulfoxide solvent molecules; the half polyanion lies on an inversion center. The Ce3+ ion is coordinated by eight dimethylsulfoxide ligands through the O atoms in the form of a distorted square antiprism. The Ce—O bond lengths range from 2.429 (6 to 2.550 (5 Å. The cohesion of the structure is ensured by S...O [3.115 (6, 3.242 (10 and 3.12 (3 Å], O...O [3.037 (10 Å] and C—H...O interactions between cations and anions. The S and C atoms of a dmso ligand are disordered over three sites in a 0.45:0.30:0.25 ratio. The dimethylsulfoxide solvent molecules are highly disordered and could not be modelled successfully; their contribution was therefore removed from the refinement using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]. Potential solvent-accessible voids of 500.0 Å3 occur in the crystal structure.

  13. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) waste residues and municipal waste water odor by dimethyl sulfide (DMS): the north-east WPCP plant of Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Novak, John; Witherspoon, Jay

    2006-01-01

    This study shows for the first time that overlooked mg/L concentrations of industrial dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) waste residues in sewage can cause "rotten cabbage" odor problems bydimethyl sulfide (DMS) in conventional municipal wastewater treatment. In laboratory studies, incubation of activated sludge with 1-10 mg/L DMSO in bottles produced dimethyl sulfide (DMS) at concentrations that exceeded the odor threshold by approximately 4 orders of magnitude in the headspace gas. Aeration at a rate of 6 m3 air/m3 sludge resulted in emission of the DMS into the exhaust air in a manner analogous to that of an activated sludge aeration tank. A field study atthe NEWPCP sewage treatment plant in Philadelphia found DMSO levels intermittently peaking as high as 2400 mg/L in sewage near an industrial discharger. After 3 h, the DMSO concentration in the influent to the aeration tank rose from a baseline level of less than 0.01 mg/L to a level of 5.6 mg/L and the DMS concentration in the mixed liquor rose from less than 0.01 to 0.2 mg/L. Finding this link between the intermittent occurrence of DMSO residues in influent of the treatment plant and the odorant DMS in the aeration tank was the keyto understanding and eliminating the intermittent "canned corn" or "rotten cabbage" odor emissions from the aeration tank that had randomly plagued this plant and its city neighborhood for two decades. Sewage authorities should consider having wastewater samples analyzed for DMSO and DMS to check for this possible odor problem and to determine whether DMSO emission thresholds should be established to limit odor generation at sewage treatment plants.

  14. Gamma-radiolysis of dimethyl sulfoxide. II. Radiolysis yields and possible mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, M. C.; Barrera, R.

    1978-01-01

    As result of quantitative studies on gamma-radiolysis of DMSO at a dose range of 90-850 Mrads, constant G values have been obtained for the following radiolysis compounds: G(-DMSO) - 6.7 ±0.2; G(dimethyl sulphide) - 3.4 ±0.3; G(methane) - 0,75 ± 0.04; G(dimethyl disulphide) -0.33 ±0,03; G(tri methylsulphonium methanesulphonate) - 0.26 ± 0,01; G(methyl methanethiosulphonate) - 0,25 ±0.02; G(dimethyl sulphona)-0.21±0.02; G(H 2 )-0.18±0.02; and G(propane)--0.0092±0.0007. Initial G values have been obtained for other identified compounds: Gi(ethane)-0,46; Gi(CO)-0.052; and Gi(CO 2 )-0.030. Possible mechanisms on the radiolysis process are proposed. (Author) 17 refs

  15. Spermatozoa from the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) display typical canid hyper-sensitivity to osmotic and freezing-induced injury, but respond favorably to dimethyl sulfoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy E M; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Wildt, David E; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the influences of medium osmolality, cryoprotectant and cooling and warming rate on maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) spermatozoa. Ejaculates were exposed to Ham's F10 medium (isotonic control) or to this medium plus NaCl (350-1000mOsm), sucrose (369 and 479mOsm), 1M glycerol (1086mOsm) or dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO, 1151mOsm) for 10 min. Each sample then was diluted back into Ham's medium and assessed for sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity. Although glycerol and Me2SO had no influence (P>0.05), NaCl and sucrose solutions affected sperm motility (P0.05) to the control. As osmolality of the NaCl solution increased, motility decreased to maned wolf spermatozoa are similar to domestic dog sperm in their sensitivity to osmotic-induced motility damage, the plasma membranes tolerate dehydration, and the cells respond favorably to Me2SO as a cryoprotectant. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) in the new solvent Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO)/Tetrabutylammonium Fluoride (TBAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliza, M. Y.; Shahruddin, M.; Noormaziah, J.; Rosli, W. D. Wan

    2015-06-01

    The surplus of Oil Palm is the most galore wastes in Malaysia because it produced about half of the world palm oil production, which contributes a major disposal problem Synthesis from an empty fruit bunch produced products such as Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC), could apply in diverse application such as for paper coating, food packaging and most recently, the potential as biomaterials has been revealed. In this study, CMC was prepared by firstly dissolved the bleached pulp from OPEFB in mixture solution of dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO)/tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) without any prior chemical modification. It took only 30 minutes to fully dissolve at temperature 60°C before sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were added for activation and monochloroacetateas terrifying agent. The final product is appeared in white powder, which is then will be analyzedby FTIR analysis. FTIR results show peaks appeared at wavenumber between 1609 cm-1 to 1614 cm-1 proved the existence of carboxymethyl groups which substitute OH groups at anhydroglucose(AGU) unit. As a conclusion, mixture solution of DMSO/TBAF is the suitable solvent used for dissolved cellulose before modifying it into CMC with higher Degree of Substitution (DS). Furthermore, the dissolution of the OPEFB bleached pulp was easy, simple and at a faster rate without prior chemical modification at temperature as low as 60°C.

  17. Genomic Analysis of Anaerobic Respiration in the Archaeon Halobacterium sp. Strain NRC-1: Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Trimethylamine N-Oxide as Terminal Electron Acceptors†

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Jochen A.; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated anaerobic respiration of the archaeal model organism Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 by using phenotypic and genetic analysis, bioinformatics, and transcriptome analysis. NRC-1 was found to grow on either dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as the sole terminal electron acceptor, with a doubling time of 1 day. An operon, dmsREABCD, encoding a putative regulatory protein, DmsR, a molybdopterin oxidoreductase of the DMSO reductase family (DmsEABC), and...

  18. Acid-base equilibrium dynamics in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide probed by two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiho; Son, Hyewon; Park, Sungnam

    2015-07-21

    Two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy, which has been proven to be an excellent experimental method for studying thermally-driven chemical processes, was successfully used to investigate the acid dissociation equilibrium of HN3 in methanol (CH3OH) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for the first time. Our 2DIR experimental results indicate that the acid-base equilibrium occurs on picosecond timescales in CH3OH but that it occurs on much longer timescales in DMSO. Our results imply that the different timescales of the acid-base equilibrium originate from different proton transfer mechanisms between the acidic (HN3) and basic (N3(-)) species in CH3OH and DMSO. In CH3OH, the acid-base equilibrium is assisted by the surrounding CH3OH molecules which can directly donate H(+) to N3(-) and accept H(+) from HN3 and the proton migrates through the hydrogen-bonded chain of CH3OH. On the other hand, the acid-base equilibrium in DMSO occurs through the mutual diffusion of HN3 and N3(-) or direct proton transfer. Our 2DIR experimental results corroborate different proton transfer mechanisms in the acid-base equilibrium in protic (CH3OH) and aprotic (DMSO) solvents.

  19. Palliative treatment for advanced biliary adenocarcinomas with combination dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ba X; Tran, Hung Q; Vu, Ut V; Pham, Quynh T; Shaw, D Graeme

    2014-09-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and cholangiocarcinoma account for 4% and 3%, respectively, of all gastrointestinal cancers. Advanced biliary tract carcinoma has a very poor prognosis with all current available modalities of treatment. In this pilot open-label study, the authors investigated the efficacy and safety of a combination of dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate (DMSO-SB) infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (ademetionine) oral supplementation as palliative pharmacotherapy in nine patients with advanced nonresectable biliary tract carcinomas (ABTCs). Patients with evidence of biliary obstruction with a total serum bilirubin ≤300 μmol/L were allowed to join the study. The results of this 6-month study and follow-up of all nine patients with ABTC indicated that the investigated combination treatment improved pain control, blood biochemical parameters, and quality of life for the patients. Moreover, this method of treatment has led to a 6-month progression-free survival for all investigated patients. The treatment was well tolerated for all patients without major adverse reactions. Given that ABTC is a highly fatal malignancy with poor response to chemotherapy and targeted drugs, the authors consider that the combination of DMSO-SB and ademetionine deserves further research and application as a palliative care and survival-enhancing treatment for this group of patients.

  20. Dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate infusion for palliative care and pain relief in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ba X; Le, Bao T; Tran, Hau D; Hoang, Cuong; Tran, Hung Q; Tran, Dao M; Pham, Cu Q; Pham, Tuan D; Ha, Trung V; Bui, Nga T; Shaw, D Graeme

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (adenocarcinoma of the prostate) is the most widespread cancer in men. It causes significant suffering and mortality due to metastatic disease. The main therapy for metastatic prostate cancer (MPC) includes androgen manipulation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy and/or radioisotopes. However, these therapeutic approaches are considered palliative at this stage, and their significant side effects can cause further decline in patients' quality of life and increase non-cancer-related morbidity/mortality. In this study, the authors have used the infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate (DMSO-SB) to treat 18 patients with MPC. The 90-day follow-up of the patients having undergone the proposed therapeutic regimen showed significant improvement in clinical symptoms, blood and biochemistry tests, and quality of life. There were no major side effects from the treatment. In searching for new and better methods for palliative treatment and pain relief, this study strongly suggested therapy with DMSO-SB infusions could provide a rational alternative to conventional treatment for patients with MPC.

  1. An alternative mechanism for radioprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide. Possible facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashino, Genro; Liu, Yong; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Ono, Koji; Tano, Keizo; Watanabe, Masami

    2010-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been known for many years, and the suppression of hydroxyl (OH) radicals induced by ionizing radiation has been thought to be the main cause of this effect. However, the DMSO concentration used was very high, and might be toxic, in earlier studies. In the present study, we administered a lower, non-toxic concentration (0.5%, id est (i.e.), 64 mM) of DMSO before irradiation and examined its radioprotective effects. Colony formation assay and micronucleus assay showed significant radioprotective effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), but not in xrs5, which is defective in the repair function of DNA double-strand breaks. The levels of phosphorylated H2AX and the formation of 53BP1 foci 15 minutes after irradiation, which might reflect initial DNA double-strand breaks, in DMSO-treated CHO cells were similar to those in non-treated cells, suggesting that the radioprotective effects were not attributable to the suppression of general indirect action in the lower concentration of DMSO. On the other hand, 2 hours after irradiation, the average number of 53BP1 foci, which might reflect residual DNA double-strand breaks, was significantly decreased in DMSO-treated CHO cells compared to non-treated cells. The results indicated that low concentration of DMSO exerts radioprotective effects through the facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair rather than through the suppression of indirect action. (author)

  2. An alternative mechanism for radioprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide; possible facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashino, Genro; Liu, Yong; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Ono, Koji; Tano, Keizo; Watanabe, Masami

    2010-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been known for many years, and the suppression of hydroxyl (OH) radicals induced by ionizing radiation has been thought to be the main cause of this effect. However, the DMSO concentration used was very high, and might be toxic, in earlier studies. In the present study, we administered a lower, non-toxic concentration (0.5%, i.e., 64 mM) of DMSO before irradiation and examined its radioprotective effects. Colony formation assay and micronucleus assay showed significant radioprotective effects in CHO, but not in xrs5, which is defective in the repair function of DNA double-strand breaks. The levels of phosphorylated H2AX and the formation of 53BP1 foci 15 minutes after irradiation, which might reflect initial DNA double-strand breaks, in DMSO-treated CHO cells were similar to those in non-treated cells, suggesting that the radioprotective effects were not attributable to the suppression of general indirect action in the lower concentration of DMSO. On the other hand, 2 hours after irradiation, the average number of 53BP1 foci, which might reflect residual DNA double-strand breaks, was significantly decreased in DMSO-treated CHO cells compared to non-treated cells. The results indicated that low concentration of DMSO exerts radioprotective effects through the facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair rather than through the suppression of indirect action.

  3. Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Cholesterol-Containing Lipid Membranes: A Comparative Study of Experiments In Silico and with Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ménorval, Marie-Amélie; Mir, Lluis M.; Fernández, M. Laura; Reigada, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been known to enhance cell membrane permeability of drugs or DNA. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single-component lipid bilayers predicted the existence of three regimes of action of DMSO: membrane loosening, pore formation and bilayer collapse. We show here that these modes of action are also reproduced in the presence of cholesterol in the bilayer, and we provide a description at the atomic detail of the DMSO-mediated process of pore formation in cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. We also successfully explore the applicability of DMSO to promote plasma membrane permeability to water, calcium ions (Ca2+) and Yo-Pro-1 iodide (Yo-Pro-1) in living cell membranes. The experimental results on cells in culture can be easily explained according to the three expected regimes: in the presence of low doses of DMSO, the membrane of the cells exhibits undulations but no permeability increase can be detected, while at intermediate DMSO concentrations cells are permeabilized to water and calcium but not to larger molecules as Yo-Pro-1. These two behaviors can be associated to the MD-predicted consequences of the effects of the DMSO at low and intermediate DMSO concentrations. At larger DMSO concentrations, permeabilization is larger, as even Yo-Pro-1 can enter the cells as predicted by the DMSO-induced membrane-destructuring effects described in the MD simulations. PMID:22848583

  4. Crystal structure of μ-oxalato-κ2O1:O2-bis[(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOtriphenyltin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serigne Fallou Pouye

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the previously reported [C2O4(SnPh32] complex [Diop et al. (2003. Appl. Organomet. Chem. 17, 881–882.], the SnIV atoms are able to formally complete their coordination by addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO molecules provided by the reaction medium, affording the title complex, [Sn2(C6H56(C2O4(C2H6OS2]. The SnIV atoms are then pentacoordinated, with a common trans trigonal–bipyramidal arrangement. The asymmetric unit contains one half-molecule, which is completed by inversion symmetry in space group type C2/c. The inversion centre is placed at the mid-point of the central bis-monodentate oxalate dianion, C2O42−, which bridges the [(SnPh3(DMSO] moieties. The molecule crystallizes as a disordered system, with two phenyl rings disordered by rotation about their Sn—C bonds, while the DMSO molecule is split over two positions due to a tetrahedral inversion at the S atom. All disordered parts were refined with occupancies fixed of 0.5.

  5. Dimethyl sulfoxide is a potent modulator of estrogen receptor isoforms and xenoestrogen biomarker responses in primary culture of salmon hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, Anne S.; Arukwe, Augustine

    2006-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been frequently used as carrier solvent in toxicological experiments where the most compelling DMSO attributes are its exceptionally low toxicity and environmental impact. We were inspired by recent and consistent observations that ethanol and DMSO modulate endocrine-disruptor biomarker responses in both in vitro and in vivo studies in our laboratory, to take a critical evaluation of these effects. Quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with specific primer pairs was used in this study to measure DMSO-induced time-dependent modulation of estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms, vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata-protein (Zr-protein) gene expression patterns in primary culture of salmon hepatocytes. In addition, immunochemical analysis, using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal (Vtg) and polyclonal (Zr-proteins) antibodies was used to detect and measure Vtg and Zr-proteins secreted in culture media. Salmon hepatocytes were isolated by a two-step collagenase perfusion method and exposed to 0.1% or 10 μL/L of DMSO after 48 h pre-culture. Cells were harvested at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after exposure and analysed for ERα, ERβ, Vtg and Zr-protein gene expression using real-time PCR method. Media samples were collected at similar time-intervals for protein analysis. Our data show that DMSO-induced significant increase in ERα, ERβ, Vtg and Zr-protein genes in a time-dependent manner. Indirect ELISA analysis showed a time-specific effect of DMSO. The use of DMSO as carrier solvent in fish endocrine disruption studies should be re-evaluated. We recommend more investigation, using other endocrine-disruptor biomarkers in order to validate the suitability of common carrier solvents used in toxicology with the aim of setting new maximum allowable concentrations. In particular, given the high sensitivity of genomic approaches in toxicology, these results may have serious consequences for the

  6. Characteristics of the formation of enzyme-bound ATP from medium inorganic phosphate by mitochondrial F1 adenosinetriphosphatase in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandpal, R.P.; Stempel, K.E.; Boyer, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Addition of dimethyl sulfoxide promotes the formation of enzyme-bound ATP from medium P/sub i/ by mitochondrial F 1 adenosinetriphosphatase that has tightly bound ADP present. Measurements are reported of medium P/sub i/ ↔ H 18 OH exchange and of the dependence of formation of enzyme-bound ATP on P/sub i/ concentration. Attainment of an apparent equilibrium between medium P/sub i/ and bound ATP requires longer than 30 min, even though the rates of P/sub i/ binding and release after apparent equilibrium is reached would suffice for a faster approach to equilibrium. Slow protein conformational changes or other unknown modulating factors may be responsible for the slow rate of bound ATP formation. After apparent equilibrium is reached, each P/sub i/ that binds to the enzyme reversibly forms ATP about 50 times before being released to the medium. The rate of interconversion of bound ATP to bound ADP and P/sub i/ is much slower than that in the absence of dimethyl sulfoxide as measured with sufficient low ATP concentrations so that single-site catalysis is favored. Although the interconversion rate is slowed, the equilibrium constant for bound ATP formation from bound ADP and P/sub i/ is not far from unity. Dimethyl sulfoxide favors the formation of enzyme-bound ATP by promoting the competent binding of P/sub i/ to enzyme with ADP bound at a catalytic site rather than by promoting formation of bound ATP from bound ADP and P/sub i/

  7. Extraction of 14C-labeled photosynthate from aquatic plants with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbin, G.J.; Hough, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    DMSO was tested as a solvent to extract 14 C-labeled photosynthate from three species of aquatic plants in photosynthesis measurements and compared with the dry oxidation method for plant radioassay. Extraction of ca. 300 mg of fresh or rehydrated dry plant tissue samples in 10 ml of reagent-grade DMSO for 8h at 65 0 C resulted in a stable, nonviscous solution with excellent liquid scintillation counting characteristics. Extraction efficiency was in the range of 96-99% of fixed 14 C, and precision was comparable to, or better than, that obtained with dry oxidation. The method is simple and inexpensive, and for fresh tissue the same sample extracts can be used for chlorophyll analyses

  8. Crystal structure of chlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κSbis[4-(pyridin-2-ylbenzaldehyde-κ3C2,N]iridium(III acetonitrile monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Peloquin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [IrCl(C12H8NO2{(CH32SO}]·H3CCN or [IrCl(fppy2(DMSO]·H3CCN [where fppy is 4-(pyridin-2-ylbenzaldehyde and DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide], is a mononuclear iridium(III complex including two fppy ligands, a sulfur-coordinating DMSO ligand, and one terminal chloride ligand that define a distorted octahedral coordination sphere. The complex crystallizes from 1:1 DMSO–acetonitrile as an acetonitrile solvate. In the crystal, weak C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen-bonding interactions between adjacent complexes and between the acetonitrile solvent and the complex consolidate the packing.

  9. Second-harmonic generation microscopy used to evaluate the effect of the dimethyl sulfoxide in the cryopreservation process in collagen fibers of differentiated chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli-Risso, M. F.; Duarte, A. S. S.; Ribeiro, T. B.; Bordeaux-Rego, P.; Luzo, A.; Baratti, M. O.; Adur, J.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Pelegati, V. B.; Carvalho, H. F.; Cesar, C. L.; Kharmadayan, P.; Costa, F. F.; Olalla-Saad, S. T.

    2012-03-01

    Cartilaginous lesions are a significant public health problem and the use of adult stem cells represents a promising therapy for this condition. Cryopreservation confers many advantages for practitioners engaged in cell-based therapies. However, conventional slow freezing has always been associated with damage and mortality due to intracellular ice formation, cryoprotectant toxicity, and dehydration. The aim of this work is to observe the effect of the usual Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) cryopreservation process on the architecture of the collagen fiber network of chondrogenic cells from mesenchymal stem cells by Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy. To perform this study we used Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) derived from adipose tissue which presents the capacity to differentiate into other lineages such as osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Mesenchymal stem cells obtained after liposuction were isolated digested by collagenase type I and characterization was carried out by differentiation of mesodermic lineages, and flow cytometry using specific markers. The isolated MSCs were cryopreserved by the DMSO technique and the chondrogenic differentiation was carried out using the micromass technique. We then compared the cryopreserved vs non-cryopreserved collagen fibers which are naturally formed during the differentiation process. We observed that noncryopreserved MSCs presented a directional trend in the collagen fibers formed which was absent in the cryopreserved MSCs. We confirmed this trend quantitatively by the aspect ratio obtained by Fast Fourier Transform which was 0.76 for cryopreserved and 0.52 for non-cryopreserved MSCs, a statistical significant difference.

  10. A potentiometric study of (acid+base) equilibria in substituted 4-nitropyridine N-oxide systems in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzynski, Lukasz; Puszko, Aniela; Makowski, Mariusz; Chmurzynski, Lech

    2007-01-01

    The acid dissociation constants for cationic acids conjugated with 4-nitropyridine N-oxides have been determined using potentiometric titration method. The measurements in the systems of thirteen 4-nitropyridine N-oxide derivatives were carried out in the polar amphiprotic methanol (MeOH) and in the aprotic protophilic dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Likewise as in the polar aprotic protophobic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone) it was found that in MeOH for all N-oxides studied the pK a values were readily determinable, whereas in DMSO the pK a values were hardly determinable or indeterminable by using the potentiometric method. In addition, just like in our previous investigations it was revealed that the sequence of the pK a values of the cationic acids in methanol is the same as in the water and the values are lower than those determined in acetonitrile and acetone. Also, it was found that the phenomenon of cationic homoconjugation equilibria was not present in the systems involving 4-nitropyridine N-oxide derivatives in both solvents used. Furthermore, protonation energies, ΔE prot , and Gibbs free enthalpies, ΔG prot , in vacuo have been compared with acid dissociation constants (expressed as pK a MeOH values) of the protonated N-oxides determined by potentiometric titration in methanol to establish a correlation between these magnitudes

  11. Fullerenol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 24} nanoparticles decrease relaxing effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on rat uterus spontaneous contraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavic, Marija, E-mail: marija17@ibiss.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Department for Physiology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' (IBISS) (Serbia); Djordjevic, Aleksandar [University of Novi Sad, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and the Environment, Faculty of Sciences (Serbia); Radojicic, Ratko [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology (Serbia); Milovanovic, Slobodan [University of East Sarajevo, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine at Foca (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana [University of Belgrade, Department for Physiology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' (IBISS) (Serbia); Rakocevic, Zlatko [University of Belgrade, Institute for Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' (Serbia); Spasic, Mihajlo B.; Blagojevic, Dusko [University of Belgrade, Department for Physiology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' (IBISS) (Serbia)

    2013-05-15

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a widely used solvent and cryoprotectant that can cause impaired blood flow, reduction in intracranial pressure, tissue edema, inflammatory reactions, inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, processes which can lead to atherosclerosis of the coronary, peripheral and cerebral circulation. Although the adverse effects are rare when DMSO is administered in clinically established concentrations, there is no safe antagonist for an overdose. In this work, we treated isolated spontaneous and calcium-induced contractile active rat uteri (Wistar, virgo intacta), with DMSO and fullerenol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 24} nanoparticle (FNP) in DMSO. FNP is a water-soluble derivative of fullerene C{sub 60}. Its size is a 1.1 nm in diameter and is a very promising candidate for a drug carrier in nanomedicine. FNP also displays free radical scavenging activity. DMSO decreased both spontaneous and calcium-induced contractions. In contrast, FNP only decreased spontaneous contraction. FNP decreased copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity and prevented the DMSO-induced increase in glutathione reductase activity. Atomic force microscopy detected that FNP aggregated with calcium ions. Our results indicate that FNP has properties that make it a good candidate to be a modulator of DMSO activity which could minimize side effects of the latter.

  12. Complex formation reactions of uranyl(VI) with neutral N-donors in dimethyl sulfoxide. Influence of small amounts of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassol, A.; Di Bernardo, P.; Zanonato, P.; Portanova, R.; Tolazzi, M.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative information about the existence and thermodynamic stability of uranyl(VI) ion complexes based solely upon nitrogen coordination has been obtained in the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide. Calorimetric, potentiometric, and FT-IR investigations, under controlled anhydrous conditions, show that the uranyl(VI) ion can form both mono and bis chelates with the ethylenediamine ligand and only a mono chelate of rather low stability with propylenediamine. With the monodentate ligand n-butylamine only a very weak metal-ligand interaction has been detected. The stability constants and the enthalpy and entropy changes have been calculated for the identified coordinated species. All data refer to 25.0 degree C and a tetraethylammonium perchlorate medium of ionic strength 0.1 M. All the complexes are enthalpy stabilized whereas the entropy contributions oppose the complex formation. Calorimetric and FT-IR measurements carried out to investigate the effects of small amounts of water present show that a very low water concentration, comparable to that of the coordinating metal ion, can give rise to hydrolysis reactions that may compete with complex formation. This is due to the combined action of different factors that are discussed. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  13. Improved in situ saccharification of cellulose pretreated by dimethyl sulfoxide/ionic liquid using cellulase from a newly isolated Paenibacillus sp. LLZ1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongxue; Ju, Xin; Li, Liangzhi; Hu, Cuiying; Yan, Lishi; Wu, Tianyun; Fu, Jiaolong; Qin, Ming

    2016-02-01

    A cellulase producing strain was newly isolated from soil samples and identified as Paenibacillus sp. LLZ1. A novel aqueous-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate ([Emin]DEP)-cellulase system was designed and optimized. In the pretreatment, DMSO was found to be a low-cost substitute of up to 70% ionic liquid to enhance the cellulose dissolution. In the enzymatic saccharification, the optimum pH and temperature of the Paenibacillus sp. LLZ1 cellulase were identified as 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Under the optimized reaction condition, the conversion of microcrystalline cellulose and bagasse cellulose increased by 39.3% and 37.6%, compared with unpretreated cellulose. Compared to current methods of saccharification, this new approach has several advantages including lower operating temperature, milder pH, and less usage of ionic liquid, indicating a marked progress in environmental friendly hydrolysis of biomass-based materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A potentiometric study of (acid+base) equilibria in substituted 4-nitropyridine N-oxide systems in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurzynski, Lukasz [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Puszko, Aniela [Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Economics, Wroclaw (Poland); Makowski, Mariusz [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Chmurzynski, Lech [Department of General Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: lech@chemik.chem.univ.gda.pl

    2007-02-15

    The acid dissociation constants for cationic acids conjugated with 4-nitropyridine N-oxides have been determined using potentiometric titration method. The measurements in the systems of thirteen 4-nitropyridine N-oxide derivatives were carried out in the polar amphiprotic methanol (MeOH) and in the aprotic protophilic dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Likewise as in the polar aprotic protophobic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone) it was found that in MeOH for all N-oxides studied the pK{sub a} values were readily determinable, whereas in DMSO the pK{sub a} values were hardly determinable or indeterminable by using the potentiometric method. In addition, just like in our previous investigations it was revealed that the sequence of the pK{sub a} values of the cationic acids in methanol is the same as in the water and the values are lower than those determined in acetonitrile and acetone. Also, it was found that the phenomenon of cationic homoconjugation equilibria was not present in the systems involving 4-nitropyridine N-oxide derivatives in both solvents used. Furthermore, protonation energies, {delta}E{sub prot}, and Gibbs free enthalpies, {delta}G{sub prot}, in vacuo have been compared with acid dissociation constants (expressed as pK{sub a}{sup MeOH} values) of the protonated N-oxides determined by potentiometric titration in methanol to establish a correlation between these magnitudes.

  15. Speciation of binary complexes of Pb(II and Cd(II with L-asparagine in dimethyl sulfoxide - water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Rao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation of L-Asparagine complexes of Pb(II and Cd(II in presence of (0-50% v/v dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO-water mixtures has been studied potentiometrically at 303.0 K and at an ionic strength of 0.16 mol L-1. The models containing different number of species were refined by using the computer program MINIQUAD75. The number of species in the models is chosen based on exhaustive modeling. The predominant species formed are of the type ML2, ML2H, and ML2H2. The best fit chemical models were chosen based on statistical parameters. The convenience of the models is ascertained by studying the effect of errors in concentrations of ingredients. The trend in variation of stability constants with change in the composition of medium is explained on the basis of predominant electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces. Chemical speciation was discussed based on the distribution diagrams. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v30i1.6

  16. 1,3-Dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, acetylacetone and dimethyl sulfoxide as solvents for non-aqueous vanadium acetylacetonate redox-flow-batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, T.; Noack, J.; Fischer, P.; Tübke, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Four solvents were employed in a non-aqueous redox flow battery system. • Coulombic efficiencies of 85.9–98.5% and energy efficiencies of 26.6–43.6% were achieved. • Discharge power density was enhanced up to 0.080 mW cm −2 . • Solubility of V(acac) 3 was increased to 0.8 M compared to the acetonitrile system. -- Abstract: A non-aqueous vanadium acetylacetonate redox flow battery with different organic solvents and tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate has been investigated. Cyclic voltammograms show three redox couples in 1,3-dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, acetylacetone and two redox couples in dimethyl sulfoxide. Cell potentials between 2.21 and 2.61 V are measured, depending on the solvent used. Impedance Spectroscopy has been used to determine rate limiting step in the non-aqueous redox flow battery. Experiments in a charge–discharge test cell yielded coulombic and energy efficiencies of 85.9–98.5% and 26.6–43.6%, respectively

  17. Meta-Analysis of the Related Nutritional Supplements Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methylsulfonylmethane in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimethyl sulphoxide and methylsulfonylmethane are two related nutritional supplements used for symptomatic relief of osteoarthritis (OA. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate their efficacy in reducing pain associated with OA. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs, identified by systematic electronic searches, citation tracking and searches of clinical trial registries, assessing these supplements in osteoarthritis of any joint were considered for inclusion. Meta-analysis, based on difference in mean pain related outcomes between treatment and comparator groups, was carried out based on a random effect model. Seven potential trials were identified of which three RCTs, two DMSO and one MSM (total N=326 patients were eligible for inclusion. All three trials were considered high methodological quality. A significant degree of heterogeneity (χ2=6.28, P=.043 was revealed. Two studies demonstrated statistically significant (but not clinically relevant reduction in pain compared with controls; with one showing no group difference. The meta-analysis confirmed a non significant reduction of pain on visual analogue scale of 6.34 mm (SE = 3.49, 95% CI, −0.49, 13.17. The overall effect size of 1.82 was neither statistically nor clinically significant. Current evidence suggests DMSO and MSM are not clinically effective in the reduction of pain in the treatment of OA. No definitive conclusions can currently be drawn from the data due to the mixed findings and the use of inadequate dosing periods.

  18. A contribution to the controversy over dimethyl sulfoxide toxicity: anesthesia monitoring results in patients treated with Onyx embolization for intracranial aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamuk, A.G.; Aypar, U. [Hacettepe University Hospital, Department of Anesthesia, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Saatci, I.; Cekirge, H.S. [Hacettepe University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-05-01

    Onyx injection is a new technique for embolization of cerebral aneurysms that is involved in a controversy about the 'toxicity' of its solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We retrospectively studied 38 patients treated for aneurysms with the liquid polymer, Onyx. Induction was with propofol, fentanyl and vecuronium, and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O. The patients were given 500 ml of fluid after induction, and bradycardia was prevented in order to keep patients hyperdynamic. Electrocardiography (ECG), non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP), pulse oximetry, core temperatures, invasive blood pressure (BP), etCO{sub 2}, and urine output were monitored throughout the intervention. Heart rate and BP changes in response to balloon inflation, DMSO injection, Onyx injection and balloon deflation were recorded. The patients were followed with serial neurological examinations, computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging postoperatively for evidence of any neurological injury. Cumulative DMSO doses were always well under previously implicated doses for systemic toxicity. No changes implicating toxic reactions were observed during DMSO and Onyx injections. Balloon-induced changes returned to baseline within 1 min of balloon deflation. Technique-related permanent morbidity occurred in two patients (worsening of cranial nerve palsies in one and monocular blindness in another) and intracranial hemorrhage with resulting death in one patient. All patients showed a tendency to oxygen desaturation, but this finding did not cause any clinical consequence. Anesthesiologists need to be vigilant in monitoring patients treated with techniques that are new or are being developed. We have seen no evidence of toxicity or any anesthetic complications in our group of patients, our only clinical concern being a tendency to oxygen desaturation, which may be explained by the inhalational elimination of DMSO. (orig.)

  19. Optimization of the etch-and-rinse technique: New perspectives to improve resin-dentin bonding and hybrid layer integrity by reducing residual water using dimethyl sulfoxide pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stape, Thiago Henrique Scarabello; Tjäderhane, Leo; Abuna, Gabriel; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu

    2018-04-13

    To determine whether bonding effectiveness and hybrid layer integrity on acid-etched dehydrated dentin would be comparable to the conventional wet-bonding technique through new dentin biomodification approaches using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Etched dentin surfaces from extracted sound molars were randomly bonded in wet or dry conditions (30s air drying) with DMSO/ethanol or DMSO/H 2 O as pretreatments using a simplified (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE: SU) and a multi-step (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE: SBMP) etch-and-rinse adhesives. Untreated dentin surfaces served as control. Bonded teeth (n=8) were stored in distilled water for 24h and sectioned into resin-dentin beams (0.8mm 2 ) for microtensile bond strength test and quantitative interfacial nanoleakage analysis (n=8) under SEM. Additional teeth (n=2) were prepared for micropermeability assessment by CFLSM under simulated pulpar pressure (20cm H 2 O) using 5mM fluorescein as a tracer. Microtensile data was analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by Tukey Test and nanoleakage by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn-Bonferroni multiple comparison test (α=0.05). While dry-bonding of SBMP produced significantly lower bond strengths than wet-bonding (padhesives to demineralized air-dried dentin beyond conventional wet-bonding. Less porous resin-dentin interfaces with higher bond strengths on air-dried etched dentin were achieved; nonetheless, overall efficiency varied according to DMSO's co-solvent and adhesive type. DMSO pretreatments permit etched dentin to be air-dried before hybridization facilitating residual water removal and thus improving bonding effectiveness. This challenges the current paradigm of wet-bonding requirement for the etch-and-rinse approach creating new possibilities to enhance the clinical longevity of resin-dentin interfaces. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A contribution to the controversy over dimethyl sulfoxide toxicity: anesthesia monitoring results in patients treated with Onyx embolization for intracranial aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamuk, A.G.; Aypar, U.; Saatci, I.; Cekirge, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    Onyx injection is a new technique for embolization of cerebral aneurysms that is involved in a controversy about the 'toxicity' of its solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We retrospectively studied 38 patients treated for aneurysms with the liquid polymer, Onyx. Induction was with propofol, fentanyl and vecuronium, and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in O 2 and N 2 O. The patients were given 500 ml of fluid after induction, and bradycardia was prevented in order to keep patients hyperdynamic. Electrocardiography (ECG), non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP), pulse oximetry, core temperatures, invasive blood pressure (BP), etCO 2 , and urine output were monitored throughout the intervention. Heart rate and BP changes in response to balloon inflation, DMSO injection, Onyx injection and balloon deflation were recorded. The patients were followed with serial neurological examinations, computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging postoperatively for evidence of any neurological injury. Cumulative DMSO doses were always well under previously implicated doses for systemic toxicity. No changes implicating toxic reactions were observed during DMSO and Onyx injections. Balloon-induced changes returned to baseline within 1 min of balloon deflation. Technique-related permanent morbidity occurred in two patients (worsening of cranial nerve palsies in one and monocular blindness in another) and intracranial hemorrhage with resulting death in one patient. All patients showed a tendency to oxygen desaturation, but this finding did not cause any clinical consequence. Anesthesiologists need to be vigilant in monitoring patients treated with techniques that are new or are being developed. We have seen no evidence of toxicity or any anesthetic complications in our group of patients, our only clinical concern being a tendency to oxygen desaturation, which may be explained by the inhalational elimination of DMSO. (orig.)

  1. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in non-obese diabetic mice by inducing differentiation of regulatory T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Gu-Jiun; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Yuan-Wu; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Yu, Chiao-Chi; Chang, Hao-Ming; Chan, De-Chuan; Huang, Shing-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is caused by the destruction of insulin-producing β cells in pancreatic islets by autoimmune T cells. Islet transplantation has been established as an effective therapeutic strategy for T1D. However, the survival of islet grafts can be disrupted by recurrent autoimmunity. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent for organic and inorganic substances and an organ-conserving agent used in solid organ transplantations. DMSO also exerts anti-inflammatory, reactive oxygen species scavenger and immunomodulatory effects and therefore exhibits therapeutic potential for the treatment of several human inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of DMSO in the inhibition of autoimmunity. We treated an animal model of islet transplantation (NOD mice) with DMSO. The survival of the syngeneic islet grafts was significantly prolonged. The population numbers of CD8, DC and Th1 cells were decreased, and regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers were increased in recipients. The expression levels of IFN-γ and proliferation of T cells were also reduced following DMSO treatment. Furthermore, the differentiation of Treg cells from naive CD4 T cells was significantly increased in the in vitro study. Our results demonstrate for the first time that in vivo DMSO treatment suppresses spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in NOD mice by inhibiting the Th1 immune response and inducing the differentiation of Treg cells. - Highlights: • We report a therapeutic potential of DMSO in autoimmune diabetes. • DMSO exhibits an immune modulatory effect. • DMSO treatment increases regulatory T cell differentiation. • The increase in STAT5 signaling pathway explains the effect of DMSO in Tregs

  2. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in non-obese diabetic mice by inducing differentiation of regulatory T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Gu-Jiun [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Sytwu, Huey-Kang [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yu, Jyh-Cherng [Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Yuan-Wu [School of Dentistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Yu-Liang [Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yu, Chiao-Chi [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Hao-Ming; Chan, De-Chuan [Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Shing-Hwa, E-mail: h610129@gmail.com [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of General Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-01-15

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is caused by the destruction of insulin-producing β cells in pancreatic islets by autoimmune T cells. Islet transplantation has been established as an effective therapeutic strategy for T1D. However, the survival of islet grafts can be disrupted by recurrent autoimmunity. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent for organic and inorganic substances and an organ-conserving agent used in solid organ transplantations. DMSO also exerts anti-inflammatory, reactive oxygen species scavenger and immunomodulatory effects and therefore exhibits therapeutic potential for the treatment of several human inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of DMSO in the inhibition of autoimmunity. We treated an animal model of islet transplantation (NOD mice) with DMSO. The survival of the syngeneic islet grafts was significantly prolonged. The population numbers of CD8, DC and Th1 cells were decreased, and regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers were increased in recipients. The expression levels of IFN-γ and proliferation of T cells were also reduced following DMSO treatment. Furthermore, the differentiation of Treg cells from naive CD4 T cells was significantly increased in the in vitro study. Our results demonstrate for the first time that in vivo DMSO treatment suppresses spontaneous diabetes and autoimmune recurrence in NOD mice by inhibiting the Th1 immune response and inducing the differentiation of Treg cells. - Highlights: • We report a therapeutic potential of DMSO in autoimmune diabetes. • DMSO exhibits an immune modulatory effect. • DMSO treatment increases regulatory T cell differentiation. • The increase in STAT5 signaling pathway explains the effect of DMSO in Tregs.

  3. Dimethyl sulfoxide in a 10% concentration has no effect on oxidation stress induced by ovalbumin-sensitization in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolka, P; Mokra, D; Drgova, A; Petras, M; Mokry, J

    2012-04-01

    In allergic asthma, activated cells produce various substances including reactive oxygen species (ROS). As heterogenic pathophysiology of asthma results to different response to the therapy, testing novel interventions continues. Because of water-insolubility of some potentially beneficial drugs, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is often used as a solvent. Based on its antioxidant properties, this study evaluated effects of DMSO on mobilization of leukocytes into the lungs, and oxidation processes induced by ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitization in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma. Guinea-pigs were divided into OVA-sensitized and naive animals. One group of OVA-sensitized animals and one group of naive animals were pretreated with 10% DMSO, the other two groups were given saline. After sacrificing animals, blood samples were taken and total antioxidant status (TAS) in the plasma was determined. Left lungs were saline-lavaged and differential leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) was made. Right lung tissue was homogenized, TAS and products of lipid and protein oxidation were determined in the lung homogenate and in isolated mitochondria. OVA-sensitization increased total number of cells and percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils in BAL fluid; increased lipid and protein oxidation in the lung homogenate and mitochondria, and decreased TAS in the lungs and plasma compared with naive animals. However, no differences were observed in DMSO-instilled animals compared to controls. In conclusion, OVA-sensitization increased mobilization of leukocytes into the lungs and elevated production of ROS, accompanied by decrease in TAS. 10% DMSO had no effect on lipid and protein oxidation in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma.

  4. Dimethyl sulfoxide-caused changes in pro- and anti-angiogenic factor levels could contribute to an anti-angiogenic response in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Ece; Aydemir, Esra Arslan; İmir, Nilüfer; Koçak, Orhan; Kuruoğlu, Aykut; Fışkın, Kayahan

    2015-10-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is widely used in biological research as a general solvent. While it has been previously demonstrated that DMSO possesses a wide range of pharmacological effects, there is no published work regarding the effects of DMSO on pro-angiogenic factor levels. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of DMSO on the levels of three pro-angiogenic factors released from HeLa cells in vitro. Cells were treated with two different and previously determined concentrations of DMSO. The cytotoxic effects of DMSO concentrations on HeLa cells were determined via MTT. Survival rates of DMSO-treated cells were determined by Invitrogen live/dead viability/cytotoxicity kit and trypan blue exclusion assay. Changes in the pro-angiogenic levels in media were evaluated by Cayman's Substance P Enzyme Immunoassay ELISA kit. Vascular endothelial growth factor ELISA kit and interferon gamma ELISA kit for substance P, VEGF and IFNγ respectively. Changes in substance P levels were corrected by standard western blotting. Changes in VEGF and IFNγ levels were corrected both by western blot and real time PCR. Treatment with 1.4 μM DMSO caused a time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation at 24, 48 and 72 h. 1.4 μM DMSO caused a significant reduction in VEGF levels at 72 h of incubation and sharp increases in IFNγ levels at both 48 and 72 h of incubation. According to real time PCR analyses, DMSO (1.4 μM) exhibited an inhibitory effect on VEGF but acted as an augmenter of IFNγ release on HeLa cells in vitro. This is the first report showing that the general solvent DMSO suppressed HeLa cell proliferation, decreased the levels of two pro-angiogenic factors (substance P and VEGF) and increased the release of an anti-angiogenic factor IFNγ in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Photochemical induced growth and aggregation of metal nanoparticles in diode-array spectrophotometer via excited dimethyl-sulfoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidki, Tomer; Cohen, Haim; Meyerstein, Dan

    2010-10-21

    Ag(0) and Au(0) nanoparticles suspended in dilute aqueous solutions containing (CH(3))(2)SO are photochemically unstable. The light source of a diode-array spectrophotometer induces, within less than a minute, particle growth and aggregation. The results indicate that this process is triggered by UV light absorption by the (CH(3))(2)SO.

  6. Crystal structure, optical, magnetic, and photochemical properties of the complex pentakis(dimethyl sulfoxide) nitrosylchromium(2+) hexafluorophosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Anders Rørbæk; Kadziola, Anders; Dethlefsen, Johannes Wied

    2009-01-01

    . Irradiation of a deoxygenated CH3CN solution of [Cr(NCCH3)5(NO)](PF6)2 in the presence of excess of [Fe(S2CNEt2)2] results in a transfer of NO to the iron centre as shown from the characteristic EPR spectrum of [Fe(S2CNEt2)2(NO)] with Aiso(14N) = 12.2´10-4 cm-1. The EPR parameters of 1 were determined: giso...

  7. Dimethyl sulfoxyde diethyl fumarate solution for high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kassiri, H.; Kattan, M.; Daher, Y.

    2007-06-01

    Dosimetric characterization of diethyl fumarate DEF in dimethyl sulfoxyde DMSO solution has been studied spectrophotometrically for possible application at high dose radiation dosimetry in the range (0-225 kGy). The absorption spectra of irradiated solution showed broad absorption bands between (325-400 nm) with a shoulder at 332 nm. The absorption increases as the dose is increased. Absorbance at 332 nm were measured and plotted against absorbed dose. Linear relationship and good response were found between absorbed dose and absorbance of 20% DEF concentration in the range (0-225 kGy) at the wave length, and linearity up to 250 kGy of absorbance at 332 nm .Good dose rate independence was observed in the range (14-33 kGy/h). The effect of post irradiation storage in darkness and indirect daylight conditions were not found to influence the absorption up to 700 h after irradiation. The effect of irradiation temperature within the range (0 to 60 centigrade degree) on the dosimetry performance was discussed.(author)

  8. Radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide in golden hamster embryo cells exposed to γ-rays at 4 and 77 K as studied by electron spin resonance and biological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, T.; Suzuki, K.; Watanabe, M.

    1992-01-01

    Many studies have reported the biological effects of gamma-irradiation on cells. It has been generally accepted that OH radicals produced by radiolysis of water in cells play an important role in the biological effect. OH radicals, however, were not observed directly in these studies. Thus there is some ambiguity in the determination of the reactive species responsible for the biological effect. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on gamma-irradiated golden hamster embryo cells has been studied here at 4 and 77 K by direct observation of free radicals and by biological measurements. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs

  9. Pulse radiolysis studies of the reactions of bromine atoms and dimethyl sulfoxide bromine atom complexes with alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Katagiri, Miho; Sawamura, Sadashi

    2007-05-01

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-Br complexes were generated by pulse radiolysis of DMSO/bromomethane mixtures and the formation mechanism and spectral characteristics of the formed complexes were investigated in detail. The rate constant for the reaction of bromine atoms with DMSO and the extinction coefficient of the complex were obtained to be 4.6×10 9 M -1 s -1 and 6300 M -1 cm -1 at the absorption maximum of 430 nm. Rate constants for the reaction of bromine atoms with a series of alcohols were determined in CBrCl 3 solutions applying a competitive kinetic method using the DMSO-Br complex as the reference system. The obtained rate constants were ˜10 8 M -1 s -1, one or two orders larger than those reported for highly polar solvents. Rate constants of DMSO-Br complexes with alcohols were determined to be ˜ 10 7 M -1 s -1. A comparison of the reactivities of Br atoms and DMSO-Br complexes with those of chlorine atoms and chlorine atom complexes which are ascribed to hydrogen abstracting reactants strongly indicates that hydrogen abstraction from alcohols is not the rate determining step in the case of Br atoms and DMSO-Br complexes.

  10. Evaluation of human platelet lysate and dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectants for the cryopreservation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Xiao, Ran; Cao, Yi-Lin; Yin, Hong-Yu

    2017-09-09

    Cryopreservation provides an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) are frequently used as cryoprotectants for this purpose. However, the use of DMSO can result in adverse effects and toxic reactions and FBS can introduce risks of viral, prion, zoonose contaminations and evoke immune responses after injection. It is therefore crucial to reduce DMSO concentrations and use serum-free solution in the cryopreservation process. Human platelet lysate (PL) is a promising candidate for use as an alternative to DMSO and FBS. Therefore, in this study, with an aim to identify a cryoprotective agent for ASC cryopreservation, we determined the viability, proliferation potential, phenotype, and differentiation potential of fresh ASCs and ASCs cryopreserved using different combinations of three cryoprotective agents: fetal bovine serum (FBS), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and human platelet lysate (PL). The viability of the ASCs cryopreserved with 90% FBS and 10% DMSO, 95% FBS and 5% DMSO, and 97% PL and 3% DMSO was >80%, and the proliferation potentials, cell phenotypes, and differentiation potentials of these groups were similar to those of fresh ASCs. Together, our findings suggest that a combination of 97% PL and 3% DMSO is an ideal cryoprotective agent for the efficient cryopreservation of human ASCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on the induction of DNA strand breaks in plasmid DNA and colony formation of PC Cl3 mammalian cells by alpha-, beta-, and Auger electron emitters (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Roswitha; Oehme, Liane; Kotzerke, Jörg; Freudenberg, Robert

    2016-12-01

    DNA damage occurs as a consequence of both direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation. The severity of DNA damage depends on the physical characteristics of the radiation quality, e.g., the linear energy transfer (LET). There are still contrary findings regarding direct or indirect interactions of high-LET emitters with DNA. Our aim is to determine DNA damage and the effect on cellular survival induced by (223)Ra compared to (188)Re and (99m)Tc modulated by the radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Radioactive solutions of (223)Ra, (188)Re, or (99m)Tc were added to either plasmid DNA or to PC Cl3 cells in the absence or presence of DMSO. Following irradiation, single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) in plasmid DNA were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. To determine the radiosensitivity of the rat thyroid cell line (PC Cl3), survival curves were performed using the colony formation assay. Exposure to 120 Gy of (223)Ra, (188)Re, or (99m)Tc leads to maximal yields of SSB (80 %) in plasmid DNA. Irradiation with 540 Gy (223)Ra and 500 Gy (188)Re or (99m)Tc induced 40, 28, and 64 % linear plasmid conformations, respectively. DMSO prevented the SSB and DSB in a similar way for all radionuclides. However, with the α-emitter (223)Ra, a low level of DSB could not be prevented by DMSO. Irradiation of PC Cl3 cells with (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc pre-incubated with DMSO revealed enhanced survival fractions (SF) in comparison to treatment without DMSO. Protection factors (PF) were calculated using the fitted survival curves. These factors are 1.23 ± 0.04, 1.20 ± 0.19, and 1.34 ± 0.05 for (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc, respectively. For (223)Ra, as well as for (188)Re and (99m)Tc, dose-dependent radiation effects were found applicable for plasmid DNA and PC Cl3 cells. The radioprotection by DMSO was in the same range for high- and low-LET emitter. Overall, the results indicate the contribution of mainly indirect radiation

  12. Crystal structure of diaquabis(7-diethylamino-3-formyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-olato-κ2O3,O4zinc(II dimethyl sulfoxide disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B. Davis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title coordination complex, [Zn(C14H14NO42(H2O2]·2C2H6OS, shows that the ZnII cation adopts an octahedral geometry and lies on an inversion center. Two organic ligands occupy the equatorial positions of the coordination sphere, forming a chelate ring motif via the O atom on the formyl group and another O atom of the carbonyl group (a pseudo-β-diketone motif. Two water molecules occupy the remaining coordination sites of the ZnII cation in the axial positions. The water molecules are each hydrogen bonded to a single dimethyl sulfoxide molecule that has been entrapped in the crystal lattice.

  13. Trans-ligand-dependent arrangement (bent or linear) of Pt II-bound dialkylcyanamide ligands: Molecular structure of trans-dichloro(dimethylcyanamide)(dimethyl sulfoxide)platinum(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, Tatyana B.; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Fritsky, Igor O.; Haukka, Matti

    2011-11-01

    The title compound, trans-[PtCl 2(NCNMe 2)(Me 2SO)], is the first example of the structurally characterized Pt II species having the nitrile and the sulfoxide ligands in the trans-position to each other. The most significant feature of this structure is the non-linear arrangement of the Pt sbnd N1 sbnd C1 fragment providing the rare case of the bent form of the dialkylcyanamide ligand.

  14. Gamma-radiolysis of dimethyl sulfoxide. II. Radiolysis yields and possible mechanisms; Gamma-Radiolisis del dimetilsulfoxido II. Rendimientos radioloticos y posibles mecanismos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, M C; Barrera, R

    1978-07-01

    As result of quantitative studies on gamma-radiolysis of DMSO at a dose range of 90-850 Mrads, constant G values have been obtained for the following radiolysis compounds: G(-DMSO) - 6.7 {+-}0.2; G(dimethyl sulphide) - 3.4 {+-}0.3; G(methane) - 0,75 {+-} 0.04; G(dimethyl disulphide) -0.33 {+-}0,03; G(tri methylsulphonium methanesulphonate) - 0.26 {+-} 0,01; G(methyl methanethiosulphonate) - 0,25 {+-}0.02; G(dimethyl sulphona)-0.21{+-}0.02; G(H{sub 2})-0.18{+-}0.02; and G(propane)--0.0092{+-}0.0007. Initial G values have been obtained for other identified compounds: Gi(ethane)-0,46; Gi(CO)-0.052; and Gi(CO{sub 2})-0.030. Possible mechanisms on the radiolysis process are proposed. (Author) 17 refs.

  15. Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar heat capacities of aqueous tetrahydrofuran, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2-dimethoxyethane at temperatures from 278.15 K to 393.15 K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.M.; Blodgett, M.B.; Ziemer, S.P.; Woolley, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    We determined apparent molar volumes V φ at 278.15 ≤ (T/K) ≤ 368.15 and apparent molar heat capacities C p,φ at 278.15 ≤ (T/K) ≤ 393.15 at p = 0.35 MPa for aqueous solutions of tetrahydrofuran at m from (0.016 to 2.5) mol . kg -1 , dimethyl sulfoxide at m from (0.02 to 3.0) mol . kg -1 , 1,4-dioxane at m from (0.015 to 2.0) mol . kg -1 , and 1,2-dimethoxyethane at m from (0.01 to 2.0) mol . kg -1 . Values of V φ were determined from densities measured with a vibrating-tube densimeter, and values of C p,φ were determined with a twin fixed-cell, differential, temperature-scanning calorimeter. Empirical functions of m and T for each compound were fitted to our V φ and C p,φ results

  16. Interomolecular interactions in diluted solutions of potassium iodocuprates (1) in dimethyl ether of diethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodinskaya, Eh.Ya.; Mel'nikova, N.B.; Yurin, K.V.

    1991-01-01

    The role of donor solvent in the formation of potassium mononuclear iodocuprates (1) in the system CuI-KI-dimethyl ether of diethylene glycol has been considerd. The calculated values of enthalpy, free energy and entropy of viscous flow activation in the range of temperatures 298-318 K for the solutions testify to decomposition of the solvent structure. Negative deviations of mole volumes from the additivity rule characterized strong molecular interaction

  17. Bis[N-(2-aminoethylethane-1,2-diamine-κ3N,N′,N′′]copper(II tris[diamminetetrakis(thiocyanato-κNchromate(III] thiocyanate dimethyl sulfoxide tetradecasolvate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalina M. Nikitina

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The ionic title complex, [Cu(C4H13N32]2[Cr(NCS4(NH32]3(NCS·14C2H6OS·H2O, consists of complex [Cu(dien2]2+ cations [dien is N-(2-aminoethylethane-1,2-diamine], complex [Cr(NCS4(NH32]− anions, an NCS− counter-anion and uncoordinated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and water solvent molecules. One of the Cr atoms lies on an inversion center, while the second Cr atom and the Cu atom lie in general positions. The thiocyanate counter-anion and water molecule are disordered over two positions close to an inversion center. There are several types of hydrogen-bond interactions present in the title compound, which connect the complex cations and anions into bulky [Cu2Cr3] polynuclear species. The four NH3 groups of the complex anions and six bridging DMSO O atoms link the three complex anions via hydrogen bonding into the anionic polynuclear species [Cr(NCS4(NH32]3·6DMSO. The last one is connected by four bridging DMSO O atoms with the two complex copper cations through N—H... O hydrogen bonds between the terminal NH3 groups of the anionic polynuclear species and the NH and NH2 groups of the dien ligand. One additional DMSO molecule is connected via hydrogen bonding to one of the terminal NH3 groups of the anionic polynuclear species. Another DMSO molecule is connected via hydrogen bonding to each Cu(dien2]2+ cation.

  18. Optimization of the freezing process for hematopoietic progenitor cells: effect of precooling, initial dimethyl sulfoxide concentration, freezing program, and storage in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen on in vitro white blood cell quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J; Setroikromo, Airies C; Kraan, Marcha; Gkoumassi, Effimia; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny

    2014-12-01

    Adding dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) causes an exothermic reaction, potentially affecting their viability. The freezing method might also influence this. The aim was to investigate the effect of 1) precooling of DMSO and plasma (D/P) and white blood cell (WBC)-enriched product, 2) DMSO concentration of D/P, 3) freezing program, and 4) storage method on WBC quality. WBC-enriched product without CD34+ cells was used instead of HPCs. This was divided into six or eight portions. D/P (20 or 50%; precooled or room temperature [RT]) was added to the WBC-enriched product (precooled or RT), resulting in 10% DMSO, while monitoring temperature. The product was frozen using controlled-rate freezing ("fast-rate" or "slow-rate") and placed in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen. After thawing, WBC recovery and viability were determined. Temperature increased most for precooled D/P to precooled WBC-enriched product, without influence of 20 or 50% D/P, but remained for all variations below 30°C. WBC recovery for both freezing programs was more than 95%. Recovery of WBC viability was higher for slow-rate freezing compared to fast-rate freezing (74% vs. 61%; p liquid nitrogen was marginal. Based on these results, precooling is not necessary. Fifty percent D/P is preferred over 20% D/P. Slow-rate freezing is preferred over fast-rate freezing. For safety reasons storage in vapor-phase nitrogen is preferred over storage in liquid nitrogen. Additional testing using real HPCs might be necessary. © 2014 AABB.

  19. On the Origin of Microheterogeneity : Mass Spectrometric Studies of Acetonitrile-Water and Dimethyl Sulfoxide-Water Binary Mixtures (Part 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, Dong Nam; Wijnen, Jan W.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Wakisaka, Akihiro

    2002-01-01

    The microscopic structures of acetonitrile-water and DMSO-water binary mixed solvents and their influence on the solvation for solutes (some alcohols and phenol) have been studied on the basis of the cluster structures observed through a specially designed mass spectrometer. In acetonitrile-water

  20. Study into complexing of anhydrous uranyl chloride with organic o-bases in nonaqueous media. Interaction with aliphatic sulfoxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobets, L V; Buchikhin, E P; Klyshevich, R P; Belyachis, G F

    1982-01-01

    The methods of spectrophotometry, conductometry and calorimetry have been used to investigate interaction of uranyl chloride with dimethyl, diamil, dioctyl sulfoxides in the nonaqueous acetone media. Existence of complexes with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 composition for dimethyl sulfoxide and with 1:1, 1:2 composition for diamil-, dioctyl sulfoxides is revealed. The constants of formation and dissociation of these complexes are calculated; the enthalpies of their formation in acetone are determined.

  1. Study into complexing of anhydrous uranyl chloride with organic o-bases in nonaqueous media. Interaction with aliphatic sulfoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobets, L.V.; Buchikhin, E.P.; Klyshevich, R.P.; Belyachis, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    The methods of spectrophotometry, conductometry and calorimetry have been used to investigate interaction of uranyl chloride with dimethyl, diamil, dioctyl sulfoxides in the nonaqueous acetone media. Existence of complexes with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 composition for dimethyl sulfoxide and with 1:1, 1:2 composition for diamil-, dioctyl sulfoxides is revealed. The constants of formation and dissociation of these complexes are calculated; the enthalpies of their formation in acetone are determined

  2. Decomposition and Mineralization of Dimethyl Phthalate in an Aqueous Solution by Wet Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar-Ren Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimethyl phthalate (DMP was treated via wet oxygen oxidation process (WOP. The decomposition efficiency ηDMP of DMP and mineralization efficiency ηTOC of total organic carbons were measured to evaluate the effects of operation parameters on the performance of WOP. The results revealed that reaction temperature T is the most affecting factor, with a higher T offering higher ηDMP and ηTOC as expected. The ηDMP increases as rotating speed increases from 300 to 500 rpm with stirring enhancement of gas liquid mass transfer. However, it exhibits reduction effect at 700 rpm due to purging of dissolved oxygen by overstirring. Regarding the effects of pressure PT, a higher PT provides more oxygen for the forward reaction with DMP, while overhigh PT increases the absorption of gaseous products such as CO2 and decomposes short-chain hydrocarbon fragments back into the solution thus hindering the forward reaction. For the tested PT of 2.41 to 3.45 MPa, the results indicated that 2.41 MPa is appropriate. A longer reaction time of course gives better performance. At 500 rpm, 483 K, 2.41 MPa, and 180 min, the ηDMP and ηTOC are 93 and 36%, respectively.

  3. Cathodic deposition of CdSe films from dimethyl formamide solution at optimized temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, J. [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103, West Bengal (India)]. E-mail: jayati_datta@rediffmail.com; Bhattacharya, C. [Department of Chemistry, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103, West Bengal (India); Visiting Research Associate, School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW (Australia); Bandyopadhyay, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2006-12-15

    In the present paper, thin film CdSe compound semiconductors have been electroplated on transparent conducting oxide coated glass substrates from nonaqueous dimethyl formamide bath containing CdCl{sub 2}, KI and Se under controlled temperature ranging from 100 to 140 deg. C. Thickness of the deposited films as obtained through focussed ion beam technique as well as their microstructural and photoelectrochemical properties have been found to depend on temperature. The film growth was therefore optimized at a bath temperature {approx}125 deg. C. The formation of crystallites in the range of 100-150 nm size has been ascertained through atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays for the as deposited film confirmed the 1:1 composition of CdSe compound in the matrix exhibiting band-gap energy of 1.74 eV. Microstructural properties of the deposited films have been determined through X-ray diffraction studies, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction pattern analysis. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-potential measurements have been performed to characterize the electrochemical behavior of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. The photo-activity of the films have been recorded in polysulphide solution under illumination and solar conversion efficiency {>=}1% was achieved.

  4. Phase-separation phenomena in solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4 phenylene oxide). II. Differential scanning calorimetry of solutions in toluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The phase-separation phenomena observed in solutions of poly(2,6 dimethyl-1,4 phenylene oxide) in toluene have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. These measurements supplement the experimental evidence in favor of the concept that the phase transitions observed are

  5. Phase-separation phenomena in solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide). I. Thermodynamic parameters of solutions in toluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    New experimental data have been collected on thermodynamic properties of solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) in toluene. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameters g have been determined from light scattering measurements. These values are in agreement with values obtained by

  6. Measurement of the Absolute Raman Cross Sections of Diethyl Phthalate, Dimethyl Phthalate, Ethyl Cinnamate, Propylene Carbonate, Tripropyl Phosphate, 1,3-Cyclohexanedione, 3’-Aminoacetophenone, 3’-Hydroxyacetophenone, Diethyl Acetamidomalonate, Isovanillin, Lactide, Meldrum’s Acid, p-Tolyl Sulfoxide, and Vanillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    Lactide, Meldrum’s Acid , p-Tolyl Sulfoxide, and Vanillin R.L. Aggarwal L.W. Farrar B.G. Saar T.H. Jeys R.B. Goodman 13 September 2013...Aminoacetophenone, 3’-Hydroxyacetophenone, Diethyl Acetamidomalonate, Isovanillin, Lactide, Meldrum’s Acid , p-Tolyl Sulfoxide, and Vanillin R.L...hydroxyacetophenone (HOAP), diethyl acetamidomalonate (DEAM), isovanillin (ISOV), lactide (DODO), Meldrum’s acid (MA), p-tolyl sulfoxide (PTSO), and vanillin

  7. Ruthenium sulfoxides structure and reactivity with nitrogen heterocyclic bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Denise de.

    1990-01-01

    Ruthenium (II) sulfoxides are compounds of great interest in oxidative catalysis and in chemotherapy. In order to contribute for the understanding of the chemistry and electronic structure of this class of compounds, it has been studied a series of [Ru Cl 2 (S-DMSO) 2 L x ] complexes, where x = 1 (polymeric compounds) or 2 (monomers) and L N-heterocyclic ligands (pyridine, pyrazine and imidazole derivatives). The nature of N-heterocyclic ligand and their coordination are of great relevance to the stability, spectroscopic and electrochemical characteristics of the complexes. The trans-interactions are extremely important in this series, influencing the strength of the Ru(II)-> S-DMSO and Ru(II)-> L π-back donation. The DMSO and L ligands are π-acceptors. The metal-> ligand π-back donation is strengthened when the ligand is trans to chloride, which is π-donor, due to trans-cooperative interactions of the type: π-donor -> Ru(II) π-acceptor. Another interesting aspect in the series of [Ru Cl 2 (S-DMSO) 2 L 2 ] complexes is the occurrence of dissociative equilibria in the solution, due to the existence of three types of ligands. It was observed that the trans-N isomer of 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine derivative undergoes thermal substitution, with preferential liabilization of the N-heterocyclic ligand. Chloride ion is the most inert ligand in this complex. (author). 145 refs., 76 figs., 21 tabs

  8. Phase separation phenomena in solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide). IV. Thermodynamic parameters for solutions in a series of homologous solvents: Toluene to hexylbenzene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenhen, D.M.; Bakker, A.; Broens, L.; van den Berg, J.W.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Melting-point curves for solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) in a series of homologous solvents (toluene to n-hexylbenzene) have been obtained from visual and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The measured melting points were used to calculate thermodynamic

  9. Should the standard dimethyl sulfoxide concentration be reduced?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Curly; de Wreede, Liesbeth; Scholten, Marijke

    2014-01-01

    cells, we show that patients in the highest quartile receiving DMSO (mL and mL/kg body weight) had significantly more side effects attributed to DMSO, although this effect was not observed if DMSO was calculated as mL/min. Dividing the myeloma and lymphoma patients each into two equal groups by age we...... and attention to the dose of DMSO received by patients could help reduce the toxicity and morbidity of the transplant procedure....

  10. 21 CFR 524.660b - Dimethyl sulfoxide gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... use—(1) Indications for use. For use on horses and dogs as a topical application to reduce acute... grams per day. Total duration of therapy should not exceed 30 days. (ii) Dogs. Administer 3 or 4 times...

  11. Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on the hydrogen bonding structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar 751 013, India e-mail: .... molecules are modeled by the 4-site P2 model of Luzar and Chandler9 which ..... lifetime of hydrogen bond acceptance by carbonyl oxy-.

  12. Hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOchromium(III trichloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turganbay S. Iskenderov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cr(C2H6OS6]Cl3, each CrIII ion is located on a three-fold inversion axis and is coordinated by six dimethylsulfoxide ligands [Cr—O = 1.970 (2–1.972 (2 Å; O—Cr—O = 88.19 (9 and 91.81 (9°] in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The Cl− anions take part in the formation of weak C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, which contribute to the crystal packing stabilization.

  13. How do glycerol and dimethyl sulphoxide affect local tetrahedral structure of water around a nonpolar solute at low temperature? Importance of preferential interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschakraborty, Snehasis

    2018-04-01

    Glycerol and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) have vital roles in cryoprotection of living cells, tissues, etc. The above action has been directly linked with disruption of hydrogen (H-) bond structure and dynamics of water by these cosolvents at bulk region and around various complex units, such as peptide, amino acid, protein, and lipid membrane. However, the disruption of the local structure of the water solvent around a purely hydrophobic solute is still not studied extensively. The latter is also important in the context of stabilization of protein from cold denaturation. Through all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, we have investigated the comparative effect of glycerol and DMSO on the orientational order of water around a nonpolar solute at -5 °C. A steady reduction of the tetrahedral order of water is observed at bulk (>10 Å distance from the solute) and solute interface (structure of the interfacial water more than that of the bulk water, glycerol affects the water structure almost uniformly at all regions around the solute. Furthermore, while glycerol helps to retain water molecules at the interface, DMSO significantly reduces the water content in that region. We have put forward a plausible mechanism for these contrasting roles of these cosolvents. The solute-cosolvent hydrophobic-interaction-induced orientational alignment of an interfacial cosolvent molecule determines whether the involvement of the cosolvent molecules in H-bonding with solvent water in the interface is akin to the bulk region or not.

  14. Extraction of plutonium(IV) by bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfoxide: a novel branched-chain extractant (Preprint No. ST.23)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.; Kedari, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Di-n-alkyl sulfoxides offer certain distint advantages over other common extractants for use in actinides separation particularly in the presence of high radiation fields. Despite widespread interest in these extractants, practical applications of such sulfoxides in nuclear fuel reprocessing have been seriously hampered owing to their poor solubility in common aliphatic hydrocarbon diluents. Recently a promising new branched-chain sulfoxide extractant, bis( 2-ethylhexyl) sulfoxide (BESO) has been introduced as a novel extracting agent for uranium. It possesses almost all the advantages of other sulfoxides, but excels the rest in terms of its complete miscibility with dodecane and the highest Ksub(H) value reported for any sulfoxide. As a part of comprehensive program to explore its analytical usefulness, data concerning preliminary studies on the extraction of plutonium with BESO form nitric acid solutions are reported. (author)

  15. Crystal structures of hibiscus acid and hibiscus acid dimethyl ester isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zheoat, Ahmed M.; Gray, Alexander I.; Igoli, John O.; Kennedy, Alan R.; Ferro, Valerie A.

    2017-01-01

    The biologically active title compounds have been isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa plants, hibiscus acid as a dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate [systematic name: (2S,3R)-3-hy?droxy-5-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetra?hydro?furan-2,3-di?carb?oxy?lic acid dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate], C6H6O7?C2H6OS, (I), and hibiscus acid dimethyl ester [systematic name: dimethyl (2S,3R)-3-hy?droxy-5-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetra?hydro?furan-2,3-di?carboxyl?ate], C8H10O7, (II). Compound (I) forms a layered structure with alternating laye...

  16. On the hydrophilicity of polyzwitterion poly (N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-(methacrylamido)propyl)ammoniopropane sulfonate) in water, deuterated water, and aqueous salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Viet; Laschewsky, André; Zehm, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A series of zwitterionic model polymers with defined molar masses up to 150,000 Da and defined end groups are prepared from sulfobetaine monomer N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-(methacrylamido)propyl)ammoniopropanesulfonate (SPP). Polymers are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) using a functional chain transfer agent labeled with a fluorescent probe. Their upper critical solution temperature-type coil-to-globule phase transition in water, deuterated water, and various salt solutions is studied by turbidimetry. Cloud points increase with polyzwitterion concentration and molar mass, being considerably higher in D2O than in H2O. Moreover, cloud points are strongly affected by the amount and nature of added salts. Typically, they increase with increasing salt concentration up to a maximum value, whereas further addition of salt lowers the cloud points again, mostly down to below freezing point. The different salting-in and salting-out effects of the studied anions can be correlated with the Hofmeister series. In physiological sodium chloride solution and in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the cloud point is suppressed even for high molar mass samples. Accordingly, SPP-polymers behave strongly hydrophilic under most conditions encountered in biomedical applications. However, the direct transfer of results from model studies in D2O, using, e.g. (1)H NMR or neutron scattering techniques, to 'normal' systems in H2O is not obvious.

  17. Application of lanthanide complexes for the purification of di-isobutyl-sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, V.K.L.; Martinez, S.A.Q.; Silva, R.M.X. da

    1984-01-01

    A new procedure for the purification of sulfoxides based on the selective precipitation of their complexes with class (a) metallic ions is reported. A commercial sample of di-isobutylsulfoxide containing about 5 - 10% of the corresponding sulfone was purified by precipitation with lanthanide perchlorates from alcoholic solutions. The recovery of the sulfoxide from the solid complex was accomplished by dissolving the complex in water and extracting the sulfoxide with chloroform. Alternatively the aqueous solution of the complex was passed successively through columns containing strongly acidic cation-exchanger resin in the H-cycle and strongly basic anionic-exchanger in the OH-cycle. T.L.C. homogeneous sulfoxide was obtained simply by evaporation of the solvent at reduced pressure. (Author) [pt

  18. Oxygen atom transfer reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. A bonding evolution theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Navarrete, Patricio; Sensato, Fabricio R; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2014-08-07

    In this research, a comprehensive theoretical investigation has been conducted on oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. The joint use of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT) provides a powerful tool to analyze the evolution of chemical events along a reaction pathway. The progress of the reaction has been monitored by structural stability domains from ELF topology while the changes between them are controlled by turning points derived from CT which reveal that the reaction mechanism can be separated in several steps: first, a rupture of the peroxo O1-O2 bond, then a rearrangement of lone pairs of the sulfur atom occurs and subsequently the formation of S-O1 bond. The OAT process involving the oxidation of sulfides and sulfoxides is found to be an asynchronous process where O1-O2 bond breaking and S-O1 bond formation processes do not occur simultaneously. Nucleophilic/electrophilic characters of both dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively, are sufficiently described by our results, which hold the key to unprecedented insight into the mapping of electrons that compose the bonds while the bonds change.

  19. Simultaneous gauche and anomeric effects in α-substituted sulfoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Matheus P

    2012-09-07

    α-Substituted sulfoxides can experience both gauche and anomeric effects, since these compounds have the geometric requirements and strong electron donor and acceptor orbitals which are essential to make operative the hyperconjugative nature of these effects. Indeed, the title effects were calculated to take place for 1,3-oxathiane 3-oxide in polar solution, where dipolar effects are absent or at least minimized, while only the gauche effect is present in 2-fluorothiane 1-oxide. Since the fluorine atom is a suitable probe for structural analysis using NMR, the (1)J(CF) dependence on the rotation around the F-C-S═O dihedral angle of (fluoromethyl)methyl sulfoxide was evaluated; differently from 1,2-difluoroethane and fluoro(methoxy)methane, this coupling constant is at least not exclusively dependent on dipolar interactions (or on hyperconjugation). Because of the nonmonotonic behavior of the (1)J(CF) rotational profile, this coupling constant does not appear to be of significant diagnostic value for probing the conformations of α-fluoro sulfoxides.

  20. Phase separation phenomena in solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenyleneoxide) in mixtures of trichloroethylene, 1-octanol, and methanol: Relationship to membrane formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijmans, J.G.; Rutten, H.J.J.; Smolders, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The phase boundaries in the quaternary system consisting of the polymer poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenyleneoxide) (PPO[Note ][PPO is a registered trademark of the General Electric Company.]), the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE), and the nonsolvents 1-octanol (OcOH) and methanol (MeOH) are determined.

  1. Viscosity of crystalline proteins in solution, when irradiated with 60 Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, D.M.L.; Mastro, N.L. del

    1992-01-01

    In order to study 60 Co radiation effects on proteins, an aqueous solution of bovine crystalline was irradiated with doses from O to 25,000 Gy. Changes in viscosity were followed whether in the presence or absence of radiation response modifiers: glutathione (GSH), amino ethyl isothiourea (AET), mercapto ethyl alanine (MEA) e dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Viscosity data at different temperature revealed that aggregate formation was the predominant process induced by radiation. The results showed also that in presence of those substances the radiation effects was diminished. (author)

  2. DMSO-Water Clustering in Solution Observed in Soft X-ray Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nicholas; Atak, Kaan; Lange, Kathrin M; Gotz, Malte; Soldatov, Mikhail; Golnak, Ronny; Suljoti, Edlira; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Aziz, Emad F

    2012-12-20

    The significant deviation from the ideality of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/water mixtures can be addressed based on the change of the local molecular orbitals of each solvent upon mixing. Oxygen K-edge absorption and emission spectra of DMSO/water solutions were measured using the liquid microjet technique. The spectra demonstrate that the hydrogen bond network in liquid water is already influenced at small DMSO concentrations, and at the molar fraction xDMSO = 0.43 we find strong evidence of DMSO-water clustering reflected by the influence on the occupied molecular orbitals.

  3. Determination of albendazole sulfoxide in human plasma by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraner, Nihal; Özkan, Güler Yağmur; Güney, Berrak; Alkan, Erkin; Burul-Bozkurt, Nihan; Sağlam, Onursal; Fikirdeşici, Ezgi; Yıldırım, Mevlüt

    2016-06-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for determination of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZOX) in human plasma. The plasma samples were extracted by protein precipitation using albendazole sulfoxide-d3 as internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation was performed on Waters Xbridge C18Column (100×4.6mm, 3.5μm) with a mobile phase consisting of ammonia solution, water and methanol at a flow rate of 0.70mL/min. ABZOX was detected and identified by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the range of 3-1500ng/mL for ABZOX. This method was successfully applied to the bioequivalence study in human plasma samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of N,N-Dimethyl-N'-Picryl-4,4'-Stilbenediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papper, Vladislav; Wu, Yuanyuan; Kharlanov, Vladimir; Sukharaharja, Ayrine; Steele, Terry W J; Marks, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    N,N-dimethyl-N'-picryl-4,4'-stilbenediamine (DMPSDA) was prepared, purified and crystallised in a form of black lustrous crystals, and its absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded in cyclohexane, acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide. Non-emissive intramolecular charge transfer state (ICT) was clearly observed in this molecule in all three solvents. Theoretical calculations demonstrating a betaine electronic structure of the trinitrophenyl group in the ground state of the molecule and a charge transfer nature of the long wavelength transition S 0  → S 1 supported the experimental observations of the ICT formation in the molecule.

  5. Cysteine sulfoxide derivatives in Petiveria alliacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubec, R; Musah, R A

    2001-11-01

    Two diastereomers of S-benzyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide have been isolated from fresh roots of Petiveria alliacea. Their structures and absolute configurations have been determined by NMR, MALDI-HRMS, IR and CD spectroscopy and confirmed by comparison with authentic compounds. Both the R(S) and S(S) diastereomers of the sulfoxide are present in all parts of the plant (root, stem, and leaves) with the latter diastereomer being predominant. Their total content greatly varied in different parts of the plant between 0.07 and 2.97 mg g(-1) fr. wt, being by far the highest in the root. S-Benzylcysteine has also been detected in trace amounts (<10 microg g(-1) fr. wt) in all parts of the plant. This represents the first report of the presence of S-benzylcysteine derivatives in nature.

  6. Crystal structures of hibiscus acid and hibiscus acid dimethyl ester isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheoat, Ahmed M; Gray, Alexander I; Igoli, John O; Kennedy, Alan R; Ferro, Valerie A

    2017-09-01

    The biologically active title compounds have been isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa plants, hibiscus acid as a dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate [systematic name: (2 S ,3 R )-3-hy-droxy-5-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-furan-2,3-di-carb-oxy-lic acid dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate], C 6 H 6 O 7 ·C 2 H 6 OS, (I), and hibiscus acid dimethyl ester [systematic name: dimethyl (2 S ,3 R )-3-hy-droxy-5-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-furan-2,3-di-carboxyl-ate], C 8 H 10 O 7 , (II). Compound (I) forms a layered structure with alternating layers of lactone and solvent mol-ecules, that include a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonding construct. Compound (II) has two crystallographically independent and conformationally similar mol-ecules per asymmetric unit and forms a one-dimensional hydrogen-bonding construct. The known absolute configuration for both compounds has been confirmed.

  7. Degradation of Highly Alloyed Metal Halide Perovskite Precursor Inks: Mechanism and Storage Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Benjia [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wheeler, Lance M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christians, Jeffrey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moore, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Harvey, Steven P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berry, Joseph J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Hest, Marinus F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barnes, Frank S. [University of Colorado; Shaheen, Sean E. [University of Colorado

    2018-03-02

    Whereas the promise of metal halide perovskite (MHP) photovoltaics (PV) is that they can combine high efficiency with solution-processability, the chemistry occurring in precursor inks is largely unexplored. Herein, we investigate the degradation of MHP solutions based on the most widely used solvents, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). For the MHP inks studied, which contain formamidinium (FA+), methylammonium (MA+), cesium (Cs+), lead (Pb2+), bromide (Br-), and iodide (I-), dramatic compositional changes are observed following storage of the inks in nitrogen in the dark. We show that hydrolysis of DMF in the precursor solution forms dimethylammonium formate, which subsequently incorporates into the MHP film to compromise the ability of Cs+ and MA+ to stabilize FA+-based MHP. The changes in solution chemistry lead to a modification of the perovskite film stoichiometry, band gap, and structure. The solid precursor salts are stable when ball-milled into a powder, allowing for the storage of large quantities of stoichiometric precursor materials.

  8. The effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on hepatogenic differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat Alizadeh

    2014-05-01

    The results demonstrate that DMSO speeds up hepatic differentiation of AT-MSCs characterized by rapid changes in morphology, higher expression of hepatic marker gene (AFP in both mRNA and protein level (P

  9. Transcriptional regulation of dimethyl sulfoxide respiration in a haloarchaeon, Haloferax volcanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qiuzi; Ito, Yoshiyasu; Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Fujiwara, Taketomo

    2016-01-01

    The halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii can grow anaerobically by DMSO respiration. DMSO reductase was induced by DMSO respiration not only under anaerobic growth conditions but also in denitrifying cells of H. volcanii. Deletion of the dmsR gene, encoding a putative regulator for the DMSO reductase, resulted in the loss of anaerobic growth by DMSO respiration. Reporter experiments revealed that only the anaerobic condition was essential for transcription of the dmsEABCD genes encoding DMSO reductase and that transcription was enhanced threefold by supplementation of DMSO. In the ∆dmsR mutant, transcription of the dmsEABCD genes induced by the anaerobic condition was not enhanced by DMSO, suggesting that DmsR is a DMSO-responsive regulator. Transcriptions of the dmsR and mgd genes for Mo-bisMGD biosynthesis were regulated in the same manner as the dmsEABCD genes. These results suggest that the genetic regulation of DMSO respiration in H. volcanii is controlled by at least two systems: one is the DMSO-responsive DmsR, and the other is an unknown anaerobic regulator.

  10. CCDC 1515632: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide)-manganese(ii) tetraiodide

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, M.A.; Davaasuren, Bambar; Rothenberger, Alexander; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from

  11. Formation and stability of calcium complexes of dimethyl sulfoxide in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakl, M.; Straka, Michal; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Roithová, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 360, č. 1 (2014), s. 8-14 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-21409P Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0539 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : bonding energies * DFT * ESI-MS * complexation * speciation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.972, year: 2014

  12. In Vitro Toxicological Evaluation of Cigarette Smoke Particulate Matter: Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO as Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the potential to minimize the cytotoxic or genotoxic effects that dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, when used as solvent, has on the in vitro interleukin-8 (IL-8 release, mammalian cell cytotoxicity and micronuclei formation, and bacterial mutagenesis induced by cigarette smoke wet total particulate matter (WTPM. The use of DMSO as a solvent vehicle for test articles of limited water solubility is widely applied in in vitro assays due to its moderate toxicity to test organisms and its excellent solvent properties for both polar and non-polar compounds, such as WTPM. A significant DMSO dose-dependent depletion in the IL-8 release was observed, with or without the addition of WTPM, at concentrations spanning those typically employed in in vitro assays. DMSO at 3.6% reduced cell viability 40-50%. Overall, DMSO at final concentrations of 0.5% and 4.0% resulted in about 50% and 90% depletion of final IL-8 levels, respectively. DMSO-induced cytotoxicity was evident only at concentrations of 1.5% or more, a concentration higher than that typically employed in such testing. The WTPM-induced cytotoxicity was equivalent at low ranges of DMSO concentrations. DMSO concentrations of 3.6% or higher resulted in an increase of cytotoxicity by 20-25%. DMSO alone did not give rise to bacterial mutagenicity at doses from 0% to 3.9%; however, WTPM exposure with increasing levels of DMSO resulted in increased toxicity of the WTPM at doses of DMSO greater than 6.9%, as indicated by lower revertant counts. This effect suggests that for Ames assay analysis of WTPM collected in DMSO, the level of DMSO should be minimized to prevent lower revertant counts due to DMSO-induced toxicity. DMSO alone gave a dose-dependent increase in the background micronuclei percentage, with a statistically significant increase at 4%. In the presence of WTPM, DMSO at 3% concentration resulted in a significantly higher micro-nucleus frequency, suggesting a possible clastogenic role of DMSO or potential cell permeability differences. In conclusion, this study should provide guidance for the range of DMSO concentrations when used as a solvent for WTPM-mediated in vitro toxicological assays and therefore help in properly designing and conducting in vitro studies that utilize DMSO as the extraction solvent of choice.

  13. Dielectric Properties of Binary Solvent Mixtures of Dimethyl Sulfoxide with Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Jun; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Huang, Ka-Ma; Jia, Guo-Zhu; Shang, Hui

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the dielectric properties of water-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) mixtures with different mole ratios have been investigated in the range of 1 GHz to 40 GHz at 298 K by using a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Only one dielectric loss peak was observed in the frequency range and the relaxation in these mixtures can be described by a single relaxation time of the Davidson-Cole. It was observed that within experimental error the dielectric relaxation can be described by the Debye-like model (β ≈ 1, S.M. Puranik, et al. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1992, 88, 433 – 435). In general, the results are very consistent with the experimental measurements. PMID:19399247

  14. Low concentrations of ethanol but not of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) impair reciprocal retinal signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siapich, Siarhei A; Akhtar, Isha; Hescheler, Jürgen; Schneider, Toni; Lüke, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    The model of the isolated and superfused retina provides the opportunity to test drugs and toxins. Some chemicals have to be applied using low concentrations of organic solvents as carriers. Recently, E-/R-type (Cav2.3) and T-type (Cav3.2) voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels were identified as participating in reciprocal inhibitory retinal signaling. Their participation is apparent, when low concentrations of NiCl2 (15 μM) are applied during superfusion leading to an increase of the ERG b-wave amplitude, which is explained by a reduction of amacrine GABA-release onto bipolar neurons. During these investigations, differences were observed for the solvent carrier used. Recording of the transretinal receptor potentials from the isolated bovine retina. The pretreatment of bovine retina with 0.01 % (v/v) dimethylsulfoxide did not impair the NiCl2-mediated increase of the b-wave amplitude, which was 1.31-fold ± 0.03 of initial value (n = 4). However, pretreatment of the retina with the same concentration of ethanol impaired reciprocal signaling (0.96-fold ± 0.05, n = 4). Further, the implicit time of the b-wave was increased, suggesting that ethanol itself but not DMSO may antagonize GABA-receptors. Ethanol itself but not DMSO may block GABA receptors and cause an amplitude increase by itself, so that reciprocal signaling is impaired.

  15. Dielectric Properties of Binary Solvent Mixtures of Dimethyl Sulfoxide with Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun Yang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dielectric properties of water-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO mixtures with different mole ratios have been investigated in the range of 1 GHz to 40 GHz at 298 K by using a molecular dynamics (MD simulation. Only one dielectric loss peak was observed in the frequency range and the relaxation in these mixtures can be described by a single relaxation time of the Davidson-Cole. It was observed that within experimental error the dielectric relaxation can be described by the Debye-like model (β ≈ 1, S.M. Puranik, et al. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans.1992, 88, 433 - 435. In general, the results are very consistent with the experimental measurements.

  16. Diaquabis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κObis(saccharinato-κNcobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezile S. W. Potwana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [Co(C7H4NO3S2(C2H6OS2(H2O2], contains a Co2+ cation in an octahedral coordination environment. The metal atom is surrounded by two different neutral ligands, namely dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO and water, each coordinating through the O atom. The anionic saccharinate (sac; 1,1,3-trioxo-2,3-dihydro-1λ6,2-benzothiazol-2-ide ligand coordinates through the N atom. Each of the three similar ligand pairs is in a trans configuration with respect to each other. The Co atom lies on a crystallographic center of symmetry and the octahedral geometry is not significantly distorted. A short O—H...O hydrogen bond is present between a water H atom and the ketone O atom; two longer hydrogen bonds (intra- and intermolecular are also present between a water H and a sulfonic O atom, forming a supramolecular assembly through head-to-tail aggregation between adjacent complexes.

  17. Micro volume voltammetric determination of 4-nitrophenol in dimethyl sulfoxide at a glassy carbon electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdar, J.; Barek, J.; Fojta, Miroslav; Fischer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 9 (2017), s. 1639-1644 ISSN 0026-9247 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : square-wave voltammetry * nitrobenzene Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  18. Potassium hydroxide/dimethyl sulfoxide promoted intramolecular cyclization for the synthesis of benzimidazol-2-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Astrid; Reucher, Christine M M; Bolm, Carsten

    2011-06-03

    A new protocol for intramolecular N-arylations of ureas to form benzimidazol-2-ones has been developed. The cyclization reaction occurs in the presence of KOH and DMSO at close to ambient temperature. Under these conditions the yields are high and a wide range of functional groups are tolerated.

  19. Conference on Biological Actions and Medical Applications of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), 15-17 September 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    SAAlug/mil 100 S 50 5 0.1 41 A *L05 44001 -- dim bit"~urwy actvty FIGURE 6. The coffetatlon between BAA levels and inflammatory activity in patients...brain infarction, basic considerations. In Undersea Medial Society Report. Hallen- beck & Breenbaum, Eds. (11-15-77): 138-161. *5. DE LA TORRE, J. C...hydrogen peroxide. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 141: 231-241. 8. FLORFS I., D. R. DIBONA, C. H. BECK & A. LEAF. 1975. The rate of cell swelling ischemic renal

  20. Early ontogeny, growth and mortality of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at low concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máchová, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Kroupová, H.; Svobodová, Z.; Mácová, S.; Doleželová, P.; Velíšek, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2009), s. 505-512 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) QH82117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : auxiliary substance * toxicity * fish embryos * larvae Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.403, year: 2009

  1. Antiviral activity of platinum (II) and palladium (II) complexes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Allaf, T.; Rashan, L

    1996-01-01

    The antiviral activity of complexes cis-[Pt(DMSO) 2 CI 2 ] and trans-[Pd(DMSO) 2 CI 2 ] against the reverse transcriptase enzyme, herpes and influenza viruses have been studied in vitro. Both complexes demonstrated some activity against the reverse transcriptase enzyme in which the inhibition concentration (IC 5 0) of the cis-Pt and the trans-Pd complexes were shown to be 37.6 and 35.5 μ g/ml respectively. This activity was compared with that of the standard reference; the phosphonoformate (PFA). On the other hand, both complexes have no antiviral activity against herpes and influenza viruses No cytotoxic effects on the three cell lines, Raji, K562 and Mrc-5 were demonstrated by these complexes at the concentrations studied in vitro. (authors). 16 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  2. CCDC 1515632: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : hexakis(dimethyl sulfoxide)-manganese(ii) tetraiodide

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  3. Comparative study between dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso), allopurinol and urate oxidase administration in nephrotoxic rats induced with

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibashy, M.I.A.; El-Nahla, A.M.; Ibrahim, A.I.; Saleh, Sh.Y.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to show whether DMSO, allopurinol and urate oxidase could offer ameliorating effects against abnormal alterations in kidney function tests in gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxic rats . Two experiments were carried out, the first one showed that daily injection of 80 mg GM/kg b. wt interapertonealy (I.P) for two weeks induced acute renal failure indicated by significant elevation in serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, potassium, inorganic phosphorus, TBARS and PTH and a significant decline in serum sodium, total and ionized calcium when compared with their corresponding values in saline injected rats. In the second experiment, comparisons were made between GM induced nephrotoxic rats and other nephrotoxic groups received daily pf I.P injection of DMSO (4 ml/kg b.wt), allopurinol (1.5 mg/100 g b.wt) and urate oxidase (10 mg/100 g b.wt) for 30 days after the incidence of nephrotoxicity. At all intervals, 10,20 and 30 days; serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, potassium, inorganic phosphorus, TBARS and PTH in DMSO, allopurinol and urate oxidase treated groups exhibited significant reduction than nephrotoxic untreated rats. During the same intervals, the levels of serum total and ionized calcium showed an opposite trend. serum sodium level did not show any significant difference between all treated groups except after 20 days , it was increased significantly in urate oxidase treated group and after 30 days in both allopurinol and urate oxidase treated groups. in term time intervals, a significant correction was recorded on the level of most measured parameters. in nephritic rats, the administration of DMSO, allopurinol or urate oxidase led to a significant amelioration effects in the kidney function tests and urate oxidase was the best protective.

  4. Chronic intracerebroventricular administration of dimethyl sulfoxide attenuates streptozotocin-iduced memory loss in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Akbari

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Taken together, the results suggest that DMSO may be appropriate as adjuvant therapies for the prevention of memory impairment in the experimental models of AD. Therefore, use of DMSO as a solvent in AD animal studies should be considered having beneficial effects on cognitive function.

  5. Bis(3-acetyl-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-4-olatobis(dimethyl sulfoxidenickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Djedouani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ni(C8H7O42{(CH32SO}2], the NiII atom is located on a crystallographic centre of symmetry and has a distorted octahedral coordination geometry of type MO6. The bidentate dehydroacetic acid (DHA ligands occupy the equatorial plane of the complex in a trans configuration, and the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO ligands are weakly coordinated through their O atoms in the axial positions.

  6. NaSO2Ph Induced Exclusive Isomerization of 1,2-Allenyl Sulfoxides to 2-Alkynylic Phenyl Sulfoxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅春玲; 麻生明

    2005-01-01

    The clean isomerization of 1,2-allenyl sulfoxides in the presence of NaSO2Ph afforded 2-alkynylic phenyl sulfoxides in good yields and selectivities. Although strong base-catalyzed isomerization of allenes to alkynes is known, the mechanism for the current reaction is interesting for the obvious reason that NaSOEPh is a weak base.

  7. Phase separation in polymer solutions. II. Determination of thermodynamic parameters of poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) toluene mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik, P.T.; Smolders, C.A.

    1972-01-01

    In liquid systems where it is possible to perform light scattering experiments at the melting points of polymer solutions without nucleation taking place because of undercooling, the thermodynamic parameters necessary to calculate the correction parameter g in the Flory-Huggins equation as modified

  8. The theory and experiment of solute migration caused by excited state absorptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Jin; Ying-Lin, Song; Yu-Xiao, Wang; Min, Shui; Chang-Wei, Li; Jun-Yi, Yang; Xue-Ru, Zhang; Kun, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Nonsymmetrical transition from reverse-saturable absorption (RSA) to saturable absorption (SA) caused by excited state absorption induced mass transport of the CuPcTs dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide is observed in an open aperture Z-scan experiment with a 21-ps laser pulse. The nonsymmetrical transition from RSA to SA is ascribed neither to saturation of excited state absorption nor to thermal induced mass transport, the so-called Soret effect. In our consideration, strong nonlinear absorption causes the rapid accumulation of the non-uniform kinetic energy of the solute molecules. The non-uniform kinetic field in turn causes the migration of the solute molecules. Additionally, an energy-gradient-induced mass transport theory is presented to interpret the experimental results, and the theoretical calculations are also taken to fit our experimental results. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  9. Differential solubility of curcuminoids in serum and albumin solutions: implications for analytical and therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quitschke Wolfgang W

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercially available curcumin preparations contain a mixture of related polyphenols, collectively referred to as curcuminoids. These encompass the primary component curcumin along with its co-purified derivatives demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Curcuminoids have numerous biological activities, including inhibition of cancer related cell proliferation and reduction of amyloid plaque formation associated with Alzheimer disease. Unfortunately, the solubility of curcuminoids in aqueous solutions is exceedingly low. This restricts their systemic availability in orally administered formulations and limits their therapeutic potential. Results Methods are described that achieve high concentrations of soluble curcuminoids in serum. Solid curcuminoids were either mixed directly with serum, or they were predissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and added as aliquots to serum. Both methods resulted in high levels of curcuminoid-solubility in mammalian sera from different species. However, adding aliquots of dimethyl sulfoxide-dissolved curcuminoids to serum proved to be more efficient, producing soluble curcuminoid concentrations of at least 3 mM in human serum. The methods also resulted in the differential solubility of individual curcuminoids in serum. The addition of dimethyl sulfoxide-dissolved curcuminoids to serum preferentially solubilized curcumin, whereas adding solid curcuminoids predominantly solubilized bisdemethoxycurcumin. Either method of solubilization was equally effective in inhibiting dose-dependent HeLa cell proliferation in culture. The maximum concentration of curcuminoids achieved in serum was at least 100-fold higher than that required for inhibiting cell proliferation in culture and 1000-fold higher than the concentration that has been reported to prevent amyloid plaque formation associated with Alzheimer disease. Curcuminoids were also highly soluble in solutions of purified albumin, a major component of

  10. Measurement of Thermal Conductivities of Two Cryoprotective Agent Solutions for Vitreous Cryopreservation of Organs at the Temperature Range of 77 K-300 K Using a Thermal Sensor Made of Microscale Enamel Copper Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yufang; Zhao, Gang; Hossain, S M Chapal; Panhwar, Fazil; Sun, Wenyu; Kong, Fei; Zang, Chuanbao; Jiang, Zhendong

    2017-06-01

    Biobanking of organs by cryopreservation is an enabling technology for organ transplantation. Compared with the conventional slow freezing method, vitreous cryopreservation has been regarded to be a more promising approach for long-term storage of organs. The major challenges to vitrification are devitrification and recrystallization during the warming process, and high concentrations of cryoprotective agents (CPAs) induced metabolic and osmotic injuries. For a theoretical model based optimization of vitrification, thermal properties of CPA solutions are indispensable. In this study, the thermal conductivities of M22 and vitrification solution containing ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide (two commonly used vitrification solutions) were measured using a self-made microscaled hot probe with enameled copper wire at the temperature range of 77 K-300 K. The data obtained by this study will further enrich knowledge of the thermal properties for CPA solutions at low temperatures, as is of primary importance for optimization of vitrification.

  11. Delayed dermal burns caused by dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovak, A J; Payne, A R

    1984-07-01

    A chemical operator handling dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) developed delayed and pain-free burns on one of his feet 2 days after a supposed spillage of DMAD. The injuries were confirmed to be associated with DMAD by chemical analysis of the operator's safety boot and patch tests. DMAD easily penetrates some protective clothing and dilute solutions can still be hazardous: the toxic effect is compounded by being delayed and painless. The lachrymatory irritant properties of undiluted DMAD are not adequate warning of its presence or spillage in quantities sufficient to cause significant skin damage.

  12. Use of sulfoxides for extraction-gravimetric determination of niobium and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, A.I.; Babkin, A.G.; Tkachenko, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    An extraction-gravimetrical technique has been developed for determination of niobium and tantalum. The technique permits simultaneous extraction of tantalum and its concentrating in the aqueous phase; the range of Ta concentrations determined is essentially wider than in case of the routine gravimetric methods. The technique is based upon the fact, that tantalum is extracted by sulfoxides from fluorine-sulphate solutions at lower concentration of Hf and at lower ratios between the volumes of organic and aqueous phases than niobium. Two subsequent extractions by 1M sulfoxide solutions provide for practically complete transfer of tantalum into the organic phase, whereas extraction of niobium is only 3-20%. Sufficient recovery of Ta and Nb from organic phases is provided by re-extraction by NH 4 F solution. The technique is suitable for niobium and tantalum determination at the ratios of their pentoxides from 1:100 to 100:1. The disturbing influence of Fe(3) is suppressed by reductions to Fe(2)

  13. Palladium(II)-catalyzed ortho-olefination of arenes applying sulfoxides as remote directing groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binjie; Shen, Chuang; Yao, Jinzhong; Yin, Hong; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-01-03

    A novel palladium-catalyzed ortho-C(sp(2))-H olefination protocol has been developed by the use of sulfoxide as the directing group. Importantly, relatively remote coordination can be accessed to achieve the ortho olefination of benzyl, 2-arylethyl, and 3-arylpropenyl sulfoxide substrates, and the olefinated sulfoxide can be easily transformed to other functionalities.

  14. An efficency of use phonophoresis with an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate and dimetil sulfoxide at the treatment of patients with arthritis of knee joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Александрович Вишневский

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a frequent disease in people especially of the mean and elderly age.Aim of research: the study of an efficiency of phonophoresis with an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate and dimethyl sulfoxide at treatment of patients with osteoarthritis of knee joints in the outpatient setting.  Material and methods. Research was carried out by the clinical and laboratory examinations of 40 patients with osteoarthritis of knee joints in the outpatient setting.   Patients were distributed between the main and control group depending on an approach to treatment. Indicators before and after treatment in all patients were assessed on 2 scales: the scale of assessment of knee joints (on J.N. Insall et al 1976 - (7 points and 2 Oxford scale for knee joints (on W. Dawson et al, 1998 - (12 point. The level of oxyproline in daily urine was examined in all patients.Results and discussions. The degree of manifestation of pain syndrome, movement amplitude and an everyday motor activity are the parameters of an efficiency of treatment.Author noticed the more apparent efficiency of treatment in patients of the main group who underwent phonophoresis after rubbing an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate in the region of injured knee joint.Disappearance of pains after 10 PhPh with an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate and dimethyl sulfoxide was noticed in 6 (30% patients and diminution of pain intensity in 12 (60% patients. So the general efficiency of treatment is 90% in the main group in relation to 70% of general efficiency of treatment without use this ointment in the control group.Conclusions. 1. Phonophoresis with an ointment on the basis of chondroitin sulfate and dimethyl sulfoxide is a safe and rather effective method of treatment patients with osteoarthritis of knee joints of I-III radiographic stage, an efficiency of treatment is 90%.2. The use of phonophoresis with an ointment containing combination of chondroitin

  15. Photochromic ruthenium sulfoxide complexes: evidence for isomerization through a conical intersection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Beth Anne; Mockus, Nicholas V; Butcher, Dennis P; Lutterman, Daniel A; Turro, Claudia; Petersen, Jeffrey L; Rack, Jeffrey J

    2009-09-07

    The complexes [Ru(bpy)(2)(OS)](PF(6)) and [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](PF(6)), where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, OS is 2-methylthiobenzoate, and OSO is 2-methylsulfinylbenzoate, have been studied. The electrochemical and photochemical reactivity of [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) is consistent with an isomerization of the bound sulfoxide from S-bonded (S-) to O-bonded (O-) following irradiation or electrochemical oxidation. Charge transfer excitation of [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) in MeOH results in the appearance of two new metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) maxima at 355 and 496 nm, while the peak at 396 nm diminishes in intensity. The isomerization is reversible at room temperature in alcohol or propylene carbonate solution. In the absence of light, solutions of O-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) revert to S-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+). Kinetic analysis reveals a biexponential decay with rate constants of 5.66(3) x 10(-4) s(-1) and 3.1(1) x 10(-5) s(-1). Cyclic voltammograms of S-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) are consistent with electron-transfer-triggered isomerization of the sulfoxide. Analysis of these voltammograms reveal E(S)(o)' = 0.86 V and E(O)(o)' = 0.49 V versus Ag/Ag(+) for the S- and O-bonded Ru(3+/2+) couples, respectively, in propylene carbonate. We found k(S-->O) = 0.090(15) s(-1) in propylene carbonate and k(S-->O) = 0.11(3) s(-1) in acetonitrile on Ru(III), which is considerably slower than has been reported for other sulfoxide isomerizations on ruthenium polypyridyl complexes following oxidation. The photoisomerization quantum yield (Phi(S-->O) = 0.45, methanol) is quite large, indicating a rapid excited state isomerization rate constant. The kinetic trace at 500 nm is monoexponential with tau = 150 ps, which is assigned to the excited S-->O isomerization rate. There is no spectroscopic or kinetic evidence for an O-bonded (3)MLCT excited state in the spectral evolution of S-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+) to O-[Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)](+). Thus, isomerization occurs nonadiabatically from an S-bonded (or eta(2

  16. Now at the Met: fine art of reversible sulfoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilani, Tal; Fass, Deborah

    2013-08-08

    In this issue, Lee et al. (2013) exhibit methionine sulfoxidation in a new light. By bringing together two antagonistic enzymes affecting methionine redox state, the authors demonstrate that methionine oxidation constitutes a reversible, posttranslational regulatory mechanism, akin to protein phosphorylation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure, and spectra of 3,3- dimethyl-1-N-(1'-phenyl-2',3'-dimethyl-5'-oxo-3'- pyrazolin-4'-yl)imino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol, V.I.; Ryabov, M.A.; Merkur'eva, N.Yu.; Davydov, V.V.; Zaitsev, B.E.; Shklyaev, Yu.V.; Sergienko, V.S.; Zaitsev, B.E.

    1996-01-01

    The synthesis and the crystal and molecular structure of 3,3-dimethyl-1-N-(1'-phenyl-2',3'- dimethyl-5'-oxo-3'-pyrazolin-4'-yl)imino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline are reported. As is evidenced by the 1H NMR, IR, and electron spectra, the tautomeric form of the compounds observed in the crystal is also retained in solutions

  18. Dymethyl sulfoxide complexes of rare earth perrhenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, V.K.L.; Kawano, Y.; Kuya, M.K.; Perrier, M.

    1980-01-01

    The complexes Ln(ReO 4 ) 3 .8dmso (Ln = La-Lu, Y) and La(ReO 4 ) 3 .8dmso-d 6 have been prepared and characterized by conductance, infrared and Raman measurements. All the complexes have structures involving complex cation and non-coordinated anions in the solid state. The conductance values in nitromethane solution indicate a behavior near to a 1:1 electrolyte type. A comparative study with the data accumulated on the literature shows that perrhenate anion has higher coordinating capacity than perchlorate and hexafluorophosphate ones. (Author) [pt

  19. In vivo evaluation of the efficacy of albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles against hydatid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadnia, Sara; Moazeni, Mohammad; Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman; Oryan, Ahmad

    2013-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, which in this disease the metacestode develop in visceral organs especially liver and lungs. The disease is present worldwide and affects humans as well as herbivores including cattle, sheep, camels, horses and others. Benzimidazole carbamate derivatives, such as mebendazole and albendazole, are currently used for chemotherapeutic treatment of CE in inoperable patients and have to be applied in high doses for extended periods of time, and therefore adverse side effects are frequently observed. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the in vivo effects of 0.5 mg/kg, BID, albendazole sulfoxide (ricobendazole) and two different therapeutic regimens of 0.5 mg/kg BID and 2 mg/kg every 48 h of albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Albendazole sulfoxide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was prepared by solvent diffusion-evaporation method. Fifty Balb/c mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of protoscoleces and 8 months post infection, the infected mice were treated for 15 days with the above mentioned regimens. They were then euthanized and the size and weight of the cysts as well as their ultrastructural changes were investigated. Although the cysts showed reduced size and weight in the treated animals but these reductions were not statistically significant. The cysts in the animals which received albendazole sulfoxide loaded SLN every 48 h showed more ultrastructural modification. However, these ultrastructural changes should be supported by further biochemical and molecular studies before introducing it as an efficient therapeutic regimen for treatment of human and animal hydatid disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Primary Eye Irritation Potential of the Holston Compounds: Virgin DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide), DMSO Recycle Solvent, and DMSO Evaporator Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    slight deepening of the rugae or light hyperemia of circumeorneal blood vessels), or obvious swelling of the eyelids accompanied by severe...I Markedly deepened rugae , congestion, swelling, moderate circumcorneal hyperemia or injection, any of these or any combination thereof, iris still

  1. The Effect of Diazoxide and Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Behavioral Outcomes and Markers of Pathology Following Controlled Cortical Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    738, 2008. 27. C. C. Giza . and D. A. Hovda, "The neurometabolic cascade of concussion," J Athl Train, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 228-235. 2001. 28. K. E...C. Giza , "The molecular pathophysiology of concussive brain injury," Clin Sports Med, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 33-48, vii-iii, 2011. 31. D. H. Williams...mitochondrial swelling and Ca2+ accumulation in CA 1 pyramidal cells after cerebral ischemia in newborn pigs," Brain Res, vol. 1019, no. 1-2, pp

  2. α-chymotrypsin in water-acetone and water-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures: Effect of preferential solvation and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Vladimir A; Kuchierskaya, Alexandra A

    2017-10-01

    We investigated water/organic solvent sorption and residual enzyme activity to simultaneously monitor preferential solvation/hydration of protein macromolecules in the entire range of water content at 25°C. We applied this approach to estimate protein destabilization/stabilization due to the preferential interactions of bovine pancreatic α-chymotrypsin with water-acetone (moderate-strength H-bond acceptor) and water-DMSO (strong H-bond acceptor) mixtures. There are three concentration regimes for the dried α-chymotrypsin. α-Chymotrypsin is preferentially hydrated at high water content. The residual enzyme activity values are close to 100%. At intermediate water content, the dehydrated α-chymotrypsin has a higher affinity for acetone/DMSO than for water. Residual enzyme activity is minimal in this concentration range. The acetone/DMSO molecules are preferentially excluded from the protein surface at the lowest water content, resulting in preferential hydration. The residual catalytic activity in the water-poor acetone is ∼80%, compared with that observed after incubation in pure water. This effect is very small for the water-poor DMSO. Two different schemes are operative for the hydrated enzyme. At high and intermediate water content, α-chymotrypsin exhibits preferential hydration. However, at intermediate water content, in contrast to the dried enzyme, the initially hydrated α-chymotrypsin possesses increased preferential hydration parameters. At low water content, no residual enzyme activity was observed. Preferential binding of DMSO/acetone to α-chymotrypsin was detected. Our data clearly demonstrate that the hydrogen bond accepting ability of organic solvents and the protein hydration level constitute key factors in determining the stability of protein-water-organic solvent systems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Enhanced fluorescence of Tb(III), Dy(III) perchlorate by salicylic acid in bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide complexes and luminescence mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenxian; Zheng Yushan; Sun Xiaojun; Chai Wenjuan; Ren Tie; Shi Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    Two novel ternary rare earth perchlorate complexes had been synthesized by using bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide as first ligand (L=C 6 H 5 COCH 2 SOCH 2 COC 6 H 5 ), salicylic acid as second ligand (L ' =C 6 H 4 OHCOO - ). The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, TG-DSC and molar conductivities in DMF solution. The composition was suggested as [REL 5 L'](ClO 4 ) 2 .nH 2 O (RE=Tb, Dy; n=6, 8 ). Based on IR, 1 HNMR and UV spectra, it showed that the first ligand, bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide (L), bonded with Tb(III), Dy(III) ions by the oxygen atom of sulfinyl group. The second ligand, salicylic acid group (L'), not only bonded with RE(III) ions by one oxygen atom of carboxyl group but also bonded with RE(III) ions by oxygen atom of phenolic hydroxyl group. In bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide system, fluorescent spectra of the complexes showed that the luminescence of Tb(III), Dy(III) ions was enhanced by the second ligand salicylic acid. The ternary complexes had stronger fluorescence than the binary ones where only bis(benzoylmethyl) sulfoxide acted as ligand. Phosphorescent spectra of the two ligands indicated that the coordination of salicylic acid resulted in the matching extent increasing between the triplet state of ligand and excited state of the rare earths. The relationship between fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence intensity was also discussed.

  4. Synthesis of Cyclic α-Diazo-β-keto Sulfoxides in Batch and Continuous Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw, Patrick G; Buckley, Naomi M; Eccles, Kevin S; Lawrence, Simon E; Maguire, Anita R; Collins, Stuart G

    2017-04-07

    Diazo transfer to β-keto sulfoxides to form stable isolable α-diazo-β-keto sulfoxides has been achieved for the first time. Both monocyclic and benzofused ketone derived β-keto sulfoxides were successfully explored as substrates for diazo transfer. Use of continuous flow leads to isolation of the desired compounds in enhanced yields relative to standard batch conditions, with short reaction times, increased safety profile, and potential to scale up.

  5. Tandem rhodium catalysis: exploiting sulfoxides for asymmetric transition-metal catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, K G M; Dong, V M

    2015-06-07

    Sulfoxides are uncommon substrates for transition-metal catalysis due to their propensity to inhibit catalyst turnover. In a collaborative effort with Ken Houk, we developed the first dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of allylic sulfoxides using asymmetric rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation. A detailed mechanistic analysis of this transformation using both experimental and theoretical methods revealed rhodium to be a tandem catalyst that promoted both hydrogenation of the alkene and racemization of the allylic sulfoxide. Using a combination of deuterium labelling and DFT studies, a novel mode of allylic sulfoxide racemization via a Rh(III)-π-allyl intermediate was identified.

  6. Effects of L-cysteine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine on 4-hydroxy-2, 5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, and 5-methylfurfural formation and browning in buffer solutions containing either rhamnose or glucose and arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleva-Toledo, E; Naim, M; Zehavi, U; Rouseff, R L

    1999-10-01

    Solutions of L-cysteine (Cys) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (AcCys), containing glucose or rhamnose, with or without arginine, were buffered to pH 3, 5, and 7 and incubated at 70 degrees C for 48 h. Cys and AcCys inhibited the formation of (hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) from glucose and methylfurfural (MF) from rhamnose under acidic conditions. AcCys inhibited the accumulation of 4-hydroxy-2, 5-dimethyl- 3(2H)-furanone (DMHF, Furaneol) from rhamnose, but Cys, under our experimental conditions, enhanced Furaneol accumulation from rhamnose. Cys and AcCys reacted directly with Furaneol but not with HMF or MF. Both Cys and AcCys inhibited nonenzymatic browning at pH 7. At pH 3, however, Cys reacted with both glucose and rhamnose to produce unidentified compounds that increased the visible absorbency.

  7. Functional integrity of Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1816 sperm cryopreserved with enriched extender solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raycon Roberto Freitas Garcia

    Full Text Available Cryoprotectant solutions are used to protect the sperm from alterations caused by the low temperature in the cryopreservation process. We evaluated the quality of Colossoma macropomum semen after freezing, using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as a cryoprotectant, combined with two extender solutions (T1 - Solution 1: Glucose 90.0 g/L, Sodium Citrate 6.0 g/L, EDTA 1.5 g/L, Sodium Bicarbonate 1.5 g/L, Potassium Chloride 0.8 g/L, Gentamycin Sulphate 0.2 g/L, and T2 - Solution 2: Glucose 90.0 g/L, ACP(r-104 10.0 g/L. Motility rate and motility time did not differ between T1 and T2 and were lower than fresh semen. The number of normal sperm was significantly different in treatments T1 (15.1% and T2 (21.9%, and both showed a reduction in the percentage of normal sperm compared to fresh semen (57.4%. The values found for the rates of fertilization and hatching, mitochondrial functionality and sperm DNA, did not differ between the treatments (T1 and T2. Regarding membrane integrity, there was a higher percentage of spermatozoa with intact membranes in T1 (53.4% than T2 (43.7%. The extender solutions, combined with 10% DMSO, maintained the sperm DNA intact in almost all the C. macropomum sperm cells, however there was a loss in their functionality.

  8. Photoisomerization Mechanism of Ruthenium Sulfoxide Complexes: Role of the Metal-Centered Excited State in the Bond Rupture and Bond Construction Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huifang; Zhang, Lisheng; Zheng, Lvyin; Li, Xun; Fan, Xiaolin; Zhao, Yi

    2016-09-26

    Phototriggered intramolecular isomerization in a series of ruthenium sulfoxide complexes, [Ru(L)(tpy)(DMSO)](n+) (where tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine; DMSO=dimethyl sulfoxide; L=2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), n=2; N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (tmen) n=2; picolinate (pic), n=1; acetylacetonate (acac), n=1; oxalate (ox), n=0; malonate (mal), n=0), was investigated theoretically. It is observed that the metal-centered ligand field ((3) MC) state plays an important role in the excited state S→O isomerization of the coordinated DMSO ligand. If the population of (3) MCS state is thermally accessible and no (3) MCO can be populated from this state, photoisomerization will be turned off because the (3) MCS excited state is expected to lead to fast radiationless decay back to the original (1) GSS ground state or photodecomposition along the Ru(2+) -S stretching coordinate. On the contrary, if the population of (3) MCS (or (3) MCO ) state is inaccessible, photoinduced S→O isomerization can proceed adiabatically on the potential energy surface of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited states ((3) MLCTS →(3) MLCTO ). It is hoped that these results can provide valuable information for the excited state isomerization in photochromic d(6) transition-metal complexes, which is both experimentally and intellectually challenging as a field of study. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Studies on extraction of uranium (VI) with petroleum sulfoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yanzhao; Sun Sixiu; Bao Borong

    1999-01-01

    The extraction of uranium(VI) with petroleum sulfoxides(PSO) in different diluents is studied. The extraction ability of U(VI) decreases in the following order: benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, heptane, kerosene, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. The influence of the concentrations of nitric acid, PSO, salting out agent, complexing anion and temperature on the extraction equilibrium is also investigated, and the enthalpy of the extraction reaction is obtained. The relationship between the extraction equilibrium constants K ex and the physical parameters of diluents is derived. The extraction mechanism and equilibrium are examined by measurement of IR spectrophotometry

  10. Synthesis of enyne and aryl vinyl sulfoxides: functionalization via Pummerer rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Frederico B; Shamim, Anwar; Argomedo, Luiz M Z; Pimenta, Daniel C; Stefani, Hélio A

    2015-11-01

    An efficient methodology for the synthesis of aryl-substituted vinyl sulfoxides through direct substitution of aryl-substituted alkynyl grignard reagents on menthyl-p-toluenesulfinate followed by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction has been developed. It has also been described that the reaction of alkyl-substituted and cycloalkyl-substituted alkynyl grignard reagents with menthyl-p-toluenesulfinate led to two products, i.e., alkynyl sulfoxide derivatives, as a result of substitution, and enyne sulfoxide derivatives, which resulted from substitution followed by Michael type addition. It was possible to selectively synthesize the enyne sulfoxide derivatives by changing the concentration of the grignard reagent. These alkenyl sulfoxides were transformed into the corresponding [Formula: see text]-thio aldehydes in high yields via additive Pummerer rearrangement.

  11. Enantiomeric behaviour of albendazole and fenbendazole sulfoxides in domestic animals: pharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Bettencourt P S; Virkel, Guillermo L; Lanusse, Carlos E

    2009-09-01

    Albendazole and fenbendazole are methylcarbamate benzimidazole anthelmintics extensively used to control gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals. These parent compounds are metabolised to albendazole sulfoxide and fenbendazole sulfoxide (oxfendazole), respectively. Both sulfoxide derivatives are anthelmintically active and are manufactured for use in animals. They metabolites have an asymmetric centre on their chemical structures and two enantiomeric forms of each sulfoxide have been identified in plasma, tissues of parasite location and within target helminths. Both the flavin-monooxygenase and cytochrome P450 systems are involved in the enantioselective biotransformation of these anthelmintic compounds in ruminant species. A relevant progress on the understanding of the relationship among enantioselective metabolism and systemic availability of each enantiomeric form has been achieved. This article reviews the current knowledge on the pharmacological implications of the enantiomeric behaviour of albendazole sulfoxide and oxfendazole in domestic animals.

  12. Stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide: an investigation of rac-thioridazine biotransformation by some endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Keyller Bastos; De Souza Borges, Warley; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2008-04-14

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide (THD-2-SO) and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide (THD-5-SO) in culture medium and to study the biotransformation of rac-thioridazine (THD) by some endophytic fungi. The simultaneous resolution of THD-2-SO and THD-5-SO diastereoisomers was performed on a CHIRALPAK AS column using a mobile phase of hexane:ethanol:methanol (92:6:2, v/v/v)+0.5% diethylamine; UV detection was carried out at 262 nm. Diethyl ether was used as extractor solvent. The validated method was used to evaluate the biotransformation of THD by 12 endophytic fungi isolated from Tithonia diversifolia, Viguiera arenaria and Viguiera robusta. Among the 12 fungi evaluated, 4 of them deserve prominence for presenting an evidenced stereoselective biotransformation potential: Phomopsis sp. (TD2) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the form (S)-(SE) (12.1%); Glomerella cingulata (VA1) presented greater mono-5-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE)+(R)-(FE) (10.5%); Diaporthe phaseolorum (VR4) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE) and (R)-(FE) (84.4% and 82.5%, respectively) and Aspergillus fumigatus (VR12) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE) and (R)-(SE) (31.5% and 34.4%, respectively).

  13. "Sizing" Heterogeneous Chemistry in the Conversion of Gaseous Dimethyl Sulfide to Atmospheric Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enami, Shinichi; Sakamoto, Yosuke; Hara, Keiichiro; Osada, Kazuo; Hoffmann, Michael R; Colussi, Agustín J

    2016-02-16

    The oxidation of biogenic dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emissions is a global source of cloud condensation nuclei. The amounts of the nucleating H2SO4(g) species produced in such process, however, remain uncertain. Hydrophobic DMS is mostly oxidized in the gas phase into H2SO4(g) + DMSO(g) (dimethyl sulfoxide), whereas water-soluble DMSO is oxidized into H2SO4(g) in the gas phase and into SO4(2-) + MeSO3(-) (methanesulfonate) on water surfaces. R = MeSO3(-)/(non-sea-salt SO4(2-)) ratios would therefore gauge both the strength of DMS sources and the extent of DMSO heterogeneous oxidation if Rhet = MeSO3(-)/SO4(2-) for DMSO(aq) + ·OH(g) were known. Here, we report that Rhet = 2.7, a value obtained from online electrospray mass spectra of DMSO(aq) + ·OH(g) reaction products that quantifies the MeSO3(-) produced in DMSO heterogeneous oxidation on aqueous aerosols for the first time. On this basis, the inverse R dependence on particle radius in size-segregated aerosol collected over Syowa station and Southern oceans is shown to be consistent with the competition between DMSO gas-phase oxidation and its mass accommodation followed by oxidation on aqueous droplets. Geographical R variations are thus associated with variable contributions of the heterogeneous pathway to DMSO atmospheric oxidation, which increase with the specific surface area of local aerosols.

  14. Chamber simulation of photooxidation of dimethyl sulfide and isoprene in the presence of NOx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve the model prediction for the formation of H2SO4 and methanesulfonic acid (MSA, aerosol-phase reactions of gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS oxidation products [e.g., dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO] in aerosol have been included in the DMS kinetic model with the recently reported gas-phase reactions and their rate constants. To determine the rate constants of aerosol-phase reactions of both DMSO and its major gaseous products [e.g., dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2 and methanesulfinic acid (MSIA], DMSO was photooxidized in the presence of NOx using a 2 m3 Teflon film chamber. The rate constants tested in the DMSO kinetic mechanisms were then incorporated into the DMS photooxidation mechanism. The model simulation using the newly constructed DMS oxidation mechanims was compared to chamber data obtained from the phototoxiation of DMS in the presence of NOx. Within 120-min simulation, the predicted concentrations of MSA increase by 200–400% and those of H2SO4, by 50–200% due to aerosol-phase chemistry. This was well substantiated with experimental data. To study the effect of coexisting volatile organic compounds, the photooxidation of DMS in the presence of isoprene and NOx has been simulated using the newly constructed DMS kinetic model integrated with the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM for isoprene oxidation, and compared to chamber data. With the high concentrations of DMS (250 ppb and isoprene (560–2248 ppb, both the model simulation and experimental data showed an increase in the yields of MSA and H2SO4 as the isoprene concentration increased.

  15. Liquid scintillation solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.C.

    1977-01-01

    A liquid scintillation solution is described which includes (1) a scintillation solvent (toluene and xylene), (2) a primary scintillation solute (PPO and Butyl PBD), (3) a secondary scintillation solute (POPOP and Dimethyl POPOP), (4) a plurality of substantially different surfactants and (5) a filter dissolving and/or transparentizing agent. 8 claims

  16. Enthalpy of solution of α- and β-cyclodextrin in water and in some organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belica, Sylwia; Sadowska, Monika; Stępniak, Artur; Graca, Anna; Pałecz, Bartłomiej

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A great influence of crystalline water on the energetic of dissolving compounds. • The strongest interaction between β-cyclodextrin and DMSO. • The enthalpic pair interaction coefficient, h βCD-EtOH , obtained is positive. • Predominating effects of the partial dehydration of the molecules – βCD-EtOH. -- Abstract: The calorimetric measurements of solution enthalpy of α-cyclodextrin, β-cyclodextrin in water (H 2 O), dimetyloformamid (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and aqueous ethanol solutions (H 2 O + EtOH) at 298.15 K were made. The experimental results were used to calculate the enthalpic coefficients of the interactions between cyclodextrin and ethanol molecules in water based on McMillan–Mayer’s model. The results were compared with literature data and with hydrodynamic radii of cyclodextrin in examined solvents and with donor numbers of these solvents. In order to check, if the inclusion complex formation between the solvent with the highest enthalpy of solution and cyclodextrin has happened, the calorimetric isothermal titration measurements were made and the results were interpreted

  17. Atmospherically Relevant Radicals Derived from the Oxidation of Dimethyl Sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardyukov, Artur; Schreiner, Peter R

    2018-02-20

    The large number and amounts of volatile organosulfur compounds emitted to the atmosphere and the enormous variety of their reactions in various oxidation states make experimental measurements of even a small fraction of them a daunting task. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a product of biological processes involving marine phytoplankton, and it is estimated to account for approximately 60% of the total natural sulfur gases released to the atmosphere. Ocean-emitted DMS has been suggested to play a role in atmospheric aerosol formation and thereby cloud formation. The reaction of ·OH with DMS is known to proceed by two independent channels: abstraction and addition. The oxidation of DMS is believed to be initiated by the reaction with ·OH and NO 3 · radicals, which eventually leads to the formation of sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and methanesulfonic acid (CH 3 SO 3 H). The reaction of DMS with NO 3 · appears to proceed exclusively by hydrogen abstraction. The oxidation of DMS consists of a complex sequence of reactions. Depending on the time of the day or altitude, it may take a variety of pathways. In general, however, the oxidation proceeds via chains of radical reactions. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been reported to be a major product of the addition channel. Dimethyl sulfone (DMSO 2 ), SO 2 , CH 3 SO 3 H, and methanesulfinic acid (CH 3 S(O)OH) have been observed as products of further oxidation of DMSO. Understanding the details of DMS oxidation requires in-depth knowledge of the elementary steps of this seemingly simple transformation, which in turn requires a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. The methylthiyl (CH 3 S·), methylsulfinyl (CH 3 SO·), methylsulfonyl (CH 3 SO 2 ·), and methylsulfonyloxyl (CH 3 SO 3 ·) radicals have been postulated as intermediates in the oxidation of DMS. Therefore, studying the chemistry of sulfur-containing free radicals in the laboratory also is the basis for understanding the mechanism of DMS oxidation in the

  18. Injection characteristics of dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glensvig, M.

    1996-09-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has proved to be a new ultra-clean alternative fuel for diesel engines. Engine tests have shown considerably lower NO{sub x} emissions, no particle emissions and lower noise compared to that obtained from normal diesel engine operation. DME also has demonstrated favorable response to Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The purpose of this investigation was to achieve a better understanding of the fundamental spray behavior of DME. Fundamental spray behaviour was characterized by fuel spray penetration and angle, atomization and droplet size and evaporation. The influence of fuel characteristics, nozzle geometry and ambient pressure on the DME and diesel spray behavior was investigated. Fuel was injected into an unheated injection chamber with a ambient pressure of 15 bar and 25 bar, respectively, giving a simplified simulation of the environment in an operating engine. Two nozzles were studied: a single hole nozzle and a pintle nozzle. A conventional fuel injection system was used for both nozzles. Injection parameters of RPM, throttle position, fuel line length and chamber environment were held constant for both nozzles. The sprays were visualized using schlieren and high speed photography. Results show that the general appearance of the DME spray is similar to that of diesel spray. The core of the DME spray seems less dense and the spray tip less sharp compared to diesel spray, indicating smaller droplets with a lower momentum in the core of the DME spray. Schlieren film shows that with both DME and diesel fuel, the spray tip only consists of liquid and that evaporation occurs after a brief time interval. Penetration of DME is about one third that of diesel using the pintle nozzle. Also, the spray angle is considerably larger for the DME spray compared to the diesel spray. A comparatively smaller difference in penetration is observed using the hole nozzle. Differences in penetration for the hole nozzle are within the limit of the penetration

  19. Liquid scintillation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    The liquid scintillation solution described includes a mixture of: a liquid scintillation solvent, a primary scintillation solute, a secondary scintillation solute, a variety of appreciably different surfactants, and a dissolving and transparency agent. The dissolving and transparency agent is tetrahydrofuran, a cyclic ether. The scintillation solvent is toluene. The primary scintillation solute is PPO, and the secondary scintillation solute is dimethyl POPOP. The variety of appreciably different surfactants is composed of isooctylphenol-polyethoxyethanol and sodium dihexyl sulphosuccinate [fr

  20. Tunability of photoswitchable ruthenium sulfoxide compounds on the basis of ligand substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicke, Sebastian; Dieckmann, Volker; Springfeld, Kristin; Imlau, Mirco [Deparment of Physics, University of Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Photoswitchable ruthenium sulfoxide compounds provide a light-induced linkage isomerization in combination with pronounced changes in characteristic optical properties. As representative of the ruthenium sulfoxide group the molecular compound [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(R-OSO)]{sup +} (OSO: 2-methylsulfinylbenzoate) can be tuned in its optical properties by the substitution of the photoswitchable ligands (R=Bn, BnCl, BnMe). These modified sulfoxides were studied in respect to their photochromic properties and kinetics of the generation and relaxation of the light-induced isomers. The kinetics were determined by pump-probe technique and show in each case two reversible thermal decay processes following Arrhenius law. The two photo-excited states offer lifetimes in the magnitude of {tau}{sub 1}{approx}10{sup 3} s and {tau}{sub 2}{approx}10{sup 4} s at room temperature with activation energies about E{sub A,I}=0.72 eV to 0.92 eV and E{sub A,II}=0.8 eV to 1.00 eV. Another respresentative of the photoswitchable sulfoxides is the [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(pySO)]{sup 2+} compound. This molecule is the first sulfoxide which allows for reversible switching between the ground and metastable states by light exposure. With this compound the sulfoxides are highly qualified for optical data storage on a molecular scale.

  1. Role of Helicobacter pylori methionine sulfoxide reductase in urease maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Lisa G.; Mahawar, Manish; Sharp, Joshua S.; Benoit, Stéphane; Maier, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The persistence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is due in part to urease and Msr (methionine sulfoxide reductase). Upon exposure to relatively mild (21% partial pressure of O2) oxidative stress, a Δmsr mutant showed both decreased urease specific activity in cell-free extracts and decreased nickel associated with the partially purified urease fraction as compared with the parent strain, yet urease apoprotein levels were the same for the Δmsr and wild-type extracts. Urease activity of the Δmsr mutant was not significantly different from the wild-type upon non-stress microaerobic incubation of strains. Urease maturation occurs through nickel mobilization via a suite of known accessory proteins, one being the GTPase UreG. Treatment of UreG with H2O2 resulted in oxidation of MS-identified methionine residues and loss of up to 70% of its GTPase activity. Incubation of pure H2O2-treated UreG with Msr led to reductive repair of nine methionine residues and recovery of up to full enzyme activity. Binding of Msr to both oxidized and non-oxidized UreG was observed by cross-linking. Therefore we conclude Msr aids the survival of H. pylori in part by ensuring continual UreG-mediated urease maturation under stress conditions. PMID:23181726

  2. Dopamine D2 receptor function is compromised in the brain of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Oien, Derek B.; Ortiz, Andrea N.; Rittel, Alexander G.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Johnson, Michael A.; Levant, Beth; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that brain oxidative stress and altered rodent locomotor behavior are linked. We observed bio-behavioral changes in methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mice associated with abnormal dopamine signaling. Compromised ability of these knockout mice to reduce methionine sulfoxide enhances accumulation of sulfoxides in proteins. We examined the dopamine D2-receptor function and expression, which has an atypical arrangement and quantity of methionine residues. Indeed...

  3. Adiabatic compressibility of pseudo-binary aqueous solutions of tert-butyl alcohol and dimethylsulfoxide as a result of ultrasonic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miecznik, Piotr; Kaczmarek, Milena

    2006-01-01

    The tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are two small molecules geometrically very similar, but having different polar groups. Taking into account the intermolecular interactions in the TBA/H 2 O and DMSO/H 2 O systems, especially in the water-rich region of concentration, the ultrasonic speeds (high accuracy resonance method at the frequency 7.5 MHz) and densities in pseudo-binary mixtures of the system: (TBA + H 2 O + DMSO) with the ratio (TBA + DMSO)/H 2 O = 1/25 have been measured. From these data, various thermodynamical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility, molar volume, thermal expansivity, and the deviation from reference system have been calculated. In addition, the isobaric molar heat capacity to convert adiabatic compressibility to the isothermal one has been measured. All these parameters have been discussed to explain solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, especially the effect of the complexation process between TBA and DMSO molecules. The composition dependence of these deviations functions was interpreted in the light of the mixing schemes in the aqueous solutions of TBA and DMSO

  4. Adiabatic compressibility of pseudo-binary aqueous solutions of tert-butyl alcohol and dimethylsulfoxide as a result of ultrasonic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miecznik, Piotr [Institute of Acoustics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, PL-61-614 Poznan (Poland)]. E-mail: miecznik@main.amu.edu.pl; Kaczmarek, Milena [Institute of Acoustics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, PL-61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2006-11-15

    The tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are two small molecules geometrically very similar, but having different polar groups. Taking into account the intermolecular interactions in the TBA/H{sub 2}O and DMSO/H{sub 2}O systems, especially in the water-rich region of concentration, the ultrasonic speeds (high accuracy resonance method at the frequency 7.5 MHz) and densities in pseudo-binary mixtures of the system: (TBA + H{sub 2}O + DMSO) with the ratio (TBA + DMSO)/H{sub 2}O = 1/25 have been measured. From these data, various thermodynamical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility, molar volume, thermal expansivity, and the deviation from reference system have been calculated. In addition, the isobaric molar heat capacity to convert adiabatic compressibility to the isothermal one has been measured. All these parameters have been discussed to explain solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, especially the effect of the complexation process between TBA and DMSO molecules. The composition dependence of these deviations functions was interpreted in the light of the mixing schemes in the aqueous solutions of TBA and DMSO.

  5. 21 CFR 172.133 - Dimethyl dicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... treatment, filtration, or other technologies prior to the use of dimethyl dicarbonate: (1) In wine, dealcoholized wine, and low alcohol wine in an amount not to exceed 200 parts per million. (2) In ready-to-drink...

  6. Effect of Magnesium Incorporation on Solution-Processed Kesterite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Raquel; Haass, Stefan G; Andres, Christian; Arques, Laia; Oliva, Florian; Izquierdo-Roca, Victor; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E

    2018-01-01

    The introduction of the alkaline-earth element Magnesium (Mg) into Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 (CTZSSe) is explored in view of potential photovoltaic applications. Cu 2 Zn 1-x Mg x Sn(S,Se) 4 absorber layers with variable Mg content x = 0…1 are deposited using the solution approach with dimethyl sulfoxide solvent followed by annealing in selenium atmosphere. For heavy Mg alloying with x = 0.55…1 the phase separation into Cu 2 SnSe 3 , MgSe 2 , MgSe and SnSe 2 occurs in agreement with literature predictions. A lower Mg content of x = 0.04 results in the kesterite phase as confirmed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. A photoluminescence maximum is red-shifted by 0.02 eV as compared to the band-gap and a carrier concentration N CV of 1 × 10 16 cm -3 is measured for a Mg-containing kesterite solar cell device. Raman spectroscopy indicates that structural defects can be reduced in Mg-containing absorbers as compared to the Mg-free reference samples, however the best device efficiency of 7.2% for a Mg-containing cell measured in this study is lower than those frequently reported for the conventional Na doping.

  7. Effect of Magnesium Incorporation on Solution-Processed Kesterite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Caballero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the alkaline-earth element Magnesium (Mg into Cu2ZnSn(S,Se4 (CTZSSe is explored in view of potential photovoltaic applications. Cu2Zn1−xMgxSn(S,Se4 absorber layers with variable Mg content x = 0…1 are deposited using the solution approach with dimethyl sulfoxide solvent followed by annealing in selenium atmosphere. For heavy Mg alloying with x = 0.55…1 the phase separation into Cu2SnSe3, MgSe2, MgSe and SnSe2 occurs in agreement with literature predictions. A lower Mg content of x = 0.04 results in the kesterite phase as confirmed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. A photoluminescence maximum is red-shifted by 0.02 eV as compared to the band-gap and a carrier concentration NCV of 1 × 1016 cm−3 is measured for a Mg-containing kesterite solar cell device. Raman spectroscopy indicates that structural defects can be reduced in Mg-containing absorbers as compared to the Mg-free reference samples, however the best device efficiency of 7.2% for a Mg-containing cell measured in this study is lower than those frequently reported for the conventional Na doping.

  8. Reaction of dimethyl hydrogen phosphite with acecyclone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.; Fuzhenkova, A.V.; Tyryshkin, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    In the presence of bases acecyclone reacts with dimethyl hydrogen phosphite with the formation of gamma-keto phosphonates with conjugated and unconjugated structures, and also an enol phosphate, a product containing a bond between oxygen of the cyclone and phosphorus. In the absence of bases, as well as the beta-keto phosphonate, gamma-keto phosphonates of cis and trans structure are formed; they are products of the 1,4 addition of dimethyl hydrogen phosphite to the conjugated fragment C=C-C=O of the cyclone. The compositions of the reaction mixture were determined by IR and NMR spectroscopy and TLC. Full-scale analysis of chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants was performed

  9. Synthesis and spectroscopic behavior of highly luminescent Eu 3+-dibenzoylmethanate (DBM) complexes with sulfoxide ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyama, E.; Brito, H. F.; Cremona, M.; Teotonio, E. E. S.; Reyes, R.; Brito, G. E. S.; Felinto, M. C. F. C.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper the synthesis, characterization and photoluminescent behavior of the [RE(DBM) 3L 2] complexes (RE = Gd and Eu) with a variety of sulfoxide ligands; L = benzyl sulfoxide (DBSO), methyl sulfoxide (DMSO), phenyl sulfoxide (DPSO) and p-tolyl sulfoxide (PTSO) have been investigated in solid state. The emission spectra of the Eu 3+-β-diketonate complexes show characteristics narrow bands arising from the 5D 0 → 7F J ( J = 0-4) transitions, which are split according to the selection rule for C n, C nv or C s site symmetries. The experimental Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters ( Ω2 and Ω4), radiative ( Arad) and non-radiative ( Anrad) decay rates, and R02 for the europium complexes have been determined and compared. The highest value of Ω2 (61.9 × 10 -20 cm 2) was obtained to the complex with PTSO ligand, indicating that Eu 3+ ion is in the highly polarizable chemical environment. The higher values of the experimental quantum yield ( q) and emission quantum efficiency of the emitter 5D 0 level ( η) for the Eu-complexes with DMSO, DBSO and PTSO sulfoxides suggest that these complexes are promising Light Conversion Molecular Devices (LCMDs). The lower value of quantum yield ( q = 1%), for the hydrated complex [Eu(DBM) 3(H 2O)], indicates that the luminescence quenching occurs via multiphonon relaxation by coupling with the OH-oscillators from water molecule coordinated to rare earth ion. The pure red emission of the Eu-complexes has been confirmed by ( x, y) color coordinates.

  10. (α,α-dimethyl)glycyl (dmg) PNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourishankar, Aland; Ganesh, Krishna N.

    2012-01-01

    The design and facile synthesis of sterically constrained new analogs of PNA having gem-dimethyl substitutions on glycine (dmg-PNA-T) is presented. The PNA oligomers [aminoethyl dimethylglycyl (aedmg) and aminopropyl dimethylglycyl (apdmg)] synthesized from the monomers 6 and 12) effected remarkable stabilization of homothyminePNA2:homoadenine DNA/RNA triplexes and mixed base sequence duplexes with target cDNA or RNA. They show a higher binding to DNA relative to that with isosequential RNA. This may be a structural consequence of the sterically rigid gem-dimethyl group, imposing a pre-organized conformation favorable for complex formation with cDNA. The results complement our previous work that had demonstrated that cyclohexanyl-PNAs favor binding with cRNA compared with cDNA and imply that the biophysical and structural properties of PNAs can be directed by introduction of the right rigidity in PNA backbone devoid of chirality. This approach of tweaking selectivity in binding of PNA constructs by installing gem-dimethyl substitution in PNA backbone can be extended to further fine-tuning by similar substitution in the aminoethyl segment as well either individually or in conjunction with present substitution. PMID:22679528

  11. Liquid scintillation solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a liquid scintillation solution which contains 1) a scintillation solvent (toluol), 2) a primary scintillation solute (PPO), 3) a secondary scintillation solute (dimethyl POPOP), 4) several surfactants (iso-octyl-phenol polyethoxy-ethanol and sodium di-hexyl sulfosuccinate) essentially different from one another and 5) a filter resolution and/or transparent-making agent (cyclic ether, especially tetrahydrofuran). (HP) [de

  12. Solution equilibrium behind the room-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.; Daniel, Geoffrey; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Kessler, Vadim G.

    2013-03-01

    Formation of nanocrystalline and monodisperse TiO2 from a water soluble and stable precursor, ammonium oxo-lactato-titanate, (NH4)8Ti4O4(Lactate)8.4H2O, often referred to as TiBALDH or TALH, is demonstrated to be due to a coordination equilibrium. This compound, individual in the solid state, exists in solution in equilibrium with ammonium tris-lactato-titanate, (NH4)2Ti(Lactate)3 and uniform crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles (anatase) stabilized by surface-capping with lactate ligands. This equilibrium can be shifted towards nano-TiO2via application of a less polar solvent like methanol or ethanol, dilution of the solution, introduction of salts or raising the temperature, and reverted on addition of polar and strongly solvating media such as dimethyl sulfoxide, according to NMR. Aggregation and precipitation of the particles were followed by DLS and could be achieved by a decrease in their surface charge by adsorption of strongly hydrogen-bonding cations, e.g. in solutions of ammonia, ethanolamine or amino acid arginine or by addition of ethanol. The observed equilibrium may be involved in formation of nano-titania on the surface of plant roots exerting chelating organic carboxylate ligands and thus potentially influencing plant interactions.Formation of nanocrystalline and monodisperse TiO2 from a water soluble and stable precursor, ammonium oxo-lactato-titanate, (NH4)8Ti4O4(Lactate)8.4H2O, often referred to as TiBALDH or TALH, is demonstrated to be due to a coordination equilibrium. This compound, individual in the solid state, exists in solution in equilibrium with ammonium tris-lactato-titanate, (NH4)2Ti(Lactate)3 and uniform crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles (anatase) stabilized by surface-capping with lactate ligands. This equilibrium can be shifted towards nano-TiO2via application of a less polar solvent like methanol or ethanol, dilution of the solution, introduction of salts or raising the temperature, and reverted on addition of polar and strongly solvating

  13. Synthesis of Dimethyl Glutarate from Cyclobutanone and Dimethyl Carbonate over Solid Base Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Chen; Dudu, Wu

    2012-01-01

    A facile route for the synthesis of dimethyl glutarate (DMG) from cyclobutanone and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) in the presence of solid base catalysts has been developed. It was found that the intermediate carbomethoxycyclobutanone (CMCB) was produced from cyclobutanone with DMC in the first step, and then CMCB was further converted to DMG by reacting with a methoxide group. The role of the basic catalysts can be mainly ascribed to the activation of cyclobutanone via the abstraction of a proton in the α-position by base sites, and solid bases with moderate strength, such as MgO, favor the formation of DMG

  14. Synthesis of Dimethyl Glutarate from Cyclobutanone and Dimethyl Carbonate over Solid Base Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Chen; Dudu, Wu [Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan (China)

    2012-06-15

    A facile route for the synthesis of dimethyl glutarate (DMG) from cyclobutanone and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) in the presence of solid base catalysts has been developed. It was found that the intermediate carbomethoxycyclobutanone (CMCB) was produced from cyclobutanone with DMC in the first step, and then CMCB was further converted to DMG by reacting with a methoxide group. The role of the basic catalysts can be mainly ascribed to the activation of cyclobutanone via the abstraction of a proton in the {alpha}-position by base sites, and solid bases with moderate strength, such as MgO, favor the formation of DMG

  15. 1H, 15N and 13C NMR Assignments of Mouse Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Åshild S.; Aachmann, Finn L.; Sal, Lena S.; Kim, Hwa-Young; Del Conte, Rebecca; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Dikiy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A recombinant mouse methionine-r-sulfoxide reductase 2 (MsrB2ΔS) isotopically labeled with 15N and 15N/13C was generated. We report here the 1H, 15N and 13C NMR assignments of the reduced form of this protein. PMID:19636904

  16. The determination of sulfoxide configuration in six-membered rings using NMR specroscopy and DFT calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Slavětínská, Lenka; Janků, J.; Buděšínský, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2011), s. 356-366 ISSN 0957-4166 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1919 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : NMR * calculation of NMR parameters * sulfoxides * configuration Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.652, year: 2011

  17. Correlations between electrochemical and spectrochemical parameters of ruthenium sulfoxides series with N-heterocyclic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, D. de; Toma, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study of Ru Cl sub(2) (DMSO) sub(2) L sub(2) derivates, where L = N-heterocyclic base is described, contributing for a best understanding of chemical behaviour and electronic structure of the ruthenium sulfoxides. The correlations between the electrochemical and the spectroscopical parameters of the serie are presented with more emphasis. (author)

  18. A Click Chemistry Approach towards Flavin-Cyclodextrin Conjugates-Bioinspired Sulfoxidation Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomanová, P.; Šturala, J.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Cibulka, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 11 (2015), s. 19837-19848 ISSN 1420-3049 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : click chemistry * cyclodextrin * flavin * monooxygenase * oxidation * sulfoxides * green chemistry Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015 http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/11/19667/htm

  19. Enhanced Carrier Collection from CdS Passivated Grains in Solution-Processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Melanie; Keller, Debora; Haass, Stefan G; Gretener, Christina; Bissig, Benjamin; Fuchs, Peter; La Mattina, Fabio; Erni, Rolf; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2015-06-10

    Solution processing of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe)-kesterite solar cells is attractive because of easy manufacturing using readily available metal salts. The solution-processed CZTSSe absorbers, however, often suffer from poor morphology with a bilayer structure, exhibiting a dense top crust and a porous bottom layer, albeit yielding efficiencies of over 10%. To understand whether the cell performance is limited by this porous layer, a systematic compositional study using (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the dimethyl sulfoxide processed CZTSSe absorbers is presented. TEM investigation revealed a thin layer of CdS that is formed around the small CZTSSe grains in the porous bottom layer during the chemical bath deposition step. This CdS passivation is found to be beneficial for the cell performance as it increases the carrier collection and facilitates the electron transport. Electron-beam-induced current measurements reveal an enhanced carrier collection for this buried region as compared to reference cells with evaporated CdS.

  20. Triclabendazole sulfoxide causes stage-dependent embryolethality in zebrafish and mouse in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Boix

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis and paragonimiasis are widespread foodborne trematode diseases, affecting millions of people in more than 75 countries. The treatment of choice for these parasitic diseases is based on triclabendazole, a benzimidazole derivative which has been suggested as a promising drug to treat pregnant women and children. However, at the moment, this drug is not approved for human use in most countries. Its potential adverse effects on embryonic development have been scarcely studied, and it has not been assigned a pregnancy category by the FDA. Thus, to help in the process of risk-benefit decision making upon triclabendazole treatment during pregnancy, a better characterization of its risks during gestation is needed.The zebrafish embryo test, a preimplantation and a postimplantation rodent whole embryo culture were used to investigate the potential embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of triclabendazole and its first metabolite triclabendazole sulfoxide. Albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide were included as positive controls.Triclabendazole was between 10 and 250 times less potent than albendazole in inducing dysmorphogenic effects in zebrafish or postimplantation rodent embryos, respectively. However, during the preimplantation period, both compounds, triclabendazole and triclabendazole sulfoxide, induced a dose-dependent embryolethal effect after only 24 h of exposure in rodent embryos and zebrafish (lowest observed adverse effect concentrations = 10 μM.In humans, after ingestion of the recommended doses of triclabendazole to treat fascioliasis and paragonimiasis (10 mg/kg, the main compound found in plasma is triclabendazole sulfoxide (maximum concentration 38.6 μM, while triclabendazole concentrations are approximately 30 times lower (1.16 μM. From our results it can be concluded that triclabendazole, at concentrations of the same order of magnitude as the clinically relevant ones, does not entail teratogenic potential in vitro during the

  1. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Footwear contact dermatitis from dimethyl fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švecová, Danka; Šimaljakova, Maria; Doležalová, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an effective inhibitor of mold growth. In very low concentrations, DMF is a potent sensitizer that can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). It has been identified as the agent responsible for furniture contact dermatitis in Europe. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients in Slovakia with footwear ACD associated with DMF, with regard to clinical manifestations, patch test results, and results of chemical analysis of their footwear. Nine patients with suspected footwear contact dermatitis underwent patch testing with the following allergens: samples of their own footwear, commercial DMF, the European baseline, shoe screening, textile and leather dye screening, and industrial biocides series. The results were recorded according to international guidelines. The content of DMF in footwear and anti-mold sachets was analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Acute ACD was observed in nine Caucasian female patients. All patients developed delayed sensitization, as demonstrated by positive patch testing using textile footwear lining. Seven patients were patch tested with 0.1% DMF, and all seven were positive. Chemical analysis of available footwear showed that DMF was present in very high concentrations (25-80 mg/Kg). Dimethyl fumarate is a new footwear allergen and was responsible for severe ACD in our patients. To avoid an increase in the number of cases, the already approved European preventive measures should be accepted and commonly employed. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Iodine-Catalyzed Isomerization of Dimethyl Muconate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settle, Amy E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berstis, Laura R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Shuting [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rorrer, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hu, Haiming [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Crowley, Michael F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-12

    cis,cis-Muconic acid is a platform biobased chemical that can be upgraded to drop-in commodity and novel monomers. Among the possible drop-in products, dimethyl terephthalate can be synthesized via esterification, isomerization, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and dehydrogenation. The isomerization of cis,cis-dimethyl muconate (ccDMM) to the trans,trans-form (ttDMM) can be catalyzed by iodine; however, studies have yet to address (i) the mechanism and reaction barriers unique to DMM, and (ii) the influence of solvent, potential for catalyst recycle, and recovery of high-purity ttDMM. To address this gap, we apply a joint computational and experimental approach to investigate iodine-catalyzed isomerization of DMM. Density functional theory calculations identified unique regiochemical considerations due to the large number of halogen-diene coordination schemes. Both transition state theory and experiments estimate significant barrier reductions with photodissociated iodine. Solvent selection was critical for rapid kinetics, likely due to solvent complexation with iodine. Under select conditions, ttDMM yields of 95% were achieved in <1 h with methanol, followed by high purity recovery (>98%) with crystallization. Lastly, post-reaction iodine can be recovered and recycled with minimal loss of activity. Overall, these findings provide new insight into the mechanism and conditions necessary for DMM isomerization with iodine to advance the state-of-the-art for biobased chemicals.

  4. Dimethyl ether as a drift-chamber gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Casaccia, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; D'Ali, G.; Del Papa, C.; Focardi, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Maccarrone, G.; Massam, T.; Motta, F.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Prisco, G.; Sartorelli, G.; Susinno, G.; Votano, L.; Zichichi, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor; Palermo Univ.

    1986-01-01

    We have continued the testing of dimethyl ether as a drift-chamber gas in order to improve the understanding of its properties. In particular, we report on measurement accuracy, on systematic effects, and some preliminary data on the ageing of a detector filled with dimethyl ether. (orig.)

  5. Dimethyl Ether (DME) Assessment of Viscosity Using the New Volatile Fuel Viscometer (VFVM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Sorenson, Spencer C; Jakobsen, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development and test of a viscometer capable of handling dimethyl Ether (DME) and other volatile fuels. DME has excellent combustion characteristics in diesel engines but the injection equipment can break down prematurely due to extensive wear when handling this fuel. It ...... is present in very large proportions. It is not believed that reasonably additised DME can reach the same viscosity and lubricity as diesel oil. The solution is rather to design the pumps so they can handle pure DME.......This paper describes the development and test of a viscometer capable of handling dimethyl Ether (DME) and other volatile fuels. DME has excellent combustion characteristics in diesel engines but the injection equipment can break down prematurely due to extensive wear when handling this fuel...

  6. Stable Overexpression of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor Reduces the Requirement for Culture with Dimethyl Sulfoxide for High Drug Metabolism in HepaRG Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Vincent A; Rudi de Waart, D; Shevchenko, Valery; Elferink, Ronald P J Oude; Chamuleau, Robert A F M; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2017-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) induces cellular differentiation and expression of drug metabolic enzymes in the human liver cell line HepaRG; however, DMSO also induces cell death and interferes with cellular activities. The aim of this study was to examine whether overexpression of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), the nuclear receptor controlling various drug metabolism genes, would sufficiently promote differentiation and drug metabolism in HepaRG cells, optionally without using DMSO. By stable lentiviral overexpression of CAR, HepaRG cultures were less affected by DMSO in total protein content and obtained increased resistance to acetaminophen- and amiodarone-induced cell death. Transcript levels of CAR target genes were significantly increased in HepaRG-CAR cultures without DMSO, resulting in increased activities of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes and bilirubin conjugation to levels equal or surpassing those of HepaRG cells cultured with DMSO. Unexpectedly, CAR overexpression also increased the activities of non-CAR target P450s, as well as albumin production. In combination with DMSO treatment, CAR overexpression further increased transcript levels and activities of CAR targets. Induction of CYP1A2 and CYP2B6 remained unchanged, whereas CYP3A4 was reduced. Moreover, the metabolism of low-clearance compounds warfarin and prednisolone was increased. In conclusion, CAR overexpression creates a more physiologically relevant environment for studies on hepatic (drug) metabolism and differentiation in HepaRG cells without the utilization of DMSO. DMSO still may be applied to accomplish higher drug metabolism, required for sensitive assays, such as low-clearance studies and identification of (rare) metabolites, whereas reduced total protein content after DMSO culture is diminished by CAR overexpression. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Dimethyl sulfoxide potentiates death receptor-mediated apoptosis in the human myeloid leukemia U937 cell line through enhancement of mitochondrial membrane depolarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráček, Jan; Souček, Karel; Sheard, M. A.; Chramostová, Kateřina; Andrysík, Zdeněk; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Kozubík, Alois

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2006), s. 81-89 ISSN 0145-2126 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/03/0766 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : human myeloid leukemia * DMSO * apoptosis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.483, year: 2006

  8. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Decreases Cell Proliferation and TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 Cytokines Production in Cultures of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu Costa, Lucas; Henrique Fernandes Ottoni, Marcelo; Dos Santos, Michaelle Geralda; Meireles, Agnes Batista; Gomes de Almeida, Valéria; de Fátima Pereira, Wagner; Alves de Avelar-Freitas, Bethânia; Eustáquio Alvim Brito-Melo, Gustavo

    2017-11-10

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is an amphipathic molecule composed of a polar domain characterized by the sulfinyl and two nonpolar methyl groups, for this reason it is able to solubilize polar and nonpolar substances and transpose hydrophobic barriers. DMSO is widely used to solubilize drugs of therapeutic applications and studies indicated that 10% v/v concentration did not modify culture viability when used to treat human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, some DMSO concentrations could influence lymphocyte activation and present anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of DMSO on lymphocyte activation parameters. Cell viability analysis, proliferation, and cytokine production were performed on PBMC from six healthy subjects by flow cytometry. The results indicated that 2.5% v/v DMSO concentrations did not modify lymphocytes viability. DMSO at 1% and 2% v/v concentrations reduced the relative proliferation index of lymphocytes and at 5% and 10% v/v concentrations reduced the percentage of total lymphocytes, cluster of differentiation 4⁺ (CD4⁺) T lymphocytes and CD8⁺ T lymphocytes interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) producers. Thus, it was concluded that DMSO has an in vitro anti-inflammatory effect by reducing lymphocyte activation demonstrated with proliferation reduction and the decrease of cytokine production.

  9. Radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide in golden hamster embryo cells exposed to gamma rays at 77 K. I. Radical formation as studied by electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, T.; Hayakawa, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, M.; Watanabe, M.

    1990-01-01

    Formation of free radicals in golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells in the frozen living state by gamma irradiation has been studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy at 4.2 and 77 K. The relative yields of H atoms, OH radicals, and organic radicals trapped in the irradiated GHE cells are 12, 72, and 16%, respectively, of total radical yields. When dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is added to GHE cells at 77 K, a large quantity of CH2SOCH3 radicals (DMSO radicals) are formed after gamma irradiation. The yields of OH radicals are not affected by the addition of DMSO. When the GHE cell-DMSO mixtures are irradiated with gamma rays at 77 K and then warmed to 111 K, the OH radicals decay, whereas the DMSO radicals do not increase complementarily. Moreover, the decay rates of the OH radicals at 111 K do not depend upon the concentration of DMSO. Thus OH radicals do not react with DMSO during warming of the irradiated sample. When H atoms are produced by gamma irradiation of acid ice at 60 K, the decay rates of the H atoms at 77 K increase with increasing DMSO concentration, indicating that DMSO reacts with H atoms (CH3SOCH3 + H----.CH2SOCH3 + H2) at 77 K by quantum-mechanical tunneling. When the GHE cell-DMSO mixture is irradiated with gamma rays at 77 or 4.2 K in the dark, DMSO ions are produced in addition to DMSO radicals. Therefore it is concluded that DMSO does not scavenge OH radicals, but does capture H atoms, holes and/or electrons in the gamma-irradiated cells, resulting in the remarkable formation of DMSO radicals. This scavenger effect of DMSO may be related to the radioprotection of DMSO against cell killing

  10. CCDC 860713: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[dimethylammonium (mu-5,5'-ethyne-1,2-diyldiisophthalato)-indium N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl sulfoxide solvate monohydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bing; Sun, Xiaodong; Li, Guanghua; Cairns, Amy J.; Kravtsov, Victor Ch.; Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Yunling; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  11. Low-molecular-weight carbohydrate Pentaisomaltose may replace dimethyl sulfoxide as a safer cryoprotectant for cryopreservation of peripheral blood stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Jesper Dyrendom; Haastrup, Eva Kannik; Reckzeh, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    -related side effects, there is an increasing demand for DMSO-free alternatives. We therefore investigated whether Pentaisomaltose (PIM), a low-molecular-weight carbohydrate (1 kDa), can be used for cryopreservation of peripheral blood stem cells, more specifically hematopoietic progenitor cell apheresis (HPC...

  12. Human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs expressing p21 and cyclin D1 genes retain excellent viability after freezing with (dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Gholizadeh-Ghaleh Aziz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs have features intermediate between embryonic and adult SCs, can differentiate into lineages of all three germ layers, and do not develop into tumors in vivo. Moreover, hAFSCs can be easily obtained in routine procedures and there is no ethical or legal limitations regarding their use for clinical and experimental applications. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of slow freezing/thawing and two different concentrations of DMSO (10% DMSO + 90% fetal bovine serum [FBS] and 5% DMSO + 95% FBS on the survival of hAFSCs. hAFSCs were obtained from 5 pregnant women during amniocentesis at 16–22 weeks of gestation. The expression of pluripotency markers (Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 [Oct4] and NANOG by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and cell surface markers (cluster of differentiation [CD31], CD44, CD45, and CD90 by flow cytometry was analyzed before and after the slow-freezing. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion or MTT assay. Quantitative mRNA expression of Oct4, NANOG, cyclin D1 and p21 was determined by real-time PCR before and after the slow-freezing. Pluripotency of hAFSCs was confirmed by NANOG and POU5F1 (Oct4 gene expression before and after slow-freezing. All hAFSC cultures were positive for CD44 and CD90. A higher viability of hAFSCs was observed after freezing with 90% FBS + 10% DMSO. There was increased expression of NANOG and decreased expression of POU5F1 gene after freezing, compared to control cells (before freezing. DMSO and the process of freezing did not significantly change the expression of p21 and cyclin D1 genes in hAFSCs. Overall, our results indicate the applicability of slow-freezing and DMSO in cryopreservation of SCs.

  13. Crystal structure of μ-oxalodihydroxamato-bis[(2,2′-bipyridyl(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOcopper(II] bis(perchlorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Odarich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The centrosymmetric binuclear complex, [Cu2(C2H2N2O4(C10H8N22(C2H6OS2](ClO42, contains two copper(II ions, connected through an N-deprotonated oxalodihydroxamic acid dianion, two terminal 2,2′-bipyridine ligands, and two apically coordinating dimethylsulfoxide molecules. Two non-coordinating perchlorate anions assure electrical neutrality. The copper(II ions in the complex dication [Cu2(C10H8N22(μ-C2H2N2O4(C2H6SO2]2+ are in an O2N3 square-pyramidal donor environment, the Cu–Cu separation being 5.2949 (4 Å. Two hydroxamate groups in the deprotonated oxalodihydroxamic acid are located trans to one each other. In the crystal, O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the complex cations to the perchlorate anions. Further C—H...O hydrogen bonds combine with π–π contacts with a centroid-to-centroid separation of 3.6371 (12 Å to stack the molecules along the a-axis direction.

  14. Theoretical and experimental study of the antifreeze protein AFP752, trehalose and dimethyl sulfoxide cryoprotection mechanism: correlation with cryopreserved cell viability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvílová, Irena; Golan, Martin; Pomeisl, Karel; Richter, Jan; Sedláková, Silvia; Šebera, Jakub; Mičová, Júlia; Falk, Martin; Falková, Iva; Řeha, David; Elliott, J.R.; Varga, K.; Follett, S.E.; Šimek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 352-360 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05095S; GA MŠk LO1409; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10279S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12454S; GA ČR GBP302/12/G157; GA MZd NV16-29835A Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : X-ray diffraction * DFT * Raman spectroscopy * DSC * cryoprotectants Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  15. CCDC 977701: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (2-(bis(2-Methoxyphenyl)phosphino)-N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)benzenesulfonamidato)-(dimethyl sulfoxide)-methyl-palladium

    KAUST Repository

    Jian, Zhongbao

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  16. Selectivity control of carbonylation of methanol to dimethyl oxalate and dimethyl carbonate over gold anode by electrochemical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakawa, Akiyasu; Yamanaka, Ichiro; Takenaka, Sakae; Otsuka, Kiyoshi

    2004-05-05

    New and unique electrocatalysis of gold for the carbonylation of methanol to dimethyl oxalate (DMO) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was found. The selectivity to DMO and DMC could be controlled over gold anode by electrochemical potential, as you like. Drastic changes of gold electrocatalysis was due to changes of the oxidation state of gold, Au0 or Au3+.

  17. Study on the synthesis of dimethyl 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate by catalytic hydrogenation of dimethyl terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yuanhua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of polymer industry,1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM occupies an important position especially for the synthesis of highly valued polyester products.In industry,CHDM is prepared from dimethyl terephthalate (DMT through a two-step hydrogenation process Palladium supported on magnesium oxide (Pd/MgO was prepared by animpregnation method and was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD,transmission electron microscope (TEM and scan electron microscope (SEM.During the hydrogenation of DMT to synthesize dimethyl 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate (DMCD,the as-prepared Pd/MgO was used as the catalyst with methyl acetate as the solvent.Under optimized reaction conditions (reaction temperature:180 ℃,reaction pressure:4.5 MPa,the conversion of DMT was 100% and the selectivity of DMCD was 99%.Such a catalyst shows a good potential in industrial applications.

  18. Transition-Metal-Free Highly Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Sulfides to Sulfoxides under Mild Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient transition-metal-free catalytic system Br2/NaNO2/H2O has been developed for a robust and economic acid-free aerobic oxidation of sulfides. It is noteworthy that the sulfide function reacts under mild conditions without over-oxidation to sulfone. The role of NaNO2as an efficient NO equivalent for the activation of molecular oxygen was identified. Under the optimal conditions, a broad range of sulfide substrates were converted into their corresponding sulfoxides in high yields by molecular oxygen. The present catalytic system utilizes cheap and readily available agents as the catalysts, exhibits high selectivity for sulfoxide products and releases only innocuous water as the by-products.

  19. ASYMMETRIC SULFOXIDATION OF ALBENDAZOLE TO RICOBENDAZOLE BY FUNGI: EFFECT OF pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barth

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Albendazole (ABZ is an anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of infectious diseases in veterinary and human medicine. This drug is a prochiral drug that after administration, is rapidly oxidized in the pharmacologically active sulfoxide metabolite, which is also known as ricobendazole (ABZSOX. ABZSOX has a stereogenic center and possibly two enantiomers, (+-ABZSOX and (--ABZSOX. In the present work, we investigate the pH effect on the asymmetric stereoselective sulfoxidation of ABZ into ABZSOX by employing the fungi Nigrospora sphaerica, Papulaspora immera Hotson, and Mucor rouxii. The results show a possibility of obtaining the pure enantiomers of the ricobendazole drug using fungi as biocatalytic agents. The three fungi showed a high degree of enantioselectivity expressed by enantiomeric excess. In addition, M. rouxii can be used as an alternative to obtain the (+-ABZSOX enantiomer (ee 89.8%.

  20. The impact of kosmotropes and chaotropes on bulk and hydration shell water dynamics in a model peptide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Kosmotropic (order-making) and chaotropic (order-breaking) co-solvents influence stability and biochemical equilibrium in aqueous solutions of proteins, acting indirectly through the structure and dynamics of the hydration water that surrounds the protein molecules. We have investigated the influence of kosmotropic and chaotropic co-solvents on the hydrogen bonding network dynamics of both bulk water and hydration water. To this end the evolution of bulk water and hydration water dynamics of a prototypical hydrophobic amino acid with polar backbone, N-acetyl-leucine-methylamide (NALMA), has been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering as a function of solvent composition. The results show that bulk water and hydration water dynamics, apart from a dynamical suppression that depends on the NALMA solute, exhibit the same dependence on addition of co-solvent for all of the co-solvents studied (urea, glycerol, MgSO 4 , and dimethyl sulfoxide). The hydrophobic solute and the high concentration water-structuring additive have the same effect on the water hydrogen bonding network. Water remains the preferential hydration of the hydrophobic side chain and backbone. We also find that the reorganization of the bulk water hydrogen bond network, upon addition of kosmotrope and chaotrope additives, is not dynamically perturbed, and that the hydrogen bond lifetime is maintained at 1 ps as in pure bulk water. On the other hand the addition of NALMA to the water/co-solvent binary system causes reorganization of the hydrogen bonds, resulting in an increased hydrogen bond lifetime. Furthermore, the solute's side chain dynamics is not affected by high concentrations of co-solvent. We shall discuss the hydration dynamics results in the context of protein folding and protein-solvent interactions

  1. Enantioselective synthesis of the novel chiral sulfoxide derivative as a glycogen synthase kinase 3beta inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Morihisa; Kunitomo, Jun; Kimura, Eiji; Yamano, Toru; Itoh, Fumio; Kori, Masakuni

    2010-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) inhibitors are expected to be attractive therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently we discovered sulfoxides (S)-1 as a novel GSK-3beta inhibitor having in vivo efficacy. We investigated practical asymmetric preparation methods for the scale-up synthesis of (S)-1. The highly enantioselective synthesis of (S)-1 (94% ee) was achieved by titanium-mediated oxidation with D-(-)-diethyl tartrate on gram scale.

  2. Corynebacterium diphtheriae methionine sulfoxide reductase a exploits a unique mycothiol redox relay mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossounian, Maria-Armineh; Pedre, Brandán; Wahni, Khadija; Erdogan, Huriye; Vertommen, Didier; Van Molle, Inge; Messens, Joris

    2015-05-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are conserved enzymes that reduce oxidized methionines in proteins and play a pivotal role in cellular redox signaling. We have unraveled the redox relay mechanisms of methionine sulfoxide reductase A of the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd-MsrA) and shown that this enzyme is coupled to two independent redox relay pathways. Steady-state kinetics combined with mass spectrometry of Cd-MsrA mutants give a view of the essential cysteine residues for catalysis. Cd-MsrA combines a nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction with an intramolecular disulfide bond cascade linked to the thioredoxin pathway. Within this cascade, the oxidative equivalents are transferred to the surface of the protein while releasing the reduced substrate. Alternatively, MsrA catalyzes methionine sulfoxide reduction linked to the mycothiol/mycoredoxin-1 pathway. After the nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction, MsrA forms a mixed disulfide with mycothiol, which is transferred via a thiol disulfide relay mechanism to a second cysteine for reduction by mycoredoxin-1. With x-ray crystallography, we visualize two essential intermediates of the thioredoxin relay mechanism and a cacodylate molecule mimicking the substrate interactions in the active site. The interplay of both redox pathways in redox signaling regulation forms the basis for further research into the oxidative stress response of this pathogen. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Studies of a novel cysteine sulfoxide lyase from Petiveria alliacea: the first heteromeric alliinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Rabi A; He, Quan; Kubec, Roman; Jadhav, Abhijit

    2009-11-01

    A novel alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) was detected and purified from the roots of the Amazonian medicinal plant Petiveria alliacea. The isolated enzyme is a heteropentameric glycoprotein composed of two alpha-subunits (68.1 kD each), one beta-subunit (56.0 kD), one gamma-subunit (24.8 kD), and one delta-subunit (13.9 kD). The two alpha-subunits are connected by a disulfide bridge, and both alpha- and beta-subunits are glycosylated. The enzyme has an isoelectric point of 4.78 and pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and approximately 52 degrees C, respectively. Its activation energy with its natural substrate S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide is 64.6 kJ mol(-1). Kinetic studies showed that both K(m) and V(max) vary as a function of substrate structure, with the most preferred substrates being the naturally occurring P. alliacea compounds S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide and S-2-hydroxyethyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide. The alliinase reacts with these substrates to produce S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate and S-(2-hydroxyethyl) 2-hydroxyethanethiosulfinate, respectively.

  4. Effects of intratesticular injection of zinc-based solution in rats in combination with anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs during chemical sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Regina Barros de Macedo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Chemical sterilization is a non-surgical method of contraception based on compounds injected into the testis to induce infertility. However, these injections can cause discomfort and pain able to impair the recovery of animals after this treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate if anti-inflammatories or pain relievers inhibited the sterilizing effect of zinc gluconate-based solution on the testis. Materials and Methods: Adult rats were treated in groups: G1 (control, G2 (dimethyl sulfoxide + dipyrone; G3 (dipyrone/ zinc; G4 (dipyrone + celecoxib/zinc; G5 (dipyrone + meloxicam/zinc, and G6 (dipyrone + dexamethasone/zinc in a single dose per day during 7 days. Animals were analyzed at 7, 15, and 30 days after treatments. Results: The zinc-induced a widespread testicular degeneration and decreased testosterone levels even in combination with anti-inflammatories or pain relievers. Testis, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicle had a weight reduction. The anti-inflammatory effect of dexamethasone interfered in the desired action of zinc gluconate in the 1st 15 days and celecoxib up to 7 days. Conclusion: Meloxicam plus dipyrone did not impair the chemical sterilization based on zinc gluconate, and it can be used to reduce nociceptive effects in animals after chemical sterilization.

  5. Solution, thermal and optical properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s as ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Tae Soo; Koh, Jung Jae; Han, Haesook; Bhowmik, Pradip K.

    2013-01-01

    Bis(pyridinium salt)s containing different alkyl chain lengths and various organic counterions were prepared by the ring-transmutation reaction of bis(pyrylium tosylate) with aliphatic amines in dimethyl sulfoxide at 130–135 °C for 18 h and their tosylate counterions were exchanged to other anions such as triflimide, methyl orange, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate by the metathesis reaction in a common organic solvent. Their chemical structures were established by using 1 H, 19 F, and 13 C NMR spectra. The thermal properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s were studied by DSC and TGA measurements. Some of the dicationic salts provided low melting points below 100 °C and some of them displayed amorphous properties. Polarized optical microscopy studies revealed the crystal structures prior to melting temperatures in some cases. Their optical properties were examined by using UV–Vis and photoluminescent spectrometers; and they emitted blue light both in the solution and solid states regardless of their microstructures, counterions, and the polarity of organic solvents. However, most of these salts exhibited hypsochromic shifts in their emission peaks in the solid state when compared with those of their solution spectra. Due to unique properties of methyl orange anion as a pH indicator, two of the salts showed different color change in varying concentrations of triflic acid in common organic solvents, demonstrating their potential use as an acid sensor in methanol, acetonitrile and acetone. Highlights: ► Luminescent dicationic salts were synthesized by ring-transmutation and metathesis reactions. ► Thermal and optical properties of dicationic salts are affected by the size of anion structures. ► Due to the methyl orange counterions, some dicationic salts showed pH- sensing property

  6. Electrochemical degradation of dimethyl phthalate ester on a DSA® electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fernanda L.; Aquino, Jose M.; Miwa, Douglas W.; Motheo, Artur J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Rodrigo, Manuel A., E-mail: artur@iqsc.usp.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-03-15

    The electrochemical degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) using a one-compartment filter press flow cell and a commercial dimensionally stable anode (DSA®) is presented. The best electrolysis conditions were determined by the analysis of the influence of the nature and concentration of the support electrolyte, pH, current density and temperature. The abatement of DMP concentration and total organic carbon (TOC) removal were superior in the presence of NaCl, as well as the apparent first order kinetic constants. Using constant ionic strength at 0.15 mol dm{sup -3} by adding Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, DMP concentration decreases faster at relative low NaCl concentrations while the TOC removal after 1 h of electrolysis increases with NaCl concentration. The DMP removal was very similar for all the current densities investigated at acidic solutions. When electric energy saving is considered, since the electrochemical system was under mass transport conditions, the best operational option is to use low current density values. (author)

  7. Biodegradation of Dimethyl Phthalate by Freshwater Unicellular Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Lincong; Zhang, Siping; Pan, Yan; Li, Jing; Pan, Hongwei; Xu, Shiguo; Luo, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The biodegradation characteristics of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) by three freshwater unicellular organisms were investigated in this study. The findings revealed that all the organisms were capable of metabolizing DMP; among them, Cyanothece sp. PCC7822 achieved the highest degradation efficiency. Lower concentration of DMP supported the growth of the Cyanobacteria; however, with the increase of DMP concentration growth of Cyanobacteria was inhibited remarkably. Phthalic acid (PA) was detected to be an intermediate degradation product of DMP and accumulated in the culture solution. The optimal initial pH value for the degradation was detected to be 9.0, which mitigated the decrease of pH resulting from the production of PA. The optimum temperature for DMP degradation of the three species of organisms is 30°C. After 72 hours' incubation, no more than 11.8% of the residual of DMP aggregated in Cyanobacteria cells while majority of DMP remained in the medium. Moreover, esterase was induced by DMP and the activity kept increasing during the degradation process. This suggested that esterase could assist in the degradation of DMP.

  8. Biodegradation of Dimethyl Phthalate by Freshwater Unicellular Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Lincong; Zhang, Siping; Pan, Yan; Li, Jing; Pan, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    The biodegradation characteristics of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) by three freshwater unicellular organisms were investigated in this study. The findings revealed that all the organisms were capable of metabolizing DMP; among them, Cyanothece sp. PCC7822 achieved the highest degradation efficiency. Lower concentration of DMP supported the growth of the Cyanobacteria; however, with the increase of DMP concentration growth of Cyanobacteria was inhibited remarkably. Phthalic acid (PA) was detected to be an intermediate degradation product of DMP and accumulated in the culture solution. The optimal initial pH value for the degradation was detected to be 9.0, which mitigated the decrease of pH resulting from the production of PA. The optimum temperature for DMP degradation of the three species of organisms is 30°C. After 72 hours' incubation, no more than 11.8% of the residual of DMP aggregated in Cyanobacteria cells while majority of DMP remained in the medium. Moreover, esterase was induced by DMP and the activity kept increasing during the degradation process. This suggested that esterase could assist in the degradation of DMP. PMID:28078293

  9. Carbon Nanotube Dispersion in Solvents and Polymer Solutions: Mechanisms, Assembly, and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Chandrani; Gissinger, Jacob R; Kumar, Satish; Heinz, Hendrik

    2017-12-26

    Debundling and dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in polymer solutions play a major role in the preparation of carbon nanofibers due to early effects on interfacial ordering and mechanical properties. A roadblock toward ultrastrong fibers is the difficulty to achieve homogeneous dispersions of CNTs in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) precursor solutions in solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc), and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). In this contribution, molecular dynamics simulations with accurate interatomic potentials for graphitic materials that include virtual π electrons are reported to analyze the interaction of pristine single wall CNTs with the solvents and polymer solutions at 25 °C. The results explain the barriers toward dispersion of SWCNTs and quantify CNT-solvent, polymer-solvent, as well as CNT-polymer interactions in atomic detail. Debundling of CNTs is overall endothermic and unfavorable with dispersion energies of +20 to +30 mJ/m 2 in the pure solvents, + 20 to +40 mJ/m 2 in PAN solutions, and +20 to +60 mJ/m 2 in PMMA solutions. Differences arise due to molecular geometry, polar, van der Waals, and CH-π interactions. Among the pure solvents, DMF restricts CNT dispersion less due to the planar geometry and stronger van der Waals interactions. PAN and PMMA interact favorably with the pure solvents with dissolution energies of -0.7 to -1.1 kcal per mole monomer and -1.5 to -2.2 kcal per mole monomer, respectively. Adsorption of PMMA onto CNTs is stronger than that of PAN in all solvents as the molecular geometry enables more van der Waals contacts between alkyl groups and the CNT surface. Polar side groups in both polymers prefer interactions with the polar solvents. Higher polymer concentrations in solution lead to polymer aggregation via alkyl groups and reduce adsorption onto CNTs. PAN and PMMA solutions in DMSO and dilute solutions in DMF support CNT dispersion more than other

  10. Heat capacities and asymmetric criticality of the (liquid + liquid) coexistence curves for {dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane, or n-tridecane}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhiyun; Shi, Aiqin; Liu, Shixia; Yin, Tianxiang; Shen, Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Coexistence curves of dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane (or + n-tridecane) were measured. • Isobaric heat capacity per unit volume of critical binary solutions dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane (or + n-tridecane) were determined. • The critical exponent β are consistent with the 3D-Ising value. • The asymmetry of the coexistence curves were discussed by the complete scaling theory. - Abstract: The (liquid + liquid) coexistences and the critical behavior of isobaric heat capacity per unit volume for critical binary solutions {dimethyl carbonate + n-undecane, or n-tridecane} have been studied. The critical exponents β and α were deduced and found to be consistent with the 3D-Ising values. The critical amplitudes were determined and used to test the asymmetric criticality of coexistence curves. It was found that the heat capacity does play an important role in describing the asymmetric criticality of the coexistence curves

  11. Sulfoxide stimulation of chondrogenesis in limb mesenchyme is accompanied by an increase in type II collagen enhancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.E. Jr.; Higginbotham, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We have utilized a modification of the limb bud mesenchyme micromass culture system to screen compounds that might stimulate chondrogenesis. Two compounds in the sulfoxide family (methylphenylsulfoxide and p-chlorophenyl methyl sulfoxide) were stimulatory at 10(-2) M and 10(-3) M, respectively; whereas other sulfoxides and organic solvents were not active at these concentrations. In addition, specific growth factors (basic FGF, IGF-I, IGF-II) were not chondroinductive at concentrations that are active in other cell systems. Both sulfoxide compounds stimulated cartilage nodule formation, [ 35 S]sulfate incorporation, and activity of the regulatory sequences of the collagen II gene. In contrast, transforming growth factor beta-1 (10 ng/ml) stimulated sulfate incorporation but produced only a diffuse deposition of cartilage matrix and reduced the ability of the cells to utilize the regulatory sequences of the collagen II gene. The sulfoxides appear to promote the differentiation of limb bud cells to chondrocytes and thus exhibit chondroinductive activity

  12. Radiolabelling and evaluation of a novel sulfoxide as a PET imaging agent for tumor hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurens, Evelyn; Yeoh, Shinn Dee; Rigopoulos, Angela; Cao, Diana; Cartwright, Glenn A.; O'Keefe, Graeme J.; Tochon-Danguy, Henri J.; White, Jonathan M.; Scott, Andrew M.; Ackermann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    [ 18 F]FMISO is the most widely validated PET radiotracer for imaging hypoxic tissue. However, as a result of the pharmacokinetics of [ 18 F]FMISO a 2 h wait between tracer administration and patient scanning is required for optimal image acquisition. In order to develop hypoxia imaging agents with faster kinetics, we have synthesised and evaluated several F-18 labelled anilino sulfoxides. In this manuscript we report on the synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel fluoroethyltriazolyl propargyl anilino sulfoxide. The radiolabelling of the novel tracer was achieved via 2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl azide click chemistry. Radiochemical yields were 23 ± 4% based on 2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl azide and 7 ± 2% based on K[ 18 F]F. The radiotracer did not undergo metabolism or defluorination in an in vitro assay using S9 liver fractions. Imaging studies using SK-RC-52 tumors in BALB/c nude mice have indicated that the tracer may have a higher pO 2 threshold than [ 18 F]FMISO for uptake in hypoxic tumors. Although clearance from muscle was faster than [ 18 F]FMISO, uptake in hypoxic tumors was slower. The average tumor to muscle ratio at 2 h post injection in large, hypoxic tumors with a volume greater than 686 mm 3 was 1.7, which was similar to the observed ratio of 1.75 for [ 18 F]FMISO. Although the new tracer showed improved pharmacokinetics when compared with the previously synthesised sulfoxides, further modifications to the chemical structure need to be made in order to offer significant in vivo imaging advantages over [ 18 F]FMISO

  13. Synthesis and Nrf2 Activating Ability of Thiourea and Vinyl Sulfoxide Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Young Sun; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Nam, Ghilsoo; Choi, Kyung Il [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Thiourea and vinyl sulfoxide derivatives were designed based on the structures of sulforaphene and gallic acid, prepared and tested for HO-1 inducing activity as a measure of Nrf2 activation, and inhibitory effect on NO production as a measure of anti-inflammatory activity. Both series of compounds showed moderate activity on HO-1 induction, and no inhibitory effect on NO production. Interestingly the thiourea compound 6d showed better HO-1 induction (71% SFN) than the corresponding isothiocyanate compound 6a (55% SFN). Overall, it seemed that more efficient electrophile is needed to get more effective Nrf2 activator.

  14. Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine in Hypothyroid Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Messeih, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid diseases may lead to endothelial dysfunction, however, the mechanism underlying the endothelial dysfunction in thyroid disease is still not clear. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), a novel inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), was reported to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from L-arginine. The present study was carried out to investigate ADMA levels together with effects of dislipidemia in sub-clinical and overt hypothyroid females. There were significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and ADMA in hypothyroid females as compared to controls while the levels of NO and free T 4 were significantly decreased than controls. Sub-clinical hypothyroid females had significant high TSH, LDL-c and non-significantly high ADMA levels and total cholesterol as compared to controls while they had significant decrease in NO, HDL-c and non-significant decrease in free T 4 as compared to controls. There were significant negative correlations between NO and both ADMA (r 2 = 0.84) and free T 4 (r 2 = 0.95) in overt hypothyroid group while significant positive correlation (r 2 = 0.85) was detected between TSH and HDL-c in the same group. These results are highly suggestive that the decrease of nitric oxide secondary to accumulation of ADMA represent an important pathogenic factor together with dyslipidemia in endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk especially in hypothyroid females

  15. Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine in Hypothyroid Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Messeih, P. L. [Health Radiation Research Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-01

    Thyroid diseases may lead to endothelial dysfunction, however, the mechanism underlying the endothelial dysfunction in thyroid disease is still not clear. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), a novel inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), was reported to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from L-arginine. The present study was carried out to investigate ADMA levels together with effects of dislipidemia in sub-clinical and overt hypothyroid females. There were significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and ADMA in hypothyroid females as compared to controls while the levels of NO and free T{sub 4} were significantly decreased than controls. Sub-clinical hypothyroid females had significant high TSH, LDL-c and non-significantly high ADMA levels and total cholesterol as compared to controls while they had significant decrease in NO, HDL-c and non-significant decrease in free T{sub 4} as compared to controls. There were significant negative correlations between NO and both ADMA (r{sup 2} = 0.84) and free T{sub 4} (r{sup 2} = 0.95) in overt hypothyroid group while significant positive correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.85) was detected between TSH and HDL-c in the same group. These results are highly suggestive that the decrease of nitric oxide secondary to accumulation of ADMA represent an important pathogenic factor together with dyslipidemia in endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk especially in hypothyroid females.

  16. Systems of cerium(3) nitrate-dimethyl amine nitrate-water and cerium(3) nitrate-dimethyl amine nitrate-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mininkov, N.E.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1976-01-01

    Solubility of solid phases in the systems cerium(3)nitrate-water-dimethyl amine nitrate and cerium(3)nitrate-water-dimethyl amine nitrate has been st ed by the method of isothermal sections at 25 and 50 deo. C. It has been shown that one anhydrous compound is formed in each system with a ratio of cerium(3) nitrate to amine nitrate 1:5. The compounds formed in the systems have been separated from the corresponding solutions and studied by microcrystalloscopic, X-ray phase, thermal and infrared spectroscopic methods. On the basis of spectroscopic studies the following formula has been assigned to the compound: [(CH 3 ) 2 NH 2 + ] 5 x[Ce(NO 3 ) 8 ]. The thermal analysis of the compound has shown that its melting point is 106 deg C. The solubility isotherms in the system Ce(NO 3 ) 3 -H 2 O-(C 2 H 5 ) 2 NHxHNO 3 consist of three branches which intersect in two eutonic points

  17. Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth SH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Covidien, Hazelwood, MO, USABackground: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA. However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial.Methods: Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo with oral diclofenac (ODiclo. Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs, recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation.Results: AEs occurred in 312 (67.1% patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5% of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001. Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001 and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055 AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all.Conclusions: These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile.Keywords: diclofenac, gastropathy

  18. Spectral and structural correlation for Bis (dibenzoyl methanato) dioxo uranium(VI) diphenyl sulfoxide. [UO2(DBM)2. PhSOPh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Raj, S.S.S.; Fun, Hoong Kun

    2001-01-01

    In the complex [UO 2 (DBM) 2 . PhSOPh]. the sulfoxide ligand is bonded to uranium (VI) ion through sulfoxide oxygen atom and DBM ligands through the oxygen atoms to give a distorted pentagonal bipyramidal geometry. The structural study is in consistence with the spectral studies. (author)

  19. Lanthanide extraction with 2,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.

    1977-12-01

    This research is concerned with the solvent extraction into chloroform of the lanthanides, using 2,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid (DMHHA). This acid is the first α-hydroxy aliphatic acid to be studied as an extracting agent for the lanthanides. The chloroform-water DMHHA partition constant was determined to be 1.0 (at 0.1 M ionic strength and 25 0 C). The acid dimerizes in chloroform with a constant of 56. The light lanthanides can be extracted into chloroform by forming complexes with the DMHHA anions. The extracted metal species is highly aggregated. This extraction has a solubility limit which increases with the addition of unionized acid. The resultant extract is also highly aggregated. At unionized acid-to-metal ratios greater than one, extractions first occur followed by the slow precipitation of the lanthanide. At the tracer level, neodymium is extracted primarily as NdA 3 (HA) 5 and (NdA 3 ) 2 (HA)/sub q/. Very small amounts of (NdA 3 ) 2 and other metal aggregates are also present. The heavy lanthanides do not extract from solutions of DMHHA and its potassium salt, but form aqueous emulsions and precipitates. In the presence of the organic soluble tetrabutylammonium ion the heavy lanthanides can be extracted, presumably as ion pairs. The stability constants of the light lanthanides and DMHHA were determined. The separation factors obtained from DMHHA extractions of the light lanthanides were also investigated and found to be comparable to those obtained employing normal aliphatic carboxylic acid

  20. Processing of intractable polymers using reactive solvents: 1. Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene ether)/epoxy resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, R.W.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Lemstra, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    A new processing route for poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene ether) (PPE), an intractable polymer on account of its thermal and oxidative sensitivity, was explored. PPE can be dissolved at elevated temperatures in epoxy resin and these solutions can then be processed at temperatures as low as 175°C.

  1. Processing of intractable polymers using reactive solvents. 2. Poly(2,6-Dimethyl-1,4-Phenylene Ether) as a Matrix Material for High-Performance Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, R.W.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Lemstra, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The application of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene ether) (PPE) as a matrix material for continuous carbon fibre reinforced composites has been studied. Owing to the intractable nature of PPE, melt impregnation is not feasible and therefore a solution impregnation route was explored using epoxy

  2. In situ generation of sulfoxides with predetermined chirality via a structural template with a chiral-at-metal ruthenium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Zheng; Yao, Su-Yang; Wu, Jin-Ji; Ye, Bao-Hui

    2014-05-30

    The reaction of Δ/Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2](2+) with a prochiral sulfide ligand, and then in situ oxidation, provide the corresponding Δ-[Ru(bpy)2{(R)-OSO-iPr}](+) and Λ-[Ru(bpy)2{(S)-OSO-iPr}](+) (OSO-iPr = 2-isopropylsulfonylbenzonate) enantiomers in a yield of 83% with 98% ee. The chiral sulfoxides were obtained by treatment of the sulfoxide complexes with TFA in a yield of 90% with 88-91% ee.

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective C-H Olefination of Diaryl Sulfoxides through Parallel Kinetic Resolution and Desymmetrization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Chao; Li, Yan; Zhang, Bo-Chao; Zhang, Feng-Xu; Yang, Yi-Nuo; Wang, Xi-Sheng

    2018-03-07

    The first example of Pd II -catalyzed enantioselective C-H olefination with non-chiral or racemic sulfoxides as directing groups was developed. A variety of chiral diaryl sulfoxides were synthesized with high enantioselectivity (up to 99 %) through both desymmetrization and parallel kinetic resolution (PKR). This is the first report of Pd II -catalyzed enantioselective C(sp 2 )-H functionalization through PKR, and it represents a novel strategy to construct sulfur chiral centers. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. CCDC 974613: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[bis(mu-5,5',5''-(1,3,4,6,7,9,9b-heptaazaphenalene-2,5,8-triyltriimino)triisophthalato)-tris(dimethyl sulfoxide)-triaqua-hexa-copper dimethyl sulfoxide solvate hydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  5. CCDC 1036601: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : bis(dimethyl sulfoxide)-(1,3,6,8,11,13,16,18-octaazapentacyclo[16.2.1.13,6.18,11.113,16]tetracosa-4,9,14,19-tetraene-21,22,23,24-tetraylidene)-iron bis(hexafluorophosphate) dimethyl sulfoxide solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Anneser, Markus R.; Haslinger, Stefan; Pö thig, Alexander; Cokoja, Mirza; Basset, Jean-Marie; Kü hn, Fritz E.

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  6. CCDC 974613: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[bis(mu-5,5',5''-(1,3,4,6,7,9,9b-heptaazaphenalene-2,5,8-triyltriimino)triisophthalato)-tris(dimethyl sulfoxide)-triaqua-hexa-copper dimethyl sulfoxide solvate hydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Weseliński, Łukasz J.; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Chen, Zhijie; Wojtas, Łukasz; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from

  7. The role of molecular conformation and polarizable embedding for one- and two-photon absorption of disperse orange 3 in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daniel L; Murugan, N Arul; Kongsted, Jacob; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Canuto, Sylvio; Ågren, Hans

    2012-07-19

    Solvent effects on the one- and two-photon absorption (1PA and 2PA) of disperse orange 3 (DO3) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are studied using a discrete polarizable embedding (PE) response theory. The scheme comprises a quantum region containing the chromophore and an atomically granulated classical region for the solvent accounting for full interactions within and between the two regions. Either classical molecular dynamics (MD) or hybrid Car-Parrinello (CP) quantum/classical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulations are employed to describe the solvation of DO3 in DMSO, allowing for an analysis of the effect of the intermolecular short-range repulsion, long-range attraction, and electrostatic interactions on the conformational changes of the chromophore and also the effect of the solute-solvent polarization. PE linear response calculations are performed to verify the character, solvatochromic shift, and overlap of the two lowest energy transitions responsible for the linear absorption spectrum of DO3 in DMSO in the visible spectral region. Results of the PE linear and quadratic response calculations, performed using uncorrelated solute-solvent configurations sampled from either the classical or hybrid CP QM/MM MD simulations, are used to estimate the width of the line shape function of the two electronic lowest energy excited states, which allow a prediction of the 2PA cross-sections without the use of empirical parameters. Appropriate exchange-correlation functionals have been employed in order to describe the charge-transfer process following the electronic transitions of the chromophore in solution.

  8. Synthesis of dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine-{sup 14}C-2,4 (dimethyl-1-1 biguanide) hydrochloride; Synthese du chlorhydrate de dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine {sup 14}C-2,4 (dimethyl-1-1 biguanide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, M; Pichat, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    A description of the synthesis of dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine-{sup 14}C-2,4 hydrochloride passing through the {sup 14}C{sub 2} dicyandiamide. The overall yield with respect to Ba{sup 14}CO{sub 3} is 38 per cent. (author) [French] Description de la synthese du chlorhydrate de dimethyl-1,1 guanylguanidine {sup 14}C-2,4 par l'intermediaire de la dicyandiamide {sup 14}C{sub 2}. Le rendement global par rapport a {sup 14}CO{sub 3}Ba est de 38 pour cent. (auteur)

  9. Stable isotope dimethyl labelling for quantitative proteomics and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jue-Liang; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Stable-isotope reductive dimethylation, a cost-effective, simple, robust, reliable and easy-to- multiplex labelling method, is widely applied to quantitative proteomics using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This review focuses on biological applications of stable-isotope dimethyl labelling for a large-scale comparative analysis of protein expression and post-translational modifications based on its unique properties of the labelling chemistry. Some other applications of the labelling method for sample preparation and mass spectrometry-based protein identification and characterization are also summarized. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644970

  10. The Lubrication Qualities of Dimethyl Ether (DME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Sorenson, Spencer C; Jakobsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    by mixing the DME with reasonable amounts of additives. The main conclusion drawn from these measurements is that a combination of lubricity and viscosity comparable to one of diesel oil cannot be reached in the case of DME unless a huge amount of additive is used. This is not an attractive solution...

  11. Contrasting intermolecular and intramolecular exciplex formation of a 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Mitsutaka; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Hisaji; Tamaki, Akihiro; Takeda, Motonori; Mizuno, Kazuhiko

    2010-05-07

    An intramolecular exciplex is formed upon excitation of the cyclohexane solution of the 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad, but little if any intramolecular CT complex exists in the ground state of this substance in solution. In contrast, in the crystalline state, the dyad forms an intermolecular mixed-stack CT complex in the ground state and an intermolecular exciplex when it is photoexcited.

  12. 40 CFR 721.6167 - Piperdinium, 1,1-dimethyl-, chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Piperdinium, 1,1-dimethyl-, chloride... Substances § 721.6167 Piperdinium, 1,1-dimethyl-, chloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as piperdinium, 1,1-dimethyl-, chloride. (PMN...

  13. The OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of divinyl sulfoxide: A theoretical investigation on the reaction mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weichao; Zhang, Dongju

    2012-08-01

    The potential energy surfaces for the OH + divinyl sulfoxide reaction in the presence of O2/NO are theoretically characterized at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d,p)//BH&HLYP/6-311++G(d,p)+ZPE level of theory. Various possible pathways including the direct hydrogen abstraction channels and the addition-elimination channels are considered. The calculations show that the exclusive feasible entrance channel is the formation of adduct CH2(OH)CHS(O)CHdbnd CH2 (IM1) in the initial reaction pathways. In the atmosphere, the newly formed adduct IM1 can further react with O2/NO to form the dominant products HCHO + C(O)HS(O)CHdbnd CH2 (P9). The calculated results confirm the experimental studies.

  14. Complexes between lanthanide (III) and yttrium (III) picrates and tetra methylene sulfoxide as ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.A.A. da.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of addition compounds between lanthanide (III) and yttrium (III) picrates and tetra methylene sulfoxide as ligand were described. The adducts were prepared in the molar relation 1 (salt): 3(ligand) in ethanol. They are microcrystalline with more intense color than those of their respective hydrated salts. At room temperature conditions they are non hygroscopic and do not present perceptible alterations. They became slightly opalescent, when heated between 363 and 423 K. At higher temperatures under several heating ratios, the behavior shown is the same: melting between 439 and 472 K. The characterization of the compounds was made by elemental analysis, electrolytic conductance measurements, X-ray powder patterns, infrared spectroscopy, visible electronic absorption and emission spectra of the neodymium (III) and europium (III), respectively. (author). 116 refs., 17 tabs., 11 figs

  15. Dimethyl ether in diesel engines - progress and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C

    2001-01-01

    A review of recent developments related to the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in engines is presented Research work discussed is in the areas of engine performance and emissions, fuel injection systems, spray and ignition delay, and detailed chemical kinetic modeling. DME's properties and safety asp...

  16. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide. The developed catalyst activates carbon dioxide and delivers over 16% yield of DMC without the use of any dehydrating agent or requirement for azeotropic distillation. Prepared for submission to Nature Scientific reports.

  17. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A deficiency exacerbates acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose induces acute liver injury via enhanced oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) acts as a reactive oxygen species scavenger by catalyzing the cyclic reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide. Herein, we investigated the protective role of MsrA against APAP-induced liver damage using MsrA gene-deleted mice (MsrA −/− ). We found that MsrA −/− mice were more susceptible to APAP-induced acute liver injury than wild-type mice (MsrA +/+ ). The central lobule area of the MsrA −/− liver was more impaired with necrotic lesions. Serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in MsrA −/− than in MsrA +/+ mice after APAP challenge. Deletion of MsrA enhanced APAP-induced hepatic GSH depletion and oxidative stress, leading to increased susceptibility to APAP-induced liver injury in MsrA-deficient mice. APAP challenge increased Nrf2 activation more profoundly in MsrA −/− than in MsrA +/+ livers. Expression and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and its target gene expression were significantly elevated in MsrA −/− than in MsrA +/+ livers after APAP challenge. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MsrA protects the liver from APAP-induced toxicity. The data provided herein constitute the first in vivo evidence of the involvement of MsrA in hepatic function under APAP challenge. - Highlights: • MsrA deficiency increases APAP-induced liver damage. • MsrA deletion enhances APAP-induced hepatic GSH depletion and oxidative stress. • MsrA deficiency induces more profound activation of Nrf2 in response to APAP. • MsrA protects the liver from APAP-induced toxicity.

  18. Effects of dimethyl fumarate on neuroprotection and immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Philipp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal degeneration in multiple sclerosis has been linked to oxidative stress. Dimethyl fumarate is a promising novel oral therapeutic option shown to reduce disease activity and progression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. These effects are presumed to originate from a combination of immunomodulatory and neuroprotective mechanisms. We aimed to clarify whether neuroprotective concentrations of dimethyl fumarate have immunomodulatory effects. Findings We determined time- and concentration-dependent effects of dimethyl fumarate and its metabolite monomethyl fumarate on viability in a model of endogenous neuronal oxidative stress and clarified the mechanism of action by quantitating cellular glutathione content and recycling, nuclear translocation of transcription factors, and the expression of antioxidant genes. We compared this with changes in the cytokine profiles released by stimulated splenocytes measured by ELISPOT technology and analyzed the interactions between neuronal and immune cells and neuronal function and viability in cell death assays and multi-electrode arrays. Our observations show that dimethyl fumarate causes short-lived oxidative stress, which leads to increased levels and nuclear localization of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and a subsequent increase in glutathione synthesis and recycling in neuronal cells. Concentrations that were cytoprotective in neuronal cells had no negative effects on viability of splenocytes but suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines in cultures from C57BL/6 and SJL mice and had no effects on neuronal activity in multi-electrode arrays. Conclusions These results suggest that immunomodulatory concentrations of dimethyl fumarate can reduce oxidative stress without altering neuronal network activity.

  19. Scolicidal and apoptotic activities of albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfoxide-loaded PLGA-PEG as a novel nanopolymeric particle against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Marziyeh; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Spotin, Adel; Akbari, Nagibeh Asl Rahnemaii; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Ahmadpour, Ehsan

    2016-12-01

    Treatment failures of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) with albendazole (ABZ) have attributed to its low solubility and poor drug absorption rate, resulting in low drug level in plasma. The scolicidal effects of ABZ-loaded liposome nanoparticles have recently evaluated; however, these particles have several challenges due to their low encapsulated load. This investigation was designed to evaluate and compare in vitro apoptotic activities of ABZ sulfoxide (ABZs) and ABZs-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-PEG against protoscoleces (PSCs). ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG was prepared by a double-emulsion method (W1/O/W2). Various concentrations of ABZs and ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG (50, 100, 150, and 200 μg/ml) were experimentally tested against PSC of CE at different exposure times (5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min). ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG at concentrations of 150 and 200 μg/ml was able to act at a 100 % scolicidal rate in all exposure times (5 to 60 min), while ABZs at a concentration of 200 μg/ml demonstrated 94, 100, and 100 % mortality rates following 20, 30, and 60 min of exposure times, respectively. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of caspase-3 was assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR after 15 h of exposure. Caspase-3 mRNA expression was higher in both PSC treated with ABZs and PSC treated with ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG than that in control groups (P  0.05). DNA fragmentation assay and ultrastructural changes revealed that ABZs and ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG induced the apoptosis of PSC by activation of caspase-3. The higher permeability and scolicidal rate of ABZs-loaded PLGA-PEG can be addressed as an effectual alternative strategy to improve the treatment of human CE.

  20. Synthesis and structure of Bis(3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolyl-1) ketoxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol, V.I.; Davydov, V.V.; Shklyaev, Yu.V.; Kartashova, I.V.; Sergienko, V.S.; Zaitsev, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    The reaction of bis(3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolyl-1)methane with NaNO 2 resulted in the formation of bis(3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolyl-1) ketoxime (I). The crystal and molecular structure of I was determined (x-ray structure analysis, Enraf-Nonius CAD-4, MoK α -radiation, graphite monochromator, θ/2θ scan, 2θ max =58 deg. , 4800 unique reflections; a=10.327(4), b=9.070(5), and c=21.62(1) A; β=94.02(3) deg.; V=2020(1) A 3 ; Z=4; and sp. gr. Pn). In the crystal, I exists in the oxime tautomeric form. Two symmetry-independent molecules are bound into a dimer through the intermolecular N=OH···N cycl 3 hydrogen bond. Both molecules are nonplanar; the dihedral angles between the mean planes of their 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline moieties are 72 deg. and 74 deg. According to IR and electron absorption spectra, the tautomeric form of compound I is also retained in solutions, and the π-conjugation between the 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline fragments of I is actually absent

  1. Steady-state and laser flash photolysis of 1 - benzocyclanones and their α, α - dimethyl derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto-Ferreira, Jose Carlos; Scaiano, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Laser excitation of 0.01 M solutions of 1-indanone (Ia), 1-tetralone )ib), 1-benzo suberone (lc), and their α, α-dimethyl derivatives IIa-c, respectively, in benzene, produced transients with maximum adsorption at 425 nm, and lifetimes ranging from 62 ns (IIIa) to 5.5μs (Ic). Quenching studies using well known triplet quenchers such as 1,3-cyclohexadiene and oxygen demonstrated the triplet nature of these transients. In the presence of hydrogen donors, such as 2-propanol, the triplet state decay of the ketones Ia-c leads to the formation of the corresponding ketyl radicals, IIIa-c, which show absorption spectra very similar to the parent ketone, with λ max at 430 nm and lifetime in excess of 20 μs. Steady state irradiations show that the α, α,-dimethyl ketones IIa form ortho-alkyl benzaldehydes probably derived from an initial α-cleavage of the corresponding triplet excited states. The characterization of products has been carried out using 1 H NMR. (author)

  2. ⁹⁹mTc pyrene derivative complex causes double-strand breaks in dsDNA mainly through cluster-mediated indirect effect in aqueous solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ju Chung

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy for cancer patients works by ionizing damage to nuclear DNA, primarily by creating double-strand breaks (DSB. A major shortcoming of traditional radiation therapy is the set of side effect associated with its long-range interaction with nearby tissues. Low-energy Auger electrons have the advantage of an extremely short effective range, minimizing damage to healthy tissue. Consequently, the isotope ⁹⁹mTc, an Auger electron source, is currently being studied for its beneficial potential in cancer treatment. We examined the dose effect of a pyrene derivative ⁹⁹mTc complex on plasmid DNA by using gel electrophoresis in both aqueous and methanol solutions. In aqueous solutions, the average yield per decay for double-strand breaks is 0.011±0.005 at low dose range, decreasing to 0.0005±0.0003 in the presence of 1 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The apparent yield per decay for single-strand breaks (SSB is 0.04±0.02, decreasing to approximately a fifth with 1 M DMSO. In methanol, the average yield per decay of DSB is 0.54±0.06 and drops to undetectable levels in 2 M DMSO. The SSB yield per decay is 7.2±0.2, changing to 0.4±0.2 in the presence of 2 M DMSO. The 95% decrease in the yield of DSB in DMSO indicates that the main mechanism for DSB formation is through indirect effect, possibly by cooperative binding or clustering of intercalators. In the presence of non-radioactive ligands at a near saturation concentration, where radioactive Tc compounds do not form large clusters, the yield of SSB stays the same while the yield of DSB decreases to the value in DMSO. DSBs generated by ⁹⁹mTc conjugated to intercalators are primarily caused by indirect effects through clustering.

  3. ⁹⁹mTc pyrene derivative complex causes double-strand breaks in dsDNA mainly through cluster-mediated indirect effect in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Ju; Cui, Yujia; Huang, Feng-Yun J; Tu, Tzu-Hui; Yang, Tzu-Sen; Lo, Jem-Mau; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Hsu, Ian C

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy for cancer patients works by ionizing damage to nuclear DNA, primarily by creating double-strand breaks (DSB). A major shortcoming of traditional radiation therapy is the set of side effect associated with its long-range interaction with nearby tissues. Low-energy Auger electrons have the advantage of an extremely short effective range, minimizing damage to healthy tissue. Consequently, the isotope ⁹⁹mTc, an Auger electron source, is currently being studied for its beneficial potential in cancer treatment. We examined the dose effect of a pyrene derivative ⁹⁹mTc complex on plasmid DNA by using gel electrophoresis in both aqueous and methanol solutions. In aqueous solutions, the average yield per decay for double-strand breaks is 0.011±0.005 at low dose range, decreasing to 0.0005±0.0003 in the presence of 1 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The apparent yield per decay for single-strand breaks (SSB) is 0.04±0.02, decreasing to approximately a fifth with 1 M DMSO. In methanol, the average yield per decay of DSB is 0.54±0.06 and drops to undetectable levels in 2 M DMSO. The SSB yield per decay is 7.2±0.2, changing to 0.4±0.2 in the presence of 2 M DMSO. The 95% decrease in the yield of DSB in DMSO indicates that the main mechanism for DSB formation is through indirect effect, possibly by cooperative binding or clustering of intercalators. In the presence of non-radioactive ligands at a near saturation concentration, where radioactive Tc compounds do not form large clusters, the yield of SSB stays the same while the yield of DSB decreases to the value in DMSO. DSBs generated by ⁹⁹mTc conjugated to intercalators are primarily caused by indirect effects through clustering.

  4. In vitro susceptibilities of the AIDS-associated microsporidian Encephalitozoon intestinalis to albendazole, its sulfoxide metabolite, and 12 additional benzimidazole derivatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Katiyar, S K; Edlind, T D

    1997-01-01

    Recent reports have described the successful treatment of Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in AIDS patients with albendazole. However, this compound is rapidly metabolized in vivo to albendazole sulfoxide, and furthermore it is only 1 of about 15 commercially developed benzimidazole derivatives. To compare the activities of albendazole, albendazole sulfoxide, and other benzimidazoles, an in vitro system involving infection of green monkey kidney cell (E6) monolayers with E. intestinalis...

  5. Influence of Cryopreservation Solution on the In Vitro Culture of Skin Tissues Derived from Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alana A; Lira, Gabriela P O; Nascimento, Lucas E; Queiroz Neta, Luiza B; Santos, Maria V O; Oliveira, Moacir F; Silva, Alexandre R; Pereira, Alexsandra F

    2018-04-01

    Skin vitrification is a promising and alternative tool for the conservation of biodiversity, especially for wild mammals, such as collared peccaries. Several factors can affect the success of this procedure, such as the cryoprotectant solution used. Therefore, this study was carried out to compare the efficiency of various vitrification solutions for recovery of viable cells after in vitro culture of cryopreserved skin tissues derived from the collared peccary, aiming to study the application in biobanking, where cellular use is not immediately required. Then, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) composed of 2.2 g/L sodium bicarbonate and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) was supplemented with 3.0 M ethylene glycol (EG) or 3.0 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or 1.5 M EG plus 1.5 M DMSO with or without sucrose (SUC; 0.25 M) to produce six solutions for solid-surface vitrification. After warming, skin tissues were cultured in vitro and recovered cells were analyzed for morphology, adhesion, subconfluence, and proliferative activity for developing the growth curve and determining the population doubling time (PDT), and viability by Trypan Blue. The vitrification did not alter the ability of the tissues to adhere to the culture dish, as well as the day of all explants with cell growth, subconfluence samples, subconfluence total time, and PDT (p > 0.05). Moreover, independent of the cryoprotectant solution used, the vitrification altered the day of all attached explants (p  0.05). Additionally, for viability after the third passage, only the EG-SUC group maintained the cell quality (88.3%), when compared with the nonvitrified (97.8%, p > 0.05). In conclusion, DMEM with 10% FBS, 3.0 M EG, and 0.25 M sucrose was the most efficient solution for vitrifying collared peccary skin tissues, leading to the in vitro culture of viable cells.

  6. Simultaneous densitometric determination of anthelmintic drug albendazole and its metabolite albendazole sulfoxide by HPTLC in human plasma and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Jui J; Sanyal, Mallika; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2017-09-01

    A new, simple, accurate and precise high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of an anthelmintic drug, albendazole, and its active metabolite albendazole, sulfoxide. Planar chromatographic separation was performed on aluminum-backed layer of silica gel 60G F 254 using a mixture of toluene-acetonitrile-glacial acetic acid (7.0:2.9:0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. For quantitation, the separated spots were scanned densitometrically at 225 nm. The retention factors (R f ) obtained under the established conditions were 0.76 ± 0.01 and 0.50 ± 0.01 and the regression plots were linear (r 2  ≥ 0.9997) in the concentration ranges 50-350 and 100-700 ng/band for albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, specificity, accuracy (recovery) and precision, repeatability, stability and robustness. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation found were 9.84 and 29.81 ng/band for albendazole and 21.60 and 65.45 ng/band for albendazole sulfoxide, respectively. For plasma samples, solid-phase extraction of analytes yielded mean extraction recoveries of 87.59 and 87.13% for albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of albendazole in pharmaceutical formulations with accuracy ≥99.32%. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Fragrance material review on 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,2-Dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,2-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Methionine sulfoxide profiling of milk proteins to assess the influence of lipids on protein oxidation in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-06-15

    Thermal treatment of milk and milk products leads to protein oxidation, mainly the formation of methionine sulfoxide. Reactive oxygen species, responsible for the oxidation, can be generated by Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars, or lipid peroxidation. The present study investigated the influence of milk fat on methionine oxidation in milk. For this purpose, quantitative methionine sulfoxide profiling of all ten methionine residues of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and αs1-casein was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS-sMRM). Analysis of defatted and regular raw milk samples after heating for up to 8 min at 120 °C and analysis of ultrahigh-temperature milk samples with 0.1%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat revealed that methionine oxidation of the five residues of the whey proteins and of residues M 123, M 135, and M 196 of αs1-casein was not affected or even suppressed in the presence of milk fat. Only the oxidation of residues M 54 and M 60 of αs1-casein was promoted by lipids. In evaporated milk samples, formation of methionine sulfoxide was hardly influenced by the fat content of the samples. Thus, it can be concluded that lipid oxidation products are not the major cause of methionine oxidation in milk.

  9. Studies of a Novel Cysteine Sulfoxide Lyase from Petiveria alliacea: The First Heteromeric Alliinase1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Rabi A.; He, Quan; Kubec, Roman; Jadhav, Abhijit

    2009-01-01

    A novel alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) was detected and purified from the roots of the Amazonian medicinal plant Petiveria alliacea. The isolated enzyme is a heteropentameric glycoprotein composed of two α-subunits (68.1 kD each), one β-subunit (56.0 kD), one γ-subunit (24.8 kD), and one δ-subunit (13.9 kD). The two α-subunits are connected by a disulfide bridge, and both α- and β-subunits are glycosylated. The enzyme has an isoelectric point of 4.78 and pH and temperature optima of 8.0 and approximately 52°C, respectively. Its activation energy with its natural substrate S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide is 64.6 kJ mol−1. Kinetic studies showed that both Km and Vmax vary as a function of substrate structure, with the most preferred substrates being the naturally occurring P. alliacea compounds S-benzyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide and S-2-hydroxyethyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide. The alliinase reacts with these substrates to produce S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinate and S-(2-hydroxyethyl) 2-hydroxyethanethiosulfinate, respectively. PMID:19789290

  10. Protection against UVB-induced oxidative stress in human skin cells and skin models by methionine sulfoxide reductase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelle, Edward; Maes, Daniel; Huang, Xi; Frenkel, Krystyna; Pernodet, Nadine; Yarosh, Daniel B; Zhang, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Environmental trauma to human skin can lead to oxidative damage of proteins and affect their activity and structure. When methionine becomes oxidized to its sulfoxide form, methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) reduces it back to methionine. We report here the increase in MSRA in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) after ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, as well as the reduction in hydrogen peroxide levels in NHEK pre-treated with MSRA after exposure. Further, when NHEK were pre-treated with a non-cytotoxic pentapeptide containing methionine sulfoxide (metSO), MSRA expression increased by 18.2%. Additionally, when the media of skin models were supplemented with the metSO pentapeptide and then exposed to UVB, a 31.1% reduction in sunburn cells was evident. We conclude that the presence of MSRA or an externally applied peptide reduces oxidative damage in NHEK and skin models and that MSRA contributes to the protection of proteins against UVB-induced damage in skin.

  11. Extraction of Dy(III and Sm(III with N,N’-dimethyl-N,N’-dioctylsuccinamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG ZHENWEI

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was focused on the applicability of a new diamide N,N’-dimethyl- N,N’-dioctylsuccinamide (DMDOSA employing cyclohexane as the diluent to extract Dy(III and Sm(III from nitric acid solutions. The extraction from HNO3 was investigated by distributionmeasurements. The stoichiometry of the predominant adducts of DMDOSA with HNO3 is 1:1 (HNO3 .DMDOSA under the studied conditions. The effect of the concentrations of nitric acid, lithium nitrate and extractant on the distribution ratio was investigated. An IR spectral study was also made of the extracted species.

  12. Alkanediyl-α, ω-bis (dimethyl cetylammonium bromide gemini surfactants as novel corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in formic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mobin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gemini surfactants, butanediyl 1,4-bis(dimethyl cetylammonium bromide, pentanediyl 1,5 - bis (dimethyl cetylammonium bromide and hexanediyl 1,6 - bis (dimethyl cetylammonium bromide from Alkanediyl-α, ω-bis (dimethyl cetylammonium bromide series were synthesized in laboratory and were characterized by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. The surfactants were tested as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 20% formic acid. The influence of surfactants on mild steel corrosion inhibition was investigated by measuring the corrosion rate of mild steel in their absence and presence by weight loss measurements, solvent analysis of iron ions into the test solution and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The surface morphology of the corroded steel samples in presence and absence of surfactants was evaluated by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The synthesized gemini surfactants performed as excellent corrosion inhibitor, the inhibition efficiency (IE being in the range of 76.66-97.41%. The IE of surfactants is slightly affected by the spacer length. The IE increased with increase in surfactant concentration and temperature. The adsorption of gemini surfactants on the steel surface was found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The results of the potentiodynamic polarization studies are consistent with the results of weight loss studies.

  13. Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA): direct electrochemical oxidation on carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, T A; Oliveira-Brett, A M

    2013-02-01

    The direct electrochemical behaviour of peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) adsorbed on glassy carbon and boron doped diamond electrodes surface, was studied over a wide pH range by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. MsrA oxidation mechanism occurs in three consecutive, pH dependent steps, corresponding to the oxidation of tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine amino acid residues. At the glassy carbon electrode, the first step corresponds to the oxidation of tyrosine and tryptophan residues and occurs for the same potential. The advantage of boron doped diamond electrode was to enable the separation of tyrosine and tryptophan oxidation peaks. On the second step occurs the histidine oxidation, and on the third, at higher potentials, the second tryptophan oxidation. MsrA adsorbs on the hydrophobic carbon electrode surface preferentially through the three hydrophobic domains, C1, C2 and C3, which contain the tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine residues, and tryptophan exists only in these regions, and undergo electrochemical oxidation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation of Expression of Oxacillin-Inducible Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Baum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell wall-active antibiotics cause induction of a locus that leads to elevated synthesis of two methionine sulfoxide reductases (MsrA1 and MsrB in Staphylococcus aureus. To understand the regulation of this locus, reporter strains were constructed by integrating a DNA fragment consisting of the msrA1/msrB promoter in front of a promoterless lacZ gene in the chromosome of wild-type and MsrA1-, MsrB-, MsrA1/MsrB-, and SigB-deficient methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strain SH1000 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain COL. These reporter strains were cultured in TSB and the cellular levels of β-galactosidase activity in these cultures were assayed during different growth phases. β-galactosidase activity assays demonstrated that the lack of MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB upregulated the msrA1/msrB promoter in S. aureus strain SH1000. In S. aureus strain COL, the highest level of β-galactosidase activity was observed under the conditions when both MsrA1 and MsrB proteins were absent. The data suggest that the msrA1/msrB locus, in part, is negatively regulated by MsrA1, MsrB, and SigB in S. aureus.

  15. Enantioseparation of novel chiral sulfoxides on chlorinated polysaccharide stationary phases in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Caroline; Konjaria, Mari-Luiza; Shashviashvili, Natia; Lemasson, Elise; Bonnet, Pascal; Kakava, Rusudan; Volonterio, Alessandro; Chankvetadze, Bezhan

    2017-05-26

    Asymmetric sulfoxides is a particular case of chirality that may be found in natural as well as synthetic products. Twenty-four original molecules containing a sulfur atom as a centre of chirality were analyzed in supercritical fluid chromatography on seven polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases (CSP) with carbon dioxide - methanol mobile phases. While all the tested CSP provided enantioseparation for a large part of the racemates, chlorinated cellulosic phases proved to be both highly retentive and highly enantioselective towards these species. Favourable structural features were determined by careful comparison of the enantioseparation of the probe molecules. Molecular modelling studies indicate that U-shaped (folded) conformations were most favorable to achieve high enantioresolution on these CSP, while linear (extended) conformations were not so clearly discriminated. For a subset of these species adopting different conformations, a broad range of mobile phase compositions, ranging from 20 to 100% methanol in carbon dioxide, were investigated. While retention decreased continuously in this range, enantioseparation varied in a non-monotonous fashion. Abrupt changes in the tendency curves of retention and selectivity were observed when methanol proportion reaches about 60%, suggesting that a change in the conformation of the analytes and/or chiral selector is occurring at this point. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation, characterization and thermal behaviour study of 4-dimethyl amino benzal pyruvate of lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Solid state compounds involving Ln and DMBP, where Ln trivalent lanthanides (except promethium) and yttrium; DMBP 4-dimethyl amino benzylidene pyruvate, were prepared by addition of ligand to the corresponding metal ions chlorides, both in aqueous solution. The precipitates were washed with distilled water and dried at 40 0 C in a forced circulation oven. Complexometry with EDTA, thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), infra-red absorption and X-ray diffraction have been used in the study of these compounds. (author)

  17. Temporal variations in dimethylsulphoniopropionate and dimethyl sulphide in the Zuari estuary, Goa (India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoy, D.M.; Patil, J.S.

    . F., & Wakeham, S. G. (1998). Temporal variability of dimethyl sulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate in the Sargasso Sea. DeepSeaRes.PartI, 45, 2085– 2104. DeSouza, M. P., & Yoch, D. C. (1996). Differential metabolism of dimethyl...) measurements and a procedure to predict sea surface DMS as a function of latitude, longitude, and month.GlobalBiogeochemicalCycles,13, 399–444. Kiene, R. P. (1990). Dimethyl sulfide production from dimethyl-sulfoniopropionate in coastal seawater samples...

  18. 77 FR 50613 - Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Carbonate and Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bicarbonate; Exemption From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ...) and the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) using modified Food and Drug Administration (FDA) methodologies for utensils and the Indirect Dietary Residential Exposure Model (IDREAM) for countertops. The EDI... for DDACB for bottling/packing of food is 0.0033 lbs a.i. per gallon of treatment solution. EDI values...

  19. Dimethyl ether production from methanol and/or syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagle, Robert A; Wang, Yong; Baker, Eddie G; Hu, Jianli

    2015-02-17

    Disclosed are methods for producing dimethyl ether (DME) from methanol and for producing DME directly from syngas, such as syngas from biomass. Also disclosed are apparatus for DME production. The disclosed processes generally function at higher temperatures with lower contact times and at lower pressures than conventional processes so as to produce higher DME yields than do conventional processes. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in reactors providing greater surface to volume ratios than the presently used DME reactors. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in systems comprising multiple microchannel reactors.

  20. Performance of long straw tubes using dimethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Guaraldo, C.; Lanaro, A.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Sarwar, S.

    1995-01-01

    A cylindrical tracking detector with an inner radius of one meter employing straw tubes is being envisaged for the FINUDA experiment aimed at hyper-nuclear physics at DAΦNE, the Frascati φ-factory. A prototype using several 10 mm and 20 mm diameter, two meter long aluminized mylar straws has been assembled and tested with a one GeV/c pion beam. While operating with dimethyl ether, gas gain, space resolution, and device systematics have been studied. A simple method of correction for systematics due to straw eccentricity has been developed and, once applied, a space resolution better than 40 μm can be reached. (orig.)

  1. Dimethyl (E-2-(N-phenylacetamidobut-2-enedioate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Bin Wen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H15NO5, was obtained from the reaction of acetanilide with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate in the presence of potassium carbonate. The C=C double bond adopts an E configuration and the geometry around the amide N atom is almost planar rather than pyramidal (mean deviation of 0.0032 Å from the C3N plane. The packing of the molecules in the crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  2. (2E-3-(3,5-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl-1-(2,5-dimethyl-3-thienylprop-2-en-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman A. Khan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (2E-3-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl-1-(2,5-dimethyl-3-thienylprop-2-en-1-one (3 was synthesized in high yield by aldol condensation of 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene and 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazole-4-carboxaldehyde in ethanolic NaOH at room temperature. Its structure was fully characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  3. Controllable Synthesis of Lindqvist Alkoxopolyoxovanadate Clusters as Heterogeneous Catalysts for Sulfoxidation of Sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Kun; Dong, Jing; Wei, Chuan-Ping; Yang, Song; Chi, Ying-Nan; Xu, Yan-Qing; Hu, Chang-Wen

    2017-05-15

    Six alkoxohexavanadate-based Cu- or Co-POVs [Cu(dpa)(acac)(H 2 O)] 2 [V 6 O 13 (OMe) 6 ] (1), [Cu(phen)(acac)(MeOH)] 2 [V 6 O 13 (OMe) 6 ] (2), [Co(dpa)(acac) 2 ] 2 [V 6 O 13 (OMe) 6 ]·2MeOH (3), [Co(phen)(acac) 2 ] 2 [V 6 O 13 (OMe) 6 ] (4), [Cu(dpa)(acac)] 2 [V IV 2 V V 4 O 12 (OMe) 7 ] (5), and [Cu(dpa)(acac)(MeOH)] 2 [V IV 2 V V 4 O 11 (OMe) 8 ] (6) (POV = polyoxovanadate; dpa = 2,2'-dipyridine amine; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; acac = acetylacetone anion) have been synthesized by controlling the reaction conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, element analyses, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In compounds 1-4 and 6, Cu or Co complexes and alkoxohexavanadate anions are assembled through electrostatic interactions. Differently, in compound 5, seven-methoxo-substituted Lindqvist-type [V 6 O 12 (OMe) 7 ] 2- are bridged to Cu complex via terminal O atoms by coordination bonds. All compounds 1-6 exhibit excellent heterogeneous catalytic performance in oxidative desulfurization and CEES ((2-chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a sulfur mustard simulant) abatement with H 2 O 2 as oxidant. Among them, the catalytic activity of 6 [conv. of DBT (dibenzothiophene) up to 100% in 6 h; conv. of CEES reached 100% and selectivity of CEESO ((2-chloroethyl) ethyl sulfoxide) up to 85% after 4 h] outperforms others and can be reused without losing its activity.

  4. Synergistic Roles of Helicobacter pylori Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase and GroEL in Repairing Oxidant-damaged Catalase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Manish; Tran, ViLinh; Sharp, Joshua S.; Maier, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced via the enzyme myeloperoxidase is a major antibacterial oxidant produced by neutrophils, and Met residues are considered primary amino acid targets of HOCl damage via conversion to Met sulfoxide. Met sulfoxide can be repaired back to Met by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme; we show it constitutes 4–5% of the total Helicobacter pylori protein levels. msr and katA strains were about 14- and 4-fold, respectively, more susceptible than the parent to killing by the neutrophil cell line HL-60 cells. Catalase activity of an msr strain was much more reduced by HOCl exposure than for the parental strain. Treatment of pure catalase with HOCl caused oxidation of specific MS-identified Met residues, as well as structural changes and activity loss depending on the oxidant dose. Treatment of catalase with HOCl at a level to limit structural perturbation (at a catalase/HOCl molar ratio of 1:60) resulted in oxidation of six identified Met residues. Msr repaired these residues in an in vitro reconstituted system, but no enzyme activity could be recovered. However, addition of GroEL to the Msr repair mixture significantly enhanced catalase activity recovery. Neutrophils produce large amounts of HOCl at inflammation sites, and bacterial catalase may be a prime target of the host inflammatory response; at high concentrations of HOCl (1:100), we observed loss of catalase secondary structure, oligomerization, and carbonylation. The same HOCl-sensitive Met residue oxidation targets in catalase were detected using chloramine-T as a milder oxidant. PMID:21460217

  5. Entropy Generation Minimization in Dimethyl Ether Synthesis: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Diego; Razzitte, Adrián César

    2018-04-01

    Entropy generation minimization is a method that helps improve the efficiency of real processes and devices. In this article, we study the entropy production (due to chemical reactions, heat exchange and friction) in a conventional reactor that synthesizes dimethyl ether and minimize it by modifying different operating variables of the reactor, such as composition, temperature and pressure, while aiming at a fixed production of dimethyl ether. Our results indicate that it is possible to reduce the entropy production rate by nearly 70 % and that, by changing only the inlet composition, it is possible to cut it by nearly 40 %, though this comes at the expense of greater dissipation due to heat transfer. We also study the alternative of coupling the reactor with another, where dehydrogenation of methylcyclohexane takes place. In that case, entropy generation can be reduced by 54 %, when pressure, temperature and inlet molar flows are varied. These examples show that entropy generation analysis can be a valuable tool in engineering design and applications aiming at process intensification and efficient operation of plant equipment.

  6. Two Approaches to the Synthesis of Dimethyl Fumarate That Demonstrate Fundamental Principles of Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Brian E.; Bennett, Lisa J.

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments are described which lead to the preparation of dimethyl fumarate, a compound currently used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Preparation of a compound with "real-world" applications is believed to increase student interest in the experiment. One experiment involves the isomerization of dimethyl maleate to the…

  7. Efficient and Simple Synthesis of 6-Aryl-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Rault

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic method for the preparation of 6-aryl-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles involving a palladium catalyzed coupling reaction of 1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazole-6-boronic acids and (heteroaryl halides is described.

  8. Direct dimethyl ether fueling of a high temperature polymer fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vassiliev, Anton; Olsen, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Direct dimethyl ether (DME) fuel cells suffer from poor DME–water miscibility and so far peak powers of only 20–40 mW cm−2 have been reported. Based on available literature on solubility of dimethyl ether (DME) in water at ambient pressure it was estimated that the maximum concentration of DME at...

  9. A novel preparation of methyl-β-cyclodextrin from dimethyl carbonate and β-cyclodextrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Yongjiang; Zhang, Yimin; Xiao, Chuanhao

    2011-01-01

    A novel green synthesis process about methyl-β-cyclodextrin has been investigated through the reaction between β-cyclodextrin and dimethyl carbonate by anhydrous potassium carbonate as catalyst in DMF. The influence of experimental factors including the molar ratio of dimethyl carbonate to β-cycl...

  10. Relevant Features of a Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether-Based Electrolyte for Application in Lithium Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Lorenzo; Di Lecce, Daniele; Gobet, Mallory; Munoz, Stephen; Devany, Matthew; Greenbaum, Steve; Hassoun, Jusef

    2017-05-24

    Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TREGDME) dissolving lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) is studied as a suitable electrolyte medium for lithium battery. Thermal and rheological characteristics, transport properties of the dissolved species, and the electrochemical behavior in lithium cell represent the most relevant investigated properties of the new electrolyte. The self-diffusion coefficients, the lithium transference numbers, the ionic conductivity, and the ion association degree of the solution are determined by pulse field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The study sheds light on the determinant role of the lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) addition for allowing cell operation by improving the electrode/electrolyte interfaces and widening the voltage stability window. Accordingly, an electrochemical activation procedure of the Li/LiFePO 4 cell using the upgraded electrolyte leads to the formation of stable interfaces at the electrodes surface as clearly evidenced by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and ex situ scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, the lithium battery employing the TREGDME-LiCF 3 SO 3 -LiNO 3 solution shows a stable galvanostatic cycling, a high efficiency, and a notable rate capability upon the electrochemical conditions adopted herein.

  11. Metabolism of the fungicide Denmert (S-n-butyl S'-p-tert-butyl-benzyl N-3-pyridyldithiocarbonimidate, S-1358) and Denmert sulfoxides in liver enzyme systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Hideo; Okihara, Yukiko; Miyamoto, Junshi

    1976-01-01

    On incubation with rat liver microsomes plus MADPH, Denmert (S-n-butyl S'-p-tert-butylbenzyl N-3-pyridyldithiocarbonimidate) underwent at least two different types of oxidation; hydroxylation and sulfoxidation. Hydroxylation of Denmert at the tert-butyl group was one of the major metabolic attacks in mammalian metabolism. Sulfoxidation of Denmert gave two isomers of Denmert sulfoxides which were intermediates in the metabolism and readily transformed into 2-(3'-pyridylimino)-4-carboxylthiazolidine (HM) in the presence of L-cysteine without enzymatic mediation. This type of conjugation with cysteine appears to be a new class of metabolic reactions in mammals. Denmert S-oxide showed increased fungicidal activity when assayed in liquid cultures, but not on plant leaves. (auth.)

  12. Low-Temperature Oxidation of Dimethyl Ether to Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers over CNT-Supported Rhenium Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingde Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its excellent conductivity, good thermal stability and large specific surface area, carbon nano-tubes (CNTs were selected as support to prepare a Re-based catalyst for dimethyl ether (DME direct oxidation to polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (DMMx. The catalyst performance was tested in a continuous flow type fixed-bed reactor. H3PW12O40 (PW12 was used to modify Re/CNTs to improve its activity and selectivity. The effects of PW12 content, reaction temperature, gas hourly space velocity (GHSV and reaction time on DME oxidation to DMMx were investigated. The results showed that modification of CNT-supported Re with 30% PW12 significantly increased the selectivity of DMM and DMM2 up to 59.0% from 6.6% with a DME conversion of 8.9%; besides that, there was no COx production observed in the reaction under the optimum conditions of 513 K and 1800 h−1. The techniques of XRD, BET, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR, XPS, TEM and SEM were used to characterize the structure, surface properties and morphology of the catalysts. The optimum amount of weak acid sites and redox sites promotes the synthesis of DMM and DMM2 from DME direct oxidation.

  13. Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.A. Semelsberger

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

  14. Establishment of Dimethyl Labeling-based Quantitative Acetylproteomics in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichang; Yu, Fengchao; Yang, Zhu; Wang, Tingliang; Xiong, Hairong; Chang, Caren; Yu, Weichuan; Li, Ning

    2018-05-01

    Protein acetylation, one of many types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), is involved in a variety of biological and cellular processes. In the present study, we applied both C sCl d ensity g radient (CDG) centrifugation-based protein fractionation and a dimethyl-labeling-based 4C quantitative PTM proteomics workflow in the study of dynamic acetylproteomic changes in Arabidopsis. This workflow integrates the dimethyl c hemical labeling with c hromatography-based acetylpeptide separation and enrichment followed by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, the extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) quantitation-based c omputational analysis of mass spectrometry data to measure dynamic changes of acetylpeptide level using an in-house software program, named S table isotope-based Qua ntitation- D imethyl labeling (SQUA-D), and finally the c onfirmation of ethylene hormone-regulated acetylation using immunoblot analysis. Eventually, using this proteomic approach, 7456 unambiguous acetylation sites were found from 2638 different acetylproteins, and 5250 acetylation sites, including 5233 sites on lysine side chain and 17 sites on protein N termini, were identified repetitively. Out of these repetitively discovered acetylation sites, 4228 sites on lysine side chain ( i.e. 80.5%) are novel. These acetylproteins are exemplified by the histone superfamily, ribosomal and heat shock proteins, and proteins related to stress/stimulus responses and energy metabolism. The novel acetylproteins enriched by the CDG centrifugation fractionation contain many cellular trafficking proteins, membrane-bound receptors, and receptor-like kinases, which are mostly involved in brassinosteroid, light, gravity, and development signaling. In addition, we identified 12 highly conserved acetylation site motifs within histones, P-glycoproteins, actin depolymerizing factors, ATPases, transcription factors, and receptor-like kinases. Using SQUA-D software, we have quantified 33 ethylene hormone-enhanced and

  15. N-Boc Amines to Oxazolidinones via Pd(II)/Bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted Acid Co-Catalyzed Allylic C–H Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted acid catalyzed allylic C–H oxidation reaction for the synthesis of oxazolidinones from simple N-Boc amines is reported. A range of oxazolidinones are furnished in good yields (avg 63%) and excellent diastereoselectivities (avg 15:1) to furnish products regioisomeric from those previously obtained using allylic C–H amination reactions. Mechanistic studies suggest the role of the phosphoric acid is to furnish a Pd(II)bis-sulfoxide phosphate catalyst that promotes allylic C–H cleavage and π-allylPd functionalization with a weak, aprotic oxygen nucleophile and to assist in catalyst regeneration. PMID:24999765

  16. N-Boc amines to oxazolidinones via Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted acid co-catalyzed allylic C-H oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osberger, Thomas J; White, M Christina

    2014-08-06

    A Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted acid catalyzed allylic C-H oxidation reaction for the synthesis of oxazolidinones from simple N-Boc amines is reported. A range of oxazolidinones are furnished in good yields (avg 63%) and excellent diastereoselectivities (avg 15:1) to furnish products regioisomeric from those previously obtained using allylic C-H amination reactions. Mechanistic studies suggest the role of the phosphoric acid is to furnish a Pd(II)bis-sulfoxide phosphate catalyst that promotes allylic C-H cleavage and π-allylPd functionalization with a weak, aprotic oxygen nucleophile and to assist in catalyst regeneration.

  17. Syntheses and luminescence properties of two novel lanthanide (III) perchlorate complexes with phenacyl p-tolyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shu-Yan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Li, Wen-Xian, E-mail: nmglwx@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Zheng, Yu-Shan [Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Product Quality Inspection Institute, Hohhot 010070 (China); Xin, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Feng; Cao, Xiao-Fang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Two novel solid binary complexes of rare earth perchlorate with phenacyl p-tolyl sulfoxide were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, coordination titration analysis, IR, TG-DSC, {sup 1}HNMR and UV spectra. The results indicated that the composition of these complexes was REL{sub 7} (ClO{sub 4}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O (RE=Eu (III), Tb (III), L=C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COCH{sub 2}SOC{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3}). The study on IR spectra and {sup 1}HNMR spectra revealed that phenacyl p-tolyl sulfoxide bonded with RE{sup 3+} ions by the oxygen atom in sulfinyl group. The emission spectra illustrated that both the Eu (III) and Tb (III) complexes displayed excellent luminescence in solid state, and The most intensive characteristic emission of the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes were 245,400 a.u. and 298,000 a.u. respectively. The slit with was 1 nm. By analysis luminescence and phosphorescence spectrum, it was found that the ligand had the advantage to absorb energy and transfer it to the Eu (III) and Tb (III) ions. The fluorescence lifetimes of the complexes were measured as well as the quantum yield of the Eu (III) complex.

  18. Changes in Dimethyl Sulfide Oceanic Distribution due to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Elliott, S; Maltrud, M; Erickson, D; Wingenter, O

    2011-02-16

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here they report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. They find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associted with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.

  19. Synthesis pf dimethyl carbonate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballivet-Tkatchenko, D.; Plasseraud, L. [Universite de Bourgogne-UFR Sciences et Techniques, Dijon (France). Lab. de Synthese et Electrosynthese Organometalliques]. E-mail: ballivet@u-bourgogne.fr; Ligabue, R.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Pura

    2006-01-15

    The reactivity of carbon dioxide with methanol to form dimethyl carbonate was studied in the presence of the n-butylmethoxytin compounds n-Bu{sub 3}SnOCH{sub 3}, n-Bu{sub 2}Sn(OCH{sub 3}){sub 2}, and [n-Bu{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}O)Sn]{sub 2}O. The reaction occurred under solventless conditions at 423 K and was produced by an increase in CO{sub 2} pressure. This beneficial effect is primarily attributed to phase behavior. The mass transfer under liquid-vapor biphasic conditions was not limiting when the system reached the supercritical state for a CO{sub 2} pressure higher than 16 MPa. Under these conditions, CO{sub 2} acted as a reactant and a solvent. (author)

  20. Fragmentation of dimethyl ether in femtosecond intense field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Guo, Wei; Wang, Yanqiu; Wang, Li

    2006-08-01

    The fragmentation of dimethyl ether (DME) in intense femtosecond laser field has been studied at 810, 405 and 270 nm with intensities up to 2.48 × 10 15, 3.86 × 10 15 and 1.62 × 10 14 W/cm 2, respectively. At 405 nm, DME is possibly firstly ionized by multiphoton absorption, and then parent ion DME + dissociates into fragments via filed-induced dissociation. For 810 and 270 nm laser fields, DME firstly dissociates into CH 3O and CH 3 fragments and then these neutral fragments are ionized by field tunneling. Another possible way for DME to dissociate at 810 and 270 nm is that DME is ionized by intense field ejection of inner valance electron and then the excited DME + dissociates into fragment ions. Ultrafast rearrangement of DME or DME + in intense field may be responsible to the unpredictable fragment ions, CHO+/C2H5+andH2+.

  1. Crystal structure of dichloridobis(dimethyl N-cyanodithioiminocarbonatecobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhamadou Birame Diop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the mononuclear title complex, [{(H3CS2C=NC[triple-bond] N}2CoCl2], consists of a CoII atom coordinated in a distorted tetrahedral manner by two Cl− ligands and the terminal N atoms of two dimethyl N-cyanodithioiminocarbonate ligands. The two organic ligands are almost coplanar, with a dihedral angle of 5.99 (6° between their least-squares planes. The crystal packing features pairs of inversion-related complexes that are held together through C—H...Cl and C—H...S interactions and π–π stacking [centroid-to-centroid distance = 3.515 (su? Å]. Additional C—H...Cl and C—H...S interactions, as well as Cl...S contacts < 3.6 Å, consolidate the crystal packing.

  2. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion of Dimethyl Ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr

    This thesis is based on experimental and numerical studies on the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. The first paper in this thesis was published in 2007 and describes HCCI combustion of pure DME in a small diesel engine. The tests...... were designed to investigate the effect of engine speed, compression ratio and equivalence ratio on the combustion timing and the engine performance. It was found that the required compression ratio depended on the equivalence ratio used. A lower equivalence ratio requires a higher compression ratio...... before the fuel is burned completely, due to lower in-cylinder temperatures and lower reaction rates. The study provided some insight in the importance of operating at the correct compression ratio, as well as the operational limitations and emission characteristics of HCCI combustion. HCCI combustion...

  3. Direct dimethyl ether high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng

    and suffers from low DME solubility in water. When the DME - water mixture is fed as vapour miscibility is no longer a problem. The increased temperature is more beneficial for the kinetics of the direct oxidation of DME than of methanol. The Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) with DME operation was 50 to 100 m......A high temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) polymer fuel cell was fed with dimethyl ether (DME) and water vapour mixture on the anode at ambient pressure with air as oxidant. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm2 was achieved at 200°C. A conventional polymer based direct DME fuel cell is liquid fed......V higher than that of methanol, indicating less fuel crossover....

  4. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The laboratory studies have included work with a Navistar V-8 turbodiesel engine, demonstration of engine operation on DME-diesel blends and instrumentation for evaluating fuel properties. The field studies have involved performance, efficiency and emissions measurements with the Champion Motorcoach ''Defender'' shuttle bus which will be converted to DME-fueling. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have completed engine combustion studies on DME-diesel blends up to 30 wt% DME addition.

  5. Natural 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol®)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilfried Schwab

    2013-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF, furaneol®) and its methyl ether 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMMF) are import aroma chemicals and are considered key flavor compounds in many fruit. Due to their attractive sensory properties they are highly appreciated by the food industry. In fruits 2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanones are synthesized by a series of enzymatic steps whereas HDMF is also a product of the Maillard reaction. Numerous methods for the synthetic preparation of these c...

  6. Mutant form C115H of Clostridium sporogenes methionine γ-lyase efficiently cleaves S-Alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides to antibacterial thiosulfinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Vitalia V; Anufrieva, Natalya V; Revtovich, Svetlana V; Chernov, Alexander S; Telegin, Georgii B; Morozova, Elena A; Demidkina, Tatyana V

    2016-10-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent methionine γ-lyase (MGL) catalyzes the β-elimination reaction of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides to thiosulfinates, which possess antimicrobial activity. Partial inactivation of the enzyme in the course of the reaction occurs due to oxidation of active site cysteine 115 conserved in bacterial MGLs. In this work, the C115H mutant form of Clostridium sporogenes MGL was prepared and the steady-state kinetic parameters of the enzyme were determined. The substitution results in an increase in the catalytic efficiency of the mutant form towards S-substituted l-cysteine sulfoxides compared to the wild type enzyme. We used a sulfoxide/enzyme system to generate antibacterial activity in situ. Two-component systems composed of the mutant enzyme and three S-substituted l-cysteine sulfoxides were demonstrated to be effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and three clinical isolates from mice. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):830-835, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. Electrochemical incineration of dimethyl phthalate by anodic oxidation with boron-doped diamond electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yining; QU Jiuhui; ZHAO Xu; LIU Huijuan

    2009-01-01

    The anodic oxidation of aqueous solutions containing dimethyl phthalate (DMP) up to 125 mg/L with sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) as supporting electrolyte within the pH range 2.0-10.0 was studied using a one-compartment batch reactor employing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) as anode. Electrolyses were carried out at constant current density (1.5-4.5 mA/cm2). Complete mineralization was always achieved owing to the great concentration of hydroxyl radical (·OH) generated at the BDD surface. The effect of pH, apparent current density and initial DMP concentration on the degradation rate of DMP, the specific charge required for its total mineralization and mineralization current efficiency was investigated systematically. The mineralization rate of DMP was found to be pH-independent and to increase with increasing applied current density. Results indicated that this electrochemical process was subjected, at least partially, to the mass transfer of organics onto the BDD surface. Kinetic analysis of the temporal change of DMP concentration during electrolysis determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed that DMP decay under all tested conditions followed a pseudo first-order reaction. Aromatic intermediates and generated carboxylic acids were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and a general pathway for the electrochemical incineration of DMP on BDD was proposed.

  8. Effects of dimethyl ether on the performance characteristics of a direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sang Hern; Lee, Chang Sik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Activation loss is significantly reduced in fuel cell with DME-methanol. • DME crossover through the membrane reduces. • The open circuit voltage of DME-methanol the fuel cell increases. • The overall efficiency of the mixed fuel cell is higher than that of DMFC. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dimethyl ether (DME) on the performance characteristics of a direct methanol fuel cell. Impedance and crossover experiments were performed in order to investigate the performance losses such as ohmic loss, activation loss and crossover loss accurately. The DME was pressurized to 5 bar to supply with liquid phase was and blended with an aqueous methanol solution. In this experiment, the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was composed of Nafion 115, anode catalyst loaded Pt–Ru and cathode catalyst loaded Pt-Black. Experimental results showed that fuel cells with DME-methanol enhanced performance when compared to fuel cells with methanol only. Such performance enhancement was due to a decrease in activation losses by DME oxidation reactions. As the DME crossover through the membrane was reduced, the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the fuel cell increased. Other output characteristics are also discussed

  9. Research on the degradation mechanism of dimethyl phthalate in drinking water by strong ionization discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, ZHAO; Chengwu, YI; Rongjie, YI; Huijuan, WANG; Lanlan, YIN; I, N. MUHAMMAD; Zhongfei, MA

    2018-03-01

    The degradation mechanism of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in the drinking water was investigated using strong ionization discharge technology in this study. Under the optimized condition, the degradation efficiency of DMP in drinking water was up to 93% in 60 min. A series of analytical techniques including high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy were used in the study. It was found that a high concentration of ozone (O3) produced by dielectric barrier discharge reactor was up to 74.4 mg l-1 within 60 min. Tert-butanol, isopropyl alcohol, carbonate ions ({{{{CO}}}3}2-) and bicarbonate ions ({{{{HCO}}}3}-) was added to the sample solution to indirectly prove the presence and effect of hydroxyl radicals (·OH). These analytical findings indicate that mono-methyl phthalate, phthalic acid (PA) and methyl ester PA were detected as the major intermediates in the process of DMP degradation. Finally, DMP and all products were mineralized into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) ultimately. Based on these analysis results, the degradation pathway of DMP by strong ionization discharge technology were proposed.

  10. Membrane separation of ionic liquid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Daniel; Feiring, Andrew Edward; Majumdar, Sudipto; Nemser, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    A membrane separation process using a highly fluorinated polymer membrane that selectively permeates water of an aqueous ionic liquid solution to provide dry ionic liquid. Preferably the polymer is a polymer that includes polymerized perfluoro-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxole (PDD). The process is also capable of removing small molecular compounds such as organic solvents that can be present in the solution. This membrane separation process is suitable for drying the aqueous ionic liquid byproduct from precipitating solutions of biomass dissolved in ionic liquid, and is thus instrumental to providing usable lignocellulosic products for energy consumption and other industrial uses in an environmentally benign manner.

  11. Brain Damage from Soman-Induced Seizures Is Greatly Exacerbated by Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): Modest Neuroprotection by 2-Aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2- APB), a Transient Receptor Potential Channel Inhibitor and Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-04

    stereotypy, and wet-dog shakes. Overt motor convulsions were characterized by rhythmic clonic jerks of head and forepaws, rearing, salivation and Straub...Dale LB, Bhattacharya M, Anborgh PH , Murdoch B, Bhatia M, Nakanishi S, Ferguson SS. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-mediated desensitization of

  12. CCDC 894987: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (2-(1,3-bis(2,6-Di-isopropylphenyl)-1,3,2-diazaphospholidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonato)-(dimethyl sulfoxide-O)-methyl-palladium(ii)

    KAUST Repository

    Wucher, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  13. Thermochemical study of 2,5-dimethyl-3-furancarboxylic acid, 4,5-dimethyl-2-furaldehyde, and 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylfuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Amaral, Luisa M.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    The standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous state, at T = 298.15 K, for 2,5-dimethyl-3-furancarboxylic acid, 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylfuran, and 4,5-dimethyl-2-furaldehyde were derived from the values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the condensed phase, and the standard molar enthalpies of phase transition from the condensed to the gaseous state. The values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the compounds in the condensed phases were calculated from the measurements of the standard massic energies of combustion obtained by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The enthalpies of vaporization/sublimation were measured by Calvet high temperature microcalorimetry. For 2,5-dimethyl-3-furancarboxylic acid the standard enthalpy of sublimation was also calculated, by the application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, to the temperature dependence of the vapor pressures measured by the Knudsen effusion technique. (table)

  14. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Nanoporous Aluminum-Based Coordination Polymers as Catalysts for Selective Sulfoxidation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhan Vinu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of aluminum-based coordination polymers or metal–organic frameworks (Al–MOFs, i.e., DUT-4, DUT-5, MIL-53, NH2-MIL-53, and MIL-100, have been facile prepared by microwave (MW-assisted reactions and used as catalysts for selective sulfoxidation reactions. The MW-assisted synthesis drastically reduced the reaction time from few days to hours. The prepared MOFs have smaller and uniform particle sizes and better yield compared to conventional hydrothermal method. Furthermore, the Al–MOFs have been successfully demonstrated as catalysts in oxidation reaction of methyl phenyl sulfide with H2O2 as oxidant, even under mild conditions, with more than 95% conversion.

  15. Rate Constants for the Reactions of Hydroxyl Radical with Several Alkanes, Cycloalkanes, and Dimethyl Ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMore, W.; Bayes, K.

    1998-01-01

    Relative rate experiements were used to measure rate constants and temperature denpendencies of the reactions of OH with propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, and dimethyl ether.

  16. USE OF DIMETHYL FUMARATE IN THE TREATMENT OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: CLINICAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Mkrtchyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of an update on the comparative pharmacoeconomic analysis of using dimethyl fumarate in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS in European countries. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation was made to study the use of first-line oral dimethyl fumarate versus another first-line oral teriflunomide in the treatment of MS in the Russian Federation (for 1 year and second-line natalizumab and fingolimod. Among first-line oral drugs, dimethyl fumarate was shown to be superior to teriflunomide in a cost-effectiveness ratio and to be slightly ahead of the MS-modifying drugs (MSMDs  and the second-line drugs natalizumab and fingolimod. According to clinical and economic indicators, dimethyl fumarate is the drug of choise among other MSMDs in the treatment of MS.

  17. Biosynthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol by lipase in dimethyl carbonate as the solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Park, Chang-Ho; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2010-11-01

    Glycerol carbonate was synthesized from renewable glycerol and dimethyl carbonate using lipase in solvent-free reaction system in which excess dimethyl carbonate played as the reaction medium. A variety of lipases have been tested for their abilities to catalyze transesterification reaction, and Candida antartica lipase B and Novozyme 435 exhibited higher catalytic activities. The silica-coated glycerol with a 1:1 ratio was supplied to prevent two-phase formation between hydrophobic dimethyl carbonate and hydrophilic glycerol. Glycerol carbonate was successfully synthesized with more than 90% conversion from dimethyl carbonate and glycerol with a molar ratio of 10 using Novozyme 435-catalyzed transesterification at 70 °C. The Novozyme 435 [5% (w/w) and 20% (w/w)] and silica gel were more than four times recycled with good stability in a repeated batch operation for the solvent-free synthesis of glycerol carbonate.

  18. Kinetics of periodate oxidation of tris -(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) iron(II) in acid medium was investigated. The complex undergoes extensive protonation in acid medium. Both protonated and the unprotonated species undergo electron transfer reaction with the active periodate species ...

  19. The stability study of myristyl dimethyl amine oxide as an amphoteric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stability study of myristyl dimethyl amine oxide as an amphoteric surfactant in strong oxidant media containing 5 % m/m sodium hypochlorite through measurement of decomposing rate using high performance liquid chromatography and two phase titration.

  20. Direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from CO2 and methanol over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from carbon dioxide (CO2) and methanol is ... Zirconia and ceria-based catalysts were most effective ... construction of a validation plant for dialkyl carbonates .... (mmol of MeOH consumed/2).

  1. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon...

  2. Modeling of a Reaction-Distillation-Recycle System to Produce Dimethyl Ether through Methanol Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharam, Y.; Zulkarnain, L. M.; Wirya, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The increase in the dimethyl ether yield through methanol dehydration due to a recycle integration to a reaction-distillation system was studied in this research. A one-dimensional phenomenological model of a methanol dehydration reactor and a shortcut model of distillation columns were used to achieve the aim. Simulation results show that 10.7 moles/s of dimethyl ether is produced in a reaction-distillation system with the reactor length being 4 m, the reactor inlet pressure being 18 atm, the reactor inlet temperature being 533 K, the reactor inlet velocity being 0.408 m/s, and the distillation pressure being 8 atm. The methanol conversion is 90% and the dimethyl ether yield is 48%. The integration of the recycle stream to the system increases the dimethyl ether yield by 8%.

  3. Leishmania major methionine sulfoxide reductase A is required for resistance to oxidative stress and efficient replication in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M Sansom

    Full Text Available Leishmania are protozoan parasites that proliferate within the phagolysome of mammalian macrophages. While a number of anti-oxidant systems in these parasites have been shown to protect against endogenous as well as host-generated reactive oxygen species, the potential role of enzymes involved in the repair of oxidatively damaged proteins remains uncharacterized. The Leishmania spp genomes encode a single putative methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrA that could have a role in reducing oxidized free and proteinogenic methionine residues. A GFP-fusion of L. major MsrA was shown to have a cytoplasmic localization by immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation. An L. major msrA null mutant, generated by targeted replacement of both chromosomal allelles, was viable in rich medium but was unable to reduce exogenous methionine sulfoxide when cultivated in the presence of this amino acid, indicating that msrA encodes a functional MsrA. The ΔmsrA mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to H(2O(2 compared to wild type parasites and was unable to proliferate normally in macrophages. Wild type sensitivity to H(2O(2 and infectivity in macrophages was restored by complementation of the mutant with a plasmid encoding MsrA. Unexpectedly, the ΔmsrA mutant was able to induce normal lesions in susceptible BALB/c indicating that this protein is not essential for pathogenesis in vivo. Our results suggest that Leishmania MsrA contributes to the anti-oxidative defences of these parasites, but that complementary oxidative defence mechansims are up-regulated in lesion amastigotes.

  4. Drug delivery system prepared by ionizing radiation of the N,N-dimethyl acrylamide with acryloyloxy-acetanilide copolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z.; Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. de; Rodighiero, Paolo

    1995-01-01

    Radiation induced polymerization has been used in biomaterials used in systems which such as drug delivery (DDS). This work describes the copolymerization of the monomers by gamma rays N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) and acryloyloxy-acetanilide (AOA) for the immobilization of paracetamol, an analgesic and anti thermic drug. Dimethylformamide solutions were used in two concentrations of DMAA and AOA (F DMAA/AOA = 0,85/015 and 0,70/0,30, where F = molar fraction in the monomer feed). The samples were irradiated in the dose range of 30-800 Gy. The copolymer poly(DMAA-co-AOA) characterization was carried out by FTIR and 1 HRMN. The hydrolysis was studied considering the formation of sodium salts of 4-hydroxy acetanilide at different times of treatment using colorimetric assay. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs

  5. Treatment of phthalic acid esters by electrocoagulation with stainless steel electrodes using dimethyl phthalate as a model compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabdaşli, Işik; Keleş, Asuman; Olmez-Hanci, Tuğba; Tünay, Olcay; Arslan-Alaton, Idil

    2009-11-15

    In this study, treatment of phthalates by electrocoagulation employing stainless steel electrodes was investigated using dimethyl phthalate (DMP) as a model compound. DMP was completely destructed within 30 min up to the high initial concentration of 100mg/L while total mineralization was also obtained within a couple of hours. The applied current density of 22.5 mA/cm(2) and electrolyte (NaCl) concentrations varying between 1000 and 1500 mg/L as chloride resulted in the highest treatment performance. The initial solution pH (2-6) had practically no effect on the process efficiency. Desorption experiments and the reaction rates obtained for DMP, COD and TOC abatements appeared to be a strong evidence of an oxidative removal mechanism. DMP removal fitted first order kinetics. COD and TOC removals began after the total DMP removal and also fitted first order kinetics. Activated sludge inhibition experiments revealed that toxicity could be significantly reduced by electrocoagulation application.

  6. Model films of cellulose. I. Method development and initial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnars, S.; Wågberg, L.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new method for the preparation of thin cellulose films. NMMO (N- methylmorpholine- N-oxide) was used to dissolve cellulose and addition of DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) was used to control viscosity of the cellulose solution. A thin layer of the cellulose solution is spin- coated

  7. Thermochemical biorefinery based on dimethyl ether as intermediate: Technoeconomic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haro, P.; Ollero, P.; Villanueva Perales, A.L.; Gómez-Barea, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A thermochemical biorefinery based on bio-DME as intermediate is studied. ► The assessed concepts (12) lead to multi-product generation (polygeneration). ► In all concepts DME is converted by carbonylation or hydrocarbonylation. ► Rates of return are similar to or higher than plants producing a single product. -- Abstract: Thermochemical biorefinery based on dimethyl ether (DME) as an intermediate is studied. DME is converted into methyl acetate, which can either be hydrogenated to ethanol or sold as a co-product. Considering this option together with a variety of technologies for syngas upgrading, 12 different process concepts are analyzed. The considered products are ethanol, methyl acetate, H 2 , DME and electricity. The assessment of each alternative includes biomass pretreatment, gasification, syngas clean-up and conditioning, DME synthesis and conversion, product separation, and heat and power integration. A plant size of 500 MW th processing poplar chips is taken as a basis. The resulting energy efficiency to products ranges from 34.9% to 50.2%. The largest internal rate of return (28.74%) corresponds to a concept which produces methyl acetate, DME and electricity (exported to grid). A sensitivity analysis with respect to total plant investment (TPI), total operation costs (TOC) and market price of products was carried out. The overall conclusion is that, despite its greater complexity, this kind of thermochemical biorefinery is more profitable than thermochemical bioprocesses oriented to a single product.

  8. Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate by oxidative carbonylation of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.G.; Han, M.S.; Kim, H.S.; Ahn, B.S.; Park, K.Y.

    1999-07-01

    Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) synthesis reaction by oxidative carbonylation of methanol has been studied using vapor phase flow reaction system in the presence of Cu-based catalysts. A series of Cu-based catalysts were prepared by the conventional impregnation method using activated carbon (AC) as support. The effect of various promoters and reaction conditions on the catalytic reactivities was intensively evaluated in terms of methanol conversion and DMC selectivity. The morphological change of catalysts during the reaction was also compared by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Regardless of catalyst compositions, the optimal reaction temperature for oxidative carbonylation of methanol was found to be around 120--130 C. The reaction rate was too slow below 100 C, while too many by-products were produced above 150 C. Among the various catalysts employed, CuCl{sub 2}/NaOH/AC catalyst with the mole ratio of OH/Cu = 0.5--1.0 has shown the best catalytic performance, which appears to have a strong relationship with the formation of intermediate species, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl.

  9. Photoluminescence of 1,3-dimethyl pyrazoloquinoline derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koscien, E. [1st Liceum, Sobieskiego 22, 42-700 Lubliniec (Poland); Gondek, E.; Pokladko, M. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Krakow, Podhorazych 1, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Jarosz, B. [Department of Chemistry, Hugon Kollotaj Agricultural University, Al. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Vlokh, R.O. [Institute of Physical Optics, Dragomanova 23, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Kityk, A.V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 17, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)], E-mail: kityk@ap.univie.ac.at

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents absorption and photoluminescence of 6-F, 6-Br, 6-Cl, 7-TFM and 6-COOEt derivatives of 1,3-dimethyl-1H-Pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline (DMPQ). The measured absorption and emission spectra are compared with the quantum chemical calculations performed by means of the semi-empirical methods (AM1 or PM3) that are applied either to the equilibrium conformations in vacuo (T = 0 K) or combined with the molecular dynamics simulations (T = 300 K). The spectra calculated by the AM1 method appear to be for all dyes in practically excellent agreement with the measured ones. In particular, the position of the first absorption band is obtained with the accuracy up to a few nanometers, whereas the calculated photoluminescence spectra predict the positions of the emission maxima for a gas phase with the accuracy up to 10-18 nm. The photoemission spectra of DMPQ dyes are considerably less solvatochromic comparing to phenyl-containing pyrazoloquinoline derivatives. According to the quantum chemical analysis the reason for such behaviour lies in a local character of the electronic transitions of DMPQ dyes which are characterized by a relatively small difference between the excited state and ground state dipole moments. Importantly that the rotational dynamics of both methyl subunits does not change this situation.

  10. Penguins are attracted to dimethyl sulphide at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kyran L B; Pichegru, Lorien; Ryan, Peter G

    2011-08-01

    Breeding Spheniscus penguins are central place foragers that feed primarily on schooling pelagic fish. They are visual hunters, but it is unclear how they locate prey patches on a coarse scale. Many petrels and storm petrels (Procellariiformes), the penguins' closest relatives, use olfactory cues to locate prey concentrations at sea, but this has not been demonstrated for penguins. Procellariiforms are attracted to a variety of olfactory cues, including dimethyl sulphide (DMS), an organosulphur compound released when phytoplankton is grazed, as well as fish odorants such as cod liver oil. A recent study found that African penguins Spheniscus demersus react to DMS on land. We confirm this result and show that African penguins are also attracted by DMS at sea. DMS-scented oil slicks attracted 2-3 times more penguins than control slicks, whereas penguins showed no response to slicks containing cod liver oil. The number of penguins attracted to DMS increased for at least 30 min, suggesting penguins could travel up to 2 km to reach scent cues. Repeats of land-based trials confirmed previous results showing DMS sensitivity of penguins on land. Our results also support the hypothesis that African penguins use DMS as an olfactory cue to locate prey patches at sea from a distance, which is particularly important given their slow commuting speed relative to that of flying seabirds.

  11. Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from urea and methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, M.; Kalevaru, V.N.; Martin, A. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Leibniz Institute for Catalysis; Mueller, K.; Arlt, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Strautmann, J.; Kruse, D. [Evonik Industries AG, Marl (Germany). Creavis Technologies and Innovation

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholation of urea with methanol to produce dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is an interesting approach from both the ecological and economical points of view because the urea synthesis usually occurs by the direct use of carbon dioxide. Literature survey reveals that metal oxide catalysts for instance MgO, ZnO, etc. or polyphosphoric acids are mostly used as catalysts for this reaction. In this contribution, we describe the application of ZnO, MgO, CaO, TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts for the above mentioned reaction. The catalytic activity of different metal oxides towards DMC synthesis was checked and additionally a comparison of achieved conversions with that of predictions made by thermodynamic calculations was also carried out. The achieved conversions are in good agreement with those of calculated ones. The test results reveal that the reaction pressure and temperature have a strong influence on the formation of DMC. Higher reaction pressure improved the yield of DMC. Among different catalysts investigated, ZnO displayed the best performance. The conversion of urea in most cases is close to 100 % and methyl carbamate MC is the major product of the reaction. A part of MC is subsequently converted to DMC, which however depends upon the reaction conditions applied and nature of catalyst used. From the best case, a DMC yield of ca. 8 % could be successfully achieved over ZnO catalyst. (orig.)

  12. Prediction of dimethyl disulfide levels from biosolids using statistical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Steven A; Vilalai, Sirapong; Arispe, Susanna; Kim, Hyunook; McConnell, Laura L; Torrents, Alba; Peot, Christopher; Ramirez, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Two statistical models were used to predict the concentration of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) released from biosolids produced by an advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in Washington, DC, USA. The plant concentrates sludge from primary sedimentation basins in gravity thickeners (GT) and sludge from secondary sedimentation basins in dissolved air flotation (DAF) thickeners. The thickened sludge is pumped into blending tanks and then fed into centrifuges for dewatering. The dewatered sludge is then conditioned with lime before trucking out from the plant. DMDS, along with other volatile sulfur and nitrogen-containing chemicals, is known to contribute to biosolids odors. These models identified oxidation/reduction potential (ORP) values of a GT and DAF, the amount of sludge dewatered by centrifuges, and the blend ratio between GT thickened sludge and DAF thickened sludge in blending tanks as control variables. The accuracy of the developed regression models was evaluated by checking the adjusted R2 of the regression as well as the signs of coefficients associated with each variable. In general, both models explained observed DMDS levels in sludge headspace samples. The adjusted R2 value of the regression models 1 and 2 were 0.79 and 0.77, respectively. Coefficients for each regression model also had the correct sign. Using the developed models, plant operators can adjust the controllable variables to proactively decrease this odorant. Therefore, these models are a useful tool in biosolids management at WWTPs.

  13. Examining Dimethyl Sulfide Emissions in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, D.; Hughes, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) is a sulfur-containing compound that leads to the formation of aerosols which can lead to the formation of haze and fog. Whole air samples were collected on board the NASA C-23 Sherpa aircraft during the 2017 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) over dairies and agricultural fields in the San Joaquin Valley. Analysis of the samples indicate average DMS concentrations of 23 ± 9 pptv, with a maximum concentration of 49 pptv. When compared with DMS concentrations from previous SARP missions (2009-2016), 2017 by far had the highest frequency of elevated DMS in this region. For this study, agricultural productivity of this region was analyzed to determine whether land use could be contributing to the elevated DMS. Top down and bottom up analysis of agriculture and dairies were used to determine emission rates of DMS in the San Joaquin Valley. Correlations to methane and ethanol were used to determine that DMS emissions were strongly linked to dairies, and resulted in R2 values of 0.61 and 0.43, respectively. These values indicate a strong correlation between dairies and DMS emissions. Combined with NOAA HySPLIT back trajectory data and analysis of ground air samples, results suggest that the contribution of dairies to annual DMS emissions in the San Joaquin Valley exceeds those from corn and alfalfa production.

  14. Metformin (dimethyl-biguanide induced DNA damage in mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubem R. Amador

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin (dimethyl-biguanide is an insulin-sensitizing agent that lowers fasting plasma-insulin concentration, wherefore it's wide use for patients with a variety of insulin-resistant and prediabetic states, including impaired glucose tolerance. During pregnancy it is a further resource for reducing first-trimester pregnancy loss in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. We tested metformin genotoxicity in cells of Chinese hamster ovary, CHO-K1 (chromosome aberrations; comet assays and in mice (micronucleus assays. Concentrations of 114.4 µg/mL and 572 µg/mL were used in in vitro tests, and 95.4 mg/kg, 190.8 mg/kg and 333.9 mg/kg in assaying. Although the in vitro tests revealed no chromosome aberrations in metaphase cells, DNA damage was detected by comet assaying after 24 h of incubation at both concentrations. The frequency of DNA damage was higher at concentrations of 114.4 µg/mL. Furthermore, although mortality was not observed in in vitro tests, the highest dose of metformin suppressed bone marrow cells. However, no statistically significant differences were noted in micronuclei frequencies between treatments. In vitro results indicate that chronic metformin exposure may be potentially genotoxic. Thus, pregnant woman undergoing treatment with metformin should be properly evaluated beforehand, as regards vulnerability to DNA damage.

  15. A highly sensitive and selective dimethyl ether sensor based on cataluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runkun; Cao, Xiaoan; Liu, Yonghui; Peng, Yan

    2010-07-15

    A sensor for detecting dimethyl ether was designed based on the cataluminescence phenomenon when dimethyl ether vapors were passing through the surface of the ceramic heater. The proposed sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity to dimethyl ether at an optimal temperature of 279 degrees C. Quantitative analysis were performed at a wavelength of 425 nm, the flow rate of carrier air is around 300 mL/min. The linear range of the cataluminescence intensity versus concentration of dimethyl ether is 100-6.0x10(3) ppm with a detection limit of 80 ppm. The sensor response time is 2.5 s. Under the optimized conditions, none or only very low levels of interference were observed while the foreign substances such as benzene, formaldehyde, ammonia, methanol, ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acrolein, isopropyl ether, ethyl acetate, glycol ether and 2-methoxyethanol were passing through the sensor. Since the sensor does not need to prepare and fix up the granular catalyst, the simple technology reduces cost, improves stability and extends life span. The method can be applied to facilitate detection of dimethyl ether in the air. The possible mechanism of cataluminescence from the oxidation of dimethyl ether on the surface of ceramic heater was discussed based on the reaction products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Management Strategies to Facilitate Optimal Outcomes for Patients Treated with Delayed-release Dimethyl Fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Lori; Fink, Mary Kay; Sammarco, Carrie; Laing, Lisa

    2018-04-01

    Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate is an oral disease-modifying therapy that has demonstrated significant efficacy in adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Incidences of flushing and gastrointestinal adverse events are common in the first month after delayed-release dimethyl fumarate initiation. Our objective was to propose mitigation strategies for adverse events related to initiation of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. Studies of individually developed mitigation strategies and chart reviews were evaluated. Those results, as well as mitigation protocols developed at multiple sclerosis care centers, are summarized. Key steps to optimize the effectiveness of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate treatment include education prior to and at the time of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate initiation, initiation dose protocol gradually increasing to maintenance dose, dietary suggestions for co-administration with food, gastrointestinal symptom management with over-the-counter medications, flushing symptom management with aspirin, and temporary dose reduction. Using the available evidence from clinical trials and evaluations of post-marketing studies, these strategies to manage gastrointestinal and flushing symptoms can be effective and helpful to the patient when initiating delayed-release dimethyl fumarate.

  17. Synthesis,spectroscopic and biological study of 2-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno) benzothiazole and morpholino acetyl-2- aminobenzothiazole derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azawi, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Generally triazenes are prepared by coupling the diazonium salts of aromatic amines or heterocyclic amines with dimethyl amine or other amines.Primary aromatic amines react with nitrous acid to give diazonium compounds.Diazotization of 2-aminothiazoles and 2-aminobenzothiazoles occurs most readily in concentrated solutions of the oxygencontaining acids,such as sulfuric,perchloric,phosphoric and nitric acid.Diazotization in perchloric acid leads to the formation of diazonium perchlorate without by products.Diazotization takes place equally readily with sulphuric acid but with nitric acid the reaction proceeds less smoothyl owing to the low solubility of 2-aminothiazole nitrate.(11 tabs., 24 figs., 54 refs.)

  18. Adsorption kinetics of diblock copolymers from a micellar solution on silica and titania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, H.D.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Fleer, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The solution and adsorption behavior of a series of diblock copolymers of hydrophobic poly(dimethyl siloxane) and hydrophilic poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) was studied. These block copolymers formed large polydisperse micelles in an aqueous solution. The critical micelle concentration was lower than 2

  19. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  20. Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.

    2018-05-16

    Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether (DME) in laminar nonpremixed jets with high-temperature coflow air have been studied experimentally. When the initial temperature was elevated to over 860 K, an autoignition occurred without requiring an external ignition source. A planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for formaldehyde (CH2O) visualized qualitatively the zone of low temperature kinetics in a premixed flame. Two flame configurations were investigated; (1) autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edge having three distinct branches of a lean and a rich premixed flame wings with a trailing diffusion flame and (2) autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion when the fuel was highly diluted. For the autoignited tribrachial edge flames at critical autoignition conditions, exhibiting repetitive extinction and re-ignition phenomena near a blowout condition, the characteristic flow time (liftoff height scaled with jet velocity) was correlated with the square of the ignition delay time of the stoichiometric mixture. The liftoff heights were also correlated as a function of jet velocity times the square of ignition delay time. Formaldehydes were observed between the fuel nozzle and the lifted flame edge, emphasizing a low-temperature kinetics for autoignited lifted flames, while for a non-autoignited lifted flame, formaldehydes were observed near a thin luminous flame zone.For the autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion, especially at a high temperature, a unique non-monotonic liftoff height behavior was observed; decreasing and then increasing liftoff height with jet velocity. This behavior was similar to the binary mixture fuels of CH4/H2 and CO/H2 observed previously. A transient homogeneous autoignition analysis suggested that such decreasing behavior with jet velocity can be attributed to partial oxidation characteristics of DME in producing appreciable amounts of CH4/CO/H2 ahead of the edge flame region.

  1. Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.; Choi, Byung Chul; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether (DME) in laminar nonpremixed jets with high-temperature coflow air have been studied experimentally. When the initial temperature was elevated to over 860 K, an autoignition occurred without requiring an external ignition source. A planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for formaldehyde (CH2O) visualized qualitatively the zone of low temperature kinetics in a premixed flame. Two flame configurations were investigated; (1) autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edge having three distinct branches of a lean and a rich premixed flame wings with a trailing diffusion flame and (2) autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion when the fuel was highly diluted. For the autoignited tribrachial edge flames at critical autoignition conditions, exhibiting repetitive extinction and re-ignition phenomena near a blowout condition, the characteristic flow time (liftoff height scaled with jet velocity) was correlated with the square of the ignition delay time of the stoichiometric mixture. The liftoff heights were also correlated as a function of jet velocity times the square of ignition delay time. Formaldehydes were observed between the fuel nozzle and the lifted flame edge, emphasizing a low-temperature kinetics for autoignited lifted flames, while for a non-autoignited lifted flame, formaldehydes were observed near a thin luminous flame zone.For the autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion, especially at a high temperature, a unique non-monotonic liftoff height behavior was observed; decreasing and then increasing liftoff height with jet velocity. This behavior was similar to the binary mixture fuels of CH4/H2 and CO/H2 observed previously. A transient homogeneous autoignition analysis suggested that such decreasing behavior with jet velocity can be attributed to partial oxidation characteristics of DME in producing appreciable amounts of CH4/CO/H2 ahead of the edge flame region.

  2. Adsorption Removal of Environmental Hormones of Dimethyl Phthalate Using Novel Magnetic Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chi Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic polyvinyl alcohol adsorbent M-PVAL was employed to remove and concentrate dimethyl phthalate DMP. The M-PVAL was prepared after sequential syntheses of magnetic Fe3O4 (M and polyvinyl acetate (M-PVAC. The saturated magnetizations of M, M-PVAC, and M-PVAL are 57.2, 26.0, and 43.2 emu g−1 with superparamagnetism, respectively. The average size of M-PVAL by number is 0.75 μm in micro size. Adsorption experiments include three cases: (1 adjustment of initial pH (pH0 of solution to 5, (2 no adjustment of pH0 with value in 6.04–6.64, and (3 adjusted pH0 = 7. The corresponding saturated amounts of adsorption of unimolecular layer of Langmuir isotherm are 4.01, 5.21, and 4.22 mg g−1, respectively. Values of heterogeneity factor of Freundlich isotherm are 2.59, 2.19, and 2.59 which are greater than 1, revealing the favorable adsorption of DMP/M-PVAL system. Values of adsorption activation energy per mole of Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm are, respectively, of low values of 7.04, 6.48, and 7.19 kJ mol−1, indicating the natural occurring of the adsorption process studied. The tiny size of adsorbent makes the adsorption take place easily while its superparamagnetism is beneficial for the separation and recovery of micro adsorbent from liquid by applying magnetic field after completion of adsorption.

  3. In Vitro Susceptibilities of the Microsporidia Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Encephalitozoon hellem, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis to Albendazole and Its Sulfoxide and Sulfone Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoux, Olivier; Drancourt, Michel

    1998-01-01

    In vitro comparisons demonstrated that the efficacy of albendazole, albendazole-sulfoxide, and albendazole-sulfone against pathogenic Encephalitozoon species was proportional to the degree of oxidation at a concentration of >10−3 μg/ml. Furthermore, at a concentration of <10−2 μg/ml, benzimidazoles were more effective against Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Encephalitozoon hellem than against Encephalitozoon intestinalis. PMID:9835533

  4. Light-induced racemization: artifacts in the analysis of the diastereoisomeric pairs of thioridazine 5-sulfoxide in the plasma and urine of patients treated with thioridazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eap, C B; Souche, A; Koeb, L; Baumann, P

    1991-07-01

    The ring sulfoxidation of thioridazine (THD), a widely used neuroleptic agent, yields two diastereoisomeric pairs, fast- and slow-eluting (FE and SE) thioridazine 5-sulfoxide (THD 5-SO). Until now, studies in which concentrations of these metabolites were measured in THD-treated patients have revealed no significant differences in their concentrations. Preliminary experiments in our laboratory had shown that sunlight and, to a lesser extent, dim daylight led to racemization and probably also to photolysis of the diastereoisomeric pairs as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Similar results were also obtained with direct UV light (UV lamp). In appropriate light-protected conditions, THD, northioridazine, mesoridazine, sulforidazine, and FE and SE THD 5-SO were measured in 11 patients treated with various doses of THD for at least 1 week. Significantly higher concentrations of the FE stereoisomeric pair were found. The concentration ratios THD 5-SO (FE)/THD 5-SO (SE) ranged from 0.89 to 1.75 in plasma and from 1.15 to 2.05 in urine. Because it is known that the ring sulfoxide contributes to the cardiotoxicity of the drug even more potently than the parent compound does, these results justify further studies to determine whether there is stereoselectivity in the cardiotoxicity of THD 5-SO.

  5. Pra Desain Pabrik Dimethyl Ether (DME dari Gas Alam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Puspitasari Yudiputri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan data PT Pertamina (Persero, total konsumsi LPG 2008 mencapai 1,85 juta ton dan 600.000 ton di antaranya untuk program konversi. Pada 2009 kebutuhan LPG akan meningkat menjadi 3,67 juta ton dan 2 juta ton di antaranya untuk program konversi sampai akhir tahun. Namun, sumber pasokan LPG dari dalam negeri diperkirakan tidak akan beranjak dari angka 1,8 juta ton per tahun dalam beberapa tahun mendatang. Sehingga, Indonesia harus menutup kebutuhan dengan mengimpor LPG dalam jumlah cukup besar. Maka dari itu dibutuhkan bahan bakar gas lain yang mampu mengatasi permasalahan yang ditimbulkan tersebut. Dimethyl Ether (DME merupakan senyawa ether yang paling sederhana dengan rumus kimia CH3OCH3. Produksi DME dapat dihasilkan melalui sintesis gas alam. DME berbentuk gas yang tidak berwarna pada suhu ambien, zat kimia yang stabil, dengan titik didih -25,1oC. Tekanan uap DME sekitar 0,6 Mpa pada 25oC dan dapat dicairkan seperti halnya LPG. Viskositas DME 0,12-0,15 kg/ms, setara dengan viskositas propana dan butane (konstituen utama LPG, sehingga infrastruktur untuk LPG dapat juga digunakan untuk DME. Berdasarkan data Departemen ESDM pada Januari 2012, total cadangan gas alam Indonesia tercatat mencapai 150,70 Trillion Square Cubic Feet (TSCF. Berdasarkan jumlah tersebut, sebanyak 103,35 TSCF merupakan gas alam terbukti, sementara 47,35 TSCF sisanya masih belum terbukti. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, diketahui bahwa senyawa DME merupakan senyawa yang sesuai untuk bahan substitusi LPG. Dan ditinjau dari analisa ekonomi, didapatkan besar Investasi : $ 636,447,074.69 ; Internal Rate of Return\t: 20.51%; POT: 4.13 tahun; BEP : 37.36 %; dan NPV 10 year : $ 518,848,692. Dari ketiga parameter sensitifitas yaitu fluktuasi biaya investasi, harga bahan baku, dan harga jual dari produk, terlihat bahwa ketiganya tidak memberikan pengaruh yang cukup signifikan terhadap kenaikan atau penurunan nilai IRR pabrik. Sehingga pabrik DME dari Gas Alam ini layak untuk

  6. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethylether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operation in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the

  7. Amelioration of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis by a water-soluble bifunctional sulfoxide radiation mitigator (MMS350).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalash, Ronny; Epperly, Michael W; Goff, Julie; Dixon, Tracy; Sprachman, Melissa M; Zhang, Xichen; Shields, Donna; Cao, Shaonan; Franicola, Darcy; Wipf, Peter; Berhane, Hebist; Wang, Hong; Au, Jeremiah; Greenberger, Joel S

    2013-11-01

    A water-soluble ionizing radiation mitigator would have considerable advantages for the management of acute and chronic effects of ionizing radiation. We report that a novel oxetanyl sulfoxide (MMS350) is effective both as a protector and a mitigator of clonal mouse bone marrow stromal cell lines in vitro, and is an effective in vivo mitigator when administered 24 h after 9.5 Gy (LD100/30) total-body irradiation of C57BL/6NHsd mice, significantly improving survival (P = 0.0097). Furthermore, MMS350 (400 μM) added weekly to drinking water after 20 Gy thoracic irradiation significantly decreased: expression of pulmonary inflammatory and profibrotic gene transcripts and proteins; migration into the lungs of bone marrow origin luciferase+/GFP+ (luc+/GFP+) fibroblast progenitors (in both luc+ marrow chimeric and luc+ stromal cell line injected mouse models) and decreased radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (P < 0.0001). This nontoxic and orally administered small molecule may be an effective therapeutic in clinical radiotherapy and as a counter measure against the acute and chronic effects of ionizing radiation.

  8. Deficiency of methionine sulfoxide reductase A causes cellular dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in cardiac myocytes under physical and oxidative stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Changlong; Li, Yuejin; Jean-Charles, Pierre-Yves; Chen, Guozhen; Kreymerman, Alexander; Prentice, Howard; Weissbach, Herbert; Huang, Xupei

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Deficiency of MsrA in the heart renders myocardial cells more sensitive to oxidative stress. → Mitochondrial damage happens in the heart lacking MsrA. → More protein oxidation in myocardial cells lacking MsrA. → MsrA protects the heart against oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) is an enzyme that reverses oxidation of methionine in proteins. Using a MsrA gene knockout (MsrA -/- ) mouse model, we have investigated the role of MsrA in the heart. Our data indicate that cellular contractility and cardiac function are not significantly changed in MsrA -/- mice if the hearts are not stressed. However, the cellular contractility, when stressed using a higher stimulation frequency (2 Hz), is significantly reduced in MsrA -/- cardiac myocytes. MsrA -/- cardiac myocytes also show a significant decrease in contractility after oxidative stress using H 2 O 2 . Corresponding changes in Ca 2+ transients are observed in MsrA -/- cardiomyocytes treated with 2 Hz stimulation or with H 2 O 2 . Electron microscope analyses reveal a dramatic morphological change of mitochondria in MsrA -/- mouse hearts. Further biochemical measurements indicate that protein oxidation levels in MsrA -/- mouse hearts are significantly higher than those in wild type controls. Our study demonstrates that the lack of MsrA in cardiac myocytes reduces myocardial cell's capability against stress stimulations resulting in a cellular dysfunction in the heart.

  9. Natural 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wilfried

    2013-06-13

    4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF, furaneol®) and its methyl ether 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMMF) are import aroma chemicals and are considered key flavor compounds in many fruit. Due to their attractive sensory properties they are highly appreciated by the food industry. In fruits 2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanones are synthesized by a series of enzymatic steps whereas HDMF is also a product of the Maillard reaction. Numerous methods for the synthetic preparation of these compounds have been published and are applied by industry, but for the development of a biotechnological process the knowledge and availability of biosynthetic enzymes are required. During the last years substantial progress has been made in the elucidation of the biological pathway leading to HDMF and DMMF. This review summarizes the latest advances in this field.

  10. Gas chromatographic--mass spectrometric quantitation of 16, 16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimov, V.; Green, K.; Bygdeman, M.; Konishi, Y.; Imaki, K.; Hayashi, M.

    1983-02-01

    Di-deuterated and di-tritiated 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 has been synthesized and used for development of a GC-MS method for quantitation of corresponding unlabelled drug in patient plasma. Although these carrier/internal standard molecules only contain 2 deuterium atoms the lower limit of detection at each injection is as low as about 40 pg. The maximum plasma levels of this drug following administration of vaginal suppositories used in clinical studies (1 mg 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 methyl ester in 0.8 g Witepsol S-52) were 100-350 pg/ml i.e. in the same order of magnitude as earlier seen for 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2.

  11. Gas chromatographic--mass spectrometric quantitation of 16, 16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, V.; Green, K.; Bygdeman, M.; Konishi, Y.; Imaki, K.; Hayashi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Di-deuterated and di-tritiated 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 has been synthesized and used for development of a GC-MS method for quantitation of corresponding unlabelled drug in patient plasma. Although these carrier/internal standard molecules only contain 2 deuterium atoms the lower limit of detection at each injection is as low as about 40 pg. The maximum plasma levels of this drug following administration of vaginal suppositories used in clinical studies (1 mg 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 methyl ester in 0.8 g Witepsol S-52) were 100-350 pg/ml i.e. in the same order of magnitude as earlier seen for 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2

  12. Natural 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H-furanone (Furaneol®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Schwab

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H-furanone (HDMF, furaneol® and its methyl ether 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H-furanone (DMMF are import aroma chemicals and are considered key flavor compounds in many fruit. Due to their attractive sensory properties they are highly appreciated by the food industry. In fruits 2,5-dimethyl-3(2H-furanones are synthesized by a series of enzymatic steps whereas HDMF is also a product of the Maillard reaction. Numerous methods for the synthetic preparation of these compounds have been published and are applied by industry, but for the development of a biotechnological process the knowledge and availability of biosynthetic enzymes are required. During the last years substantial progress has been made in the elucidation of the biological pathway leading to HDMF and DMMF. This review summarizes the latest advances in this field.

  13. Targeting Cancer Protein Profiles with Split-Enzyme Reporter Fragments to Achieve Chemical Resolution for Molecular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    of stock Cy5.5- labeled peptide solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was determined by UV-Vis spectrometry [Cy5.5 molar extinction coefficient is...StummG, Albert FK, Forsting M, Hynes N, et al. Amplification of the epidermal-growth-factor-receptor gene correlates with different growth behaviour

  14. Variability in abundance and fluxes of dimethyl sulphide in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoy, D.M.; DileepKumar, M.

    , 285-300 pp. Dacey, J.W.H. and S.G. Wakeham, 1986. Oceanic dimethyl sulfide: production during zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton. Science, 233, 1314-1316. Dickson, D.M., R.G. Wyn Jones and J. Davenport, 1980. Study-state osmotic adaptation.... Seasonal and short-term variability in dimethyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and biogenic sulfur and sea salt aerosol particles in the arctic marine boundary layer during summer and autumn. Tellus, 48B, 272-299. Liss P.S., G. Malin and S.M. Turner, 1993...

  15. Multicomponent synthesis of 4,4-dimethyl sterol analogues and their effect on eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Fernando; Cirigliano, Adriana M; Dávola, María Eugenia; Cabrera, Gabriela M; García Liñares, Guadalupe E; Labriola, Carlos; Barquero, Andrea A; Ramírez, Javier A

    2014-06-01

    Most sterols, such as cholesterol and ergosterol, become functional only after the removal of the two methyl groups at C-4 from their biosynthetic precursors. Nevertheless, some findings suggest that 4,4-dimethyl sterols might be involved in specific physiological processes. In this paper we present the synthesis of a collection of analogues of 4,4-dimethyl sterols with a diamide side chain and a preliminary analysis of their in vitro activity on selected biological systems. The key step for the synthesis involves an Ugi condensation, a versatile multicomponent reaction. Some of the new compounds showed antifungal and cytotoxic activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. trans-Dichlorido­bis(3,4-dimethyl­pyridine)platinum(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, Alexander N.; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Izotova, Youlia A.; Haukka, Matti

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, trans-[PtCl2(C7H9N)2], the PtII atom is located on an inversion center and is coordinated by two 3,4-dimethyl­pyridine ligands and two chloride ligands, resulting in a typical slightly distorted square-planar geometry. The crystallographic inversion centre forces the value of the C—N—N—C torsion angle to be linear and the 3,4-dimethyl-pyridine ligands to be coplanar. PMID:21581530

  17. Study of extraction of rare earths by oil sulfoxides and their mixtures with tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhlin, E.B.; Vol'dman, G.M.; Zelikman, A.N.; Novikova, N.N.

    1977-01-01

    Neodymium distribution is studied during its extraction from nitrate solutions with oil sulphoxides (OSO) and their mixtures with TBP in a wide range of neodymium and desalting agent (aluminium nitrate) concentrations. The extraction capacity of OSO is shown to considerably exceed that of TBP. A synergic effect due to formation of mixed solvates is observed at extraction with an OSO-TBP mixture. The separation coefficients (β) of the pairs Ce-La, Pr-Ce and Nd-Pr are determined. OSO and, especially, the OSO-TBP mixture are shown to be applicable for separating cerium and lanthanum, since the βsub(Ge/La) value for these extraction agents is higher than that for TBP, the extraction agent capacity attaining values that are acceptable for practival purposes

  18. Photodegradation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in natural waters: laboratory assessment of the nitrate-photolysis-induced DMS oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, René-Christian; Miller, William L

    2005-12-15

    The interaction of sunlight and dissolved chromophoric matter produces reactive chemical species that are significant in the removal of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in the surface ocean. Using artificial solar radiation, we examined the role of several inorganic components of seawater on the kinetics of NO3- -photolysis-induced DMS removal in aqueous solution. This study strongly suggests that NO3- photolysis products react significantly with DMS in aqueous solution possibly via an electrophilic attack on the electron-rich sulfur atom. This supports previous field observations that indicate that NO3- photolysis has a substantial control on DMS photochemistry in nutrient-rich waters. A key finding of this research is that the oxidation rate of DMS induced by NO3- photolysis is dramatically enhanced in the presence of bromide ion. Moreover, our results suggest that bicarbonate/carbonate ions are involved in free radical production/scavenging processes important for DMS photochemistry. These reactions are pH dependent. We propose that DMS removal by some selective free radicals derived from bromide and bicarbonate/carbonate ion oxidation is a potentially important and previously unrecognized pathway for DMS photodegradation in marine waters.

  19. Measurement of (vapor + liquid) equilibrium for the systems {methanol + dimethyl carbonate} and {methanol + dimethyl carbonate + tetramethylammonium bicarbonate} at p = (34.43, 67.74) kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Changsheng; Zeng Hao; Yin Xia; Ma Shengyong; Sun Feizhong; Li Yafei; Li Jiao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► VLE data for the binary system and the ternary system were measured. ► Methanol, dimethyl carbonate, and tetramethylammonium bicarbonate were studied. ► Isobaric experimental data were measured at p = (34.43, 67.74) kPa. ► VLE data of binary system were correlated with the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. ► The salt effect of TMAB on the VLE of {methanol + DMC} system was investigated. - Abstract: Isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for the binary system (methanol + dimethyl carbonate) and the ternary system (methanol + dimethyl carbonate + tetramethylammonium bicarbonate) have been measured at p = (34.43, 67.74) kPa using a modified Rose–Williams still. The experimental data for the binary system were well correlated by Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC activity-coefficient models at the two reduced pressures. All the experimental results of the binary system passed the thermodynamic consistency test by the area test of Redlich–Kister and the point test of Van Ness et al. The experimental results of ternary system show that the salt tetramethylammonium bicarbonate has a salting-in effect on methanol. And this effect enhances when the salt concentration increases.

  20. Crystal Structure and Hydrogen Bonding Study of (10E-2,2-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[g]chromene-5,10-dione 10-Oxime Derived From a-Lapachone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo C. Visentin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound (10E-2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[g]chromene-5,10-dione-10-oxime (1 was synthesized from a-lapachone and hydroxylamine chloride in alkaline medium. Single-crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction measurements were grown from an ethanol solution, and the crystal structure of the title molecule is reported for the first time. The title molecule was also characterized by 1H- and 13C-NMR in CDCl3 solution, FTIR and MS. The crystal structure of 1 shows an E stereochemistry and dimers formed through classical hydrogen bonds.

  1. Ketene as a Reaction Intermediate in the Carbonylation of Dimethyl Ether to Methyl Acetate over Mordenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dominik Bjørn; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Temel, Burcin

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented insight into the carbonylation of dimethyl ether over Mordenite is provided through the identification of ketene (CH2CO) as a reaction intermediate. The formation of ketene is predicted by detailed DFT calculations and verified experimentally by the observation of doubly deuterated ...

  2. Enthalpies of potassium iodide dissolution in dimethyl acetamide mixtures with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privalova, N.M.; Gritsenko, S.I.; Vorob'ev, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    Enthalpies of potassium iodide dissolution in mixed dimethyl acetamide - water solvent at 298.15 K in the whole range of dimethyl acetamide compositions are measured by the calorimetric method. From the plots of KI dissolution enthalpy dependence and dependence of experimental ΔH p∞ 0 value deviations from calculational ones on solvent composition, as well as from the results of calculation of solvate shell composition of potassium iodide ions in the mixed solvent, it is obvious that in the region of 0-15 mol% concentrations of dimethyl acetamide insufficient enrichment of solvate ion shells by dimethyl acetamide (DMAA) occurs, in the region of 15-40 mol% DMAA compositions enrichment of solvate shells of ions by water occurs, in the region of 40-100 mol% DMAA enrichment of solvate ion shells by the organic component in comparison with mixture compostion occurs. Maximum enrichment of solvate ion shells by mixture components in three above mentioned regions of the mixed solvent occurs at 10, 30 and 80 mol% DMAA concentrations

  3. Thermodynamicy of Catalytic Formation of Dimethyl Ether from Methanol in Acidic Zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyťha, Marek; Štich, I.; Gale, J. D.; Terakura, K.; Payne, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 12 (2001), s. 2521-2527 ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : dimethyl ether * formation * theoretical study Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.614, year: 2001

  4. 5,5-Dimethyl-2-methylseleno-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Cholewinski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H13O3PSe, was obtained in the reaction of 5,5-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-seleno-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinane potassium salt with methyl iodide. The selenomethyl group is in the axial position in relation to the six-membered dioxaphosphorinane ring.

  5. On-board conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether as an alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, H; Heinzelmann, G; Struis, R; Stucki, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether was investigated for application on-board a methanol fuelled vehicle. Several catalysts have been tested in a fixed bed reactor. Our approach is to develop a small and efficient reactor converting liquid MeOH under pressure and at low reaction temperatures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  6. Structural and spectroscopic studies of 2,9-dimethyl-1,10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crystal structures of the pronated ligand, 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium (DPH) cation with selected counter anions (chloride (1), triflate (2), and gold dicyanide (3)) are reported. The role of a hydrogen bond interaction in influencing the solid state p-p stacking found in all three compounds has been investigated.

  7. Electrochemical stability and transformations of fluorinated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pud, A.A.; Rogalsky, S.P.; Ghapoval, G.S.; Kharitonov, A.P.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fluorination of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) leads to narrowing of its window of electrochemical stability in a cathodic range of potentials. It is found this is connected with appearance of both perfluorinated and incompletely fluorinated units in the polymer. The former units are

  8. The industrial production of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Frank F T; Lammerink, Roy R G J; Heidemann, Casper; Van Der Werff, Michiel P M; Garcia, Taiga Cafiero; Van Der Ham, Louis A G J; Van Den Berg, Henk

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the design of a dimethyl carbonate (DMC) production plant based on methanol and CO2 as feed materials, which are a cheap and environment-friendly feedstock. DMC is a good alternative for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel oxygenating agent, due to its low toxicity and fast

  9. Controls of dimethyl sulphide in the Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot cruise 1998

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoy, D.M.; DileepKumar, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S

    The air-sea exchange is one of the main mechanisms maintaining the abundances of trace gases in the atmosphere. Some of these, such as carbon dioxide and dimethyl sulphide (DMS), will have a bearing on the atmospheric heat budget. While the former...

  10. Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) have been assigned environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation where two important members dimethyl sulfide (CH3)2 S, DMS, and methanethiol, CH3SH, MT, of VOSC group are involved.

  11. Boltorn-Modified Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4,phenylene oxide) Gas Separation Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterescu, D.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Mendes, Eduardo; Kruse, Jan; Rätzke, Klaus; Faupel, Franz; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation, characterization and the permeation properties of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) dense polymer films containing aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters, Boltorn (H20, H30, and H40). The Boltorn are dispersed in PPO at various concentrations. The gas

  12. Synthesis, structure characterization and biological studies on a new aromatic hydrazone, 5-(2-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)hydrazono)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione, and its transition metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shubha S.; Biju, S.; Sadasivan, V.

    2018-03-01

    A new aromatic hydrazone 5-(2-(1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)hydrazono)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione has been synthesized by Japp-Klingemann reaction from diazotized 4-aminoantipyrine and Meldrum's acid. A few 3d-metal ion complexes of this hydrazone were synthesized. The compound and its complexes were characterized by UV-Visible, 1H NMR, ESR, Mass spectral, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The compound was found to exist in hydrazone form in solid state and solution from SXRD and 1H NMR study. The influence of pH on the molecule was studied and found that it shows azo/enol-hydrazone tautomerism in solution. This molecule act as a univalent tridentate ligand and the complexes were assigned to have a 1:2 stoichiometry (M:L). The antioxidant properties of the compounds were explored by DPPH assay and found that the ligand possesses better free radical scavenging effect than the complexes. Antimicrobial activities of these compounds were investigated and were found to be active.

  13. Characterization of the chemical reactivity and nephrotoxicity of N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide, a potential reactive metabolite of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Roy M; Pinkerton, Marie E; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2013-02-15

    N-Acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NA-DCVC) has been detected in the urine of humans exposed to trichloroethylene and its related sulfoxide, N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (NA-DCVCS), has been detected as hemoglobin adducts in blood of rats dosed with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) or S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS). Because the in vivo nephrotoxicity of NA-DCVCS was unknown, in this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed (i.p.) with 230 μmol/kg b.w. NA-DCVCS or its potential precursors, DCVCS or NA-DCVC. At 24 h post treatment, rats given NA-DCVC or NA-DCVCS exhibited kidney lesions and effects on renal function distinct from those caused by DCVCS. NA-DCVC and NA-DCVCS primarily affected the cortico-medullary proximal tubules (S(2)-S(3) segments) while DCVCS primarily affected the outer cortical proximal tubules (S(1)-S(2) segments). When NA-DCVCS or DCVCS was incubated with GSH in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at 37°C, the corresponding glutathione conjugates were detected, but NA-DCVC was not reactive with GSH. Because NA-DCVCS exhibited a longer half-life than DCVCS and addition of rat liver cytosol enhanced GSH conjugate formation, catalysis of GSH conjugate formation by the liver could explain the lower toxicity of NA-DCVCS in comparison with DCVCS. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that NA-DCVCS formation could play a significant role in DCVC, NA-DCVC, and trichloroethylene nephrotoxicity. They also suggest a role for hepatic metabolism in the mechanism of NA-DCVC nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbohydrate modified polysiloxanes, 3 - Solution properties of carbohydrate-polysiloxane conjugates in toluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Jonas, Gerd; Stadler, Reimund

    2001-01-01

    High molecular weight poly(hydromethyl-co-dimethyl) siloxanes containing 0.6 and 3 mol-% of Si-H units are polar functionalized by the addition of various mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. Due to the hydrogen bond interaction between the carbohydrate moieties, the solution properties are strongly

  15. Electrochemical Performance of Low-Carbon Steel in Alkaline Model Solutions Containing Hybrid Aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Hu, J.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Boshkov, N.; Radeva, T.; Milkova, V.; Van Breugel, K.

    2010-01-01

    This work reports on the electrochemical performance of low-carbon steel electrodes in model alkaline solutions in the presence of 4.9.10-4 g/l hybrid aggregates i.e. cement extract, containing PDADMAC (poly (diallyl, dimethyl ammonium chloride) / PAA (Poly (acrylic acid)/ PDADMAC over a CaO core.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated bromo-poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)-co-(2,6-diphenyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) copolymer as proton exchange membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young-Gi; Seo, Dong-Wan; Lim, Young-Don; Jin, Hyun-Mi; Islam Mollah, M.S. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Konkuk University/RIC-ReSEM Chungju, 322 Danwol-dong, Chungbuk 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ur, Soon-Chul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering/RIC-ReSEM, Chungju National University, Chungju, Chungbuk 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Pyun, Sang-Yong [Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, Pusan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Whan-Gi, E-mail: wgkim@kku.ac.k [Department of Applied Chemistry, Konkuk University/RIC-ReSEM Chungju, 322 Danwol-dong, Chungbuk 380-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-25

    Novel polymer electrolyte membranes containing the sulfonic acid groups attached on polymer backbone and side group simultaneously were synthesized. The bromo-poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)-co-(2,6-diphenyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) copolymer (BrcoPPO) was prepared by oxidative coupling polymerization with 2,6-dimethyl phenol, 2,6-diphenyl phenol, CuCl(I) and pyridine, and followed by bromination with bromine. Copolymer was maintained in 2,6-diphenyl phenol 10 mol% and 2,6-dimethyl phenol 90 mol%. Sulfonation of BrcoPPO (S-BrcoPPO) was carried out in a chlorobenzene solvent using chlorosulfonic acid. The polymeric membranes were cast from dimethylsulfoxide solution. The membranes were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymers with water and methanol. S-BrcoPPO membranes exhibited proton conductivities from 2.3 x 10{sup -3} to 1.4 x 10{sup -2} S/cm, water uptake from 7.00 to 49.43%, IEC from 0.58 to 1.38 mequiv./g, methanol permeability from 1.9 x 10{sup -7} to 3.5 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/S.

  17. Structural studies of lanthanide nitrate-N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-diphenylpyridine-2,6-dicarboxyamide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Asako; Nakano, Yoshiharu; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Okuno, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    The tridentate ligand N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-diphenylpyridine-2,6-dicarboxyamide (DMDPhPDA) and the corresponding lanthanum complex [La(NO 3 ) 3 (DMDPhPDA) 2 ] have been prepared and structurally characterised. The crystal structure of DMDPhPDA shows syn-anti conformation. In the lanthanum complex, two DMDPhPDA molecules coordinated to La(III) in a tridentate fashion and to three nitrate ions in a bidentate fashion make the lanthanum atom 12-coordinate. The crystal structure of [La(NO 3 ) 3 (DMDPhPDA) 2 ] has a C 2 symmetry. The stability constants determined by spectrophotometric titration suggest that [Ln(DMDPhPDA) 2 ] 3+ is the primary product in CH 3 CN solution and [Ln(DMDPhPDA) 3 ] 3+ is difficult to form. However, [Ln(DMDPhPDA) 2 ] 3+ could not be distinguished in 1 H NMR spectra. The 1 H NMR titration results imply that a fast ligand exchange process takes place

  18. Synthesis, spectra, and the crystal structure of α-(3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolyl-1)-hydroxyiminoacetamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol, V.I.; Davydov, V.V.; Kartashova, I.V.; Zaitsev, B.E.; Shklyaev, Yu.V.; Ryabov, M.A.; Sergienko, V.S.

    1996-01-01

    α-(3,3-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolyl-1)-hydroxyiminoacetamide (I) was synthesized, and its x-ray structure analysis was performed (Enraf-Nonius CAD-4 diffractometer; MoKα radiation; graphite monochromator; θ/2θ scan; 2θmax=56 deg. ; 2496 reflections with I≥2σ(I); and R=0.038). Crystals of I are monoclinic; a=11.67(1), b=8.365(3), and c=15.22(2) A; β=107.7(1) deg.; V=1415.2(2) A 3; ρ(calc)=1.236 g/cm3; Z=4; and sp. gr. P21/n. I crystallizes as a monohydrate, and its formula is C13H15N3O2·H2O. In a crystal, I exists in a azomethineoxime tautomeric form. The planes of amideoxime and dihydroisoquinoline moieties are nearly orthogonal to each other. According to IR and electronic spectra, when passing from crystal to solution the conformation of I changes only slightly. An effect of water molecules on the molecular structure of I is discussed

  19. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of albendazole sulfoxide in sheep and goats, and dose-dependent plasma disposition in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksit, Dilek; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Sekkin, Selim; Boyacioğlu, Murat; Cirak, Veli Yilgor; Ayaz, Erol; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2015-05-27

    The aims of this study were to compare the pharmacokinetics of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO, ricobendazole) in goats and sheep at a dose of 5 g/kg bodyweight (BW), after intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations, and to investigate the effects of increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg BW) on the plasma disposition of ABZ-SO in goats following SC administration. A total of 16 goats (Capra aegagrus hircus, eight males and eight females) and 8 sheep (Ovis aries, four males and four females) 12-16 months old and weighing 20-32 kg, were used. The study was designed according to two-phase crossover study protocol. In Phase-1, eight sheep were assigned as Group I and 16 goats were allocated into two groups (Group II and Group III). ABZ-SO was applied to Group I (sheep) and Group II (goats) animals subcutaneously, and to Group III (goats) animals intravenously, all at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW. In Phase-2, the sheep in the Group I received ABZ-SO intravenously in a dose of 5 mg/kg BW; the goats in Group II and Group III received ABZ-SO subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg BW, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at different times between 1 and 120 h after drug administrations. The plasma concentrations of ABZ-SO and its metabolites were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. In goats, the area under the curve, terminal half-life and plasma persistence of ABZ-SO were significantly smaller and shorter, respectively, compared with those observed in sheep following both IV and SC administrations at a dose of 5 mg/kg BW. On the other side, dose-dependent plasma dispositions of ABZ-SO were observed following SC administration at increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg) in goats. Consequently, ABZ-SO might be used at higher doses to provide higher plasma concentration and thus to achieve greater efficacy against the target parasites.

  20. Effect of the water content on the retention and enantioselectivity of albendazole and fenbendazole sulfoxides using amylose-based chiral stationary phases in organic-aqueous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materazzo, Sabrina; Carradori, Simone; Ferretti, Rosella; Gallinella, Bruno; Secci, Daniela; Cirilli, Roberto

    2014-01-31

    Four commercially available immobilized amylose-derived CSPs (Chiralpak IA-3, Chiralpak ID-3, Chiralpak IE-3 and Chiralpak IF-3) were used in the HPLC analysis of the chiral sulfoxides albendazole (ABZ-SO) and fenbendazole (FBZ-SO) and their in vivo sulfide precursor (ABZ and FBZ) and sulfone metabolite (ABZ-SO2 and FBZ-SO2) under organic-aqueous mode. U-shape retention maps, established by varying the water content in the acetonitrile- and ethanol-water mobile phases, were indicative of two retention mechanisms operating on the same CSP. The dual retention behavior of polysaccharide-based CSPs was exploited to design greener enantioselective and chemoselective separations in a short time frame. The enantiomers of ABZ-SO and FBZ-SO were baseline resolved with water-rich mobile phases (with the main component usually being 50-65% water in acetonitrile) on the IF-3 CSP and ethanol-water 100:5 mixture on the IA-3 and IE-3 CSPs. A simultaneous separation of ABZ (or FBZ), enantiomers of the corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone was achieved on the IA-3 using ethanol-water 100:60 (acetonitrile-water 100:100 for FBZ) as a mobile phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Noval 1-substituted-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazole derivatives: Synthesis and pharmacological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Hussain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several-1-carbothioamide-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 2a–d, 1-(pyridine-4-ylcarbonyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 3a–d, 1-(5-chloro-6-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazole-2-ylthiocarbamoyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 4a–d and 1-[(1,2,4-triazole-4-yl carbothioamide]-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 5a–d were synthesized. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were supported by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. These compounds were investigated for their, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, ulcerogenic, lipid peroxidation, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Some of the synthesized compounds showed potent anti-inflammatory activity along with minimal ulcerogenic effect and lipid peroxidation, compared to ibuprofen and flurbiprofen. Some of the tested compounds also showed moderate antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains.

  2. O-methylation of natural phenolic compounds based on green chemistry using dimethyl carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoso, N. I.; Pangestu, P. H.; Wahyuningsih, T. D.

    2016-02-01

    The alkyl aryl ether compounds, of which methyl eugenol and veratraldehyde are the simplest intermediates can be synthesized by reacting eugenol and vanillin with the green reagent dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The reaction was carried out under mild of temperature and pressure. Excellent yields and selective products were obtained (95-96%) after a few hours. In the end of the reaction, the catalysts (base and Phase Transfer Catalyst) can be recovered and regenerated.

  3. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Studies Of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sorption Into Trisilanolphenyl-Poss Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-06

    QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE STUDIES OF DIMETHYL METHYLPHOSPHONATE SORPTION INTO TRISILANOLPHENYL-POSS FILMS Joshua D. Kittle Thesis ...subsequent DIMP layers form a solid- like phase as a result of nucleated growth around the first layer. Bertilsson et al. studied the adsorption of...of QCMs in liquids,55, 56 opening the door to a variety of applications, including the study of electrodeposition of metals,57,65 electrochemical

  4. Organocatalytic asymmetric michael addition of aldehydes to beta-nitroacroleine dimethyl acetal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Efraim; Vicario, Jose L; Badía, Dolores; Carrillo, Luisa

    2006-12-21

    [Structure: see text] The organocatalytic asymmetric Michael addition of aldehydes to beta-nitroacroleine dimethyl acetal has been studied in detail. The reaction took place with excellent yields and high stereoselectivities when a chiral beta-amino alcohol such as L-prolinol was employed as the catalyst, leaving a formation of highly functionalized enantioenriched compounds containing two differentiated formyl groups together with a nitro moiety.

  5. Nano-Structured Crystalline Te Films by Laser Gas-Phase Pyrolysis of Dimethyl Tellurium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pola, Josef; Pokorná, Veronika; Boháček, Jaroslav; Bastl, Zdeněk; Ouchi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2004), s. 739-746 ISSN 0165-2370 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072107; GA MŠk OC 523.60 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921; CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : dimethyl tellurium * tellurium films * laser Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.352, year: 2004

  6. 2-(5,7-Dimethyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H14O3S, was prepared by alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl 2-(5,7-dimethyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate. In the crystal structure, the carboxyl groups are involved in intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, which link the molecules into centrosymmetric dimers. These dimers are further packed into stacks along the a axis by weak C—H...π interactions.

  7. Accurate spectroscopic characterization of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide isotopologues: a route toward their astrophysical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzzarini, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica, " Giacomo Ciamician," Università diBologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Senent, M. L. [Departamento de Química y Física Teóricas, Institsuto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Domínguez-Gómez, R. [Doctora Vinculada IEM-CSIC, Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Cátedra de Química, E.U.I.T. Obras Públicas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Carvajal, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Unidad Asociada IEM-CSIC-U.Huelva, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Hochlaf, M. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Al-Mogren, M. Mogren, E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it, E-mail: senent@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: rosa.dominguez@upm.es, E-mail: miguel.carvajal@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: majdi.hochlaf@u-pem.fr, E-mail: mmogren@ksu.edu.sa [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-11-20

    Using state-of-the-art computational methodologies, we predict a set of reliable rotational and torsional parameters for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide monosubstituted isotopologues. This includes rotational, quartic, and sextic centrifugal-distortion constants, torsional levels, and torsional splittings. The accuracy of the present data was assessed from a comparison to the available experimental data. Generally, our computed parameters should help in the characterization and the identification of these organo-sulfur molecules in laboratory settings and in the interstellar medium.

  8. Investigation into dimethyl cadmium decomposition proceeding in form of deflagration combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikheev, V.S.; Orlov, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Results of measuring the maximum explosion pressure of dimethyl cadmium CdMet 2 at 0.1 MPa initial pressure and ∼378 K temperature are presented. The investigation was conducted using the method of constant volume bomb-reactor with central ignition. Experimental value of the pressure increase, equalling to 0.46 MPa, agrees with evaluation, based on reaction adiabatic temperature thrmodynamic calculation. The normal burning rate, determined by the pressure increase, equals to 25±8 cm/s

  9. 2-[(3,5-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene]indane-1,3-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound 2-[(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene]-indane-1,3-dione (3 was synthesized in high yield by reaction of 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde and indane-1,3-dione in ethanol in the presence of pyridine. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and GC-MS spectral analysis.

  10. Optimal conditions in direct dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas utilizing a dual-type fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Ahmad; Eslamloueyan, Reza; Kazerooni, Nooshin Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Concerns over environmental pollution and ever-increasing energy demand have urged the global community to tap clean-burning fuels among which dimethyl ether is a promising candidate for contribution in the transportation sector. Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas, in which methanol production and dehydration take place simultaneously, is arguably the preferred route for large scale production. In this study, direct dimethyl ether synthesis is proposed in an industrial dual-type fluidized bed reactor. This configuration involves two fluidized bed reactors operating in different conditions. In the first catalytic reactor (water-cooled reactor), the synthesis gas is partly converted to methanol after being preheated by the reaction heat in the second reactor (gas-cooled reactor). A two-phase generalized comprehensive reactor model, comprised of the flow in three different regimes is applied and a smooth transition between flow regimes is provided based on the probabilistic averaging approach. The optimal operating conditions are sought by employing differential evolution algorithm as a robust optimization strategy. The dimethyl ether mole fraction is considered as the objective function during the optimization. The results show considerable dimethyl ether enhancement by 16% and 14% compared to the conventional direct dimethyl ether synthesis reactor and dual-type fixed bed dimethyl ether reactor arrangements, respectively. - Highlights: • Dual-type catalytic fluidized bed reactors for dimethyl ether synthesis is studied. • A two-phase comprehensive model comprised of flow in three regimes is used. • Probabilistic averaging approach is applied for smooth transitions between regimes. • Differential evolution method is employed to determine optimal operating conditions. • Production capacity is remarkably enhanced compared to conventional reactor.

  11. Synthesis of methyl acetate from dimethyl ether using group VIII metal salts of phosphotungstic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.; Tartamella, T.

    2002-04-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) can be produced much more efficiently in a single-stage, liquid-phase process from natural gas-based syngas as compared to the conventional process via dehydration of methanol. This process, based on dual catalysts slurried in inert oil, alleviates the chemical equilibrium limitation governing the methanol synthesis reaction and concurrently improves per-pass syngas conversion and reactor productivity. The potential, therefore, for production of methyl acetate via dimethyl ether carbonylation is of industrial importance. In the present study, conversion of dimethyl ether and carbon monoxide to methyl acetate is investigated over a variety of group VIII metal-substituted phosphotungstic acid salts. Experimental results of this catalytic reaction using rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, and palladium catalysts are evaluated and compared in terms of selectivity toward methyl acetate. The effects of active metal, support types, multiple metal loading, and feed conditions on carbonylation activity of DME are examined. Iridium metal substituted phosphotungstic acid supported on Davisil type 643 (pore size 150 A, surface area 279 m{sup 2}/g, mesh size 230-425) silica gel shows the highest activity for DME carbonylation. (author)

  12. Low-Dissipation Thermosets Derived from Oligo(2,6-Dimethyl Phenylene Oxide-Containing Benzoxazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Han Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(2,6-dimethyl phenyl oxide (PPO is known for its low dissipation factor. To achieve insulating materials with low dissipation factors for high-frequency communication applications, a telechelic oligomer-type benzoxazine (P-APPO and a main-chain type benzoxazine polymer (BPA-APPO were prepared from an amine end-capped oligo (2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide (APPO. The APPO was prepared from a nucleophilic substitution of a phenol-end capped oligo (2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide (a commercial product, SA 90 with fluoronitrobenzene, and followed by catalytic hydrogenation. After self-curing or curing with a dicyclopentadiene-phenol epoxy (HP 7200, thermosets with high-Tg and low-dissipation factor can be achieved. Furthermore, the resulting epoxy thermosets show better thermal and dielectric properties than those of epoxy thermoset cured from its precursor SA90, demonstrating it is a successful modification in simultaneously enhancing the thermal and dielectric properties.

  13. The synergistic effects of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil herbicides on weed population in rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ramli Ishak; Sabri Junoh; Ismail Sahid

    2002-01-01

    Four treatments with the herbicides 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil were carried out in two consecutive rice planting seasons, to study the synergistic effect of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil on rice weed populations at Pasir Panjang, the Northwest Selangor Project (PBLS), Projek Barat Laut Selangor) rice granary area. The treatments were control, 1x recommended rate (single dose), 2x recommended rate (double dose) of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and farmer practice. In all plots, propanil herbicide was applied at similar rate. Among the ecological indices measured were Simpson Index of diversity and importance (I.V.). A total number of 19 weed species was identified and the most common important weed was Najas graminae Del. The second most commonly found important weed was Scirpus lateriflorus Gmel. Other important weeds frequently found were Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl. In the rice agroecosystem, species diversity of weeds was affected but total weed biomass was not affected synergistically by the mixture of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil. The negative synergistic effect of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil was to increase the total biomass of Scirpus lateriflorus, at 2x recommended dose rate of 2,4-D dimethyl amine. (Author)

  14. Plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharipov, A U; Yangirov, I Z

    1982-01-01

    A clay-powder, cement, and water-base plugging solution is proposed having reduced solution viscosity characteristics while maintaining tensile strength in cement stone. This solution utilizes silver graphite and its ingredients, by mass weight, are as follows: cement 51.2-54.3%; claypowder 6.06-9.1%; silver graphite 0.24-0.33%; with water making up the remainder.

  15. Characterization of the chemical reactivity and nephrotoxicity of N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide, a potential reactive metabolite of trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, Roy M.; Pinkerton, Marie E.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2013-01-01

    N-Acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NA-DCVC) has been detected in the urine of humans exposed to trichloroethylene and its related sulfoxide, N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (NA-DCVCS), has been detected as hemoglobin adducts in blood of rats dosed with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) or S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS). Because the in vivo nephrotoxicity of NA-DCVCS was unknown, in this study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed (i.p.) with 230 μmol/kg b.w. NA-DCVCS or its potential precursors, DCVCS or NA-DCVC. At 24 h post treatment, rats given NA-DCVC or NA-DCVCS exhibited kidney lesions and effects on renal function distinct from those caused by DCVCS. NA-DCVC and NA-DCVCS primarily affected the cortico-medullary proximal tubules (S 2 –S 3 segments) while DCVCS primarily affected the outer cortical proximal tubules (S 1 –S 2 segments). When NA-DCVCS or DCVCS was incubated with GSH in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at 37 °C, the corresponding glutathione conjugates were detected, but NA-DCVC was not reactive with GSH. Because NA-DCVCS exhibited a longer half-life than DCVCS and addition of rat liver cytosol enhanced GSH conjugate formation, catalysis of GSH conjugate formation by the liver could explain the lower toxicity of NA-DCVCS in comparison with DCVCS. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that NA-DCVCS formation could play a significant role in DCVC, NA-DCVC, and trichloroethylene nephrotoxicity. They also suggest a role for hepatic metabolism in the mechanism of NA-DCVC nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: ► NA-DCVCS and NA-DCVC toxicity are distinct from DCVCS toxicity. ► NA-DCVCS readily reacts with GSH to form mono- and di-GSH conjugates. ► Liver glutathione S-transferases enhance NA-DCVCS GSH conjugate formation. ► Renal localization of lesions suggests a role for NA-DCVCS in TCE nephrotoxicity

  16. Characterization of the chemical reactivity and nephrotoxicity of N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide, a potential reactive metabolite of trichloroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, Roy M. [Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Pinkerton, Marie E. [Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Elfarra, Adnan A., E-mail: elfarra@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu [Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    N-Acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NA-DCVC) has been detected in the urine of humans exposed to trichloroethylene and its related sulfoxide, N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (NA-DCVCS), has been detected as hemoglobin adducts in blood of rats dosed with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) or S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS). Because the in vivo nephrotoxicity of NA-DCVCS was unknown, in this study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed (i.p.) with 230 μmol/kg b.w. NA-DCVCS or its potential precursors, DCVCS or NA-DCVC. At 24 h post treatment, rats given NA-DCVC or NA-DCVCS exhibited kidney lesions and effects on renal function distinct from those caused by DCVCS. NA-DCVC and NA-DCVCS primarily affected the cortico-medullary proximal tubules (S{sub 2}–S{sub 3} segments) while DCVCS primarily affected the outer cortical proximal tubules (S{sub 1}–S{sub 2} segments). When NA-DCVCS or DCVCS was incubated with GSH in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at 37 °C, the corresponding glutathione conjugates were detected, but NA-DCVC was not reactive with GSH. Because NA-DCVCS exhibited a longer half-life than DCVCS and addition of rat liver cytosol enhanced GSH conjugate formation, catalysis of GSH conjugate formation by the liver could explain the lower toxicity of NA-DCVCS in comparison with DCVCS. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that NA-DCVCS formation could play a significant role in DCVC, NA-DCVC, and trichloroethylene nephrotoxicity. They also suggest a role for hepatic metabolism in the mechanism of NA-DCVC nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: ► NA-DCVCS and NA-DCVC toxicity are distinct from DCVCS toxicity. ► NA-DCVCS readily reacts with GSH to form mono- and di-GSH conjugates. ► Liver glutathione S-transferases enhance NA-DCVCS GSH conjugate formation. ► Renal localization of lesions suggests a role for NA-DCVCS in TCE nephrotoxicity.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10055 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10055 Section 721.10055 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance and...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN P-03-46; CAS No. 136504-87-5) is subject to...

  18. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system for enhanced bioavailability and improved hepatoprotective activity of biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Laithy, Hanan M

    2008-07-01

    Biphenyl Dimethyl Dicarboxylate (BDD) is insoluble in aqueous solution and the bioavailability after oral administration is low. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) containing BDD has been successfully prepared using carefully selected ingredients which are less affected by pH and ionic strength changes to improve its bioavailability. SNEDDS is an isotropic mixture of lipid, surfactant, and cosurfactant which are spontaneously emulsified in aqueous medium under gentle digestive motility in the gastrointestinal tract. Pseudo ternary phase diagrams composed of various excipients were plotted to identify self -nano -emulsifying area. Droplet size changes upon dilution with aqueous media and in vitro release of BDD from SNEDDS in 0.1N HCl and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) were studied and compared with commercial chinese pilules and Pennel capsules. The hepatoprotective activity upon oral administration of SNEDDS against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in albino rats was assessed by measuring biochemical parameters like serum glutamic oxalacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Results showed that using a proper ratio of Tween 80 to Transcutol as surfactant and co-surfactant respectively and Miglyol 812 as oil to surfactants mixture resulted in production of infinitely diluted formulations in nano droplet size range. BDD self nano emulsified formula composed of 20% Miglyol 812, 60% Tween 80 and 20% Transcutol released 99% of the drug very rapidly within 10-15 minutes regardless of the pH condition. The oral absorption and bioavailability of BDD self nano emulsified formula in albino rats were significantly enhanced (P<0.01) with an average improvement of 1.7 and 6-folds that of commercial chinese pilules and Pennel capsules respectively. This improvement was also confirmed histopathologically in chemically injured rats and by the significant decrease in elevated liver enzymes

  19. Hydrogen/deuterium substitution methods: understanding water structure in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    The hydrogen/deuterium substitution method has been used for different applications, such as the short range order between water molecules in a number of different environments (aqueous solutions of organic molecules), or to study the partial structure factors of water at high pressure and temperature. The absolute accuracy that can be obtained remains uncertain, but important qualitative information can be obtained on the local organization of water in aqueous solution. Some recent results with pure water, methanol and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) solutions are presented. It is shown that the short range water structure is not greatly affected by most solutes except at high concentrations and when the solute species has its own distinctive interaction with water (such as a dissolved small ion). 3 figs., 14 refs

  20. Preparation, Characterization and Permeation Behavior of Poly(methyl acrylate-Poly(dimethyl siloxane-Poly(methyl acrylate Block Copolymer/Poly(vinyl acetate Blend Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Semsarzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Structure of polymeric materials is of the most important factors in determination of the characteristics and properties of the membranes. Various research and developments on polymeric membranes confirm the direct correlation between structure-properties of polymeric membranes. In this research, the structural outcome of poly(methyl acrylate-poly(dimethyl siloxane-poly(methyl acrylate/poly(vinyl acetate blend membranes and its relationship with gas permeation behavior of the blends were investigated. The flexible block copolymer of poly(methyl acrylate-poly(dimethyl siloxane-poly(methyl acrylate (PMA-PDMS-PMA was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization. Morphology and chemical structure of the synthesized block copolymer was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Blend membranes of PMA-PDMS-PMA and poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc were prepared by solution casting method in different compositions. By adding poly(vinyl acetate to PMA-PDMS-PMA block copolymer, the selectivity of the membranes for carbon dioxide/methane pair gases were increased by 55%. Fractional free volume (an indication of chain packing efficiency in blend membranes and dielectric constant (an indication of the molar volume and molar polarization of the blend membranes were obtained as the factors reflected the microstructural effect of PMA-PDMS-PMA and PVAc blend membranes. The efforts were directed toward expressing more precise structure-properties relationship of PMA-PDMS-PMA/PVAc blend membranes. The experimental permeability values of the blend membranes reported in this research were compared with the modified logarithmic model. The modified logarithmic model was evaluated for other blend membranes.

  1. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E.; Chan, Benny C.; Lill, Daniel T. de

    2015-01-01

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C 6 H 2 O 5 )(C 6 H 3 O 5 )(H 2 O)] n (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented. - Graphical abstract: A new two-dimensional coordination polymer derived from the in-situ hydrolysis of a furan dimethyl ester with lanthanide(III) ions was obtained in order to study its photophysical behavior when constructed from trivalent Eu and Tb. Quantum yields, lifetime measurements, and singlet/triplet state energies values were obtained. The nature of the material's excited state dynamics is examined and correlated to its structure in order to explain the overall luminescent efficiency of the system. - Highlights: • A new lanthanide–furandicarboxylate coordination polymer is presented. • Eu and Tb compounds display luminescent properties, albeit with low quantum yields. • Photophysical behavior explained through the compound's triplet state and structure. • Nonradiative deactivation of luminescence through high-energy oscillators was noted. • Molecular modeling of the organic moiety was conducted

  2. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E. [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Chan, Benny C. [Department of Chemistry, The College of New Jersey, 2000 Pennington Road, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States); Lill, Daniel T. de, E-mail: ddelill@fau.edu [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C{sub 6}H{sub 2}O{sub 5})(C{sub 6}H{sub 3}O{sub 5})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented. - Graphical abstract: A new two-dimensional coordination polymer derived from the in-situ hydrolysis of a furan dimethyl ester with lanthanide(III) ions was obtained in order to study its photophysical behavior when constructed from trivalent Eu and Tb. Quantum yields, lifetime measurements, and singlet/triplet state energies values were obtained. The nature of the material's excited state dynamics is examined and correlated to its structure in order to explain the overall luminescent efficiency of the system. - Highlights: • A new lanthanide–furandicarboxylate coordination polymer is presented. • Eu and Tb compounds display luminescent properties, albeit with low quantum yields. • Photophysical behavior explained through the compound's triplet state and structure. • Nonradiative deactivation of luminescence through high-energy oscillators was noted. • Molecular modeling of the organic moiety was conducted.

  3. A generalized model for the air-sea transfer of dimethyl sulfide at high wind speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Penny; Monahan, Edward C.

    2009-11-01

    The air-sea exchange of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important component of ocean biogeochemistry and global climate models. Both laboratory experiments and field measurements of DMS transfer rates have shown that the air-sea flux of DMS is analogous to that of other significant greenhouse gases such as CO2 at low wind speeds (10 m/s. The result is an attenuation of the dimensionless Henry's Law constant (H) where (Heff = H/(1 + (Cmix/Cw) ΦB) by a solubility enhancement Cmix/Cw, and the fraction of bubble surface area per m2 surface ocean.

  4. Conformational cooling and conformation selective aggregation in dimethyl sulfite isolated in solid rare gases

    OpenAIRE

    Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui

    2006-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfite has three conformers of low energy, GG, GT and GG0, which have significant populations in the gas phase at room temperature. According to theoretical predictions, the GT and GG0 conformers are higher in energy than the GG conformer by 0.83 and 1.18 kJ molK1, respectively, while the barriers associated with the GG0/GT and GT/GG isomerizations are 1.90 and 9.64 kJ molK1, respectively. Experimental data obtained for the compound isolated in solid argon, krypton and xenon demonst...

  5. Role of dimethyl fumarate in oxidative stress of multiple sclerosis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneetha, A; Raja Rajeswari, K

    2016-04-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS affecting both white and grey matter. Inflammation and oxidative stress are also thought to promote tissue damage in multiple sclerosis. Recent data point at an important role of anti-oxidative pathways for tissue protection in chronic MS, particularly involving the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Thus, novel therapeutics enhancing cellular resistance to free radicals could prove useful for MS treatment. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative pathways are important players in MS pathophysiology and constitute a promising target for future MS therapy with dimethyl fumarate. The clinical utility of DMF in multiple sclerosis is being explored through phase III trials with BG-12, which is an oral therapeutic agent. Currently a wide research is going on to find out the exact mechanism of DMF, till date it is not clear. Based on strong signals of nephrotoxicity in non-humans and the theoretical risk of renal cell cancer from intracellular accumulation of fumarate, post-marketing study of a large population of patients will be necessary to fully assess the long-term safety of dimethyl fumarate. The current treatment goals are to shorten the duration and severity of relapses, prolong the time between relapses, and delay progression of disability. In this regard, dimethyl fumarate offers a promising alternative to orally administered fingolimod (GILENYA) or teriflunomide (AUBAGIO), which are currently marketed in the United States under FDA-mandated Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) programs because of serious safety concerns. More clinical experience with all three agents will be necessary to differentiate the tolerability of long-term therapy for patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. This write-up provides the detailed information of dimethyl fumarate in treating the neuro disease, multiple sclerosis and its mechanism involved via

  6. Dimethyl ether reviewed: New results on using this gas in a high-precision drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; D'Ali, G.; Del Papa, C.; Maccarrone, G.; Massam, T.; Motta, F.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Rinaldi, G.; Sartorelli, G.; Spinetti, M.; Susinno, G.; Villa, F.; Voltano, L.; Zichichi, A.

    1985-01-01

    Two years ago, dimethyl ether (DME) was presented, for the first time, as a suitable gas for high-precision drift chambers. In fact our tests show that resolutions can be obtained which are better by at least a factor of 2 compared to what one can get with conventional gases. Moreover, DME is very well quenched. The feared formation of whiskers on the wires has not occurred, at least after months of use with a 10 μCi 106 Ru source. (orig.)

  7. DFT investigation on the adsorption behavior of dimethyl and trimethyl amine molecules on borophene nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, R.; Chandiramouli, R.

    2018-06-01

    The electronic properties of borophene nanotube (BNT) are witnessed and the adsorption properties of dimethyl amine (DMA) and trimethyl amine (TMA) molecules on borophene nanotube are explored through non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) and density functional theory (DFT) method. The device density of states spectrum interprets the change in peak maxima, thus indicating the electron transition between DMA, TMA molecules and BNT base material. I-V characteristics strengthen the adsorption property of DMA and TMA on BNT by pointing out the variation in the current. The present work assures that borophene nanotube (BNT) can be employed as DMA and TMA sensor.

  8. Dependence of crystallinity degree with induced grafting by gamma radiation of N,N'-dimethyl acrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, A.A.A.; Higa, O.Z.; Barrak, E.R.; Giolito, I.

    1991-01-01

    N,N' -dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) graft copolymerization onto polyethylene films was carried out, using a organic solvent as a reaction medium and gamma rays from a 60 Co source for surface activation. Thermal analysis revealed the crystallinity and the grafting inversely proportional. The DSC curves fusion peaks decreased with grafting rate increase, the peak almost disappearing in the curve of PE 440% grafted. It was concluded that the graft occurs not only on the surface but also in the substrate bulk, being the PE absorption of DMAA an important factor for build up of grafted mass. (author)

  9. The liquid–liquid coexistence curves of {x dimethyl adipate + (1 − x) n-hexane} and {x dimethyl adipate + (1 − x) n-heptane} in the critical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhiyun; Cai Li; Huang Meijun; Yin Tianxiang; An Xueqin; Shen Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Coexistence curves of (dimethyl adipate + n-hexane) (+n-heptane) were measured. ► The critical exponent β are consistent with the 3D-Ising value. ► The asymmetry of the coexistence curves were discussed by complete scaling theory. - Abstract: The liquid–liquid coexistence curves for (dimethyl adipate + n-hexane), (dimethyl adipate + n-heptane) have been measured, from which the critical amplitudes and the critical exponents are deduced. The critical exponent β corresponding to the coexistence curves are consistent with the 3D-Ising value. The experimental results have also been analyzed to determine the critical amplitudes of Wegner-correction terms when β and Δ are fixed at their theoretical values, and to examine the asymmetry of the diameters for the coexistence curves.

  10. Molecular dynamics and quantum chemical calculation studies on 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazide as corrosion inhibitor in 2.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musa, Ahmed Y., E-mail: ahmed.musa@ymail.com [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Takriff, Mohd Sobri [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} This work deals with a study of chemical additives for corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acidic conditions. {yields} The effects of the additive 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazide (DTS) on mild steel were studied by means of electrochemical techniques. {yields} Quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic model were performed to characterize the inhibition mechanism. {yields} The calculations provided information that helps in the analysis/interpretation of the experimental work. - Abstract: The inhibition of mild steel corrosion in a 2.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution by 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazide (DTS) was studied at 30 deg. C using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Quantum chemical parameters were calculated for DTS using PM3-SCF method. The molecular dynamic method was performed to simulate the adsorption of the DTS molecules on Fe surface. Results showed that DTS performed excellent as inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in a 2.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiencies increase with the concentration of inhibitor. Theoretical results indicated that DTS could adsorb on the mild steel surface firmly through heteroatoms.

  11. Dimethyl Fumarate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... memory, or awareness that leads to confusion and personality changes extreme tiredness, loss of appetite, pain in ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of light hydrocarbons produced by radiation degradation of N, N-dimethyl hydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinhua; Bao Borong; Wu Minghong; Sun Xilian; Zhang Xianye; Hu Jingxin; Ye Guoan

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the qualitative and quantitative analysis of light hydrocarbons produced by radiation degradation of N, N-dimethyl hydroxylamine. These analyses were performed on the gas chromatograph, in which porous layer open tubular column coated with aluminum oxide and flame-ionization detector are used. For the doses between 10 and 1000 kGy, the light hydrocarbons produced by radiation degradation of N,N-dimethyl hydroxylamine are methane, ethane, ethene, propane, propene and n-butane. When the concentration of N,N-dimethyl hydroxylamine is 0.2 mol/L, the volume fraction of methane is (9.996-247.5) x 10 -6 , the volume fraction of ethane, propane and n-butane is lower and that of ethene and propene is much lower. With the increase of dose the volume fraction of methane is increased but the volume fraction of ethane, ethene, propane, propene and n-butane is not obviously changed. (authors)

  13. Laser-induced flourescence studies of Cm3+ complexes in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitz, J.V.

    1989-01-01

    Photophysical studies of complexed Cm 3 + in solution have been carried out using a laser-induced fluorescence method. The luminescence decay rate of the first excited J=7/2 state of Cm 3 + was measured using carbonate, nitrate, and two extractant aminocarboxylic acids as complexing ligands in aqueous solution. Cm(ClO 4 ) 3 dissolved in methyl sulfoxide also was studied. Solvent deuteration provided insight into the dominant nonradiative luminescence quenching mechanism which was found to be electronic-to- vibrational energy transfer. Emission spectra of Cm 3 + complexed by the various ligands studied are reported. Prior spectroscopic and photophysical studies of Cm 3 + in solution are reviewed. 24 refs. , 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Catalyst activity maintenance study for the liquid phase dimethyl ether process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, X.D.; Toseland, B.A.; Underwood, R.P. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The co-production of dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol from syngas is a process of considerable commercial attractiveness. DME coproduction can double the productivity of a LPMEOH process when using coal-derived syngas. This in itself may offer chemical producers and power companies increased flexibility and more profitable operation. DME is also known as a clean burning liquid fuel; Amoco and Haldor-Topsoe have recently announced the use of DME as an alternative diesel fuel. Moreover, DME can be an interesting intermediate in the production of chemicals such as olefins and vinyl acetate. The current APCl liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) process utilizes a physical mixture of a commercial methanol synthesis catalyst and a dehydration catalyst (e.g., {gamma}-alumina). While this arrangement provides a synergy that results in much higher syngas conversion per pass compared to the methanol-only process, the stability of the catalyst system suffers. The present project is aimed at reducing catalyst deactivation both by understanding the cause(s) of catalyst deactivation and by developing modified catalyst systems. This paper describes the current understanding of the deactivation mechanism.

  15. Asymmetric Arginine dimethylation of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 promotes DNA targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Henrik; Barth, Stephanie; Palermo, Richard D.; Mamiani, Alfredo; Hennard, Christine; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; West, Michelle J.; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Graesser, Friedrich A.

    2010-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) growth-transforms B-lymphocytes. The virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is essential for transformation and activates gene expression by association with DNA-bound transcription factors such as RBPJκ (CSL/CBF1). We have previously shown that EBNA2 contains symmetrically dimethylated Arginine (sDMA) residues. Deletion of the RG-repeat results in a reduced ability of the virus to immortalise B-cells. We now show that the RG repeat also contains asymmetrically dimethylated Arginines (aDMA) but neither non-methylated (NMA) Arginines nor citrulline residues. We demonstrate that only aDMA-containing EBNA2 is found in a complex with DNA-bound RBPJκ in vitro and preferentially associates with the EBNA2-responsive EBV C, LMP1 and LMP2A promoters in vivo. Inhibition of methylation in EBV-infected cells results in reduced expression of the EBNA2-regulated viral gene LMP1, providing additional evidence that methylation is a prerequisite for DNA-binding by EBNA2 via association with the transcription factor RBPJκ.

  16. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  17. N-(4-Bromobenzyl-2-(5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzo[d]imid-azol-2-ylbenzeneamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dziełak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available N-(4-Bromobenzyl-2-(5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylbenzeneamine was obtained by condensation of N-(4-bromobenzyl-3,1-benzoxazine-2,4-dione (N-(4-bromobenzylisatoic anhydride with 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine in refluxing acetic acid. This is a rare example of condensation of N-substituted 3,1-benzoxazine-2,4-dione with 1,2-phenylenediamine, which resulted in the formation of a benzimidazole derivative with a moderate yield. Crystallographic studies and initial biological screening were performed for the obtained product.

  18. Growth of copper-treated corn roots as affected by EDTA, IAA, succinic acid-2,2-dimethyl hydrazide, vitamins and potassium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R; Welkie, G W

    1977-04-01

    Corn roots were treated for 1 hr in a modified Hoagland's solution containing 8 mg/l Cu/sup 2 +/ and either simultaneously or subsequently with various substances, in order to test theories of copper toxicity to roots. Post treatment with IAA, niacin amide, thiamin, or sucrose had no effect on subsequent growth. Addition of excess KCl and succinic acid-2,2-dimethyl hydrazide (an inhibitor of ethylene production) to the copper solution doubled average growth and increased recovery from 27 to 87%. A rinse with EDTA resulted in resumption of normal growth rates and 100% recovery if performed 1 hr after Cu treatment, but this effect was gradually lost in the following 6 to 12 hr. Copper toxicity was increasingly severe as pH of the Cu treating medium increased. Results are not consistent with any theory tested, but they do suggest there is an initial phase of copper-stress which lasts 3 to 6 hr, followed by plant reaction that results in irreversible cessation of growth.

  19. Dielectric relaxation studies of dilute solutions of amides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malathi, M.; Sabesan, R.; Krishnan, S

    2003-11-15

    The dielectric constants and dielectric losses of formamide, acetamide, N-methyl acetamide, acetanilide and N,N-dimethyl acetamide in dilute solutions of 1,4-dioxan/benzene have been measured at 308 K using 9.37 GHz, dielectric relaxation set up. The relaxation time for the over all rotation {tau}{sub (1)} and that for the group rotation {tau}{sub (2)} of (the molecules were determined using Higasi's method. The activation energies for the processes of dielectric relaxation and viscous flow were determined by using Eyring's rate theory. From relaxation time behaviour of amides in non-polar solvent, solute-solvent and solute-solute type of molecular association is proposed.

  20. Phase-separation phenomena in solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide). III. Pulse-induced critical scattering of solutions in toluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Gordon, M.

    1977-01-01

    For the polymer-solvent system poly(phenylene oxide) in toluene the mechanism and kinetics of crystallization have been studied with the Pulse Induced Critical Scattering technique. It was found that after a delay-time the growth mechanism was diffusion controlled. The delay-time is thought to be

  1. Photophysical processes study for poly (P-substituted styrenes) in solid films and in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hakeem, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    In this work, the absorption and emission spectra of poly (P-NN dimethyl amino styrene), poly (P-Fluoro Styrene), poly (P-CH2OCH3 styrene), poly (P-Methyl (styrene), poly(P-Tertiary butyl styrene) have been studied in solid films and solutions. The effect of added dimethylterph-thalate as a quencher to the fluorescence emission of the polymers used in this work were studied.(5 tabs., 39 figs., 60 refs.)

  2. 40 CFR 721.10056 - Benzenemethanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzenemethanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl...-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzenemethanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N,N...

  3. Optimizing the Performance of a 50cc Compression Ignition Two-Stroke Engine Operating on Dimethyl Ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Rene; Dolriis, J.D.; Hansson, C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the optimization of a 50cc crankcase scavenged two-stroke diesel engine operating on dimethyl ether (DME). The optimization is primarily done with respect to engine efficiency. The underlying idea behind the work is that the low weight, low internal friction and low engine...

  4. Evaluation of the binding interaction between bovine serum albumin and dimethyl fumarate, an anti-inflammatory drug by multispectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jattinagoudar, Laxmi; Meti, Manjunath; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa; Chimatadar, Shivamurti

    2016-03-01

    The information of the quenching reaction of bovine serum albumin with dimethyl fumarate is obtained by multi-spectroscopic methods. The number of binding sites, n and binding constants, KA were determined at different temperatures. The effect of increasing temperature on Stern-Volmer quenching constants (KD) indicates that a dynamic quenching mechanism is involved in the interaction. The analysis of thermodynamic quantities namely, ∆H° and ∆S° suggested hydrophobic forces playing a major role in the interaction between dimethyl fumarate and bovine serum albumin. The binding site of dimethyl fumarate on bovine serum albumin was determined by displacement studies, using the site probes viz., warfarin, ibuprofen and digitoxin. The determination of magnitude of the distance of approach for molecular interactions between dimethyl fumarate and bovine serum albumin is calculated according to the theory of Förster energy transfer. The CD, 3D fluorescence spectra, synchronous fluorescence measurements and FT-IR spectral results were indicative of the change in secondary structure of the protein. The influence of some of the metal ions on the binding interaction was also studied.

  5. Notochord in Tilapia nilotica Exposed to Sublethal Dose of Malathion, S[1, 2-Di(EthoxycarbonylEthyl] Dimethyl Phosphorothiolothionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Amparado

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of Tilapia nilotica embryos to sublethal dose of 1.0 ppm commercial grade malathion, S[1,2-di(ethoxycarbonylethyl] dimethyl phosphorothiolothionate from day-10 post fertilization resulted in notochordal aberrations. Pesticide-treated fishes exhibited constriction of the notochordal sheath, folding at the posterior sections and larger notochord than those of the control group.

  6. Voltammetric Determination of N,N-Dimethyl-4-amine-carboxyazobenzene at a Silver Solid Amalgam Electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barek, J.; Dodova, E.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Josypčuk, Bohdan; Novotný, Ladislav; Zima, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 22 (2003), s. 1778-1781 ISSN 1040-0397 Grant - others:GIT(AR) 101/02/U111/CZ Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : N,N-dimethyl-4-amino-carboxyazobenzene * differential pulse voltammetry * silver solid amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.811, year: 2003

  7. 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 increases survival of murine intestinal stem cells when given before photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.R.; Thomas, C.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of prostaglandins (PG) protect the gastric and intestinal mucosa when given before damaging agents as absolute ethanol, acidified taurocholate, boiling water, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAI). A synthetic prostaglandin, 16,16-dimethyl PGE 2 , shown to be cytoprotective at physiologic levels to the above agents was given to mice 1 h before or 15 min after 137 Cs gamma(γ) whole-body irradiation. The survival of intestinal stem cells measured by their ability to form in situ colonies of regenerating epithelium was increased stem cells measured by their ability to form in situ colonies of regenerating epithelium was increased when 16,16-dimethyl PGE 2 was given before but not after 137 Cs γ irradiation. The maximum degree of 16,16-dimethyl PGE 2 -induced radioprotection was seen when the drug was given 1 h before irradiation. No radioprotection was seen when the interval between drug and irradiation was 3 h or longer. When the time between 16,16-dimethyl PGE 2 and irradiation was kept at 1 h, the degree of radioprotection was dependent on the PG drug dose. There was a steep rise in the number of surviving cells at low doses of PG. These results imply that tumors which secrete PGE 2 may in part be protected from the lethal effects of ionizing photon radiation

  8. Perfluoroalkylation of Aryl-N,N-dimethyl Hydrazones Using Hypervalent Iodine(III) Reagents or Perfluoroalkyl Iodides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhsen, Benjamin; Studer, Armido

    2017-11-17

    Radical trifluoromethylation of aryl N,N-dimethyl hydrazones using TBAI as an initiator and Togni's reagent as a trifluoromethyl radical source is described. Cascades proceed via electron-catalysis; this approach is generally more applicable to hydrazone perfluoroalkylation using perfluoroalkyl iodides as the radical precursors in combination with a base under visible-light initiation.

  9. Effect of Dimethyl Carbonate Plasticizer on Ionic Conductivity of Methyl Cellulose-Based Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.F.; Ridwan, N.I.M.; Hatta, F.F.; Yahya, M.Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Influences of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) plasticizer on ionic conductivity, dielectric permittivity and electrical modulus formalism of methyl cellulose (MC)-based polymer electrolytes have been studied. The room temperature electrical conductivity as measured by impedance spectroscopy shows that a methyl cellulose film has a conductivity of ∼10 -10 S cm -1 . In this study, other than KOH ionic dopant, DMC plasticizer is also added to the polymer with the aim of enhancing the electrical conductivity of the polymer. The highest room temperature conductivity of the plasticised sample is ∼10 -5 S cm -1 . The plot of log σ versus 10 3 / T for the highest conducting sample obeys Arrhenius rule indicating that the conductivity occurs by thermally activated mechanism. (author)

  10. 1,2-Diiodo-4,5-dimethyl­benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Bruce A.; Kilgore, Uriah J.; Bond, Marcus R.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, C8H8I2, conforms closely to the mm2 symmetry expected for the free mol­ecule and is the first reported structure of a diiodo­dimethyl­benzene. Repulsion by neighboring I atoms and the neighboring methyl groups opposite to them results in a slight elongation of the mol­ecule along the approximate twofold rotation axis that bis­ects the ring between the two I atoms. In the extended structure, the mol­ecules form inversion-related pairs which are organized in approximately hexa­gonal close-packed layers and the layers then stacked so that mol­ecules in neighboring layers abut head-to-tail in a manner that optimizes dipole–dipole inter­actions. PMID:21583089

  11. 2,9-Dimethyl-1,10-phenanthrolin-1-ium tetrachloridoferrate(III methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Bahojb Noruzi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, (C14H13N2[FeCl4]·CH3OH, the 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthrolin-1-ium cation, FeCl4− anion and methanol solvent molecule lie on a twofold rotation axis. Due to symmetry, the H atom on the N atom of the cation is half-occupied. In the anion, the FeIII atom has a tetrahedral geometry. H atoms of the methanol molecule are disordered over two sets of sites around the twofold axis. In the crystal, π–π contacts between the pyridine rings and between the pyridine and benzene rings [centroid–centroid distances = 3.6535 (16 and 3.5522 (17 Å] and intermolecular O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds stabilize the structure.

  12. C-4 Gem-Dimethylated Oleanes of Gymnema sylvestre and Their Pharmacological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Di Fabio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., one of the most important medicinal plants of the Asclepiadaceae family, is a herb distributed throughout the World, predominantly in tropical countries. The plant, widely used for the treatment of diabetes and as a diuretic in Indian proprietary medicines, possesses beneficial digestive, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and anti-helmentic effects. Furthermore, it is believed to be useful in the treatment of dyspepsia, constipation, jaundice, hemorrhoids, cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis and leucoderma. A literature survey revealed that some other notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as anti-obesity, hypolipidemic, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties have been proven too. This paper aims to summarize the chemical and pharmacological reports on a large group of C-4 gem-dimethylated pentacyclic triterpenoids from Gymnema sylvestre.

  13. XPS and NEXAFS analysis of dimethyl sulfide adsorbed on the Rh(PVP) nanoparticle surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Hironori; Ogawa, Satoshi; Yagi, Shinya; Kutluk, Galif

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the adsorption reaction of dimethyl sulfide (DMS: (CH 3 ) 2 S) on the surface of Rh(PVP) nanoparticles by using AFM, XPS and NEXAFS techniques. The AFM images show the degree of dispersion of the Rh(PVP) nanoparticles depends on the amount of them. The in-situ XPS results indicate that the dissociation reaction of DMS into atomic S does not depend upon the existence of the Rh(PVP) nanoparticles. The NEXAFS results show that there is a strong chemical bonding between Rh(PVP) nanoparticle and atomic S. The ex-situ XPS results show the atomic S adsorbed on the Rh(PVP) nanoparticles partially desorb by exposing to the air. (author)

  14. Establishing a green platform for biodiesel synthesis via strategic utilization of biochar and dimethyl carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Sik Ok, Yong; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-10-01

    To establish a green platform for biodiesel production, this study mainly investigates pseudo-catalytic (non-catalytic) transesterification of olive oil. To this end, biochar from agricultural waste (maize residue) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as an acyl acceptor were used for pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction. Reaction parameters (temperature and molar ratio of DMC to olive oil) were also optimized. The biodiesel yield reached up to 95.4% under the optimal operational conditions (380°C and molar ratio of DMC to olive oil (36:1)). The new sustainable environmentally benign biodiesel production introduced in this study is greener and faster than conventional transesterification reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multivariable model predictive control design of reactive distillation column for Dimethyl Ether production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, A.; Putra, I. G. E. P.

    2018-03-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative clean energy has attracted a growing attention in the recent years. DME production via reactive distillation has potential for capital cost and energy requirement savings. However, combination of reaction and distillation on a single column makes reactive distillation process a very complex multivariable system with high non-linearity of process and strong interaction between process variables. This study investigates a multivariable model predictive control (MPC) based on two-point temperature control strategy for the DME reactive distillation column to maintain the purities of both product streams. The process model is estimated by a first order plus dead time model. The DME and water purity is maintained by controlling a stage temperature in rectifying and stripping section, respectively. The result shows that the model predictive controller performed faster responses compared to conventional PI controller that are showed by the smaller ISE values. In addition, the MPC controller is able to handle the loop interactions well.

  16. Potential toxicity of phthalic acid esters plasticizer: interaction of dimethyl phthalate with trypsin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Guowen; Wang, Langhong

    2015-01-14

    Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) is widely used as a plasticizer in industrial processes and has been reported to possess potential toxicity to the human body. In this study, the interaction between DMP and trypsin in vitro was investigated. The results of fluorescence, UV–vis, circular dichroism, and Fourier transform infrared spectra along with cyclic voltammetric measurements indicated that the remarkable fluorescence quenching and conformational changes of trypsin resulted from the formation of a DMP–trypsin complex, which was driven mainly by hydrophobic interactions. The molecular docking and trypsin activity assay showed that DMP primarily interacted with the catalytic triad of trypsin and led to the inhibition of trypsin activity. The dimensions of the individual trypsin molecules were found to become larger after binding with DMP by atomic force microscopy imaging. This study offers a comprehensive picture of DMP–trypsin interaction, which is expected to provide insights into the toxicological effect of DMP.

  17. Lubrication and wear in diesel engine injection equipment fuelled by dimethyl ether (DME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2003-01-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been recognised as an excellent fuel for diesel engines for over one decade now. DME fueled engines emit virtually no particulate matter even at low NOx levels. DME has thereby the potential of reducing the diesel engine emissions without filters or other devices...... that jeopardise the high efficiency of the engine and increase the manufacturing costs. DME has a low toxicity and can be made from anything containing carbon including biomass. If DME is produced from cheap natural gas from remote locations, the price of this new fuel could even become lower than that of diesel...... oil. Fueling diesel engines with DME presents two significant problems: The injection equipment can break down due to extensive wear and DME attacks nearly all known elastomers. The latter problem renders dynamic sealing diƣult whereas the first one involves the poor lubrication qualities of DME which...

  18. Porous Diatomite-Immobilized Cu–Ni Bimetallic Nanocatalysts for Direct Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of diatomite-immobilized Cu–Ni bimetallic nanocatalysts was prepared under ultrasonication and evaluated for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate under various conditions. Upon being fully characterized by TPR, TPD, BET, SEM, XRD, and XPS methodologies, it is found that the bimetallic composite is effectively alloyed and well immobilized inside or outside the pore of diatomite. Under the optimal conditions of 1.2 MPa and 120∘C, the prepared catalyst with loading of 15% exhibited the highest methanol conversion of 6.50% with DMC selectivity of 91.2% as well as more than 10-hour lifetime. The possible reaction mechanism was proposed and discussed in detail. To our knowledge, this is the first report to use diatomite as a catalyst support for direct DMC synthesis from methanol and CO2.

  19. Dimethyl amiloride improves glucose homeostasis in mouse models of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C; Head, W Steven; Piston, David W

    2008-06-01

    Dimethyl amiloride (DMA) enhances insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell. DMA also enhances time-dependent potentiation (TDP) and enables TDP to occur in situations where it is normally absent. As we have demonstrated before, these effects are mediated in part through inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), resulting in increased availability of arginine. Thus both DMA and arginine have the potential to correct the secretory defect in diabetes by enabling or enhancing TDP. In the current study we have demonstrated the ability of these agents to improve blood glucose homeostasis in three mouse models of type 2 diabetes. The pattern of TDP under different conditions indicates that inhibition of NOS is not the only mechanism through which DMA exerts its positive effects. Thus we also have explored another possible mechanism through which DMA enables/enhances TDP, via the activation of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase.

  20. Removal of dimethyl sulfide by the combination of non-thermal plasma and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z S; Li, H Q; He, J C; Ye, Q H; Huang, Q R; Luo, Y W

    2013-10-01

    A bench scale system integrated with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) and a biotricking filtration (BTF) unit for the treatment of gases containing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was investigated. DMS removal efficiency in the integrated system was up to 96%. Bacterial communities in the BTF were assessed by PCR-DGGE, which play the dominant role in the biological processes of metabolism, sulfur oxidation, sulfate-reducing and carbon oxidation. The addition of ozone from NTP made microbial community in BTF more complicated and active for DMS removal. The NTP oxidize DMS to simple compounds such as methanol and carbonyl sulfide; the intermediate organic products and DMS are further oxidized to sulfate, carbon dioxide, water vapors by biological degradation. These results show that NTP-BTF is achievable and open new possibilities for applying the integrated with NTP and BTF to odour gas treatment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of dimethyl fumarate on heme oxygenase-1 expression in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Kasarełło

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmunological disease leading to neurodegeneration. The etiology of the disease remains unknown, which strongly impedes the development of effective therapy. Most MS treatments focus on modulating the activity of the immune system. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF exerts a broad spectrum of action, such as modulating immune cell differentiation towards anti-inflammatory subtypes, influencing cytokine production, regulating immune cell migration into the central nervous system, and activating intracellular antioxidant mechanisms. It is well established that activation of the nuclear factor E2 (Nrf2-dependent pathway, leading to expression of the second-phase antioxidant enzymes, is influenced by DMF. In our experiments we used female Lewis rats in an animal model of MS – experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE. The rats were fed with dimethyl fumarate to test the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, one of the second-phase antioxidant enzymes, at specific time points of the symptomatic phases of the disease: on the first day of the occurrence of clinical symptoms (10th day post immunization, DPI; at the peak of clinical symptoms (14th DPI; and at the end of the relapse (21st DPI. The results showed that HO-1 expression, at both the mRNA and protein level, is influenced by DMF administration only at the very beginning of the symptomatic phase of EAE, and not at the peak of clinical symptoms, nor at the end of the relapse. This indicates that the regulation of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant pathway by DMF occurs at a certain time interval (early EAE/MS and strongly underlines the importance of the earliest introduction of the therapy to the patient.

  2. The sensitivity of dimethyl sulfide production to simulated climate change in the Eastern Antarctic Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabric, Albert J.; Cropp, Roger; Marchant, Harvey

    2003-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a radiatively active trace gas produced by enzymatic cleavage of its precursor compound, dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP), which is released by marine phytoplankton in the upper ocean. Once ventilated to the atmosphere, DMS is oxidised to form non-sea-salt sulfate and methane sulfonate (MSA) aerosols, which are a major source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in remote marine air and may thus play a role in climate regulation. Here we simulate the change in DMS flux in the Eastern Antarctic ocean from 1960-2086, corresponding to equivalent CO 2 tripling relative to pre-industrial levels. Calibration to contemporary climate conditions was carried out using a genetic algorithm to fit the model to surface chlorophyll from the 4-yr SeaWiFs satellite archive and surface DMS from an existing global database. Following the methodology used previously in the Subantarctic Southern Ocean, we then simulated DMS emissions under enhanced greenhouse conditions by forcing the DMS model with output from a coupled atmospheric-ocean general circulation model (GCM). The GCM was run in transient mode under the IPCC/IS92a radiative forcing scenario. By 2086, the change simulated in annual integrated DMS flux is around 20% in ice-free waters, with a greater increase of 45% in the seasonal ice zone (SIZ). Interestingly, the large increase in flux in the SIZ is not due to higher in situ production but mainly because of a loss of ice cover during summer-autumn and an increase in sea-to-air ventilation of DMS. These proportional changes in areal mean flux (25%) are much higher than previously estimated for the Subantarctic Southern Ocean (5%), and point to the possibility of a significant DMS-climate feedback at high Southern latitudes. Due to the nexus between ice cover and food-web structure, the potential for ecological community shifts under enhanced greenhouse conditions is high, and the implications for DMS production are discussed

  3. Soil Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil

  4. Seeding Solutions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Crucible Group operates on the basis of good faith –– producing best effort non-consensus texts. ..... science and technology-based solutions to agricultural production constraints, it is ...... In 1997 researchers at Case Western Reserve Medical School in Ohio (US) ...... Is there a need to update the system-wide IP audit?

  5. Circular Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.; Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Haas, de W.; Kuikman, P.J.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Sikirica, N.

    2016-01-01

    The fifth part of this report on Circular Solutions is about the circular principle From Waste to Resource. The purpose of this study is to select promising options for the implementation of this circular principle and to elaborate these options further.

  6. Podcast solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Podcasting is the art of recording radio show style audio tracks, then distributing them to listeners on the Web via podcasting software such as iPodder. From downloading podcasts to producing a track for fun or profit, ""Podcast Solutions"" covers the entire world of podcasting with insight, humor, and the unmatched wisdom of experience.

  7. Effects of transgenic methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA expression on lifespan and age-dependent changes in metabolic function in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B. Salmon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms that preserve and maintain the cellular proteome are associated with long life and healthy aging. Oxidative damage is a significant contributor to perturbation of proteostasis and is dealt with by the cell through regulation of antioxidants, protein degradation, and repair of oxidized amino acids. Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA repairs oxidation of free- and protein-bound methionine residues through enzymatic reduction and is found in both the cytosol and the mitochondria. Previous studies in Drosophila have shown that increasing expression of MsrA can extend longevity. Here we test the effects of increasing MsrA on longevity and healthy aging in two transgenic mouse models. We show that elevated expression of MsrA targeted specifically to the cytosol reduces the rate of age-related death in female mice when assessed by Gompertz analysis. However, neither cytosolic nor mitochondrial MsrA overexpression extends lifespan when measured by log-rank analysis. In mice with MsrA overexpression targeted to the mitochondria, we see evidence for improved insulin sensitivity in aged female mice. With these and our previous data, we conclude that the increasing MsrA expression in mice has differential effects on aging and healthy aging that are dependent on the target of its subcellular localization.

  8. The preparation, characterization, and pharmacokinetic studies of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel/dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye YJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Jing Ye,1 Yun Wang,1 Kai-Yan Lou,1 Yan-Zuo Chen,1 Rongjun Chen,2 Feng Gao1,3,4 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; 3Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, 4Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: A novel biocompatible and biodegradable drug-delivery nanoparticle (NP has been developed to minimize the severe side effects of the poorly water-soluble anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX for clinical use. PTX was loaded into the hydrophobic cavity of a hydrophilic cyclodextrin derivative, heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD, using an aqueous solution-stirring method followed by lyophilization. The resulting PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex dramatically enhanced the solubility of PTX in water and was directly incorporated into chitosan (CS to form NPs (with a size of 323.9–407.8 nm in diameter using an ionic gelation method. The formed NPs had a zeta potential of +15.9–23.3 mV and showed high colloidal stability. With the same weight ratio of PTX to CS of 0.7, the loading efficiency of the PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs was 30.3-fold higher than that of the PTX-loaded CS NPs. Moreover, it is notable that PTX was released from the DM-β-CD/CS NPs in a sustained-release manner. The pharmacokinetic studies revealed that, compared with reference formulation (Taxol®, the PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs exhibited a significant increase in AUC0→24h (the area under the plasma drug concentration–time curve over the period of 24 hours and mean residence time by 2.7-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively. Therefore, the novel drug/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs have promising applications for the

  9. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven......’s research framework seems to fit this purpose. Van de Ven allows for an iterative research approach to problem solving with flexible starting point. The research activity is the result between the iteration of two dimensions. This framework focuses on the natural evaluation, particularly on ex...

  10. CdS nanobubbles and Cd-DMS nanosheets: solvothermal synthesis and formation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Miao; Zhan, Hongbing

    2013-02-01

    CdS nanobubbles and Cd-DMS nanosheets have been prepared by a solvothermal method from a solution of Cd2+ in dimethyl sulfoxide in the absence of elemental S. A formation mechanism for the nanobubble morphology arising during the CdS nanocrystal growth has been proposed, based on the results of transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectrophotometry. The correlation of the morphology with reaction time was also suggested, and may be applicable to the solvothermal synthesis of other nanomaterials.

  11. EPR-study of reversible oxygenation process of coordination compounds of cobalt(II) with S-substituted N1,N4-di(salicylidene)-isothiosemicarbazides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbeleu, N.V.; Revenko, M.D.; Rusu, V.G.; Shames, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    The reaction between molecular oxygen and coordination compounds of cobalt(II) with S-substituted N 1 ,N 4 -di(salicylidene)isothiosemicarbazides in dimethyl sulfoxide solution was studied by the EPR method. It was found that paramagnetic monomeric adducts and diamagnetic μ-peroxo-dimers are formed. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters of the EPR spectra of the initial cobalt complexes, as well as of the paramagnetic adducts were determined. The nature of the Co-O 2 bond is discussed

  12. PMP, a novel solute for liquid and plastic scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusten, Hans

    1983-01-01

    The excellent fluorescence properties of PMP ( 11-phenyl-3-mesityl-2-pyrazoline) such as long wavelength emission of over 400 nm, and high fluorescence quantum yield with a short decay time together with a solubility of more than one Mol/L in toluene make this compound a promising solute for scintillation counting. The Stokes' shift of PMP of over 10,000 cm -1 is twice as large as that of the commonly used PPO. Due to this unusually large Stokes' shift PMP can be used as a primary solute without requiring a secondary solute as wavelength shifter. A comparison of the scintillation properties of PMP and PPO in toluene reveals that the counting efficiency for 14 C is better for PMP while the 3 H efficiency is equally good. Due to the large Stokes' shift, PMP is about 50 percent less sensitive to color quenching than PPO. Compared to the solute combinations PPO/secondary solutes, the scintillation counting efficiency of PMP for 14 C in toluene or xylene is the same, while the absolute 3 H efficiency of PPO/secondary solutes in cocktails with emulsifiers is about 10 percent higher. The PMP scintillation efficiency for 14 C as well as 3 H in chemical quenching by urine is more or less the same as for PPO/dimethyl-POPOP. PMP is more sensitive to quenching by halogenated solvents. In the dioxane-based scintillation, this sensitivity to chemical quenching by CHCl 3 vanishes and the counting efficiencies for 14 C and 3 H are as good as for PPO/dimethyl-POPOP or PPO/bis-MSB. Due to the large Stokes' shift, the self-absorption of the scintillation light by PMP is lower than in conventional scintillators. This offers good possibilities in very large-volume applications of liquid as well as plastic scintillators

  13. Development of the sulphonated poly(2,6-Dimethyl-1,4-Phenylene Oxide) membranes for proton exchange membranes fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrasu, Daniela; Petreanu, Irina; Iordache, Ioan; Stefanescu, Ioan; Gaspar, Costinela-Laura; Militaru, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Fuel cells have the potential to become an important energy conversion technology. Research efforts directed toward the widespread commercialization of fuel cells have accelerated the developing of new types of Proton Exchange Membranes (also termed 'polymer electrolyte membranes') (PEM). Common issues critical to all high performance proton exchange membranes include: - high protonic conductivity; - low electronic conductivity; - low permeability to fuel and oxidant; - low water transport through diffusion and electro-osmosis; - oxidative and hydrolytic stability; - good mechanical properties in both the dry and hydrated states; - cost; and capability for fabrication into Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs). In this sense we choose to use poly(2,6-Dimethyl-1,4-Phenylene Oxide) (PPO) as basis for development of new PEM membranes. The membranes were prepared by lamination from solution (Doctor Balde) method in controlled atmosphere (preliminary vacuum 0.003 Torr and/or nitrogen). FTIR spectra of the sulphonated polymers prove the sulphonic groups presence according the literature. Ionic exchange capacity (IEC) have the values 1.15-3.6 meq/g. TGA-DSC analysis put in evidence the thermal degradation of the sulphonated polymers at about 120 deg. C. These properties of the sulphonated PPO are in accordance of the requirements for PEM membranes and indicate that this polymer is suitable for PEM Fuel cells. (authors)

  14. Rheological Properties of Hydrophobically Associative Copolymers Prepared in a Mixed Micellar Method Based on Methacryloxyethyl-dimethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride as Surfmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel cationic surfmer, methacryloxyethyl-dimethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMDCC, is synthesized. The micellar properties, including critical micelle concentration and aggregation number, of DMDCC-SDS mixed micelle system are studied using conductivity measurement and a steady-state fluorescence technique. A series of water-soluble associative copolymers with acrylamide and DMDCC are prepared using the mixed micellar polymerization. Compared to conventional micellar polymerization, this new method could not only reasonably adjust the length of the hydrophobic microblock, that is, NH, but also sharply reduce the amount of surfactant. Their rheological properties related to hydrophobic microblock and stickers are studied by the combination of steady flow and linear viscoelasticity experiments. The results indicate that both the hydrophobic content and, especially the length of the hydrophobic microblock are the dominating factors effecting the intermolecular hydrophobic association. The presence of salt influences the dynamics of copolymers, resulting in the variation of solution characters. Viscosity measurement indicates that mixed micelles between the copolymer chain and SDS molecules serving as junction bridges for transitional network remarkably enhance the viscosity. Moreover, the microscopic structures of copolymers at different experimental conditions are conducted by ESEM. This method gives us an insight into the preparation of hydrophobically associative water-soluble copolymers by cationic surfmer-anionic surfactant mixed micellar polymerization with good performance.

  15. Biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate by Rhodococcus sp. L4 isolated from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Tang, Fei; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Jinhui; Zeng, Xin; Luo, Qifang; Wang, Lin

    2009-09-15

    In this study, an aerobic bacterial strain capable of utilizing dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as sole carbon source and energy was isolated from activated sludge collected from a dyeing plant. According to its morphology, physiochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence, the strain was identified as Rhodococcus ruber. The biodegradation batch tests of DMP, DEP and DBP by the Rhodococcus sp. L4 showed the optimal pH value, temperature and substrate concentration: pH 7.0-8.0, 30-37 degrees C and PAEs concentration Kinetics of degradation have also been performed at different initial concentrations. The results show that the degradation can be described with exponential model. The half-life of degradation was about 1.30 days when the concentration of PAEs mixture was lower than 300 mg/L. PAEs contaminated water samples (300 mg/L) with non-emulsification and completed emulsification were prepared to investigate the effect on PAEs degradation rate. Little difference between the above two sample preparations was observed in terms of ultimate degradation rate. Rhodococcus sp. L4 can also grow on phenol, sodium benzoate or naphthalene solution as sole carbon source and energy which suggests its ability in resisting environmental toxicants. This work provides some new evidence for the possibility of applying Rhodococcus for contaminated water remediation in the area of industry.

  16. A green approach towards adoption of chemical reaction model on 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di-(tert-butylperoxy)hexane decomposition by differential isoconversional kinetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Mitali; Shu, Chi-Min, E-mail: shucm@yuntech.edu.tw

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Thermally degraded DBPH products are identified. • An appropriate mathematical model was selected for decomposition study. • Differential isoconversional analysis was performed to obtain kinetic parameters. • Simulation on thermal analysis model was conducted for the best storage conditions. - Abstract: This study investigated the thermal degradation products of 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di-(tert-butylperoxy) hexane (DBPH), by TG/GC/MS to identify runaway reaction and thermal safety parameters. It also included the determination of time to maximum rate under adiabatic conditions (TMR{sub ad}) and self-accelerating decomposition temperature obtained through Advanced Kinetics and Technology Solutions. The apparent activation energy (E{sub a}) was calculated from differential isoconversional kinetic analysis method using differential scanning calorimetry experiments. The E{sub a} value obtained by Friedman analysis is in the range of 118.0–149.0 kJ mol{sup −1}. The TMR{sub ad} was 24.0 h with an apparent onset temperature of 82.4 °C. This study has also established an efficient benchmark for a thermal hazard assessment of DBPH that can be applied to assure safer storage conditions.

  17. Partial oxidation of dimethyl ether using the structured catalyst Rh/Al2O3/Al prepared through the anodic oxidation of aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B Y; Lee, K H; Kim, K; Byun, D J; Ha, H P; Byun, J Y

    2011-07-01

    The partial oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) was investigated using the structured catalyst Rh/Al2O3/Al. The porous Al2O3 layer was synthesized on the aluminum plate through anodic oxidation in an oxalic-acid solution. It was observed that about 20 nm nanopores were well developed in the Al2O3 layer. The thickness of Al2O3 layer can be adjusted by controlling the anodizing time and current density. After pore-widening and hot-water treatment, the Al2O3/Al plate was calcined at 500 degrees C for 3 h. The obtained delta-Al2O3 had a specific surface area of 160 m2/g, making it fit to be used as a catalyst support. A microchannel reactor was designed and fabricated to evaluate the catalytic activity of Rh/Al2O3/Al in the partial oxidation of DME. The structured catalyst showed an 86% maximum hydrogen yield at 450 degrees C. On the other hand, the maximum syngas yield by a pack-bed-type catalyst could be attained by using a more than fivefold Rh amount compared to that used in the structured Rh/Al2O3/Al catalyst.

  18. Biodegradation of 3,5-dimethyl-2,4-dichlorophenol in saline wastewater by newly isolated Penicillium sp. yz11-22N2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhou; He, Huijun; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Luo, Le; Jiao, Panpan; Li, Huiru; Lu, Li

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the performance of 3,5-dimethyl-2,4-dichlorophenol (DCMX) degradation by a screened strain was investigated. 18S rDNA and the neighbor-joining method were used for identification of the isolated strain. The results of phylogenetic analysis and scanning electron micrographs showed that the most probable identity of the screened strain should be Penicillium sp. Growth characteristics of Penicillium sp. and degradation processes of DCMX were examined. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the inoculated DCMX solution was recorded, which supported the capacity of DCMX degradation by the screened Penicillium sp. Under different salinity conditions, the highest growth rate and removal efficiency for DCMX were obtained at pH6.0. The removal efficiency decreased from 100% to 66% when the DCMX concentration increased from 5 to 60mg/L, respectively. Using a Box-Behnken design, the maximum DCMX removal efficiency was determined to be 98.4%. With acclimation to salinity, higher removal efficiency could be achieved. The results demonstrate that the screened Penicillium sp. has the capability for degradation of DCMX. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. [Determination of di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium compounds in textile auxiliaries by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium compounds (DHTDMAC) in textile auxiliaries by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted and diluted with acidified methanol by 5% (v/v) formic acid under ultrasonic assistance. The separation was performed on an Eclipse Plus C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid solution and methanol as the mobile phases. Identification and quantification were achieved by UPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results indicated that the calibration curve of DHTDMAC showed good linear relationship between peak area and mass concentration in the range of 10-280 microg/L with the correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9991. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N= 10) of this method were 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries from three typical textile auxiliary matrices including dispersant, antistatic agent and fabric softener, at three spiked levels were in the range of 97.2%-108.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.5%-4.6%. The method is sensitive, accurate, simple and effective for the analysis of DHTDMAC in textile auxiliaries.

  20. Conformational cooling and conformation selective aggregation in dimethyl sulfite isolated in solid rare gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui

    2006-08-01

    Dimethyl sulfite has three conformers of low energy, GG, GT and GG', which have significant populations in the gas phase at room temperature. According to theoretical predictions, the GT and GG' conformers are higher in energy than the GG conformer by 0.83 and 1.18 kJ mol -1, respectively, while the barriers associated with the GG'→GT and GT→GG isomerizations are 1.90 and 9.64 kJ mol -1, respectively. Experimental data obtained for the compound isolated in solid argon, krypton and xenon demonstrated that the GG'→GT energy barrier is low enough to allow an extensive conversion of the GG' form into the GT conformer during deposition of the matrices, the extent of the conversion increasing along the series Ardimethyl sulfite exhibits conformation selective aggregation, with the most stable form, which has the highest dipole moment, aggregating more easily than the remaining experimentally relevant conformers (GT and GG').

  1. Bis(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)beryllium(II) complex as optoelectronic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Devender, E-mail: devjakhar@gmail.com; Singh, Kapoor; Bhagwan, Shri; Saini, Raman Kumar; Kadyan, Pratap Singh; Singh, Ishwar

    2016-01-15

    Metal complex bis(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)beryllium(II) as a light emissive material had been synthesized and characterized by various spectral techniques. The beryllium complex had high thermal stability (>250 °C) as well as high glass transition temperature (>115 °C). The prepared metal chelate had a strong photoluminescence (PL) emission at 558 nm (FWHM=72 nm) and electroluminescence (EL) at 561 nm (FWHM=55 nm) with good efficiency. Density functional theoretical calculations have been performed to demonstrate the three-dimensional geometries and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of this metal complex. Sublimed metal chelate formed thin transparent film and found appropriate material for exploring their opto-electronic applications. OLED device was fabricated using this metal complex by vacuum deposition technique with the device configuration of ITO/TPD(30 nm)/Be-complex(30 nm)/BCP(6 nm)/Alq{sub 3}(28 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(100 nm). The emitted color of the EL device showed Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates as x=0.625, y=0.366 corresponding to greenish yellow color. The maximum luminescence of the fabricated device was reported 1364 Cd/m{sup 2} at 22 V. The maximum current efficiency and power efficiency were 1.75 Cd/A and 0.51 lm/W at 10 V respectively for the fabricated OLED device. - Highlights: • Novel greenish yellow light emitting beryllium complex with 5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline was prepared. • The prepared metal complex were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. • Electron density distribution and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of resulting metal complex were computed by density functional theory in the course of DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) studies. • Sublimed synthesized metal complex of beryllium

  2. Bis(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)beryllium(II) complex as optoelectronic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Devender; Singh, Kapoor; Bhagwan, Shri; Saini, Raman Kumar; Kadyan, Pratap Singh; Singh, Ishwar

    2016-01-01

    Metal complex bis(5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)beryllium(II) as a light emissive material had been synthesized and characterized by various spectral techniques. The beryllium complex had high thermal stability (>250 °C) as well as high glass transition temperature (>115 °C). The prepared metal chelate had a strong photoluminescence (PL) emission at 558 nm (FWHM=72 nm) and electroluminescence (EL) at 561 nm (FWHM=55 nm) with good efficiency. Density functional theoretical calculations have been performed to demonstrate the three-dimensional geometries and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of this metal complex. Sublimed metal chelate formed thin transparent film and found appropriate material for exploring their opto-electronic applications. OLED device was fabricated using this metal complex by vacuum deposition technique with the device configuration of ITO/TPD(30 nm)/Be-complex(30 nm)/BCP(6 nm)/Alq 3 (28 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(100 nm). The emitted color of the EL device showed Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates as x=0.625, y=0.366 corresponding to greenish yellow color. The maximum luminescence of the fabricated device was reported 1364 Cd/m 2 at 22 V. The maximum current efficiency and power efficiency were 1.75 Cd/A and 0.51 lm/W at 10 V respectively for the fabricated OLED device. - Highlights: • Novel greenish yellow light emitting beryllium complex with 5,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline was prepared. • The prepared metal complex were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. • Electron density distribution and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of resulting metal complex were computed by density functional theory in the course of DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) studies. • Sublimed synthesized metal complex of beryllium gave greenish

  3. A novel route to synthesis of glycerol dimethyl ether from epichlorohydrin with high selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xiaoshu; Liu, Hao; Yang, Qiusheng; Li, Naihua; Dong, Xiangmo; Wang, Shufang; Zhao, Xinqiang; Wang, Yanji

    2014-01-01

    The effective utilization of glycerol, a by-product in the production of biodiesel, into useful chemicals is desirable from the viewpoint of green chemistry. With this in mind, a novel and highly selective route to synthesizing glycerol dimethyl ether (2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol), a potential fuel additive, from glycerol was proposed. This route uses both glycerol and methanol as starting materials, takes epichlorohydrin as an intermediate product, and utilizes HCl as a recycling agent. Hereinto, the key step of this route is the reaction between epichlorohydrin and methanol to produce 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol which is identified by GC–MS, ESI-MS, IR and NMR. The thermodynamics of this reaction was analyzed and the result showed that the thermodynamics of a reaction was favorable and a high product yield was expected. The effect of various parameters such as kind of acid catalyst, molar ratio of epichlorohydrin to methanol, reaction temperature and reaction time was studied. Among various acid catalysts investigated, the acidic ionic liquid [HSO 3 -b-N(CH 3 ) 3 ]HSO 4 exhibited the highest activity and selectivity: conversion of epichlorohydrin of 100% and selectivity of 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol of 99% at 393 K, 10 h, an initial pressure of 0.1 MPa and a molar ratio of catalyst:ECH:CH 3 OH of 0.01:1:5. After the reaction, [HSO 3 -b-N(CH 3 ) 3 ]HSO 4 was separated by vacuum distillation and then reused for the next cycle directly. The results showed that the product selectivity remained at about 94% but the conversion of epichlorohydrin dropped to 75% after being used five times. Subsequently, a reaction mechanism for the synthesis of 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol from epichlorohydrin and methanol was proposed. - Highlights: • Epichlorohydrin was converted effectively into glycerol dimethyl ether used as potential fuel additive. • The selectivity of 99% and the conversion of 100% under the mild reaction condition. • The reaction was high product selectivity and

  4. The Thioredoxin Domain of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae PilB can use Electrons from DsbD to Reduce Downstream Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brot,N.; Collet, J.; Johnson, L.; Jonsson, T.; Weissbach, H.; Lowther, W.

    2006-01-01

    The PilB protein from Neisseria gonorrhoeae is located in the periplasm and made up of three domains. The N-terminal, thioredoxin-like domain (NT domain) is fused to tandem methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B domains (MsrA/B). We show that the {alpha} domain of Escherichia coli DsbD is able to reduce the oxidized NT domain, which suggests that DsbD in Neisseria can transfer electrons from the cytoplasmic thioredoxin to the periplasm for the reduction of the MsrA/B domains. An analysis of the available complete genomes provides further evidence for this proposition in other bacteria where DsbD/CcdA, Trx, MsrA, and MsrB gene homologs are all located in a gene cluster with a common transcriptional direction. An examination of wild-type PilB and a panel of Cys to Ser mutants of the full-length protein and the individually expressed domains have also shown that the NT domain more efficiently reduces the MsrA/B domains when in the polyprotein context. Within this framework there does not appear to be a preference for the NT domain to reduce the proximal MsrA domain over MsrB domain. Finally, we report the 1.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the NT domain. This structure confirms the presence of a surface loop that makes it different from other membrane-tethered, Trx-like molecules including TlpA, CcmG and ResA. Subtle differences are observed in this loop when compared to the N. meningitidis NT domain structure. The data taken together supports the formation of specific NT domain interactions with the MsrA/B domains and its in vivo recycling partner, DsbD.

  5. Effects of vine water status on dimethyl sulfur potential, ammonium, and amino acid contents in Grenache Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Royer Dupré, N; Schneider, R; Payan, J C; Salançon, E; Razungles, A

    2014-04-02

    We studied the effect of vine water status on the dimethyl sulfur potential (DMSP), ammonium, and amino acid contents of the berry during the maturation of Grenache Noir grapes. Water deficit increased the accumulation of amino acids in berries and favored yeast assimilable amino nitrogen. Similarly, ammonium content was higher in berries from vines subjected to moderate water deficit. DMSP content followed the same trend as yeast assimilable amino acid content, with higher concentrations observed in the berries of vines subjected to water deficit. The high DMSP and yeast assimilable nitrogen contents of musts from vines subjected to water deficit resulted in a better preservation of DMSP during winemaking. The wines produced from these musts had a higher DMSP level and would therefore probably have a higher aroma shelf life, because the DMSP determines the rate of release of dimethyl sulfur during wine storage, and this compound enhances fruity notes.

  6. Adsorption structure of dimethyl ether on silicalite-1 zeolite determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, Shinjiro; Seino, Shintaro; Kamiya, Natsumi; Nishi, Koji; Yokomori, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    The most stable sorption site of dimethyl ether on silicalite-1 is the sinusoidal channel. The configuration of guest molecules (linear or bent) plays an important role in determining where the stable sorption site is situated. The adsorption structures of dimethyl ether (DME) on silicalite-1 zeolite (MFI-type) are determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of low-loaded DME-silicalite-1 indicates that all DME molecules are located in the sinusoidal channel, which is the most stable sorption site based on the van der Waals interaction between DME and the framework. The configuration of guest molecules (linear or bent) plays an important role in determining where the stable sorption site is in the pore system of MFI-type zeolites. Bent molecules favor the sinusoidal channel, while linear molecules favor the straight channel. The contribution of DME–DME interactions is considerable in the high-loaded DME-silicalite-1 structure

  7. Absolute vibrational excitation cross sections for 1-18 eV electron scattering from condensed dimethyl phosphate (DMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, V.; Bass, A. D.; Wagner, J. R.; Sanche, L.

    2017-12-01

    Absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitation by 1-18 eV electrons incident on condensed dimethyl phosphate (DMP) were measured with a high-resolution electron energy loss (EEL) spectrometer. Absolute CSs were extracted from EEL spectra of DMP condensed on multilayer film of Ar held at about 20 K under ultra-high vacuum (˜1 × 10-11 Torr). Structures observed in the energy dependence of the CSs around 2, 4, 7, and 12 eV were compared with previous results of gas- and solid-phase experiments and with theoretical studies on dimethyl phosphate and related molecules. These structures were attributed to the formation of shape resonances.

  8. Use of 2-mercaptopyridine for the determination of alkylating agents in complex matrices: application to dimethyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerheide, J G; Scott, R A

    2005-01-30

    A rapid and sensitive method for the determination of alkylating agents in complex reaction mixtures was developed and characterized. Analyses are based on the alkylation of 2-mercaptopyridine by the analyte; the derivative is separated by RP-HPLC and measured by fluorescence detection. When applied to the determination of dimethyl sulfate, the method is linear over four orders of magnitude: 0.01-10mugmL(-1). By using recrystallized 2-mercaptopyridine, quantitation limits of 10ngmL(-1) can be achieved. Precision of the assay is 2% R.S.D. in the 1-10mugmL(-1) range and about 15% R.S.D. at 10ngmL(-1). Studies on the pH dependence of the derivatization reaction were key to minimizing interference from the dimethyl sulfate degradation product, monomethyl sulfate, in quenched reaction samples.

  9. Coupled cluster evaluation of the frequency dispersion of the first and second hyperpolarizabilities of water, methanol, and dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaujean, Pierre; Champagne, Benoît, E-mail: benoit.champagne@unamur.be [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Unité de Chimie Physique Théorique et Structurale, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2016-07-28

    The static and dynamic first (β{sub ‖}) and second (γ{sub ‖}) hyperpolarizabilities of water, methanol, and dimethyl ether have been evaluated within the response function approach using a hierarchy of coupled cluster levels of approximation and doubly augmented correlation consistent atomic basis sets. For the three compounds, the electronic β{sub ‖} and γ{sub ‖} values calculated at the CCSD and CC3 levels are in good agreement with gas phase electric field-induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. In addition, for dimethyl ether, the frequency dispersion of both properties follows closely recent experimental values [V. W. Couling and D. P. Shelton, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 224307 (2015)] demonstrating the reliability of these methods and levels of approximation. This also suggests that the vibrational contributions to the EFISHG responses of these molecules are small.

  10. A role for repressive complexes and H3K9 di-methylation in PRDM5-associated brittle cornea syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, Louise F; Galli, Giorgio G; Williamson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    skin fibroblasts and retinal tissue from BCS2 patients, to elucidate the epigenetic role of PRDM5 and mechanisms of its dysregulation in disease.First we report abnormal retinal vascular morphology in the eyes of two cousins with BCS2 (PRDM5 Δ exons 9-14) using immunohistochemistry, and mine data from......, and dysregulated H3K9 di-methylation in skin fibroblasts of three patients (p.Arg590*, p.Glu134* and Δ exons 9-14) by western blotting. These findings suggest that defective interaction of PRDM5 with repressive complexes, and dysregulation of H3K9 di-methylation, play a role in PRDM5-associated disease.......Type 2 brittle cornea syndrome (BCS2) is an inherited connective tissue disease with a devastating ocular phenotype caused by mutations in the transcription factor PRDM5 hypothesised to exert epigenetic effects through histone and DNA methylation. Here we investigate clinical samples, including...

  11. Gold-nanoparticle-based catalysts for the oxidative esterification of 1,4-butanediol into dimethyl succinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Gemma L; Miedziak, Peter J; He, Qian; Knight, David W; Edwards, Jennifer K; Taylor, Stuart H; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2013-10-01

    The oxidation of 1,4-butanediol and butyrolactone have been investigated by using supported gold, palladium and gold-palladium nanoparticles. The products of such reactions are valuable chemical intermediates and, for example, can present a viable pathway for the sustainable production of polymers. If both gold and palladium were present, a significant synergistic effect on the selective formation of dimethyl succinate was observed. The support played a significant role in the reaction, with magnesium hydroxide leading to the highest yield of dimethyl succinate. Based on structural characterisation of the fresh and used catalysts, it was determined that small gold-palladium nanoalloys supported on a basic Mg(OH)2 support provided the best catalysts for this reaction. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Drug delivery system prepared by ionizing radiation of the N,N-dimethyl acrylamide with acryloyloxy-acetanilide copolymerization; Sistema de liberacao de droga obtido via radiacao ionizante pela copolimerizacao do N,N-dimetilacrilamida com 4-acriloiloxiacetanilida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. de [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Rodighiero, Paolo [Universidade de Padova (Italy). Inst. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    1995-12-31

    Radiation induced polymerization has been used in biomaterials used in systems which such as drug delivery (DDS). This work describes the copolymerization of the monomers by gamma rays N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) and acryloyloxy-acetanilide (AOA) for the immobilization of paracetamol, an analgesic and anti thermic drug. Dimethylformamide solutions were used in two concentrations of DMAA and AOA (F{sub DMAA/AOA} = 0,85/015 and 0,70/0,30, where F = molar fraction in the monomer feed). The samples were irradiated in the dose range of 30-800 Gy. The copolymer poly(DMAA-co-AOA) characterization was carried out by FTIR and {sup 1}HRMN. The hydrolysis was studied considering the formation of sodium salts of 4-hydroxy acetanilide at different times of treatment using colorimetric assay. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Characterization and analysis of structural isomers of dimethyl methoxypyrazines in cork stoppers and ladybugs (Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabizki, Petra; Legrum, Charlotte; Meusinger, Reinhard; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2014-10-01

    The three constitutional isomers of dimethyl-substituted methoxypyrazines: 3,5-dimethyl-2-methoxypyrazine 1; 2,5-dimethyl-3-methoxypyrazine 2; and 2,3-dimethyl-5-methoxypyrazine 3 are potent flavor compounds with similar mass spectrometric, gas chromatographic, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic behavior. Therefore, unambiguous analytical determination is critical, particularly in complex matrices. The unequivocal identification of 1-3 could be achieved by homo- and heteronuclear NMR correlation experiments. The observed mass fragmentation for 1-3 is proposed and discussed, benefitting from synthesized partially deuterated 1 and 2. On common polar and apolar stationary phases used in gas chromatography (GC) 1 and 2 show similar behavior whereas 3 can be separated. In our focus on off-flavor analysis with respect to wine aroma, 1 has been described as a "moldy" off-flavor compound in cork and 2 as a constituent in Harmonia axyridis contributing to the so-called "ladybug taint," whereas 3 has not yet been described as a constituent of wine aroma. A successful separation of 1 and 2 could be achieved on octakis-(2,3-di-O-pentyl-6-O-methyl)-γ-cyclodextrin as stationary phase in GC. Applying heart-cut multidimensional GC analysis with tandem mass spectrometric detection we could confirm the presence of 1 as a "moldy" off-flavor compound in cork. However, in the case of Harmonia axyridis, a previous identification of 2 has to be reconsidered. In our experiments we identified the constitutional isomer 1, which was also found in Coccinella septempunctata, another species discussed with respect to the "ladybug taint." The analysis of such structurally related compounds is a demonstrative example for the importance of a chromatographic separation, as mass spectrometric data by itself could not guarantee the unequivocal identification.

  14. DNA replication origin function is promoted by H3K4 di-methylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardi, Lindsay F; Dorn, Elizabeth S; Strahl, Brian D; Cook, Jeanette Gowen

    2012-10-01

    DNA replication is a highly regulated process that is initiated from replication origins, but the elements of chromatin structure that contribute to origin activity have not been fully elucidated. To identify histone post-translational modifications important for DNA replication, we initiated a genetic screen to identify interactions between genes encoding chromatin-modifying enzymes and those encoding proteins required for origin function in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that enzymes required for histone H3K4 methylation, both the histone methyltransferase Set1 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Bre1, are required for robust growth of several hypomorphic replication mutants, including cdc6-1. Consistent with a role for these enzymes in DNA replication, we found that both Set1 and Bre1 are required for efficient minichromosome maintenance. These phenotypes are recapitulated in yeast strains bearing mutations in the histone substrates (H3K4 and H2BK123). Set1 functions as part of the COMPASS complex to mono-, di-, and tri-methylate H3K4. By analyzing strains lacking specific COMPASS complex members or containing H2B mutations that differentially affect H3K4 methylation states, we determined that these replication defects were due to loss of H3K4 di-methylation. Furthermore, histone H3K4 di-methylation is enriched at chromosomal origins. These data suggest that H3K4 di-methylation is necessary and sufficient for normal origin function. We propose that histone H3K4 di-methylation functions in concert with other histone post-translational modifications to support robust genome duplication.

  15. The effect of dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) on lymphocyte counts: A potential contributor to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Bhupendra O; Garland, Jeffery; Berger, Joseph; Kramer, John; Sershon, Lisa; Olapo, Tayo; Sesing, Jean; Dukic, Mary; Rehn, Eileen

    2015-07-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) is an effective therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our study suggests that this drug may have immunosuppressive properties evidenced by significant sustained reduction in CD8 lymphocyte counts and, to a lesser extent, CD4 lymphocyte counts. This observation is relevant in light of the recent case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient receiving this drug. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Laser-Induced Gas-Phase Pyrolysis of Dimethyl Selenium: Chemical Deposition of Selenium and Poly(selenoformaldehyde)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, Dana; Urbanová, Markéta; Bastl, Zdeněk; Šubrt, Jan; Pola, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2004), s. 635-644 ISSN 0165-2370 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072107; GA MŠk OC 523.60 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921; CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : dimethyl selenium * laser pyrolysis * selenium films Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.352, year: 2004

  17. Acute Oral Toxicity of 3-Chloro-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolidinone (Compound 1) in ICR Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Acute Oral Toxicity, N- Chloramine , Mouse, Mammalian Toxicology, Water Disinfectant , 3-Chloro-4, 4 -dimethyl-2...Amer Ind Hyg Assoc Q 1943; 10:93-96. 7. Mora EC, Kohl HH, Wheatley WB, et al. Properties or a new chloramine disinfectant and detoxicant. Poultry Sci...ORGANIZATION Mammalian Toxicology (If applicable) US Army Biomedical Research Division of Toxicology SGRD-ULE- T and Development Laboratory 6c. ADDRESS

  18. 40 CFR 721.10175 - 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-3-sulfo-, N-(C12-18 and C18-unsatd...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2... 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-3-sulfo-, N-(C12-18 and C18-unsatd. acyl... chemical substance identified as 1-Propanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-3-sulfo-, N-(C12...

  19. Radiation cross-linking of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer functionalized with m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, K.B.; Naesman, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    An ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer was functionalized with m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate using reactive processing in a mixer. The functionalization introduces pendant unsaturation to the polymer, which allows radiation cross-linked to gel contents >70% at radiation doses below 100 kGy. Unfunctionalized ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, on the other hand, forms no gel upon irradiation. The functionalization was completed within a few minutes of reactive mixing, which was confirmed with both FTIR and 13 C-NMR measurements. The oxygen permeability of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer increased with increasing degree of functionalization, and irradiation of the samples formed trapped radicals, which act as oxygen scavengers. Consequently no oxygen permeability was detected. However, radical activity was inhibited by annealing the samples at 110 C resulting in a 24% higher oxygen permeability value for the irradiated unfunctionalized copolymer. The oxygen permeability values of the irradiated functionalized samples were approximately 13% lower. Laminates of m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate functionalized ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer and m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate functionalized ethylene hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer acquired improved adhesive strength both at dry and wet conditions as well as at elevated temperature upon exposure to radiation

  20. Mesoporous silica materials modified with alumina polycations as catalysts for the synthesis of dimethyl ether from methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macina, Daniel; Piwowarska, Zofia; Tarach, Karolina; Góra-Marek, Kinga [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland); Ryczkowski, Janusz [Maria Curie Skłodowska University, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska 2, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Chmielarz, Lucjan, E-mail: chmielar@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Deposition of alumina ologoctaions on mesoporous silicas modified with surface −SO{sub 3}H groups. • Alumina aggregates generated acid properties in the silica supports. • Alumina modified SBA-15 and MCF were active and selective catalysts in DME synthesis. - Abstract: Mesoporous silica materials (SBA-15 and MCF) were used as catalytic supports for the deposition of aggregated alumina species using the method consisting of the following steps: (i) anchoring 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) on the silica surface followed by (ii) oxidation of −SH to−SO{sub 3}H groups and then (iii) deposition of aluminum Keggin oligocations by ion-exchange method and (iv) calcination. The obtained samples were tested as catalysts for synthesis of dimethyl ether from methanol. The modified silicas were characterized with respect to the ordering of their porous structure (XRD), textural properties (BET), chemical composition (EDS, CHNS), structure ({sup 27}Al NMR, FTIR) and location of alumina species (EDX-TEM), surface acidity (NH{sub 3}-TPD, Py-FTIR) and thermal stability (TGA). The obtained materials were found to be active and selective catalysts for methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME) in the MTD process (methanol-to-dimethyl ether).