Sample records for dimensional change coefficient

  1. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    S. C. Tripathy; Kiran Jain; A. Bhatnagar


    Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change significantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal variations in the rotation rate near the solar surface.

  2. Changes in Electrokinetic Coupling Coefficients of Granite under Triaxial Deformation

    Osamu Kuwano


    Full Text Available Electrokinetic phenomena are believed to be the most likely origin of electromagnetic signals preceding or accompanying earthquakes. The intensity of the source current due to the electrokinetic phenomena is determined by the fluid flux and the electrokinetic coupling coefficient called streaming current coefficient; therefore, how the coefficient changes before rupture is essential. Here, we show how the electrokinetic coefficients change during the rock deformation experiment up to failure. The streaming current coefficient did not increase before failure, but continued to decrease up to failure, which is explained in terms of the elastic closure of capillary. On the other hand, the streaming potential coefficient, which is the product of the streaming current coefficient and bulk resistivity of the rock, increased at the onset of dilatancy. It may be due to change in bulk resistivity. Our result indicates that the zeta potential of the newly created surface does not change so much from that of the preexisting fluid rock interface.

  3. Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U. [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 71, al Farabi ave., Almaty 050040 (Kazakhstan)


    The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The Green–Kubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.

  4. Influence of Dynamical Change of Edges on Clustering Coefficients

    Yuhong Ruan


    Full Text Available Clustering coefficient is a very important measurement in complex networks, and it describes the average ratio between the actual existent edges and probable existent edges in the neighbor of one vertex in a complex network. Besides, in a complex networks, the dynamic change of edges can trigger directly the evolution of network and further affect the clustering coefficients. As a result, in this paper, we investigate the effects of the dynamic change of edge on the clustering coefficients. It is illustrated that the increase and decrease of the clustering coefficient can be effectively controlled by adding or deleting several edges of the network in the evolution of complex networks.

  5. Horizontal mixing coefficients for two-dimensional chemical models calculated from National Meteorological Center Data

    Newman, P. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Plumb, R. A.


    Calculations of the two-dimensional, species-independent mixing coefficients for two-dimensional chemical models for the troposphere and stratosphere are performed using quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity fluxes and gradients from 4 years of National Meteorological Center data for the four seasons in both hemispheres. Results show that the horizontal mixing coefficient values for the winter lower stratosphere are broadly consistent with those currently employed in two-dimensional models, but the horizontal mixing coefficient values in the northern winter upper stratosphere are much larger than those usually used.

  6. Determinant Solutions to a (3+1)-Dimensional Generalized KP Equation with Variable Coefficients

    Alrazi ABDELJABBAR; Wenxiu MA; Ahmet YILDIRIM


    A system of linear conditions is presented for Wronskian and Grammian solutions to a (3+1)-dimensional generalized vcKP equation. The formulations of these solutions require a constraint on variable coefficients.

  7. Fractional crystallization of iron meteorites: Constant versus changing partition coefficients

    Jones, J. H.


    Analyses of magmatic iron meteorites, plotted on LogC(sub i) vs LogC(sub Ni) diagrams, often form linear arrays. Traditionally, this linearity has been ascribed to fractional crystallization under the assumption of constant partition coefficients (i.e., Rayleigh fractionation). Paradoxically, however, partition coefficients in the Fe-Ni-S-P system are decidedly not constant. This contribution provides a rationale for understanding how trends on LogC(sub i) vs LogC(sub Ni) diagrams can be linear, even when partition coefficients are changing rapidly.

  8. New Exact Solutions to (2+1)-Dimensional Variable Coefficients Broer-Kaup Equations

    ZHU Jia-Min; MA Zheng-Yi


    In this paper, using the variable coefficient generalized projected Ricatti equation expansion method, we present explicit solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional variable coefficients Broer-Kaup (VCBK) equations. These solutions include Weierstrass function solution, solitary wave solutions, soliton-like solutions and trigonometric function solutions.Among these solutions, some are found for the first time. Because of the three or four arbitrary functions, rich localized excitations can be found.

  9. Experiment of Flow Regime Map and Local Condensing Heat Transfer Coefficients Inside Three Dimensional Inner Microfin Tubes

    YangDu; MingDaoXin


    This paper developed a new type of three dimensional inner microfin tube,The experimental results of the flow patterns for the horizontal condensation inside these tubes are reported in the paper,The flow patterns for the hirizontal condensation inside the new made tubes are divided into annular flow stratified flow and intermittent flow within the test conditions.The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients for the different flow patterns have been systematically caried out ,The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients changing with the vapor dryness fraction have also been carried out.As compared with the heat transfer coefficients of the two dimensional inner microfin tubes,those of the three dimensional inner microfin tubes increase 47-127% for the annular flow region,38-183% for the stratified flow and 15-75%,for the intermittent flow,respectively.The enhancement factor of the local heat transfer coefficients is from 1\\8-6\\9 for the vapor dryness fraction from 0.05 to 1.

  10. New Multiple Soliton-like Solutions to (3+1)-Dimensional Burgers Equation with Variable Coefficients

    CHEN Huai-Tang; ZHANG Hong-Qing


    A new generalized tanh function method is used for constructing exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations in a unified way. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the Riccati equation, which has more new solutions. More new multiple soliton-like solutions are obtained for the (3+ 1 )-dimensional Burgers equation with variable coefficients.


    Shkril’ А.


    Full Text Available On the basis of the finite element scheme of the moment method (FEM implemented method of determining the coefficients of stress intensity (K in two-dimensional bodies under the action of temperature load. Results of test problems showed that the methods for determining the energy of K are more effeciency compared with the.

  12. Coefficient of restitution dependence of intruder rise time in two-dimensional Brazil-nut effect

    Kesuma, T.; Aji, D. P. Purwa; Viridi, S.; Suprijadi


    Brazil-Nut Effect (BNE) is a granular material phenomenon, where larger grains (usually known as intruder) rise to the top when the granular system vibrated. We observe a single intruder rise time of BNE phenomenon in a two-dimensional molecular dynamics simulation of hard spheres collision scheme. Some experiments have shown that some granular properties, such as size and density ratio, play an important role to determine the rise time. However, other property, such as coefficients of restitution, is considered not to have a measurable impact. We explore the intruder inelasticity dependence of the rise time by varying its coefficient of restitution. We found that the intruder rise time tends to be flat for relatively high coefficient of restitution and increases exponentially below a certain deflecting point for low coefficient of restitution. This holds for specific mass ratio.

  13. Diagnosing cysts with correlation coefficient images from 2-dimensional freehand elastography.

    Booi, Rebecca C; Carson, Paul L; O'Donnell, Matthew; Richards, Michael S; Rubin, Jonathan M


    We compared the diagnostic potential of using correlation coefficient images versus elastograms from 2-dimensional (2D) freehand elastography to characterize breast cysts. In this preliminary study, which was approved by the Institutional Review Board and compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, we imaged 4 consecutive human subjects (4 cysts, 1 biopsy-verified benign breast parenchyma) with freehand 2D elastography. Data were processed offline with conventional 2D phase-sensitive speckle-tracking algorithms. The correlation coefficient in the cyst and surrounding tissue was calculated, and appearances of the cysts in the correlation coefficient images and elastograms were compared. The correlation coefficient in the cysts was considerably lower (14%-37%) than in the surrounding tissue because of the lack of sufficient speckle in the cysts, as well as the prominence of random noise, reverberations, and clutter, which decorrelated quickly. Thus, the cysts were visible in all correlation coefficient images. In contrast, the elastograms associated with these cysts each had different elastographic patterns. The solid mass in this study did not have the same high decorrelation rate as the cysts, having a correlation coefficient only 2.1% lower than that of surrounding tissue. Correlation coefficient images may produce a more direct, reliable, and consistent method for characterizing cysts than elastograms.

  14. Detection of epigenetic changes using ANOVA with spatially varying coefficients.

    Guanghua, Xiao; Xinlei, Wang; Quincey, LaPlant; Nestler, Eric J; Xie, Yang


    Identification of genome-wide epigenetic changes, the stable changes in gene function without a change in DNA sequence, under various conditions plays an important role in biomedical research. High-throughput epigenetic experiments are useful tools to measure genome-wide epigenetic changes, but the measured intensity levels from these high-resolution genome-wide epigenetic profiling data are often spatially correlated with high noise levels. In addition, it is challenging to detect genome-wide epigenetic changes across multiple conditions, so efficient statistical methodology development is needed for this purpose. In this study, we consider ANOVA models with spatially varying coefficients, combined with a hierarchical Bayesian approach, to explicitly model spatial correlation caused by location-dependent biological effects (i.e., epigenetic changes) and borrow strength among neighboring probes to compare epigenetic changes across multiple conditions. Through simulation studies and applications in drug addiction and depression datasets, we find that our approach compares favorably with competing methods; it is more efficient in estimation and more effective in detecting epigenetic changes. In addition, it can provide biologically meaningful results.

  15. Variable-Coefficient Hyperbola Function Method and Its Application to (2+1)-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Broer-Kaup System

    HUANG Ding-Jiang; ZHANG Hong-Qing


    Based on a new intermediate transformation, a variable-coefficient hyperbola function method is proposed.Being concise and straightforward, it is applied to the (2+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Broer Kaup system. As a result, several new families of exact soliton-like solutions are obtained, besides the travelling wave. When imposing some conditions on them, the new exact solitary wave solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional Broer-Kaup system are given. The method can be applied to other variable-coefficient nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  16. Sign changes of Fourier coefficients of Maass eigenforms


    Let f be a Maass eigenform that is a new form of level N on Γ0(N),with Laplace eigenvalue 1/4 + νf2 . Then,all its Fourier coefficients {λf(n)}∞n=1 are real,and we may normalize so that λf (1) = 1. It is proved,in this paper,that the first sign change in the sequence {λf(n)}n∞=1 occurs at some n satisfying n《{(3+|νf|2)N }1/2-δ and (n,N)=1. This generalizes the previous results for holomorphic Hecke eigenforms.

  17. Comparison of the elastic coefficients and Calculation Models of the Mechanical Behavior one- Dimensional Composites

    Saleh Alsubari


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the mechanical models that are devoted to the elastic properties of one-dimensional composite. We have compared the equivalent coefficients of one-dimensional composite, resulting from different models. The validation of the results was made through effective experiments on a one-dimensional composite consisting of fibers of alumina and a matrix of aluminum. This study allows us to better assess the rigidity of composite structures, and the results of calculation of the mechanical behavior, resulting from each model. It appears that the finite element model is the best suited to the approach of a refined conception. For more insurance, we have chosen to make our calculations by finite element in the three-dimensional case, using the technique of homogenization by asymptotic development.

  18. A 3-dimensional finite-difference method for calculating the dynamic coefficients of seals

    Dietzen, F. J.; Nordmann, R.


    A method to calculate the dynamic coefficients of seals with arbitrary geometry is presented. The Navier-Stokes equations are used in conjunction with the k-e turbulence model to describe the turbulent flow. These equations are solved by a full 3-dimensional finite-difference procedure instead of the normally used perturbation analysis. The time dependence of the equations is introduced by working with a coordinate system rotating with the precession frequency of the shaft. The results of this theory are compared with coefficients calculated by a perturbation analysis and with experimental results.

  19. New Multiple Soliton-like and Periodic Solutions for (2+1)-Dimensional Canonical Generalized KP Equation with Variable Coefficients

    ZHANG Li-Hua; LIU Xi-Qiang; BAI Cheng-Lin


    In this paper, the generalized tanh function method is extended to (2+1)-dimensional canonical generalized KP (CGKP) equation with variable coefficients. Taking advantage of the Riccati equation, many explicit exact solutions,which contain multiple soliton-like and periodic solutions, are obtained for the (2+1)-dimensional CGKP equation with variable coefficients.

  20. Nonparametric Independence Screening in Sparse Ultra-High Dimensional Varying Coefficient Models.

    Fan, Jianqing; Ma, Yunbei; Dai, Wei


    The varying-coefficient model is an important class of nonparametric statistical model that allows us to examine how the effects of covariates vary with exposure variables. When the number of covariates is large, the issue of variable selection arises. In this paper, we propose and investigate marginal nonparametric screening methods to screen variables in sparse ultra-high dimensional varying-coefficient models. The proposed nonparametric independence screening (NIS) selects variables by ranking a measure of the nonparametric marginal contributions of each covariate given the exposure variable. The sure independent screening property is established under some mild technical conditions when the dimensionality is of nonpolynomial order, and the dimensionality reduction of NIS is quantified. To enhance the practical utility and finite sample performance, two data-driven iterative NIS methods are proposed for selecting thresholding parameters and variables: conditional permutation and greedy methods, resulting in Conditional-INIS and Greedy-INIS. The effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed methods are further illustrated by simulation studies and real data applications.

  1. A low-dimensional tool for predicting force decomposition coefficients for varying inflow conditions

    Ghommem, Mehdi


    We develop a low-dimensional tool to predict the effects of unsteadiness in the inflow on force coefficients acting on a circular cylinder using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes from steady flow simulations. The approach is based on combining POD and linear stochastic estimator (LSE) techniques. We use POD to derive a reduced-order model (ROM) to reconstruct the velocity field. To overcome the difficulty of developing a ROM using Poisson\\'s equation, we relate the pressure field to the velocity field through a mapping function based on LSE. The use of this approach to derive force decomposition coefficients (FDCs) under unsteady mean flow from basis functions of the steady flow is illustrated. For both steady and unsteady cases, the final outcome is a representation of the lift and drag coefficients in terms of velocity and pressure temporal coefficients. Such a representation could serve as the basis for implementing control strategies or conducting uncertainty quantification. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  2. Shear viscosity and spin-diffusion coefficient of a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    Bruun, Georg


    Using kinetic theory, we calculate the shear viscosity and the spin-diffusion coefficient as well as the associated relaxation times for a two-component Fermi gas in two dimensions, as a function of temperature, coupling strength, polarization, and mass ratio of the two components. It is demonstr......Using kinetic theory, we calculate the shear viscosity and the spin-diffusion coefficient as well as the associated relaxation times for a two-component Fermi gas in two dimensions, as a function of temperature, coupling strength, polarization, and mass ratio of the two components....... It is demonstrated that the minimum value of the viscosity decreases with the mass ratio, since Fermi blocking becomes less efficient. We furthermore analyze recent experimental results for the quadrupole mode of a two-dimensional gas in terms of viscous damping, obtaining a qualitative agreement using no fitting...

  3. Periodic Semifolded Solitary Waves for (2+1)-Dimensional Variable Coefficient Broer-Kaup System

    JI Jie; HUANG Wen-Hua


    Applying the extended mapping method via Riccati equation, many exact variable separation solutions for the (2+1)-dimensional variable coefficient Broer-Kaup equation are obtained. Introducing multiple valued function and Jacobi elliptic function in the seed solution, special types of periodic semifolded solitary waves are derived. In the long wave limit these periodic semifolded solitary wave excitations may degenerate into single semifolded localized soliton structures. The interactions of the periodic semifolded solitary waves and their degenerated single semifolded soliton structures are investigated graphically and found to be completely elastic.

  4. Experimental Evidence for Sign Reversal of the Hall Coefficient in Three-Dimensional Metamaterials

    Kern, Christian; Kadic, Muamer; Wegener, Martin


    Effectively inverting the sign of material parameters is a striking possibility arising from the concept of metamaterials. Here, we show that the electrical properties of a p -type semiconductor can be mimicked by a metamaterial solely made of an n -type semiconductor. By fabricating and characterizing three-dimensional simple-cubic microlattices composed of interlocked hollow semiconducting tori, we demonstrate that sign and magnitude of the effective metamaterial Hall coefficient can be adjusted via a tori separation parameter—in agreement with previous theoretical and numerical predictions.

  5. Identification of the heat transfer coefficient in the two-dimensional model of binary alloy solidification

    Hetmaniok, Edyta; Hristov, Jordan; Słota, Damian; Zielonka, Adam


    The paper presents the procedure for solving the inverse problem for the binary alloy solidification in a two-dimensional space. This is a continuation of some previous works of the authors investigating a similar problem but in the one-dimensional domain. Goal of the problem consists in identification of the heat transfer coefficient on boundary of the region and in reconstruction of the temperature distribution inside the considered region in case when the temperature measurements in selected points of the alloy are known. Mathematical model of the problem is based on the heat conduction equation with the substitute thermal capacity and with the liquidus and solidus temperatures varying in dependance on the concentration of the alloy component. For describing this concentration the Scheil model is used. Investigated procedure involves also the parallelized Ant Colony Optimization algorithm applied for minimizing a functional expressing the error of approximate solution.

  6. Lie symmetry and exact solution of (2+1-dimensional generalized Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation with variable coefficients

    Ma Hong-Cai


    Full Text Available The simple direct method is adopted to find Non-Auto-Backlund transformation for variable coefficient non-linear systems. The (2+1-dimensional generalized Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation with variable coefficients is used as an example to elucidate the solution procedure, and its symmetry transformation and exact solutions are obtained.

  7. Transmission coefficient of a one-dimensional multi-layer medium from a sum over all light-rays.

    Uitham, Rudolf; Hoenders, Bernhard


    The transmission coefficient of a one-dimensional multi-layer medium is obtained by summing the amplitude coefficients of all individual transmitted light-rays. As compared to the transfer-matrix method, the sum-over-all-light-rays derivation results in a very intelligible expression, which is

  8. New Exact Solutions for the Generalized (2+1)-dimensional Nonlinear Schr(o)dinger Equation with Variable Coefficients

    JIANG Zhi-ping


    With the help of the variable-coefficient generalized projected Ricatti equation expansion method,we present exact solutions for the generalized (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation with variable coefficients.These solutions include solitary wave solutions,soliton-like solutions and trigonometric function solutions.Among these solutions,some are found for the first time.

  9. On combined optical solitons of the one-dimensional Schrödinger’s equation with time dependent coefficients

    Kilic Bulent


    Full Text Available This paper integrates dispersive optical solitons in special optical metamaterials with a time dependent coefficient. We obtained some optical solitons of the aforementioned equation. It is shown that the examined dependent coefficients are affected by the velocity of the wave. The first integral method (FIM and ansatz method are applied to reach the optical soliton solutions of the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger’s equation (NLSE with time dependent coefficients.

  10. Inversion for basal friction coefficients with a two-dimensional flow line model using Tikhonov regularization

    Yuri V. Konovalov


    Full Text Available We present results of basal friction coefficient inversion. The inversion was performed by a 2D flow line model for one of the four fast flowing ice streams on the southern side of the Academy of Sciences Ice Cap in the Komsomolets Island, Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. The input data for the performance of both the forward and the inverse problems included synthetic aperture radar interferometry ice surface velocities, ice surface elevations and ice thicknesses obtained by airborne measurements (all were taken from Dowdeswell et al., 2002. Numerical experiments with: i different sea level shifts; and ii randomly perturbed friction coefficient have been carried out in the forward problem. The impact of sea level changes on vertical distribution of horizontal velocity and on shear stress distribution near the ice front has been investigated in experiments with different sea level shifts. The experiments with randomly perturbed friction coefficient have revealed that the modeled surface velocity is weakly sensitive to the perturbations and, therefore, the inverse problem should be considered ill posed. To mitigate ill posedness of the inverse problem, Tikhonov’s regularization was applied. The regularization parameter was determined from the relation of the discrepancy between observed and modeled velocities to the regularization parameter. The inversion was performed for both linear and non-linear sliding laws. The inverted spatial distributions of the basal friction coefficient are similar for both sliding laws. The similarity between these inverted distributions suggests that the changes in the friction coefficient are accompanied by appropriate water content variations at the glacier base.

  11. Linear Two-Dimensional MHD of Accretion Disks: Crystalline structure and Nernst coefficient

    Montani, Giovanni


    We analyse the two-dimensional MHD configurations characterising the steady state of the accretion disk on a highly magnetised neutron star. The model we describe has a local character and represents the extension of the crystalline structure outlined in Coppi (2005), dealing with a local model too, when a specific accretion rate is taken into account. We limit our attention to the linearised MHD formulation of the electromagnetic back-reaction characterising the equilibrium, by fixing the structure of the radial, vertical and azimuthal profiles. Since we deal with toroidal currents only, the consistency of the model is ensured by the presence of a small collisional effect, phenomenologically described by a non-zero constant Nernst coefficient (thermal power of the plasma). Such an effect provides a proper balance of the electron force equation via non zero temperature gradients, related directly to the radial and vertical velocity components. We show that the obtained profile has the typical oscillating feat...

  12. Characterization of cysts using differential correlation coefficient values from two dimensional breast elastography: preliminary study.

    Booi, Rebecca C; Carson, Paul L; O'Donnell, Matthew; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Hall, Anne L; Rubin, Jonathan M


    Although simple cysts are easily identified using sonography, description and management of nonsimple cysts remains uncertain. This study evaluated whether the correlation coefficient differences between breast tissue and lesions, obtained from 2D breast elastography, could potentially distinguish nonsimple cysts from cancers and fibroadenomas. We hypothesized that correlation coefficients in cysts would be dramatically lower than surrounding tissue because noise, imaging artifacts, and particulate matter move randomly and decorrelate quickly under compression, compared with solid tissue. For this preliminary study, 18 breast lesions (7 nonsimple cysts, 4 cancers, and 7 fibroadenomas) underwent imaging with 2D elastography at 7.5 MHz through a TPX (a polymethyl pentene copolymer) 2.5 mm mammographic paddle. Breasts were compressed similar to mammographic positioning and then further compressed for elastography by 1 to 7%. Images were correlated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking algorithms and displacement estimates were accumulated. Correlation coefficient means and standard deviations were measured in the lesion and adjacent tissue, and the differential correlation coefficient (DCC) was introduced as the difference between these values normalized to the correlation coefficient of adjacent tissue. Mean DCC values in nonsimple cysts were 24.2 +/- 11.6%, 5.7 +/- 6.3% for fibroadenomas, and 3.8 +/- 2.9 % for cancers (p < 0.05). Some of the cysts appeared smaller in DCC images than gray-scale images. These encouraging results demonstrate that characterization of nonsimple breast cysts may be improved by using DCC values from 2D elastography, which could potentially change management options of these cysts from intervention to imaging follow-up. A dedicated clinical trial to fully assess the efficacy of this technique is recommended.

  13. Analytical solution for one-dimensional advection-dispersion transport equation with distance-dependent coefficients

    Pérez Guerrero, J. S.; Skaggs, T. H.


    SummaryMathematical models describing contaminant transport in heterogeneous porous media are often formulated as an advection-dispersion transport equation with distance-dependent transport coefficients. In this work, a general analytical solution is presented for the linear, one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation with distance-dependent coefficients. An integrating factor is employed to obtain a transport equation that has a self-adjoint differential operator, and a solution is found using the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). It is demonstrated that an analytical expression for the integrating factor exists for several transport equation formulations of practical importance in groundwater transport modeling. Unlike nearly all solutions available in the literature, the current solution is developed for a finite spatial domain. As an illustration, solutions for the particular case of a linearly increasing dispersivity are developed in detail and results are compared with solutions from the literature. Among other applications, the current analytical solution will be particularly useful for testing or benchmarking numerical transport codes because of the incorporation of a finite spatial domain.

  14. Band structure of one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals using the Fresnel coefficients method

    Jafari, A.; Rahmat, A.


    The current study has examined the band structures of two types of photonic crystals (PCs). The first is a one-dimensional metamaterial photonic crystal (1DMMPC) composed of double-layered units for which both layers of each unit are dielectric. The second type is a very similar one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal (1DPPC) also composed of double-layered units in which the first layer is a dielectric material but the second is a plasma layer. This study compares the band structures of the 1DMMPC with specific optical characteristics of the 1DPPC using the Fresnel coefficients method and also compares the results of this method with the results of the transfer matrix method. It is concluded that the dependency of the electric permittivity of the plasma layer on the incident field frequency causes differences in the band structures in 1DMMPC and 1DPPC for both TE and TM polarizations and their gaps reside in different frequencies. The band structures of the 1DMMPC and 1DPPC are confirmed by the results of the transfer matrix method.

  15. New doubly periodic and multiple soliton solutions of the generalized (3+1)-dimensional KP equation with variable coefficients

    陈怀堂; 张鸿庆


    A new generalized Jacobi elliptic function method is used to construct the exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) in a unified way. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the elliptic equation which has more new solutions. More new doubly periodic and multiple soliton solutions are obtained for the generalized (3+1)-dimensional Kronig-Penny (KP) equation with variable coefficients. This method can be applied to other equations with variable coefficients.

  16. New Multiple Soliton-like Solutions to (3+1)-Dimensional Burgers Equation with Variable Coefficients

    CHENHuai-Tang; ZHANGHong-Qing


    A new generalized tanh function method is used for constructing exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations in a unified way. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the Riccati equation, which has more new solutions. More new multiple soliton-like solutions are obtained for the (3+1)-dimensional Burgers equation with variable coefficients.

  17. On the behaviour of the atmospheric scattering coefficient shortly before a change in airmass

    Hitzenberger, R.

    From 24 November 1983 to 6 May 1984 the aerosol scattering coefficient was measured continuously at Vienna, Austria. Before a change in air mass the variation of this coefficient followed patterns highly characteristic of the type of change. Approximately 3 h before the passage of a front the scattering coefficient increased by a factor of two or more without a corresponding increase of relative humidity and then dropped to or below its previous value. A slow change in the weather situation accompanied by slowly veering winds gave wild variations of the scattering coefficient according to different plumes passing the measuring site. When this change was completed the scattering coefficient returned to its normal pattern.

  18. Optical-Gravitation Nonlinearity: A Change of Gravitational Coefficient G induced by Gravitation Field

    R. Vlokh; M. Kostyrko


    Nonlinear effect of the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass on the gravitational coefficient G has been analysed. In frame of the approaches of parametric optics and gravitation nonlinearity we have shown that the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass can lead to changes in the gravitational coefficient G.

  19. The Effect of Homogenization Heat Treatment on Thermal Expansion Coefficient and Dimensional Stability of Low Thermal Expansion Cast Irons

    Chen, Li-Hao; Liu, Zong-Pei; Pan, Yung-Ning


    In this paper, the effect of homogenization heat treatment on α value [coefficient of thermal expansion (10-6 K-1)] of low thermal expansion cast irons was studied. In addition, constrained thermal cyclic tests were conducted to evaluate the dimensional stability of the low thermal expansion cast irons with various heat treatment conditions. The results indicate that when the alloys were homogenized at a relatively low temperature, e.g., 1023 K (750 °C), the elimination of Ni segregation was not very effective, but the C concentration in the matrix was moderately reduced. On the other hand, if the alloys were homogenized at a relatively high temperature, e.g., 1473 K (1200 °C), opposite results were obtained. Consequently, not much improvement (reduction) in α value was achieved in both cases. Therefore, a compound homogenization heat treatment procedure was designed, namely 1473 K (1200 °C)/4 hours/FC/1023 K (750 °C)/2 hours/WQ, in which a relatively high homogenization temperature of 1473 K (1200 °C) can effectively eliminate the Ni segregation, and a subsequent holding stage at 1023.15 K (750 °C) can reduce the C content in the matrix. As a result, very low α values of around (1 to 2) × 10-6 K-1 were obtained. Regarding the constrained thermal cyclic testing in 303 K to 473 K (30 °C to 200 °C), the results indicate that regardless of heat treatment condition, low thermal expansion cast irons exhibit exceedingly higher dimensional stability than either the regular ductile cast iron or the 304 stainless steel. Furthermore, positive correlation exists between the α 303.15 K to 473.15 K value and the amount of shape change after the thermal cyclic testing. Among the alloys investigated, Heat I-T3B (1473 K (1200 °C)/4 hours/FC/1023 K (750 °C)/2 hours/WQ) exhibits the lowest α 303 K to 473 K value (1.72 × 10-6 K-1), and hence has the least shape change (7.41 μm) or the best dimensional stability.

  20. Computation of diffusion coefficients for waters of Gauthami Godavari estuary using one-dimensional advection-diffusion model

    Jyothi, D.; Murty, T.V.R.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, D.P.

    of Marine Sciences Vol. 29, June 2000, pp. 185-187 Short Communication Computation of diffusion coefficients for waters of Gauthami Godavari estuary using one-dimensional advection-diffusion model D Jyothi, T V Ramana Murty, V V Sarma & D P Rao National.... - Jan.) Y2(x) = 8.55283 x + 17.5469 (Jan. - April) These equations would be more useful to get diffusion coefficients for any point along the channel axis, which in turn, helps to compute the concentration of pollutant along the axis of estuary. Thus...

  1. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the temperature coefficient of surface resistivity of two-dimensional island platinum films

    Bishay, A.G. [Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Gamal, S., E-mail: [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)


    Three sets (A, B and C) of two-dimensional island platinum films (2D-I(Pt)Fs) were prepared via the thermal evaporation technique, where the substrates are corning 7059 glass slides. The mass thickness (d{sub m}) of the films of different sets is 5, 10 and 20 A, respectively. The Pt films were exposed to {gamma}-rays from {sup 137}Cs (0.662 MeV) radiation source of dose rate 0.5 Gy/min. and the different doses are 100, 200, 300, 500 and 700 Gy. The dependence of the surface resistivity ({rho}) on temperature over the range of 100-300 K was undertaken at different d{sub m} and doses then the temperature coefficient of surface resistivity ({alpha}) was deduced. It was found that; (i) for particular d{sub m} and T, the absolute value of {alpha} decreases as the dose increases (ii) for particular dose and T, the absolute value of {alpha} decreases as d{sub m} increases (iii) for particular dose and d{sub m}, the absolute value of {alpha} decreases as T increases. Qualitative interpretation for the results was offered on the ground that the electrons transfer among islands takes place by the activated tunneling mechanism and the {gamma}-irradiation has changed the shape of islands from spherical to prolate spheroid.

  2. Effect of coefficient changes on stability of linear retarded systems with constant time delays

    Barker, L. K.


    A method is developed to determine the effect of coefficient changes on the stability of a retarded system with constant time delays. The method, which uses the tau-decomposition method of stability analysis, is demonstrated by an example.

  3. Pressure distribution and aerodynamic coefficients associated with heat addition to supersonic air stream adjacent to two-dimensional supersonic wing

    Pinkel, I Irving; Serafini, John S; Gregg, John L


    The modifications in the pressure distributions and the aerodynamic coefficients associated with additions of heat to the two-dimensional supersonic in viscid flow field adjacetnt to the lower surface of of a 5-percent-thickness symmetrical circular-arc wing are presented in this report. The pressure distributions are obtained by the use of graphical method which gives the two-dimensional supersonic inviscid flow field obtained with moderate heat addition. The variation is given of the lift-drag ratio and of the aerodynamic coefficients of lift, drag, and moment with free stream Mach number, angle of attack, and parameters defining extent and amount of heat addition. The six graphical solutions used in this study included Mach numbers of 3.0 and 5.0 and angles of attack of 0 degrees and 2 degrees.

  4. Dynamics of solitons of the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation with distributed coefficients

    Liu Xiao-Bei; Li Biao


    We present three families of soliton solutions to the generalized (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation with distributed coefficients. We investigate the dynamics of these solitons in nonlinear optics with some selected parameters.Different shapes of bright solitons,a train of bright solitons and dark solitons are observed.The obtained results may raise the possibilities of relevant experiments and potential applications.

  5. A Generalized Variable-Coefficient Algebraic Method Exactly Solving (3+1)-Dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvilli Equation


    A generalized variable-coefficient algebraic method is applied to construct several new families of exact solutions of physical interestfor (3+1)-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvilli (KP) equation. Among them, the Jacobi elliptic periodic solutions exactly degenerate to the soliton solutions at a certain limit condition. Compared with the existing tanh method, the extended tanh method, the Jacobi elliptic function method, and the algebraic method, the proposed method gives new and more general solutions.

  6. Monitoring changes of optical attenuation coefficients of acupuncture points during laser acupuncture by optical coherence tomography

    Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Zheng, Liqin; Xie, Shusen


    The physical properties of acupuncture point were important to discover the mechanism of acupuncture meridian. In this paper, we used an optical coherence tomography to monitor in vivo the changes of optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point during laser irradiation on Yangxi acupuncture point. The optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point were obtained by fitting the raw data according to the Beer-Lambert's law. The experimental results showed that the optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point decreased during the laser acupuncture, in contrast to a barely changed result in that of non-acupuncture point. The significant change of optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point indicated that there was a correlation between Hegu and Yangxi acupuncture points to some extent.

  7. Matrix correlations for high-dimensional data: The modified RV-coefficient

    Smilde, A.K.; Kiers, H.A.L.; Bijlsma, S.; Rubingh, C.M.; Erk, M.J. van


    Motivation: Modern functional genomics generates high-dimensional datasets. It is often convenient to have a single simple number characterizing the relationship between pairs of such high-dimensional datasets in a comprehensive way. Matrix correlations are such numbers and are appealing since they

  8. Matrix correlations for high-dimensional data : The modified RV-coefficient

    Smilde, A. K.; Kiers, H. A. L.; Bijlsma, S.; Rubingh, C. M.; van Erk, M. J.


    Motivation: Modern functional genomics generates high-dimensional datasets. It is often convenient to have a single simple number characterizing the relationship between pairs of such high-dimensional datasets in a comprehensive way. Matrix correlations are such numbers and are appealing since they

  9. Matrix correlations for high-dimensional data: the modified RV-coefficient

    Smilde, A.K.; Kiers, H.A.L.; Bijlsma, S.; Rubingh, C.M.; van Erk, M.J.


    Motivation: Modern functional genomics generates high-dimensional datasets. It is often convenient to have a single simple number characterizing the relationship between pairs of such high-dimensional datasets in a comprehensive way. Matrix correlations are such numbers and are appealing since they

  10. Assessing Reliability of a Multi-Dimensional Scale by Coefficient Alpha

    Ivan Šerbetar


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess internal consistency by calculating coefficient alpha. It presents the variation in coefficient alpha, depending on questionnaire length and the homogeneity or heterogeneity of the questionnaire. The maximum possible value for coefficient alpha was also calculated by the item elimination method. The study included 99 children aged 10. The children completed The Athletic Coping Skills Inventory – 28 (ACSI-28; Smith et al., 1995, which contains seven constructs: coping with adversity, coachability, concentration, confidence and achievement motivation, goal setting and mental preparation, peaking under pressure and freedom from worry. The results confirmed that the values of the alpha coefficient vary depending on the number and composition of items and the sample size. In terms of item structure, homogeneous constructs yielded lower values for the alpha coefficient (in a range from .48 to .61 than the questionnaire with all the constructs (alpha = .79, despite higher inter-item correlations. In terms of the number of items, the longer test generated higher alpha coefficients (alpha = .79 than the shorter test (half-sets of items = .60, .73, .69, .70. A higher overall value (alpha = .83 can be achieved by item elimination.

  11. Computation of drag and lift coefficients for simple two-dimensional objects with Reynolds number Re = 420 000

    Matas Richard


    Full Text Available The article deals with comparison of drag and lift coefficients for simple two-dimensional objects, which are often discussed in fluid mechanics fundamentals books. The commercial CFD software ANSYS/FLUENT 13 was used for computation of flow fields around the objects and determination of the drag and lift coefficients. The flow fields of the two-dimensional objects were computed for velocity up to 160 km per hour and Reynolds number Re = 420 000. Main purpose was to verify the suggested computational domain and model settings for further more complex objects geometries. The more complex profiles are used to stabilize asymmetrical ('z'-shaped pantographs of high-speed trains. The trains are used in two-way traffic where the pantographs have to operate with the same characteristics in both directions. Results of the CFD computations show oscillation of the drag and lift coefficients over time. The results are compared with theoretical and experimental data and discussed. Some examples are presented in the paper.

  12. Divergence of the Long Wavelength Collective Diffusion Coefficient in Quasi-one and Quasi-two Dimensional Colloid Suspensions

    Lin, Binhua; Cui, Bianxiao; Xu, Xinliang; Zangi, Ronen; Diamant, Haim; Rice, Stuart A.


    We report the results of experimental studies of the short time-long wavelength behavior of collective particle displacements in q1D and q2D colloid suspensions. Our results are reported via the q->0 behavior of the hydrodynamic function H (q) that relates the effective collective diffusion coefficient, De (q) , with the static structure factor S (q) and the self-diffusion coefficient of isolated particles Do: H (q) De (q) S (q) /Do. We find an apparent divergence of H (q) as q->0 with the form H(q)q-(1.7 qualitatively different from that of the three-dimensional H (q) and De (q) as q->0, and the divergence is of a different functional form from that predicted for the diffusion coefficient in one component 1D and 2D fluids not subject to boundary conditions that define the dimensionality of the system. The research was supported by the NSF MRSEC at the U of Chicago (NSF/DMR-MRSEC 0820054), NSF/CHE 0822838 (ChemMatCARS), and Israel Science Foundation (Grant No. 8/10).

  13. Change in Biot's effective stress coefficient of chalk during pore collapse

    Alam, M. Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    the grains could also change during elastic deformation of the grains in a rock mechanics test. Diagenetic change in grain contact cement of chalk can be compared with stress-induced change in the laboratory. The change in porosity is studied with reference to the change in effective stress on grain contacts......Biot's effective stress coefficient (α) is a measure of how well grains in the rocks are connected with each other. The amount of contact cements between the grains determines the stiffness of rocks. Change in grain contact occurs during natural diagenesis of sedimentary rock. Contact between...... and porosity reduces at a slower rate. We noticed that presence of non carbonates and hydrocarbon could increase σ'm. During rock mechanics test in the lab, with increased applied stress, σ'm increases, Biot's effective stress coefficient shows a decreasing trend, while a minor porosity reduction was observed...

  14. Bäcklund Transformation and Soliton Solutions for a (3+1)-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Breaking Soliton Equation

    Zhao, Chen; Gao, Yi-Tian; Lan, Zhong-Zhou; Yang, Jin-Wei


    In this article, a (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient breaking soliton equation is investigated. Based on the Bell polynomials and symbolic computation, the bilinear forms and Bäcklund transformation for the equation are derived. One-, two-, and three-soliton solutions are obtained via the Hirota method. N-soliton solutions are also constructed. Propagation characteristics and interaction behaviors of the solitons are discussed graphically: (i) solitonic direction and position depend on the sign of the wave numbers; (ii) shapes of the multisoliton interactions in the scaled space and time coordinates are affected by the variable coefficients; (iii) multisoliton interactions are elastic for that the velocity and amplitude of each soliton remain unchanged after each interaction except for a phase shift.

  15. Drag Coefficient of a Liquid Domain in a Fluid Membrane Surrounded by Confined Three-Dimensional Fluids

    Fujitani, Youhei


    It is thought that, in a biomembrane, some minor lipid constituents are concentrated in a domain called the lipid raft. Some raftlike domains in a lipid-bilayer membrane can be regarded as two-dimensional droplets. The membrane viscosities inside and outside the domain are generally different. The present author previously studied the drag coefficient of a circular liquid domain in a flat fluid membrane surrounded by three-dimensional fluids, which occupy the semi-infinite spaces on both sides of the membrane. Here we generalize this problem by assuming that the surrounding fluids are confined by container walls parallel to the membrane. Errors in the present author's previous studies are also corrected in this paper.




    The existence and iteration of positive solution for classical Gelfand models areconsidered, where the coefficient of nonlinear term is allowed to change sign in [ 0, 1 ]. Byusing the monotone iterative technique, an existence theorem of positive solution isobtained, corresponding iterative process and convergence rate are given. This iterativeprocess starts off with zero function, hence the process is simple, feasible and effective.

  17. General method and exact solutions to a generalized variable-coefficient two-dimensional KdV equation

    Chen, Yong [Ningbo Univ., Ningbo (China). Department of Mathematics; Shanghai Jiao-Tong Univ., Shangai (China). Department of Physics; Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Mathematics Mechanization


    A general method to uniformly construct exact solutions in terms of special function of nonlinear partial differential equations is presented by means of a more general ansatz and symbolic computation. Making use of the general method, we can successfully obtain the solutions found by the method proposed by Fan (J. Phys. A., 36 (2003) 7009) and find other new and more general solutions, which include polynomial solutions, exponential solutions, rational solutions, triangular periodic wave solution, soliton solutions, soliton-like solutions and Jacobi, Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. A general variable-coefficient two-dimensional KdV equation is chosen to illustrate the method. As a result, some new exact soliton-like solutions are obtained. planets. The numerical results are given in tables. The results are discussed in the conclusion.

  18. The variation of aerofoil lift and drag coefficients with changes in size and speed

    Diehl, Walter S


    This report contains the results of an investigation into the effect of changes in size and speed upon aerofoil lift and drag coefficients. Certain empirical limitations to the interchangeability of v and l in the general equation of fluid resistance are pointed out and the existing methods of correcting for scale are criticized. New methods of correcting for scale by means of simple formulae are derived and checked by comparison with test results.

  19. Estimation of vertical diffusion coefficient based on a one-dimensional temperature diffusion equation with an inverse method

    LIANG Hui; ZHAO Wei; DAI Dejun; ZHANG Jun


    Diapycnal mixing is important in oceanic circulation. An inverse method in which a semi-explicit scheme is applied to discretize the one-dimensional temperature diffusion equation is established to estimate the vertical temperature diffusion coefficient based on the observed temperature profiles. The sensitivity of the inverse model in the idealized and actual conditions is tested in detail. It can be found that this inverse model has high feasibility under multiple situations ensuring the stability of the inverse model, and can be considered as an efficient way to estimate the temperature diffusion coefficient in the weak current regions of the ocean. Here, the hydrographic profiles from Argo floats are used to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of the vertical mixing in the north central Pacific based on this inverse method. It is further found that the vertical mixing in the upper ocean displays a distinct seasonal variation with the amplitude decreasing with depth, and the vertical mixing over rough topography is stronger than that over smooth topography. It is suggested that the high-resolution profiles from Argo floats and a more reasonable design of the inverse scheme will serve to understand mixing processes.

  20. Natural convection heat transfer coefficients in phase change material (PCM) modules with external vertical fins

    Castell, Albert; Sole, Cristian; Medrano, Marc; Roca, Joan; Cabeza, Luisa F. [Departament d' Informatica i Enginyeria Industrial, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Garcia, Daniel [Departament Projectes d' Enginyeria, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)


    To determine the heat transfer coefficient by natural convection for specific geometries, experimental correlations are used. No correlations were found in the literature for the geometries studied in this work. These geometries consisted of a cylindrical module of 88 mm of diameter and 315 mm height with external vertical fins of 310 mm height and 20 and 40 mm length. To determine the heat transfer coefficient by natural convection, experimental work was done. This module, containing PCM (sodium acetate trihydrate), was situated in the middle upper part of a cylindrical water tank of 440 mm of diameter and 450 mm height. The calculated heat transfer coefficient changed by using external fins, as the heat transfer surface was increased. The temperature variation of the PCM and the water are presented as a function of time, and the heat transfer coefficient for different fins is presented as a function of the temperature difference. Experimental correlations were obtained, presenting the Nusselt number as a function of different dimensionless numbers. Different correlations were analysed to find which one fit better to the experimental data. (author)

  1. The Interactions of N-Soliton Solutions for the Generalized (2+1-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Fifth-Order KdV Equation

    Xiangrong Wang


    Full Text Available A generalized (2+1-dimensional variable-coefficient KdV equation is introduced, which can describe the interaction between a water wave and gravity-capillary waves better than the (1+1-dimensional KdV equation. The N-soliton solutions of the (2+1-dimensional variable-coefficient fifth-order KdV equation are obtained via the Bell-polynomial method. Then the soliton fusion, fission, and the pursuing collision are analyzed depending on the influence of the coefficient eAij; when eAij=0, the soliton fusion and fission will happen; when eAij≠0, the pursuing collision will occur. Moreover, the Bäcklund transformation of the equation is gotten according to the binary Bell-polynomial and the period wave solutions are given by applying the Riemann theta function method.

  2. Change of heat transfer- and mass transfer-coefficients with simultaneous heat- and mass transfer

    Kast, W.


    The values of sensible and latent heat and of the resulting energy flow through laminar boundary layer have been developed for the four possible combinations of the directions of heat- and mass flows. When the values of heat- and mass flows are used with the correct sign according to the definitions of Fourier's law and Fick's law, the changes of heat transfer- and mass transfer coefficients can be described by one equation alone for all cases. The equations extended in that way are valid for arbitrary cases of countercurrent diffusing mass flows - not only for the well known case of Stefan diffusion.

  3. Variable-Coefficient Hyperbola Function Method and Its Application to (2+1)-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Broer-Kaup System

    HUANGDing-,Jiang; ZHANGHong-Qing


    Based on a new intermediate transformation, a variable-coeFficient hyperbola function method is proposed.Being concise and straightforward, it is applied to the (2+1)-dimensional variable-coeFficient Broer-Kaup system. As a result, several new families of exact soliton-like solutions are obtained, besides the travelling wave. When imposing some conditions on them, the new exact solitary wave solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional Broer Kaup system are given. The method can be applied to other variable-coeFficient nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  4. Analytical solutions of one-dimensional advection–diffusion equation with variable coefficients in a finite domain

    Atul Kumar; Dilip Kumar Jaiswal; Naveen Kumar


    Analytical solutions are obtained for one-dimensional advection –diffusion equation with variable coefficients in a longitudinal finite initially solute free domain,for two dispersion problems.In the first one,temporally dependent solute dispersion along uniform flow in homogeneous domain is studied.In the second problem the velocity is considered spatially dependent due to the inhomogeneity of the domain and the dispersion is considered proportional to the square of the velocity. The velocity is linearly interpolated to represent small increase in it along the finite domain.This analytical solution is compared with the numerical solution in case the dispersion is proportional to the same linearly interpolated velocity.The input condition is considered continuous of uniform and of increasing nature both.The analytical solutions are obtained by using Laplace transformation technique.In that process new independent space and time variables have been introduced. The effects of the dependency of dispersion with time and the inhomogeneity of the domain on the solute transport are studied separately with the help of graphs.

  5. On an Auto-B(a)cklund Transformation for (2+1)-Dimensional Variable Coefficient Generalized KP Equations and Exact Solutions

    BAI Cheng-Jie; BAI Cheng-Lin; HAN Ji-Guang; ZHAO Hong


    By the application of the extended homogeneous balance method, we derive an auto-Backlund transformation (BT) for (2+1)-dimensional variable coefficient generalized KP equations. Based on the BT, in which there are two homogeneity equations to be solved, we obtain some exact solutions containing single solitary waves.

  6. Self-intermediate scattering function of strongly interacting three-dimensional lattice gases: Time- and wave-vector-dependent tracer diffusion coefficient

    Skarpalezos, Loukas; Argyrakis, Panos; Vikhrenko, Vyacheslav S.


    We investigate the self-intermediate scattering function (SISF) in a three-dimensional (3D) cubic lattice fluid (interacting lattice gas) with attractive nearest-neighbor interparticle interactions at a temperature slightly above the critical one by means of Monte Carlo simulations. A special representation of SISF as an exponent of the mean tracer diffusion coefficient multiplied by the geometrical factor and time is considered to highlight memory effects that are included in time and wave-vector dependence of the diffusion coefficient. An analytical expression for the diffusion coefficient is suggested to reproduce the simulation data. It is shown that the particles' mean-square displacement is equal to the time integral of the diffusion coefficient. We make a comparison with the previously considered 2D system on a square lattice. The main difference with the two-dimensional case is that the time dependence of particular characteristics of the tracer diffusion coefficient in the 3D case cannot be described by exponentially decreasing functions, but requires using stretched exponentials with rather small values of exponents, of the order of 0.2. The hydrodynamic values of the tracer diffusion coefficient (in the limit of large times and small wave vectors) defined through SIFS simulation results agree well with the results of its direct determination by the mean-square displacement of the particles in the entire range of concentrations and temperatures.

  7. Two-Dimensional Change Detection Methods Remote Sensing Applications

    Ilsever, Murat


    Change detection using remotely sensed images has many applications, such as urban monitoring, land-cover change analysis, and disaster management. This work investigates two-dimensional change detection methods. The existing methods in the literature are grouped into four categories: pixel-based, transformation-based, texture analysis-based, and structure-based. In addition to testing existing methods, four new change detection methods are introduced: fuzzy logic-based, shadow detection-based, local feature-based, and bipartite graph matching-based. The latter two methods form the basis for a

  8. Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient in spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory lesions and type 1 modic changes

    Dallaudière, Benjamin, E-mail: [Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Service de Radiologie, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Inserm U698, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Université Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Dautry, Raphaël, E-mail: [Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Service de Radiologie, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Université Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Preux, Pierre-Marie, E-mail: [Faculté de Médecine de Limoges, Unité fonctionelle de recherche clinique et de biostatistique, hôpital Le Cluzeau, 23, avenue Dominique Larrey, 87042 Limges Cedex (France); Perozziello, Anne, E-mail: [Université Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Unité de recherche clinique, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Lincot, Julien, E-mail: [Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Service de Radiologie, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth, E-mail: [Hôpital Bichat – Claude Bernard, Service de Radiologie, 46, rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018 (France); Université Paris Diderot, Paris (France); and others


    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the values of ADC in spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory lesions are different from ADC values in type 1 Modic changes. Subjects and methods: 95 patients with recent lumbar pain, including 46 patients with diagnosed or suspected spondylarthritis and 49 patients with purely degenerative history, underwent spine MRI. T1w, STIR, and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were obtained. Two musculoskeletal radiologists interpreted the images. Axial active inflammatory lesions from the SpA group and type 1 Modic changes from the degenerative group were identified on T1w and STIR sequences. ADC values from these lesions and from healthy subchondral bone were compared. Results: All axial active inflammatory lesions (n = 27) and type 1 Modic changes (n = 22) identified in T1w and STIR images were visible on DWI. ADC values were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for axial active inflammatory lesions (median = 0.788 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, IQR 25–75 [0.7 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s; 0.9 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s]) than for type 1 Modic changes (median = 0.585 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, IQR 25–75 [0.55 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s; 0.60 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s]) and normal subchondral bone (median = 0.443 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, IQR 25–75 [0.40 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s; 0.50 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s]). Intra-class correlation coefficients for intra- and inter-reader ADC values comparison were excellent (0.89 and 0.98 respectively). Conclusion: DWI is a sensitive and fast sequence that offer the possibility of quantifying diffusion coefficients of the lesions, which could help to discriminate between spondylarthritis axial active inflammatory and type 1 Modic changes.

  9. Dimensional stability and weight changes of tissue conditioners.

    Murata, H; Kawamura, M; Hamada, T; Saleh, S; Kresnoadi, U; Toki, K


    The dimensional stability of tissue conditioners characterizes the ability of the materials to yield accurate functional impressions of oral mucosa. This study evaluated the linear dimensional changes with time of six tissue conditioners (COE Comfort, FITT, GC Soft-Liner, Hydro-Cast, SR-Ivoseal and Visco-Gel) using a travelling microscope, and relationship between these changes and weight changes. The absorption and solubility of these materials were also determined. The percentage changes in dimension and weight in water storage were measured at 2 (baseline), 8 and 24 h, and 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after specimen preparation. All materials except SR-Ivoseal exhibited shrinkage and weight loss during water storage, whilst SR-Ivoseal exhibited expansion and an increase in weight. The percentage solubility for all materials except SR-Ivoseal was higher than the percentage absorption. A positive linear relationship was found between the percentage changes in linear dimension and those in weight (r=0.797 - 0.986, P forming functional impressions would be 24 h after insertion in the mouth. In addition, it is important to select tissue conditioners suitable for functional impressions because of the wide ranges of dimensional stability among the materials.

  10. Variable-coefficient projective Riccati equation method and its application to a new (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified generalized Broer-Kaup system

    Huang Dingjiang E-mail:; Zhang Hongqing


    In this paper, based on a new intermediate transformation, a variable-coefficient projective Riccati equation method is proposed. Being concise and straightforward, it is applied to a new (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified generalized Broer-Kaup (SGBK) system. As a result, several new families of exact soliton-like solutions are obtained, beyond the travelling wave. When imposing some condition on them, the new exact solitary wave solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional SGBK system are given. The method can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  11. Photomask Dimensional Metrology in the SEM: Has Anything Really Changed?

    Postek, Michael T., Jr.; Vladar, Andras E.; Bennett, Marylyn H.


    Photomask dimensional metrology in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) has not evolved as rapidly as the metrology of resists and integrated circuit features on wafers. This has been due partly to the 4x (or 5x) reduction in the optical steppers and scanners used in the lithography process, and partly for the lesser need to account for the real three-dimensionality of the mask structures. So, where photomasks are concerned, many of the issues challenging wafer dimensional metrology at 1x are reduced by a factor of 4 or 5 and thus could be temporarily swept aside. This is rapidly changing with the introduction of advanced masks with optical proximity correction and phase shifting features used in 100 nm and smaller circuit generations. Fortunately, photomask metrology generally benefits from the advances made for wafer metrology, but there are still unique issues to be solved in this form of dimensional metrology. It is likely that no single metrology method or tool will ever provide all necessary answers. As with other types of metrology, resolution, sensitivity and linearity in the three-dimensional measurements of the shape of the lines and phase shifting features in general (width, height and wall angles) and the departures from the desired shape (surface and edge roughness, etc.) are the key parameters. Different methods and tools differ in their ability to collect averaged and localized signals with an acceptable speed, but in any case, application of this thorough knowledge of the physics of the given metrology is essential to extract the needed information. This paper will discuss the topics of precision, accuracy and traceability in the SEM metrology of photomasks. Current and possible new techniques utilized in the measurements of photomasks including charge suppression and highly accurate modeling for electron beam metrology will also be explored to answer the question "Has anything really changed?"

  12. A modified variable-coefficient projective Riccati equation method and its application to (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified generalized Broer-Kaup system

    Liu Qing [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China)], E-mail:; Zhu Jiamin; Hong Bihai [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China)


    A modified variable-coefficient projective Riccati equation method is proposed and applied to a (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified and generalized Broer-Kaup system. It is shown that the method presented by Huang and Zhang [Huang DJ, Zhang HQ. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2005; 23:601] is a special case of our method. The results obtained in the paper include many new formal solutions besides the all solutions found by Huang and Zhang.

  13. Density-fluctuation symbolic computation on the (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Kudryashov-Sinelshchikov equation for a bubbly liquid with experimental support

    Gao, Xin-Yi


    Liquids with gas bubbles are commonly seen in medical science, natural science, daily life and engineering. Nonlinear-wave symbolic computation on the (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Kudryashov-Sinelshchikov model for a bubbly liquid is hereby performed. An auto-Bäcklund transformation and with some solitonic solutions are obtained. With respect to the density fluctuation of the bubble-liquid mixture, both the auto-Bäcklund transformation and solitonic solutions depend on the bubble-liquid-viscosity, transverse-perturbation, bubble-liquid-nonlinearity and bubble-liquid-dispersion coefficient functions. We note that some shock waves given by our solutions have been observed by the gas-bubble/liquid-mixture experiments. Effects on a bubbly liquid with respect to the bubble-liquid-viscosity, transverse-perturbation, bubble-liquid-nonlinearity and bubble-liquid-dispersion coefficient functions might be detected by the future gas-bubble/liquid-mixture experiments.

  14. Intermolecular forces in lipid monolayers. Two-dimensional virial coefficients for pentadecanoic acid from micromanometry on spread monolayers at the air/water interface.

    Pallas, Norman R; Pethica, Brian A


    The lateral intermolecular forces between surfactant or lipid molecules in monolayers at interfaces are fundamental to understanding the phenomena of surface activity and the interactions of lipids in two-dimensional structures such as smectic phases and biomembranes. The classical approach to these forces is via the two-dimensional virial coefficients, which requires precise micromanometry on monolayer isotherms in the dilute gaseous region. Low pressure isotherms out to high surface areas in the two-dimensional gas range have been measured at 15, 25 and 30 degrees C for insoluble monolayers of n-pentadecanoic acid spread at the interface between water-vapour saturated air and a dilute aqueous solution of HCl. The data allow estimates of virial coefficients up to the third term. The second virial coefficients are compared with those predicted from a statistical mechanical model for monolayers of n-alkylcarboxylic acids treated as side-by-side parallel chains extended at the surface with the carboxyl head groups shielded in the water phase. The two sets coincide at approximately 26 degrees C, but the experimental estimates show a much larger dependence on temperature than the model predicts. Chain conformation effects, head group interactions and surface field polarization are discussed as possible temperature-dependent contributions to the lateral potentials of mean force.

  15. Measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient in paediatric mitochondrial encephalopathy cases and a comparison of parenchymal changes associated with the disease using follow-up diffusion coefficient measurements

    Uysal, Fatma, E-mail: [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Çakmakçı, Handan, E-mail: [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Yiş, Uluç, E-mail: [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey); Ellidokuz, Hülya, E-mail: [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Medical Statistics, Izmir (Turkey); Hız, Ayşe Semra, E-mail: [Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey)


    Objectives: To reveal the contribution of MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to the diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalopathy (ME) and to evaluate the parenchymal changes associated with this disease in the involved parenchymal areas using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parameter. Methods: Ten patients who had undergone MRI and DWI analysis with a pre-diagnosis of neurometabolic disease, and who were subsequently diagnosed with ME in laboratory and/or genetic studies, were included in our study. ADC values were compared with a control group composed of 20 patients of similar age with normal brains. Evaluations involved measurements made in 20 different areas determined on the ADC map. The dominance or contribution of ADC coefficient measurements to the conventional sequences was compared with the controls. Results: In the first examination, an increase in both diffusion and ADC values was detected in six cases and diffusion restriction and a decrease in ADC values in three patients. While an increase in both diffusion and ADC values was demonstrated in four cases, there was diffusion restriction and a decrease in ADC values in three cases in the control examinations. Conclusions: DWI provides information that complements conventional MRI sequences in the diagnosis of ME.

  16. Dark and bright solitons for a three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation with distributed time-dependent coefficients in the Bose-Einstein condensation

    Liu, Lei; Tian, Bo; Zhen, Hui-Ling; Wu, Xiao-Yu; Shan, Wen-Rui


    Under investigation in this paper is a three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation with the distributed time-dependent coefficients, which describes the phenomena associated with the three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensation. Under the constraint α(t) = 2 β(t) , we obtain the bilinear forms, dark and bright N-soliton solutions via the Hirota method and symbolic computation, where t is the scaled time, α(t) and β(t) are the coefficients for the strength of the quadratic potential and diffraction, respectively. Specially, compared with the bright soliton solutions previously reported, we eliminate one constraint and obtain more soliton parameters. We give the existence constraints of the dark and bright N solitons, respectively. Choosing the diffraction and gain/loss coefficients, we observe the growth, decay, periodic oscillation, periodic collapse and revival of the dark and bright solitons. Relationships between the BEC time-dependent coefficients and soliton properties are studied. With the help of the asymptotic and graphic analysis, elastic interactions of the dark and bright two solitons are exhibited.

  17. A technique for estimating one-dimensional diffusion coefficients in low-permeability sedimentary rock using X-ray radiography: comparison with through-diffusion measurements.

    Cavé, Lisa; Al, Tom; Xiang, Yan; Vilks, Peter


    The measurement of diffusive properties of low-permeability rocks is of interest to the nuclear power industry, which is considering the option of deep geologic repositories for management of radioactive waste. We present a simple, non-destructive, constant source in-diffusion method for estimating one-dimensional pore diffusion coefficients (D(p)) in geologic materials based on X-ray radiography. Changes in X-ray absorption coefficient (Deltamicro) are used to quantify changes in relative concentration (C/C(0)) of an X-ray attenuating iodide tracer as the tracer solution diffuses through the rock pores. Estimated values of D(p) are then obtained by fitting an analytical solution to the measured concentration profiles over time. Measurements on samples before and after saturation with iodide can also be used to determine iodide-accessible porosity (phi(I)). To evaluate the radiography method, results were compared with traditional steady-state through-diffusion measurements on two rock types: shale and limestone. Values of D(p) of (4.8+/-2.5)x10(-11) m(2).s(-1) (mean+/-standard deviation) were measured for samples of Queenston Formation shale and (2.6+/-1.0)x10(-11) m(2).s(-1) for samples of Cobourg Formation limestone using the radiography method. The range of results for each rock type agree well with D(p) values of (4.6+/-2.0)x10(-11) m(2).s(-1) for shale and (3.5+/-1.8)x10(-11) m(2).s(-1) for limestone, calculated from through-diffusion experiments on adjacent rock samples. Low porosity (0.01 to 0.03) and heterogeneous distribution of porosity in the Cobourg Formation may be responsible for the slightly poorer agreement between radiography and through-diffusion results for limestones. Mean values of phi(I) for shales (0.060) and limestones (0.028) were close to mean porosity measurements made on bulk samples by the independent water loss technique (0.062 and 0.020 for shales and limestones, respectively). Radiography measurements offer the advantage of time

  18. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    the reason for change in effective stress coefficient under stress. Our model suggests that change in effective stress coefficient will be higher at uniaxial stress condition than at hydrostatic condition. We derived equations from the original definition of Biot to estimate effective stress coefficient from...... one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...

  19. Microstructure and dimensional changes of neutron-irradiated zirconium alloys

    Pedraza, A. J.; Fainstein-Pedraza, D.


    Experimental observations concerning the neutron-irradiation-induced defect structure in zirconium-based alloys are analyzed within the framework of an irradiation growth theory developed in the past years. The competition of those defects and the microstructure present in the material prior to irradiation as point defect sinks is studied as a function of irradiation temperature and dose. Owing to the different growth behavior of recrystallized and of cold-worked specimens at reactor temperatures, the cellular microstructure of the latter is considered in detail. In view of the highly anisotropic dislocation system in these materials, cell boundaries are reasoned to form with essentially edge components in the walls parallel to the c-axis, while the boundary segments normal to that axis should be of screw type. Since the latter would induce no dimensional change if the cell boundary absorbs defects by dislocation climb, it is argued — on the basis of growth data — that it must behave as a point defect sink/source of a different nature than that of free dislocations. The possibility of dislocation segments with a ( c + a)-type Burgers vector in the cell boundary or rapid point defect diffusion along it are also discussed. The existing growth model is then enlarged in order to account quantitatively for the dimensional changes of cold-worked materials, and its results are compared with available experimental data.

  20. Dimensional Stability of Color-Changing Irreversible Hydrocolloids after Disinfection

    Khaledi AAR


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Disinfection of dental impressions is a weak point in the dental hygiene chain. In addition, dental office personnel and dental technicians are endangered by cross-contamination. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the dimensional stability of two color-changing irreversible hydrocolloid materials (IH after disinfection with glutaraldehyde. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, impressions were made of a master maxillary arch containing three reference inserts on the occlucal surface of the left and right maxillary second molars and in the incisal surface of the maxillary central incisors. Two types of color-changing irreversible hydrocolloid (tetrachrom, cavex were used. Glutaraldehyde 2% was used in two methods of spraying and immersion to disinfect the impressions. The control group was not disinfected. Casts were made of type IV gypsum. The linear dimensional change of the stone casts was measured with a profile projector. For statistical analysis, Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Witney tests were used (α=0.05. Results: By immersion method, the casts fabricated from tetrachrom were 0.36% larger in the anteroposterior (AP and 0.05% smaller in cross arch (CA dimensions; however, the casts prepared after spraying of tetrachrom were 0.44% larger in the AP and 0.10% smaller in CA dimensions. The casts made from Cavex were 0.05% smaller in the AP and 0.02% smaller in CA dimensions after spraying and 0.01% smaller in the AP and 0.003% smaller in CA dimensions after immersion. Generally there were not significant differences in AP and CA dimensions of the experimental groups compared to the control (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Disinfection of the tested color-changing irreversible hydrocolloids by glutaraldahyde 2% did not compromise the accuracy of the obtained casts.

  1. Void Reactivity Coefficient Analysis during Void Fraction Changes in Innovative BWR Assemblies

    Andrius Slavickas


    Full Text Available The study of the void reactivity variation in innovative BWR fuel assemblies is presented in this paper. The innovative assemblies are loaded with high enrichment fresh UO2 and MOX fuels. UO2 fuel enrichment is increased above existing design limitations for LWR fuels (>5%. MOX fuel enrichment with fissile Pu content is established to achieve the same burnup level as that of high enrichment UO2 fuel. For the numerical analysis, the TRITON functional module of SCALE 6.1 code with the 238-group ENDF/B-VI cross section data library was applied. The investigation of the void reactivity feedback is performed in the entire 0–100% void fraction range. Higher values of void reactivity coefficient for assembly loaded with MOX fuel are found in comparison with values for assembly loaded with UO2 fuel. Moreover, coefficient values for MOX fuel are positive over 75% void fraction. The variation of the void reactivity coefficient is explained by the results of the decomposition analysis based on four-factor formula and neutron absorption reactions for main isotopes. Additionally, the impact of the moderation enhancement on the void reactivity coefficient was investigated for the innovative assembly with MOX fuel.

  2. Posttreatment Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Changes in the Periresectional Area in Patients with Glioblastoma

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Yan, Jiun-Lin; Larkin, Timothy J.; Boonzaier, Natalie R.; Matys, Tomasz; Price, Stephen J.


    BACKGROUND: Although targeted by radiotherapy, recurrence in glioblastoma occurs mainly periresectionally owing to tumor infiltration. An increase in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) has been shown in the large high-T2 area on magnetic resonance imaging post-treatment; however, until now ADC

  3. A Substructural Damage Identification Approach for Shear Structure Based on Changes in the First AR Model Coefficient Matrix

    Liu Mei


    Full Text Available A substructural damage identification approach based on changes in the first AR model coefficient matrix is proposed in this paper to identify structural damage including its location and severity. Firstly, a substructure approach is adopted in the procedure to divide a complete structure into several substructures in order to significantly reduce the number of unknown parameters for each substructure so that damage identification processes can be independently conducted on each substructure. To establish a relation between changes in AR model coefficients and structural damage for each substructure, a theoretical derivation is presented. Thus the accelerations are fed into ARMAX models to determine the AR model coefficients for each substructure under undamaged and various damaged conditions, based on which changes in the first AR model coefficient matrix (CFAR is obtained and adopted as the damage indicator for the proposed substructure damage identification approach. To better assess the performance of the proposed procedure, a numerical simulation and an experimental verification of the proposed approach are then carried out and the results show that the proposed procedure can successfully locate and quantify the damage in both simulation and laboratory experiment.

  4. Cellular Changes of Stem Cells in 3-Dimensional Culture.

    Green, Matthew P; Hou, Bo


    During various operations and procedures, such as distraction osteogenesis and orthodontics, skeletal tissues use mechanotransduction. Mechanotransduction is important for maintaining bone health and converting mechanical forces into biochemical signals. We hypothesized that cells put under mechanical stress would adapt and change morphologically and respond with a decrease in cellular proliferation to accommodate the stress differences. These differences will be measured at the molecular and genetic level. We also wanted to test the practicality of an in vitro 3-dimensional gel model system. We implemented a 3-dimensional cell culture model. The sample was composed of isolated mouse mesenchymal prefibroblast bone marrow cells from the femurs and tibias of 6- to 8-week-old wild-type C57BL6 mice. The cells were seeded on fibronectin-coated hydrogels along with fibrin and nodulin growth factors. The variables tested were a no-force model (control) and a force model. The force model required two 0.1-mm suture pins put through one 0.25-cm length of cell-gel matrix. After the experiments were run to completion, the samples were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections were cut at a thickness of 5 μm along the long axis for the force construct and encompassing the entire circular area of the control construct. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed, and the P value was set at 5%. There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 models. The force model had longer and straighter primary cilia, less apoptosis, and an increase in cell proliferation. In addition, the shape of the cells was markedly different after the experiment. The results of the study suggest cells put under tensile stress have the ability to mechanically sense the environment to provide improved adaptation. Our work also confirms the usefulness of the in vitro 3-dimensional gel model system to mimic in vivo applications. Published by Elsevier

  5. Donor impurity-related optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a rectangular GaAs quantum dot in the presence of electric field

    Sheng, Wang; Yun, Kang; Xianli, Li


    Within the quasi-one-dimensional effective potential model and effective mass approximation, we obtain the wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of the ground (j = 1) and first 2 excited states (j = 2 and 3) of a donor impurity in a rectangular GaAs quantum dot in the presence of electric field. The donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption as well as refractive index changes for the transitions j = 1-2 and j = 2-3 are investigated. The results show that the impurity position, incident optical intensity and electric field play important roles in the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. We find that the impurity effect induces the blueshift for j = 1-2 and redshift for j = 3-2 in the absence of the electric field, but it leads to redshift for j = 1-2 and blueshift for j = 3-2 in the existence of the field. Also, the optical coefficient for the higher energy transitions j = 2-3 is insensitive to variation of impurity positions, while that for the low energy transition j = 1-2 depends significantly on the positions of impurity. In addition, the saturation and splitting phenomenon of the optical absorption are observed as the incident optical intensity increases. Project supported by the Science and Technology Project of Education Department of Heilongjiang Province of China (No. 12541070).

  6. Apparent diffusion coefficient evaluation for secondary changes in the cerebellum of rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Yunjun Yang; Lingyun Gao; Jun Fu; Jun Zhang; Yuxin Li; Bo Yin; Weijian Chen; Daoying Geng


    Supratentorial cerebral infarction can cause functional inhibition of remote regions such as the ce-rebel um, which may be relevant to diaschisis. This phenomenon is often analyzed using positron emission tomography and single photon emission CT. However, these methods are expensive and radioactive. Thus, the present study quantified the changes of infarction core and remote regions after unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion using apparent diffusion coefficient values. Diffu-sion-weighted imaging showed that the area of infarction core gradual y increased to involve the cerebral cortex with increasing infarction time. Diffusion weighted imaging signals were initial y in-creased and then stabilized by 24 hours. With increasing infarction time, the apparent diffusion coefficient value in the infarction core and remote bilateral cerebel um both gradual y decreased, and then slightly increased 3-24 hours after infarction. Apparent diffusion coefficient values at mote regions (cerebel um) varied along with the change of supratentorial infarction core, suggesting that the phenomenon of diaschisis existed at the remote regions. Thus, apparent diffusion coeffi-cient values and diffusion weighted imaging can be used to detect early diaschisis.

  7. Classification of Electroencephalographic Changes in Meditation and Rest: using Correlation Dimension and Wavelet Coefficients

    Atefeh Goshvarpour


    Full Text Available Meditation is a practice of concentrated focus upon the breath in order to still the mind. In this paper we have investigated an algorithm to classify rest and meditation, by processing of electroencephalogram (EEG signals through the Wavelet and nonlinear methods. For this purpose, two types of EEG time series (before, and during meditation of 25 healthy women are collected in the meditation clinic in Mashhad. Correlation dimension and Wavelet coefficients at the forth decomposition level of EEG signals in Fz, Cz and Pz are extracted and used as an input of different classifiers. In order to evaluate performance of the classifiers, the classification accuracies and mean square error (MSE of the classifiers were examined. The results show that the Fisher discriminant and Parzen classifier trained on both composite features obtain higher accuracy than that of the others. The total classification accuracy of the Fisher discriminant and Parzen classifier applying Wavelet coefficients was 85.02% and 84.75%, respectively which is raised to 92.37% in both classifiers using Correlation dimensions.

  8. Diagnosis of Wing Icing Through Lift and Drag Coefficient Change Detection for Small Unmanned Aircraft

    Sørensen, Kim Lynge; Blanke, Mogens; Johansen, Tor Arne


    This paper address the issue of structural change, caused by ice accretion, on UAVs by utilising a Neyman Pearson (NP) based statistical change detection approach, for the identification of structural changes of fixed wing UAV airfoils. A structural analysis is performed on the nonlinear aircraft...

  9. Diagnosis of Wing Icing Through Lift and Drag Coefficient Change Detection for Small Unmanned Aircraft

    Sørensen, Kim Lynge; Blanke, Mogens; Johansen, Tor Arne


    This paper address the issue of structural change, caused by ice accretion, on UAVs by utilising a Neyman Pearson (NP) based statistical change detection approach, for the identification of structural changes of fixed wing UAV airfoils. A structural analysis is performed on the nonlinear aircraft...... system and residuals are generated, where a generalised likelihood ratio test is applied to detect faults. Numerical simulations demonstrate a robust detection with adequate balance between false alarm rate and sensitivity....




    Full Text Available The present study discusses phenomena occurred in a natural channel where a bridge is built in a river bend. The present study aims at determining the effect of pillars thickness on water surface slope in transverse direction on channel bend which is defined in superelevation coefficient (Cs. Physical modelling applies 180o channel bend, 0.75 m radius, and 0.5 m width. It was applied in both with pillar and without pillar flows in subcritical-turbulent flow. For the flows with pillar there were pillar interval of 30o and 60o. The results show that the highest value of Cs (7.826 is found in the flows with pillar of the 30o interval in 30o river bend. In the interval of 60 where the pillar thickness is 3cm, the Cs value is greater than when the pillar thickness is 2 cm, on the other hand in the interval of 30o the Cs value is smaller. It is recommended for the next research to apply hydraulic condition with average velocity divided by the critical velocity must be greater than one.

  11. Assessment of bracket surface morphology and dimensional change

    Pillai Devu Radhakrishnan


    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the surface morphology and dimensional stability of the bracket slot at the onset of treatment and after 12 months of intraoral exposure. The study also compared the amount of calcium at the bracket base which indicates enamel loss among the three orthodontic brackets following debonding after 12 months of intraoral exposure. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 60 (0.022” MBT canine brackets. They were divided into three groups: self-ligating, ceramic bracket with metal slot, and stainless steel (SS brackets. The slot dimensions, micromorphologic characteristics of as-received and retrieved brackets were measured with a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM, respectively. The amount of calcium at the bracket base which indicates enamel damage was quantified using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX. Results: The results showed statistically significant alterations (P < 0.05 in the right vertical dimension, internal tie wing width (cervical, right and left depth of the slot (Kruskal–Wallis test. Multiple comparison using Mann–Whitney test showed that ceramic brackets underwent (P < 0.05 minimal alterations in the right vertical dimension, internal tie wing width (cervical, right and left depth of the slot (0.01 mm, −0.003 mm, 0.006 mm, −0.002 mm, respectively when compared with the changes seen in SS and self-ligating brackets. SEM analysis revealed an increase in the surface roughness of ceramic with metal slot brackets and self-ligating bracket showed the least irregularity. The presence of calcium was noted on all evaluated brackets under EDX, but ceramic with metal slot brackets showed a significantly greater amount of enamel loss (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Ceramic brackets were found to be dimensionally stable when compared to SS and self-ligating. Self-ligating bracket showed minimal surface irregularity. Ceramic with metal slot brackets showed a

  12. Influence of temperature changes on torsional rigidity and damping coefficient of rubber torsional vibration damper

    Wojciech HOMIK


    Full Text Available The short explanation of usefulness of rubber torsional dampers in crankshaft in multi-cylinder engines is presented. The description of the construction and operation of rubber torsional damper is also included. In the rubber torsional damper, the damping is achieved as the effect of internal friction resulting from the deformation of the rubber material. This deformation appears while the internal rubber elasticity is overloaded. Both the physical and mechanical rubber properties depend on temperature change. In cooperation with rubber dampers manufacturer the experimental investigations are made in order to establish the influence of temperature change on torsional stiffness and damping.

  13. Climate change and water planning: is a single reduction coefficient appropriate for the whole river basin district?

    P. Marcos-Garcia


    Full Text Available The inclusion of climate change in water planning is not an easy task, due to its high uncertainty. In Spain, climate change effect on water resources is quantified through the application of an only reduction coefficient to the historical time series of inflows in every river basin district. This paper is intended to provide further insight into this topic, using the new climate change scenarios and three conceptual rainfall-runoff models to simulate future inflows for the Jucar river basin. Our results suggest that the headwaters basins are prone to suffer higher rainfall reductions and temperature increases than the Mediterranean basins. Moreover, great uncertainty about resources’ reduction exists, which could be significantly greater than current water plan projections. In our opinion, system’s resilience should be confronted with a plausible rank of climatic stress conditions, to identify vulnerabilities and propose adaptation measures.

  14. Automatic measurement for dimensional changes of woven fabrics based on texture

    Liu, Jihong; Jiang, Hongxia; Liu, X.; Chai, Zhilei


    Dimensional change or shrinkage is an important functional attribute of woven fabrics that affects their basic function and price in the market. This paper presents a machine vision system that evaluates the shrinkage of woven fabrics by analyzing the change of fabric construction. The proposed measurement method has three features. (i) There will be no stain of shrinkage markers on the fabric specimen compared to the existing measurement method. (ii) The system can be used on fabric with reduced area. (iii) The system can be installed and used as a laboratory or industrial application system. The method processed can process the image of the fabric and is divided into four steps: acquiring a relative image from the sample of the woven fabric, obtaining a gray image and then the segmentation of the warp and weft from the fabric based on fast Fourier transform and inverse fast Fourier transform, calculation of the distance of the warp or weft sets by gray projection method and character shrinkage of the woven fabric by the average distance, coefficient of variation of distance and so on. Experimental results on virtual and physical woven fabrics indicated that the method provided could obtain the shrinkage information of woven fabric in detail. The method was programmed by Matlab software, and a graphical user interface was built by Delphi. The program has potential for practical use in the textile industry.

  15. Wave Reflection Coefficient Spectrum

    俞聿修; 邵利民; 柳淑学


    The wave reflection coefficient frequency spectrum and directional spectrum for concrete face slope breakwaters and rubble mound breakwaters are investigated through physical model tests in the present study. The reflection coefficients of oblique irregular waves are analyzed by the Modified Two-Point Method (MTPM) proposed by the authors. The results show that the wave reflection coefficient decreases with increasing wave frequency and incident angle or decreasing structure slope. The reflection coefficient frequency spectrum and its variation with Iribarren number are given in this paper. The paper also suggests an empirical 3-dimensional reflection coefficient spectrum, i.e. reflection coefficient directional spectrum, which can be used to illustrate quantitatively the variation of reflection coefficient with the incident angle and the Iribarren number for oblique irregular waves.

  16. Pyridine-induced Dimensionality Change in Hybrid Perovskite Nanocrystals

    Ahmed, Ghada H.


    Engineering the surface energy through careful manipulation of the surface chemistry is a convenient approach to control quantum confinement and structure dimensionality during nanocrystal growth. Here, we demonstrate that the introduction of pyridine during the synthesis of methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr) perovskite nanocrystals can transform three-dimensional (3D) cubes into two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that pyridine preferentially binds to Pb atoms terminating the surface, driving the selective 2D growth of the nanostructures. These 2D nanostructures exhibit strong quantum confinement effects, high photoluminescence quantum yields in the visible spectral range, and efficient charge transfer to molecular acceptors. These qualities indicate the suitability of the synthesized 2D nanostructures for a wide range of optoelectronic applications.

  17. The Preliminary Analysis of Change of Elasticity Coefficient of Energy Consumption and the Relevant Causes of China%对我国能源消费弹性系数变化及成因的初步分析



    The author discusses in detail the change of elasticity coefficient of energy consumption of the relevant causes of China since 1978, especially the negative coefficient from 1997 to 1999 and the coefficient larger than one from 2002 to 2004.

  18. Modeling Heterogeneity in Relationships between Initial Status and Rates of Change: Treating Latent Variable Regression Coefficients as Random Coefficients in a Three-Level Hierarchical Model

    Choi, Kilchan; Seltzer, Michael


    In studies of change in education and numerous other fields, interest often centers on how differences in the status of individuals at the start of a period of substantive interest relate to differences in subsequent change. In this article, the authors present a fully Bayesian approach to estimating three-level Hierarchical Models in which latent…

  19. Networks embedded in n-dimensional space : The impact of dimensionality change

    Peli, Gabor; Bruggeman, Jeroen


    Social networks can be embedded in an n-dimensional space, where the dimensions may reveal or denote underlying properties of interest. When the pertaining actors occupy niches of resources in this space, e.g., organizational niches of affiliates, we show there exists a non-monotonic effect of dimen

  20. Change apparent diffusion coefficient immediately after recanalization through intra-arterial revascularization therapy in acute ischemic stroke

    Roh, Ji Eun; Yeom, Joeng A; Kim, Young Soo; Yoon, Chang Hyo; Park, Min Gyu; Park, Kyung Pil; Baik, Seung Kug [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Intra-arterial revascularization therapy (IART) for acute ischemic stroke has become increasingly popular recently. However, early change in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values after full recanalization in human stroke has not received much attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate ADC changes immediately after interventional full-recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke. ADC values of 25 lesions from 18 acute ischemic stroke patients were recorded with both pre- and post-recanalization ADC maps. Measurement was done by placing region of interests over the representative images of the lesion. For analysis, lesions were divided into territorial infarction (TI) and watershed infarction (WI). Mean ADC values of the overall 25 lesions before IART were 415.12 × 10-6 mm{sup 2}/sec, and increased to 619.08 × 10-6 mm{sup 2}/sec after the IART. Average relative ADC (rADC) value for 22 TI increased from 0.59 to 0.92 (p < 0.000), whereas, average rADC value for 3 WI did not change significantly. There was a conspicuous increase of ADC values immediately after full-recanalization in TI lesions. On the other hand, WI lesions did not show significant change in ADC values after recanalization.

  1. Simultaneous determination of the second-harmonic generation emission directionality and reduced scattering coefficient from three-dimensional imaging of thick tissues.

    Hall, Gunnsteinn; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Campagnola, Paul J


    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has intrinsic contrast for imaging fibrillar collagen and has shown great promise for disease characterization and diagnostics. In addition to morphology, additional information is achievable as the initially emitted SHG radiation directionality is related to subresolution fibril size and distribution. We show that by two parameter fittings, both the emission pattern (FSHG/BSHG)creation and the reduced scattering coefficient μs', can be obtained from the best fits between three-dimensional experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations. The improved simulation framework accounts for collection apertures for the detected forward and backward components. We apply the new simulation framework to mouse tail tendon for validation and show that the spectral slope of μs' obtained is similar to that from bulk optical measurements and that the (FSHG/BSHG)creation values are also similar to previous results. Additionally, we find that the SHG emission becomes increasingly forward directed at longer wavelengths, which is consistent with decreased dispersion in refractive index between the laser and SHG wavelengths. As both the spectral slope of μs' and (FSHG/BSHG)creation have been linked to the underlying tissue structure, simultaneously obtaining these parameters on a microscope platform from the same tissue provides a powerful method for tissue characterization.

  2. 具有变系数和红利的多维Black-Scholes模型%Multi-dimensional Black-Scholes Model with Non-constant Coefficients and Dividends

    薛红; 聂赞坎


    本文提出具有变系数和红利的多维Black-Scholes模型,利用倒向随机微分方程和鞅方法, 得到欧式未定权益的一般定价公式及套期保值策略.在具体金融市场,给出欧式期权的定价公式和套期保值策略,以及美式看涨期权价格的界.%For discussing the arbitrage-free pricing of European contingent claim, this paper proposes multi-dimensional Black-Scho les model with non-constant coefficients and the underlying stocks pay dividends . By means of backward stochastic different equation and martingale methods, we obtain general pricing formula and hedging strategy of European contingent claim . In the particular financial market, the pricing formula and hedging strategy o f European option and bounds of the price on American call option are also consi dered.

  3. Change detection for hyperspectral sensing in a transformed low-dimensional space

    Foy, Bernard R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Theiler, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We present an approach to the problem of change in hyperspectral imagery that operates in a two-dimensional space. The coordinates in the space are related to Mahalanobis distances for the combined ('stacked') data and the individual hyperspectral scenes. Although it is only two-dimensional, this space is rich enough to include several well-known change detection algorithms, including the hyperbolic anomalous change detector, based on Gaussian scene clutter, and the EC-uncorrelated detector based on heavy-tailed (elliptically contoured) clutter. Because this space is only two-dimensional, adaptive machine learning methods can produce new change detectors without being stymied by the curse of dimensionality. We investigate, in particular, the utility of the support vector machine for learning boundaries in this 2-D space, and compare the performance of the resulting nonlinearly adaptjve detector to change detectors that have themselves shown good performance.

  4. Dimensional changes of acrylic resin denture bases: conventional versus injection-molding technique.

    Jafar Gharechahi


    Full Text Available Acrylic resin denture bases undergo dimensional changes during polymerization. Injection molding techniques are reported to reduce these changes and thereby improve physical properties of denture bases. The aim of this study was to compare dimensional changes of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques.SR-Ivocap Triplex Hot resin was used for conventional pressure-packed and SR-Ivocap High Impact was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, all the specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. For dimensional accuracy evaluation, measurements were recorded at 24-hour, 48-hour and 12-day intervals using a digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA using t-test and repeated-measures ANOVA. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05.After each water storage period, the acrylic specimens produced by injection exhibited less dimensional changes compared to those produced by the conventional technique. Curing shrinkage was compensated by water sorption with an increase in water storage time decreasing dimensional changes.Within the limitations of this study, dimensional changes of acrylic resin specimens were influenced by the molding technique used and SR-Ivocap injection procedure exhibited higher dimensional accuracy compared to conventional molding.

  5. Silicone elastomers capable of large isotropic dimensional change

    Lewicki, James; Worsley, Marcus A.


    Described herein is a highly effective route towards the controlled and isotropic reduction in size-scale, of complex 3D structures using silicone network polymer chemistry. In particular, a class of silicone structures were developed that once patterned and cured can `shrink` micron scale additive manufactured and lithographically patterned structures by as much as 1 order of magnitude while preserving the dimensions and integrity of these parts. This class of silicone materials is compatible with existing additive manufacture and soft lithographic fabrication processes and will allow access to a hitherto unobtainable dimensionality of fabrication.

  6. A novel mathematical model considering change of diffusion coefficient for predicting dissolution behavior of acetaminophen from wax matrix dosage form.

    Nitanai, Yuta; Agata, Yasuyoshi; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru


    From wax matrix dosage forms, drug and water-soluble polymer are released into the external solvent over time. As a consequence, the pore volume inside the wax matrix particles is increased and the diffusion coefficient of the drug is altered. In the present study, we attempted to derive a novel empirical mathematical model, namely, a time-dependent diffusivity (TDD) model, that assumes the change in the drug's diffusion coefficient can be used to predict the drug release from spherical wax matrix particles. Wax matrix particles were prepared by using acetaminophen (APAP), a model drug; glyceryl monostearate (GM), a wax base; and aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E (AMCE), a functional polymer that dissolves below pH 5.0 and swells over pH 5.0. A three-factor, three-level (3(3)) Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of several of the variables in the model formulation, and the release of APAP from wax matrix particles was evaluated by the paddle method at pH 4.0 and pH 6.5. When comparing the goodness of fit to the experimental data between the proposed TDD model and the conventional pure diffusion model, a better correspondence was observed for the TDD model in all cases. Multiple regression analysis revealed that an increase in AMCE loading enhanced the diffusion coefficient with time, and that this increase also had a significant effect on drug release behavior. Furthermore, from the results of the multiple regression analysis, a formulation with desired drug release behavior was found to satisfy the criteria of the bitter taste masking of APAP without lowering the bioavailability. That is to say, the amount of APAP released remains below 15% for 10 min at pH 6.5 and exceeds 90% within 30 min at pH 4.0. The predicted formulation was 15% APAP loading, 8.25% AMCE loading, and 400 μm mean particle diameter. When wax matrix dosage forms were prepared accordingly, the predicted drug release behavior agreed well with experimental values at each pH level

  7. [Dimensional changes of silver and gallium-based alloy].

    Ballester, R Y; Markarian, R A; Loguercio, A D


    Gallium-based dental alloys were created with the aim of solving the problem of toxicity of mercury. The material shows mechanical properties similar to those of dental amalgam, but researches point out two unfavorable characteristics: great corrosion and excessive post-setting expansion, and the latter is capable of cracking dental structures. The aim of this study was to evaluate, during 7 days, the in vitro dimensional alteration of a gallium dental alloy (Galloy, SDI, Australia), in comparison with a dental amalgam containing zinc (F400, SDI, Australia), as a function of the contact with saline solution (0.9% NaCl) during the setting period. The storage experimental conditions were: storage in dry environment, immersion in saline solution and contamination during condensation. Additionally, the effects of contamination during the trituration of dental amalgam and the effects of protecting the surface of the gallium alloy with a fluid resin were studied. Specimens were stored at 37 degrees C +/- 1 degree C, and measuring was carried out, sequentially, every 24 h during 7 days. When the gallium alloy was either contaminated or immersed, an expansion significantly greater than that observed in the other experimental conditions was noticed after 7 days. The application of a fluid resin to protect the surface of the cylinders was able to avoid the increase in expansion caused by superficial moisture. The amalgam alloy did not show significant dimensional alterations, except when it was contaminated during trituration.

  8. [Three dimensional changes of the denture base of the complete denture following polymerization].

    Takahashi, Y


    The objective of this study was to clarify some of the dimensional change patterns of the denture base of the complete denture following polymerization. Dimensional changes of three polymerization method types were compared. The complete dentures were measured by using the three dimensional measurement system. The results obtained were summarized as follows. 1. Dimensional changes from the original model immediately after polymerization of complete upper and lower dentures were recorded and all three polymerization methods produced shrinkage on all three axes toward the center. Heat cured resin samples and microwave cured resin samples showed the same shrinkage with pour type resin samples only showing 1/2 that amount. 2. The gradual dimensional changes occurring after polymerization up until 4 weeks were also recorded. The heat cured resin samples showed no additional changes but remained in its shrunken state. The pour-type resin samples began to enlarge until almost all of them reached the original model size within 4 weeks. The microwave cured resin samples began to enlarge but only slightly and then soon stopped changing. 3. All polymerization method types showed more dimensional change in the lower plate than in the upper plate.

  9. Decadal Variation in Surface Characteristics over Xinjiang, Western China, from T/P Altimetry Backscatter Coefficients: Evidence of Climate Change

    Jinyun Guo


    Full Text Available The backscatter coefficient, known as sigma0, is an important measurement of satellite radar altimetry and a key parameter for land altimetry because of its close relationship with the physical properties and geometric features of land coverage under global/regional climate change effects. Using the TOPEX/Poseidon GDR-M dataset from January 1993 to December 2004, we study the spatial and temporal distribution of sigma0 at bands Ku and C over Xinjiang, western China. The results show that the sigma0 is influenced by the water distribution over land and the time evolution of sigma0 has clear seasonal changes. River basins or deserts are classified over the spatial distribution based on different sigma0 values. For example, high sigma0 values are found in the Tarim River Basin and low values are found in the Taklimakan Desert. The periodic components of sigma0 time series are determined using the fast Fourier transformation method. The annual variation is the dominating cycle and the semi-annual variation is the secondary signal. The amplitudes of sigma0 time series at bands Ku and C are also given and most areas have quite low amplitudes except for the Tarim River Basin. Several areas including the Tarim River Basin, Tianshan Mountain and Taklimakan Desert are selected for sigma0 time series spacial analysis to discuss the reasons for variations in sigma0. The main factors are precipitation and vegetation growth, which are affected by the global/regional climate change. The correlation between the brightness temperature, which is related to the water-vapor content in the atmosphere measured by TMR at the 21 GHz channel and sigma0 at two bands, is analyzed.


    WEN Guochun; HUANG Sha; QIAO Yuying


    In 1988, Yu. A. Alkhutov and I. T. Mamedov discussed the solvability of the Dirichlet problem for linear uniformly parabolic equations with measurable coefficients where the coefficients satisfy the condition In this paper, we try to generalize the results of Alkhutov and Mamedov to nonlinear uni-formly parabolic systems of second order equations with measurable coefficients; moreover,we also discuss the solvability of the Neumann problem for the above systems.

  11. Dynamic photonic crystals dimensionality tuning by laser beams polarization changing

    Golinskaya, Anastasia D.; Stebakova, Yulia V.; Valchuk, Yana V.; Smirnov, Aleksandr M.; Mantsevich, Vladimir N.


    A simple way to create dynamic photonic crystals with different lattice symmetry by interference of non-coplanar laser beams in colloidal solution of quantum dots was demonstrated. With the proposed technique we have made micro-periodic dynamic semiconductor structure with strong nonlinear changing of refraction and absorption and analyzed the self-diffraction processes of two, three and four non-coplanar laser beams at the dynamic photonic crystal (diffraction grating) with hexagonal lattice structure. To reach the best uniform contrast of the structure and for better understanding of the problems, specially raised by the interference of multiple laser beams theoretical calculation of the periodic intensity field in the QDs solution were performed. It was demonstrated that dynamic photonic crystal structure and even it's dimension can be easily tuned with a high speed by the laser beams polarization variation without changing the experimental setup geometry.

  12. 中国投入产出表系数变动研究%Study on change of coefficient in China input-output table

    陈正伟; 夏波


    In this paper,the coefficient of input-output table in China from 1987 to 2007 was analyzed.Taking the main industry as the unit of analyzing,the change of the degree of the influence coefficient and reaction coefficient,the consumption,investment,export demand of the changes in production,and depreciation coefficient,coefficient of labor remuneration and net income coefficient for the five tables were studied in the paper.%文章以1987年至2007年5张全国投入产出基本表为分析对象,以各主要行业为分析单位,对这5张表中各行业的影响度和感应度的变动情况,消费、投资和出口需求对生产的诱发系数变动情况,以及折旧系数、劳动报酬系数、社会纯收入系数的变动情况进行动态研究.

  13. Flow coefficient measurements for an engine cylinder head under transient flow conditions with continuous valve lift change

    Daesan Oh; Choong Hoon Lee


    A flow coefficient measurement system which is operated under an unsteady intake flow condition in the intake port of a diesel engine cylinder head was developed. In order to determine the actual engine intake flow condition, the valve lift of the intake valve, whose rod is in contact with the camshaft, is varied continuously by rotating the camshaft directly. While varying the rotation speed of the camshaft, the flow coefficients were calculated by measuring various sensor signals, in this c...

  14. Influence of temprature moisture and time on dimensional change of stone type IV



    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Different temperature and moisture around Iran and wide usage of stone type IV in dental laboratories in our country were the reasons for us for doing this study. Purpose: In this survey the effect of temperature, moisture and time on dimensional change of dental stone type IV (Velmix were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study cube shape Metal models (10×10×10mm was made for Taking impression. We used special tray, which has ten holes (15×20×25mm and made impression with condensational silicone in two-step procedure, and poured it with stone type IV. stone cubes were divided to different groups. 3 groups holed in fix moisture and variable tempraure and 5 groups in fix temperature and variable moisture. After 2 hours, 24 hours and one-week dimension of stone cubes were measured. Then analysis was done with ANOVA and dauncan. Results: The following conclusions were achieved: 1-Time has no effect on dimensional changes. 2-Tempreture and moisture has some effect on dimensional changes in stone IV. Increasing of temperature result in stone contraction and increasing in moisture result in stone expansion. Conclusion: The best temperature for least dimensional change is 20C and the best moisture for a least dimensional change is 30 %.

  15. Aspects of the dimensional changes of jersey structures after knitting process

    Szabo, M.; Barbu, I.; Jiaru, L.


    The study proposes a statistical analysis by applying a mathematical model for the study of the dimensional changes of jersey structures made of 100% cotton yarn, with 58/1 metric count of yarn. The Structures are presented as tubular knitted metrage and are designed for underwear and/or outer garments. By analysing the jersey structures, from dimensional stability point of view, there can be observed that values in the limits are within the ±2% interval, values which are considered appropriate. Following the experimental researches, there are proposed solutions for the reduction of dimensional changes on both directions of the knit, on the stich course direction and also on the stich courses in vertical direction, being analyzed the behaviour of the knitted fabrics during relaxation after knitting process. The problem of the dimensional stability of the knitted fabrics is extensive researched. The knitted structures are elastic structures, this being a reason for which dimensional stability will always be a topical theme. The jersey structures, due to the distribution of the platinum loop in the knit plane, due to the relative small number of yarn-yarn contact points that causes the threads to slide into the structure, due to the spiral of the tubular metrage structure, are among those whose dimensional stability is difficult to control. The technical characteristics of the yarns, the technical characteristics of the knitting machines and the technological parameters of the knitting machine are the elements which will be correlated in order to obtain structures with minimum dimensional changes. In order to obtain knitted structures with adequate dimensional stability, this means within ±2%, it is necessary that the dimensional changes during the relaxation periods after knitting and chemical finishing being minimum. For this, all the processes to be applied will be conducted with appropriate and uniform tensions throughout the technological flow. The relaxation

  16. Hemp yarn reinforced composites – III. Moisture content and dimensional changes

    Madsen, Bo; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Lilholt, Hans


    Based on a comprehensive set of experimental data it is demonstrated that the moisture properties of aligned hemp fibre yarn/thermoplastic matrix composites are showing low moisture sorption capacity and low dimensional changes. Using a reference humidity of 65% RH, and a common span of ambient...... content of the composites is shown to be well predicted by a mixtures relationship using the measured moisture contents of the constituents. The dimensional changes of the composites are well predicted by micromechanical models of the transverse and axial hygral strains....

  17. Data Report on Post-Irradiation Dimensional Change of AGC-1 Samples

    William Windes


    This report summarizes the initial dimensional changes for loaded and unloaded AGC-1 samples. The dimensional change for all samples is presented as a function of dose. The data is further presented by graphite type and applied load levels to illustrate the differences between graphite forming processes and stress levels within the graphite components. While the three different loads placed on the samples have been verified [ ref: Larry Hull’s report] verification of the AGC-1 sample temperatures and dose levels are expected in the summer of 2012. Only estimated dose and temperature values for the samples are presented in this report to allow a partial analysis of the results.

  18. SU-F-303-13: Initial Evaluation of Four Dimensional Diffusion- Weighted MRI (4D-DWI) and Its Effect On Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) Measurement

    Liu, Y [Duke University Medical Physics Program (United States); Yin, F; Czito, B; Bashir, M; Palta, M; Cai, J [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Zhong, X; Dale, B [Siemens Healthcare, Durham, NC (United States)


    Purpose: Diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) has been shown to have superior tumor-to-tissue contrast for cancer detection.This study aims at developing and evaluating a four dimensional DWI(4D-DWI) technique using retrospective sorting method for imaging respiratory motion for radiotherapy planning,and evaluate its effect on Apparent Diffusion Coefficient(ADC) measurement. Materials/Methods: Image acquisition was performed by repeatedly imaging a volume of interest using a multi-slice single-shot 2D-DWI sequence in the axial planes and cine MRI(served as reference) using FIESTA sequence.Each 2D-DWI image were acquired in xyz-diffusion-directions with a high b-value(b=500s/mm2).The respiratory motion was simultaneously recorded using bellows.Retrospective sorting was applied in each direction to reconstruct 4D-DWI.The technique was evaluated using a computer simulated 4D-digital human phantom(XCAT),a motion phantom and a healthy volunteer under an IRB-approved study.Motion trajectories of regions-of-interests(ROI) were extracted from 4D-DWI and compared with reference.The mean motion trajectory amplitude differences(D) between the two was calculated.To quantitatively analyze the motion artifacts,XCAT were controlled to simulate regular motion and the motions of 10 liver cancer patients.4D-DWI,free-breathing DWI(FB- DWI) were reconstructed.Tumor volume difference(VD) of each phase of 4D-DWI and FB-DWI from the input static tumor were calculated.Furthermore, ADC was measured for each phase of 4D-DWI and FB-DWI data,and mean tumor ADC values(M-ADC) were calculated.Mean M-ADC over all 4D-DWI phases was compared with M-ADC calculated from FB-DWI. Results: 4D-DWI of XCAT,the motion phantom and the healthy volunteer demonstrated the respiratory motion clearly.ROI D values were 1.9mm,1.7mm and 2.0mm,respectively.For motion artifacts analysis,XCAT 4D-DWI images show much less motion artifacts compare to FB-DWI.Mean VD for 4D-WDI and FB-DWI were 8.5±1.4% and 108±15

  19. Simulated dynamics of net primary productivity (NPP) for outdoor livestock feeding coefficients driven by climate change scenarios in México



    In this paper the concept of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) is used as a way to estimate the capacity of the ecosystem to produce dry matter which may be available for livestock to meet the forage requirements. The method allows the simulation of the possible impact on NPP and dry matter (DM), under climate change conditions observable for the country in a given time horizon. The concept was also used for current coefficients of rangeland and under current climate change scenarios, thus allow...

  20. Protein Conformational Change Based on a Two-dimensional Generalized Langevin Equation

    Ying-xi Wang; Shuang-mu Linguang; Nan-rong Zhao; Yi-jing Yan


    A two-dimensional generalized Langevin equation is proposed to describe the protein conformational change,compatible to the electron transfer process governed by atomic packing density model.We assume a fractional Gaussian noise and a white noise through bond and through space coordinates respectively,and introduce the coupling effect coming from both fluctuations and equilibrium variances.The general expressions for autocorrelation functions of distance fluctuation and fluorescence lifetime variation are derived,based on which the exact conformational change dynamics can be evaluated with the aid of numerical Laplace inversion technique.We explicitly elaborate the short time and long time approximations.The relationship between the two-dimensional description and the one-dimensional theory is also discussed.

  1. Three-dimensional virtual simulation of alar width changes following bimaxillary osteotomies

    Liebregts, J.; Xi, T.; Schreurs, R; Loon, B. van; Berge, S.; Maal, T.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue simulation of nose width changes following bimaxillary osteotomies and to identify patient- and surgery-related factors that may affect the accuracy of simulation. Sixty patients (mean age 26 years) who

  2. Effect of Different Denture Base Materials and Changed Mouth Temperature on Dimensional Stability of Complete Dentures.

    Arafa, Khalid A O


    Background. Type of materials used in fabrication of denture base has an effect on dimension during denture base material processing and other factors related to clinical use. Objective. The study aims were to assess the dimensional stability including thermal changes of three different denture base materials. Methods. Ninety patients were selected to construct complete dentures with different denture base materials. They were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, patients with cobalt chrome metallic base; group 2, patients with heat curing acrylic resin fabricated by injection moulding technique; and group 3, patients with denture bases fabricated by conventional heat curing acrylic resin. The dimensional changes were assessed using digital caliper. Results. After the twelfth month, injection moulding acrylic resin had significantly the highest dimensional change followed by the conventional heat curing acrylic resin. There were no significant differences in the dimensions between the three types of denture base materials at normal mouth temperature, while, after hot tea drinking at 45°C, the dimensional change was significantly the highest in cobalt chrome metallic denture base group. Conclusion. Cobalt chrome metallic denture base has stable dimension compared to denture bases fabricated of acrylic resin but it was more affected by altered mouth temperature. The study was registered in the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number (ISRCTN) registry with study ID (ISRCTN94238244).

  3. Effect of Different Denture Base Materials and Changed Mouth Temperature on Dimensional Stability of Complete Dentures

    Khalid A. O. Arafa


    Full Text Available Background. Type of materials used in fabrication of denture base has an effect on dimension during denture base material processing and other factors related to clinical use. Objective. The study aims were to assess the dimensional stability including thermal changes of three different denture base materials. Methods. Ninety patients were selected to construct complete dentures with different denture base materials. They were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, patients with cobalt chrome metallic base; group 2, patients with heat curing acrylic resin fabricated by injection moulding technique; and group 3, patients with denture bases fabricated by conventional heat curing acrylic resin. The dimensional changes were assessed using digital caliper. Results. After the twelfth month, injection moulding acrylic resin had significantly the highest dimensional change followed by the conventional heat curing acrylic resin. There were no significant differences in the dimensions between the three types of denture base materials at normal mouth temperature, while, after hot tea drinking at 45°C, the dimensional change was significantly the highest in cobalt chrome metallic denture base group. Conclusion. Cobalt chrome metallic denture base has stable dimension compared to denture bases fabricated of acrylic resin but it was more affected by altered mouth temperature. The study was registered in the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number (ISRCTN registry with study ID (ISRCTN94238244.

  4. Attention and Inhibition in Bilingual Children: Evidence from the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    Bialystok, Ellen; Martin, Michelle M.


    In a previous study, a bilingual advantage for preschool children in solving the dimensional change card sort task was attributed to superiority in inhibition of attention (Bialystok, 1999). However, the task includes difficult representational demands to encode and interpret the task stimuli, and bilinguals may also have profited from superior…

  5. Observations on dimensional changes of sized canvas based on glue temperature

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil


    The aim of this study was to explore dimensional changes caused by water on sized canvas. Samples of new linen canvas were mounted on a rig for biaxial tensioning, holding a constant stress of 100 N/m in both weave directions. The samples were then sized with respectively warm fluent glue (45 °C...

  6. Observations on dimensional changes of sized canvas based on glue temperature

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil


    The aim of this study was to explore dimensional changes caused by water on sized canvas. Samples of new linen canvas were mounted on a rig for biaxial tensioning, holding a constant stress of 100 N/m in both weave directions. The samples were then sized with respectively warm fluent glue (45 °C...

  7. Three-dimensional virtual simulation of alar width changes following bimaxillary osteotomies

    Liebregts, J.; Xi, T.; Schreurs, R; Loon, B. van; Berge, S.; Maal, T.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue simulation of nose width changes following bimaxillary osteotomies and to identify patient- and surgery-related factors that may affect the accuracy of simulation. Sixty patients (mean age 26 years) who underwen

  8. Dimensional change of acrylic resin plate after the reinforcement of glass fibre

    Dwiyanti Feriana Ratwita


    Full Text Available The effect of fibre reinforcement of polymethyl methacrylate was investigated. Glass fibres have been studied as strengthening material added to polymethyl methacrylate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dimensional change of acrylic resin plate after glass fibre reinforcement. As a research subject is an acrylic resin plate of 65 × 10 × 2.5 mm with the number of 32 samples were distributed randomly in 4 experimental groups. Each group consisted of 8 samples and control groups. Group 1: acrylic resin plate and 1 sheet glass fibre; group 2: acrylic resin plate and 2 sheet glass fibre; group 3: acrylic resin plate and 3 sheet glass fibre. Control group which was not given treatment. Dimensional change was measured by profile projector. The data was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and LSD test showed that there was significant difference in dimensional change (p < 0.005. The conclusion suggested that dimensional change of the acrylic resin plates after glass fibre reinforcement minimally done 1 sheet glass fibre.

  9. The dynamics of development on the Dimensional Change Card Sorting task

    van Bers, B.M.C.W.; Visser, I.; van Schijndel, T.J.P.; Mandell, D.J.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.


    A widely used paradigm to study cognitive flexibility in preschoolers is the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS) task. The developmental dynamics of DCCS performance was studied in a cross-sectional design (N = 93, 3 to 5 years of age) using a computerized version of the standard DCCS task. A

  10. Enhancing the Executive Functions of 3-Year-Olds in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen J.; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.


    Executive functions enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a dynamic neural field model that…

  11. The dynamics of development on the Dimensional Change Card Sorting task

    van Bers, B.M.C.W.; Visser, I.; van Schijndel, T.J.P.; Mandell, D.J.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.


    A widely used paradigm to study cognitive flexibility in preschoolers is the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS) task. The developmental dynamics of DCCS performance was studied in a cross-sectional design (N = 93, 3 to 5 years of age) using a computerized version of the standard DCCS task. A mod

  12. A multi-dimensional assessment of urban vulnerability to climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Herslund, Lise Byskov; Jalyer, Fatameh; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie


    In this paper, we develop and apply a multi-dimensional vulnerability assessment framework for understanding the impacts of climate change-induced hazards in Sub- Saharan African cities. The research was carried out within the European/African FP7 project CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability...... in Africa, which investigated climate change-induced risks, assessed vulnerability and proposed policy initiatives in five African cities. Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) was used as a main case with a particular focus on urban flooding. The multi-dimensional assessment covered the physical, institutional...... for strategic coordination and action. To better adapt to urban flooding andthereby reduce vulnerability and build resilience, we suggest working across dimensions and scales, integrating climate change issues in city-level plans and strategies and enabling local actions to initiate a ‘learning...

  13. Quantification of proteome changes in bovine muscle from two-dimensional electrophoresis data

    Daniel Franco


    Full Text Available Proteome changes in the longissimus thoracis bovine muscle in response to pre-slaughter stress were assessed on the basis of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE data. In this study, the bootstrap resampling statistical technique and a new measure of relative change of the volume of 2-DE protein spots are shown to be more efficient than commonly used statistics to reliably quantify changes in protein abundance in stress response. The data are supplied in this article and are related to “Tackling proteome changes in the longissimus thoracis bovine muscle in response to pre-slaughter stress” by Franco et al. [1].

  14. Three-dimensional evaluation of changes in lip position from before to after orthodontic appliance removal

    Eidson, Lindsey; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; de Paula, Leonardo Koerich; Hershey, H. Garland; Welch, Gregory; Rossouw, P. Emile


    Introduction Our objectives were to develop a reproducible method of superimposing 3-dimensional images for measuring soft-tissue changes over time and to use this method to document changes in lip position after the removal of orthodontic appliances. Methods Three-dimensional photographs of 50 subjects were made in repose and maximum intercuspation before and after orthodontic appliance removal with a stereo camera. For reliability assessment, 2 photographs were repeated for 15 patients. The images were registered on stable areas, and surface-to-surface measurements were made for defined landmarks. Results Mean changes were below the level of clinical significance (set at 1.5 mm). However, 51% and 18% of the subjects experienced changes greater than 1.5 mm at the commissures and lower lips, respectively. Conclusions The use of serial 3-dimensional photographs is a reliable method of documenting soft-tissue changes. Soft-tissue changes after appliance removal are not clinically significant; however, there is great individual variability. PMID:22920709

  15. Quantification of the dynamic changes in the absorption coefficient of liquid water at erbium:YAG and carbon dioxide laser wavelengths

    Shori, Ramesh K.

    The interaction of high-intensity, short-pulsed radiation with liquid water results in dynamic changes in the optical absorption coefficient of water. These changes and their implications, as related to mid-infrared laser ablation of tissue, were not investigated until the late 1980's and early 1990's. Classical models of absorption and heating do not explain the dynamic, non-linear changes in water. The objective of the present work was to quantify the dynamic changes in the absorption coefficient of liquid water as a function of incident energy at three clinically relevant infrared wavelengths (λ = 2.94, 9.6, 10.6 μm). To investigate the changes in the absorption spectrum of water in the 3-μm band, a stable, high-energy Q- switched Er:YAG laser emitting 2.94-μm radiation in a near-perfect TEMoo spatial beam profile was developed. Key to the development of this laser was careful attention to the gain medium, optical pump system, system optics, and the thermal system. The final system design was capable of emitting 110 mJ/pulse at of 2-4 Hz with a lamp lifetime exceeding 12 million pulses The laser was used in two sets of experiments in order to quantify the above changes. First, the laser was used to measure the velocity of the shock front produced by vaporizing a gelatin-based tissue phantom. The measured shock velocity was related to the optical energy absorbed by the tissue phantom and the absorption coefficient, based on the pressure relationships derived using a 1-D piston model for an expanding plume. The shock front velocity measurements indicate that the absorption coefficient is constant for incident fluences less than 20 J/cm2, a result consistent with transmission data. For higher fluences, the data indicate a decrease in the absorption coefficient, which is again consistent with transmission data. Quantification of the absorption coefficient can, however, not be made without violating assumptions that form the basis for the 1-D piston model. Second

  16. Imaging hemodynamic changes in preterm infant brains with two-dimensional diffuse optical tomography

    Gao, Feng; Ma, Yiwen; Yang, Fang; Zhao, Huijuan; Jiang, Jingying; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio


    We present our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2-D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes of two preterm infant brains in different ventilation settings conditions. The investigations use the established two-wavelength, 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection, and the generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that two-dimensional diffuse optical tomography may be a potent and relatively simple way of investigating the functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  17. The two-dimensional magnetic change process of grain-oriented silicon steel under tensile stress

    Saito, Akihiko; Nakata, Kumi; Murashige, Shinichi


    The effect of tensile stress on the magnetization properties of silicon steel samples declined from the rolling direction has been investigated. The locus for the two-dimensional magnetization change was measured. The locus of magnetization due to magnetic field without stress was different from that under tension. The locus of magnetization with tension has two knees which correspond to the two knees of the hysteresis curve with tension. These results indicate the essential importance of investigations of the two-dimensional magnetization process.

  18. Changes in Dimensionality and Fractal Scaling Suggest Soft-Assembled Dynamics in Human EEG

    Wiltshire, Travis; Euler, Matthew J.; McKinney, Ty


    . In a repetition priming task, we assessed evidence for changes in the correlation dimension and fractal scaling exponents during stimulus-locked event-related potentials, as a function of stimulus onset and familiarity, and relative to spontaneous non-task-related activity. Consistent with predictions derived...... from soft-assembly, results indicated decreases in dimensionality and increases in fractal scaling exponents from resting to pre-stimulus states and following stimulus onset. However, contrary to predictions, familiarity tended to increase dimensionality estimates. Overall, the findings support...

  19. Changes in the Thermal and Dimensional Stability of the Structure of a Polymer Composite After Carbonization

    Gaidachuk, V. E.; Kondratiev, A. V.; Chesnokov, A. V.


    Based on the theory of reinforcement of polymer composites, approximate relations for the physicomechanical and strength properties of a carbon-carbon composite material are synthesized, which are used to perform a finite-element analysis of the degree and character of changes in the thermal and dimensional stability of its structure after carbonization. Using approximate criteria of structural optimization of carbon-carbon composites ensuring their maximum dimensional stability, a [0/±45/90] package of thermally nonquilibrium layers is investigated and compared with an analogous carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic.

  20. Hybrid numerical scheme for nonlinear two-dimensional phase-change problems with the irregular geometry

    Lin Jaeyuh [Chang Jung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China); Chen Hantaw [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    A hybrid numerical scheme combining the Laplace transform and control-volume methods is presented to solve nonlinear two-dimensional phase-change problems with the irregular geometry. The Laplace transform method is applied to deal with the time domain, and then the control-volume method is used to discretize the transformed system in the space domain. Nonlinear terms induced by the temperature-dependent thermal properties are linearized by using the Taylor series approximation. Control-volume meshes in the solid and liquid regions during simulations are generated by using the discrete transfinite mapping method. The location of the phase-change interface and the isothermal distributions are determined. Comparison of these results with previous results shows that the present numerical scheme has good accuracy for two-dimensional phase-change problems. (orig.). With 10 figs.

  1. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    Eu, Byung Chan


    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  2. Absorption coefficient and refractive index changes of a quantum ring in the presence of spin-orbit couplings: Temperature and Zeeman effects

    Zamani, A.; Azargoshasb, T.; Niknam, E.


    Effects of applied magnetic field, temperature and dimensions on the optical absorption coefficients (AC) and refractive index (RI) changes of a GaAs quantum ring are investigated in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI). To this end, the finite difference method (FDM) is used in order to numerically calculate the energy eigenvalues and eigenstates of the system while the compact density matrix approach is hired to calculate the optical properties. It is shown that application of magnetic field, temperature as well as the geometrical size in the presence of spin-orbit interactions, alter the electronic structure and consequently influence the linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients as well as the refractive index changes of the system. Results show an obvious blue shift in optical curves with enhancing external magnetic field and temperature while the increment of dimensions result in red shift.

  3. Reconstruction 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional image of status optical coherence tomography (OCT) for analysis of changes in retinal thickness

    Arinilhaq,; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)


    Optical Coherence Tomography is often used in medical image acquisition to diagnose that change due easy to use and low price. Unfortunately, this type of examination produces a two-dimensional retinal image of the point of acquisition. Therefore, this study developed a method that combines and reconstruct 2-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional images to display volumetric macular accurately. The system is built with three main stages: data acquisition, data extraction and 3-dimensional reconstruction. At data acquisition step, Optical Coherence Tomography produced six *.jpg images of each patient were further extracted with MATLAB 2010a software into six one-dimensional arrays. The six arrays are combined into a 3-dimensional matrix using a kriging interpolation method with SURFER9 resulting 3-dimensional graphics of macula. Finally, system provides three-dimensional color graphs based on the data distribution normal macula. The reconstruction system which has been designed produces three-dimensional images with size of 481 × 481 × h (retinal thickness) pixels.

  4. Advances in projection of climate change impacts using supervised nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques

    Sarhadi, Ali; Burn, Donald H.; Yang, Ge; Ghodsi, Ali


    One of the main challenges in climate change studies is accurate projection of the global warming impacts on the probabilistic behaviour of hydro-climate processes. Due to the complexity of climate-associated processes, identification of predictor variables from high dimensional atmospheric variables is considered a key factor for improvement of climate change projections in statistical downscaling approaches. For this purpose, the present paper adopts a new approach of supervised dimensionality reduction, which is called "Supervised Principal Component Analysis (Supervised PCA)" to regression-based statistical downscaling. This method is a generalization of PCA, extracting a sequence of principal components of atmospheric variables, which have maximal dependence on the response hydro-climate variable. To capture the nonlinear variability between hydro-climatic response variables and projectors, a kernelized version of Supervised PCA is also applied for nonlinear dimensionality reduction. The effectiveness of the Supervised PCA methods in comparison with some state-of-the-art algorithms for dimensionality reduction is evaluated in relation to the statistical downscaling process of precipitation in a specific site using two soft computing nonlinear machine learning methods, Support Vector Regression and Relevance Vector Machine. The results demonstrate a significant improvement over Supervised PCA methods in terms of performance accuracy.

  5. Multi-dimensional self-esteem and magnitude of change in the treatment of anorexia nervosa.

    Collin, Paula; Karatzias, Thanos; Power, Kevin; Howard, Ruth; Grierson, David; Yellowlees, Alex


    Self-esteem improvement is one of the main targets of inpatient eating disorder programmes. The present study sought to examine multi-dimensional self-esteem and magnitude of change in eating psychopathology among adults participating in a specialist inpatient treatment programme for anorexia nervosa. A standardised assessment battery, including multi-dimensional measures of eating psychopathology and self-esteem, was completed pre- and post-treatment for 60 participants (all white Scottish female, mean age=25.63 years). Statistical analyses indicated that self-esteem improved with eating psychopathology and weight over the course of treatment, but that improvements were domain-specific and small in size. Global self-esteem was not predictive of treatment outcome. Dimensions of self-esteem at baseline (Lovability and Moral Self-approval), however, were predictive of magnitude of change in dimensions of eating psychopathology (Shape and Weight Concern). Magnitude of change in Self-Control and Lovability dimensions were predictive of magnitude of change in eating psychopathology (Global, Dietary Restraint, and Shape Concern). The results of this study demonstrate that the relationship between self-esteem and eating disorder is far from straightforward, and suggest that future research and interventions should focus less exclusively on self-esteem as a uni-dimensional psychological construct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermally induced changes in the focal distance of composite mirrors - Composites with a zero coefficient of thermal expansion of the radius of curvature

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.


    Calculations are presented of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the radius of curvature of the reflector face sheets made of a quasi-isotropic composite. It is shown that, upon cooling, the change of the CTE of the focal distance of the mirror is equal to that of the radius of the curvature of the reflector face sheet. The CTE of the radius of the curvature of a quasi-isotropic composite face sheet depends on both the in-plane and the out-of-plane CTEs. The zero in-plane CTE of a face sheet does not guarantee mirrors with no focal length changes.

  7. A wave based method to predict the absorption, reflection and transmission coefficient of two-dimensional rigid frame porous structures with periodic inclusions

    Deckers, Elke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Claeys, Claus; Atak, Onur [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Groby, Jean-Philippe; Dazel, Olivier [Laboratiore d' Acoustique de l' Universiteé du Maine, L' Université Nantes Angers Le Mans, Université du Maine, CNRS, UMR-6613 CNRS, Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans (France); Desmet, Wim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)


    This paper presents an extension to the Wave Based Method to predict the absorption, reflection and transmission coefficients of a porous material with an embedded periodic set of inclusions. The porous unit cell is described using the Multi-Level methodology and by embedding Bloch–Floquet periodicity conditions in the weighted residual scheme. The dynamic pressure field in the semi-infinite acoustic domains is approximated using a novel wave function set that fulfils the Helmholtz equation, the Bloch–Floquet periodicity conditions and the Sommerfeld radiation condition. The method is meshless and computationally efficient, which makes it well suited for optimisation studies.

  8. Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain

    Gao, Feng; Xue, Yuan; Zhao, Huijuan; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio


    Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  9. Signature change in 2-dimensional black-hole models of loop quantum gravity

    Bojowald, Martin


    Signature change has been identified as a generic consequence of holonomy modifications in spherically symmetric models of loop quantum gravity with real connections, which includes modified Schwarzschild solutions. Here, this result is extended to 2-dimensional dilaton models and to different choices of canonical variables, including in particular the Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger (CGHS) solution. New obstructions are found to coupling matter and to including operator-ordering effects in an anomaly-free manner.

  10. Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain

    Feng Gao; Yuan Xue; Huijuan Zhao; Takashi Kusaka; Masanori Ueno; Yukio Yamada


    Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  11. SAR image change detection algorithm based on stationary wavelet and bi-dimensional intrinsic mode function

    Huang, S. Q.; Wang, Z. L.; Xie, T. G.; Li, Z. C.


    Speckle noise in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is produced by the coherent imaging mechanism, which brings a great impact on the change information acquisition of multi-temporal SAR images. Two-dimensional stationary wavelet transform (SWT) and bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) are the non-stationary signal processing theory of multi-scale transform. According to their implementation process and SAR image characteristic, this paper proposed a new multi-temporal SAR image change detection method based on the combination of the stationary wavelet transform and the bi-dimensional intrinsic mode function (BIMF) features, called SWT-BIMF algorithm. The contribution of the new algorithm includes two aspects. One is the design of the two selections of decomposition features, that is, the speckle noise filtering; another is the selected features to perform the enhance processing, so more effective change information will obtain. The feasibility of the SWT-BIMF algorithm is verified by the measured SAR image data, and good experimental results are obtained.

  12. Comparison of dimensional changes of two cold- cured acrylic resins: Acropars and Meliodent

    Ebadian B. Assistant Professor


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The construction of dental materials has been developing inside the country."nCold- cured acrylic resins are of such materials which are used in removable prostheses."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to compare the dimensional changes of two types of cold-cured"nacrylic resins, Acropars and Meliodent."nMaterial and Methods: Forty acrylic discs, with diameter of 13.7 mm, were made of Acropars and"nMeliodent acrylic resins (20 samples in each group. Then, each group was randomly divided into two"nparts. The first group was kept in usual environment, whereas the samples of the second group were"nplaced in the boiling water for five minutes. The dimensional changes of the samples, at different"nintervals and seven days post curing, were measured by light microscope and recorded. Variance analysis"nwas used to analyze the results."nResults: Acropars resins, comparing to Meliodent ones, showed a considerable dimensional changes,"nwhich was statistically significant. Boiling of Acropars resins, for five minutes, lead to a significant"nshrinkage. The maximum shrinkage occured at 24 hours post curing."nConclusion: If the tray is made of Acropars acrylic resin, it is recommended to take impression, 24 hours"nafter its setting.

  13. Light-induced changes in the solar cell parameters and temperature coefficient of n-C/p-Si heterojunction solar cell

    Gupta, Babita; Kapoor, A.; Mehra, R.M. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021 (India); Soga, Tetsuo; Jimbo, Takashi [Department of Environmental Technology and Urban Planning, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya-466-8555 (Japan); Umeno, Masayoshi [Department of Electronic Engineering,Chubu University, Matsumoto 1200, Kasugai-shi, 487-8501 (Japan)


    Amorphous carbon (a-C) is a potential material for the development of low-cost and high-efficiency solar cell. We report the study of the influence of light soaking up to 100h on n-C/p-Si heterojunction solar cell. It is observed that the deterioration in the fill factor and the efficiency are significantly smaller as compared to that observed in a-Si:H solar cell. Variations in the temperature coefficients of the I-V characteristics subjected to light degradation and recovery has also been investigated. A good correlation between change in the temperature coefficient and the degradation/recovery state of cell's conversion efficiency has been observed.

  14. Three-dimensional nasal changes following maxillary advancement in cleft patients.

    Stewart, A; McCance, A M; James, D R; Moss, J P


    Three-dimensional laser surface scanning of the face was performed before and after Le Fort I maxillary advancement in 24 patients with replaced clefts of the lip and palate. The surgery resulted in advancement of the upper lip and para-alar tissues and an increase in the relative prominence of the nose within the face. These changes were produced at the expense of an increase in nasal width and a reduction in nasal tip protrusion. The changes in nasal morphology showed significant variation among patients.

  15. An in vitro study to evaluate the effect on dimensional changes of elastomers during cold sterilization

    Khinnavar, Poonam K.; Kumar, B. H. Dhanya; Nandeeshwar, D. B.


    Objectives: This study was planned to evaluate the dimensional stability of elastomers during cold sterilization or immersion disinfection and also to evaluate the same, along with acrylic resin trays which are used in clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A study mold according to revised American Dental Association. Specification no. 19 was used. Polyether, polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) (heavy body), PVS (regular body) and Hydrophilic addition reaction silicon (medium body) were selected for study. 2% glutaraldehyde and 0.525% sodium hypochlorite were the disinfectants used. The study was divided into group-I and group-II. In group-I study, 24 specimens of each impression material were prepared. Eight immersed in 2% glutaraldehyde, eight in 0.525% sodium hypochlorite and rest eight allowed to dry bench cure. After 16 h, the specimens measured under Leica WILD stereomicroscope and dimensions compared with master die. In group II study, 24 specimens of the material with the least dimensional changes were prepared and adhered to 24 acrylic resin disks using tray adhesive. Same immersion procedure was followed as in group I. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple tests. Results: Of four impression materials used, PVS (heavy body) was the most dimensionally stable, and Polyether was the least dimensionally stable in both the groups. Interpretation and Conclusion: Within the limitation of the study, PVS (heavy body) was most stable, and polyether was least stable of all the impression materials. PMID:26929499

  16. Computation of local exchange coefficients in strongly interacting one-dimensional few-body systems: local density approximation and exact results

    Marchukov, O. V.; Eriksen, E. H.; Midtgaard, J. M.


    -trivial geometric factors that depend solely on the geometry of the confinement through the single-particle eigenstates of the external potential. To obtain accurate effective Hamiltonians to describe such systems one needs to be able to compute these geometric factors with high precision which is difficult due...... to the computational complexity of the high-dimensional integrals involved. An approach using the local density approximation would therefore be a most welcome approximation due to its simplicity. Here we assess the accuracy of the local density approximation by going beyond the simple harmonic oscillator that has...

  17. Two-dimensional and volumetric airway changes after bimaxillary surgery for class III malocclusion.

    Vaezi, Toraj; Zarch, Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Eshghpour, Majid; Kermani, Hamed


    Any change in maxilla and mandible position can alter the upper airway, and any decrease in the upper airway can cause sleep disorders. Thus, it is necessary to assess airway changes after repositioning of the maxilla and mandible during orthognathic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate linear and volumetric changes in the upper airway after bimaxillary surgery to correct class III malocclusion via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to identify correlations between linear and volumetric changes. This was a prospective cohort study. CBCTs from 10 class III patients were evaluated before surgery and three months after. The Wilcoxon one-sample test was used to evaluate the differences in measurements before and after surgery. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between linear and volumetric changes. The results show that the nasopharyngeal space increased significantly, and that this increase correlated with degree of maxillary advancement. No significant changes were found in volumes before and after surgery. A correlation was found between linear and volumetric oropharyngeal changes. Bimaxillary surgical correction of class III malocclusion did not cause statistically significant changes in the posterior airway space.

  18. The effect of three-dimensional postural change on shear elastic modulus of the iliotibial band.

    Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Shiratori, Sakiko; Ichihashi, Noriaki


    To understand and treat iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome, caused by excessive compression between the ITB and lateral femoral condyle, it is important to identify factors contributing to an increase in ITB stiffness. The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors that contribute to an increase in ITB stiffness by examining the relationship between three-dimensional postural changes and ITB stiffness. Fourteen healthy individuals performed one-leg standing under 7 conditions (including normal one-leg standing as a control condition) in which the pelvic position was changed in three planes. The shear elastic modulus in the ITB was measured using shear-wave elastography, as a measure of ITB stiffness. The three-dimensional joint angles and external joint moments in the hip and knee joints were also measured to confirm the changes in joint angles and external load. Compared to the normal one-leg standing condition, ITB stiffness was significantly increased in the pelvic posterior tilted position (i.e. hip extension), contralateral pelvic dropped position (i.e. hip adduction), and contralateral pelvic posterior rotated position (i.e. hip external rotation). The findings suggest that interventions to reduce hip extension, adduction, and external rotation might be useful if these excessive positional changes are detected in patients with ITB syndrome.

  19. Modeling change from large-scale high-dimensional spatio-temporal array data

    Lu, Meng; Pebesma, Edzer


    The massive data that come from Earth observation satellite and other sensors provide significant information for modeling global change. At the same time, the high dimensionality of the data has brought challenges in data acquisition, management, effective querying and processing. In addition, the output of earth system modeling tends to be data intensive and needs methodologies for storing, validation, analyzing and visualization, e.g. as maps. An important proportion of earth system observations and simulated data can be represented as multi-dimensional array data, which has received increasingly attention in big data management and spatial-temporal analysis. Study cases will be developed in natural science such as climate change, hydrological modeling, sediment dynamics, from which the addressing of big data problems is necessary. Multi-dimensional array-based database management and analytics system such as Rasdaman, SciDB, and R will be applied to these cases. From these studies will hope to learn the strengths and weaknesses of these systems, how they might work together or how semantics of array operations differ, through addressing the problems associated with big data. Research questions include: • How can we reduce dimensions spatially and temporally, or thematically? • How can we extend existing GIS functions to work on multidimensional arrays? • How can we combine data sets of different dimensionality or different resolutions? • Can map algebra be extended to an intelligible array algebra? • What are effective semantics for array programming of dynamic data driven applications? • In which sense are space and time special, as dimensions, compared to other properties? • How can we make the analysis of multi-spectral, multi-temporal and multi-sensor earth observation data easy?

  20. AGR-1, AGR-2 and AGR-3/4 Dimensional Change Data Analysis

    Herberger, Sarah E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments have been completed in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory in support of qualification and development of tristructural isotropic fuel. Each AGR test consists of multiple independently controlled and monitored capsules containing fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder. These capsules are instrumented with thermocouples embedded in the graphite, enabling temperature control. The fuel compacts are composed of fuel particles surrounded by a graphitic A3 matrix material. Dimensional change in AGR fuel compacts is vital because the swelling or shrinkage affects the size of the gas gaps that are used to control temperatures. Analysis of dimensional change in the AGR fuel compacts is needed to establish the variables directly relating to compact shrinkage. The variables initially identified for consideration were matrix density, compact density, fuel packing fraction, uranium loading, fuel particle diameter, cumulative fast neutron fluence, and volume average time average fuel temperature. In addition to the data available from the AGR experiments, the analysis included specimens formed from the same A3 matrix material used in Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiments, which provide graphite creep data during irradiation for design and licensing purposes. The primary purpose of including the AGC specimens was to encompass dimensional behavior at zero packing fraction, zero uranium loading, and zero particle diameter. All possible combinations of first-order variable regressions were considered in the analysis. The study focused on identifying the best regression models for percent change in diameter, length, and volume. Bootstrap analysis was used to ensure the resulting regression models were robust and well-performing. The variables identified as very significant in predicting change in one or more dimensions (diameter, length, and volume) are volume average time average temperature, fast fluence

  1. Dimensional changes of the neuroforamina in subaxial cervical spine during in vivo dynamic flexion-extension.

    Mao, Haiqing; Driscoll, Sean J; Li, Jing-Sheng; Li, Guoan; Wood, Kirkham B; Cha, Thomas D


    Neuroforaminal stenosis is one of the key factors causing clinical symptoms in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Previous quantitative studies on the neuroforaminal dimensions have focused on measurements in a static position. Little is known about dimensional changes of the neuroforamina in the cervical spine during functional dynamic neck motion under physiological loading conditions. This study aimed to investigate the in vivo dimensional changes of the neuroforamina in human cervical spine (C3-C7) during dynamic flexion-extension neck motion. A case-control study was carried out. Ten asymptomatic subjects were recruited for this study. The cervical spine of each subject underwent magnetic resonance image scanning for construction of three-dimensional (3-D) vertebrae models from C3 to C7. The cervical spine was then imaged using a dual fluoroscopic system while the subject performed a dynamic flexion-extension neck motion in a sitting position. The 3-D vertebral models and the fluoroscopic images were used to reproduce the in vivo vertebral motion. The dimensions (area, height, and width) were measured for each cervical neuroforamen (C3/C4, C4/C5, C5/C6, and C6/C7) in the following functional positions: neutral position, maximal flexion, and maximal extension. Repeated measures analysis of variance and post hoc analysis were used to examine the differences between levels and positions. Compared with the neutral position, almost all dimensional parameters (area, height, and width) of the subaxial cervical neuroforamina decreased in extension and increased in flexion, except the neuroforaminal area at C5/C6 (p=.07), and the neuroforaminal height at C6/C7 (p=.05) remained relatively constant from neutral to extension. When comparisons of the overall change fromextension to flexion were made between segments, the overall changes of the neuroforaminal area and height revealed no significant differences between segments, and the width overall change of the upper

  2. A method for measuring post-extraction alveolar dimensional changes with volumetric computed tomography.

    Bontá, Hernán; Galli, Federico G; Caride, Facundo; Carranza, Nelson


    The aim of this study is to present a predictable method for evaluating dimensional changes in the alveolar ridge through cone beam computed tomography (CT). Twenty subjects with single-rooted tooth extraction indication were selected for this preliminary report, which is part of a larger ongoing investigation. After extraction, two CT scans were performed; the first within 24 hours post-extraction (TC1) and the second 6 months (TC2) later. A radiographic guide with a radiopaque element placed along the tooth axis was developed to locate the same plane of reference in two different CT scans. For each patient, backtrack analysis was performed in order to establish the reproducibility error of a predetermined point in space between two CT scans. Briefly, an anatomical landmark was selected and its coordinates to the radiopaque marker were recorded. One week later, the coordinates were followed backwards in the same CT scan to obtain the position where the reference point should be located. A similar process was carried out between two different CT scans taken 6 months apart. The distance between the anatomical reference and the obtained point of position was calculated to establish the accuracy of the method. Additionally, a novel method for evaluating dimensional changes of the alveolus after tooth extraction is presented. The backtrack analysis determined an average within-examiner discrepancy between both measurements from the same CT scan of 0.19 mm. SD +/- 0.05. With the method presented herein, a reference point in a CT scan can be accurately backtracked and located in a second CT scan taken six months later. Taken together they open the possibility of calculating dimensional changes that occur in the alveolar ridge over time, such as post-extraction alveolar resorption, or the bone volume gained after different augmentation procedures.

  3. Three-dimensional assessment of soft tissue changes associated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction protocols.

    Elnagar, Mohammed H; Elshourbagy, Eman; Ghobashy, Safaa; Khedr, Mohamed; Kusnoto, Budi; Evans, Carla A


    The aim of this study was to assess the 3-dimensional soft tissue changes in growing Class III patients with maxillary deficiency associated with 2 bone-anchored maxillary protraction protocols in relation to an untreated control group of Class III patients. Growing skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 10 and 14 years participated in this study. In group 1 (n = 10), skeletally anchored facemasks were used with miniplates placed at the zygomatic buttress. In group 2 (n = 10), the patients were treated with Class III elastics extending from infrazygomatic miniplates in the maxilla to symphyseal miniplates in the mandible. Group 3 (n = 10) was an untreated control group. Three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry images were acquired before and after treatment, and then superimposed and analyzed. In addition, lateral cephalometric radiographs were analyzed. The maxilla moved forward significantly in groups 1 and 2 compared with the untreated control group (group 1, 4.87 mm; group 2, 5.81 mm). The 3-dimensional soft tissue analysis showed significant treatment effects; the major changes were observed in the upper lips, cheeks, and middle of the face, which had a significant positive sagittal displacement in both treatment groups. The lower lip and chin area showed significant negative sagittal changes that indicated that the soft tissue growth in this area was restrained with backward displacement especially in group 1 more than in group 2. The 2 bone-anchored maxillary protraction protocols effectively improved the Class III concave soft tissue profile. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dimensional changes in alginate impression during immersion in a disinfectant solution.

    Muzaffar, Danish; Ahsan, Syed Hammad; Afaq, Ashar


    To determine the effect of a commercially available disinfectant solution (Perform ID) on the dimensional stability of two different commercially available alginate impression materials. Linear changes in standardized impression samples (1.5 mm & 3.0 mm thickness) made in two commercial alginates were recorded at 5 minute intervals, over a period of an hour after immersion in a disinfectant. The alginate impression samples were prepared placing the alginate mixes into a wax mould. After the material had set, each of the samples was removed from the mould. It was then placed in a Polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) trough before measuring the dimensional changes using a Chesterman travelling microscope. 3mm BluePrint Cremix showed greater shrinkage than 3mm Hydrogum. While, 1.5mm Hydrogum appeared to have uniformly greater shrinkage as compared to 1.5mm BluePrint Cremix. There was significant difference between 1.5 and 3mm thicknesses of both Hydrogum and BluePrint Cremix (PAIRED SAMPLE t test p < 0.05). The 1.5mm samples showed much higher shrinkage than 3mm samples. Immersion of the alginates in the same disinfectant showed variable linear shrinkage indicating that slight changes in composition could lead to variable results. In addition, there were significant differences in the linear shrinkage between the two thicknesses of the same alginate material; this indicates the possibility of distortion in actual impressions where the geometry is complex.

  5. Cohort Coefficients

    Kristensen, Gustav


    Cohorts are the aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same time interval. Cohorts can be based on people born in a given year, for example in 1940 or within a span of years, e.g. born in 1940-1944. The year of birth is here the defining event for cohorts. The health di...... differs between cohorts. This article focuses on the protective and detrimental cohort effect in relation to the risk of death from apoplexy. A dummy variable method is recommended to describe the changing cohort effect over a century....

  6. Influence of image charge effect on impurity-related optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a spherical quantum dot

    Vartanian, A. L.; Asatryan, A. L.; Vardanyan, L. A.


    We have investigated the influence of an image charge effect (ICE) on the energies of the ground and first few excited states of a hydrogen-like impurity in a spherical quantum dot (QD) in the presence of an external electric field. The oscillator strengths of transitions from the 1 s -like state to excited states of 2px and 2pz symmetries are calculated as the functions of the strengths of the confinement potential and the electric field. Also, we have studied the effect of image charges on linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes (RICs). The results show that image charges lead to the decrease of energies for all the hydrogen-like states, to the significant enhancement of the oscillator strengths of transitions between the impurity states, and to comparatively large blue shifts in linear, nonlinear, and total absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. Our results indicate that the total optical characteristics can be controlled by the strength of the confinement and the electric field.

  7. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes associated with intersubband transitions in a quantum disk with flat cylindrical geometry

    Gambhir, Monica, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kumar, Manoj [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jha, P.K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110015 (India); Mohan, Man [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)


    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and changes in the refractive index in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum disk in the form of a flat cylinder are investigated theoretically in the presence of a static magnetic and a laser field within the framework of the compact-density matrix approach. It is found that the absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes depend not only on the optical wave intensity but also on the strength of the static magnetic field. The intersubband relaxation time, also, has an important influence on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of a quantum disk. -- Highlights: • The study is carried out in a quantum disk having quantum dot geometry. • The linear and non-linear optical properties are studied using density matrix approach. • The study is carried out in the presence of a laser field and a magnetic field. • Influence of incident photon energy and static magnetic field is analyzed. • The optical properties are found to be greatly influenced by the relaxation time.

  8. Three-dimensional Hall MHD simulation of lunar minimagnetosphere: General characteristics and comparison with Chang'E-2 observations

    Xie, Lianghai; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yiteng; Feng, Yongyong; Wang, Xinyue; Zhang, Aibing; Kong, Linggao


    Lunar minimagnetosphere formed by the interaction between the solar wind and a local crustal field often has a scale size comparable to the ion inertia length, in which the Hall effect is very important. In this paper, the general characteristics of lunar minimagnetosphere are investigated by three-dimensional Hall MHD simulations. It is found that the solar wind ions can penetrate across the magnetopause to reduce the density depletion and cause the merging of the shock and magnetopause, but the electrons are still blocked at the boundary. Besides, asymmetric convection occurs, resulting in the magnetic field piles up on one side while the plasma gathers on the other side. The size of the minimagnetosphere is determined by both the solar zenith angle and the magnetosonic Mach number, while the Hall effect is determined by the ratio of the pressure balance distance to the ion inertia length. When the ratio gets small, the shock may disappear. Finally, we present a global Hall MHD simulation for comparison with the observation from Chang'E-2 satellite on 11 October 2010 and confirm that Chang'E-2 flew across compression regions of two separate minimagnetospheres.

  9. Three dimensional assessment of condylar surface changes and remodeling after orthognathic surgery

    Lee, Jung Hye; Lee, Jin Woo; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae Myung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    This study was performed to evaluate condylar surface changes and remodeling after orthognathic surgery using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) imaging, including comparisons between the right and left sides and between the sexes. Forty patients (20 males and 20 females) who underwent multi-detector CT examinations before and after surgery were selected. Three-dimensional images comprising thousands of points on the condylar surface were obtained before and after surgery. For the quantitative assessment of condylar surface changes, point-to-point (preoperative-to-postoperative) distances were calculated using D processing software. These point-to-point distances were converted to a color map. In order to evaluate the types of condylar remodeling, the condylar head was divided into six areas (anteromedial, anteromiddle, anterolateral, posteromedial, posteromiddle, and posterolateral areas) and each area was classified into three types of condylar remodeling (bone formation, no change, and bone resorption) based on the color map. Additionally, comparative analyses were performed between the right and left sides and according to sex. The mean of the average point-to-point distances on condylar surface was 0.11±0.03 mm. Bone resorption occurred more frequently than other types of condylar remodeling, especially in the lateral areas. However, bone formation in the anteromedial area was particularly prominent. No significant difference was found between the right and left condyles, but condylar surface changes in males were significantly larger than in females. This study revealed that condylar remodeling exhibited a tendency towards bone resorption, especially in the lateral areas. Condylar surface changes occurred, but were small.

  10. Alveolar dimensional changes relevant to implant placement after minimally traumatic tooth extraction with primary closure.

    Carranza, Nelson; Bonta, Hernan; Gualtieri, Ariel F; Rojas, Mariana A; Galli, Federico G; Caride, Facundo


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dimensional changes that occur in the alveolar ridge after minimally traumatic tooth extraction by means of computed tomography (CT), with special focus on the portion of bone supporting the gingival zenith. Twenty subjects with indication for singlerooted tooth extraction and preserved alveolar walls were selected for this study. After a minimally traumatic extraction, two CT scans were performed; the first within 24 hours postextraction (TC1) and the second 6 months (TC2) later. A radiographic guide with a radiopaque marker was used to obtain references that enabled accurate measurements over time, in both vertical and horizontal directions. The bone crest immediately apical to the gingival zenith was identified and termed "osseous zenith". The displacement of the osseous zenith in horizontal and vertical direction was analyzed and correlated with several alveolar anatomical variables with the aim of identifying possible predictors for bone remodeling. Dimensional changes that occur in postextraction sockets within a 6month period showed significant vertical and horizontal displacement of the osseous zenith (p 3 mm) should be expected. The present study suggests that the width of the alveolar crest at its midlevel, rather than crestal width, may be correlated with the displacement of the osseous zenith. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  11. Three-dimensional assessment of maxillary changes associated with bone anchored maxillary protraction

    Nguyen, Tung; Cevidanes, Lucia; Cornelis, Marie A.; Heymann, Gavin; de Paula, Leonardo K.; De Clerck, Hugo


    Introduction Bone-anchored maxillary protraction has been shown to be an effective treatment modality for the correction of Class III malocclusions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 3-dimensional changes in the maxilla, the surrounding hard and soft tissues, and the circummaxillary sutures after bone-anchored maxillary protraction treatment. Methods Twenty-five consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 9 and 13 years (mean, 11.10 ± 1.1 years) were treated with Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (2 in the infrazygomatic crests of the maxilla and 2 in the anterior mandible). Cone-beam computed tomographs were taken before initial loading and 1 year out. Three-dimensional models were generated from the tomographs, registered on the anterior cranial base, superimposed, and analyzed by using color maps. Results The maxilla showed a mean forward displacement of 3.7 mm, and the zygomas and the maxillary incisors came forward 3.7 and 4.3 mm, respectively. Conclusions This treatment approach produced significant orthopedic changes in the maxilla and the zygomas in growing Class III patients. PMID:22133943

  12. Diffeomorphism algebra of two dimensional free massless scalar field with signature change

    Darabi, F; Rezaei-Aghdam, A


    We study a model of free massless scalar fields on a two dimensional cylinder with metric that admits a change of signature between Lorentzian and Euclidean type (ET), across the two timelike hypersurfaces (with respect to Lorentzian region). Considering a long strip-shaped region of the cylinder, denoted by an angle \\theta, as the signature changed region it is shown that the energy spectrum depends on the angle \\theta and in a sense differs from ordinary one for low energies. Morever diffeomorphism algebra of corresponding infinite conserved charges is different from '' Virasoro'' algebra and approaches to it at higher energies. The central term is also modified but does not approach to the ordinary one at higher energies.

  13. Negative power coefficient on PHWRs with CARA fuel

    Lestani, H.A., E-mail: [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica – Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. E. Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. E. Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); González, H.J., E-mail: [INVAP S.E., Av. Cmte. Luis Piedrabuena 4905 (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. E. Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, CABA, C1033AAJ (Argentina); Florido, P.C., E-mail: [Instituto Balseiro – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. E. Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina)


    Highlights: • A PHWR fuel was optimized to obtain a negative power coefficient. • Fuel cost, being a measure of design investment efficiency, was optimized. • Influence on power coefficient of geometrical and economical parameters’ was studied. • Different neutronic absorbers were studied; pure absorbers can be used. • Thermal and economical models were developed to complement neutronic assessment. - Abstract: A study of power coefficient of reactivity in heavy water reactors is made analyzing the reactivity components of fuels with several modifications oriented at reducing the coefficient. A cell model is used for neutronics calculations; a non-linear two dimensional model is used to evaluate the thermal changes that follow a power change; and a levelized unit energy cost model is used to assess the economical feasibility of the design changes introduced to reduce power coefficient. The necessity of modelling all the aforementioned quantities in a coupled scheme is stressed, as a strong interdependence was found. A series of design changes complied with a negative power coefficient of reactivity, with a feasible power radial distribution and with low refuelling cost. Some investigation lines that exceed the fuel cell study and deal with the plant operation are marked as potentially addressing the stable operation of big heavy water reactors.

  14. Cross-industry dimensionality of the commitment to change scale in China.

    Chen, Jingqiu; Wang, Lei


    Commitment to organizational change can explain a range of employees' attitudes and behaviors during organizational change, and its measurement is central to explaining such organizational linkages. The purpose of this study is to re-examine the dimensionality of Herscovitch and Meyer's Commitment to Change Scale across two different industrial samples in a non-Western cultural context (China). The two samples were 198 civil servants (60.0% men; M age = 29.3 yr., M organizational tenure = 62.7 mo.) and 442 high-tech company employees (58.2% men; M age = 30.5 yr., M organizational tenure = 66.5 mo.) who had respectively undergone major changes in compensation and performance appraisal systems in their organizations at the time of the research. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that a four-factor model with 14 items fit the data best in both samples. The generality of the scale's structure as well as its implications for change-management practices are discussed.

  15. Exciton optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a strained InAs/GaAs quantum wire: The effect of the magnetic field

    Arunachalam, N. [Department of Physics, Government Higher Secondary School, Saruguvalayapatti, Melur 625109, Madurai (India); John Peter, A., E-mail: [Center for Environmental Studies/Green Energy Center, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Chang Kyoo [Center for Environmental Studies/Green Energy Center, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Magnetic field induced exciton binding energy is investigated in a strained InAs/GaAs quantum wire within the framework of single band effective mass approximation. The strain contribution to the potential is determined through deformation potentials. The interband emission energy of strained InAs/GaAs wire is investigated in the influence of magnetic field with the various structural parameters. Magnetic field induced photoionization cross section of the exciton is studied. The total optical absorption and the refractive index changes as a function of normalized photon energy between the ground and the first excited state in the presence of magnetic field are analyzed. The optical absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes strongly depend on the incident optical intensity and the magnetic field. The occurred blueshift of the resonant peak due to the magnetic field will give the information about the variation of two energy levels in the quantum well wire. The optical absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes are strongly dependent on the incident optical intensity and the magnetic field. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic field induced exciton binding energy is investigated in a strained InAs/GaAs quantum wire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strain contribution to the potential is determined through deformation potentials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interband emission energy of strained InAs/GaAs wire is investigated with the various structural parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic field induced photoionization cross section of the exciton is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optical properties strongly depend on the incident optical intensity and the magnetic field.

  16. Three-dimensional surgical changes of mandibular proximal segments affect outcome of jaw motion analysis.

    Wen-Ching Ko, Ellen; Alazizi, Abdelmounem Issam; Lin, Cheng-Hui


    Displacement of the mandibular proximal segments is inevitable in surgical correction of the asymmetric mandible. The aim of the present study was to assess the outcomes of jaw motion analysis (JMA) in relation to the changes in the mandibular proximal segments after orthognathic surgery (OGS). The present retrospective cohort study investigated the surgical changes using the cone-beam computed tomography records and the mandibular function with JMA and a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) examination. The predictor variables were the 3-dimensional (3D) changes in the proximal segments on the deviated and nondeviated sides. The outcome variables were the JMA data obtained 6 months after OGS. The Pearson correlation test was performed to assess the relationship between the surgical changes and the outcome of JMA. Twenty-one adult patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and mandibular deviation greater than 4 mm were included in the present study. The change of the ramus axis to the coronal plane on the deviated side correlated negatively with the laterotrusive movement of the mandible toward the deviated side (r = -0.452, P < .05). The changes in the distance from the condyles to the midsagittal plane and the angulation of the ramus axis to midsagittal plane on the nondeviated side correlated negatively with the condyle range of retrusion on both sides. However, the increase in the angulation of the ramus axis to the midsagittal plane on the nondeviated side correlated positively with the angle of the horizontal condylar movement in laterotrusion on the deviated side (r = 0.458, P < .05). 3D model visualization enabled us to clearly detect the changes in the proximal segments after OGS. A relationship between the condylar range of motion and skeletal changes in the proximal segments in patients with Class III malocclusion was observed, mainly on the deviated side of the mandible. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published

  17. Changes in the chemical properties and swelling coefficient of alfalfa root cell walls in the presence of toluene as a toxic agent.

    Sharifi, M; Khoshgoftarmanesh, A H; Hadadzadeh, H


    The influence of toluene pollution on the chemical properties and swelling coefficient of root cell walls in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was investigated. Two sets of alfalfa seedlings were selected and one set was treated with 450 mg L(-1) toluene in the nutrient solution under hydroponic culture. Thirty days after treatment with toluene, alfalfa plants were harvested and the root cell walls were isolated. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out for the characterization of the root cell walls composition. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the swelling coefficient of the root cell walls (Kcw) were estimated at various pH values. The toluene contamination significantly reduced the mass of the cell wall material in the alfalfa roots. According to the FTIR spectra, the toluene pollution can change the alfalfa root cell wall properties by reducing the cell wall functional groups. These functional groups are probably related to the proteins and polysaccharides in the cell wall. Also, toluene pollution strongly reduced CEC and Kcw of the root cell walls. The results show that the decrease in the active sites of adsorption on the root cell walls as a response to toluene pollution can affect the water flow rate and the mineral nutrients uptake by roots.

  18. Reproducibility and changes in the apparent diffusion coefficients of solid tumours treated with combretastatin A4 phosphate and bevacizumab in a two-centre phase I clinical trial

    Koh, Dow-Mu; Blackledge, Matthew; Collins, David J. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sutton (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research, Cancer Research UK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Sutton (United Kingdom); Padhani, Anwar R.; Taylor, N.J.; Stirling, J.J. [Mount Vernon Hospital, Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Wallace, Toni [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sutton (United Kingdom); Wilton, Benjamin; Leach, Martin O. [Institute of Cancer Research, Cancer Research UK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Sutton (United Kingdom); Sinha, Rajesh; Judson, Ian [Royal Marsden Hospital, Phase I Clinical Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom); Walicke, Pat [Oxigene Inc, Waltham, MA (United States); Nathan, Paul [Mount Vernon Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Middlesex (United Kingdom)


    The purpose was to determine the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in a two-centre phase I clinical trial; and to track ADC changes in response to the sequential administration of the vascular disrupting agent, combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P), and the anti-angiogenic drug, bevacizumab. Sixteen patients with solid tumours received CA4P and bevacizumab treatment. Echo-planar diffusion-weighted MRI was performed using six b values (b = 0-750 s/mm{sup 2}) before (x 2), and at 3 and 72 h after a first dose of CA4P. Bevacizumab was given 4 h after a second dose of CA4P, and imaging performed 3 h post CA4P and 72 h after bevacizumab treatment. The coefficient of repeatability (r) of ADC total (all b values), ADC high (b = 100-750) and ADC low (b = 0-100) was calculated by Bland-Altman analysis. The ADC total and ADC high showed good measurement reproducibility (r% = 13.3, 14.1). There was poor reproducibility of the perfusion-sensitive ADC low (r% = 62.5). Significant increases in the median ADC total and ADC high occurred at 3 h after the second dose of CA4P (p < 0.05). ADC measurements were highly reproducible in a two-centre clinical trial setting and appear promising for evaluating the effects of drugs that target tumour vasculature. (orig.)

  19. Molecular weight effects on the phase-change-enhanced temperature coefficient of resistance in carbon nanotube/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) composites.

    Tae, Patrick; Zhao, Chong; Fernandes, Gustavo E; Ho Kim, Jin; Xu, Jimmy


    We investigate the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), of carbon nanotube composites with the phase-change polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Our results shed light on the underlying mechanism of electron transport through networks of conductive paths in the composites and its dependence on the molecular weights (MWs) of the phase-changing polymer. Measurements of the humidity dependence of the TCR reveal the dominant conduction mechanism to be variable range hopping with an exponent of ¼, corresponding to transport in a 3D system. In a humid atmosphere, a twenty-fold change in the hopping activation energy is observed as the temperature is swept across the polymer's hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic phase-transition, while no change is observed in low humidity atmospheres or in vacuum. The TCR was found to depend on MW but to also be affected by details of the dynamics of hydration/dehydration of the composites. For operation in dry atmospheres and in vacuum the maximum TCR observed was only .002%, while in a humid atmosphere the TCR as large as 60% were observed-an order of magnitude higher than those found in common high-TCR materials used in thermal sensing applications.

  20. [Changes in autonomic nerve function during the normal menstrual cycle measured by the coefficient of variation of R-R intervals].

    Kondo, M; Hirano, T; Okamura, Y


    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a change in autonomic nerve function during the menstrual cycle. The subjects were 20 females (average age 26.1 years +/- 4.6) with a normal menstrual cycle. The coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CV R.R) was measured to investigate autonomic function in the menstrual, follicular, ovulatory, luteal, and premenstrual phases. Average CV R-R for all phases was 5.2 +/- 1.9%. And the CV R-R tended to be lower in those in their 30s than in those in their 20s. And no noticeable difference was seen in the CV R-R among the 5 phases of the menstrual cycle. On the other hand, the CV R-R of 11 females with premenstrual syndrome was low in the ovulatory, luteal and premenstrual phases. These results, which provide basic data for clinical use, suggest the following. (1) The age of subjects should be taken into consideration. (2) Changes in the CV R-R during the menstrual cycle are negligible. (3) However, in those showing symptoms associated with the menstrual cycle such as premenstrual syndrome, changes during the menstrual cycle should be taken into account. At the same time psychological changes in the subjects were evaluated by the following tests: Cornell Medical Index, Taylor's manifest anxiety scale, and Zung's self-rating depression scale. The results of these tests did not vary significantly during the menstrual cycle.

  1. Assessment of volumetric changes with a best-fit method in three-dimensional stereophotograms.

    Ongkosuwito, E M; Goos, J A C; Wattel, E; van der Wal, K G H; van Adrichem, L N A; van Neck, J W


    Different three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry systems and analyzing methods exist that often use landmarks for comparison. Measurement errors in landmark or surface comparison are mostly within 1 mm, which seems clinically acceptable. The aim of this study was to validate a three-dimensional stereophotogrammetric best-fit method of assessing volumetric changes and to compare three devices. The validation of the best-fit method was at first done on a life-size dummy head. Scans were made in the ideal position, as well as in four additional positions, and a scan was made in which a soft putty specimen was added to the dummy head. The comparison was executed with a best-fit method using triangulation. Student's t tests were used to detect statistically significant differences. Second, comparisons were made among scans of a white man in the ideal position and with volume changes added. The different positions tested for the dummy head showed no significant volume differences within each system or among systems. The differences found when adding a soft putty specimen fell into the same range as the differences between various positions. The differences within a live situation were 10 times greater compared with the dummy-head situation. In a dummy-head situation, the different systems gave similar results when tested with a best-fit method. However, in live situations the differences may become 10 times greater, possibly due to different facial expressions. These differences may become clinically relevant and, therefore, further research in volumetric changes is needed.

  2. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in modulation-doped quantum wells: Effects of the magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure

    Nazari, M.; Karimi, M.J., E-mail:; Keshavarz, A.


    In this study, the linear, the third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes of a modulation-doped GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As quantum well are investigated numerically. In the effective-mass approximation, the electronic structure of modulation-doped quantum well is calculated by solving the Schrödinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. Optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The effects of structure parameters, the applied magnetic field and the hydrostatic pressure on the optical properties of the modulation-doped quantum well are studied. Results show that the resonant peaks shift toward the higher (lower) energies with the increase in the magnetic field (pressure). The magnitude of the resonant peaks of the optical properties decreases with the increasing magnetic field or pressure.

  3. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and relative refraction index change for an asymmetrical double δ-doped quantum well in GaAs with a Schottky barrier potential

    Rojas-Briseño, J.G.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia)


    In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions.

  4. Hydrothermal changes in wheat starch monitored by two-dimensional NMR.

    Kovrlija, R; Rondeau-Mouro, C


    The temperature-dependent changes in wheat starch powder and wheat starch-water mixtures were monitored in real-time throughout the heating/cooling program using a classical one-dimensional T1 method and a novel bi-dimensional approach to correlate spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times (T1-T2) including acquisition of the FID signal. The influence of two controlling factors (i.e. water content (11%, 35-50%, wet basis) and temperature (20-90°C and back to 20°C)) on water distribution and starch transformation was investigated. Quantitative analysis of 2D T1-T2 maps greatly facilitated the interpretation of T1 relaxation times, which have been interpreted rather narrowly in the literature when classically measured in one-dimension. Application of the new IR-FID-CPMG sequence allowed distinction between different proton pools with different T1 relaxation times, particularly when the starch gelatinization occurred. The quantification of each T1 component permitted to assign the short T1 to slow cross relaxation phenomena, highlighting proton chemical and/or diffusional exchanges between water and starch.

  5. Diagnostic index of three-dimensional osteoarthritic changes in temporomandibular joint condylar morphology

    Gomes, Liliane R.; Gomes, Marcelo; Jung, Bryan; Paniagua, Beatriz; Ruellas, Antonio C.; Gonçalves, João Roberto; Styner, Martin A.; Wolford, Larry; Cevidanes, Lucia


    Abstract. This study aimed to investigate imaging statistical approaches for classifying three-dimensional (3-D) osteoarthritic morphological variations among 169 temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyles. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired from 69 subjects with long-term TMJ osteoarthritis (OA), 15 subjects at initial diagnosis of OA, and 7 healthy controls. Three-dimensional surface models of the condyles were constructed and SPHARM-PDM established correspondent points on each model. Multivariate analysis of covariance and direction-projection-permutation (DiProPerm) were used for testing statistical significance of the differences between the groups determined by clinical and radiographic diagnoses. Unsupervised classification using hierarchical agglomerative clustering was then conducted. Compared with healthy controls, OA average condyle was significantly smaller in all dimensions except its anterior surface. Significant flattening of the lateral pole was noticed at initial diagnosis. We observed areas of 3.88-mm bone resorption at the superior surface and 3.10-mm bone apposition at the anterior aspect of the long-term OA average model. DiProPerm supported a significant difference between the healthy control and OA group (p-value=0.001). Clinically meaningful unsupervised classification of TMJ condylar morphology determined a preliminary diagnostic index of 3-D osteoarthritic changes, which may be the first step towards a more targeted diagnosis of this condition. PMID:26158119

  6. Changes in three-dimensional speckle-tracking-derived myocardial strain during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Ternacle, Julien; Gallet, Romain; Champagne, Stéphane; Teiger, Emmanuel; Gellen, Barnabas; Dubois Randé, Jean-Luc; Gueret, Pascal; Lim, Pascal


    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in three-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking-derived myocardial strain during ischemia. Twenty patients referred for percutaneous coronary intervention were studied (mean age, 65 ± 11 years; mean left ventricular ejection fraction, 56 ± 7%). Of the 20 study patients, 12 had severe left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. A full-volume apical view using multibeat 3D modality and two-dimensional (2D) apical views (four chamber, two chamber, and three chamber) were recorded during coronary occlusion before wall motion abnormalities. After percutaneous coronary intervention, ultrasound contrast agent was selectively delivered through the target lesion to delineate ischemic and peri-ischemic segments (ischemia-adjacent segments). Strain values derived from 2D and 3D speckle-tracking echocardiography were compared in ischemic and nonischemic segments. Despite no changes in wall motion and 2D left ventricular ejection fraction (56 ± 7% vs 56 ± 7%), global longitudinal strain by 2D imaging was impaired during percutaneous coronary intervention (-16 ± 3% vs -14 ± 3%, P = .01). Similar changes were observed for all 3D strain components: -11 ± 16% for longitudinal (-15 ± 4% vs -13 ± 4%, P = .03), -13 ± 25% for circumferential (-15 ± 4% vs -12 ± 4%, P = .02), -12 ± 16% for area (-25 ± 5% vs -22 ± 6%, P = .009), and -12 ± 25% for radial global strain (39 ± 12% vs 33 ± 12%, P = .04). During coronary occlusion, 2D longitudinal peak strain and all 3D peak strain components decreased in ischemic segments, while no changes was observed in nonischemic segments. In peri-ischemic segments, only 3D longitudinal and area strain were impaired during ischemia. Changes in myocardial deformation related to ischemia can be characterized by 3D speckle-tracking echocardiography before the stage of wall motion abnormality. Copyright © 2013 American Society of

  7. Global climate changes as forecast by Goddard Institute for Space Studies three-dimensional model

    Hansen, J.; Fung, I.; Lacis, A.; Rind, D.; Lebedeff, S.; Ruedy, R.; Russell, G.


    The global climate effects of time-dependent atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variations are simulated by NASA-Goddard's three-dimensional climate model II, which possesses 8 x 10-deg horizontal resolution, for the cases of a 100-year control run and three different atmospheric composition scenarios in which trace gas growth is respectively a continuation of current exponential trends, a reduced linear growth, and a rapid curtailment of emissions due to which net climate forcing no longer increases after the year 2000. The experiments begin in 1958, run to the present, and encompass measured or estimated changes in CO2, CH4, N2O, chlorofluorocarbons, and stratospheric aerosols. It is shown that the greenhouse warming effect may be clearly identifiable in the 1990s.

  8. Visual Scanning Patterns during the Dimensional Change Card Sorting Task in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Li Yi


    Full Text Available Impaired cognitive flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been reported in previous literature. The present study explored ASD children’s visual scanning patterns during the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS task using eye-tracking technique. ASD and typical developing (TD children completed the standardized DCCS procedure on the computer while their eye movements were tracked. Behavioral results confirmed previous findings on ASD children’s deficits in executive function. ASD children’s visual scanning patterns also showed some specific underlying processes in the DCCS task compared to TD children. For example, ASD children looked shorter at the correct card in the postswitch phase and spent longer time at blank areas than TD children did. ASD children did not show a bias to the color dimension as TD children did. The correlations between the behavioral performance and eye moments were also discussed.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of tissue water and its relationship to cell volume changes in pathological states.

    Sotak, Christopher H


    Diffusion-weighted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging (DWI) is sensitive to the random translational motion of water molecules due to Brownian motion. Although the mechanism is still not completely understood, the cellular swelling that accompanies cell membrane depolarization results in a reduction in the net displacement of diffusing water molecules and thus a concomitant reduction in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of tissue water. Cerebral regions of reduced ADC appear hyperintense in a DWI and this technique has been used extensively to study acute stroke. In addition to cerebral ischemia, reductions in the ADC of cerebral water have been observed following cortical spreading depression, ischemic depolarizations (IDs), transient ischemic attack (TIA), status epilepticus, and hypoglycemia. Although the mechanism responsible for initiating membrane depolarization varies in each case, the ensuing cell volume changes follow a similar pattern. Water ADC values are also affected by the presence and orientation of barriers to translational motion (such as cell membranes and myelin fibers) and thus NMR measures of anisotropic diffusion are sensitive to more chronic pathological states where the integrity of these structures is modified by disease. Both theoretical prediction and experimental evidence suggest that the ADC of tissue water is related to the volume fraction of the interstitial space via the electrical conductivity of the tissue. The implication is that acute neurological disorders that exhibit electrical conductivity changes should also exhibit ADC changes that are detectable by DWI. A qualitative correlation between electrical conductivity and the ADC of water has been demonstrated in a number of animal model studies and the results indicate that reduced ADC values are associated with reductions in the extracellular volume fraction and increased extracellular tortuosity. The close relationship between ADC changes and cell volume changes in

  10. Three-dimensional virtual simulation of alar width changes following bimaxillary osteotomies.

    Liebregts, J; Xi, T; Schreurs, R; van Loon, B; Bergé, S; Maal, T


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue simulation of nose width changes following bimaxillary osteotomies and to identify patient- and surgery-related factors that may affect the accuracy of simulation. Sixty patients (mean age 26 years) who underwent bimaxillary osteotomies participated in this study. Cone beam computed tomography scans were acquired preoperatively and at 1-year postoperative. The 3D hard and soft tissue rendered preoperative and postoperative virtual head models were superimposed, after which the maxilla and mandible were segmented and aligned to the postoperative position. The postoperative changes in alar width were simulated using a mass tensor model (MTM)-based algorithm and compared with the postoperative outcome. 3D cephalometric analyses were used to quantify the simulation error. The postoperative alar width was increased by 1.6±1.1mm and the mean error between the 3D simulation and the actual postoperative alar width was 1.0±0.9mm. The predictability was not correlated to factors such as age, sex, alar cinch suture, VY closure, maxillary advancement, or a history of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. The MTM-based simulation model of postoperative alar width change was found to be reasonably accurate, although there is room for further improvement.

  11. Volumetric dimensional changes of dental light-cured dimethacrylate resins after sorption of water or ethanol.

    Sideridou, Irini D; Karabela, Maria M; Vouvoudi, Evagelia Ch


    This study evaluated the influence of water and ethanol sorption on the volumetric dimensional changes of resins prepared by light curing of Bis-GMA, Bis-EMA, UDMA, TEGDMA or D(3)MA. The resin specimens (15mm diameterx1mm height) were immersed in water or ethanol 37+/-1 degrees C for 30 days. Volumetric changes of specimens were obtained via accurate mass measurements using Archimedes principle. The specimens were reconditioned by dry storage in an oven at 37+/-1 degrees C until constant mass was obtained and then immersed in water or ethanol for 30 days. The volumetric changes of specimens were determined and compared to those obtained from the first sorption. Resins showed similar volume increase during the first and second sorptions of water or ethanol. The volume increase due to water absorption is in the following order: poly-TEGDMA>poly-Bis-GMA>poly-UDMA>poly-Bis-EMA>poly-D(3)MA. On the contrary, the order in ethanol is poly-Bis-GMA>poly-UDMA>poly-TEGDMA>poly-Bis-EMA approximately poly-D(3)MA. The volume increase was found to depend linearly on the amount of water or ethanol absorbed. In the choice of monomers for preparation of composite resin matrix the volume increase in the resin after immersion in water or ethanol must be taken into account. Resins of Bis-EMA and D(3)MA showed the lowest values.

  12. Changes in Mitral Annular Geometry after Aortic Valve Replacement: A Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiographic Study

    Mahmood, Feroze; Warraich, Haider J.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Chen, Tzong-Huei; Panzica, Peter; Maslow, Andrew; Khabbaz, Kamal


    Background and aim of the study Intraoperative real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT-3D TEE) was used to examine the geometric changes that occur in the mitral annulus immediately after aortic valve replacement (AVR). Methods A total of 35 patients undergoing elective surgical AVR under cardiopulmonary bypass was enrolled in the study. Intraoperative RT-3D TEE was used prospectively to acquire volumetric echocardiographic datasets immediately before and after AVR. The 3D echocardiographic data were analyzed offline using TomTec® Mitral Valve Assessment software to assess changes in specific mitral annular geometric parameters. Results Datasets were successfully acquired and analyzed for all patients. A significant reduction was noted in the mitral annular area (-16.3%, p <0.001), circumference (-8.9% p <0.001) and the anteroposterior (-6.3%, p = 0.019) and anterolateral-posteromedial (-10.5%, p <0.001) diameters. A greater reduction was noted in the anterior annulus length compared to the posterior annulus length (10.5% versus 62%, p <0.05) after AVR. No significant change was seen in the non-planarity angle, coaptation depth, and closure line length. During the period of data acquisition before and after AVR, no significant change was noted in the central venous pressure or left ventricular end-diastolic diameter. Conclusion The mitral annulus undergoes significant geometric changes immediately after AVR Notably, a 16.3% reduction was observed in the mitral annular area. The anterior annulus underwent a greater reduction in length compared to the posterior annulus, which suggested the existence of a mechanical compression by the prosthetic valve. PMID:23409347

  13. Three-dimensional anatomy of equine incisors: tooth length, enamel cover and age related changes.

    Schrock, Patricia; Lüpke, Matthias; Seifert, Hermann; Staszyk, Carsten


    Equine incisors are subjected to continuous occlusal wear causing multiple, age related changes of the extragingival crown. It is assumed that the occlusal wear is compensated by continued tooth elongation at the apical ends of the teeth. In this study, μCT-datasets offered the opportunity to analyze the three-dimensional appearance of the extra- and intraalveolar parts of the enamel containing dental crown as well as of the enamel-free dental root. Multiple morphometric measurements elucidated age related, morphological changes within the intraalveolar part of the incisors. Equine incisors possess a unique enamel cover displaying large indentations on the mesial and distal sides. After eruption tooth elongation at the apical end outbalances occlusal wear for two to four years resulting in increasing incisor length in this period of time. Remarkably, this maximum length is maintained for about ten years, up to a tooth age of 13 to 15 years post eruption. Variances in the total length of individual teeth are related to different Triadan positions (central-, middle- and corner incisors) as well as to the upper and lower arcades. Equine incisors are able to fully compensate occlusal wear for a limited period of time. However, after this ability ceases, it is expected that a diminished intraalveolar tooth length will cause massive changes in periodontal biomechanics. The time point of these morphodynamic and biomechanical changes (13 to 15 years post eruption) occurs in coincidence with the onset of a recently described destructive disease of equine incisor (equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis) in aged horses. However, further biomechanical, cell biological and microbiological investigations are needed to elucidate a correlation between age related changes of incisor morphology and this disease.

  14. Intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a graded quantum well under intense laser field: Effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature and electric field

    Ungan, F., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Grupo de Materia Condensade-UdeA, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Restrepo, R.L. [Grupo de Materia Condensade-UdeA, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia AA 7516, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensade-UdeA, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Morales, A.L.; Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensade-UdeA, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)


    The effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and electric field on the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes associated with intersubband transition in a typical GaAs/Ga{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}As graded quantum well under intense laser field have been investigated theoretically. The electron energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the graded quantum well are calculated within the effective mass approximation and envelope wave function approach. The analytical expressions of the optical properties are obtained using the compact density-matrix approach and the iterative method. The numerical results show that the linear and nonlinear optical properties depend strongly on the intense laser field and electric field but weakly on the hydrostatic pressure and temperature. Additionally, it has been found that the electronic and optical properties in a GaAs/Ga{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}As graded quantum well under the intense laser field can be tuned by changing these external inputs. Thus, these results give a new degree of freedom in the devices applications.

  15. Calibration of dimensional change in finite element models using AGR moderator brick measurements

    McNally, K., E-mail: [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Hall, G. [NGRG, School of MACE, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tan, E. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Marsden, B.J. [NGRG, School of MACE, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Warren, N. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom)


    Physically based models, resolved using the finite element (FE) method, are often used to model changes in geometry and the associated stress fields of graphite moderator bricks within a reactor. These models require inputs that describe the loading conditions (field variables), and coded relationships describing the behaviour of material properties. Historically, behaviour on material properties have been obtained from Materials Test Reactor (MTR) experiments, however data relating to samples trepanned from operating reactors are increasingly being used to improve models. Geometry measurements from operating reactors offer the potential for improving the coded relationship for dimensional change in FE models. A non-linear mixed-effect model is presented for calibrating the parameters of FE models that are sensitive to mid-brick diameter, using channel geometry measurements obtained from inspection campaigns. The work makes use of a novel technique: the development of a Bayesian emulator, which is a surrogate for the FE model. The use of an emulator allows the influence of the inputs to the finite element model to be evaluated, and delivers a substantial reduction in the computational burden of calibration.

  16. Changes Caused by Heat Treatment in Color and Dimensional Stability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Wood

    Ioannis Barboutis


    Full Text Available Thermal modification of wood permanently alters several of its chemical and physical properties. Beech wood is one of the most important hardwoods in Central and Eastern Europe and is extensively used in furniture production. In this study the effects of thermal modification of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L. on hygroscopic properties were examined and the color changes of the treated wood were determined. Beech wood has been subjected to a heat treatment at the temperature of 180 °C for five different durations ranging from 2 to 10 h. A more intense, gradual color change of the treated samples was observed after 4-h treatment, whereas in some other cases the recorded alterations were less intense. The most pronounced color differentiations compared to untreated samples occurred in 8-h and 10-h treatments. Dimensional stability and absorption were measured after 1-h, 3-h, 6-h, 1 day and 3 days immersion in water. The 8-h treatment duration exhibits the greatest reduction of swelling and absorption percentage.

  17. Semiautomated three-dimensional segmentation software to quantify carpal bone volume changes on wrist CT scans for arthritis assessment.

    Duryea, J; Magalnick, M; Alli, S; Yao, L; Wilson, M; Goldbach-Mansky, R


    Rapid progression of joint destruction is an indication of poor prognosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Computed tomography (CT) has the potential to serve as a gold standard for joint imaging since it provides high resolution three-dimensional (3D) images of bone structure. The authors have developed a method to quantify erosion volume changes on wrist CT scans. In this article they present a description and validation of the methodology using multiple scans of a hand phantom and five human subjects. An anthropomorphic hand phantom was imaged with a clinical CT scanner at three different orientations separated by a 30-deg angle. A reader used the semiautomated software tool to segment the individual carpal bones of each CT scan. Reproducibility was measured as the root-mean-square standard deviation (RMMSD) and coefficient of variation (CoV) between multiple measurements of the carpal volumes. Longitudinal erosion progression was studied by inserting simulated erosions in a paired second scan. The change in simulated erosion size was calculated by performing 3D image registration and measuring the volume difference between scans in a region adjacent to the simulated erosion. The RMSSD for the total carpal volumes was 21.0 mm3 (CoV = 1.3%) for the phantom, and 44.1 mm3 (CoV = 3.0%) for the in vivo subjects. Using 3D registration and local volume difference calculations, the RMMSD was 1.0-3.0 mm3 The reader time was approximately 5 min per carpal bone. There was excellent agreement between the measured and simulated erosion volumes. The effect of a poorly measured volume for a single erosion is mitigated by the large number of subjects that would comprise a clinical study and that there will be many erosions measured per patient. CT promises to be a quantifiable tool to measure erosion volumes and may serve as a gold standard that can be used in the validation of other modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging.

  18. Three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography for assessment of mandibular changes after orthognathic surgery

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Bailey, L'Tanya J.; Tucker, Scott F.; Styner, Martin A.; Mol, Andre; Phillips, Ceib L.; Proffit, William R.; Turvey, Timothy


    Introduction The purpose of this study was to assess alterations in the 3-dimensional (3D) position of the mandibular rami and condyles in patients receiving either maxillary advancement and mandibular setback or maxillary surgery only. Methods High-resolution cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken of 21 patients before and after orthognathic surgery. Ten patients with various malocclusions underwent maxillary surgery only, and 11 Class III patients received maxillary advancement and mandibular setback. Presurgery and postsurgery 3D models were registered on the surface of the cranial base. A new tool was used for graphical overlay and 3D display with color maps to visually assess the locations and to quantify positional changes in the posterior border of the mandibular rami and condyles between superimposed models. Results The average displacements in condylar position were small—0.77 mm (SD, 0.12 mm) and 0.70 mm (SD, 0.08 mm)—for 2-jaw and 1-jaw surgeries, respectively (not significant, P >.05). All 2-jaw surgery patients had backward rotational displacements of the mandibular rami (mean, 1.98 mm; SD, 1.03 mm), with a maximum surface distance change of ≥2 mm in 8 of 11 subjects. For the 1-jaw surgery, all subjects had small backward rotational displacements of the mandibular rami (mean, 0.78 mm; SD, 0.25 mm), with only 1 subject having a maximum surface distance change ≥2 mm. The difference in mean backward rotational displacement was statistically significant (P <.01). Conclusions The visualization of 3D model superimposition clearly identified the location, magnitude, and direction of mandibular displacement. The 3D imaging allowed quantification of vertical, transverse, and anteroposterior ramus displacement that accompanied mandibular, but not maxillary only, surgery. PMID:17208105

  19. Attention and inhibition in bilingual children: evidence from the dimensional change card sort task.

    Bialystok, Ellen; Martin, Michelle M


    In a previous study, a bilingual advantage for preschool children in solving the dimensional change card sort task was attributed to superiority in inhibition of attention (Bialystok, 1999). However, the task includes difficult representational demands to encode and interpret the task stimuli, and bilinguals may also have profited from superior representational abilities. This possibility is examined in three studies. In Study 1, bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on versions of the problem containing moderate representational demands but not on a more demanding condition. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated that bilingual children were more skilled than monolinguals when the target dimensions were perceptual features of the stimulus and that the two groups were equivalent when the target dimensions were semantic features. The conclusions are that bilinguals have better inhibitory control for ignoring perceptual information than monolinguals do but are not more skilled in representation, confirming the results of the original study. The results also identify the ability to ignore an obsolete display feature as the critical difficulty in solving this task.

  20. Executive functioning in preschoolers: reducing the inhibitory demands of the dimensional change card sort task.

    Rennie, David A C; Bull, Rebecca; Diamond, Adele


    To investigate the role of inhibitory control in preschoolers' ability to switch sets, 3 conditions of the Dimensional Change Card Sort task ( Zelazo, Reznick, & Pinon, 1995) were tested. In Condition B (novel response options, standard stimuli) action inhibition was reduced, but the need for attentional inhibition was maintained. In Condition C (novel stimuli, standard response options) demands on both action and attentional inhibition were reduced. Performance in these was compared to that in the standard condition (A). Rule complexity was comparable across conditions. All 21 children who passed preswitch (average age 37 months) were tested on all postswitch conditions, order counterbalanced. Although reducing demands on action inhibition (Condition B) did not significantly improve performance, when demands on both action and attentional inhibition were reduced (Condition C) almost all children (95%) successfully switched sets (even children only 2 1/2 years old). Inadequate inhibition (of attention alone or both attention and action) appears sufficient to account for virtually all errors by preschoolers on this card sorting task.

  1. Probability-changing cluster algorithm for two-dimensional XY and clock models

    Tomita, Yusuke; Okabe, Yutaka


    We extend the newly proposed probability-changing cluster (PCC) Monte Carlo algorithm to the study of systems with the vector order parameter. Wolff's idea of the embedded cluster formalism is used for assigning clusters. The Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transitions for the two-dimensional (2D) XY and q-state clock models are studied by using the PCC algorithm. Combined with the finite-size scaling analysis based on the KT form of the correlation length, ξ~exp(c/(T/TKT-1)), we determine the KT transition temperature and the decay exponent η as TKT=0.8933(6) and η=0.243(4) for the 2D XY model. We investigate two transitions of the KT type for the 2D q-state clock models with q=6,8,12 and confirm the prediction of η=4/q2 at T1, the low-temperature critical point between the ordered and XY-like phases, systematically.

  2. Comparison of linear dimensional change, surface hardness and surface roughness of refractory model prepared from two different duplicating media.

    Porwal, Amit; Chandrashekhar, Naveen H; Nadiger, Ramesh K; Meshramkar, Roseline D; Guttal, Satyabodh S


    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the linear dimensional change, surface hardness and surface roughness of the refractory casts poured against different duplicating media. Polyvinyl siloxane and Agar-agar were used for duplicating the stainless steel die. Sixty refractory models were prepared which were divided into two groups: I and II with 30 samples each respectively. Each group was subdivided into 3 subgroups with 10 samples each which were treated differently. All the specimens were measured for the linear dimensional change and surface hardness and the obtained data was statistically analyzed. Surface roughness was evaluated qualitatively taking SEM photomicrographs. Statistical analysis of linear dimensional change using one-way ANOVA showed statistically significant difference between subgroups of group I and non-significant difference between subgroups of group II. One-way ANOVA for Brinell hardness number showed statistically significant difference between the subgroups of group I & II. Student's 't' test results for linear dimensional change among different subgroups of group I & II showed significant difference between IA-IIA, IB-IIB, IC-IIC. Similarly 't'-test results for Brinell hardness number showed significant difference between subgroups IA-IIA, IB-IIB, and IC-IIC. Surface characteristics of the refractory casts poured against polyvinyl siloxane duplicating media were found to be better than the Agar media.

  3. What lies beneath: detecting sub-canopy changes in savanna woodlands using a three-dimensional classification method

    Fisher, JT


    Full Text Available Vegetation Science What lies beneath: detecting sub-canopy changes in savanna woodlands using a three-dimensional classification method Jolene T. Fisher, Ed T.F. Witkowski, Barend F.N. Erasmus, Penelope J. Mograbi, Gregory P. Asner, Jan A.N. van...

  4. Influence of chemical treatments on moisture-induced dimensional change and elastic modulus of earlywood and latewood

    Robert J. Moon; Joseph Wells; David E. Kretschmann; James Evans; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Charles R. Frihart


    To better understand the performance of bonded, coated, and modified wood, knowledge of how these processes alter the dimensional change and mechanical properties of wood at a given moisture content (MC) are important. These localized influences on earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW) properties are not well understood. In the present study, the influence of chemical...

  5. Three-dimensional numerical modelling of static and transient Coulomb stress changes on intra-continental dip-slip faults

    Meike Bagge


    Earthquakes on intra-continental faults pose substantial seismic hazard to populated areas. The interaction of faults is an important mechanism of earthquake triggering and can be investigated by the calculation of Coulomb stress changes. Using three-dimensional finite-element models, co- and postseismic stress changes and the effect of viscoelastic relaxation on dip-slip faults are investigated. The models include elastic and viscoelastic layers, gravity, ongoing regional deformation as well...

  6. Acromiohumeral Distance and 3-Dimensional Scapular Position Change After Overhead Muscle Fatigue

    Maenhout, Annelies; Dhooge, Famke; Van Herzeele, Maarten; Palmans, Tanneke; Cools, Ann


    Context: Muscle fatigue due to repetitive and prolonged overhead sports activity is considered an important factor contributing to impingement-related rotator cuff pathologic conditions in overhead athletes. The evidence on scapular and glenohumeral kinematic changes after fatigue is contradicting and prohibits conclusions about how shoulder muscle fatigue affects acromiohumeral distance. Objective: To investigate the effect of a fatigue protocol resembling overhead sports activity on acromiohumeral distance and 3-dimensional scapular position in overhead athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Institutional laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 29 healthy recreational overhead athletes (14 men, 15 women; age = 22.23 ± 2.82 years, height = 178.3 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 71.6 ± 9.5 kg). Intervention(s) The athletes were tested before and after a shoulder muscle-fatiguing protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s) Acromiohumeral distance was measured using ultrasound, and scapular position was determined with an electromagnetic motion-tracking system. Both measurements were performed at 3 elevation positions (0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction). We used a 3-factor mixed model for data analysis. Results: After fatigue, the acromiohumeral distance increased when the upper extremity was actively positioned at 45° (Δ = 0.78 ± 0.24 mm, P = .002) or 60° (Δ = 0.58 ± 0.23 mm, P = .02) of abduction. Scapular position changed after fatigue to a more externally rotated position at 45° (Δ = 4.97° ± 1.13°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 4.61° ± 1.90°, P = .001) of abduction, a more upwardly rotated position at 45° (Δ = 6.10° ± 1.30°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 7.20° ± 1.65°, P < .001) of abduction, and a more posteriorly tilted position at 0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction (Δ = 1.98° ± 0.41°, P < .001). Conclusions: After a fatiguing protocol, we found changes in acromiohumeral distance and scapular position that corresponded with an impingement

  7. A numerical analysis of Stefan problems for generalized multi-dimensional phase-change structures using the enthalpy transforming model

    Cao, Yiding; Faghri, Amir; Chang, Won Soon


    An enthalpy transforming scheme is proposed to convert the energy equation into a nonlinear equation with the enthalpy, E, being the single dependent variable. The existing control-volume finite-difference approach is modified so it can be applied to the numerical performance of Stefan problems. The model is tested by applying it to a three-dimensional freezing problem. The numerical results are in agreement with those existing in the literature. The model and its algorithm are further applied to a three-dimensional moving heat source problem showing that the methodology is capable of handling complicated phase-change problems with fixed grids.

  8. Note on Methodology: The Coefficient of Variation.

    Sheret, Michael


    Addresses applications of the coefficient of variation as a measure of educational inequality or as a means of measuring changes of inequality status. Suggests the Gini coefficient has many advantages over the coefficient of variation since it can be used with the Lorenz curve (Lorenz provides detail Gini omits). (BRR)

  9. Note on Methodology: The Coefficient of Variation.

    Sheret, Michael


    Addresses applications of the coefficient of variation as a measure of educational inequality or as a means of measuring changes of inequality status. Suggests the Gini coefficient has many advantages over the coefficient of variation since it can be used with the Lorenz curve (Lorenz provides detail Gini omits). (BRR)

  10. Calculation of Slot Leakage Permeability Coefficients Ku and KL in Phase-inversion and Pole-change Windings%换相变极绕组槽漏磁导中的系数Ku和KL的计算



    介绍换相变极绕组槽漏磁导系数的便捷计算方法与步骤。%Easy way and procedure to calculate the slot leakage permeability coefficients in the phase-inversion and pole-change windings were introduced.

  11. Changes in muscle protein composition induced by disuse atrophy - Analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    Ellis, S.; Giometti, C. S.; Riley, D. A.


    Using 320 g rats, a two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of muscle proteins in the soleus and EDL muscles from hindlimbs maintained load-free for 10 days is performed. Statistical analysis of the two-dimensional patterns of control and suspended groups reveals more protein alteration in the soleus muscle, with 25 protein differences, than the EDL muscle, with 9 protein differences, as a result of atrophy. Most of the soleus differences reside in minor components. It is suggested that the EDL may also show alteration in its two-dimensional protein map, even though no significant atrophy occurred in muscle wet weight. It is cautioned that strict interpretation of data must take into account possible endocrine perturbations.

  12. An investigation on the effects of different polymerization techniques on dimensional changes ofAcropars, an Iranian autopolymerizing acrylic resin

    Ebadian B


    Full Text Available Iranian product, Acropars autopolymerizing acrylic resin is nowadays widely used in"ndental prostheses. Dimensional change is a common problem among Iranian made acrylic resins in making"ncustom trays and record bases, seems to be more than the similar foreign products. In order to achieve a"ntechnique for making a record base with minimum dimensional changes, more research is necessary."nPurpose: The aim of the present study was to determine a curing technique for Iranian autopolymerizing"nacrylic resins leading to the least polymerization shrinkage and the most adaptation between record bases and"nstone casts."nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 stone casts were divided into four 10- member group."nFor each group, polymerization shrinkage was determined at three points with one of the following"ntechniques: Bench curing, Curing under a coat of petroleum jelly , Curing in a monomer saturated"natmosphere, Curing in boiled water. Adaptation between bases and stone casts were measured at three points"n(the right and left crests of the ridge and the midpalatal region with a light-measuring microscope. To analyze"nthe data, Variance analysis was used."nResults: The monomer atmosphere technique showed the minimum dimensional changes and the samples in"nboiled water group had the maximum dimensional changes. No statistical differences were observed between"nother groups."nConclusion: More adaptation between record bases and stone casts was observed in monomer atmosphere"npolymerization technique. The differences between bench curing and curing under a coat of petroleum jelly"ntechniques with this method were not statistically significant. Therefore, it is suggested for making base"nrecords with maximum adaptation.

  13. Understanding decay resistance, dimensional stability and strength changes in heat treated and acetylated wood

    Roger M. Rowell; Rebecca E. Ibach; James McSweeny; Thomas Nilsson


    Reductions in hygroscopicity, increased dimensional stability and decay resistance of heat-treated wood depend on decomposition of a large portion of the hemicelluloses in the wood cell wall. In theory, these hemicelluloses are converted to small organic molecules, water and volatile furan-type intermediates that can polymerize in the cell wall. Reductions in...

  14. Topology Change and the Emergence of Geometry in Two Dimensional Causal Quantum Gravity

    Westra, W.


    Despite many attempts, gravity has vigorously resisted a unification with the laws of quantum mechanics. Besides a plethora of technical issues, one is also faced with many interesting conceptual problems. The study of quantum gravity in lower dimensional models ameliorates the technical difficultie

  15. Assessment of Volumetric Changes With a Best-Fit Method in Three-Dimensional Stereophotograms

    Ongkosuwito, E. M.; Goos, J. A. C.; Wattel, E.; van der Wal, K. G. H.; van Adrichem, L. N. A.; van Neck, J. W.


    Objective: Different three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry systems and analyzing methods exist that often use landmarks for comparison. Measurement errors in landmark or surface comparison are mostly within 1 mm, which seems clinically acceptable. The aim of this study was to validate a three-dimen

  16. Assessment of volumetric changes with a best-fit method in three-dimensional stereophotograms

    E.M. Ongkosuwito (Edwin); J.A.C. Goos (Jacqueline); E. Wattel; K.G.H. van der Wal (Karel); L.N.A. van Adrichem (Léon); J.W. van Neck (Han)


    textabstractObjective: Different three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry systems and analyzing methods exist that often use landmarks for comparison. Measurement errors in landmark or surface comparison are mostly within 1 mm, which seems clinically acceptable. The aim of this study was to validate a

  17. Stability of pseudospectral and finite-difference methods for variable coefficient problems

    Gottlieb, D.; Orszag, S. A.; Turkel, E.


    It is shown that pseudospectral approximation to a special class of variable coefficient one-dimensional wave equations is stable and convergent even though the wave speed changes sign within the domain. Computer experiments indicate similar results are valid for more general problems. Similarly, computer results indicate that the leapfrog finite-difference scheme is stable even though the wave speed changes sign within the domain. However, both schemes can be asymptotically unstable in time when a fixed spatial mesh is used.

  18. Three-dimensional numerical study of laminar confined slot jet impingement cooling using slurry of nano-encapsulated phase change material

    Mohib Ur Rehman, M.; Qu, Z. G.; Fu, R. P.


    This Article presents a three dimensional numerical model investigating thermal performance and hydrodynamics features of the confined slot jet impingement using slurry of Nano Encapsulated Phase Change Material (NEPCM) as a coolant. The slurry is composed of water as a base fluid and n-octadecane NEPCM particles with mean diameter of 100nm suspended in it. A single phase fluid approach is employed to model the NEPCM slurry.The thermo physical properties of the NEPCM slurry are computed using modern approaches being proposed recently and governing equations are solved with a commercial Finite Volume based code. The effects of jet Reynolds number varying from 100 to 600 and particle volume fraction ranging from 0% to 28% are considered. The computed results are validated by comparing Nusselt number values at stagnation point with the previously published results with water as working fluid. It was found that adding NEPCM to the base fluid results with considerable amount of heat transfer enhancement.The highest values of heat transfer coefficients are observed at H/W=4 and Cm=0.28. However, due to the higher viscosity of slurry compared with the base fluid, the slurry can produce drastic increase in pressure drop of the system that increases with NEPCM particle loading and jet Reynolds number.

  19. Change of the electron attachment coefficient caused by corona discharge in oxygen. Sanso gas chu, corona hoden ni yoru denshi fuchaku keisu no henka

    Kajita, Shogo; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Ushiroda, Sumio (Toyota College of Tech., Aichi (Japan))


    The relationship between the electron attachment coefficient of ozone which is one of gases genearated during discharge and the ozone concentration was determined by discharging negative corona discharge in pure oxygen to research and develop a small and highly efficient ozonizer. These measured results are useful as the basic data necessary for simulation of a ozonizer using oxygen as the raw material. The experiment was carried out by releasing photo-electrons generated by pulse glow discharging with a Xe lamp in oxygen sealed into a drifttube, by generating negative ions due to attaching electrons to gaseous molecules and by measuring the induced current accompanied by the transfer. As the results, if ozone of hundreds of ppm is contained in oxygen, followings were confirmed: electron attachment coefficient increased for E/N of about 10Td or less, where E is electric charge and N is molecular density of gas; electron attachment coefficient increased by the dissociative attachment of ozone for E/N of about 10Td or less; and further, the cross section of dissociative attachment for ozone could be estimated by solving the Boltzmann equation. 12 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The importance of terrestrial weathering changes in multimillennial recovery of the global carbon cycle: a two-dimensional perspective

    Brault, Marc-Olivier; Damon Matthews, H.; Mysak, Lawrence A.


    In this paper, we describe the development and application of a new spatially explicit weathering scheme within the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM). We integrated a dataset of modern-day lithology with a number of previously devised parameterizations for weathering dependency on temperature, primary productivity, and runoff. We tested the model with simulations of future carbon cycle perturbations, comparing a number of emission scenarios and model versions with each other and with zero-dimensional equivalents of each experiment. Overall, we found that our two-dimensional weathering model versions were more efficient in restoring the carbon cycle to its pre-industrial state following the pulse emissions than their zero-dimensional counterparts; however, in either case the effect of this weathering negative feedback on the global carbon cycle was small on timescales of less than 1000 years. According to model results, the largest contribution to future changes in weathering rates came from the expansion of tropical and mid-latitude vegetation in grid cells dominated by weathering-vulnerable rock types, whereas changes in temperature and river runoff had a more modest direct effect. Our results also confirmed that silicate weathering is the only mechanism that can lead to a full recovery of the carbon cycle to pre-industrial levels on multimillennial timescales.

  1. Three-dimensional geometrical changes of the human tibialis anterior muscle and its central aponeurosis measured with three-dimensional ultrasound during isometric contractions.

    Raiteri, Brent J; Cresswell, Andrew G; Lichtwark, Glen A


    Background. Muscles not only shorten during contraction to perform mechanical work, but they also bulge radially because of the isovolumetric constraint on muscle fibres. Muscle bulging may have important implications for muscle performance, however quantifying three-dimensional (3D) muscle shape changes in human muscle is problematic because of difficulties with sustaining contractions for the duration of an in vivo scan. Although two-dimensional ultrasound imaging is useful for measuring local muscle deformations, assumptions must be made about global muscle shape changes, which could lead to errors in fully understanding the mechanical behaviour of muscle and its surrounding connective tissues, such as aponeurosis. Therefore, the aims of this investigation were (a) to determine the intra-session reliability of a novel 3D ultrasound (3DUS) imaging method for measuring in vivo human muscle and aponeurosis deformations and (b) to examine how contraction intensity influences in vivo human muscle and aponeurosis strains during isometric contractions. Methods. Participants (n = 12) were seated in a reclined position with their left knee extended and ankle at 90° and performed isometric dorsiflexion contractions up to 50% of maximal voluntary contraction. 3DUS scans of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle belly were performed during the contractions and at rest to assess muscle volume, muscle length, muscle cross-sectional area, muscle thickness and width, fascicle length and pennation angle, and central aponeurosis width and length. The 3DUS scan involved synchronous B-mode ultrasound imaging and 3D motion capture of the position and orientation of the ultrasound transducer, while successive cross-sectional slices were captured by sweeping the transducer along the muscle. Results. 3DUS was shown to be highly reliable across measures of muscle volume, muscle length, fascicle length and central aponeurosis length (ICC ≥ 0.98, CV contraction conditions and progressively

  2. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Water Quality in a Tidal Estuarine System Using a Three-Dimensional Model

    Wen-Cheng Liu


    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future quality and quantity of water in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model has been developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system in northern Taiwan to predict the influences of climate change on water quality. The water quality model considers state variables including nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and phytoplankton as well as dissolved oxygen, and is driven by a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The hydrodynamic water quality model was validated with observational salinity distribution and water quality state variables. According to the analyses of statistical error, predictions of salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict water quality conditions as a result of projected climate change effects. The simulated results indicated that the dissolved oxygen concentration was projected to significantly decrease whereas nutrients will increase because of climate change. Moreover, the dissolved oxygen concentration was lower than 2 mg/L in the main stream of the Danshuei River estuary and failed to meet the water quality standard. An appropriate strategy for effective water quality management for tidal estuaries is needed given the projected persistent climate trends.

  3. Assessment of Soft Tissue Changes by Cephalometry and Two-Dimensional Photogrammetry in Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy Cases

    Jan Rustemeyer


    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to compare the standard methods of cephalometry and two-dimensional photogrammetry, to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of both methods.Material and Methods: Twenty-six patients (mean age 25.5, standard deviation (SD 5.2 years with Class II relationship and 23 patients with Class III relationship (mean age 26.4, SD 4.7 years who had undergone bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy were selected, with a median follow-up of 8 months between pre- and postsurgical evaluation. Pre- and postsurgical cephalograms and lateral photograms were traced and changes were recorded.Results: Pre- and postsurgical measurements of hard tissue angles and distances revealed higher correlations with cephalometrically performed soft tissue measurements of facial convexity (Class II: N-PG, r = - 0.50, P = 0.047; Class III: ANB, r = 0.73, P = 0.005; NaPg , r = 0.71, P = 0.007; and labiomental angle (Class II: SNB, r = 0.72, P = 0.002; ANB, r = - 0.72, P = 0.002; N-B, r = - 0.68, P = 0.004; ANS-Gn, r = 0.71, P = 0.002; Class III: ANS-Gn, r = 0.65, P = 0.043 compared with two-dimensional photogrammetry. However, two-dimensional photogrammetry revealed higher correlation between lower lip length and cephalometrically assessed angular hard tissue changes (Class II: SNB, r = 0.98, P = 0.007; N-B, r = 0.89, P = 0.037; N-Pg, r = 0.90, P = 0.033; Class III: SNB, r = - 0.54, P = 0.060; NAPg, r = - 0.65, P = 0.041; N-Pg, r = 0.58, P = 0.039.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that cephalometry and two-dimensional photogrammetry offer the possibility to complement one another.

  4. Analysis of buccolingual dimensional changes of the extraction socket using the "ice cream cone" flapless grafting technique.

    Tan-Chu, Jocelyn H P; Tuminelli, Frank J; Kurtz, Kenneth S; Tarnow, Dennis P


    The socket or ridge preservation approach known as the "ice cream cone" technique was used in type 2 sockets in this retrospective analysis of 11 extraction sites. A type 2 extraction socket is defined as having the presence of facial soft tissue with a partial or complete dehiscence of the buccal bone plate. All teeth were extracted atraumatically without flap elevation. A resorbable collagen membrane was contoured into an ice cream cone- shape, placed into the socket defect, and grafted with human freeze-dried bone allograft. Buccolingual dimensional changes were measured manually with a digital caliper sensitive to 0.01 mm on pre- and posttreatment casts using an acrylic template and a three-dimensional (3D) digital scanner, as well as radiographically with pre- and post-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. All implants were placed 6 months after socket preservation and achieved primary stability with a minimum torque value of 35 Ncm with a mean buccal-lingual dimensional loss of 1.32 mm. The dimensional change of the ridge from pre- to postextraction reflective of the healed grafted site ranged from a loss of 0.46 to 2.25 mm with a mean of 1.28 mm (CBCT), 0.31 to 2.71 mm with a mean of 1.36 mm (digital calipers), and 0.21 to 2.80 mm with a mean of 1.32 mm (3D digital scanner). All 11 implants were immobile and clinically osseointegrated. The so-called ice cream cone technique allows for the reconstruction of a buccal plate dehiscence to enable the placement of an implant; however, the ridge dimension was diminished by 1.32 mm compared with the width of the extraction socket prior to tooth removal.

  5. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.;


    is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method......, but otherwise unknown, functions of a low-dimensional input process. These coefficient functions are estimated adaptively and recursively without specifying a global parametric, form, i.e. the method allows for online tracking of the coefficient functions. Essentially, in its most simple form, the method...

  6. Leading change: a three-dimensional model of nurse leaders' main tasks and roles during a change process.

    Salmela, Susanne; Eriksson, Katie; Fagerström, Lisbeth


    This paper is a report of a qualitative study which explored how nurse leaders described and understood their main tasks and roles during a change process. During a database search for literature, no actual research that highlighted the main tasks and roles of nurse leaders during a change process was found. Earlier research has indicated the need for different leadership styles and the importance of strategies and values. In-depth interviews with 17 nurse leaders took place in 2004. A phenomenological-hermeneutical approach was used for data analysis. The findings resulted in a model of leading change in health care that focuses on good patient care and consists of three dimensions: leading relationships, leading processes and leading a culture. In addition to leading relationships and processes, nurse leaders, as role models, greatly impact caring culture and its inherent ethical behaviour, especially about the responsibility for achieving good patient care. Nurse leaders are also instrumental in leading ward culture. Nurse leaders need guidance and knowledge of what is expected of them during a structural change process. They play different roles by directing, guiding, motivating, supporting and communicating without losing their cultural ethos of caring and use various leadership styles to bring about actual change, which, in turn, requires learning so that the thought patterns, values and attitudes of personnel can be changed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Changes in DTI Diffusivity and fMRI Connectivity Cluster Coefficients for Students with and without Specific Learning Disabilities In Written Language: Brain's Response to Writing Instruction.

    Richards, Todd L; Berninger, Virginia W; Yagle, Kevin J; Abbott, Robert D; Peterson, Daniel J


    Before and after computerized writing instruction, participants completed assessment with normed measures and DTI and fMRI connectivity scanning. Evidence-based differential diagnosis was used at time 1 to assign them to diagnostic groups: typical oral and written language (n=6), dysgraphia (impaired handwriting, n=10), dyslexia (impaired word spelling and reading, n=20), and OWL LD (impaired syntax construction, n=6). The instruction was aimed at subword letter writing, word spelling, and syntax composing. With p academic achievement, DTI (radial diffusivity RD, axial diffusivity AD, and mean diffusivity MD), and graph cluster coefficients for fMRI connectivity. A time effect (pre-post intervention increase) in handwriting and oral construction of sentence syntax was significant; but diagnostic group effects were significant for dictated spelling and creation of word-specific spellings, with the dyslexia and OWL LD groups scoring lower than the typical control or dysgraphia groups. For RD a time effect occurred in anterior corona radiata and superior frontal. For AD a time effect occurred in superior corona radiata, superior frontal region, middle frontal gyrus, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. For MD a time effect occurred in the same regions as AD and also anterior coronal radiata. A diagnostic group effect occurred for graph cluster coefficients in fMRI connectivity while writing the next letter in alphabet from memory; but the diagnostic group × time interaction was not significant. The only significant time × treatment interaction occurred in right inferior frontal gyrus associated with orthographic coding. Compared to time 1, cluster coefficients increased at time 2 in all groups except in the dysgraphia group in which they decreased. Implications of results are discussed for response to instruction (RTI) versus evidence-based differential diagnosis for identifying students with SLDs in writing which may be best understood at both the behavioral and

  8. Exact analytical solution to three-dimensional phase change heat transfer problems in biological tissues subject to freezing

    Fang-fang LI; Jing LIU; Kai YUE


    Analytically solving a three-dimensional (3-D) bioheat transfer problem with phase change during a freezing process is extremely difficult but theoretically important. The moving heat source model and the Green function method are introduced to deal with the cryopreservation process of in vitro biomaterials. Exact solutions for the 3-D temper-ature transients of tissues under various boundary conditions, such as totally convective cooling, totally fixed temperature cooling and a hybrid between them on tissue surfaces, are obtained. Furthermore, the cryosurgical process in living tissues subject to freezing by a single or multiple cryoprobes is also analytically solved. A closed-form analytical solution to the bioheat phase change process is derived by considering contributions from blood perfusion heat transfer, metabolic heat generation, and heat sink of a cryoprobe. The present method is expected to have significant value for analytically solving complex bioheat transfer problems with phase change.

  9. 路堤荷载作用下考虑土体固结系数变化的软基固结规律%Consolidation behavior of soft foundation under embankment loads by considering the change of consolidation coefficient

    陈永辉; 周建华; 蔡锐; 徐锴; 陈庚; 彭中浩



  10. Simple deterministic dynamical systems with fractal diffusion coefficients

    Klages, R


    We analyze a simple model of deterministic diffusion. The model consists of a one-dimensional periodic array of scatterers in which point particles move from cell to cell as defined by a piecewise linear map. The microscopic chaotic scattering process of the map can be changed by a control parameter. This induces a parameter dependence for the macroscopic diffusion coefficient. We calculate the diffusion coefficent and the largest eigenmodes of the system by using Markov partitions and by solving the eigenvalue problems of respective topological transition matrices. For different boundary conditions we find that the largest eigenmodes of the map match to the ones of the simple phenomenological diffusion equation. Our main result is that the difffusion coefficient exhibits a fractal structure by varying the system parameter. To understand the origin of this fractal structure, we give qualitative and quantitative arguments. These arguments relate the sequence of oscillations in the strength of the parameter-dep...

  11. Change in the Pathologic Supraspinatus: A Three-Dimensional Model of Fiber Bundle Architecture within Anterior and Posterior Regions

    Soo Y. Kim


    Full Text Available Supraspinatus tendon tears are common and lead to changes in the muscle architecture. To date, these changes have not been investigated for the distinct regions and parts of the pathologic supraspinatus. The purpose of this study was to create a novel three-dimensional (3D model of the muscle architecture throughout the supraspinatus and to compare the architecture between muscle regions and parts in relation to tear severity. Twelve cadaveric specimens with varying degrees of tendon tears were used. Three-dimensional coordinates of fiber bundles were collected in situ using serial dissection and digitization. Data were reconstructed and modeled in 3D using Maya. Fiber bundle length (FBL and pennation angle (PA were computed and analyzed. FBL was significantly shorter in specimens with large retracted tears compared to smaller tears, with the deeper fibers being significantly shorter than other parts in the anterior region. PA was significantly greater in specimens with large retracted tears, with the superficial fibers often demonstrating the largest PA. The posterior region was absent in two specimens with extensive tears. Architectural changes associated with tendon tears affect the regions and varying depths of supraspinatus differently. The results provide important insights on residual function of the pathologic muscle, and the 3D model includes detailed data that can be used in future modeling studies.

  12. Modified Biserial Correlation Coefficients.

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura


    Asymptotic distribution theory of Brogden's form of biserial correlation coefficient is derived and large sample estimates of its standard error obtained. Its relative efficiency to the biserial correlation coefficient is examined. Recommendations for choice of estimator of biserial correlation are presented. (Author/JKS)




    Full Text Available One of the most important problems that cotton knitted fabrics present during the manufacturing process is their dimensional instability, which needs to be minimised. Some of the variables that intervene in fabric shrinkage are related with its structural characteristics, use of fiber when producing yarn, the yarn count used or the dyeing process employed. Conducted under real factory conditions, the present study attempted to model the behaviour of a fabric structure after a dyeing process by contributing several algorithms that calculate dyed fabric stability after the first wash cycle. Small-diameter circular machines are used to produce garments with no side seams. This is the reason why a list of machines that produce the same fabrics for different widths needs to be made available to produce all the sizes of a given garment. Two relaxation states were distingued for interlock fabric: dyed and dry relaxation, and dyed and wash relaxation. The linear density of the yarn employed to produce sample fabric was combed cotton Ne 30. The machines used for optic bleaching were Overflow. To obtain knitting structures with optimum dimensional stability, different statistical tools were used to help us to evaluate all the production process variables (raw material, machines and process responsible for this variation. This allowed to guarantee product quality without creating costs and losses.

  14. How the World Changes By Going from One- to Two-Dimensional Polymers in Solution.

    Schlüter, A Dieter; Payamyar, Payam; Öttinger, Hans Christian


    Scaling behavior of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) polymers in dilute solution is discussed with the goal of stimulating experimental work by chemists, physicists, and material scientists in the emerging field of 2D polymers. The arguments are based on renormalization-group theory, which is explained for a general audience. Many ideas and methods successfully applied to 1D polymers are found not to work if one goes to 2D polymers. The role of the various states exhibiting universal behavior is turned upside down. It is expected that solubility will be a serious challenge for 2D polymers. Therefore, given the crucial importance of solutions in characterization and processing, synthetic concepts are proposed that allow the local bending rigidity and the molar mass to be tuned and the long-range interactions to be engineered, all with the goal of preventing the polymer from falling into flat or compact states. © 2016 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Dimensional changes and phase transformation of TiO2 nanotubes heat-treated under oxygen-containing atmosphere.

    Lee, Kwangmin; Min, Dongryoul; Jeong, Sehoon; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lim, Hyunpil; Park, Sangwon


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dimensional changes and phase transition of nanotubular titanium oxide arrays after heat treatment under an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The thermodynamic background for the oxidation of titanium to titanium oxide was theoretically investigated as a function of the oxygen partial pressure. The anodized titanium nanotubes had lengths between 400 and 500 nm, thicknesses of 11 nm and an amorphous structure. The specimens heat-treated at higher oxygen partial pressures preferentially had rutile phase rather than anatase phase. The thickness of the TiO2 nanotubes was increased at a lower oxygen partial pressure.

  16. Three-dimensional analysis of maxillary changes associated with facemask and rapid maxillary expansion compared with bone anchored maxillary protraction

    Hino, Claudia Toyama; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Nguyen, Tung T.; De Clerck, Hugo J.; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A.


    Introduction Our objectives in this study were to evaluate in 3 dimensions the growth and treatment effects on the midface and the maxillary dentition produced by facemask therapy in association with rapid maxillary expansion (RME/FM) compared with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP). Methods Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusion were treated with either RME/FM (n = 21) or BAMP (n = 25). Three-dimensional models generated from cone-beam computed tomographic scans, taken before and after approximately 1 year of treatment, were registered on the anterior cranial base and measured using color-coded maps and semitransparent overlays. Results The skeletal changes in the maxilla and the right and left zygomas were on average 2.6 mm in the RME/FM group and 3.7 mm in the BAMP group; these were different statistically. Seven RME/FM patients and 4 BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical displacement of the maxilla. The dental changes at the maxillary incisors were on average 3.2 mm in the RME/FM group and 4.3 mm in the BAMP group. Ten RME/FM patients had greater dental compensations than skeletal changes. Conclusions This 3-dimensional study shows that orthopedic changes can be obtained with both RME/FM and BAMP treatments, with protraction of the maxilla and the zygomas. Approximately half of the RME/FM patients had greater dental than skeletal changes, and a third of the RME/FM compared with 17% of the BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical maxillary displacement. PMID:24182587

  17. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    Alam, M.M.; Fabricius, I.L.


    one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...... determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies. Copyright 2012 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association....

  18. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...

  19. Regularity of the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    M Krishna


    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC), in a symmetric form, in the case of random operators on the -dimensional lattice. We show that the symmetrized version of ILAC is either continuous or has a component which has the same modulus of continuity as the density of states.

  20. Coefficient of variation of underwater irradiance fluctuations

    Weber, V. L.


    We consider underwater sunlight fluctuations in the case of a one-dimensional irregular sea surface. Several rigorous and approximate models are proposed, which make it possible to analytically treat and physically explain the dependence of the coefficient of variation of the underwater irradiance on the depth, the wind velocity, and optical parameters of the sea water.

  1. Dimensional Modeling By Using a New Response to Slowly Changing Dimensions

    Frank, L.; Frank, C.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard


    solutions/responses to handling the aggregation problems caused by slowly changing dimensions. In this paper, we will describe a fourth solution. A special aspect of our new response is that it should be used before the other responses, as it will change the design of the data warehouse. Afterwards, it may...

  2. Estimation of pediatric skeletal age using geometric morphometrics and three-dimensional cranial size changes.

    Braga, José; Treil, Jacques


    This paper presents a method for estimating the skeletal age of children based on the centroid size of their face and their basicranium, derived from the three-dimensional coordinates of anatomical landmarks. The sample consists of computed tomography scans of 127 children (54 boys, 73 girls) of mixed origin living in the area of Toulouse (France), ranging in age from a few days to 18 years. The purpose of the present investigation was, first, to increase the variety of age-related structures theoretically available for pediatric skeletal age estimation and, second, to devise a method that can be applicable from early postnatal age to the end of adolescence with a satisfactory accuracy independent of age and even a better accuracy with greater age. We examined the relationship between the chronological age and the centroid size, calculated by using geometric morphometric methods and a linear model. With the aid of cross-validations, the statistical analysis indicates that the centroid size of the facial skeleton can be used an age-related variable without any loss of accuracy with increased age, contrary to most of the methods of pediatric age estimation. The standard error was always lower or equal to 2.1 years (at the 95% confidence level) and decreased in our sub-sample of older children represented by a larger number of individuals.

  3. Substrate induced changes in atomically thin 2-dimensional semiconductors: Fundamentals, engineering, and applications

    Sun, Yinghui; Wang, Rongming; Liu, Kai


    Substrate has great influences on materials syntheses, properties, and applications. The influences are particularly crucial for atomically thin 2-dimensional (2D) semiconductors. Their thicknesses are less than 1 nm; however, the lateral sizes can reach up to several inches or more. Therefore, these materials must be placed onto a variety of substrates before subsequent post-processing techniques for final electronic or optoelectronic devices. Recent studies reveal that substrates have been employed as ways to modulate the optical, electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties of 2D semiconductors. In this review, we summarize recent progress upon the effects of substrates on properties of 2D semiconductors, mostly focused on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, through viewpoints of both fundamental physics and device applications. First, we discuss various effects of substrates, including interface strain, charge transfer, dielectric screening, and optical interference. Second, we show the modulation of 2D semiconductors by substrate engineering, including novel substrates (patterned substrates, 2D-material substrates, etc.) and active substrates (phase transition materials, ferroelectric materials, flexible substrates, etc.). Last, we present prospectives and challenges in this research field. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of the substrate effects, and may inspire new ideas of novel 2D devices based on substrate engineering.

  4. Alveolar bone dimensional changes of post-extraction sockets in humans: a systematic review

    van der Weijden, F.; Dell'Acqua, F.; Slot, D.E.


    Objective: To review the literature to assess the amount of change in height and width of the residual ridge after tooth extraction. Material and Methods: MEDLINE-PubMed and the Cochrane Central register of controlled trials (CENTRAL) were searched through up to March 2009. Appropriate studies which

  5. Assessment of age-related changes in left ventricular twist by 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography.

    Tavakoli, Vahid; Sahba, Nima


    The purpose of this study was to determine the normal value of left ventricular (LV) twist in 3-dimensional (3D) geometry and to study the effects of aging on 3D LV twist by sophisticated newly developed 3D speckle-tracking echocardiographic techniques. Recent developments in miniaturized ultrasound arrays have provided us with high-quality 3D echocardiographic data. Speckle tracking based on 3D images is robust to out-of-plane motion error, whereas 2-dimensional speckle tracking is inherently unable to analyze 3D cardiac motion and may lead to measurement inaccuracies. Three-dimensional LV volumetric images were acquired from 124 healthy volunteers (aged 21-82 years) and were analyzed by a recent speckle-tracking method. Left ventricular twist was analyzed as apical rotation relative to the base in the 3D coordinates. The measured parameters in this study were peak apical rotation, peak basal rotation, peak LV twist, normalized peak LV twist, and peak untwist velocity. As seen from the apex, the normal LV maintains a wringing systolic displacement with an initial counterclockwise rotation followed by a clockwise rotation in the LV basal plane and a counterclockwise rotation in the LV apical plane. In general, the apical and basal twist increases during the aging process, leading to an increased LV twist value. The mean peak twist ± SD in young participants (21-35 years) was 11.73° ± 2.67°, whereas the value for older participants (>65 years) was 18.57° ± 3.08° (P speckle-tracking echocardiography can be an effective noninvasive method for assessing 3D LV twist. Age-related differences in the 3D LV twist may be the result of the age-related changes in the endocardial myofibers.

  6. Linear dimensional changes in plaster die models using different elastomeric materials

    Jefferson Ricardo Pereira


    Full Text Available Dental impression is an important step in the preparation of prostheses since it provides the reproduction of anatomic and surface details of teeth and adjacent structures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the linear dimensional alterations in gypsum dies obtained with different elastomeric materials, using a resin coping impression technique with individual shells. A master cast made of stainless steel with fixed prosthesis characteristics with two prepared abutment teeth was used to obtain the impressions. References points (A, B, C, D, E and F were recorded on the occlusal and buccal surfaces of abutments to register the distances. The impressions were obtained using the following materials: polyether, mercaptan-polysulfide, addition silicone, and condensation silicone. The transfer impressions were made with custom trays and an irreversible hydrocolloid material and were poured with type IV gypsum. The distances between identified points in gypsum dies were measured using an optical microscope and the results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA (p < 0.05 and Tukey's test. The mean of the distances were registered as follows: addition silicone (AB = 13.6 µm, CD=15.0 µm, EF = 14.6 µm, GH=15.2 µm, mercaptan-polysulfide (AB = 36.0 µm, CD = 36.0 µm, EF = 39.6 µm, GH = 40.6 µm, polyether (AB = 35.2 µm, CD = 35.6 µm, EF = 39.4 µm, GH = 41.4 µm and condensation silicone (AB = 69.2 µm, CD = 71.0 µm, EF = 80.6 µm, GH = 81.2 µm. All of the measurements found in gypsum dies were compared to those of a master cast. The results demonstrated that the addition silicone provides the best stability of the compounds tested, followed by polyether, polysulfide and condensation silicone. No statistical differences were obtained between polyether and mercaptan-polysulfide materials.

  7. Soreness-related changes in three-dimensional running biomechanics following eccentric knee extensor exercise.

    Paquette, Max R; Peel, Shelby A; Schilling, Brian K; Melcher, Dan A; Bloomer, Richard J


    Runners often experience delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), especially of the knee extensors, following prolonged running. Sagittal knee joint biomechanics are altered in the presence of knee extensor DOMS but it is unclear how muscle soreness affects lower limb biomechanics in other planes of motion. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of knee extensor DOMS on three-dimensional (3D) lower limb biomechanics during running. Thirty-three healthy men (25.8 ± 6.8 years; 84.1 ± 9.2 kg; 1.77 ± 0.07 m) completed an isolated eccentric knee extensor damaging protocol to elicit DOMS. Biomechanics of over-ground running at a set speed of 3.35 m s(-1)±5% were measured before eccentric exercise (baseline) and, 24 h and 48 h following exercise in the presence of knee extensor DOMS. Knee flexion ROM was reduced at 48 h (P = 0.01; d = 0.26), and peak knee extensor moment was reduced at 24 h (P = 0.001; d = 0.49) and 48 h (P biomechanics were unaffected by the presence of DOMS (P > 0.05). Peak positive ankle and knee joint powers and, peak negative knee joint power were all reduced from baseline to 24 h and 48 h (P biomechanics during running.

  8. The Effect of Gray Matter ICA and Coefficient of Variation Mapping of BOLD Data on the Detection of Functional Connectivity Changes in Alzheimer's Disease and bvFTD.

    Tuovinen, Timo; Rytty, Riikka; Moilanen, Virpi; Abou Elseoud, Ahmed; Veijola, Juha; Remes, Anne M; Kiviniemi, Vesa J


    Resting-state fMRI results in neurodegenerative diseases have been somewhat conflicting. This may be due to complex partial volume effects of CSF in BOLD signal in patients with brain atrophy. To encounter this problem, we used a coefficient of variation (CV) map to highlight artifacts in the data, followed by analysis of gray matter voxels in order to minimize brain volume effects between groups. The effects of these measures were compared to whole brain ICA dual regression results in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). 23 AD patients, 21 bvFTD patients and 25 healthy controls were included. The quality of the data was controlled by CV mapping. For detecting functional connectivity (FC) differences whole brain ICA (wbICA) and also segmented gray matter ICA (gmICA) followed by dual regression were conducted, both of which were performed both before and after data quality control. Decreased FC was detected in posterior DMN in the AD group and in the Salience network in the bvFTD group after combining CV quality control with gmICA. Before CV quality control, the decreased connectivity finding was not detectable in gmICA in neither of the groups. Same finding recurred when exclusion was based on randomization. The subjects excluded due to artifacts noticed in the CV maps had significantly lower temporal signal-to-noise ratio than the included subjects. Data quality measure CV is an effective tool in detecting artifacts from resting state analysis. CV reflects temporal dispersion of the BOLD signal stability and may thus be most helpful for spatial ICA, which has a blind spot in spatially correlating widespread artifacts. CV mapping in conjunction with gmICA yields results suiting previous findings both in AD and bvFTD.

  9. Dimensional and ice content changes of hardened concrete at different freezing and thawing temperatures

    Johannesson, Björn


    Samples of concrete at different water-to-cement ratios and air contents subjected to freeze/thaw cycles with the lowest temperature at about -80 degrees C are investigated. By adopting a novel technique, a scanning calorimeter is used to obtain data from which the ice contents at different freeze...... and the corresponding measured length changes. The development of cracks in the material structure was indicated by an ultra-sonic technique by measuring on the samples before and after the freeze-thaw tests. Further the air void structure was investigated using a microscopic technique in which air'bubble' size...... volume. For a totally water-saturated concrete, damages always occur independently of the use of entrained air or low water-to-cement ratios. It is, further, concluded that the length changes of these samples correspond to the Calculated ice contents at different temperatures in a linear fashion. @ 2009...

  10. Application of Heat Balance Integral Methods to One-Dimensional Phase Change Problems

    S. L. Mitchell


    Full Text Available We employ the Heat Balance Integral Method (HBIM to solve a number of thermal and phase change problems which occur in a multitude of industrial contexts. As part of our analysis, we propose a new error measure for the HBIM that combines the least-squares error with a boundary immobilisation method. We describe how to determine this error for three basic thermal problems and show how it can be used to determine an optimal heat balance formulation. We then show how the HBIM, with the new error measure, may be used to approximate the solution of an aircraft deicing problem. Finally we apply the new method to two industrially important phase change problems.

  11. Mathematical modeling of left ventricular dimensional changes in mice during aging

    Yang Tianyi


    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac aging is characterized by diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV, which is due in part to increased LV wall stiffness. In the diastolic phase, myocytes are relaxed and extracellular matrix (ECM is a critical determinant to the changes of LV wall stiffness. To evaluate the effects of ECM composition on cardiac aging, we developed a mathematical model to predict LV dimension and wall stiffness changes in aging mice by integrating mechanical laws and our experimental results. We measured LV dimension, wall thickness, LV mass, and collagen content for wild type (WT C57/BL6J mice of ages ranging from 7.3 months to those of 34.0 months. The model was established using the thick wall theory and stretch-induced tissue growth to an isotropic and homogeneous elastic composite with mixed constituents. The initial conditions of the simulation were set based on the data from the young mice. Matlab simulations of this mathematical model demonstrated that the model captured the major features of LV remodeling with age and closely approximated experimental results. Specifically, the temporal progression of the LV interior and exterior dimensions demonstrated the same trend and order-of-magnitude change as our experimental results. In conclusion, we present here a validated mathematical model of cardiac aging that applies the thick-wall theory and stretch-induced tissue growth to LV remodeling with age.

  12. Absorption and scattering coefficients estimation in two-dimensional participating media using the generalized maximum entropy and Levenberg-Marquardt methods; Estimacion del coeficiente de absorcion y dispersion en medios participantes bidimensionales utilizando el metodo de maxima entropia generalizada y el metodo Levenberg-Marquardt

    Berrocal T, Mariella J. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]|[Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Lima (Peru); Roberty, Nilson C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Silva Neto, Antonio J. [Universidade do Estado, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica e Energia]|[Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear


    The solution of inverse problems in participating media where there is emission, absorption and dispersion of the radiation possesses several applications in engineering and medicine. The objective of this work is to estimative the coefficients of absorption and dispersion in two-dimensional heterogeneous participating media, using in independent form the Generalized Maximum Entropy and Levenberg Marquardt methods. Both methods are based on the solution of the direct problem that is modeled by the Boltzmann equation in cartesian geometry. Some cases testes are presented. (author)

  13. A comparison of three dimensional change in maxillary complete dentures between conventional heat polymerizing and microwave polymerizing techniques

    Shinsuke Sadamori


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure and compare two different polymerizing processes, heat polymerizing (HP and microwave polymerizing (MP, on the three dimensional changes in the fitting surface and artificial teeth of maxillary complete dentures. A threedimensional coordinate measurement system was used to record distortion of the specimens. The distortion of the fitting surface was measured from the reference plane on the fitting side from which a coordinate system was set, and the movement of the artificial teeth and the distortion of the polished surface was measured from the reference plane of the artificial tooth side, from which a coordinate system was set. It was clearly showed that various distortions of denture specimens after polymerization process can be measured with this three-coordinate measuring machine. The study showed that the overall distortion of the fitting surface in HP specimens was shown to be larger than in MP ones.

  14. Evaluation of pharyngeal airway space changes after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery with a 3-dimensional simulation and modeling program.

    Gokce, Sila Mermut; Gorgulu, Serkan; Gokce, Hasan Suat; Bengi, Ali Osman; Karacayli, Umit; Ors, Fatih


    The aims of this study were to use 3-dimensional simulation and modeling programs to evaluate the effects of bimaxillary orthognathic surgical correction of Class III malocclusions on pharyngeal airway space volume, and to compare them with the changes in obstructive sleep apnea measurements from polysomnography. Twenty-five male patients (mean age, 21.6 years) with mandibular prognathism were treated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and LeFort I advancement. Polysomnography and computed tomography were performed before surgery and 1.4 ± 0.2 years after surgery. All computed tomography data were transferred to a computer, and the pharyngeal airway space was segmented using SimPlant OMS (Materialise Medical, Leuven, Belgium) programs. The pretreatment and posttreatment pharyngeal airway space determinants in volumetric, linear distance, and cross-sectional measurements, and polysomnography changes were compared with the paired samples t test. Pearson correlation was used to analyze the association between the computed tomography and polysomnography measurements. The results indicated that setback procedures produce anteroposterior narrowing of the pharyngeal airway space at the oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal levels and the middle and inferior pharyngeal volumes (P bimaxillary orthognathic surgery induces significant increases in the total airway volume and the transverse dimensions of all airway areas (P Bimaxillary orthognathic surgery for correction of Class III malocclusion caused an increase of the total airway volume and improvement of polysomnography parameters. A proposed treatment plan can be modified according to the risk of potential airway compromise or even to improve it with 3-dimensional imaging techniques and polysomnography. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Volumetric Changes in Sinuses Augmented with Two Different Bone Substitutes

    B. Alper Gultekin


    Full Text Available Introduction. The bone volume of the posterior maxilla may not be appropriate for implant placement, due to factors such as pneumatized maxillary sinus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the percentage of graft volume reduction following sinus floor elevation (SFE, with either slow resorbable bone substitute only or a composite of slow and fast resorbable bone substitutes, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study, CBCT scans of SFE procedures were evaluated to determine the volume of grafted sinus with either deproteinized bovine bone (DBB or a 2 : 1 mixture of biphasic calcium sulfate (CS and DBB, as a composite. The volumetric changes of sinus augmentations were measured 2 weeks (V-I and 6 months (V-II after operation. Results. Thirty-three patients were included in this study. The average percentage volume reduction was 9.39±3.01% and 17.65±4.15% for DBB and composite grafts, respectively. A significant graft volume reduction was observed between V-I and V-II for both groups (p<0.01. The DBB group exhibited significantly less volume reduction than the composite group (p<0.01. Conclusions. Augmented sinus volume may change before implant placement. DBB offers greater volume stability during healing than composite grafts.

  16. Postnatal width changes in the internal structures of the human mandible: a longitudinal three-dimensional cephalometric study using implants.

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L


    This paper presents case-specific quantitative evidence of the systematic lateral displacement of metallic implants in the mandibles of treated and untreated human subjects between the ages of 8.5 and 15.5 years. This evidence appears to be consistent with the inference of small, but systematic increases in distance between the internal structures of the two sides of the osseous mandible during growth. Such a conclusion, however, is inconsistent with traditional beliefs that the internal structures of the mandibular symphysis fuse at the midline during the first post-natal year and remain dimensionally constant thereafter. We recently published evidence of statistically significant transverse displacement of metallic implants in the mandibular body region for 12 of 28 subjects for whom longitudinal data were available. Of the twelve subjects for whom statistically significant changes were observed, widening occurred in eleven cases and narrowing in one. Matching data are now available on concurrent ramus changes for 22 of the same 28 subjects, including 11 of the 12 for whom statistically significant width changes had previously been noted in the body region. In eight of these 11 subjects, statistically significant widening in the ramus region was also observed. No subject had statistically significant widening in the ramus region without also having statistically significant widening in the body region. No subject had statistically significant trans-ramus narrowing.

  17. High-Dimensional Analysis of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Reveals Phenotypic Changes in Persistent Cells during Induction Therapy.

    Ferrell, Paul Brent; Diggins, Kirsten Elizabeth; Polikowsky, Hannah Grace; Mohan, Sanjay Ram; Seegmiller, Adam C; Irish, Jonathan Michael


    The plasticity of AML drives poor clinical outcomes and confounds its longitudinal detection. However, the immediate impact of treatment on the leukemic and non-leukemic cells of the bone marrow and blood remains relatively understudied. Here, we conducted a pilot study of high dimensional longitudinal monitoring of immunophenotype in AML. To characterize changes in cell phenotype before, during, and immediately after induction treatment, we developed a 27-antibody panel for mass cytometry focused on surface diagnostic markers and applied it to 46 samples of blood or bone marrow tissue collected over time from 5 AML patients. Central goals were to determine whether changes in AML phenotype would be captured effectively by cytomic tools and to implement methods for describing the evolving phenotypes of AML cell subsets. Mass cytometry data were analyzed using established computational techniques. Within this pilot study, longitudinal immune monitoring with mass cytometry revealed fundamental changes in leukemia phenotypes that occurred over time during and after induction in the refractory disease setting. Persisting AML blasts became more phenotypically distinct from stem and progenitor cells due to expression of novel marker patterns that differed from pre-treatment AML cells and from all cell types observed in healthy bone marrow. This pilot study of single cell immune monitoring in AML represents a powerful tool for precision characterization and targeting of resistant disease.

  18. Gini coefficient as a life table function


    Full Text Available This paper presents a toolkit for measuring and analyzing inter-individual inequality in length of life by Gini coefficient. Gini coefficient and four other inequality measures are defined on the length-of-life distribution. Properties of these measures and their empirical testing on mortality data suggest a possibility for different judgements about the direction of changes in the degree of inequality by using different measures. A new computational procedure for the estimation of Gini coefficient from life tables is developed and tested on about four hundred real life tables. The estimates of Gini coefficient are precise enough even for abridged life tables with the final age group of 85+. New formulae have been developed for the decomposition of differences between Gini coefficients by age and cause of death. A new method for decomposition of age-components into effects of mortality and composition of population by group is developed. Temporal changes in the effects of elimination of causes of death on Gini coefficient are analyzed. Numerous empirical examples show: Lorenz curves for Sweden, Russia and Bangladesh in 1995, proportional changes in Gini coefficient and four other measures of inequality for the USA in 1950-1995 and for Russia in 1959-2000. Further shown are errors of estimates of Gini coefficient when computed from various types of mortality data of France, Japan, Sweden and the USA in 1900-95, decompositions of the USA-UK difference in life expectancies and Gini coefficients by age and cause of death in 1997. As well, effects of elimination of major causes of death in the UK in 1951-96 on Gini coefficient, age-specific effects of mortality and educational composition of the Russian population on changes in life expectancy and Gini coefficient between 1979 and 1989. Illustrated as well are variations in life expectancy and Gini coefficient across 32 countries in 1996-1999 and associated changes in life expectancy and Gini

  19. Assessing linkages between spatial facies changes and dimensional variations of glaciers in the upper Indus Basin, western Himalaya

    Ali, Iram; Shukla, Aparna; Romshoo, Shakil A.


    The present study provides an insight into the heterogeneous response of 45 glaciers in the Lidder and Sindh river basins, western Himalaya, and explores the linkages between glacier facies variability and changing glacier parameters. Results show that the region has undergone an overall deglaciation of 12 ± 1.5% (11.9 ± 1.4 km2) from 1996 to 2014. Fluctuations in the temperature and precipitation patterns seem to be the primary factor controlling the changes in glacier dimensions (R2 > 0.82 in all cases). Glacier facies changes suggest depletion in snow-ice cover ( 18 ± 2.3%) and an increase in ice-mixed debris ( 4 ± 1.4%), supraglacial debris ( 6 ± 1.5%), and periglacial debris ( 17 ± 1.2%). These glacier facies transitions are possibly the result of ice-melting; however, its relative rate and elevation decides the nature of facies conversion. An increase in the proportion of supraglacial debris has led to the conversion of 11 clean glaciers to sparsely debris-covered glaciers and 5 sparsely debris-covered glaciers to debris-covered glaciers. The size of the glaciers greatly influenced the rate of conversion of glaciers, and glaciers glaciers also experienced maximum shrinkage. Further, the glaciers with varying supraglacial debris cover respond differently, as sparsely debris-covered glaciers exhibit the highest rates of retreat (25 ± 7.3 m/y), followed by clean (23.7 ± 7.3 m/y) and debris-covered glaciers (13.1 ± 7.3 m/y). Thus, the findings of this work clearly show that the climate change driven dimensional changes of glaciers and variations in the spatial distribution of glacier facies have strong mutual control on each other.

  20. Multidimensional extremal dependence coefficients


    Extreme values modeling has attracting the attention of researchers in diverse areas such as the environment, engineering, or finance. Multivariate extreme value distributions are particularly suitable to model the tails of multidimensional phenomena. The analysis of the dependence among multivariate maxima is useful to evaluate risk. Here we present new multivariate extreme value models, as well as, coefficients to assess multivariate extremal dependence.

  1. On the distribution tests of the two-dimensional wavelet transform coefficients for image%图像二维小波变换系数分布的实验研究



    Wavelet transform image coding scheme is the widest used one ofimage compression approaches. The quantization of wavelet transform coefficients is a key to obtain the compression image with low bit ratios and the reconstruction image with high signal to noise ratio. To obtain the optimal quantizer,the distributions of wavelet transform coefficients for image must be determined. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the distributions of wavelet transform coefficients for image. Four standard images, named “Face”, “Girl”, “Lena” and “Panda”, are selected to study the distribution rule. The “KS” statistical tests are applied to studying the distributions of wavelet transform coefficients for images. Utilizing the Vetterli biorthogonal wavelet (L=18), the images that have size of 256×256 pels with 256 gray levels are decomposed to three level and ten subimages. The results of tests of Rayleigh assumption, Laplacian assumption and Gaussian assumption are given. The results of tests have shown that the low-pass subimages are best approximated by a Gaussian distribution and the others are best approximated by a Laplacian distribution. A simulation indicates that the Laplacian assumption of coefficients yields a higher actual output signal-to-noise ratio than the Gaussian assumption.%小波变换编码是目前研究较多的图像压缩方法,变换系数的量化是获得低比特率、高信噪比压缩图像的关键步骤。为了设计最优量化器,必须确定变换系数的分布规律。选择“Face”、“Girl”、“Lena”和“Panda”4幅标准图像数据进行统计研究,用长度L=18的Vetterli双正交小波将256灰度级256×256图像分解为3层10个子带,使用“KS”测试统计方法确定图像小波变换系数的分布规律。给出了瑞利分布、高斯分布和拉普拉斯分布假设下的“KS”测试统计结果。统计结果表明,低频部分符合高斯分布,其余部分符合拉普

  2. Simulation of post-impact rotational changes through multi-dimensional parametrization

    Gauchez, Damien; Souchay, Jean


    In this paper we propose firstly a full parametrization of an impact on a target body considered as ellipsoidal, including several geometrical parameters which are generally not included. Then we construct a more detailed and complete theoretical model of the rotational changes of the target body arising from a single impact, by taking into account the various parameters above. Secondly from these theoretical studies we carry out simulations of impacts and then we evaluate the influences of the various parameters on the rotational evolution of a specific target, in particular the angular speed of rotation and the direction of the axis of rotation. For that we consider two cases: in the first one, which we call accretion, the projectile is simply stuck to the target without a significant amount of ejected mass. In the second case, which we call craterization, the target body is eroded with formation of ejecta and a crater. The physical properties of the target are close to those of the Asteroid 21 Lutetia which Rosetta mission would fly in July 2010. We obtain quite different results according to the considered mode of impact (accretion or craterization): in the case of an impact with accretion the results are intuitively foreseeable whereas those corresponding to an impact with craterization are more difficult to interpret. Our work can be applied to obtain information on the rotational effects of an impact on a given target body with well constrained physical characteristics, in particular within the framework of the Don Quijote mission project.

  3. Failure probability estimation of flaw in CANDU pressure tube considering the dimensional change

    Kwak, Sang Log; Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Seong [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Youn Won [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The pressure tube is a major component of the CANDU reactor, which supports nuclear fuel bundle and heavy water coolant. Pressure tubes are installed horizontally inside the reactor and only selected samples are periodically examined during in-service inspection. In this respect, a probabilistic safety assessment method is more appropriate for the assessment of overall pressure tube safety. The failure behavior of CANDU pressure tubes, however, is governed by delayed hydride cracking which is the major difference from pipings and reactor pressure vessels. Since the delayed hydride cracking has more widely distributed governing parameters, it is impossible to apply a general PFM methodology directly. In this paper, a PFM methodology for the safety assessment of CANDU pressure tubes is introduced by applying Monte Carlo simulation in determining failure probability. Initial hydrogen concentration, flaw shape and depth, axial and radial crack growth rate and fracture toughness were considered as probabilistic variables. Parametric study has been done under the base of pressure tube dimension and hydride precipitation temperature in calculating failure probability. Unstable fracture and plastic collapse are used for the failure assessment. The estimated failure probability showed about three-order difference with changing dimensions of pressure tube.

  4. The Dependence of the Change in the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Graphite Fiber Reinforced Polyimide IM7-K3B on Microcracking due to Thermal Cycling

    Stewart, Melissa C.


    Composite IM7-K3B was subjected to a simulated high speed aircraft thermal environment to determine the effects of microcracking on the change in CTE. IM7-K3B is a graphite fiber reinforced polyimide laminate, manufactured by Dupont. The lay-up for the material was (0.90((Sub 3)(Sub s))). The specimens were placed in a laser-interferometric dilatometer to obtain thermal expansion measurements and were then repeatedly cycled between -65 F and 350 F up to 1000 cycles. After cycling they were scanned for microcracks at a magnification of 400x. The material was expected not to crack and to have a near zero CTE. Some microcracking did occur in all specimens and extensive microcracking occurred in one specimen. Further testing is required to determine how closely the CTE and microcracking are related.

  5. Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient and T2 relaxation time variation patterns in assessment of age and disc level related intervertebral disc changes.

    Wu, Nan; Liu, Hao; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Luo; Zuo, Wei; Ming, Yue; Liu, Sen; Liu, Jiaqi; Su, Xinlin; Gao, Baoxiang; Tang, Zhiquan; Qiu, Guixing; Ma, Guolin; Wu, Zhihong


    To compare the variation patterns of ADC and T2 values in different age and intervertebral disc (IVD) levels, thus to identify their sensitivities in assessing age and disc level related IVDs changes. The T2 and ADC values were recorded from 345 IVDs of 69 volunteers. Kendall's correlation analysis was used to identify the relationship between age and T2/ADC mean values respectively. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc analysis was then applied to test the differences of T2 and ADC values among different IVD levels and age groups, followed by linear regression analysis between age (45 years) and T2/ADC mean values. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Significant negative correlation was observed between age and T2/ADC mean values. The T2 and ADC values showed significant differences among IVD levels and among age groups except for T2 values in age group 1 (25-34 years) and group 2 (35-44 years), and for ADC values at L1-2 level. Both T2 and ADC values showed significant differences between young (age45 years) at each IVD level. A linear relationship was observed between age and T2/ADC mean values in the elderly group as well as in the young group for the ADC mean values, while no such tendency was identified in the young group for the T2 mean values. ADC values may be a more sensitive parameter than T2 in assessing age and disc level related intervertebral disc changes.

  6. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Value Changes and Clinical Correlation in 90 Cases of Cytomegalovirus-Infected Fetuses with Unremarkable Fetal MRI Results.

    Kotovich, D; Guedalia, J S B; Hoffmann, C; Sze, G; Eisenkraft, A; Yaniv, G


    Cytomegalovirus is the leading intrauterine infection. Fetal MR imaging is an accepted tool for fetal brain evaluation, yet it still lacks the ability to accurately predict the extent of the neurodevelopmental impairment, especially in fetal MR imaging scans with unremarkable findings. Our hypothesis was that intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection causes diffusional changes in fetal brains and that those changes may correlate with the severity of neurodevelopmental deficiencies. A retrospective analysis was performed on 90 fetal MR imaging scans of cytomegalovirus-infected fetuses with unremarkable results and compared with a matched gestational age control group of 68 fetal head MR imaging scans. ADC values were measured and averaged in the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes; basal ganglia; thalamus; and pons. For neurocognitive assessment, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (VABS-II) was used on 58 children in the cytomegalovirus-infected group. ADC values were reduced for the cytomegalovirus-infected fetuses in most brain areas studied. The VABS-II showed no trend for the major domains or the composite score of the VABS-II for the cytomegalovirus-infected children compared with the healthy population distribution. Some subdomains showed an association between ADC values and VABS-II scores. Cytomegalovirus infection causes diffuse reduction in ADC values in the fetal brain even in unremarkable fetal MR imaging scans. Cytomegalovirus-infected children with unremarkable fetal MR imaging scans do not deviate from the healthy population in the VABS-II neurocognitive assessment. ADC values were not correlated with VABS-II scores. However, the lack of clinical findings, as seen in most cytomegalovirus-infected fetuses, does not eliminate the possibility of future neurodevelopmental pathology. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  7. Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient and T2 relaxation time variation patterns in assessment of age and disc level related intervertebral disc changes.

    Nan Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the variation patterns of ADC and T2 values in different age and intervertebral disc (IVD levels, thus to identify their sensitivities in assessing age and disc level related IVDs changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The T2 and ADC values were recorded from 345 IVDs of 69 volunteers. Kendall's correlation analysis was used to identify the relationship between age and T2/ADC mean values respectively. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with post hoc analysis was then applied to test the differences of T2 and ADC values among different IVD levels and age groups, followed by linear regression analysis between age (45 years and T2/ADC mean values. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. RESULTS: Significant negative correlation was observed between age and T2/ADC mean values. The T2 and ADC values showed significant differences among IVD levels and among age groups except for T2 values in age group 1 (25-34 years and group 2 (35-44 years, and for ADC values at L1-2 level. Both T2 and ADC values showed significant differences between young (age45 years at each IVD level. A linear relationship was observed between age and T2/ADC mean values in the elderly group as well as in the young group for the ADC mean values, while no such tendency was identified in the young group for the T2 mean values. CONCLUSIONS: ADC values may be a more sensitive parameter than T2 in assessing age and disc level related intervertebral disc changes.

  8. Influence of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition

    Guo Zerong


    Full Text Available To study the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition, considering the heat transfer coefficient as the power function of temperature, mathematical thermal explosion steady state and unsteady-state model of finite cylindrical fireworks and crackers with complex shell structures are established based on two-dimensional steady state thermal explosion theory. The influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition are analyzed. When heat transfer coefficient is changing with temperature and in the condition of natural convection heat transfer, critical ambient temperature lessen, thermal explosion time to ignition shorten. If ambient temperature is close to critical ambient temperature, the influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on time to ignition become large. For firework with inner barrel in example analysis, the critical ambient temperature of propellant is 463.88 K and the time to ignition is 4054.9s at 466 K, 0.26 K and 450.8s less than without considering the change of heat transfer coefficient respectively. The calculation results show that the influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on thermal explosion time to ignition is greater in this example. Therefore, the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient should be considered into thermal safety evaluation of fireworks to reduce potential safety hazard.

  9. Changes of the temperature coefficients of the characteristics which accompany degradation and recovery of a-Si solar cells; A-Si taiyo denchi no hikari (denryu) rekka oyobi kaifuku ni tomonau tokusei ondo keisu no henka

    Yanagisawa, T.; Koyanagi, T.; Nakamura, K.; Takahisa, K.; Kojima, T. [electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Pursuant to the measuring of temperature dependency of the characteristics such as conversion efficiency, during the process of degradation in a-Si solar cells due to light and electric current and the process of recovery by annealing, this paper describes changes in temperature coefficients, correlation between the characteristic parameters and the degradation, and the results of the examination of their characteristics. The conversion efficiency {mu} degraded approximately by 45% of the initial value each by the irradiation under a light intensity with 3 SUN accelerated and by the infusion of current at 20mA/cm{sup 2}; and then, the efficiency recovered to 70-75% of the degradation by subsequent annealing. In addition, in the temperature dependency at 80{degree}C against at 20{degree}C, Isc slightly increased while Vcc greatly decreased. This slight increase in Isc was mainly due to the decrease in the width of the forbidden band, while the decrease in Vcc was due to the increase in the reverse saturation current. The temperature dependency of {mu}N was negative, becoming small in accordance with the degradation. The temperature dependency of FF/FFO was negative initially both in light and current, but it decreased with the degradation and turned to positive. The temperature coefficients of I-V parameters reversibly changed corresponding to the degradation and recovery of these parameters and stayed in a good correlation. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopic study on the thermally induced structural changes of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked collagen.

    Tian, Zhenhua; Wu, Kun; Liu, Wentao; Shen, Lirui; Li, Guoying


    The thermal stability of collagen solution (5 mg/mL) crosslinked by glutaraldehyde (GTA) [GTA/collagen (w/w)=0.5] was measured by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the thermally induced structural changes were analyzed using two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectra. The denaturation temperature (Td) and enthalpy change (ΔH) of crosslinked collagen were respectively about 27°C and 88 J/g higher than those of native collagen, illuminating the thermal stability increased. With the increase of temperature, the red-shift of absorption bands and the decreased AIII/A1455 value obtained from FTIR spectra indicated that hydrogen bonds were weakened and the unwinding of triple helix occurred for both native and crosslinked collagens; whereas the less changes in red-shifting and AIII/A1455 values for crosslinked collagen also confirmed the increase in thermal stability. Additionally, the 2D correlation analysis provided information about the thermally induced structural changes. In the 2D synchronous spectra, the intensities of auto-peaks at 1655 and 1555 cm(-1), respectively assigned to amide I band (CO stretching vibration) and amide II band (combination of NH bending and CN stretching vibrations) in helical conformation were weaker for crosslinked collagen than those for native collagen, indicating that the helical structure of crosslinked collagen was less sensitive to temperature. Moreover, the sequence of the band intensity variations showed that the band at 1555 cm(-1) moved backwards owing to the addition of GTA, demonstrating that the response of helical structure of crosslinked collagen to the increased temperature lagged. It was speculated that the stabilization of collagen by GTA was due to the reinforcement of triple helical structure.

  11. Scanning measurement of Seebeck coefficient of a heated sample

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Iwanaga, Shiho


    A novel scanning Seebeck coefficient measurement technique is disclosed utilizing a cold scanning thermocouple probe tip on heated bulk and thin film samples. The system measures variations in the Seebeck coefficient within the samples. The apparatus may be used for two dimensional mapping of the Seebeck coefficient on the bulk and thin film samples. This technique can be utilized for detection of defective regions, as well as phase separations in the sub-mm range of various thermoelectric materials.

  12. Three-dimensional assessment of mandibular and glenoid fossa changes after bone-anchored Class III intermaxillary traction

    De Clerck, Hugo; Nguyen, Tung; de Paula, Leonardo Koerich; Cevidanes, Lucia


    Introduction Conventional treatment for young Class III patients involves extraoral devices designed to either protract the maxilla or restrain mandibular growth. The use of skeletal anchorage offers a promising alternative to obtain orthopedic results with fewer dental compensations. Our aim was to evaluate 3-dimensional changes in the mandibles and the glenoid fossae of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction. Methods Twenty-five consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 9 and 13 years (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.1 year) were treated with Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (2 in the infrazygomatic crests of the maxilla and 2 in the anterior mandible). The patients had cone-beam computed tomography images taken before initial loading and at the end of active treatment. Three-dimensional models were generated from these images, registered on the anterior cranial base, and analyzed by using color maps. Results Posterior displacement of the mandible at the end of treatment was observed in all subjects (posterior ramus: mean, 2.74 ± 1.36 mm; condyles: mean, 2.07 ± 1.16 mm; chin: mean, −0.13 ± 2.89 mm). Remodeling of the glenoid fossa at the anterior eminence (mean, 1.38 ± 1.03 mm) and bone resorption at the posterior wall (mean, −1.34 ± 0.6 mm) were observed in most patients. Conclusions This new treatment approach offers a promising alternative to restrain mandibular growth for Class III patients with a component of mandibular prognathism or to compensate for maxillary deficiency in patients with hypoplasia of the midface. Future studies with long-term follow-up and comparisons with facemask and chincup therapies are needed to better understand the treatment effects. PMID:22748987

  13. Assessment of Age-related Changes in Left Ventricular Twist by Two-dimensional Ultrasound Speckle Tracking Imaging

    ZHANG Li; XIANG Feixiang; XIE Mingxing; FU Manli; WANG Xinfang; L(U) Qing; HAN Wei; ZHANG Jing; LIU Yingying; WANG Jing


    To assess the normal value of left ventricular twist (LVtw) and examine the changeswith normal aging by 2-dimensional ultrasound speckle-tracking imaging (STI), 121 healthy volunteers were divided into three age groups: a youth group (19-45 y old), a middle-age group (46-64 y old ) and an old-age group (≥65 y old). Basal and apical short-axis images of left ventricular were ac- quired to analyse LV rotation (LVrot) and LVrot velocity. LVtw and LVtw velocity was defined as apical LVrot and LVrot velocity relative to the base. Peak twist (Ptw), twist at aortic valve closure (AVCtw), twist at mitral valve opening (MVOtw), untwisting rate (UntwR), half time of untwisting (HTU), peak twist velocity (PTV), time to peak twist velocity (TPTV), peak untwisting velocity (PUV), time to peak untwisting velocity (TPUV) were separately measured. The results showed that the normal LV performs a wringing motion with a clockwise rotation at the base and a counterclock- wise rotation at the apex (as seen from the apex). The LVtw velocity showed a systolic counterclock- wise twist followed by a diastolic clockwise twist. Peak twist develops near the end of systole (96%±4.2% of systole). With aging, Ptw, AVCtw, MVOtw, HTU and PUV increased significantly (P<0.05) and UntwR decreased significantly (P<0.05). However, no significant differences in TPUV, PTV and TPTV were noted among the 3 groups (P0.05). It is concluded that LV twist can be meas- ured non-invasively by 2-dimensional ultrasound STI imaging. The age-related changes of LVtw should be fully taken into consideration in the assessment of LV function.

  14. Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients

    H. Silverman


    Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.

  15. Gorenstein Hilbert Coefficients

    Khoury, Sabine El


    We prove upper and lower bounds for all the coefficients in the Hilbert Polynomial of a graded Gorenstein algebra $S=R/I$ with a quasi-pure resolution over $R$. The bounds are in terms of the minimal and the maximal shifts in the resolution of $R$ . These bounds are analogous to the bounds for the multiplicity found in \\cite{S} and are stronger than the bounds for the Cohen Macaulay algebras found in \\cite{HZ}.

  16. Discharge coefficient of small sonic nozzles

    Yin Zhao-Qin


    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation is to understand flow characteristics in mini/micro sonic nozzles, in order to precisely measure and control miniscule flowrates. Experimental and numerical simulation methods have been used to study critical flow Venturi nozzles. The results show that the nozzle’s size and shape influence gas flow characteristics which leading the boundary layer thickness to change, and then impact on the discharge coefficient. With the diameter of sonic nozzle throat decreasing, the discharge coefficient reduces. The maximum discharge coefficient exits in the condition of the inlet surface radius being double the throat diameter. The longer the diffuser section, the smaller the discharge coefficient becomes. Diffuser angle affects the discharge coefficient slightly.

  17. Measuring interfraction and intrafraction lung function changes during radiation therapy using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging

    Kipritidis, John, E-mail:; Keall, Paul J. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); Hugo, Geoffrey; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)


    Purpose: Adaptive ventilation guided radiation therapy could minimize the irradiation of healthy lung based on repeat lung ventilation imaging (VI) during treatment. However the efficacy of adaptive ventilation guidance requires that interfraction (e.g., week-to-week), ventilation changes are not washed out by intrafraction (e.g., pre- and postfraction) changes, for example, due to patient breathing variability. The authors hypothesize that patients undergoing lung cancer radiation therapy exhibit larger interfraction ventilation changes compared to intrafraction function changes. To test this, the authors perform the first comparison of interfraction and intrafraction lung VI pairs using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging (4D-CBCT VI), a novel technique for functional lung imaging. Methods: The authors analyzed a total of 215 4D-CBCT scans acquired for 19 locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) patients over 4–6 weeks of radiation therapy. This set of 215 scans was sorted into 56 interfraction pairs (including first day scans and each of treatment weeks 2, 4, and 6) and 78 intrafraction pairs (including pre/postfraction scans on the same-day), with some scans appearing in both sets. VIs were obtained from the Jacobian determinant of the transform between the 4D-CBCT end-exhale and end-inhale images after deformable image registration. All VIs were deformably registered to their corresponding planning CT and normalized to account for differences in breathing effort, thus facilitating image comparison in terms of (i) voxelwise Spearman correlations, (ii) mean image differences, and (iii) gamma pass rates for all interfraction and intrafraction VI pairs. For the side of the lung ipsilateral to the tumor, we applied two-sided t-tests to determine whether interfraction VI pairs were more different than intrafraction VI pairs. Results: The (mean ± standard deviation) Spearman correlation for interfraction VI pairs was r{sup -}{sub Inter

  18. The Truth About Ballistic Coefficients

    Courtney, Michael


    The ballistic coefficient of a bullet describes how it slows in flight due to air resistance. This article presents experimental determinations of ballistic coefficients showing that the majority of bullets tested have their previously published ballistic coefficients exaggerated from 5-25% by the bullet manufacturers. These exaggerated ballistic coefficients lead to inaccurate predictions of long range bullet drop, retained energy and wind drift.

  19. Continuous and robust clustering coefficients for weighted and directed networks

    Miyajima, Kent


    We introduce new clustering coefficients for weighted networks. They are continuous and robust against edge weight changes. Recently, generalized clustering coefficients for weighted and directed networks have been proposed. These generalizations have a common property, that their values are not continuous. They are sensitive with edge weight changes, especially at zero weight. With these generalizations, if vanishingly low weights of edges are truncated to weight zero for some reason, the coefficient value may change significantly from the original value. It is preferable that small changes of edge weights cause small changes of coefficient value. We call this property the continuity of generalized clustering coefficients. Our new coefficients admit this property. In the past, few studies have focused on the continuity of generalized clustering coefficients. In experiments, we performed comparative assessments of existing and our generalizations. In the case of a real world network dataset (C. Elegans Neural...

  20. Crystallization studies on phase-change optical recording media by use of a two-dimensional periodic mark array.

    Xun, X; Erwin, J K; Bletscher, W; Choi, J; Kallenbach, S; Mansuripur, M


    We present the results of crystallization studies in thin-film samples of amorphous and crystalline Ge(x)Sb(y)Te(z). The experiments, conducted at moderately elevated temperatures, are based on measurements of the first-order diffraction efficiency from a two-dimensional periodic array of recorded marks. When the samples are slowly heated above room temperature, changes in the efficiencies of various diffracted orders give information about the on-going crystallization process within the sample. Two different compositions of the GeSbTe alloy are used in these experiments. Measurements on Ge(2)Sb(2.3)Te(5) films show crystallization dominated by nucleation. For the Sb-rich eutectic composition Ge-(SbTe), crystallization is found to be dominated by growth from crystalline boundaries. We also show that crystalline marks written by relatively high-power laser pulses are different in their optical properties from the regions crystallized by slow heating of the sample to moderate temperatures.

  1. GA-based dynamical correction of dispersion coefficients in Lagrangian puff model

    马元巍; 王德忠; 吉志龙


    In atmospheric dispersion models of nuclear accident, the dispersion coefficients were usually obtained by tracer experiment, which are constant in different atmospheric stability classifications. In fact, the atmospheric wind field is complex and unstable. The dispersion coefficients change even in the same atmospheric stability, hence the great errors brought in. According to the regulation, the air concentration of nuclides around nuclear power plant should be monitored during an accident. The monitoring data can be used to correct dispersion coefficients dynamically. The error can be minimized by correcting the coefficients. This reverse problem is nonlinear and sensitive to initial value. The property of searching the optimal solution of Genetic Algorithm (GA) is suitable for complex high-dimensional situation. In this paper, coupling with Lagrange dispersion model, GA is used to estimate the coefficients. The simulation results show that GA scheme performs well when the error is big. When the correcting process is used in the experiment data, the GA-estimated results are numerical instable. The success rate of estimation is 5%lower than the one without correction. Taking into account the continuity of the dispersion coefficient, Savitzky-Golay filter is used to smooth the estimated parameters. The success rate of estimation increases to 75.86%. This method can improve the accuracy of atmospheric dispersion simulation.

  2. Optical coefficients in a semiconductor quantum ring: Electric field and donor impurity effects

    Duque, C. M.; Acosta, Ruben E.; Morales, A. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Restrepo, R. L.; Ojeda, J. H.; Kasapoglu, E.; Duque, C. A.


    The electron states in a two-dimensional quantum dot ring are calculated in the presence of a donor impurity atom under the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. The effect of an externally applied electric field is also taken into account. The wavefunctions are obtained via the exact diagonalization of the problem Hamiltonian using a 2D expansion within the adiabatic approximation. The impurity-related optical response is analyzed via the optical absorption, relative refractive index change and the second harmonics generation. The dependencies of the electron states and these optical coefficients with the changes in the configuration of the quantum ring system are discussed in detail.

  3. Coefficient of consolidation by end of arc method

    Mohsen Abbaspout; Reza Porhoseini; Kazem Barkhordari; Ahmad Ghorbani


    One of the most important issues in geotechnical engineering is excess pore pressure caused by clay soil loading and consolidation. Regarding uncertainties and complexities, this issue has long been the subject of attention of many researchers. In this work, a one-dimensional consolidation apparatus was equipped in a way that pore water pressure and settlement could be continuously read and recorded during consolidation process under static loading. The end of primary consolidation was obtained using water pressure changes helping to present a new method for determining the end of primary consolidation and consolidation coefficient. This method was then compared with two classical theory methods of lg t and t . Using Terzaghi’s theory, the way of pore pressure dissipation for lg t, t and the new method was found and compared with experimental results. It is concluded that the new method has better results.

  4. 具有色散系数的(2+1)维非线性Schroedinger方程的有理解和空间孤子%Rational solutions and spatial solitons for the (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation with distributed coefficients

    马正义; 马松华; 杨毅


    The nonlinear Schroedinger equation is one of the most important nonlinear models with widely applications in physics. Based on a similarity transformation, the (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation with distributed coefficients is transformed into a traceable nonlinear Schroedinger equation, and then two types of rational solutions and several spatial solitons are derived.%非线性Schroedinger方程是物理学中具有广泛应用的非线性模型之一.本文采用相似变换,将具有色散系数的(2+1)维非线性Schrioedinger方程简化成熟知的Schroedinger方程,进而得到原方程的有理解和一些空间孤子.

  5. Deriving Sensitivity Kernels of Coda-Wave Travel Times to Velocity Changes Based on the Three-Dimensional Single Isotropic Scattering Model

    Nakahara, Hisashi; Emoto, Kentaro


    Recently, coda-wave interferometry has been used to monitor temporal changes in subsurface structures. Seismic velocity changes have been detected by coda-wave interferometry in association with large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. To constrain the spatial extent of the velocity changes, spatial homogeneity is often assumed. However, it is important to locate the region of the velocity changes correctly to understand physical mechanisms causing them. In this paper, we are concerned with the sensitivity kernels relating travel times of coda waves to velocity changes. In previous studies, sensitivity kernels have been formulated for two-dimensional single scattering and multiple scattering, three-dimensional multiple scattering, and diffusion. In this paper, we formulate and derive analytical expressions of the sensitivity kernels for three-dimensional single-scattering case. These sensitivity kernels show two peaks at both source and receiver locations, which is similar to the previous studies using different scattering models. The two peaks are more pronounced for later lapse time. We validate our formulation by comparing it with finite-difference simulations of acoustic wave propagation. Our formulation enables us to evaluate the sensitivity kernels analytically, which is particularly useful for the analysis of body waves from deeper earthquakes.

  6. Deriving Sensitivity Kernels of Coda-Wave Travel Times to Velocity Changes Based on the Three-Dimensional Single Isotropic Scattering Model

    Nakahara, Hisashi; Emoto, Kentaro


    Recently, coda-wave interferometry has been used to monitor temporal changes in subsurface structures. Seismic velocity changes have been detected by coda-wave interferometry in association with large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. To constrain the spatial extent of the velocity changes, spatial homogeneity is often assumed. However, it is important to locate the region of the velocity changes correctly to understand physical mechanisms causing them. In this paper, we are concerned with the sensitivity kernels relating travel times of coda waves to velocity changes. In previous studies, sensitivity kernels have been formulated for two-dimensional single scattering and multiple scattering, three-dimensional multiple scattering, and diffusion. In this paper, we formulate and derive analytical expressions of the sensitivity kernels for three-dimensional single-scattering case. These sensitivity kernels show two peaks at both source and receiver locations, which is similar to the previous studies using different scattering models. The two peaks are more pronounced for later lapse time. We validate our formulation by comparing it with finite-difference simulations of acoustic wave propagation. Our formulation enables us to evaluate the sensitivity kernels analytically, which is particularly useful for the analysis of body waves from deeper earthquakes.

  7. Instability analysis and drag coefficient prediction on a swept RAE2822 wing with constant lift coefficient

    Zhenrong JING


    Full Text Available Swept wing is widely used in civil aircraft, whose airfoil is chosen, designed and optimized to increase the cruise speed and decrease the drag coefficient. The parameters of swept wing, such as sweep angle and angle of attack, are determined according to the cruise lift coefficient requirement, and the drag coefficient is expected to be predicted accurately, which involves the instability characteristics and transition position of the flow. The pressure coefficient of the RAE2822 wing with given constant lift coefficient is obtained by solving the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation numerically, and then the mean flow is calculated by solving the boundary layer (BL equation with spectral method. The cross-flow instability characteristic of boundary layer of swept wing in the windward and leeward is analyzed by linear stability theory (LST, and the transition position is predicted by eN method. The drag coefficient is numerically predicted by introducing a laminar/turbulent indicator. A simple approach to calculate the lift coefficient of swept wing is proposed. It is found that there is a quantitative relationship between the angle of attack and sweep angle when the lift coefficient keeps constant; when the angle of attack is small, the flow on the leeward of the wing is stable. when the angle of attack is larger than 3°, the flow becomes unstable quickly; with the increase of sweep angle or angle of attack the disturbance on the windward becomes more unstable, leading to the moving forward of the transition position to the leading edge of the wing; the drag coefficient has two significant jumping growth due to the successive occurrence of transition in the windward and the leeward; the optimal range of sweep angle for civil aircraft is suggested.

  8. Control rod drop surveillance using two friction coefficients

    Blázquez, Juan; Vallejo, I.; García-Berrocal Sánchez, Agustin; Balbás Antón, Miguel


    In the case of large burnup, a control rod (CR) guide tube in the pressurized water reactor of a commercial nuclear power plant might bend. As a consequence, a CR drop experiment may indicate an event of a CR partially inserted and whether the CR should be deemed inoperable. Early prevention of such an event can be achieved by measuring two friction coefficients: the hydraulic coefficient and the sliding coefficient. The hydraulic coefficient hardly changes, so that the curvature of the guide...

  9. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a sample and non-uniform intensity in the reverberation chambers under test. In this study, conversion methods from Sabine absorption...... coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations...

  10. Correlation coefficient mapping in fluorescence spectroscopy: tissue classification for cancer detection.

    Crowell, Ed; Wang, Gufeng; Cox, Jason; Platz, Charles P; Geng, Lei


    Correlation coefficient mapping has been applied to intrinsic fluorescence spectra of colonic tissue for the purpose of cancer diagnosis. Fluorescence emission spectra were collected of 57 colonic tissue sites in a range of 4 physiological conditions: normal (29), hyperplastic (2), adenomatous (5), and cancerous tissues (21). The sample-sample correlation was used to examine the ability of correlation coefficient mapping to determine tissue disease state. The correlation coefficient map indicates two main categories of samples. These categories were found to relate to disease states of the tissue. Sensitivity, selectivity, predictive value positive, and predictive value negative for differentiation between normal tissue and all other categories were all above 92%. This was found to be similar to, or higher than, tissue classification using existing methods of data reduction. Wavelength-wavelength correlation among the samples highlights areas of importance for tissue classification. The two-dimensional correlation map reveals absorption by NADH and hemoglobin in the samples as negative correlation, an effect not obvious from the one-dimensional fluorescence spectra alone. The integrity of tissue was examined in a time series of spectra of a single tissue sample taken after tissue resection. The wavelength-wavelength correlation coefficient map shows the areas of significance for each fluorophore and their relation to each other. NADH displays negative correlation to collagen and FAD, from the absorption of emission or fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The wavelength-wavelength correlation map for the decay set also clearly shows that there are only three fluorophores of importance in the samples, by the well-defined pattern of the map. The sample-sample correlation coefficient map reveals the changes over time and their impact on tissue classification. Correlation coefficient mapping proves to be an effective method for sample classification and cancer

  11. Band gap expansion, shear inversion phase change behaviour and low-voltage induced crystal oscillation in low-dimensional tin selenide crystals.

    Carter, Robin; Suyetin, Mikhail; Lister, Samantha; Dyson, M Adam; Trewhitt, Harrison; Goel, Sanam; Liu, Zheng; Suenaga, Kazu; Giusca, Cristina; Kashtiban, Reza J; Hutchison, John L; Dore, John C; Bell, Gavin R; Bichoutskaia, Elena; Sloan, Jeremy


    In common with rocksalt-type alkali halide phases and also semiconductors such as GeTe and SnTe, SnSe forms all-surface two atom-thick low dimensional crystals when encapsulated within single walled nanotubes (SWNTs) with diameters below ∼1.4 nm. Whereas previous density functional theory (DFT) studies indicate that optimised low-dimensional trigonal HgTe changes from a semi-metal to a semi-conductor, low-dimensional SnSe crystals typically undergo band-gap expansion. In slightly wider diameter SWNTs (∼1.4-1.6 nm), we observe that three atom thick low dimensional SnSe crystals undergo a previously unobserved form of a shear inversion phase change resulting in two discrete strain states in a section of curved nanotube. Under low-voltage (i.e. 80-100 kV) imaging conditions in a transmission electron microscope, encapsulated SnSe crystals undergo longitudinal and rotational oscillations, possibly as a result of the increase in the inelastic scattering cross-section of the sample at those voltages.

  12. Recursive Construction of Operator Product Expansion Coefficients

    Holland, Jan; Hollands, Stefan


    We derive a novel formula for the derivative of operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients with respect to a coupling constant. The formula involves just the OPE coefficients themselves but no further input, and is in this sense self-consistent. Furthermore, unlike other formal identities of this general nature in quantum field theory (such as the formal expression for the Lagrangian perturbation of a correlation function), our formula requires no further UV-renormalization, i.e., it is completely well-defined from the start. This feature is a result of a cancelation of UV- and IR-divergences between various terms in our identity. Our proof, and an analysis of the features of the identity, is given for the example of massive, Euclidean theory in 4 dimensional Euclidean space. It relies on the renormalization group flow equation method and is valid to arbitrary, but finite orders in perturbation theory. The final formula, however, makes neither explicit reference to the renormalization group flow, nor to perturbation theory, and we conjecture that it also holds non-perturbatively. Our identity can be applied constructively because it gives a novel recursive algorithm for the computation of OPE coefficients to arbitrary (finite) perturbation order in terms of the zeroth order coefficients corresponding to the underlying free field theory, which in turn are trivial to obtain. We briefly illustrate the relation of this method to more standard methods for computing the OPE in some simple examples.

  13. Calculation method for steady-state pollutant concentration in mixing zones considering variable lateral diffusion coefficient.

    Wu, Wen; Wu, Zhouhu; Song, Zhiwen


    Prediction of the pollutant mixing zone (PMZ) near the discharge outfall in Huangshaxi shows large error when using the methods based on the constant lateral diffusion assumption. The discrepancy is due to the lack of consideration of the diffusion coefficient variation. The variable lateral diffusion coefficient is proposed to be a function of the longitudinal distance from the outfall. Analytical solution of the two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation of a pollutant is derived and discussed. Formulas to characterize the geometry of the PMZ are derived based on this solution, and a standard curve describing the boundary of the PMZ is obtained by proper choices of the normalization scales. The change of PMZ topology due to the variable diffusion coefficient is then discussed using these formulas. The criterion of assuming the lateral diffusion coefficient to be constant without large error in PMZ geometry is found. It is also demonstrated how to use these analytical formulas in the inverse problems including estimating the lateral diffusion coefficient in rivers by convenient measurements, and determining the maximum allowable discharge load based on the limitations of the geometrical scales of the PMZ. Finally, applications of the obtained formulas to onsite PMZ measurements in Huangshaxi present excellent agreement.

  14. Local Rank Inference for Varying Coefficient Models.

    Wang, Lan; Kai, Bo; Li, Runze


    By allowing the regression coefficients to change with certain covariates, the class of varying coefficient models offers a flexible approach to modeling nonlinearity and interactions between covariates. This paper proposes a novel estimation procedure for the varying coefficient models based on local ranks. The new procedure provides a highly efficient and robust alternative to the local linear least squares method, and can be conveniently implemented using existing R software package. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations both reveal that the gain of the local rank estimator over the local linear least squares estimator, measured by the asymptotic mean squared error or the asymptotic mean integrated squared error, can be substantial. In the normal error case, the asymptotic relative efficiency for estimating both the coefficient functions and the derivative of the coefficient functions is above 96%; even in the worst case scenarios, the asymptotic relative efficiency has a lower bound 88.96% for estimating the coefficient functions, and a lower bound 89.91% for estimating their derivatives. The new estimator may achieve the nonparametric convergence rate even when the local linear least squares method fails due to infinite random error variance. We establish the large sample theory of the proposed procedure by utilizing results from generalized U-statistics, whose kernel function may depend on the sample size. We also extend a resampling approach, which perturbs the objective function repeatedly, to the generalized U-statistics setting; and demonstrate that it can accurately estimate the asymptotic covariance matrix.

  15. Onsager coefficients for systems with periodic potentials

    Rosas, Alexandre; Van den Broeck, Christian; Lindenberg, Katja


    We carry out the thermodynamic analysis of a Markovian stochastic engine, driven by a spatially and temporally periodic modulation in a d -dimensional space. We derive the analytic expressions for the Onsager coefficients characterizing the linear response regime for the isothermal transfer of one type of work (a driver) to another (a load), mediated by a stochastic time-periodic machine. As an illustration, we obtain the explicit results for a Markovian kangaroo process coupling two orthogonal directions and find extremely good agreement with numerical simulations. In addition, we obtain and discuss expressions for the entropy production, power, and efficiency for the kangaroo process.

  16. Laser Measurement Of Convective-Heat-Transfer Coefficient

    Porro, A. Robert; Hingst, Warren R.; Chriss, Randall M.; Seablom, Kirk D.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.


    Coefficient of convective transfer of heat at spot on surface of wind-tunnel model computed from measurements acquired by developmental laser-induced-heat-flux technique. Enables non-intrusive measurements of convective-heat-transfer coefficients at many points across surfaces of models in complicated, three-dimensional, high-speed flows. Measurement spot scanned across surface of model. Apparatus includes argon-ion laser, attenuator/beam splitter electronic shutter infrared camera, and subsystem.

  17. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a specimen and non-uniform intensity in the test chamber. In this study, several methods that convert Sabine absorption coefficients...... into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  18. Three-Dimensional Laser Imaging as a Valuable Tool for Specifying Changes in Breast Shape After Augmentation Mammaplasty

    Esme, D.L.; Bucksch, A.; Beekman, W.H.


    Background Three-dimensional (3D) terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a valuable method for measuring shapes of objects and for obtaining quantitative measurements. These qualities of the 3D laser scanner have proved to be useful in reconstructive breast surgery. This study investigated various 3D

  19. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    Bojanov, Borislav


    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 基于价值系数动态调整的青龙县生态系统服务价值变化研究%Ecosystem services value change in Qinglong County from dynamically adjusted value coefficients

    李晓赛; 朱永明; 赵丽; 田京京; 李静


    in each ecosystem service value coefficient (value per unit area) in Qinglong County for 2003−2012. Finally, the paper evaluated ecosystem services value for the recent decade, revealed the principles of dynamic change in terrestrial ecosystem at county scale. The functional adjustment factors of forest land and garden plot were set as 1.032 and 0.903, respectively, due to they were the main land use types of biological productivity. Other land use types were without functional adjustment factors. Calculation results indicated that functional adjustment improved distinction degree of vegetation types of different coverages by amending equivalent factor value with functional factor of ecosystem services. The adjustment factor of ability to pay was ratio of GDP per person of Qinglong County to national mean GDP per person, while adjustment factor of willingness to pay was calculated with Engel Coefficient. The combination of the adjustment factors of ability to pay and willingness to pay (economic adjustment factor) fluctuated in an upward trend in time. The study results showed that each ecosystem service value coefficient fluctuated with an improving trend for different land use types in Qinglong County in 2003−2012. The ecosystem services value improved by 4.443 billion Yuan in the decade, at an average annual rate of 3.78%. Compared with previous static evaluation model, the results were more favorable, especially for small-scale counties that are extremely sensitive to economic policy. The analysis also revealed the mechanism of dynamic changes in ecosystem services value with better effects.

  1. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.


    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…

  2. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  3. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  4. Cambios dimensionales de los tejidos en los procedimientos de alargamiento coronario Dimensional changes in tissues after crown lengthening procedures

    C. Álvarez-Novoa García


    Full Text Available Introducción: Las coronas clínicas cortas son subsidiarias de recibir un tratamiento de alargamiento coronario. En ocasiones es necesario restaurar los dientes después del procedimiento. En estos casos es importante no invadir el espacio biológico para evitar las distintas reacciones del periodonto. El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar los cambios dimensionales que se producen a nivel de los tejidos duros y blandos antes y después de la intervención para poder planificar de forma más precisa la restauración posterior. Material y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en Pubmed con las palabras clave "crown lengthening", limitada a artículos en lengua inglesa, publicados entre los años 1990-2009, que fueran estudios clínicos. La recuperación de los documentos se realizó en la hemeroteca de la Facultad de Odontología de la UCM y en la base de datos Compludoc. Dos evaluadores revisaron los artículos de forma individual. Resultados y discusión: Los siete artículos, que incluían tanto estudios en animales como en humanos, que fueron incluidos en la revisión, analizaban índice gingival, nivel óseo, profundidad de sondaje, nivel de inserción y anchura biológica, y longitud de la corona y posición de margen gingival. Conclusiones: El nivel óseo se altera los 3 primeros meses, pero posteriormente se mantiene constante. Los estudios a más largo plazo no encuentran diferencias significativas en profundidad de sondaje a hueso 6 y 12 meses después del alargamiento.Introduction: Short clinical crowns may be treated with crown lengthening techniques. Sometimes teeth need to be restored after the surgery. In these cases it is important not to invade the biological width to avoid the different reactions of the periodontium. The objective of this review is to examine the dimensional changes that occur at the level of hard and soft tissues after surgery in order to plan more accurately the subsequent restoration. Material and Methods

  5. Quantum Calculation of Inelastic CO Collisions with H. III. Rate Coefficients for Ro-vibrational Transitions

    Song, L.; Balakrishnan, N.; Walker, K. M.; Stancil, P. C.; Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; van der Avoird, A.; Groenenboom, G. C.


    We present calculated rate coefficients for ro-vibrational transitions of CO in collisions with H atoms for a gas temperature range of 10 K ≤ T ≤ 3000 K, based on the recent three-dimensional ab initio H-CO interaction potential of Song et al. Rate coefficients for ro-vibrational v=1,j=0-30\\to v\\prime =0,j\\prime transitions were obtained from scattering cross sections previously computed with the close-coupling (CC) method by Song et al. Combining these with the rate coefficients for vibrational v=1-5\\to v\\prime \\lt v quenching obtained with the infinite-order sudden approximation, we propose a new extrapolation scheme that yields the rate coefficients for ro-vibrational v=2-5,j=0-30\\to v\\prime ,j\\prime de-excitation. Cross sections and rate coefficients for ro-vibrational v=2,j=0-30\\to v\\prime =1,j\\prime transitions calculated with the CC method confirm the effectiveness of this extrapolation scheme. Our calculated and extrapolated rates are very different from those that have been adopted in the modeling of many astrophysical environments. The current work provides the most comprehensive and accurate set of ro-vibrational de-excitation rate coefficients for the astrophysical modeling of the H-CO collision system. The application of the previously available and new data sets in astrophysical slab models shows that the line fluxes typically change by 20%-70% in high temperature environments (800 K) with an H/H2 ratio of 1; larger changes occur for lower temperatures.

  6. Stress changes of lateral collateral ligament at different knee flexion with or without displaced movements: a 3-dimensional finite element analysis

    ZHONG Yan-lin; WANG You; WANG Hai-peng; RONG Ke; XIE Le


    Objective: To create a 3-dimensional finite element model of knee ligaments and to analyse the stress changes of lateral collateral ligament (LCL) with or without displaced movements at different knee flexion conditions.Methods: A four-major-ligament contained knee specimen from an adult died of skull injury was prepared for CT scanning with the detectable ligament insertion footprints,locations and orientations precisely marked in advance. The CT scanning images were converted to a 3-dimensional model of the knee with the 3-dimensional reconstruction technique and transformed into finite element model by the software of ANSYS. The model was validated using experimental and numerical results obtained by other scientists.The natural stress changes of LCL at five different knee flexion angles (0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°) and under various motions of anterior-posterior tibial translation, tibial varus rotation and internal-external tibial rotation were measured.Results: The maximum stress reached to 87%-113%versus natural stress in varus motion at early 30° of knee flexions. The stress values were smaller than the peak value of natural stress at 0° (knee full extension) when knee bending was over 60° of flexion in anterior-posterior tibial translation and internal-external rotation.Conclusion: LCL is vulnerable to varus motion in almost all knee bending positions and susceptible to anterlor-posterior tibial translation or internal-external rotation at early 30° of knee flexions.

  7. Projection-type estimation for varying coefficient regression models

    Lee, Young K; Park, Byeong U; 10.3150/10-BEJ331


    In this paper we introduce new estimators of the coefficient functions in the varying coefficient regression model. The proposed estimators are obtained by projecting the vector of the full-dimensional kernel-weighted local polynomial estimators of the coefficient functions onto a Hilbert space with a suitable norm. We provide a backfitting algorithm to compute the estimators. We show that the algorithm converges at a geometric rate under weak conditions. We derive the asymptotic distributions of the estimators and show that the estimators have the oracle properties. This is done for the general order of local polynomial fitting and for the estimation of the derivatives of the coefficient functions, as well as the coefficient functions themselves. The estimators turn out to have several theoretical and numerical advantages over the marginal integration estimators studied by Yang, Park, Xue and H\\"{a}rdle [J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 101 (2006) 1212--1227].

  8. Change of absorption coefficient of biological tissues in laser induced interstitial thermotherapy%激光诱导间质热疗中生物组织吸收系数变化特性研究

    王晋阳; 钱志余; 钱爱平; 吕操君; 王栋; 花国然


    The feasibility of real-time monitoring in laser induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) of biological tissues using near infrared spectrum technique is explored and validated. In vitro liver and rats with subcutantaneous implanted tumor models were chosen as experiment objects. Changes of absorption coefficient (μa) of tissue are real-time measured by near infrared spectrum system in laser induced interstitial thermotherapy. The result indicates that μa has some variations during LITT. The change law ofμa in vitro livers experiments is significant. It slowly goes up under low power, and rises greatly based on high power when biological tissues reach certain temperature(around 50℃). The change laws of μa during tumor experiments is different according to characteristics of tumor tissue which can be used for future clinical treatment. Experimental results show thatμa has valuable reference as a real-time monitoring factor in LITT of entity organizations, but it also needs further study as evaluating factor of the tumor treatment appraisal.%利用近红外光谱技术进行生物组织激光诱导间质热疗(Laser induced interstitial thermotherapy,LITT)实时监测,探讨LITT术中疗效评估基础.实验样本采用离体猪肝和小鼠皮下移植肝肿瘤,使用近红外光谱实时采集系统采集激光热疗过程中组织吸收系数(μa).实验结果表明,μa在激光热疗过程中具有一定的变化规律,其中猪肝的变化规律非常明显,在低功率下呈现缓慢的上升,高功率下达到一定的温度(50℃左右)快速上升,并逐步达到稳定.肿瘤在热毁损时会根据瘤体的组织特性不同出现特异性变化,这些变化可以作为将来临床治疗的参考.实验结果表明在进行实体组织激光诱导间质热疗过程中,μa作为实时监测因子具有一定的参考价值,而作为肿瘤的治疗评估因子还需要进一步探索.

  9. Dimensional Reduction for Conformal Blocks

    Hogervorst, Matthijs


    We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO(d+1,1) up into multiplets of SO(d,1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d-1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2F1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.

  10. Numerical simulation of one-dimensional heat transfer in composite bodies with phase change. M.S. Thesis, 1980 Final Report; [wing deicing pads

    Dewitt, K. J.; Baliga, G.


    A numerical simulation was developed to investigate the one dimensional heat transfer occurring in a system composed of a layered aircraft blade having an ice deposit on its surface. The finite difference representation of the heat conduction equations was done using the Crank-Nicolson implicit finite difference formulation. The simulation considers uniform or time dependent heat sources, from heaters which can be either point sources or of finite thickness. For the ice water phase change, a numerical method which approximates the latent heat effect by a large heat capacity over a small temperature interval was applied. The simulation describes the temperature profiles within the various layers of the de-icer pad, as well as the movement of the ice water interface. The simulation could also be used to predict the one dimensional temperature profiles in any composite slab having different boundary conditions.

  11. Three-dimensional visualisation and analysis of post-operative changes in the size and shape of the dental arch and palate.

    Trefný, P; Tauferová, E; Bálková, S


    In craniofacial surgery and orthodontics, three-dimensional computer models of the dental arch and palate have recently entered usage in diagnosis assessment, treatment planning, case presentations and evaluation of treatment progress and outcome. In this contribution, we show how effective visualisation and evaluation of changes in the size and shape of the dental arch and palate in a given patient can be performed using superimposition of two or more 3D computer models that record the condition before and after treatment. We also present a method of three-dimensional measurement of the dental arch and palate suitable for evaluation of treatment results within retrospective and prospective studies in larger samples of subjects.

  12. The effect of three-dimensional geometrical changes during adolescent growth on the biomechanics of a spinal motion segment

    Homminga, J.; Hekman, E. E. G.; Veldhuizen, A. G.; Verkerke, G. J.; Meijer, G.


    During adolescent growth, vertebrae and intervertebral discs undergo various geometrical changes. Although such changes in geometry are well known, their effects on spinal stiffness remains poorly understood. However, this understanding is essential in the treatment of spinal abnormalities during gr

  13. Methods for Accurate Free Flight Measurement of Drag Coefficients

    Courtney, Elya; Courtney, Michael


    This paper describes experimental methods for free flight measurement of drag coefficients to an accuracy of approximately 1%. There are two main methods of determining free flight drag coefficients, or equivalent ballistic coefficients: 1) measuring near and far velocities over a known distance and 2) measuring a near velocity and time of flight over a known distance. Atmospheric conditions must also be known and nearly constant over the flight path. A number of tradeoffs are important when designing experiments to accurately determine drag coefficients. The flight distance must be large enough so that the projectile's loss of velocity is significant compared with its initial velocity and much larger than the uncertainty in the near and/or far velocity measurements. On the other hand, since drag coefficients and ballistic coefficients both depend on velocity, the change in velocity over the flight path should be small enough that the average drag coefficient over the path (which is what is really determined)...

  14. Predicting Treatment Response of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases to Conventional Lipiodol-Based Transarterial Chemoembolization Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging: Value of Pretreatment Apparent Diffusion Coefficients (ADC) and ADC Changes Under Therapy.

    Lahrsow, Maximilian; Albrecht, Moritz H; Bickford, Matthew W; Vogl, Thomas J


    To use absolute pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) to predict response to repetitive cTACE for unresectable liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma (CRLM) at 1 and 3 months after start of treatment. Fifty-five metastases in 34 patients were examined with DWI prior to treatment and 1 month after initial cTACE. Treatment was performed in 4-week intervals. Response was evaluated at 1 and 3 months after start of therapy. Metastases showing a decrease of ≥30% in axial diameter were classified as responding lesions. One month after initial cTACE, seven lesions showed early response. There was no significant difference in absolute pretreatment ADC values between responding and non-responding lesions (p = 0.94). Three months after initial cTACE, 17 metastases showed response. There was a significant difference (p = 0.021) between absolute pretreatment ADC values of lesions showing response (median 1.08 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) and no response (median 1.30 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s). Pretreatment ADC showed fair diagnostic value to predict response (AUC 0.7). Lesions showing response at 3 months also revealed a significant increase in ADC between measurements before treatment and at one month after initial cTACE (p < 0.001). Applying an increase in ADC of 12.17%, response at 3 months after initial cTACE could be predicted with a sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 74%, respectively (AUC 0.817). Furthermore, there was a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.651, p < 0.001) between percentage change in size after third cTACE and percentage change in ADC. In patients with CRLM, ADC measurements are potential biomarkers for assessing response to cTACE.

  15. Cohomology of hyperplane complements with group ring coefficients

    Davis, Michael W; Leary, Ian J; Okun, Boris


    We compute the cohomology with group ring coefficients of the complement of a finite collection of affine hyperplanes in a finite dimensional complex vector space. It is nonzero in exactly one degree, namely the degree equal to the rank of the hyperplane arrangement.

  16. Three-dimensional morphological condylar and mandibular changes in a patient with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: interdisciplinary treatment

    G. Farronato


    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint (TMJ involvement is common but usually delayed in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. We describe the case of a JIA patient with bilateral TMJ involvement, mandibular retrognathia, bone erosion, and severely restricted mouth opening. The use of cone beam computed tomography and a 3D diagnostic protocol in young patients with JIA provides reliable, accurate and precise quantitative data and images of the condylar structures and their dimensional relationships. Analgesics and conventional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs were ineffective, but interdisciplinary treatment with etanercept and a Herbst functional appliance improved functional TMJ movement and bone resorption.

  17. Effects of the addition of nanoparticulate calcium carbonate on setting time, dimensional change, compressive strength, solubility and pH of MTA.

    Bernardi, A; Bortoluzzi, E A; Felippe, W T; Felippe, M C S; Wan, W S; Teixeira, C S


    To evaluate nanoparticulate calcium carbonate (NPCC) using transmission electron microscopy and the effects of NPCC addition to MTA in regard to the setting time, dimensional change, compressive strength, solubility and pH. The experimental groups were G1 (MTA), G2 (MTA with 5% NPCC) and G3 (MTA with 10% NPCC). The tests followed ISO and ADA standards. The specimens in the dimensional change and compressive strength tests were measured immediately after setting, after 24 h and after 30 days. In the solubility test, rings filled with cement were weighed after setting and after 30 days. The pH was measured after 24 h and 30 days. The data were analysed with the ANOVA, Tukey's and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α = 5%). The setting time was reduced (P  G2 > G3). The solubility test revealed a difference amongst the groups when the specimens were hydrated: G2 > G1 > G3 and dehydrated: G3 > G2 > G1. The pH of the groups was similar at 24 h with higher values in each group after 30 days (P MTA accelerated the setting time, decreased compressive strength and, after 30 days, resulted in lower dimensional change (G2), higher solubility and a higher pH. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Early Surgical Outcome in Repaired Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: Part 1. Nasal changes.

    Ayoub, Ashraf


    Abstract Objective: To evaluate 3D nasal morphology following primary reconstruction in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate relative to contemporaneous non-cleft data Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, controlled study. Setting: Glasgow Dental Hospital & School, Faculty of Medicine, Glasgow University Patients and Participants: Two groups of 3-year old children (21 with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 96 controls) with facial images taken using a 3D vision based capture technique. Methods: 3D images of the face were reflected so the cleft was on the left side to create a homogenous group for statistical analysis. Three-dimensional co-ordinates of anthropometric landmarks were extracted from facial images by a single operator. A set of linear measurements was utilised to compare cleft and control subjects on right and left sides, adjusting for sex differences Results: the mean nasal base width and the width of the nostril floor on right and left sides differed significantly between control and Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate (UCLP) groups. The measurements were greater in UCLP children. The difference in the mean nasal height and mean nasal projection between the groups were not statistically significant. Mean columellar lengths were different between the left and right sides in UCLP cases. Conclusions: There were significant nasal deformities following the surgical repair of UCLP. Keywords: child, cleft lip and palate, three-dimensional imaging.

  19. In vivo evaluation of three-dimensional of volumetric changes using a CAD/CAM chair-side system: Technical procedure

    Ferreiroa, Alberto; Pascual-Moscardó, Agustín; Fons-Font, Antonio; Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda


    An intraoral digital scanner in combination with specialized three-dimensional surface analysis software monitors volumetric changes to soft tissues or dental restorations. This technology can evaluate the success of a specific technique or medium- or long-term clinical outcomes in both clinical and research situations. This article describes how this technology was used to provide immediate chair-side data analysis without the help of specialized laboratory support. Key words:Intraoral scanner, CAD-CAM, best fit-method, surface tessellation language. PMID:28298996

  20. The Kauffman Constraint Coefficients Kw

    Griggs, Kenneth A


    The Kauffman Constraint Coefficients Kw and their corresponding Elementals Ew are presented as solutions to the construction of the (beta)-derivative of Kauffman's Theta-function. Additionally, a new recursion relation is provided to construct the (beta)-derivative of Theta that requires only operational substitutions and summations; this algorithmically simplifies Kauffman's original technique. To demonstrate Kw, we generate the 30 Kw Coefficients from the corresponding Elementals Ew for the (9)-derivative of Theta and find that our results are in complete agreement with Kauffman's Mathematica\\texttrademark solutions. We further present a calculation of two coefficients for the (12)-derivative of Theta and invite readers to use Mathematica\\texttrademark or any other means to calculate and verify our results. Finally, we present a challenging calculation for a coefficient of the (40)-derivative of Theta; owing to the vast numbers of permutations involved, a Mathematica\\texttrademark approach may require subst...

  1. Kappa Coefficients for Circular Classifications

    Warrens, Matthijs J.; Pratiwi, Bunga C.


    Circular classifications are classification scales with categories that exhibit a certain periodicity. Since linear scales have endpoints, the standard weighted kappas used for linear scales are not appropriate for analyzing agreement between two circular classifications. A family of kappa coefficie

  2. Accuracy of critical-temperature sensitivity coefficients predicted by multilayered composite plate theories

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Burton, Scott


    An assessment is made of the accuracy of the critical-temperature sensitivity coefficients of multilayered plates predicted by different modeling approaches, based on two-dimensional shear-deformation theories. The sensitivity coefficients considered measure the sensitivity of the critical temperatures to variations in different lamination and material parameters of the plate. The standard of comparison is taken to be the sensitivity coefficients obtained by the three-dimensional theory of thermoelasticity. Numerical studies are presented showing the effects of variation in the geometric and lamination parameters of the plate on the accuracy of both the sensitivity coefficients and the critical temperatures predicted by the different modeling approaches.

  3. 柴油机喷油脉宽和喷油压力变化对喷油器流量系数的影响%Influence of changed fuel injection pulse width and pressure on discharge coefficient in diesel engine

    杜慧勇; 张紫微; 刘建新; 李民; 王站成; 徐斌


    In order to obtain the law of the impact of fuel injection pulse width and injection pressure change on the discharge coefficient and understand the causes of this law, this article designed and completed the experiment with commonly used fuel injection pulse width (1 000-2 500μs) and large scope of injection pressure (40-180 MPa). The momentum method was adopted to measure the fuel injection law in experiment, and the fuel injection quantity in different periods of injection process could be figured out at the same time, with the purpose of calculating the maximum discharge coefficient which corresponded to the duration of needle valve open completely, and the average discharge coefficient in the fuel injection duration in all conditions. The two parameters were used to explore the law of their own variation when the fuel injection pulse width and the injection pressure changed and to find their relationship and difference. With the purpose of obtaining more general results, the ratio of the duration of valve open fully and the injection duration was introduced as a dimensionless parameterτ, through which we could easily know the deviation value of discharge coefficient according to the curve of the mean discharge coefficient deviating from the maximum discharge coefficient. A lot of research has been made on discharge coefficient change in terms of external cause at home and abroad. But most of these studies were based on fluid simulation, or through Nurick simplified model to analyze, or just discussed the impacts of some physical parameters such as nozzle geometry, needle valve lift, Reynolds number and surface roughness inside the nozzle, fuel density and viscosity on discharge coefficient. Just discussing how much effect the conditions would have on the discharge coefficient was not enough, we must study why. This paper introduced the theory of flow loss analysis of nozzle discharge coefficient. Changes of discharge coefficient with the fuel injection pulse

  4. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    TANG Tie-Qiao; HUANG Hai-Jun; SHANG Hua-Yan; XUE Yu


    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability.The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  5. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    McGee, Holly


    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  6. Human salivary gland acinar cells spontaneously form three-dimensional structures and change the protein expression patterns.

    Chan, Yen-Hui; Huang, Tsung-Wei; Young, Tai-Horng; Lou, Pei-Jen


    Applying tissue engineering principles to design an auto-secretory device is a potential solution for patients suffering loss of salivary gland function. However, the largest challenge in implementing this solution is the primary culture of human salivary gland cells, because the cells are highly differentiated and difficult to expand in vitro. This situation leads to the lack of reports on the in vitro cell biology and physiology of human salivary gland cells. This study used a low-calcium culture system to selectively cultivate human parotid gland acinar (PGAC) cells from tissues with high purity in cell composition. This condition enables PGAC cells to continuously proliferate and retain the phenotypes of epithelial acinar cells to express secreting products (α-amylase) and function-related proteins (aquaporin-3, aquaporin-5, and ZO-1). Notably, when the cells reached confluence, three-dimensional (3D) cell aggregates were observed in crowded regions. These self-formed cell spheres were termed post-confluence structures (PCSs). Unexpectedly, despite being cultured in the same media, cells in PCSs exhibited higher expression levels and different expression patterns of function-related proteins compared to the two-dimensional (2D) cells. Translocation of aquoporin-3 from cytosolic to alongside the cell boundaries, and of ZO-1 molecules to the boundary of the PCSs were also observed. These observations suggest that when PGAC cells cultured on the 2D substrate would form PCSs without the help of 3D scaffolds and retain certain differentiation and polarity. This phenomenon implies that it is possible to introduce 2D substrates instead of 3D scaffolds into artificial salivary gland tissue engineering.

  7. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Early Surgical Outcome in Repaired Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: Part 2. Lip Changes.

    Ayoub, Ashraf


    Abstract Objective: To evaluate 3D lip morphology, following primary reconstruction in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) relative to contemporaneous non-cleft data Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, controlled study Setting: Glasgow Dental Hospital & School, University of Glasgow, The UK. Patients and Participants: Two groups of 3-year old children (21 with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 96 controls) with facial images taken using a 3D vision based capture technique. Methods: 3D images of the face were reflected so the cleft was on the left side to create a homogenous group for statistical analysis. Three-dimensional co-ordinates of anthropometric landmarks were extracted from facial images. 3D generalised Procustes superimposition was employed and a set of linear measurements were utilised to compare between cleft and control subjects for right and left sides, adjusting for sex differences. Results: Christa philteri on both the cleft and non-cleft sides were displaced laterally and posteriorly; there was also a statistically significant increase in philtrum width. No significant differences between cleft and control regarding the cutaneous height of the upper lip. The lip in the cleft cases was flatter than in the non-cleft cases with less prominence of labialis superioris. Conclusions: Stereophotogrammetry allows detection of residual dysmorphology following cleft repair. There was significant increase of the philtrum width. The lip appeared flatter and more posterior displaced in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate (UCLP) cases compared with control. Keywords: child, cleft lip and palate, lip repair, three-dimensional imaging.

  8. Linear dimensional change, compressive strength and detail reproduction in type IV dental stone dried at room temperature and in a microwave oven.

    Silva, Marcos Aurélio Bomfim da; Vitti, Rafael Pino; Consani, Simonides; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek


    The type IV dental stone is widely used for the fabrication of dyes and master casts for fixed and removable partial prostheses. It is typically normal to wait at least 24 hours for the casts to dry prior to beginning the laboratory procedures. The waiting time has been shown to be greatly reduced by using microwave drying. This study evaluated the influence of drying techniques at room temperature and microwave oven on the linear dimensional change, compressive strength and detail reproduction in type IV dental stones. Three type IV dental stone brands were selected; elite Rock, Shera Premium and Durone IV. Two different drying protocols were tested in 4 groups (n=10); G-room temperature (25±4 ºC) dried for 2 hours; G2--room temperature dried for 24 hours; G3-room temperature dried for 7 days and G4--microwave oven dried at 800 W for 5 minutes and after 2 hours at room temperature. After drying, the samples were assayed for dimensional charges. The sample surface was submitted to the ImageTool 3.0 software for compressive strength in a universal testing machine with a cell load of 50 KN at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minutes and the detail reproduction was analyzed with a stereomicroscope at 25x magnification. The statistical analysis of the linear dimensional change and compressive strength data were conducted by the ANOVA test followed by the Tukey test (pmicrowave oven drying showed a linear dimensional change similar to after room temperature drying for 24 hours and 7 days. The compressive strength of the stone dried in the microwave oven was similar to those dried at room temperature for 24 hours, with the exception of Shera Premium, which had similar results for microwave and room temperature drying for 7 days. For the microwave drying method the detail reproduction levels for samples dried at room temperature for 24 hours and 7 days were similar, except for the Durone IV.

  9. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of the Beta and Delta Polymorphs of HMX

    Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Maienschein, J L


    Dimensional changes related to temperature cycling of the beta and delta polymorphs of HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) are important for a variety of applications. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the beta and delta phases are measured and reported in this work over a temperature range of -20 C to 215 C. In addition, dimensional changes associated with the phase transition were measured, both through the transition and back down. Initially, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate back conversion of the delta phase to the beta phase polymorph. The most successful approach was first to measure the amount of the beta to delta conversion, then after a given cooling period a repeat analysis, to measure the heat consumed by a second pass through the beta to delta phase transition. In addition, TMA is used to measure the dimensional change of a 0.20-gram sample of HMX during its initial heating and then three days later during a 2nd heating. This HMX shows the beta to delta phase transition a second time, thereby confirming the back conversion from delta to beta phase HMX.

  10. Influence of effective stress coefficient on mechanical failure of chalk

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Hjuler, M.L.


    and vice versa. However, as the effective stress working on the rock decreases with increased effective stress coefficient, the reduction of elastic region will have less effect on pore collapse strength if we consider the change in the effective stress coefficient. This finding will help estimate a more...

  11. Mass transfer coefficients in cross-flow ultrafiltration

    Berg, van den G.B.; Rácz, I.G.; Smolders, C.A.


    Usually, in concentration polarization models, the mass transfer coefficient is an unknown parameter. Also, its variation with changing experimental circumstances is in question. In the literature, many relationships can be found to describe the mass transfer coefficient under various conditions, as

  12. Mass transfer coefficients in cross-flow ultrafiltration

    van den Berg, G.B.; Racz, I.G.; Smolders, C.A.


    Usually, in concentration polarization models, the mass transfer coefficient is an unknown parameter. Also, its variation with changing experimental circumstances is in question. In the literature, many relationships can be found to describe the mass transfer coefficient under various conditions, as

  13. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy.

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu


    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs.

  14. A 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field does not damage MG-63 three-dimensional tumor spheroids but induces changes in their invasive properties.

    Santini, Maria Teresa; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Ferrante, Antonella; Indovina, Paola; Donelli, Gianfranco; Indovina, Pietro Luigi


    The possibility that a sinusoidal 50 Hz magnetic field with a magnetic flux density of 1 mT can damage MG-63 osteosarcoma spheroids and induce variations in the invasive properties of these three-dimensional model systems after 2 days of exposure was investigated. Specifically, possible damage induced by these fields was examined by determining changes in spheroid surface morphology (light microscopy), growth (spheroid diameter and protein content determination), lactate dehydrogenase release, and reduced glutathione amount. Possible changes in the invasive properties were studied by invasion chambers. The results show no induction of cell damage by ELF fields while invasion chamber assays demonstrate a significant increase in the invasive potential of exposed spheroids. In order to determine if the fibronectin or hyaluronan receptors are involved, Western blot analysis was conducted on these two proteins. No significant variations were observed in either receptor in MG-63 multicellular tumor spheroids.

  15. Evaluation of three-dimensional position change of the condylar head after orthognathic surgery using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-made condyle positioning jig.

    Kim, Hyung-Mo; Baek, Seung-Hak; Kim, Tae-Yun; Choi, Jin-Young


    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM/CAD)-made condyle positioning jig in orthognathic surgery. The sample consisted of 40 mandibular condyles of 20 patients with class III malocclusion who underwent bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy with semirigid fixation (6 men and 14 women; mean age, 25 y; mean amount of mandibular setback, 5.8 mm). Exclusion criteria were patients who needed surgical correction of the frontal ramal inclination and had signs and symptoms of the temporomandibular disorder before surgery. Three-dimensional computed tomograms were taken 1 month before the surgery (T1) and 1 day after the surgery (T2). The condylar position was evaluated at the T1 and T2 stages on the axial, frontal, and sagittal aspects in the three-dimensional coordinates. The linear change of the posterior border of the proximal segment of the ramus between T1 and T2 was also evaluated in 30 condyles (15 patients), with the exception of 10 condyles of 5 patients who received mandibular angle reduction surgery. There was no significant difference in the condylar position in the frontal and sagittal aspects (P > 0.05). Although there was a significant difference in the condylar position in the axial aspect (P < 0.01), the amount of difference was less than 1 mm and 1 degree; it can be considered clinically nonsignificant. In the linear change of the posterior border of the proximal segment of the ramus, the mean change was 1.4 mm and 60% of the samples showed a minimal change of less than 1 mm. The results of this study suggest that CAD/CAM-made condyle positioning jig is easy to install and reliable to use in orthognathic surgery.


    Qiu Baoyun; Huang Jiyan; Yuan Shouqi


    Characters of head of low head pump station and the pump shaft power are analyzed. Influence of each single factor on pump shaft power is expressed as change of specific shaft power (non-dimensional) and the probability density function is determined. Influences of multiple factors on pump shaft power are analyzed. Method of calculating none over-loaded probability of motor by integration by successive reductions is put forward and then relation between power spare coefficient and none over-loaded reliability of electric motor is established. Influences of all factors on pump shaft power being considered completely; power spare coefficients of motor are calculated in three kinds of heads (changing and unchanging), two kinds of dirty-out conditions. Electrical motor power spare coefficients should be chosen as 1.20~1.44, 1.11~1.19, 1.09~1.14 respectively when pump heads are 4, 7, 9.5 m. The results mean much to reasonable choose of electrical motors in large pump stations, increasing reliability of pump units and saving equipment investment.

  17. Upscaling Retardation Factor of Porous Media with Multimodal Sorption Coefficient and Conductivity

    Deng, H.; Dai, Z.; Wolfsberg, A. V.; Ye, M.; Lu, Z.


    Aquifer heterogeneity controls spatial and temporal variability of reactive transport parameters and has significant impact on subsurface flow and transport. We propose a conceptual model of reactive mineral facies for reactive transport in hierarchical heterogeneous porous media with multimodal sorption coefficients and hydraulic conductivity. Based on the conceptual model, covariance of hydraulic conductivity, sorption coefficient, flow velocity, retardation factor, and cross-covariance between flow velocity and retardation factor are derived from geostatistical characterization of a hypothetical, three-dimensional unbounded porous formation. Then with a Lagrangian approach the scale-dependent analytical expressions are developed to describe the change trend of effective retardation factors in temporal and spatial domains. When time and space scales become large enough, the effective retardation factors approximate their composite arithmetic mean. Correlation between the hydraulic conductivity and the sorption coefficient can seriously affect the patterns of change in the effective retardation factor in temporal and spatial domains. When temporal and spatial scales are relatively small in a reactive transport simulation, the variations of the effective retardation factors are relatively large. The results from this study provide a methodology to develop effective transport parameters for field-scale modeling at which risk assessment and remediation is actually conducted.

  18. A dynamic coefficient polynomial predistorter based on direct learning architecture

    Li Bo; Ge Jianhua; Ai Bo


    A dynamic coefficient polynomial predistorter based on direct learning architecture is proposed. Compared to the existing polynomial predistorter, on the one hand, the proposed predistorter based on the direct learning architecture is more robust to initial conditions of the tap coefficients than that based on indirect learning architecture; on the other hand, by using two polynomial coefficient combinations, different polynomial coefficient combination can be selected when the input signal amplitude changes, which effectively decreases the estimate error. This paper introduces the direct learning architecture and gives the dynamic coefficient polynomial expression. A simplified nonlinear recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm for polynomial coefficient estimation is also derived in detail. Computer simulations show that the proposed predistorter can attain 31dB, 28dB and 40dB spectrum suppression gain when our method is applied to the traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA), solid state power amplifier (SSPA) and polynomial power amplifier (PA) model, respectively.

  19. Roughness coefficient and its uncertainty in gravel-bed river

    Ji-Sung KIM; Chan-Joo LEE; Won KIM; Yong-Jeon KIM


    Manning's roughness coefficient was estimated for a gravel-bed river reach using field measurements of water level and discharge,and the applicability of various methods used for estimation of the roughness coefficient was evaluated.Results show that the roughness coefficient tends to decrease with increasing discharge and water depth,and over a certain range it appears to remain constant.Comparison of roughness coefficients calculated by field measurement data with those estimated by other methods shows that,although the field-measured values provide approximate roughness coefficients for relatively large discharge,there seems to be rather high uncertainty due to the difference in resultant values.For this reason,uncertainty related to the roughness coefficient was analyzed in terms of change in computed variables.On average,a 20%increase of the roughness coefficient causes a 7% increase in the water depth and an 8% decrease in velocity,but there may be about a 15% increase in the water depth and an equivalent decrease in velocity for certain cross-sections in the study reach.Finally,the validity of estimated roughness coefficient based on field measurements was examined.A 10% error in discharge measurement may lead to more than 10% uncertainty in roughness coefficient estimation,but corresponding uncertainty in computed water depth and velocity is reduced to approximately 5%.Conversely,the necessity for roughness coefficient estimation by field measurement is confirmed.

  20. Transport coefficients of heavy baryons

    Tolos, Laura; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Das, Santosh K.


    We compute the transport coefficients (drag and momentum diffusion) of the low-lying heavy baryons Λc and Λb in a medium of light mesons formed at the later stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the Fokker-Planck approach to obtain the transport coefficients from unitarized baryon-meson interactions based on effective field theories that respect chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We provide the transport coefficients as a function of temperature and heavy-baryon momentum, and analyze the applicability of certain nonrelativistic estimates. Moreover we compare our outcome for the spatial diffusion coefficient to the one coming from the solution of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation, and we find a very good agreement between both calculations. The transport coefficients for Λc and Λb in a thermal bath will be used in a subsequent publication as input in a Langevin evolution code for the generation and propagation of heavy particles in heavy-ion collisions at LHC and RHIC energies.

  1. Harmony Coefficient and Regional Agricultural Systems

    YANG Shi-qi; GAO Wang-sheng


    The regional agricultural system (RAS) can be divided into three subsystems: ecological, economic, and social. This article examines the use of the harmony coefficient (HC), efficacy coefficient, rank of the harmony coefficient (RHC), and its appraising index system within the RAS. The harmony coefficient function was developed using a variance coefficient and then applied to Ziyang District, Yiyang City in Hunan Province (ZYH), China, as a test case. From 1995 to 2002, the HC of RAS increased from 0.2982 to 0.4826 and the RHC increased from 3 to 5, although the HC trend was an "n" type in general. This suggests that the HC was weakly maladjusted and the RAS was not harmonious. The HC of the ecological subsystem decreased from 0.3898 to 0.2850, and its RHC from 4 to 3, with the HC trend following the "n" type. For the economic subsystem, the HC value increased from 0.5767 to 0.7458 and the RHC from 6 to 8. However, the trend in HC for the economic subsystem was of the "U" type. The HC of the social subsystem increased slightly from 0.4948 to 0.4663,and the RHC did not change in value. From the HC trends, the HC curve of the economic subsystem is above the HC curve of ZYH and the HC curve of the ecological subsystem is below the HC curve of ZHY. Hence, the ZHY environment has been destroyed by economic development. Environment and social building should be regarded as important issues in the future and promoting RAS harmony development should be considered. The results of the theoretical analysis match fairly closely with reality, and suggest that the harmony theory is feasible in appraising RAS development phases.

  2. Recursive construction of operator product expansion coefficients

    Holland, J


    We derive a novel formula for the derivative of operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients with respect to a coupling constant. The formula only involves the OPE coefficients themselves, and no further input, and is in this sense self-consistent. Furthermore, unlike other formal identities of this general nature in quantum field theory (such as the formal expression for the Lagrangian perturbation of a correlation function), our formula is completely well-defined from the start, i.e. requires no further UV-renormalization. This feature is a result of a cancelation of UV-divergences between various terms in our identity. Our proof, and an analysis of the features, of our identity is given for the example of massive, Euclidean $\\varphi^4$ theory in 4 dimensional Euclidean space, and relies heavily on the framework of the renormalization group flow equations. It is valid to arbitrary, but finite orders in perturbation theory. The final formula, however, makes no explicit reference to the renormalization group...

  3. Michelson interferometer for the piezoelectric coefficient measurements

    Muensit, S.


    Full Text Available The present work has described the Michelson interferometer which is capable of measuring the vibrational amplitudes in a sub-angstrom range. In the system, a He-Ne laser is used as a monochromatic source of light and a photodiode as a detector to convert an optical signal into an electronic one. Lock-in detections of the electronic signals are applied to relate the vibrational amplitudes to the wavelength of the laser beam. A feedback circuit is introduced in order to stabilize the sensitivity of the interferometric system. With this setup, a mechanical displacement referred to a change in thickness of a vibrating sample can be measured and the corresponding piezoelectric coefficient, i.e. the ratio of the change in sample thickness to the applied voltage, evaluated. In order to check the performance of the system, measurements on lithium niobate (LiNbO3 have been made and its piezoelectric coefficient d33 was confirmed with 2% accuracy. The piezoelectric coefficient d33 for lead zirconate titanate (PZT ceramics was, therefore, determined by this interferometer and found to be 270 pm/V.

  4. Incipient UV-Induced Structural Changes in Neutrophil Granulocytes: Morphometric and Texture Analysis of Two-Dimensional Digital Images.

    Grbatinić, Ivan; Milošević, Nebojša T


    The aim of this study is to determine the ability and consequent significance of fractal and lacunarity analysis together with computational morphometric and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis in detecting subtle initial UVB-induced chromatin and cytosolic changes in neutrophil granulocytes. In addition, the direction and potential significance of the observed changes is speculated. Feulgen-stained neutrophils are pictured and their digitalized images are analyzed in specialized software for digital image processing and ImageJ analysis. Significant statistical difference is observed (p0.05). For other parameters there was mostly high statistical significance (p>0.05). Significant unmatched correlations were found as sensitive markers of early morphological changes in cells exposed to UV light. In addition, the correlation between nuclear area and entropy was determined and was highly significant (p<0.001). UVB light, due to its high absorbance by DNA molecules, leads to double behavior of the cells. On one hand, cells start to rearrange but on the other UV light starts very early to immediately damage the cell. All these processes are very subtle in their intensity and GLCM analysis and computational imaging methods based on fractal geometry, i.e. fractal and morphometric analysis, in particular their combination, are very sensitive for detecting and describing these early chromatin changes.

  5. A Multi-Dimensional Approach to Gradient Change in Phonological Acquisition: A Case Study of Disordered Speech Development

    Glaspey, Amy M.; MacLeod, Andrea A. N.


    The purpose of the current study is to document phonological change from a multidimensional perspective for a 3-year-old boy with phonological disorder by comparing three measures: (1) accuracy of consonant productions, (2) dynamic assessment, and (3) acoustic analysis. The methods included collecting a sample of the targets /s, [image omitted],…

  6. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Jacek Dziok


    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  7. Alteração dimensional linear de resinas para bases de próteses polimerizadas com microondas Linear dimensional change of denture base resins cured by microwave activation

    Katia Olmedo BRAUN


    cycles, and the Acron MC resin was cured by microwave activation only. The samples had three marks, and dimensions of 65 mm in length, 10 mm in width and 3 mm in thickness. Twenty-one test specimens were fabricated for each combination of resin and cure cycle, and they were submitted to three linear dimensional evaluations for two positions (A and B. The changes were evaluated using a microscope. The results indicated that all acrylic resins, regardless of the cure cycle, showed increased linear dimension after 30 days of storage in water. The composition of the acrylic resin affected the results more than the cure cycles, and the conventional acrylic resin (Lucitone 550 and Clássico cured by microwave activation presented similar results when compared with the resin specific for microwave activation.

  8. The impact of segmental volumetric changes on functional mitral regurgitation: a study using three-dimensional regional time-volume analysis combined with low-dose dobutamine.

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Hsiung, Ming-Chon; Mu, Yuming


    Using transthoracic three-dimensional (3D) echo regional volume analysis combined with low-dose dobutamine to investigate the effects on regional volume, mitral configuration and functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). Fifty-six patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) were included in this study. The effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) of FMR secondary to ICM with depressed left ventricular ejection fraction was compared with mitral tenting area and coaptation height (CH) before and after low-dose dobutamine (10 μg/kg per min). Using 3-DQ software we measured and calculated regional stroke-volumes (rSV), the ratio of the rSV to the whole left ventricular stroke volume (rgSVratio) in all 17 segments and the average rgSVratio of 4 anterior-PM attached segments (rgSVratio-aver anter-PM), 4 posterior-PM attached segments (rgSVratio-aver post-PM), 8 PMs attached segments (rgSVratio-aver PMs) and all 17 segments before and after dobutamine. Compared with the resting condition, the SVr and rgSVratio on the basal and mid segments of anterior, lateral, inferior, and posterior walls were increased after dobutamine infusion (P FMR decreasing during low-dose dobutamine is quantitatively associated with the regional LV volume change of attached PMs. Real time transthoracic three-dimensional echocardiography may provide a simple and noninvasive approach to assess regional LV time-volume characteristic during FMR. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Numerical Study of Cerebroarterial Hemodynamic Changes Following Carotid Artery Operation: A Comparison Between Multiscale Modeling and Stand-Alone Three-Dimensional Modeling.

    Liang, Fuyou; Oshima, Marie; Huang, Huaxiong; Liu, Hao; Takagi, Shu


    Free outflow boundary conditions have been widely adopted in hemodynamic model studies, they, however, intrinsically lack the ability to account for the regulatory mechanisms of systemic hemodynamics and hence carry a risk of producing incorrect results when applied to vascular segments with multiple outlets. In the present study, we developed a multiscale model capable of incorporating global cardiovascular properties into the simulation of blood flows in local vascular segments. The multiscale model was constructed by coupling a three-dimensional (3D) model of local arterial segments with a zero-one-dimensional (0-1-D) model of the cardiovascular system. Numerical validation based on an idealized model demonstrated the ability of the multiscale model to preserve reasonable pressure/flow wave transmission among different models. The multiscale model was further calibrated with clinical data to simulate cerebroarterial hemodynamics in a patient undergoing carotid artery operation. The results showed pronounced hemodynamic changes in the cerebral circulation following the operation. Additional numerical experiments revealed that a stand-alone 3D model with free outflow conditions failed to reproduce the results obtained by the multiscale model. These results demonstrated the potential advantage of multiscale modeling over single-scale modeling in patient-specific hemodynamic studies. Due to the fact that the present study was limited to a single patient, studies on more patients would be required to further confirm the findings.

  10. Three-dimensional (3D) GIS-based coastline change analysis and display using LIDAR series data

    Zhou, G.

    This paper presents a method to visualize and analyze topography and topographic changes on coastline area. The study area, Assantage Island Nation Seashore (AINS), is located along a 37-mile stretch of Assateague Island National Seashore in Eastern Shore, VA. The DEMS data sets from 1996 through 2000 for various time intervals, e.g., year-to-year, season-to-season, date-to-date, and a four year (1996-2000) are created. The spatial patterns and volumetric amounts of erosion and deposition of each part on a cell-by-cell basis were calculated. A 3D dynamic display system using ArcView Avenue for visualizing dynamic coastal landforms has been developed. The system was developed into five functional modules: Dynamic Display, Analysis, Chart analysis, Output, and Help. The Display module includes five types of displays: Shoreline display, Shore Topographic Profile, Shore Erosion Display, Surface TIN Display, and 3D Scene Display. Visualized data include rectified and co-registered multispectral Landsat digital image and NOAA/NASA ATM LIDAR data. The system is demonstrated using multitemporal digital satellite and LIDAR data for displaying changes on the Assateague Island National Seashore, Virginia. The analyzed results demonstrated that a further understanding to the study and comparison of the complex morphological changes that occur naturally or human-induced on barrier islands is required.

  11. Adaptive DOA Estimation Using a Database of PARCOR Coefficients

    Mochida Eiji


    Full Text Available An adaptive direction-of-arrival (DOA tracking method based upon a linear predictive model is developed. This method estimates the DOA by using a database that stores PARCOR coefficients as key attributes and the corresponding DOAs as non-key attributes. The -dimensional digital search tree is used as the data structure to allow efficient multidimensional searching. The nearest neighbour to the current PARCOR coefficient is retrieved from the database, and the corresponding DOA is regarded as the estimate. The processing speed is very fast since the DOA estimation is obtained by the multidimensional searching. Simulations are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Dynamic ADI methods for elliptic equations with gradient dependent coefficients

    Doss, S.


    The dynamic alternating direction implicit (DADI) methods, previously introduced and applied to elliptic problems with linear and nonlinear coefficients (a(u)), are applied here to elliptic problems with nonlinear gradient-dependent coefficients (a(grad u)), such as the minimal surface equation, the capillary surface equation, and the magnetostatic equation. Certain improvements of these methods are developed, and they are extended to ''3-directional'' or ''3-dimensional'' situations. 28 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Static pressure and temperature coefficients of working standard microphones

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Torras Rosell, Antoni


    The sensitivity of measurement microphones is affected by changes in the environmental conditions, mainly temperature and static pressure. This rate of change has been the object of previous studies focused on Laboratory Standard microphones. The literature describes frequency dependent values...... for these coefficients which are used for calibration purposes. Working standard microphones are not exempt of these influences. However, manufacturers usually provide a low frequency value of the environmental coefficient. While in some applications the influence of this coefficient may be negligible, in others it may...

  14. Effective Viscosity Coefficient of Nanosuspensions

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.; Egorov, V. V.


    Systematic calculations of the effective viscosity coefficient of nanosuspensions have been performed using the molecular dynamics method. It is established that the viscosity of a nanosuspension depends not only on the volume concentration of the nanoparticles but also on their mass and diameter. Differences from Einstein's relation are found even for nanosuspensions with a low particle concentration.

  15. Irrational "Coefficients" in Renaissance Algebra.

    Oaks, Jeffrey A


    Argument From the time of al-Khwārizmī in the ninth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century algebraists did not allow irrational numbers to serve as coefficients. To multiply by x, for instance, the result was expressed as the rhetorical equivalent of . The reason for this practice has to do with the premodern concept of a monomial. The coefficient, or "number," of a term was thought of as how many of that term are present, and not as the scalar multiple that we work with today. Then, in sixteenth-century Europe, a few algebraists began to allow for irrational coefficients in their notation. Christoff Rudolff (1525) was the first to admit them in special cases, and subsequently they appear more liberally in Cardano (1539), Scheubel (1550), Bombelli (1572), and others, though most algebraists continued to ban them. We survey this development by examining the texts that show irrational coefficients and those that argue against them. We show that the debate took place entirely in the conceptual context of premodern, "cossic" algebra, and persisted in the sixteenth century independent of the development of the new algebra of Viète, Decartes, and Fermat. This was a formal innovation violating prevailing concepts that we propose could only be introduced because of the growing autonomy of notation from rhetorical text.

  16. Research on friction coefficient of nuclear Reactor Vessel Internals Hold Down Spring: Stress coefficient test analysis method

    Linjun, Xie, E-mail: [College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Guohong, Xue; Ming, Zhang [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research & Design Institute, Shanghai 200233 (China)


    Graphical abstract: HDS stress coefficient test apparatus. - Highlights: • This paper performs mathematic deduction to the physical model of Hold Down Spring (HDS), establishes a mathematic model of axial load P and stress, stress coefficient and friction coefficient and designs a set of test apparatuses for simulating the pretightening process of the HDS for the first time according to a model similarity criterion. • The mathematical relation between the load and the strain is obtained about the HDS, and the mathematical model of the stress coefficient and the friction coefficient is established. So, a set of test apparatuses for obtaining the stress coefficient is designed according to the model scaling criterion and the friction coefficient of the K1000 HDS is calculated to be 0.336 through the obtained stress coefficient. • The relation curve between the theoretical load and the friction coefficient is obtained through analysis and indicates that the change of the friction coefficient f would influence the pretightening load under the condition of designed stress. The necessary pretightening load in the design process is calculated to be 5469 kN according to the obtained friction coefficient. Therefore, the friction coefficient and the pretightening load under the design conditions can provide accurate pretightening data for the analysis and design of the reactor HDS according to the operations. - Abstract: This paper performs mathematic deduction to the physical model of Hold Down Spring (HDS), establishes a mathematic model of axial load P and stress, stress coefficient and friction coefficient and designs a set of test apparatuses for simulating the pretightening process of the HDS for the first time according to a model similarity criterion. By carrying out tests and researches through a stress testing technique, P–σ curves in loading and unloading processes of the HDS are obtained and the stress coefficient k{sub f} of the HDS is obtained. So, the

  17. Modelling the concentration and dimensional changes in the structural constituents of vermicular graphite cast iron on cooling within the range of solidus-eutectoid temperature

    W. Kapturkiewicz


    Full Text Available A mathcmaricaI modcl md a simulation prognm havc bccn dcvclopd lo trace changcs in thc stnlcturc of W-C alloy on ctwliag hp111 ihcsolidus tcmpcraturc to thc !cmpcmtwrc of cutccloid tmsformation. A simplitid schematic rcprcscntatinn OF thc proccss can hc rcrcrml to thccast iron with vcrmicular gnphirc. Thc numerical cxprirncnts using the ncwly dcvcl~pcd program havc proved a significant crfcct of thccooling conditions and stmcturc rcfincmcnt dcgm (~hcdi mensions of austenitc on thc concentration ficld in nustcnilc and. conscr~ucntlyo. nthc dimensional changes of gmphitc within thc cxamincd cooling range. Thc dcvclopcd mcrhds of rnodclling rhc proccss of transrormntioncnablc including thc proccdurc into a cornplcx softwm o p t i n g in a system reproducing in rcal mnnncr the cxt ing configun~ion. whilc thcohtaincd rcsuIts indicate an imponant cffcct of thcrrnophysicaI parameters md hcat transfcr proccss on final aliay an~cturc

  18. Dimensional change in soft tissues with complete dental prosthesis and its effect on airway space and natural head position

    T V Padmanabhan


    Full Text Available Background: Insertion of the intraoral prosthesis causes deflection of the tongue, soft palate affecting the patency of the airway. Aims: To evaluate the cephalometric soft tissue variation in tongue, soft palate, and its effect on posterior airway space in edentulous patients with the insertion of the denture. Settings and Design: Randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Complete denture (CD prosthesis was fabricated for first time denture wearers comprising 22 males and 18 females within the age range of 50-65 years. Lateral skull radiographs were taken for each of the subjects in their resting position without CDs (T0, with CDs (T1 at least 1-week postinsertion and after 6 months of usage (T2, respectively. The reference points, lines, and angles on the cephalometric films were used to evaluate the position or inclination of the head, variations in tongue position and length, the changes in the anteroposterior dimension of the soft palate, and posterior airway space variations. Intra-investigator error variance was not found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05. Statistical Analysis Used: Using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v16.0 the significant difference in the paired samples (without CD and with CD was found using the paired t-test. The probability value P = 0.05 is considered as a significant level. Results : On comparison of T1 and T0, the heads were more extended with the downward position of the tongue with an increase in its length and the posterior airway space was decreased in T1. Significant differences in values were not observed between T1 and T2. Conclusions : With CDs, the change in airway space was related to alteration in soft palate and tongue dimension. There were no changes in dimension at 6 months follow-up.

  19. Two-Dimensional Variational Analysis of Near-Surface Moisture from Simulated Radar Refractivity-Related Phase Change Observations

    Ken-ichi SHIMOSE; Ming XUE; Robert D.PALMER; Jidong GAO; Boon Leng CHEONG; David J.BODINE


    Because they are most sensitive to atmospheric moisture content,radar refractivity observations can provide high-resolution information about the highly variable low-level moisture field.In this study,simulated radar refractivity-related phase-change data were created using a radar simulator from realistic high-resolution model simulation data for a dryline case.These data were analyzed using the 2DVAR system developed specifically for the phase-change data.Two sets of experiments with the simulated observations were performed,one assuming a uniform target spacing of 250 m and one assuming nonuniform spacing between 250 m to 4 km.Several sources of observation error were considered,and their impacts were examined.They included errors due to ground target position uncertainty,typical random errors associated with radar measurements,and gross error due to phase wrapping.Without any additional information,the 2DVAR system was incapable of dealing with phase-wrapped data directly.When there was no phase wrapping in the data,the 2DVAR produced excellent analyses,even in the presence of both position uncertainty and random radar measurement errors.When a separate pre-processing step was applied to unwrap the phase-wrapped data,quality moisture analyses were again obtained,although the analyses were smoother due to the reduced effective resolution of the observations by interpolation and smoothing involved in the unwrapping procedure.The unwrapping procedure was effective even when significant differences existed between the analyzed state and the state at a reference time.The results affirm the promise of using radar refractivity phase-change measurements for near-surface moisture analysis.

  20. Evaluation of natural organic matter changes from Lake Hohloh by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy during TiO(2)/UV process.

    Valencia, Sergio; Marín, Juan M; Restrepo, Gloria; Frimmel, Fritz H


    This study shows the changes of natural organic matter (NOM) from Lake Hohloh, (Black Forest, Germany) during heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 (TiO2/UV). The effect of pH on the adsorption of NOM onto TiO2 in the dark and TiO2/UV degradation of NOM was followed using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence. At pH values between 4 and 9, the NOM was adsorbed onto TiO2 in the dark with a greater decrease in the fluorescence intensity and in the spectral shapes, especially under acidic pH conditions. However, at pH = 10 there was not adsorption on NOM which led to a negligible changes the fluorescence intensity. A significant high linear correlation was observed between the DOC adsorption onto TiO2 and the maximum fluorescence intensity. Additionally, the NOM adsorption onto TiO2 and its TiO2/UV degradation shifted the fluorescence maxima toward shorter wavelengths in the EEM contour plots, with a decrease in aromaticity. These changes were accompanied by a substantial decrease in the organically bound halogens adsorbable on activated carbon (AOXFP) and the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Thus, the decrease in maximum fluorescence intensity can be used as an indicator of AOXFP and TTHMFP removal efficiency. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy is a robust analytical technique for evaluate TiO2/UV removal of NOM.

  1. An Irreducible Form for the Asymptotic Expansion Coefficients of the Heat Kernel of Fermions

    Yajima, S.; Fukuda, M.; Tokuo, S.; Kubota, S.-I.; Higashida, Y.; Kamo, Y.


    We consider the asymptotic coefficients of the heat kernel for a fermion of spin (1)/(2) interacting with all types of non-abelian boson fields, i.e. totally antisymmetric tensor fields, in even dimensional Riemannian space. The coefficients are decomposed by irreducible matrices which are the totally antisymmetric product of the γ-matrices. The form of the coefficients given in our method is useful to evaluate some fermionic anomalies.

  2. Nye dimensioner

    Rapport med bidrag fra symposiet Nye Dimensioner 24.-26. nov. 2011 samt nye selvstændige bidrag......Rapport med bidrag fra symposiet Nye Dimensioner 24.-26. nov. 2011 samt nye selvstændige bidrag...

  3. Quantifying colocalization by correlation: the Pearson correlation coefficient is superior to the Mander's overlap coefficient.

    Adler, Jeremy; Parmryd, Ingela


    The Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and the Mander's overlap coefficient (MOC) are used to quantify the degree of colocalization between fluorophores. The MOC was introduced to overcome perceived problems with the PCC. The two coefficients are mathematically similar, differing in the use of either the absolute intensities (MOC) or of the deviation from the mean (PCC). A range of correlated datasets, which extend to the limits of the PCC, only evoked a limited response from the MOC. The PCC is unaffected by changes to the offset while the MOC increases when the offset is positive. Both coefficients are independent of gain. The MOC is a confusing hybrid measurement, that combines correlation with a heavily weighted form of co-occurrence, favors high intensity combinations, downplays combinations in which either or both intensities are low and ignores blank pixels. The PCC only measures correlation. A surprising finding was that the addition of a second uncorrelated population can substantially increase the measured correlation, demonstrating the importance of excluding background pixels. Overall, since the MOC is unresponsive to substantial changes in the data and is hard to interpret, it is neither an alternative to nor a useful substitute for the PCC. The MOC is not suitable for making measurements of colocalization either by correlation or co-occurrence.

  4. Three-dimensional morphometric analysis of microglial changes in a mouse model of virus encephalitis: age and environmental influences.

    de Sousa, Aline A; Dos Reis, Renata R; de Lima, Camila M; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Fernandes, Taiany N; Gomes, Giovanni F; Diniz, Daniel G; Magalhães, Nara M; Diniz, Cristovam G; Sosthenes, Marcia C K; Bento-Torres, João; Diniz, José Antonio P; Vasconcelos, Pedro F da C; Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley P


    Many RNA virus CNS infections cause neurological disease. Because Piry virus has a limited human pathogenicity and exercise reduces activation of microglia in aged mice, possible influences of environment and aging on microglial morphology and behavior in mice sublethal encephalitis were investigated. Female albino Swiss mice were raised either in standard (S) or in enriched (EE) cages from age 2 to 6 months (young - Y), or from 2 to 16 months (aged - A). After behavioral tests, mice nostrils were instilled with Piry-virus-infected or with normal brain homogenates. Brain sections were immunolabeled for virus antigens or microglia at 8 days post-infection (dpi), when behavioral changes became apparent, and at 20 and 40 dpi, after additional behavioral testing. Young infected mice from standard (SYPy) and enriched (EYPy) groups showed similar transient impairment in burrowing activity and olfactory discrimination, whereas aged infected mice from both environments (EAPy, SAPy) showed permanent reduction in both tasks. The beneficial effects of an enriched environment were smaller in aged than in young mice. Six-hundred and forty microglial cells, 80 from each group were reconstructed. An unbiased, stereological sampling approach and multivariate statistical analysis were used to search for microglial morphological families. This procedure allowed distinguishing between microglial morphology of infected and control subjects. More severe virus-associated microglial changes were observed in young than in aged mice, and EYPy seem to recover microglial homeostatic morphology earlier than SYPy . Because Piry-virus encephalitis outcomes were more severe in aged mice, it is suggested that the reduced inflammatory response in those individuals may aggravate encephalitis outcomes.

  5. Use of three-dimensional accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Bayne, Jenna E; Walz, Paul H; Passler, Thomas; White, Brad J; Theurer, Miles E; van Santen, Edzard


    OBJECTIVE To assess the use of 3-D accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with a low-virulent strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). ANIMALS 20 beef steers (mean weight, 238 kg). PROCEDURES Calves were allocated to a BVDV (n = 10) or control (10) group. On day 0, calves in the BVDV group were inoculated with a low-virulent strain of BVDV (4 × 10(6) TCID50, intranasally), and calves in the control group were sham inoculated with BVDV-free medium (4 mL; intranasally). An accelerometer was affixed to the right hind limb of each calf on day -7 to record activity (lying, walking, and standing) continuously until 35 days after inoculation. Baseline was defined as days -7 to -1. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for CBC, serum biochemical analysis, virus isolation, and determination of anti-BVDV antibody titers. RESULTS All calves in the BVDV group developed viremia and anti-BVDV antibodies but developed only subclinical or mild disease. Calves in the control group did not develop viremia or anti-BVDV antibodies. Mean time allocated to each activity did not differ significantly between the BVDV and control groups on any day except day 8, when calves in the BVDV group spent less time standing than the calves in the control group. Following inoculation, calves in both groups tended to spend more time lying and less time walking and standing than they did during baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that behavioral data obtained by accelerometers could not distinguish calves subclinically infected with BVDV from healthy control calves. However, subtle changes in the behavior of the BVDV-infected calves were detected and warrant further investigation.

  6. Control in the coefficients with variational crimes

    Evgrafov, Anton; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi


    We study convergence of discontinuous Galerkin-type discretizations of the problems of control in the coefficients of uniformly elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). As a model problem we use that of the optimal design of thin (Kirchhoff) plates, where the governing equations are of the......We study convergence of discontinuous Galerkin-type discretizations of the problems of control in the coefficients of uniformly elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). As a model problem we use that of the optimal design of thin (Kirchhoff) plates, where the governing equations...... are of the fourth order. Methods which do not require approximation subspaces to conform to the smoothness requirements dictated by the PDE are very attractive for such problems. However, variational formulations of such methods normally contain boundary integrals whose dependence on the small, with respect...... to “volumetric” Lebesgue norm, changes of the coefficients is generally speaking not continuous. We utilize the lifting formulation of the discontinuous Galerkin method to deal with this issue.Our main result is that limit points of sequences of designs verifying discrete versions of stationarity can also...

  7. Continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics during a marathon by means of inertial magnetic measurement units to objectify changes in running mechanics.

    Reenalda, Jasper; Maartens, Erik; Homan, Lotte; Buurke, J H Jaap


    Recent developments in wearable and wireless sensor technology allow for a continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics in the sport specific setting. The present study is the first to demonstrate the possibility of analyzing three dimensional (3D) running mechanics continuously, by means of inertial magnetic measurement units, to objectify changes in mechanics over the course of a marathon. Three well trained male distance runners ran a marathon while equipped with inertial magnetic measurement units on trunk, pelvis, upper legs, lower legs and feet to obtain a 3D view of running mechanics and to asses changes in running mechanics over the course of a marathon. Data were continuously recorded during the entire 42.2km (26.2Miles) of the Marathon. Data from the individual sensors were transmitted wirelessly to a receiver, mounted on the handlebar of an accompanying cyclist. Anatomical calibration was performed using both static and dynamic procedures and sensor orientations were thus converted to body segment orientations by means of transformation matrices obtained from the segment calibration. Joint angle (hip, knee and ankle) trajectories as well as center of mass (COM) trajectory and acceleration were derived from the sensor data after segment calibration. Data were collected and repeated measures one way ANOVA׳s, with Tukey post-hoc test, were used to statistically analyze differences between the defined kinematic parameters (max hip angle, peak knee flexion at mid-stance and at mid-swing, ankle angle at initial contact and COM vertical displacement and acceleration), averaged over 100 strides, between the first and the last stages (8 and 40km) of the marathon. Significant changes in running mechanics were witnessed between the first and the last stage of the marathon. This study showed the possibility of performing a 3D kinematic analysis of the running technique, in the sport specific setting, by using inertial magnetic measurement units. For

  8. Reactivity feedback coefficients Pakistan research reactor-1 using PRIDE code

    Mansoor, Ali; Ahmed, Siraj-ul-Islam; Khan, Rustam [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Inam-ul-Haq [Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics


    Results of the analyses performed for fuel, moderator and void's temperature feedback reactivity coefficients for the first high power core configuration of Pakistan Research Reactor - 1 (PARR-1) are summarized. For this purpose, a validated three dimensional model of PARR-1 core was developed and confirmed against the reference results for reactivity calculations. The ''Program for Reactor In-Core Analysis using Diffusion Equation'' (PRIDE) code was used for development of global (3-dimensional) model in conjunction with WIMSD4 for lattice cell modeling. Values for isothermal fuel, moderator and void's temperature feedback reactivity coefficients have been calculated. Additionally, flux profiles for the five energy groups were also generated.

  9. Study of Dispersion Coefficient Channel

    Akiyama, K. R.; Bressan, C. K.; Pires, M. S. G.; Canno, L. M.; Ribeiro, L. C. L. J.


    The issue of water pollution has worsened in recent times due to releases, intentional or not, of pollutants in natural water bodies. This causes several studies about the distribution of pollutants are carried out. The water quality models have been developed and widely used today as a preventative tool, ie to try to predict what will be the concentration distribution of constituent along a body of water in spatial and temporal scale. To understand and use such models, it is necessary to know some concepts of hydraulic high on their application, including the longitudinal dispersion coefficient. This study aims to conduct a theoretical and experimental study of the channel dispersion coefficient, yielding more information about their direct determination in the literature.

  10. Clustering Coefficients in Multiplex Networks

    Cozzo, Emanuele; De Domenico, Manlio; Solé, Albert; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio; Porter, Mason A; Moreno, Yamir


    Recent advances in the study of complex networked systems has highlighted that our interconnected world is made of networks that are coupled together through different layers that each stand for one type of interaction or system. Despite this situation, it is traditional to aggregate multiplex data into a single weighted network in order take advantage of existing tools. This is admittedly convenient, but it is also extremely problematic. In this paper, we generalize the concept of clustering coefficients for multiplex networks. We show how the layered structure of multiplex networks introduces a new degree of freedom that has a fundamental effect on transitivity. We compute our new multiplex clustering coefficients for several real multiplex networks and illustrate why generalizing monoplex concepts to multiplex networks must be done with great care.

  11. Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of plasma membrane protein changes associated with concanavalin A-induced capping in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Patton, W.F.; Dhanak, M.R.; Savas, P.C.; Shiozawa, J.A.; Chiklis, G.R.; Jacobson, B.S.


    The colloidal silica and magnetite plasma membrane (PM) isolation techniques which are rapid, high-yielding and immobilize PM proteins, allow the study of transient cell surface changes. In addition, since the external face of the PM is shielded by the colloids, transbilayer mapping can be done by labeling the PM-proteins before and after PM isolation. PM-proteins isolated by these procedures were characterized by 2D gel analysis using microcomputer-videodensitometry. The orientation of the proteins in the bilayer was determined by LPO-catalyzed iodination. Cells were examined at four stages of concanavalin A (con A) induced capping: without ligand, after ligand binding, during receptor patching, and during receptor capping. PM-proteins were characterized with respect to their M.W., pI, Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton association, phosphorylation state, LPO iodination and con A binding. When cells were patched before Triton extraction, more PM-proteins were found associated with the cytoskeleton than without patching. Similar results were obtained with the F-actin cosedimentation assay; however, some binding occurred even in the absence of the lectin. The phosphorylation state of the PM-proteins after steady state labeling of the cells with /sup 32/PO/sub 4/ was not significantly altered by con A ligation.


    Deniz Aydemir


    Full Text Available Changes in chemical constituents and some physical properties such as swelling and water absorption of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L and uludag fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf. wood were investigated after heat treatment at three different temperatures (170 oC, 190 oC, and 210 oC for three different durations (4, 8, and 12 hours by using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometry. The results of TGA show that there was less weight loss in the main degradation region (300-500 oC for the heat-treated samples as compared to untreated (control samples. In addition, there was greater weight loss of hornbeam wood than of uludag fir wood in a similar degradation region. This difference could be due to the chemical constituents of softwoods and hardwoods. The results of FTIR spectrometry show that the chemical constituents of the hornbeam wood samples were more affected by heat treatment. All heat-treated samples exhibited lower water absorption and swelling compared to control samples. It was found that the relative decrease in swelling and water absorption for uludag fir was higher than for hornbeam. The maximum decrease in water absorption and swelling was found for both species that were heat-treated at 210 oC for 12 hours.

  13. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho


    Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...

  14. Determining pitch-angle diffusion coefficients from test particle simulations

    Ivascenko, A; Spanier, F; Vainio, R


    Transport and acceleration of charged particles in turbulent media is a topic of great interest in space physics and interstellar astrophysics. These processes are dominated by the scattering of particles off magnetic irregularities. The scattering process itself is usually described by small-angle scattering with the pitch-angle coefficient $D_{\\mu\\mu}$ playing a major role. Since the diffusion coefficient $D_{\\mu\\mu}$ can be determined analytically only for the approximation of quasi-linear theory, the determination of this coefficient from numerical simulations has, therefore, become more important. So far these simulations yield particle tracks for small-scale scattering, which can then be interpreted using the running diffusion coefficients. This method has a limited range of validity. This paper presents two new methods that allow for the calculation of the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient from numerical simulations. These methods no longer analyse particle trajectories, but the change of particle dist...

  15. Quantitative assessment of changes in carotid plaques during cilostazol administration using three-dimensional ultrasonography and non-gated magnetic resonance plaque imaging

    Yamaguchi, Mao; Ohba, Hideki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Narumi, Shinsuke; Katsura, Noriyuki; Ohura, Kazumasa; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology and Gerontology, Morioka (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke [Iwate Medical University, Division of Ultrahigh Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Morioka (Japan)


    Cilostazol, an antiplatelet agent, is reported to induce the regression of atherosclerotic changes. However, its effects on carotid plaques are unknown. Hence, we quantitatively investigated the changes that occur within carotid plaques during cilostazol administration using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography (US) and non-gated magnetic resonance (MR) plaque imaging. We prospectively examined 16 consecutive patients with carotid stenosis. 3D-US and T1-weighted MR plaque imaging were performed at baseline and 6 months after initiating cilostazol therapy (200 mg/day). We measured the volume and grayscale median (GSM) of the plaques from 3D-US data. We also calculated the contrast ratio (CR) of the carotid plaque against the adjacent muscle and areas of the intraplaque components: fibrous tissue, lipid, and hemorrhage components. The plaque volume on US decreased significantly (median at baseline and 6 months, 0.23 and 0.21 cm{sup 3}, respectively; p = 0.03). In the group exhibiting a plaque volume reduction of more than 10%, GSM on US increased significantly (24.8 and 71.5, respectively; p = 0.04) and CR on MRI decreased significantly (1.13 and 1.04, respectively; p = 0.02). In this group, in addition, the percent area of the fibrous component on MRI increased significantly (68.6% and 79.4%, respectively; p = 0.02), while those of the lipid and hemorrhagic components decreased (24.9% and 20.5%, respectively; p = 0.12) (1.0% and 0.0%, respectively; p = 0.04). There were no substantial changes in intraplaque characteristics in either US or MRI in the other group. 3D-US and MR plaque imaging can quantitatively detect changes in the size and composition of carotid plaques during cilostazol therapy. (orig.)

  16. Systematic Risk on Istanbul Stock Exchange: Traditional Beta Coefficient Versus Downside Beta Coefficient

    Gülfen TUNA


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the validity of Downside Capital Asset Pricing Model (D-CAPM on the ISE. At the same time, the explanatory power of CAPM's traditional beta and D-CAPM's downside beta on the changes in the average return values are examined comparatively. In this context, the monthly data for seventy three stocks that are continuously traded on the ISE for the period 1991-2009 is used. Regression analysis is applied in this study. The research results have shown that D-CAPM is valid on the ISE. In addition, it is obtained that the power of downside beta coefficient is higher than traditional beta coefficient on explaining the return changes. Therefore, it can be said that the downside beta is superior to traditional beta in the ISE for chosen period.

  17. Dependence of the coefficient of ultrasonic velocity on the coefficient of free length in organic liquids

    LU Yigang; PENG Jianxin; TONG Jie; DONG Yanwu


    On the basis of Jacobson's free length theory and the theory of pressure coefficient and temperature coefficient of free length in liquids, the relationship between the pressure coefficient of ultrasonic velocity and the pressure coefficient of free length, and the relationship between the temperature coefficient of ultrasonic velocity and the temperature coefficient of free length were studied. Relevant equations were given, and the pressure coefficient and temperature coefficient of ultrasonic velocity were calculated, which are in agreement with the measured values.

  18. Dimensional Changes in Alveolar Ridge Following Extraction of Teeth in the Maxillary Premolar Area in Subjects with Thick and Thin Gingival Biotypes: A Pilot Study.

    Abdelhafez, Reem S; Alhabashneh, Rola; Khader, Yousef; Hijazi, Mohammed; Jarah, Mohammed


    This study investigated changes in residual ridge dimensions after tooth extraction among thin and thick gingival biotypes. Fifteen patients who required extraction of maxillary premolars were classified according to gingival biotypes (10 teeth in 9 participants were included in the thick group, and 6 teeth in 6 participants were included in the thin group). Minimally traumatic extractions were carried out using periotomes and rotational movement of teeth. At the time of extraction an osteometer was used to measure the thickness of the labial plate and the bony alveolar ridge at the extraction site by penetrating the tissues until bone was reached 5 mm, 7 mm, and 10 mm below the midpoint of the crest of the facial and palatal gingival margins. Standardized radiographs were taken immediately and after 3 months. The results of this study show minimal differences in dimensional changes following extraction of premolar teeth in thick and thin gingival biotypes. Significantly greater bone loss was detected in both gingival biotypes when the labial plate thickness was less than 1.5 mm, especially in alveolar ridge height.

  19. Three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging assessment of left ventricular change in patient with coronary heart disease and its correlation with serum indexes

    Jian-Li Fu; Jian-Mei Peng; Ya-Mei Shen; Xiao-Yong Zhang; Yu-Zeng Ding


    Objective:To analyze the three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging assessment of left ventricular change in patient with coronary heart disease and its correlation with serum indexes.Methods:A total of 152 patients first diagnosed with coronary heart disease were the observation group of the study and 117 healthy subjects were the control group. Three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (3D-STI) was used to evaluate the left ventricular function parameters of two groups, the serum content of endothelial function indexes and platelet function indexes were detected, and the correlation between left ventricular function parameters under 3D-STI and serum indexes was further analyzed.Results: Absolute values of left ventricular function parameters LVGLS, LVGRS, LVGCS and LVGAS from 3D-STI of observation group were significantly less than those of control group while Ptw and Torsion levels were greater than those of control group; endothelial function indexes vWF, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and ET-1 content in serum were significantly higher than those of control group while vWF-cp and NO content were significantly lower than those of control group; platelet function indexes CD62P, GMP-140, CD63, sP-selectin, sCD40L and PAC-1 content in serum were significantly higher than those of control group. The levels of left ventricular function parameters from 3D-STI in patients with coronary heart disease were directly correlated with serum indexes.Conclusion:3D-STI can accurately assess the left ventricular function and the overall disease severity in patients with coronary heart disease, and it is expected to become an effective method for early diagnosis of diseases and guidance of clinical treatment.

  20. Ultrafast changes in the optical properties of a titanium surface and femtosecond laser writing of one-dimensional quasi-periodic nanogratings of its relief

    Golosov, E. V. [Belgorod State University (Russian Federation); Ionin, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Kolobov, Yu. R. [Belgorod State University (Russian Federation); Kudryashov, S. I., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Ligachev, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Novoselov, Yu. N.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physics Institute (Russian Federation)


    One-dimensional quasi-periodic nanogratings with spacings in the range from 160 to 600 nm are written on a dry or wet titanium surface exposed to linearly polarized femtosecond IR and UV laser pulses with different surface energy densities. The topological properties of the obtained surface nanostructures are studied by scanning electron microscopy. Despite the observation of many harmonics of the one-dimensional surface relief in its Fourier spectra, a weak decreasing dependence of the first-harmonic wavenumber (nanograting spacing) on the laser fluence is found. Studies of the instantaneous optical characteristics of the material during laser irradiation by measuring the reflection of laser pump pulses and their simulation based on the Drude model taking into account the dominant interband absorption allowed us to estimate the length of the excited surface electromagnetic (plasmon-polariton) wave for different excitation conditions. This wavelength is quantitatively consistent with the corresponding nanograting spacings of the first harmonic of the relief of the dry and wet titanium surfaces. It is shown that the dependence of the first-harmonic nanograting spacing on the laser fluence is determined by a change in the instantaneous optical characteristics of the material and the saturation of the interband absorption along with the increasing role of intraband transitions. Three new methods are proposed for writing separate subwave surface nanogratings or their sets by femtosecond laser pulses using the near-threshold nanostructuring, the forced adjustment of the optical characteristics of the material or selecting the spectral range of laser radiation, and also by selecting an adjacent dielectric.

  1. Dimensional characteristics of low-dimensional structures

    Blood, Peter


    The purpose of this paper is to examine the dimensional aspects of the optical properties of quantum well and dot systems, without assuming that the carriers are localized to the geometrical extent of the confining potential. We show that optical absorption normal to the plane of a well cannot be expressed as an absorption coefficient but should be specified as a fraction of light transmitted or absorbed per well. The modal gain for light propagating along the plane of a well does not scale with well width and the variation of the material gain inversely proportional to the well width is a consequence of the definition of the confinement factor and has no independent physical significance. Optical absorption by quantum dots should be expressed as a cross section per dot. The radiative recombination rate is correctly expressed in terms of a 2D recombination coefficient and use of an equivalent 3D coefficient introduces an artificial dependence on well width which can lead to errors in the comparison of quantum well systems.

  2. Adaptive Peak Frequency Estimation Using a Database of PARCOR Coefficients

    Iiguni Youji


    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive peak frequency estimation method using a database that stores PARCOR coefficients as key attributes and the corresponding peak frequencies as nonkey attributes. The least-square lattice algorithm is used to recursively estimate the PARCOR coefficients to adapt to changing circumstances. The nearest neighbor to the current PARCOR coefficient is retrieved from the database, and the corresponding peak frequency is regarded as the estimation. A simultaneous execution of database construction and peak estimation with database update is performed to accelerate the processing time and to improve the estimation accuracy.

  3. Black holes, information, and the universal coefficient theorem

    Patrascu, Andrei T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)


    General relativity is based on the diffeomorphism covariant formulation of the laws of physics while quantum mechanics is based on the principle of unitary evolution. In this article, I provide a possible answer to the black hole information paradox by means of homological algebra and pairings generated by the universal coefficient theorem. The unitarity of processes involving black holes is restored by the demanding invariance of the laws of physics to the change of coefficient structures in cohomology.

  4. Exact solutions to a nonlinear dispersive model with variable coefficients

    Yin Jun [Department of Applied Mathematics, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu 610074 (China); Lai Shaoyong [Department of Applied Mathematics, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu 610074 (China)], E-mail:; Qing Yin [Department of Applied Mathematics, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu 610074 (China)


    A mathematical technique based on an auxiliary differential equation and the symbolic computation system Maple is employed to investigate a prototypical and nonlinear K(n, n) equation with variable coefficients. The exact solutions to the equation are constructed analytically under various circumstances. It is shown that the variable coefficients and the exponent appearing in the equation determine the quantitative change in the physical structures of the solutions.

  5. Assessment value of 3-dimensional speckle tracking imaging for changes of early left ventricular longitudinal systolic function in patients with primary hypertension

    Jing Yu; Yun-Jian Huang


    Objective:To study the assessment value of 3-dimensional speckle tracking imaging for changes of early left ventricular longitudinal systolic function in patients with primary hypertension.Methods:Patients with primary hypertension who were treated in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015 were selected, and 40 patients with left ventricular normal (LVN) primary hypertension and 40 patients with left ventricular remodeling (LVR) primary hypertension were screened according to Ganau typing and enrolled in the LVN group and LVR group of the study respectively; 40 cases of healthy volunteers who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group. Ultrasonic testing was conducted to determine conventional ultrasonic indicators and 3D-STI parameters, and serum was collected to determine AngII, ALD, TGF-β1 and Ang1-7 levels.Results:LVEDd, LVPWT and LVEF of LVN group were not significantly different from those of control group, LVEF of LVR group was not significantly different from those of LVN group and control group, and LVEDd and LVPWT of LVR group were significantly higher than those of LVN group and control group; absolute values of GLS, GCS, GRS and GAS as well as serum Ang1-7 level of LVN group was significantly lower than those of control group, serum AngII, ALD and TGF-β1 levels were higher than those of control group, absolute values of GLS, GCS, GRS and GAS as well as serum Ang1-7 level of LVR group was significantly lower than those of LVN group and control group, and serum AngII, ALD and TGF-β1 levels were higher than those of LVN group and control group; absolute values of GLS, GCS, GRS and GAS were negatively correlated with serum AngII, ALD and TGF-β1 levels, and positively correlated with serum Ang1-7 level.Conclusion:3-dimensional speckle tracking imaging can be used for early evaluation of left ventricular longitudinal systolic function in patients with primary hypertension, and it also has high

  6. Evaluation of protein pattern changes in roots and leaves of Zea mays plants in response to nitrate availability by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis

    Cocucci Maurizio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrogen nutrition is one of the major factors that limit growth and production of crop plants. It affects many processes, such as development, architecture, flowering, senescence and photosynthesis. Although the improvement in technologies for protein study and the widening of gene sequences have made possible the study of the plant proteomes, only limited information on proteome changes occurring in response to nitrogen amount are available up to now. In this work, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE has been used to investigate the protein changes induced by NO3- concentration in both roots and leaves of maize (Zea mays L. plants. Moreover, in order to better evaluate the proteomic results, some biochemical and physiological parameters were measured. Results Through 2-DE analysis, 20 and 18 spots that significantly changed their amount at least two folds in response to nitrate addition to the growth medium of starved maize plants were found in roots and leaves, respectively. Most of these spots were identified by Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS. In roots, many of these changes were referred to enzymes involved in nitrate assimilation and in metabolic pathways implicated in the balance of the energy and redox status of the cell, among which the pentose phosphate pathway. In leaves, most of the characterized proteins were related to regulation of photosynthesis. Moreover, the up-accumulation of lipoxygenase 10 indicated that the leaf response to a high availability of nitrate may also involve a modification in lipid metabolism. Finally, this proteomic approach suggested that the nutritional status of the plant may affect two different post-translational modifications of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase consisting in monoubiquitination and phosphorylation in roots and leaves, respectively. Conclusion This work provides a first characterization of the proteome

  7. Diffusion coefficient distribution from NMR-DOSY experiments using Hopfield neural network

    Sebastião, Rita C. O.; Pacheco, Carlos N.; Braga, J. P.; Piló-Veloso, Dorila


    Diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) is a powerful two-dimensional NMR method to study molecular translation in various systems. The diffusion coefficients are usually retrieved, at each frequency, from a fit procedure on the experimental data, considering a unique coefficient for each molecule or mixture. However, the fit can be improved if one regards the decaying curve as a multiexponential function and the diffusion coefficient as a distribution. This work presents a computer code based on the Hopfield neural network to invert the data. One small-molecule binary mixture with close diffusion coefficients is treated with this approach, demonstrating the effectiveness of the method.

  8. Post thermoforming dimensional changes of ethylene vinyl acetate used in custom-made mouthguards for trauma prevention--a pilot study.

    Geary, Julian Lindsay; Kinirons, Martin James


    It is important that mouthguards have an adequate thickness of material if they are to be effective in the prevention of trauma. The aim of this study was to quantify dimensional changes that occur on thermoforming ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) sheets used in the construction of mouthguards. Fourteen batches of 3 mm thick sheet EVA were thermoformed over dental models under a number of common processing conditions including, model height, inclination, shape and model temperature, model position on thermoforming platform, plasticizing time and evacuation method. Thickness of thermoformed material was determined at anterior and posterior sites and measurements were compared to determine the magnitude and patterns of stretching collectively and within each processing condition. Overall, sheets of 3-mm EVA stretched by 52% during the thermoforming conditions tested. Incisal/cuspal sites were found to be significantly thinner when compared with all other locations measured. A number of thermoforming conditions were demonstrated to have a significant effect on the degree to which the EVA material stretched. For the combination of materials and equipment tested in this study, current thermoforming practices may cause excessive thinning of EVA in critical areas including incisal edges and cusp tips, thereby reducing the protective effect for professionally made mouthguards. To optimize protection in vulnerable areas, it is important that clinicians distinguish between EVA sheet thickness and the cross-sectional dimensions achieved in the finished mouthguards. They need to be specific in their prescription of the thickness of material they require especially in critical areas.

  9. Dynamic change in mitral annular area and motion during percutaneous mitral annuloplasty for ischemic mitral regurgitation: preliminary animal study with real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography.

    Daimon, Masao; Gillinov, A Marc; Liddicoat, John R; Saracino, Giuseppe; Fukuda, Shota; Koyama, Yasushi; Hayase, Motoya; Cohn, William E; Ellis, Stephen G; Thomas, James D; Shiota, Takahiro


    We used a novel 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic technique to evaluate the impact of a coronary sinus-based percutaneous transvenous mitral annuloplasty (PTMA) on dynamic changes in mitral annular geometry and motion during the cardiac cycle in 8 sheep with ischemic mitral regurgitation. Using real-time 3D echocardiographic data before and after PTMA, 10 points along the saddle-shaped annulus were identified. For every 3D volume/frame during a cardiac cycle, we assessed mitral annular area and excursion defined as the traveling distance of the annular center. The PTMA device reduced both minimum and maximal mitral annular area (9.5 +/- 0.9-7.0 +/- 0.6 and 12.8 +/- 1.3-9.8 +/- 1.5 cm(2), P < .001 for both, respectively) with reduction of mitral regurgitation jet area (5.1 +/- 2.3-1.2 +/- 0.8 cm(2), P < .001), whereas it did not significantly impair mitral annular excursion amplitude (8.3 +/- 1.1-7.0 +/- 1.9 mm, P = .13). This 3D echocardiographic method noninvasively enabled dynamic study of mitral annular geometry and motion with quantitative analysis of the impact of PTMA.

  10. 考虑孔隙比和渗透系数随土体当前应力变化的深基坑降水开挖变形分析%Deformation of deep foundation pits due to excavation and dewatering considering the change of void ratio and permeability coefficient with current stress of soil

    邵羽; 江杰; 马少坤; 吕海波; 何建兴; 陈俊羽


    基于修正剑桥模型理论,推导了孔隙比 e随土体当前应力变化的方程,同时比选了4组经典的描述渗透系数 k随孔隙比变化的方程,选择了其中一组最佳的估算公式,编写ABAQUS用户子程序VOIDRI和USDFLD ,以实现孔隙比和渗透系数随土体当前应力的变化。在此基础上,研究深基坑降水开挖所致的坑内外土体的变形、围护结构的变形及弯矩,得到以下结论:当考虑孔隙比随土体当前应力变化时,坑外地表沉降量、墙体的水平位移、地下连续墙的弯矩、坑底隆起量均大于孔隙比为定值时的情况;当考虑渗透系数随土体当前应力变化时,坑外地表沉降量、墙体的水平位移、地下连续墙的弯矩均小于渗透系数为定值时的情况,但同时考虑渗透系数和孔隙比变化情况时,其对坑底的隆起量的影响可以忽略不计。%The function of void radio e changing with current stress was derived using the theory of Modified Cam‐Clay Model .Simultaneously ,four groups of classic estimate formula about permeability coefficient changing with void radio were compared to identify the accurate one . User subroutines VOIDRI and USDFLD in ABAQUS were compiled to realize the variation of void radio and permeability coefficient along with the change of current stress of soil . Then the soil displacement ,the deformation and the bending moment of retaining structure caused by excavation and dewatering with or without considering the change of void ratio and permeability coefficient with current stress of soil were compared .The results showed that i with changing void ratio ,values of ground settlement horizontal displacement of diaphragm wall ,bending moment of diaphragm wall and rebound at bottom were larger than those with constant void radio .When permeability coefficient changed with current stress of soil ,values of ground settlement ,horizontal displacement and bending moment of

  11. Volumetric changes in the upper airway after bimaxillary surgery for skeletal class III malocclusions: a case series study using 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    Lee, Yoonjung; Chun, Youn-Sic; Kang, Nara; Kim, Minji


    Postsurgical changes of the airway have become a great point of interest and often have been reported to be a predisposing factor for obstructive sleep apnea after mandibular setback surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 3-dimensional volumetric changes in the upper airway space of patients who underwent bimaxillary surgery to correct Class III malocclusions. This study was performed retrospectively in a group of patients who underwent bimaxillary surgery for Class III malocclusion and had full cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images taken before surgery and 1 day, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. The upper and lower parts of the airway volume and the diameters of the airway were measured from 2 different levels. Presurgical measurements and the amount of surgical correction were evaluated for their effect on airway volume. Data analyses were performed by analysis of variance and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The subjects included 21 patients (6 men and 15 women; mean age, 22.7 yrs). The surgeries were Le Fort I impaction (5.27 ± 2.58 mm impaction from the posterior nasal spine) and mandibular setback surgery (9.20 ± 4.60 mm set back from the pogonion). No statistically significant differences were found in the total airway volume for all time points. In contrast, the volume of the upper part showed an increase (12.35%) and the lower part showed a decrease (14.07%), with a statistically significant difference 6 months after surgery (P Bimaxillary surgery for the correction of Class III malocclusion affected the morphology by increasing the upper part and decreasing the lower part of the airway, but not the total volume. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in Pulmonary Function After Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, or Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Lopez Guerra, Jose L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospitales Universitarios Virgen del Rocio, Seville (Spain); Department of Medicine, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang Yan; Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eapen, George [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liu, Hongmei; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)


    Purpose: To investigate the extent of change in pulmonary function over time after definitive radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with modern techniques and to identify predictors of changes in pulmonary function according to patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Patients and Methods: We analyzed 250 patients who had received {>=}60 Gy radio(chemo)therapy for primary NSCLC in 1998-2010 and had undergone pulmonary function tests before and within 1 year after treatment. Ninety-three patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 97 with intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and 60 with proton beam therapy. Postradiation pulmonary function test values were evaluated among individual patients compared with the same patient's preradiation value at the following time intervals: 0-4 (T1), 5-8 (T2), and 9-12 (T3) months. Results: Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was reduced in the majority of patients along the three time periods after radiation, whereas the forced expiratory volume in 1 s per unit of vital capacity (FEV1/VC) showed an increase and decrease after radiation in a similar percentage of patients. There were baseline differences (stage, radiotherapy dose, concurrent chemotherapy) among the radiation technology groups. On multivariate analysis, the following features were associated with larger posttreatment declines in DLCO: pretreatment DLCO, gross tumor volume, lung and heart dosimetric data, and total radiation dose. Only pretreatment DLCO was associated with larger posttreatment declines in FEV1/VC. Conclusions: Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide is reduced in the majority of patients after radiotherapy with modern techniques. Multiple factors, including gross tumor volume, preradiation lung function, and dosimetric parameters, are associated with the DLCO decline. Prospective studies are needed to better understand whether new radiation technology, such as proton beam therapy or

  13. Continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics during a marathon by means of inertial magnetic measurement units to objectify changes in running mechanics

    Reenalda, Jasper; Maartens, Erik; Maartens, Erik; Homan, Lotte; Buurke, Jaap


    Recent developments in wearable and wireless sensor technology allow for a continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics in the sport specific setting. The present study is the first to demonstrate the possibility of analyzing three dimensional (3D) running mechanics continuously, by

  14. Continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics during a marathon by means of inertial magnetic measurement units to objectify changes in running mechanics

    Reenalda, Jasper; Maartens, Erik; Homan, Lotte; Buurke, J.H.


    Recent developments in wearable and wireless sensor technology allow for a continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics in the sport specific setting. The present study is the first to demonstrate the possibility of analyzing three dimensional (3D) running mechanics continuously, by me

  15. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge [Departamento de IngenierIa Matematica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile and Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMR 2071 CNRS-UChile, Casilla 170/3 - Correo 3, Santiago (Chile); Smaranda, Loredana [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Str. Targu din Vale Nr.1, Arges (Romania); Vanninathan, Muthusamy, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [TIFR-CAM, Post Bag 6503, GKVK Post, Bangalore - 560065 (India)


    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  16. Note on Two Generalizations of Coefficient Alpha.

    Raju, Nambury S.


    An important relationship is given for two generalizations of coefficient alpha: (1) Rajaratnam, Cronbach, and Gleser's generalizability formula for stratified-parallel tests, and (2) Raju's coefficient beta. (Author/CTM)

  17. Energy coefficients for a propeller series

    Olsen, Anders Smærup


    The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use of the poten......The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use...... of the potential theory with the propeller modelled as an actuator disk. The efficiency based on the energy coefficients is calculated for a propeller series. The results show a good agreement between the efficiency based on the energy coefficients and the efficiency obtained by a vortex-lattice method....

  18. Index-free Heat Kernel Coefficients

    De van Ven, A E M


    Using index-free notation, we present the diagonal values of the first five heat kernel coefficients associated with a general Laplace-type operator on a compact Riemannian space without boundary. The fifth coefficient appears here for the first time. For a flat space with a gauge connection, the sixth coefficient is given too. Also provided are the leading terms for any coefficient, both in ascending and descending powers of the Yang-Mills and Riemann curvatures, to the same order as required for the fourth coefficient. These results are obtained by directly solving the relevant recursion relations, working in Fock-Schwinger gauge and Riemann normal coordinates. Our procedure is thus noncovariant, but we show that for any coefficient the `gauged' respectively `curved' version is found from the corresponding `non-gauged' respectively `flat' coefficient by making some simple covariant substitutions. These substitutions being understood, the coefficients retain their `flat' form and size. In this sense the fift...

  19. Certain Binomial Sums with recursive coefficients

    Kilic, Emrah


    In this short note, we establish some identities containing sums of binomials with coefficients satisfying third order linear recursive relations. As a result and in particular, we obtain general forms of earlier identities involving binomial coefficients and Fibonacci type sequences.

  20. MCNP Apply in Calculating the Changing of Reactor Critical Coefficient K~ under Different Temperature%MCNP在计算温度对反应堆临界系数Keff值影响中的应用

    曾磊; 杨波; 刘义保; 赵梦云


    堆芯内温度变化时,中子能谱、微观截面等都将相应地发生变化。所以与反应性有关的许多参数,如热中子利用系数、逃脱共振俘获概率等都是温度的函数。因而,当反应堆中各种成分的温度变化时,将引起反应堆临界系数的变化。本文利用蒙特卡罗方法的MCNP程序,从压水堆的压力容器,燃料组件和控制棒驱动组件等元件出发建模,对温度改变之于反应堆剩余反应性影响做了相应研究。模拟结果表明:随着温度的升高,反应堆剩余反应性逐渐减。并且得到结果与实际值较符合。%Reactor core temperature changing, the neutron spectrum, micro-cross-section will change accordingly. So many parameters of the reaction, such as the thermal neutron utilization factor, the probability of escaping resonance capture, are all a function of temperature. Thus, when the various components of the reactor temperature change, it will cause the reactor critical factor changing. In this paper, by using MCNP program, based on modeling on the PWR pressure container, fuel module and drive component elements, the corresponding research on the effects of reactor excess reactivity under different temperature were analyzed. The simulation results show that, with the increasing of temperature, reactor excess reactivity decrease gradually. And the results have a good fit with the practical values

  1. Evaluation of Fourier transform coefficients for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis from diffuse optical tomography images

    Montejo, Ludguier D.; Jia, Jingfei; Kim, Hyun K.; Hielscher, Andreas H.


    We apply the Fourier Transform to absorption and scattering coefficient images of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints and evaluate the performance of these coefficients as classifiers using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We find 25 features that yield a Youden index over 0.7, 3 features that yield a Youden index over 0.8, and 1 feature that yields a Youden index over 0.9 (90.0% sensitivity and 100% specificity). In general, scattering coefficient images yield better one-dimensional classifiers compared to absorption coefficient images. Using features derived from scattering coefficient images we obtain an average Youden index of 0.58 +/- 0.16, and an average Youden index of 0.45 +/- 0.15 when using features from absorption coefficient images.

  2. Dimensional regularization is generic

    Fujikawa, Kazuo


    The absence of the quadratic divergence in the Higgs sector of the Standard Model in the dimensional regularization is usually regarded to be an exceptional property of a specific regularization. To understand what is going on in the dimensional regularization, we illustrate how to reproduce the results of the dimensional regularization for the $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory in the more conventional regularization such as the higher derivative regularization; the basic postulate involved is that the quadratically divergent induced mass, which is independent of the scale change of the physical mass, is kinematical and unphysical. This is consistent with the derivation of the Callan-Symanzik equation, which is a comparison of two theories with slightly different masses, for the $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory without encountering the quadratic divergence. We thus suggest that the dimensional regularization is generic in a bottom-up approach starting with a successful low-energy theory. We also define a modified version of t...

  3. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Menard, Scott


    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  4. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt


    This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  5. Coefficient of Partial Correlation and Its Calculation

    段全才; 张保法


    This thesis offers the general concept of coefficient of partial correlation.Starting with regres-sion analysis,the paper,by using samples,infers the general formula of expressing coefficient of partial correlation by way of simple correlation coefficient.

  6. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ


    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  7. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.


    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  8. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ


    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  9. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.


    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  10. Ageing effect of chloride diffusion coefficient

    Polder, R.B.


    Most of the currently used models to predict chloride ingress a constant diffusion coefficient over time. However, a reduction of the diffusion coefficient over time, is ob-served at specimens that are exposed to chlorides. This reduction of the diffusion coefficient is expressed with the ageing coe

  11. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Menard, Scott


    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  12. Temperature dependence of Kerr coefficient and quadratic polarized optical coefficient of a paraelectric Mn:Fe:KTN crystal

    Lu, Qieni; Han, Jinxin; Dai, Haitao; Ge, Baozhen; Zhao, Shuang


    We measure temperature dependence on Kerr coefficient and quadratic polarized optical coefficient of a paraelectric Mn:Fe:KTN crystal simultaneously in this work, based on digital holographic interferometry (DHI). And the spatial distribution of the field-induced refractive index change can also be visualized and estimated by numerically retrieving sequential phase maps of Mn:Fe:KTN crystal from recording digital holograms in different states. The refractive indices decrease with increasing temperature and quadratic polarized optical coefficient is insensitive to temperature. The experimental results suggest that the DHI method presented here is highly applicable in both visualizing the temporal and spatial behavior of the internal electric field and accurately measuring electro-optic coefficient for electrooptical media.

  13. Determination of Band-filling Change in the Two-dimensional Organic Conductor, τ-(EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuBr2)1+y, (y ≤ 0.875) by the Quantum Oscillation of Magnetoresistance

    Yoshino, Harukazu; Murata, Keizo; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Li, Lin; Choi, Eun Sang; Graf, David; Brooks, James S.; Nogami, Yoshio; Papavassiliou, George C.


    The effect of thermal treatment on the transport properties is studied for a two-dimensional organic conductor τ-(EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuBr2)1+y, (y ≤ 0.875). The temperature dependence of the electric resistivity below room temperature was found to be changed from metallic down to low temperature to semiconducting by heating up to 420 K. One of the two frequencies of Shubnikov--de Haas oscillations are found to be different between the non-heated and heated parts from a single crystal, while no evidence of structural change in X-ray photograph was observed. The present result clearly shows that nominal valence or band filling can be controlled by simple thermal treatment for the quasi-two-dimensional organic metal. The mechanism of the change in the band filling is discussed in terms of anion decomposition.

  14. Serial changes in the three-dimensional aspect of the side-branch ostium jailed by a drug-eluting stent assessed by optical coherence tomography.

    Nakamura, Takeshi; Okamura, Takayuki; Fujimura, Tatsuhiro; Yamada, Jutaro; Nao, Tomoko; Tateishi, Hiroki; Maeda, Takao; Oda, Takamasa; Shiraishi, Kozo; Nakashima, Tadamitsu; Nishimura, Shigehiko; Miura, Toshiro; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Yano, Masafumi


    The present study investigated serial changes in the three-dimensional (3D) aspect of the jailed side-branch (SB) ostium. We evaluated 32 patients who underwent examination with optical coherence tomography (OCT) both at baseline and at follow-up. After reconstruction of the 3D images, we classified the configuration of overhanging struts at the SB orifice into three groups according to the 3D aspect of the jailing configuration. The number of compartments divided by the stent strut was counted. The side-branch flow area (SBFA), i.e., the area of the SB ostium except for jailing struts, was measured by cut-plane analysis. Forty-eight SBs of 25 patients were analyzed. Thirteen SBs were classified as the No-jail type (N-type), 19 as the Simple-jail type (S-type; no longitudinal link at the carina), and 16 as the Complex-jail type (C-type; had a link at the carina). In the N-type, the SBFA was significantly increased at follow-up (P = 0.018). In the C-type, the SBFA was significantly decreased at follow-up (P = 0.002). Percent reduction of SBFA in the C-type group was significantly greater than that in the N-type or S-type groups (S-type vs. C-type P = 0.002, N-type vs. C-type P < 0.001). 3D-OCT images showed that some of the compartments were filled with tissue. The number of compartments was significantly decreased at follow-up (P < 0.001). In the C-type group, the SBFA was significantly decreased and small compartments were filled with tissue. These findings suggest that stent jail complexity is associated with the progression of SB ostial stenosis.

  15. Proteome changes of lungs artificially infected with H-PRRSV and N-PRRSV by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis

    Zhu Kongju


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome with PRRS virus (PRRSV infection, which causes significant economic losses annually, is one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine industry worldwide. In 2006 and 2007, a large-scale outbreak of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS happened in China and Vietnam. However little data is available on global host response to PRRSV infection at the protein level, and similar approaches looking at mRNA is problematic since mRNA levels do not necessarily predict protein levels. In order to improve the knowledge of host response and viral pathogenesis of highly virulent Chinese-type PRRSV (H-PRRSV and Non-high-pathogenic North American-type PRRSV strains (N-PRRSV, we analyzed the protein expression changes of H-PRRSV and N-PRRSV infected lungs compared with those of uninfected negative control, and identified a series of proteins related to host response and viral pathogenesis. Results According to differential proteomes of porcine lungs infected with H-PRRSV, N-PRRSV and uninfected negative control at different time points using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry identification, 45 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were identified. These proteins were mostly related to cytoskeleton, stress response and oxidation reduction or metabolism. In the protein interaction network constructed based on DEPs from lungs infected with H-PRRSV, HSPA8, ARHGAP29 and NDUFS1 belonged to the most central proteins, whereas DDAH2, HSPB1 and FLNA corresponded to the most central proteins in those of N-PRRSV infected. Conclusions Our study is the first attempt to provide the complex picture of pulmonary protein expression during H-PRRSV and N-PRRSV infection under the in vivo environment using 2D-DIGE technology and bioinformatics tools, provides large scale valuable information for better

  16. Upscaling the overland flow resistance coefficient for vegetated surfaces

    Kim, J.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Katopodes, N.


    Estimation of hydraulic resistance for overland flows plays a crucial role in modeling rainfall-runoff, flood routing, and soil erosion processes. The resistance affects not only the accurate calculations of flow variables, but also the predictions of their derivative outcomes. In particular, resistance is highly spatially variable and controlled by local flow conditions and bed characteristics in hillslopes vegetated with patches of shrubs or woody plants. Numerous studies sought general ways of relating hydraulic resistance to roughness coefficients. A typical approach in determining the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor (f) is to relate it to the Reynolds number (Re). The case is applicable when flow completely submerges roughness elements. On the other hand, when the surface covered with stones, organic litter, or vegetation is not fully submerged by the flow, the f-Re relationship does not hold. Flow dimensionless variables other than Re may become predominant in determining the resistance. There is little information on how to determine the roughness coefficient of vegetated hillslopes of arbitrary scale as a function of flow variables and bed characteristics. Although many field or laboratory studies have attempted to address the problem, most of them were carried out in channels and over a limited range of possible flow conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the upscaling properties of the resistance coefficient by resolving the details of the flow process at an extremely fine-scale. The domain was conceptualized as a sloped plane with a number of "obstacles" of centimeter scale (i.e., representing vegetation stems) that have infinitely long height. A number of simulations were designed with a numerical model resolving the two-dimensional form of Saint-Venant equations representing the propagation of dynamic wave. The simulations explored how the resistance coefficient varied with different vegetation covers, domain slopes, flow rates and

  17. Pulmonary interstitial compliance and microvascular filtration coefficient.

    Goldberg, H S


    Static and dynamic properties governing the fluid movement into the pulmonary interstitium were examined in isolated canine lobes. The system was driven by altering intravascular presure (Piv) when the lobe was isogravimetric (change in weight (W) = 0) and allowing the lobe to become isogravimetric again. By making use of an analogy to charging a capacitor across a resistor, calculation of the filtration coefficient for transvascular fluid movement (KF) and determination of the pressure-volume relationship of the pulmonary interstitial space (Pis-Vis), with a minimum of untested assumptions, was possible. KF was found to be the same for fluid moving out of or into the intravascular space, and when the relationship between Piv and alveolar pressure (PAlv) was constant, KF was independent of transpulmonary pressure (PL). When PAlv exceeded Piv, changes in Piv did not influence KF, suggesting no significant change in either surface area available for fluid transudation or vascular permeability. The Pis-Vis curve for increasing values of Vis and Pis is best described by an exponential relationhip and is independent of PL. However, the Pis-Vis curve with decreasing values of Vis and Pis is dependent on PL.

  18. Preparation, Crystal Structure and Enthalpy Change of Formation of the Reaction in Liquid Phase of a New Three-Dimensional Mixed-Ligand Holmium(Ⅲ) Coordination Polymer Based on Strong π-π Stacking Interactions

    REN,Yi-Xia; CHEN,San-Ping; GAO,Sheng-Li


    A new three-dimensional coordination polymer, [Ho(5-nip)(phen)(NO3)(DMF)] (5-nip=5-nitroisophthalic acid and phen=1,10-phenanthroline), was prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectrum and DTG-DSC techniques. The results show that the title complex crystallizes in space group P2/m with a= 1.0906(3) nm, b=1.2804 (3) nm, c= 1.6987(4) nm,β=91.400(5)°, Z=4, Dc= 1.931 Mg/m3, F(000)=1352. Each Ho(Ⅲ) ion is nine-coordinated by one chelating bidentate and two monodentate bridging carboxylate groups, one chelating bidentate NO3- anion, one DMF molecule and one 1,10-phenanthroline molecule. The complex is constructed with one-dimensional ribbons featuring dinuclear units and the one-dimensional ribbons are further assembled into two-dimensional networks by strong π-π stacking interactions with the distance of 0.327 nm,then the networks are arranged into three-dimensional structure according to ABAB fashion. The complex exhibits high stability up to 600 ℃. Its enthalpy change of formation of the reaction in liquid-phase in solvent DMF was measured using an RD496-Ⅲ type microcalorimeter with a value of (-11.016±0.184) kJ·mol-1.

  19. Anticipative Stochastic Differential Equations with Non-smooth Diffusion Coefficient

    Zong Xia LIANG


    In this paper we prove the existence and uniqueness of the solutions to the one-dimensional linear stochastic differential equation with Skorohod integralXt(ω) = η(ω) + ∫t0 asXs(ω)dWs + bsXs(ω)ds, t ∈ [0, 1],where (Ws) is the canonical Wiener process defined on the standard Wiener space ((W), (H),μ), a is non-smooth and adapted, but η and b may be anticipating to the filtration generated by (Ws). The intention of the paper is to eliminate the regularity of the diffusion coefficient a in the Malliavin sense, in the existing literature. The idea is to approach the non-smooth diffusion coefficient a by smooth ones.

  20. The evaluation of the power coefficient of a Savonius rotor

    Chauvin, A.; Botrini, M.; Brun, R.; Beguier, C.


    Measurements of the pressure variations and the blade drag on a Savonius rotor with partially overlapping blades set at different angles of attack are employed to develop a model for the power coefficient. The data were taken in a wind tunnel with probes placed on the interior and exterior surfaces of a blade from the leading edge to the trailing edge in a series of seven trials with each angle of attack. Two rotationary regimes were noted, the first, motoring, which lasted up to an angle of attack of 145 deg, and a resistant mode, which lasted up to 180 deg. A two-dimensional model is developed for a horizontal slice of the Savonius, taking into account the aerodynamic forces on the retreating and advancing blades. It is found that the drag increase with the rotation speed, eventually providing an upper limit to the power available. A maximum power coefficient of 0.17 is projected.

  1. Bilinear B(a)cklund Transformation for a Variable-Coefficient Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation

    WU Jian-Ping


    Resorting to the Hirota bilinear form, a bilinear Backlund transformation (BT) is obtained for a variable-coefficient Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation. As applications, based on the resulting bilinear BT, single-soliton solutions and two-soliton solutions together with their soliton characteristics are presented for the equation. Furthermore, starting from the bilinear BT, a Lax pair and a new variable-coefficient (2+l)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation is derived.%@@ Resorting to the Hirota bilinear form, a bilinear B(a)cklund transformation (BT) is obtained for a variable-coefficient Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation.As applications, based on the resulting bilinear BT, singie-soliton solutions and two-soliton solutions together with their soliton characteristics are presented for the equation.Furthermore, starting from the bilinear BT, a Lax pair and a new variable-coefficient (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation is derived.

  2. Experimental investigation of drag coefficients of gobi surfaces

    董治宝; 屈建军; 刘小平; 张伟民; 王训明


    The response of gobi surfaces to the near-surface air flow can be characterized quantitatively by drag coefficients. By using wind tunnel tests, an attempt is made to define the relationship between the drag coefficients of gobi surfaces and gravel size and coverage. It is concluded that the drag coefficients of gobi surfaces tend to be constants when gravel coverage is over 40%-50%. Consequently, we think that the gobi deflation planes expanding vastly in the arid Northwestern China are aerodynamically stable, at least not the supplying sources of current dust storms, and therefore the emphasis on dust storm control should be paid on the so-called "earth gobi" that has low gravel coverage. The prediction model for drag coefficients of gobi surfaces has been developed by regressing drag coefficients on gravel size and coverage, the predicted results are in reasonably good agreement with wind tunnel results (R 2 = 0.94). The change of drag coefficients with gravel friction Reynolds number implies that the development extent of drag effect increases with gravel size and coverage.

  3. Variational transport coefficients for low aspect ratio, low collisionality stellarators

    Hirshman, S. P.; Spong, D. A.; D'Azevedo, E.; Peyton, B.; Lawkins, W.


    Stellarators with low aspect ratios (A converged results for these bounds. The convergence of DKES as the number of basis functions is varied is examined for several low aspect ratio configurations corresponding to the proposed NCSX and QPS experiments. It is shown that even on fairly coarse meshes, the minimax extremum yields a good approximation to the final (very fine mesh) values of the transport coefficients. Methods for optimally selecting the basis harmonic components, and hence greatly reducing the computational effort, are described. Iterative solution techniques have been developed which are scaleable to higher dimensional problems that include radial drift orbit effects. These methods are compared with the presently used Thomas algorithm.

  4. A universal coefficient theorem for twisted K-theory

    Khorami, Mehdi


    In this paper, we recall the definition of twisted K-theory in various settings. We prove that for a twist $\\tau$ corresponding to a three dimensional integral cohomology class of a space X, there exist a "universal coefficient" isomorphism K_{*}^{\\tau}(X)\\cong K_{*}(P_{\\tau})\\otimes_{K_{*}(\\mathbb{C}P^{\\infty})} \\hat{K}_{*} where $P_\\tau$ is the total space of the principal $\\mathbb{C}P^{\\infty}$-bundle induced over X by $\\tau$ and $\\hat K_*$ is obtained form the action of $\\mathbb{C}P^{\\infty}$ on K-theory.

  5. Gradient-based estimation of Manning's friction coefficient from noisy data

    Calo, Victor M; Gehre, Matthias; Jin, Bangti; Radwan, Hany


    We study the numerical recovery of Manning's roughness coefficient for the diffusive wave approximation of the shallow water equation. We describe a conjugate gradient method for the numerical inversion. Numerical results for one-dimensional model are presented to illustrate the feasibility of the approach. Also we provide a proof of the differentiability of the weak form with respect to the coefficient as well as the continuity and boundedness of the linearized operator under reasonable assumptions using the maximal parabolic regularity theory.

  6. Strong comparison result for a class of reflected stochastic differential equations with non-Lipschitzian coefficients

    BO Lijun; YAO Ruiming


    In this paper, we are concerned with a class of reflectedstochastic differential equations (reflected SDEs) with non-Lipschitzian coefficients. Under the same coefficients assumptions as Fang and Zhang[Probab. Theory Relat. Fields, 2005, 132(3): 356-390] for a class of SDEs,we establish the pathwise uniqueness for the reflected SDEs. Furthermore,a strong comparison theorem is proved for the reflected SDEs in a one-dimensional case.

  7. Criticality coefficient calculation for a small PWR using Monte Carlo Transport Code

    Trombetta, Debora M.; Su, Jian, E-mail:, E-mail: [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chirayath, Sunil S., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute, Texas A and M University, TX (United States)


    Computational models of reactors are increasingly used to predict nuclear reactor physics parameters responsible for reactivity changes which could lead to accidents and losses. In this work, preliminary results for criticality coefficient calculation using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX were presented for a small PWR. The computational modeling developed consists of the core with fuel elements, radial reflectors, and control rods inside a pressure vessel. Three different geometries were simulated, a single fuel pin, a fuel assembly and the core, with the aim to compare the criticality coefficients among themselves.The criticality coefficients calculated were: Doppler Temperature Coefficient, Coolant Temperature Coefficient, Coolant Void Coefficient, Power Coefficient, and Control Rod Worth. The coefficient values calculated by the MCNP code were compared with literature results, showing good agreement with reference data, which validate the computational model developed and allow it to be used to perform more complex studies. Criticality Coefficient values for the three simulations done had little discrepancy for almost all coefficients investigated, the only exception was the Power Coefficient. Preliminary results presented show that simple modelling as a fuel assembly can describe changes at almost all the criticality coefficients, avoiding the need of a complex core simulation. (author)

  8. Travelling wave-like solutions of the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation with variable coefficients

    Yan-Ze Peng; E V Krishnan; Hui Feng


    Travelling wave-like solutions of the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation with variable coefficients are studied using the solutions of Raccati equation. The solitary wave-like solution, the trigonometric periodic wave solution and the rational wave solution are obtained with a constraint between coefficients. The property of the solutions is numerically investigated. It is shown that the coefficients of the equation do not change the wave amplitude, but may change the wave velocity.

  9. 考虑真空度衰减及涂抹区渗透系数变化的真空预压固结解析解%Analytical solutions for vacuum preloading consolidation considering vacuum degree attenuation and change of permeability coefficient in smear zones

    吴跃东; 吴鸿昇; 罗如平; 曾垂昌


    为更好地将理论计算应用于实际真空预压工程并指导工程实践,假设真空度线性衰减,建立真空预压软基径向固结方程,得出超孔隙水压力的计算公式及固结度。研究了涂抹区渗透系数对固结的影响,分别给出了渗透系数不变和渗透系数线性变化时地基中平均孔压和固结度的解析解,并进行了分析。分析结果表明,真空度衰减系数 k 1与 k2、井阻比 n 及涂抹区半径与排水体半径的比值 s 越小、非扰动区与涂抹区渗透系数比α越趋近 s ,则真空预压效果越好。将考虑真空度线性衰减的固结度解析解和 Hansbo 解与嘉兴港真空预压地基处理的实测数据进行对比,发现前者与实测数据更加吻合,且考虑涂抹区渗透系数线性变化的解更符合工程实际。%For the purpose of application of theoretical calculation to practical vacuum preloading projects and providing guidance in practical application, an equation for soft ground consolidation in the radial direction under vacuum preloading was established by assuming that the vacuum degree attenuated linearly, and formulas for the excess pore pressure and degree of consolidation were developed. Based on study of the effects of the permeability coefficient in smear zones, analytical solutions for the average pore pressure and degree of consolidation were deduced and verified with a constant permeability coefficient and linearly changing permeability coefficient, respectively. Results of analysis show that the smaller the vacuum degree attenuation coefficients, k1 and k2, the well resistance factor, n, and the radius ratio of the smear zone to drainage system, s, and the closer the ratio of the permeability coefficients of the undisturbed zone to the smear zone, α, to s, the better the effect of vacuum preloading. The analytical solutions considering the linear attenuation of the vacuum degree and Hansbo's solutions were compared

  10. A drying coefficient for building materials

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf


    The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However...... coefficient is defined which can be determined based on measured drying data. The correlation of this coefficient with the water absorption and the vapour diffusion coefficient is analyzed and its additional information content is critically challenged. As result, a drying coefficient has been derived...... and defined as a new and independent material parameter. It contains information about the moisture transport properties throughout the wide range of moisture contents from hygroscopic up to saturation. With this new and valuable coefficient, it is now possible to distinguish and select building materials...

  11. Universal entanglement for higher dimensional cones

    Bueno, Pablo


    The entanglement entropy of a generic $d$-dimensional conformal field theory receives a regulator independent contribution when the entangling region contains a (hyper)conical singularity of opening angle $\\Omega$, codified in a function $a^{(d)}(\\Omega)$. In {\\tt arXiv:1505.04804}, we proposed that for three-dimensional conformal field theories, the coefficient $\\sigma$ characterizing the smooth surface limit of such contribution ($\\Omega\\rightarrow \\pi$) equals the stress tensor two-point function charge $C_{ T}$, up to a universal constant. In this paper, we prove this relation for general three-dimensional holographic theories, and extend the result to general dimensions. In particular, we show that a generalized coefficient $\\sigma^{ (d)}$ can be defined for (hyper)conical entangling regions in the almost smooth surface limit, and that this coefficient is universally related to $C_{ T}$ for general holographic theories, providing a general formula for the ratio $\\sigma^{ (d)}/C_{ T}$ in arbitrary dimensi...


    Liu Zhenhai; I.Szántó


    This paper is devoted to the class of inverse problems for a nonlinear parabolic hemivariational inequality.The unknown coefficient of the operator depends on the gradient of the solution and belongs to a set of admissible coefficients.It is proved that the convergence of solutions for the corresponding direct problems continuously depends on the coefficient convergence.Based on this result the existence of a quasisolution of the inverse problem is obtained.

  13. Theoretical assessment of sound absorption coefficient for anisotropic nonwovens

    Klara Kalinova


    Full Text Available The anisotropy factor as a function of fiber arrangement, fiber fineness and sample thickness has been derived from the theories of soundwave transformation due to phase changing. The sound absorption coefficient of the anisotropic fibrous material is then theoretically calculated. The fibrous materials were prepared so that the fibers are arranged parallel (perpendicularly laid fiber web called STRUTO technology in the direction of soundwave propagation or perpendicularly (longitudinally laid fiber web to the direction of sound propagation. The sound absorption coefficient was measured due to the Impedance tube. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental findings.

  14. Theoretical research on rotational dispersion coefficient of fiber in turbulent shear flow of fiber suspension

    GAO Zhen-yu; LIN Jian-zhong; LI Jun


    The rotational dispersion coefficient of the fiber in the turbulent shear flow of fiber suspension was studied theoretically. The function of correlation moment between the different fluctuating velocity gradients of the flow was built firstly. Then the expression, dependent on the characteristic length, time, velocity and a dimensionless parameter related to the effect of wall, of rotational dispersion coefficient is derived. The derived expression of rotational dispersion coefficient can be employed to the inhomogeneous and non-isotropic turbulent flows. Furthermore it can be expanded to three-dimensional turbulent flows and serves the theoretical basis for solving the turbulent flow of fiber suspension.


    MOU Zong-ze; LONG Yong-xing; QU Wen-xiao


    In respect of variable coefficient differential equations, the equations of coefficient function approximation were more accurate than the coefficient to be frozen as a constant in every discrete subinterval. Usually, the difference schemes constructed based on Taylor expansion approximation of the solution do not suit the solution with sharp function.Introducing into local bases to be combined with coefficient function approximation, the difference can well depict more complex physical phenomena, for example, boundary layer as well as high oscillatory, with sharp behavior. The numerical test shows the method is more effective than the traditional one.

  16. Magnetoelectric voltage coefficients of magnetoelectric composites

    WAN Yong-ping; ZHONG Zheng; QIU Jin-hao


    The magnetoelectric(ME) effect of the particulate magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composite was theoretically studied. The dependence of the ME voltage coefficients on the material properties of the magnetostrictive phase was discussed. The permittivity,permeability and the elastic modulus of the magnetostrictive phase generally have obvious influences on the ME voltage coefficients. The magnetostrictive phase with a large permittivity,large permeability or stiffer modulus will respectively contribute to the higher ME voltage coefficients. For a certain kind of piezoelectric matrix,the ME voltage coefficients can be improved to some extent by choosing those magnetostrictive materials with large permittivity,permeability or high elastic modulus.

  17. Why the Method of Undetermined Coefficients Works.

    Ross, Clay C., Jr.


    This note presents a simple theorem which explains why the method of undetermined coefficients works in finding a particular solution, both for differential equations and difference equations. (Author)

  18. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt


    This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... of the following three components: outcome truncation, scale parameters and distributional shape of the predictor variable. These results point to limitations in using linear probability model coefficients for group comparisons. We also provide Monte Carlo simulations and real examples to illustrate...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  19. Why the Method of Undetermined Coefficients Works.

    Ross, Clay C., Jr.


    This note presents a simple theorem which explains why the method of undetermined coefficients works in finding a particular solution, both for differential equations and difference equations. (Author)

  20. Heat transfer coefficient determination for flow boiling in vertical and horizontal minichannels

    Piasecka Magdalena


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of boiling heat transfer research during FC-72 laminar flow along a minichannel of 1 mm depth, positioned vertically and horizontally, with an enhanced heating surface. One glass pane allows to determine the temperature of the heating wall by liquid crystal thermography. Calculations are aimed at the evaluation of one- and two-dimensional heat transfer approaches to determine the local heat transfer coefficient. In the one-dimensional approach only the direction of the flow in the channel is considered. In the two-dimensional approach the inverse problem in the heating wall and the direct problem in the glass barrier were solved by the finite element method with Trefftz functions as shape functions (FEMT. The developed flow boiling area was studied. Heat transfer coefficient values obtained for the horizontal minichannel were higher than those obtained for the vertical one. When the heat flux supplied to heating wall grows, the share of gas-phase increases leading to the heat transfer coefficient decreases. The same courses of the experiment were observed for the two applied methods, but the results obtained in the one-dimensional approach are considerably higher than in the two-dimensional one. One-dimensional approach seems to be less sensitive to measurement errors.

  1. Calculation of Coefficients of Simplest Normal Forms of Hopf and Generalized Hopf Bifurcations

    TIAN Ruilan; ZHANG Qichang; HE Xuejun


    The coefficients of the simplest normal forms of both high-dimensional generalized Hopf and high-dimensional Hopf bifurcation systems were discussed using the adjoint operator method. A particular nonlinear scaling and an inner product were introduced in the space of homogeneous poiynomials. Theorems were established for the explicit expression of the simplest normal forms in terms of the coefficients of both the conventional normal forms of Hopf and generalized Hopf bifurcation systems. A symbolic manipulation was designed to perform the calculation of the coefficients of the simplest normal forms using Mathematica. The original ordinary differential equation was required in the input and the simplest normal form could be obtained as the output. Finally, the simplest normal forms of 6-dimensional generalized Hopf singularity of type 2 and 5-dimensional Hopf bifurcation system were discussed by executing the program. The output showed that the 5th- and 9th-order terms remained in 6-dimensional generalized Hopf singularity of type 2 and the 3rd- and 5th-order terms remained in 5-dimensional Hopf bifurcation system.

  2. On the methods for determining the transverse dispersion coefficient in river mixing

    Baek, Kyong Oh; Seo, Il Won


    In this study, the strengths and weaknesses of existing methods for determining the dispersion coefficient in the two-dimensional river mixing model were assessed based on hydraulic and tracer data sets acquired from experiments conducted on either laboratory channels or natural rivers. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that, when the longitudinal dispersion coefficient as well as the transverse dispersion coefficients must be determined in the transient concentration situation, the two-dimensional routing procedures, 2D RP and 2D STRP, can be employed to calculate dispersion coefficients among the observation methods. For the steady concentration situation, the STRP can be applied to calculate the transverse dispersion coefficient. When the tracer data are not available, either theoretical or empirical equations by the estimation method can be used to calculate the dispersion coefficient using the geometric and hydraulic data sets. Application of the theoretical and empirical equations to the laboratory channel showed that equations by Baek and Seo [[3], 2011] predicted reasonable values while equations by Fischer [23] and Boxwall and Guymer (2003) overestimated by factors of ten to one hundred. Among existing empirical equations, those by Jeon et al. [28] and Baek and Seo [6] gave the agreeable values of the transverse dispersion coefficient for most cases of natural rivers. Further, the theoretical equation by Baek and Seo [5] has the potential to be broadly applied to both laboratory and natural channels.

  3. Conformal invariant Painlevé expansions and higher dimensional integrable models



    After the (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr(?)dinger equation is embedded in higher dimensions and the usual singularity analysis approach is extended such that all the Painlev(?) expansion coefficients are conformal invariant, many higher dimensional integrable models are got after the nontrivial conformal invariant expansion coefficients are taken to be zero simply. The Painlev(?) properties of the obtained higher dimensional models (including some (3+1)-dimensional models) are proved.

  4. Comparison of methods for estimates of molecular genetic diversity in genus Croton: influence of coefficients, clustering strategies and data projection.

    Scaldaferri, M M; Freitas, J S; Vieira, J G P; Gonçalves, Z S; Souza, A M; Cerqueira-Silva, C B M


    We investigated 10 similarity (and disimilarity) coefficients in a set of 40 wild genotypes of Croton linearifolius subjected to analyses using hierarchical grouping methods, grouping methods by optimization and data projection in two-dimensional space. Genotypes were characterized by analyzing DNA polymorphism with the use of 15 ISSR and 12 RAPD markers. The distance measurements were compared by the Spearman correlation test, projection in two-dimensional space and grouping efficiency evaluation. The Spearman correlation coefficients between the 10 coefficients evaluated were significant (P Croton.

  5. Transport Coefficients of Interacting Hadrons

    Wiranata, Anton

    A detailed quantitative comparison between the results of shear viscosities from the Chapman-Enskog and Relaxation Time methods is performed for the following test cases with specified elastic differential cross sections between interacting hadrons: (1) The non-relativistic, relativistic and ultra-relativistic hard sphere gas with angle and energy independent differential cross section sigma = a2/4, where a is the hard sphere radius, (2) The Maxwell gas with sigma(g, theta) = mGamma(theta)/2g, where m is the mass of the heat bath particles, Gamma(theta) is an arbitrary function of theta, and g is the relative velocity, (3) Chiral pions for which the t-averaged cross section sigma = s/(64pi2 f4p ) x (1 + 1/3 x cos2 theta), where s and t are the usual Mandelstam variables and fpi is the pion-decay constant, and (4) Massive pions for which the differential elastic cross section is taken from experiments. Quantitative results of the comparative study conducted revealed that • the extent of agreement (or disagreement) depends very sensitively on the energy dependence of the differential cross sections employed, stressing the need to combine all available experimental knowledge concerning differential cross sections for low mass hadrons and to supplement it with theoretical guidance for the as yet unknown cross sections so that the temperature dependent shear viscosity to entropy ratio can be established for use in viscous hydordynamics. • The result found for the ultra-relativistic hard sphere gas for which the shear viscosity etas = 1.2676 k BT c--1/(pia 2) offers the opportunity to validate ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamical (URQMD) codes that employ Green-Kubo techniques. • shear viscosity receives only small contributions from number changing inelastic processes. The dependence of the bulk viscosity on the adiabatic speed of sound is studied in depth highlighting why only hadrons in the intermediate relativistic regime contribute the most to the

  6. Drag Coefficient of Thin Flexible Cylinder

    Subramanian, Chelakara; Gurram, Harika


    Measurements of drag coefficients of thin flexible cylindrical wires are described for the Reynolds number range between 250 - 1000. Results indicate that the coefficient values are about 20 to 30 percent lower than the reported laminar flow values for rigid cylinders. Possible fluid dynamics mechanism causing the reduction in drag will be discussed.

  7. Problems with Discontinuous Diffusion/Dispersion Coefficients

    Stefano Ferraris


    accurate on smooth solutions and based on a special numerical treatment of the diffusion/dispersion coefficients that makes its application possible also when such coefficients are discontinuous. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence of the numerical approximation and show a good behavior on a set of benchmark problems in two space dimensions.

  8. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    Lee, Chris J.; Slot, van der Peter J.M.; Boller, Klaus-J.


    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ

  9. Alternatives to Pearson's and Spearman's Correlation Coefficients

    Smarandache, Florentin


    This article presents several alternatives to Pearson's correlation coefficient and many examples. In the samples where the rank in a discrete variable counts more than the variable values, the mixtures that we propose of Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients give better results.

  10. Efficient Estimation in Heteroscedastic Varying Coefficient Models

    Chuanhua Wei


    Full Text Available This paper considers statistical inference for the heteroscedastic varying coefficient model. We propose an efficient estimator for coefficient functions that is more efficient than the conventional local-linear estimator. We establish asymptotic normality for the proposed estimator and conduct some simulation to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  11. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...

  12. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik


    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...

  13. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.;


    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...

  14. Determination of the surface drag coefficient

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.


    This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable ...

  15. Commentary on Coefficient Alpha: A Cautionary Tale

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun


    The general use of coefficient alpha to assess reliability should be discouraged on a number of grounds. The assumptions underlying coefficient alpha are unlikely to hold in practice, and violation of these assumptions can result in nontrivial negative or positive bias. Structural equation modeling was discussed as an informative process both to…

  16. Graphite friction coefficient for various conditions


    The friction coefficient the graphite used in the Tsinghua University 10MW High Tem-perature Gas-Cooled Reactor was analyzed for various conditions. The variation of the graphitefriction coefficient was measured for various sliding velocities, sliding distances, normal loads, en-vironments and temperatures. A scanning elector microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the fric-tion surfaces.

  17. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    Lee, Chris J; Boller, Klaus-J


    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  18. Modelling the change in the oxidation coefficient during the aerobic ...


    Jan 20, 2013 ... aerobic degradation of phenol by acclimated activated sludge. Cintia C Lobo1, Nora C ... hazardous environmental pollutants. Several industries ... wastes, and in decomposing organic material, and are produced from the metabolism ... enzymatic peroxide wet oxidation, electrochemical and photo- catalytic ...

  19. An Efficient Approach for Computing Silhouette Coefficients

    Moh'd B. Al- Zoubi


    Full Text Available One popular approach for finding the best number of clusters (K in a data set is through computing the silhouette coefficients. The silhouette coefficients for different values of K, are first found and then the maximum value of these coefficients is chosen. However, computing the silhouette coefficient for different Ks is a very time consuming process. This is due to the amount of CPU time spent on distance calculations. A proposed approach to compute the silhouette coefficient quickly had been presented. The approach was based on decreasing the number of addition operations when computing distances. The results were efficient and more than 50% of the CPU time was achieved when applied to different data sets.

  20. Estimation of the simple correlation coefficient.

    Shieh, Gwowen


    This article investigates some unfamiliar properties of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for the estimation of simple correlation coefficient. Although Pearson's r is biased, except for limited situations, and the minimum variance unbiased estimator has been proposed in the literature, researchers routinely employ the sample correlation coefficient in their practical applications, because of its simplicity and popularity. In order to support such practice, this study examines the mean squared errors of r and several prominent formulas. The results reveal specific situations in which the sample correlation coefficient performs better than the unbiased and nearly unbiased estimators, facilitating recommendation of r as an effect size index for the strength of linear association between two variables. In addition, related issues of estimating the squared simple correlation coefficient are also considered.

  1. Estimating beta-mixing coefficients via histograms

    McDonald, Daniel J; Schervish, Mark


    The literature on statistical learning for time series often assumes asymptotic independence or "mixing" of data sources. Beta-mixing has long been important in establishing the central limit theorem and invariance principle for stochastic processes; recent work has identified it as crucial to extending results from empirical processes and statistical learning theory to dependent data, with quantitative risk bounds involving the actual beta coefficients. There is, however, presently no way to actually estimate those coefficients from data; while general functional forms are known for some common classes of processes (Markov processes, ARMA models, etc.), specific coefficients are generally beyond calculation. We present an l1-risk consistent estimator for the beta-mixing coefficients, based on a single stationary sample path. Since mixing coefficients involve infinite-order dependence, we use an order-d Markov approximation. We prove high-probability concentration results for the Markov approximation and show...

  2. Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012

    Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter


    A full scale field seepage test was conducted on a north-south trending levee segment of a now bypassed old meander belt on Twitchell Island, California, to understand the effects of live and decaying root systems on levee seepage and slope stability. The field test in May 2012 was centered on a north-south trench with two segments: a shorter control segment and a longer seepage test segment. The complete length of the trench area measured 40.4 meters (m) near the levee centerline with mature trees located on the waterside and landside of the levee flanks. The levee was instrumented with piezometers and tensiometers to measure positive and negative porewater pressures across the levee after the trench was flooded with water and held at a constant hydraulic head during the seepage test—the results from this component of the experiment are not discussed in this report. We collected more than one billion three-dimensional light detection and ranging (lidar) data points before, during, and after the centerline seepage test to assess centimeter-scale stability of the two trees and the levee crown. During the seepage test, the waterside tree toppled (rotated 20.7 degrees) into the water. The landside tree rotated away from the levee by 5 centimeters (cm) at a height of 2 m on the tree. The paved surface of the levee crown had three regions that showed subsidence on the waterside of the trench—discussed as the northern, central, and southern features. The northern feature is an elongate region that subsided 2.1 cm over an area with an average width of 1.35 m that extends 15.8 m parallel to the trench from the northern end of the trench to just north of the trench midpoint, and is associated with a crack 1 cm in height that formed during the seepage test on the trench wall. The central subsidence feature is a semicircular region on the waterside of the trench that subsided by as much as 6.2 cm over an area 3.4 m wide and 11.2 m long. The southern feature is an elongate

  3. One-dimensional spatially dependent solute transport in semi ...

    One-dimensional spatially dependent solute transport in semi-infinite porous media: an analytical solution. ... Journal Home > Vol 9, No 4 (2017) > ... In this mathematical model the dispersion coefficient is considered spatially dependent while ...

  4. Brandteknisk Dimensionering

    Carlsen, Bent Erik; Jensen, Bjarne Chr.; Olesen, Frits Bolonius;

    Indholdet af nærværende rapport, er identisk med den indstilling, som pr. 1. september 1977 er afgivet til Dansk Ingeniør-forening, Normstyrelsen, af det i forsommeren 1976 nedsatte udvalg vedrørende brandteknisk dimensionering. Indstillingen, hvis primære formål har været at give Normstyrelsen et...... grundlag for at vurdere, om - og i givet fald hvordan - brandteknisk dimensionering af bærende konstruktioner vil kunne indføres i DIF's konstruktionsnormer, indeholder et skitseforslag til, efter hvilke principper dette vil kunne gøres. Men derudover har udvalget i fire dataoplæg (rapportens bilag 1...

  5. Does spatial arrangement of 3D plants affect light transmission and extinction coefficient within maize crops?

    Row spacing effects on light interception and extinction coefficient have been inconsistent for maize (Zea mays L.) when calculated with field measurements. To avoid inconsistencies due to variable light conditions and variable leaf canopies, we used a model to describe three-dimensional (3D) shoot ...

  6. Application of Genetic Programming in Predicting Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients of Organic Compounds in Water

    Yi Lin CAO; Huan Ying LI


    In this paper, we calculated 37 structural descriptors of 174 organic compounds. The154 molecules were used to derive quantitative structure-infinite dilution activity coefficientrelationship by genetic programming, the other 20 compounds were used to test the model. Theresult showed that molecular partition property and three-dimensional structural descriptors havesignificant influence on the infinite dilution activity coefficients.

  7. Density, ultrasound velocity, acoustic impedance, reflection and absorption coefficient determination of liquids via multiple reflection method.

    Hoche, S; Hussein, M A; Becker, T


    The accuracy of density, reflection coefficient, and acoustic impedance determination via multiple reflection method was validated experimentally. The ternary system water-maltose-ethanol was used to execute a systematic, temperature dependent study over a wide range of densities and viscosities aiming an application as inline sensor in beverage industries. The validation results of the presented method and setup show root mean square errors of: 1.201E-3 g cm(-3) (±0.12%) density, 0.515E-3 (0.15%) reflection coefficient and 1.851E+3 kg s(-1) m(-2) (0.12%) specific acoustic impedance. The results of the diffraction corrected absorption showed an average standard deviation of only 0.12%. It was found that the absorption change shows a good correlation to concentration variations and may be useful for laboratory analysis of sufficiently pure liquids. The main part of the observed errors can be explained by the observed noise, temperature variation and the low signal resolution of 50 MHz. In particular, the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the second reflector echo was found to be a main accuracy limitation. Concerning the investigation of liquids the unstable properties of the reference material PMMA, due to hygroscopicity, were identified to be an additional, unpredictable source of uncertainty. While dimensional changes can be considered by adequate methodology, the impact of the time and temperature dependent water absorption on relevant reference properties like the buffer's sound velocity and density could not be considered and may explain part of the observed deviations.

  8. Development of database on the distribution coefficient. 1. Collection of the distribution coefficient data

    Takebe, Shinichi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The distribution coefficient is very important parameter for environmental impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste arising from research institutes. The literature survey in the country was mainly carried out for the purpose of selecting the reasonable distribution coefficient value on the utilization of this value in the safety evaluation. This report was arranged much informations on the distribution coefficient for inputting to the database for each literature, and was summarized as a literature information data on the distribution coefficient. (author)

  9. Spatial correlation coefficient images for ultrasonic detection.

    Cepel, Raina; Ho, K C; Rinker, Brett A; Palmer, Donald D; Lerch, Terrence P; Neal, Steven P


    In ultrasonics, image formation and detection are generally based on signal amplitude. In this paper, we introduce correlation coefficient images as a signal-amplitude independent approach for image formation. The correlation coefficients are calculated between A-scans digitized at adjacent measurement positions. In these images, defects are revealed as regions of high or low correlation relative to the background correlations associated with noise. Correlation coefficient and C-scan images are shown to demonstrate flat-bottom-hole detection in a stainless steel annular ring and crack detection in an aluminum aircraft structure.

  10. Coefficient of restitution of aspherical particles.

    Glielmo, Aldo; Gunkelmann, Nina; Pöschel, Thorsten


    We consider the motion of an aspherical inelastic particle of dumbbell type bouncing repeatedly on a horizontal flat surface. The coefficient of restitution of such a particle depends not only on material properties and impact velocity but also on the angular orientation at the instant of the collision whose variance is considerable, even for small eccentricity. Assuming random angular orientation of the particle at the instant of contact we characterize the measured coefficient of restitution as a fluctuating quantity and obtain a wide probability density function including a finite probability for negative values of the coefficient of restitution. This may be understood from the partial exchange of translational and rotational kinetic energy.

  11. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik


    between the measured and the calculated heat transfer coefficient is nearly constant and equal 1.9. With this factor the correlation predicts the measured data within 14% (RMS). The pressure drop is of the same order as the measuring uncertainty and the pressure drop has not been compared with correlation's.......Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...

  12. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)


    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  13. Inferences on the common coefficient of variation.

    Tian, Lili


    The coefficient of variation is often used as a measure of precision and reproducibility of data in medical and biological science. This paper considers the problem of making inference about the common population coefficient of variation when it is a priori suspected that several independent samples are from populations with a common coefficient of variation. The procedures for confidence interval estimation and hypothesis testing are developed based on the concepts of generalized variables. The coverage properties of the proposed confidence intervals and type-I errors of the proposed tests are evaluated by simulation. The proposed methods are illustrated by a real life example.

  14. Turbulent Transfer Coefficients and Calculation of Air Temperature inside Tall Grass Canopies in Land Atmosphere Schemes for Environmental Modeling.

    Mihailovic, D. T.; Alapaty, K.; Lalic, B.; Arsenic, I.; Rajkovic, B.; Malinovic, S.


    A method for estimating profiles of turbulent transfer coefficients inside a vegetation canopy and their use in calculating the air temperature inside tall grass canopies in land surface schemes for environmental modeling is presented. The proposed method, based on K theory, is assessed using data measured in a maize canopy. The air temperature inside the canopy is determined diagnostically by a method based on detailed consideration of 1) calculations of turbulent fluxes, 2) the shape of the wind and turbulent transfer coefficient profiles, and 3) calculation of the aerodynamic resistances inside tall grass canopies. An expression for calculating the turbulent transfer coefficient inside sparse tall grass canopies is also suggested, including modification of the corresponding equation for the wind profile inside the canopy. The proposed calculations of K-theory parameters are tested using the Land Air Parameterization Scheme (LAPS). Model outputs of air temperature inside the canopy for 8 17 July 2002 are compared with micrometeorological measurements inside a sunflower field at the Rimski Sancevi experimental site (Serbia). To demonstrate how changes in the specification of canopy density affect the simulation of air temperature inside tall grass canopies and, thus, alter the growth of PBL height, numerical experiments are performed with LAPS coupled with a one-dimensional PBL model over a sunflower field. To examine how the turbulent transfer coefficient inside tall grass canopies over a large domain represents the influence of the underlying surface on the air layer above, sensitivity tests are performed using a coupled system consisting of the NCEP Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model and LAPS.

  15. Effect of Thermo-treatment on Heating Dimensional Change Rate of Formed PVC Composite Wood Floor%热处理对PVC发泡复合地板加热尺寸变化率的影响

    王洪艳; 汤文进; 徐瑞英; 方庆华; 鲍建华; 袁少飞; 李琴; 杜官本


    The formed PVC composite wood floor was treated by thermo-treatment,the heating dimensional change rate, surface morphology and thermal properties of formed PVC material treated/untreated were analyzed. The results show that the dimensional changes can be reduced evidently after the thermo-treatment because of the changes in the surface structure;the processing temperature and processing time are two important factors,the processing temperature is more significant than the processing temperature for the formed PVC composite wood floor. The dimensional changes of the formed PVC composite wood floor reduce evidently when the processing temperature is above 80℃. The rate of dimensional changes can be reduced to about 0.2%which is less than the government standard(GB/T 11982.1–2005) requirement 0.4%.%对热处理前后聚氯乙烯(PVC)发泡复合地板的加热尺寸变化率进行了研究,并对处理前后PVC发泡复合地板基材(PVC发泡材料)的表面形态及相关热性能进行了分析。结果表明,热处理后PVC复合地板基材表面泡孔结构发生明显变化,能降低复合地板的加热尺寸变化率;热处理温度和时间是两个比较重要的因素,温度较时间影响显著,温度在80℃以上对减小PVC发泡复合地板的加热尺寸变化率有明显的效果;试验中采用140℃处理1 min时, PVC发泡复合地板的加热尺寸变化率均能达到0.2%左右(低于GB/T 11982.1–2005要求的0.4%)。

  16. Prediction of leakage and rotordynamic coefficients for the circumferential-groove pump seal using CFD analysis

    Kim, Sung Ho; Ha, Tae Woong [Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    The circumferential-groove seal is commonly used in various turbopumps to reduce leakage. The main goal of this paper is to develop the method of three-dimensional CFD analysis for determining leakage and rotordynamic coefficients of the circumferential-groovepump seal. A relative coordinate system was defined for steady-state simulation to calculate the velocity and pressure distributions of the seal clearance at each rotor whirl speed. Instead of setting the inlet and outlet pressures as the boundary conditions in the three dimensional CFD analysis, as it is more commonly done, we used the inlet velocity and outlet pressure obtained from a preliminary two dimensional CFD analysis. For prediction leakage, the presented analysis shows improvement from the bulk-flow model analysis. For the prediction of rotordynamic coefficients of K, k and C, the presented analysis provides results in closer agreement with the experimental values than those of the bulk-flow model analysis at several rotor speeds.

  17. Experimental study on the aerodynamic performance of 3-dimensional vortex-blowers. Sanjigen uzuryu blower no kuriki seino ni kansuru kenkyu

    Yamazaki, S.; Ito, E.; Fujio, M.; Fujita, H. (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Vortex blowers with two-dimensional blades have such deficiencies as low aerodynamic performance and high noise. Accordingly, discussions have been given on effects of three-dimensionalized blades on internal flows and aerodynamic performance with the objective of making the vortex blowers smaller in size, higher in performance, and lower in noise. A spiral flow exists in the flow path in a casing, which has its flow velocity increased as the flow rate is decreased. The flow velocity at the closing point reaches about two times as large as the circumferential speed of the blades in the case of having three-dimensional leading blades. The spiral flow outflowing from outer circumference of the blades into the casing flow path has its flow velocity nearly halved while swirling in semi-circular form in the casing flow path, by which a vortex blower converts the total pressure in the casing flow path to a static pressure. When the outlet angle in the axial direction is changed from 90[degree] (two-dimensional blade) to 50[degree](three-dimensional leading blade), the flow velocity components increase largely in the circumferential direction, with the pressure coefficient and the dynamic coefficient increasing by about two fold respectively. When the inlet angle in the axial direction is reduced to 40[degree] , the blade incident loss reduces, while the pressure coefficient improves by about 20% and the heat insulation efficiency by about 30%. 4 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Three-dimensional volume rendering of tibiofibular joint space and quantitative analysis of change in volume due to tibiofibular syndesmosis diastases

    Taser, F.; Shafiq, Q.; Ebraheim, N.A. [Medical University of Ohio, Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Toledo, OH (United States)


    The diagnosis of ankle syndesmosis injuries is made by various imaging techniques. The present study was undertaken to examine whether the three-dimensional reconstruction of axial CT images and calculation of the volume of tibiofibular joint space enhances the sensitivity of diastases diagnoses or not. Six adult cadaveric ankle specimens were used for spiral CT-scan assessment of tibiofibular syndesmosis. After the specimens were dissected, external fixation was performed and diastases of 1, 2, and 3 mm was simulated by a precalibrated device. Helical CT scans were obtained with 1.0-mm slice thickness. The data was transferred to the computer software AcquariusNET. Then the contours of the tibiofibular syndesmosis joint space were outlined on each axial CT slice and the collection of these slices were stacked using the computer software AutoCAD 2005, according to the spatial arrangement and geometrical coordinates between each slice, to produce a three-dimensional reconstruction of the joint space. The area of each slice and the volume of the entire tibiofibular joint space were calculated. The tibiofibular joint space at the 10th-mm slice level was also measured on axial CT scan images at normal, 1, 2 and 3-mm joint space diastases. The three-dimensional volume-rendering of the tibiofibular syndesmosis joint space from the spiral CT data demonstrated the shape of the joint space and has been found to be a sensitive method for calculating joint space volume. We found that, from normal to 1 mm, a 1-mm diastasis increases approximately 43% of the joint space volume, while from 1 to 3 mm, there is about a 20% increase for each 1-mm increase. Volume calculation using this method can be performed in cases of syndesmotic instability after ankle injuries and for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of the integrity of the tibiofibular syndesmosis. (orig.)

  19. Three-dimensional investigation of cycling-induced microstructural changes in lithium-ion battery cathodes using focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy


    For vehicle electrification, one of the biggest issues for lithium ion batteries is cycle life. Within this context, the mechanisms at the source of capacity degradation during cycling are not yet to be fully understood. In this work, we use state-of-the-art FIB-SEM serial sectioning and imaging techniques to determine the effect of cycling on lithium-ion battery cathodes. The three-dimensional (3D) microstructural study was performed on both pristine and cycled LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2 (NMC) and Li...

  20. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J


    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  1. Neutron kerma coefficient: Reference tissue for tumours

    Paredes, L., E-mail: lydia.paredes@inin.gob.m [National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Basic Sciences Division, Autonomous Metropolitan University (Mexico); Balcazar, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico); Francois, J.L. [Engineering Faculty, Autonomous National University of Mexico (Mexico)


    Neutron kerma coefficients were calculated in different media: 4 malignant tumours, 5 normal tissues and 3 tissue substitute in the range 11 eV-29 MeV. The objective was to identify which is the material that better reproduces the behavior of these tumours and tissues. These tissues have clinical interest in interstitial brachytherapy applications with fast neutron source (Cf-252). The small differences of elemental composition among these tissues produce variation in the neutron kerma coefficients. The results show that the neutron kerma coefficients for malignant tumours are smaller than soft tissue from 6% to 9%. Also, the muscle is the tissue that best represents the dosimetric behavior for the tumours and tissues analyzed in this paper for neutron energies >1 keV, where this coefficients show minor variation.

  2. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando


    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.

  3. Cohomology with Coefficients for Operadic Coalgebras

    Anita Majumdar; Donald Yau


    Corepresentations of a coalgebra over a quadratic operad are defined, and various characterizations of them are given. Cohomology of such an operadic coalgebra with coefficients in a corepresentation is then studied.

  4. Lyapunov exponents for infinite dimensional dynamical systems

    Mhuiris, Nessan Mac Giolla


    Classically it was held that solutions to deterministic partial differential equations (i.e., ones with smooth coefficients and boundary data) could become random only through one mechanism, namely by the activation of more and more of the infinite number of degrees of freedom that are available to such a system. It is only recently that researchers have come to suspect that many infinite dimensional nonlinear systems may in fact possess finite dimensional chaotic attractors. Lyapunov exponents provide a tool for probing the nature of these attractors. This paper examines how these exponents might be measured for infinite dimensional systems.

  5. Torsion method for measuring piezooptic coefficients

    Skab, I.; Smaga, I.; Savaryn, V.; Vasylkiv, Yu.; Vlokh, R. [Institute of Physical Optics, Lviv (Ukraine)


    We develop and describe analytically a torsion method for measuring piezooptic coefficients associated with shear stresses. It is shown that the method enables to increase significantly the accuracy of determination of piezooptic coefficients. The method and the appropriate apparatus are verified experimentally on the example of LiNbO{sub 3} crystals. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Diffusion coefficients in viscous sodium alginate solutions

    Aoki, K.; Wang, B; Chen, J.; Nishiumi, T.


    Sodium alginate solution, being viscous hydrocolloid, was examined voltammetricallyin the context of viscous effects by use of a ferrocenyl compound as a redox probe.Voltammograms were almost independent of concentrations of sodium alginate even ina solid-like state. Diffusion coefficients of the ferrocenyl compound did not vary withviscosity evaluated by a viscometer. Ionic conductivity of sodium alginate was alsoindependent of the viscosity. In contrast, diffusion coefficients of the latex ...

  7. Thermal expansion coefficient of binary semiconductors

    Kumar, V.; Sastry, B.S.R. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Electronics and Instrumentation


    The linear thermal expansion coefficient of tetrahedrally coordinated A{sup II}B{sup VI} and A{sup III}B{sup V} semiconductors has been calculated using plasmon energy data. A simple relation between the bond length and plasmon energy has been derived. The calculated values of thermal expansion coefficient and bond length have been compared with the experimental values and the values reported by different workers. An excellent experiment has been obtained between them. (orig.)

  8. Mass transfer coefficients in metallurgical reactors


    An overview on the application and achievements of physico-mathematical modeling of metallurgical processes in Chinais briefly declared. The important role of coefficients in model formulation is shown from our experience. The mass transfer coeffi-cients of the slag-metal reactions and the gas-metal reactions are discussed referring to the flow conditions near the interface. Theinfluence of the surface-active species on the mass transfer and the inteffacial reaction is also discussed briefly.

  9. Measuring Resource Inequality: The Gini Coefficient

    Michael T. Catalano


    Full Text Available This paper stems from work done by the authors at the Mathematics for Social Justice Workshop held in June of 2007 at Middlebury College. We provide a description of the Gini coefficient and some discussion of how it can be used to promote quantitative literacy skills in mathematics courses. The Gini Coefficient was introduced in 1921 by Italian statistician Corrado Gini as a measure of inequality. It is defined as twice the area between two curves. One, the Lorenz curve for a given population with respect to a given resource, represents the cumulative percentage of the resource as a function of the cumulative percentage of the population that shares that percentage of the resource. The second curve is the line y = x which is the Lorenz curve for a population which shares the resource equally. The Gini coefficient can be interpreted as the percentage of inequality represented in the population with respect to the given resource. We propose that the Gini coefficient can be used to enhance students’ understanding of calculus concepts and provide practice for students in using both calculus and quantitative literacy skills. Our examples are based mainly on distribution of energy resources using publicly available data from the Energy Information Agency of the United States Government. For energy resources within the United States, we find that by household, the Gini coefficient is 0.346, while using the 51 data points represented by the states and Washington D.C., the Gini coefficient is 0.158. When we consider the countries of the world as a population of 210, the Gini coefficient is 0.670. We close with ideas for questions which can be posed to students and discussion of the experiences two other mathematics instructors have had incorporating the Gini coefficient into pre-calculus-level mathematics classes.

  10. Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Thin Crystal Films


    The formulas for atomic displacements and Hamiltonian of a thin crystal film in phonon occupation number representation are obtained with the aid of Green's function theory. On the basis of these results, the formulas for thermal expansion coefficients of the thin crystal film are derived with the perturbation theory, and the numerical calculations are carried out. The results show that the thinner films have larger thermal expansion coefficients.

  11. Concordance correlation coefficient applied to discrete data.

    Carrasco, Josep L; Jover, Lluis


    In any field in which decisions are subject to measurements, interchangeability between the methods used to obtain these measurements is essential. To consider methods as interchangeable, a certain degree of agreement is needed between the measurements they provide. The concordance correlation coefficient is an index that assesses the strength of agreement and it has been widely applied in situations in which measurements are made on a continuous scale. Recently the concordance correlation coefficient has been defined as a specific intraclass correlation coefficient estimated by the variance components of a Normal-Normal mixed linear model. Although this coefficient was defined for the continuous scale case, it may also be used with a discrete scale. In this case the data are often transformed and normalized, and the concordance correlation is applied. This study discusses the expression of the concordance correlation coefficient for discrete Poisson data by means of the Poisson-Normal generalized linear mixed model. The behaviour of the concordance correlation coefficient estimate is assessed by means of a simulation study, in which the estimates were compared using four models: three Normal-Normal mixed models with raw data, log-transformed data and square-root transformed data, and the Poisson-Normal generalized linear mixed model. An example is provided in which two different methods are used to measure CD34+ cells.

  12. Fourier coefficient description of left ventricular shape.

    Round, W H; Bates, R H; Ikram, H


    A method of quantifying the shape of the left ventricle of the heart as seen in 2D echocardiograms was developed. It is based on describing the shape in terms of the coefficients a fifth-order trigonometric Fourier series. Such a series has eleven Fourier coefficients which is too large a number for clinical application so pairs of coefficients are combined to give six coefficients (alpha 0, alpha 1, ... , alpha 5). A trial was conducted to test the ability of the coefficient description to classify subjects as having normal right ventricles or ventricles with an apical abnormality. The tests showed that one of the coefficients (alpha 2) was higher for the subjects with an apical abnormality and that this difference increased with exercise. This is as was expected. However, it was found to be difficult to get a reliable estimate of alpha 2 from a single scan of a patient and that it is therefore probably necessary to average data from several scans to obtain a reliable alpha 2 value for a single patient.

  13. Magnetization and magnetic entropy change of a three-dimensional isotropic ferromagnet near the Curie temperature in the random phase approximation

    Kokorina, E.E., E-mail: [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Medvedev, M.V. [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Department of Theoretical Physics, Ural Federal University, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)


    The behavior of a three-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg ferromagnet in the presence of a magnetic field H is investigated in the random phase approximation (RPA) near the Curie temperature T{sub c}. It is shown that the magnetization M at the Curie temperature T{sub c} is described by the law M(T=T{sub c})∼H{sup 1/5} and the initial magnetic susceptibility χ{sub 0} at temperatures T≥T{sub c} is given by χ{sub 0}(T≥T{sub c})∼(T−T{sub c}){sup −2}. It means that in the RPA the critical exponents for a three-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnet coincide with the critical exponents for the Berlin-Kac spherical model of a ferromagnet rather than with the critical exponents of the mean field approximation (MFA). Hence it follows as well that, when a magnetic field H is risen from H=0 to H=H{sub a}, the magnetic entropy S{sub M} will be decreased as ΔS{sub M}(T=T{sub c})∼−H{sub a}{sup 4/5} at the Curie temperature T{sub c} and as ΔS{sub M}(T>T{sub c})∼−(T−T{sub c}){sup −3}H{sub a}{sup 2} at temperatures T>T{sub c}.

  14. Changes in protein abundance between tender and tough meat from bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle assessed by isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis

    Bjarnadóttir, S G; Hollung, K; Høy, M


    -DE analysis (P flux through the tricarboxylate cycle [2......The aim of this study was to find potential biomarkers for meat tenderness in bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle and to compare results from isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. The experiment included 4 tender and 4......-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex component E2 (OGDC-E2)], apoptosis (galectin-1) and regulatory role in the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores (annexin A6). Even though the overlap in significantly changing proteins was relatively low between iTRAQ and 2-DE analysis, certain proteins predicted to have...

  15. Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons

    Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.


    We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .

  16. Measurement and Research of Equivalent Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity for CARR

    LI; Jian-long; LV; Zheng; HUA; Xiao; XIAO; Shi-gang; LIU; Tian-cai; RAN; Huai-chang


    <正>The reactor with a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity has inner stability, which is a important symbol of inherent reactor safety. During the reactor start-up Commissioning Stage C for CARR, the measurement of equivalent temperature coefficient of reactivity is a important experiment by the way of measuring the reactivity change resulting of the equivalent temperature variation in the reactor core.

  17. Identification of Heat Transfer Coefficients by Use Conditions of Quenching Oil

    Katsumi Ichitani


    Heat transfer coefficients of the quench medium are necessary for heat-treatment simulation. Cooling characteristics of quenching oil vary with kinds and usage greatly. Users are selecting oil solutions that come up to their desired hardness and quenching distortion requirements. In particular cooling performance rises by agitation and decompression. Therefore we identified a heat transfer coefficient by usage and kinds of quenching oil. Cooling characteristics are different greatly by a kind of quenching oil. A difference of a cooling characteristic by a kind of oil depends on a temperature range of a boiling stage and the maximum heat transfer coefficient mainly. On the other hand, in a convection stage, there are few changes in a boiling stage. Even if quenching oil temperature is changed, heat transfer coefficients do not change greatly. When quenching oil stirred, heat transfer coefficients of vapor blanket stage and a convection stage rise, but there are a few changes in a boiling stage. When quenching oil is decompressed a temperature range of a high heat transfer coefficient moves to the low temperature side. In addition, a heat transfer coefficient in a vapor blanket stage comes down. For precision improvement of heat-treatment simulation, it is important that the heat transfer coefficient is calculated in conformity to the on-site use reality.

  18. Methodology update for determination of the erosion coefficient(Z

    Tošić Radislav


    Full Text Available The research and mapping the intensity of mechanical water erosion that have begun with the empirical methodology of S. Gavrilović during the mid-twentieth century last, by various intensity, until the present time. A many decades work on the research of these issues pointed to some shortcomings of the existing methodology, and thus the need for its innovation. In this sense, R. Lazarević made certain adjustments of the empirical methodology of S. Gavrilović by changing the tables for determination of the coefficients Φ, X and Y, that is, the tables for determining the mean erosion coefficient (Z. The main objective of this paper is to update the existing methodology for determining the erosion coefficient (Z with the empirical methodology of S. Gavrilović and amendments made by R. Lazarević (1985, but also with better adjustments to the information technologies and the needs of modern society. The proposed procedure, that is, the model to determine the erosion coefficient (Z in this paper is the result of ten years of scientific research and project work in mapping the intensity of mechanical water erosion and its modeling using various models of erosion in the Republic of Srpska and Serbia. By analyzing the correlation of results obtained by regression models and results obtained during the mapping of erosion on the territory of the Republic of Srpska, a high degree of correlation (R² = 0.9963 was established, which is essentially a good assessment of the proposed models.

  19. Analysis of the Coupling Coefficient in Inductive Energy Transfer Systems

    Rafael Mendes Duarte


    Full Text Available In wireless energy transfer systems, the energy is transferred from a power source to an electrical load without the need of physical connections. In this scope, inductive links have been widely studied as a way of implementing these systems. Although high efficiency can be achieved when the system is operating in a static state, it can drastically decrease if changes in the relative position and in the coupling coefficient between the coils occur. In this paper, we analyze the coupling coefficient as a function of the distance between two planar and coaxial coils in wireless energy transfer systems. A simple equation is derived from Neumann’s equation for mutual inductance, which is then used to calculate the coupling coefficient. The coupling coefficient is computed using CST Microwave Studio and compared to calculation and experimental results for two coils with an excitation signal of up to 10 MHz. The results showed that the equation presents good accuracy for geometric parameters that do not lead the solution of the elliptic integral of the first kind to infinity.

  20. Semifolded Localized Structures in Three-Dimensional Soliton Systems

    FANG Jian-Ping; ZHENG Chun-Long; CHEN Li-Qun


    By means ora Painlevé-Backlund transformation and a multi-linear variable separation approach, abundant localized coherent excitations of the three-dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt system with variable coefficients are derived. There are possible phase shifts for the interactions of the three-dimensional novel localized structures discussed in this paper.