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Sample records for digit ratio predicts

  1. Does digit ratio (2DAD) predict penile length?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denise Brooks McQuade

    2011-01-01

    @@ Now advertized in at least one locale as the 'sexy ratio' with the caption,'Your hands give away your hotness' (http://io9.com/#!5794008; accessed 3 May 2011),an online summary of a recent study linking facial attractiveness to the ratio of the index and ring fingers1 indicates that digit ratio (2DAD)research has reached mainstream culture.Digit ratio,most commonly the ratio of the index to ring fingers in humans,is sexually dimorphic (males have lower values than females) with greater differences on their right hand 2s Ratios are determined early in development and remain relatively stable thereafter.4 Perhaps the popular appeal is the relative simplicity of the measure,and the fact that researchers interested in any number of behavioral or physiological traits correlatedwith hormone activity have adopted digit ratio as a convenient biomarker for prenatal androgen exposure.5 Over the past decade,the correlation of digit ratio with sexual behavior and other aspects of reproductive biology has been well documented6-9 and there is a growing list of traits with links to digit ratio,although the associations are less well established.

  2. Digit ratio predicts sense of direction in women.

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    Xiaoqian J Chai

    Full Text Available The relative length of the second-to-fourth digits (2D:4D has been linked with prenatal androgen in humans. The 2D:4D is sexually dimorphic, with lower values in males than females, and appears to correlate with diverse measures of behavior. However, the relationship between digit ratio and cognition, and spatial cognition in particular, has produced mixed results. In the present study, we hypothesized that spatial tasks separating cue conditions that either favored female or male strategies would examine this structure-function correlation with greater precision. Previous work suggests that males are better in the use of directional cues than females. In the present study, participants learned a target location in a virtual landscape environment, in conditions that contained either all directional (i.e., distant or compass bearing cues, or all positional (i.e., local, small objects cues. After a short delay, participants navigated back to the target location from a novel starting location. Males had higher accuracy in initial search direction than females in environments with all directional cues. Lower digit ratio was correlated with higher accuracy of initial search direction in females in environments with all directional cues. Mental rotation scores did not correlate with digit ratio in either males or females. These results demonstrate for the first time that a sex difference in the use of directional cues, i.e., the sense of direction, is associated with more male-like digit ratio.

  3. 2D:4D digit ratio predicts delay of gratification in preschoolers.

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    Sergio Da Silva

    Full Text Available We replicate the Stanford marshmallow experiment with a sample of 141 preschoolers and find a correlation between lack of self-control and 2D:4D digit ratio. Children with low 2D:4D digit ratio are less likely to delay gratification. Low 2D:4D digit ratio may indicate high fetal testosterone. If this hypothesis is true, our finding means high fetal testosterone children are less likely to delay gratification.

  4. Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early modern humans but not in Australopithecus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Emma; Rolian, Campbell; Cashmore, Lisa; Shultz, Susanne

    2011-05-22

    Social behaviour of fossil hominoid species is notoriously difficult to predict owing to difficulties in estimating body size dimorphism from fragmentary remains and, in hominins, low canine size dimorphism. Recent studies have shown that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAEs), covaries with intra-sexual competition and social systems across haplorrhines; non-pair-bonded polygynous taxa have significantly lower 2D : 4D ratios (high PAE) than pair-bonded monogamous species. Here, we use proximal phalanx ratios of extant and fossil specimens to reconstruct the social systems of extinct hominoids. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Hispanopithecus laietanus and Ardipithecus ramidus have ratios consistent with polygynous extant species, whereas the ratio of Australopithecus afarensis is consistent with monogamous extant species. The early anatomically modern human Qafzeh 9 and Neanderthals have lower digit ratios than most contemporary human populations, indicating increased androgenization and possibly higher incidence of polygyny. Although speculative owing to small sample sizes, these results suggest that digit ratios represent a supplementary approach for elucidating the social systems of fossil hominins.

  5. Predictive dynamic digital holography

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    Sulaiman, Sennan; Gibson, Steve; Spencer, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Digital holography has received recent attention for many imaging and sensing applications, including imaging through turbulent and turbid media, adaptive optics, three dimensional projective display technology and optical tweezing. A significant obstacle for digital holography in real-time applications, such as wavefront sensing for high energy laser systems and high speed imaging for target tracking, is the fact that digital holography is computationally intensive; it requires iterative virtual wavefront propagation and hill-climbing to optimize some sharpness criteria. This paper demonstrates real-time methods for digital holography based on approaches developed recently at UCLA for optimal and adaptive identification, prediction, and control of optical wavefronts. The methods presented integrate minimum variance wavefront prediction into digital holography schemes to short-circuit the computationally intensive algorithms for iterative propagation of virtual wavefronts and hill climbing for sharpness optimization.

  6. Why is digit ratio correlated to sports performance?

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    Kim, Tae Beom; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-01-01

    Second to fourth digit ratio is the ratio of second to fourth digit length. It has been known that digit ratio is sexually dimorphic in humans, such that males tend to have lower digit ratio (longer fourth digits relative to second digits) than females. Digit ratio is thought to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (FT) and fetal estrogen (FE) in a relatively narrow developmental window at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. On the contrary, the relationships between digit ratio and levels of sex steroids in adults are not clear. Most correlational studies between digit ratio and adult sex steroids have revealed that this association is statistically not significant. However, for many years, a lot of researches showed negative relationships between digit ratio and sports performance such as rugby, surfing, rowing, sprinting, endurance, and hand grip strength. Here, we discuss possible mechanisms about the relationships between digit ratio and sports performance. PMID:28119871

  7. Does the Mother or Father Determine the Offspring Sex Ratio? Investigating the Relationship between Maternal Digit Ratio and Offspring Sex Ratio.

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    Tae Beom Kim

    Full Text Available In mammals, high parental testosterone levels present around the time of conception are thought to skew offspring sex ratio toward sons. The second to fourth digit ratio (digit ratio is now widely accepted as a negative correlate of prenatal testosterone. Thus, we investigated the association between digit ratio and offspring sex ratio.A total of 508 Korean patients (257 males and 251 females less than 60 years old who had one or more offspring were prospectively enrolled. The lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits of the right hand were measured by a single investigator using a digital vernier calliper. Next, the patients' lifetime offspring birth sex ratios were investigated.Maternal (rather than paternal digit ratio was significantly associated with the number of sons (r = -0.153, p = 0.015, number of daughters (r = 0.130, p = 0.039, and offspring sex ratio (r = -0.171, p = 0.007. And, the maternal digit ratio was a significant factor for predicting offspring sex ratio (B = -1.620, p = 0.008 on multiple linear regression analysis. The female patients with a lower digit ratio (< 0.95 were found to have a higher offspring sex ratio (0.609 versus 0.521, p = 0.046 compared to those with a higher digit ratio (≥ 0.95. Furthermore, females in the low digit ratio group have a probability 1.138 greater of having sons than females in the high digit ratio group.Maternal digit ratio was negatively associated with offspring sex ratio. Females with a lower digit ratio were more likely to have more male offspring compared to those with a higher digit ratio. Thus, our results suggest that the sex of offspring might be more influenced by maternal rather than paternal factors.

  8. Second to fourth digit ratio: a predictor of adult lung function

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    I-Nae Park

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex and sex hormones play a major role in lung physiology. It has been proposed that the ratio of the second to fourth digits (digit ratio is correlated with fetal sex hormones. We therefore hypothesized that digit ratio might help predict lung function. We investigated the relationship between digit ratio and pulmonary function test (PFT fi ndings. A total of 245 South Korean patients (162 male, 83 female aged from 34 to 90 years who were hospitalized for urological surgery were prospectively enrolled. Before administering the PFTs, the lengths of the second and fourth digits of the right hand were measured by a single investigator using a digital Vernier caliper. In males (n = 162, univariate and multivariate analysis using linear regression models showed that digit ratio was a signifi cant predictive factor of forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 (FVC: r = 0.156, P = 0.047; FEV1: r = 0.160, P = 0.042. In male ever-smokers (n = 69, lung functions (FVC and FEV1 were correlated with smoking exposure rather than digit ratio. In female never-smokers (n = 83, lung functions (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio were positively correlated with digit ratio on univariate analysis (FEV1: r = 0.242, P = 0.027; FEV1/FVC ratio: r = 0.245, P = 0.026. Patients with lower digit ratios tend to have decreased lung function. These results suggest that digit ratio is a predictor of airway function.

  9. Digit ratios, the menstrual cycle and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are partially determined by biological factors. We do this by investigating whether digit ratios (2D:4D) and menstrual cycle information are correlated with choices in ultimatum, trust, public good and dictator games. Digit ratios are thought to be a proxy for

  10. Digit ratios, the menstrual cycle and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are partially determined by biological factors. We do this by investigating whether digit ratios (2D:4D) and menstrual cycle information are correlated with choices in ultimatum, trust, public good and dictator games. Digit ratios are thought to be a proxy for p

  11. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  12. Corporate prediction models, ratios or regression analysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, E.J.; Wijn, M.F.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The models developed in the literature with respect to the prediction of a company s failure are based on ratios. It has been shown before that these models should be rejected on theoretical grounds. Our study of industrial companies in the Netherlands shows that the ratios which are used in

  13. Examining Factors Predicting Students' Digital Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlevik, Ove Edvard; Guðmundsdóttir, Gréta Björk; Loi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students' digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what…

  14. Family History Correlates of Digit Ratio Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

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    Anjith Divakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The differences in digit ratio are proposed to arise due to differential effects of sex steroids on the growth of finger bones. In this study, we sought to examine the sex differences and the influence of family history of psychosis on digit ratio in patients with schizophrenia compared to matched healthy controls (HCs. Materials and Methods: Digit ratio (2D: 4D was examined for a large sample of schizophrenia patients (n=200 and HC (n=177 to evaluate the potential effects of family history. Results: The right hand 2D: 4D digit ratio was lesser in schizophrenia patients compared to HC (0.97±0.05 vs 0.98±0.04, t=2.2, P=0.02. There was a significant difference in the right hand 2D: 4D digit ratio of female patients with schizophrenia when compared to female HCs (0.96±0.05 vs 0.98±0.03, t=2.1, P=0.03 while males showed no such difference on either hands. On the contrary, family history‑positive males showed a significantly greater digit ratio for the left hand (FH present (0.99±0.04 vs HC (0.97±0.04, t=2.15, P=0.03, while there was no difference between family history‑positive females and HC. Conclusion: Overall, in patients, reversal of expected "directionality" in digit ratio was observed in our study with greater left 2D: 4D in male patients having a family history of schizophrenia being a novel finding. Reversal of sexual dimorphism has been linked to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. It is possible that such reversal might have a putative genetic basis, perhaps only in men with schizophrenia.

  15. Sexual dimorphism in digit length ratios in two lizard species.

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    Rubolini, Diego; Pupin, Fabio; Sacchi, Roberto; Gentilli, Augusto; Zuffi, Marco A L; Galeotti, Paolo; Saino, Nicola

    2006-05-01

    Sexual dimorphism in digit length ratios has been reported for humans, a few other mammals, and two bird species. This dimorphism is thought to arise via an interaction between the prenatal exposure of the embryo to sex hormones and the Hox genes, which are highly conserved among vertebrates and control the development of both the appendices, including fingers and toes, and the urogenital system. In this study, we report on sexual dimorphism in 2D:3D, 2D:4D, and 3D:4D contralateral ratios of the forelimbs in two species of oviparous lizards, the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) and the tree skink (Mabuya planifrons), as measured on museum specimens. We found that male P. muralis had a larger 2D:4D ratio on both sides and larger 2D:3D ratio on the left side than females, whereas in M. planifrons, males had lower 2D:3D ratios than females on the left side. The two species show opposite patterns of sexual dimorphism in body size, males being larger than females in P. muralis, and the reverse in M. planifrons, suggesting that interspecific variation of sex differences in digit ratios could be associated with sex-specific growth trajectories. There was a limited evidence for directional asymmetry in digit ratios. Therefore, our findings provide the first evidence that digit ratios are sexually dimorphic in any reptile species and are consistent with the idea that the genetic link between limb development and the urogenital system had been established with the evolution of the earliest terrestrial tetrapods. Importantly, many lizard species with genetic sex determination, including the ones we studied, are oviparous and may represent valuable animal models for experimental tests of the association between prenatal exposure to androgens or estrogens and digit ratios.

  16. Examining Factors Predicting Students’ Digital Competence

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    Ove Edvard Hatlevik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students’ digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what characterizes students’ digital competence. A sample of 852 ninth-grade Norwegian students from 38 schools participated in the study. The students answered a 26 item multiple-choice digital competence test and a self-report questionnaire about family background, motivation, and previous grades. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model of the hypothesised relationship between family background, mastery orientation, previous achievements, and digital competence. The results indicate variation in digital competence among the ninth-graders. Further, analyses showed that students’ conditions at home, i.e., language integration and cultural capital, together with mastery orientation and academic achievements predict students digital competence. This study indicates that that there is evidence of digital diversity between lower secondary students. It does not seem like the development of digital competence among the students happens automatically. Students’ family background and school performance are the most important factors. Therefore, as this study shows, it is necessary to further investigate how schools can identify students’ level of competence and to develop plans and actions for how schools can help to try to equalize differences.

  17. Selective breeding for a behavioral trait changes digit ratio.

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    Reginia H Y Yan

    Full Text Available The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger divided by the fourth digit (ring finger tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized" in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.

  18. Prospective investigation of penile length with newborn male circumcision and second to fourth digit ratio

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    Park, Jong Kwan; Doo, A. Ram; Kim, Joo Heung; Park, Hyung Sub; Do, Jung Mo; Choi, Hwang; Park, Seung Chol; Kim, Myung Ki; Jeong, Young Beom; Kim, Hyung Jim; Kim, Young Gon; Shin, Yu Seob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We prospectively investigated the relationship between newborn male circumcision (NMC) and second to fourth digit ratio with penile length. Methods: As participants for our study, we identified already circumcised young patients who visited our hospital for urological treatment. The age at which the circumcision had been done was assessed. The patients’ height and weight were measured. Second to fourth digit ratio was calculated by measuring the second and fourth digit lengths. The flaccid and erectile penile lengths were measured from the base of the penis to the tip of the glans in standing position. Results: A total of 248 patients were included in our study. In univariate analysis, height, second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were associated with erectile penile length. Among these variables, second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were significant predictive factors for erectile penile length in multivariate analysis. The subjects were divided into two groups, including 72 patients in the NMC group and 176 patients in the non-NMC group. No significant difference was found in height, weight, and second to fourth digit ratio between both groups. However, flaccid (p<0.001) and erectile (p=0.001) penile lengths were shorter in the NMC group than in the non-NMC group. Conclusions: Despite the small number of subjects, this study shows that NMC was associated with shorter penile length. Second to fourth digit ratio, flaccid penile length, and age of circumcision were also significant predictive factors for erectile penile length. Further multicentre studies with larger number of subjects and biochemical analyses are needed for potential clinical applicability. PMID:27695583

  19. Second to fourth digit ratio: a predictor of adult penile length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In Ho Choi; Khae Hawn Kim; Han Jung; Sang Jin Yoon; Soo Woong Kim; Tae Beom Kim

    2011-01-01

    @@ The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been proposed as a putative biomarker for prenatal testosterone and covaries with the sensitivity of the androgen receptor (AR).Both prenatal testosterone and the AR play a central role in penile growth.In this study,we investigated the relationship between digit ratio and penile length.Korean men who were hospitalized for urological surgery at a single tertiary academic centre were examined in this study,and 1[44]men aged 20 years or older who gave informed consent were prospectively enrolled.Right-hand second- and fourth-digit lengths were measured by a single investigator prior to measurement of penile length.Under anaesthesia,flaccid and stretched penile lengths were measured by another investigator who did not measure nor have any the information regarding the digit lengths.Univariate and multivariate analysis using linear regression models showed that only height was a significant predictive factor for flaccid penile length (univariate analysis: r=0.185,P=0.026; multivariate analysis:r=0.172,P=0.038) and that only digit ratio was a significant predictive factor for stretched penile length (univariate analysis:r=-0.216,P=0.009; multivariate analysis: r=-0.201,P=0.024; stretched penile length=-9.201 xdigit ratio+20.577).Based on this evidence,we suggest that the digit ratio can predict adult penile size and that the effects of prenatal testosterone may in part explain the differences in adult penile length.

  20. Digit Ratios, Finger Length, and Basic Musical Abilities

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    Martin Voracek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among elite orchestra musicians (predominantly men, a lower (masculinised second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D, a putative marker of prenatal testosterone levels, has been shown to be associated with higher musical-ability rankings (Sluming & Manning, 2000. Seeking to extend this evidence, this study examined associations of digit ratios (2D:4D and other and absolute finger length (a putative marker of pubertal-adolescent testosterone levels with basic musical abilities (Seashore battery in a sample of 124 adult non-musicians. Among women better pitch discrimination corresponded to lower (masculinised digit ratios and longer (masculinised fingers, whilst among men directionally opposite and thus not theory compliant correlations of rhythm and time discrimination with finger-length measures emerged. Similarly, although men exceeded women on most of the Seashore tasks, these sex differences were negligible, with the exception of timbre discrimination. On the whole, significant associations between the study variables were sparse and yielded little support for the assumption that prenatal or pubertal-adolescent androgen effects may partly influence within-sex individual variation in basic musical abilities among adult non-musicians.

  1. Fully automated calculation of cardiothoracic ratio in digital chest radiographs

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    Cong, Lin; Jiang, Luan; Chen, Gang; Li, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    The calculation of Cardiothoracic Ratio (CTR) in digital chest radiographs would be useful for cardiac anomaly assessment and heart enlargement related disease indication. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a fully automated scheme for calculation of CTR in digital chest radiographs. Our automated method consisted of three steps, i.e., lung region localization, lung segmentation, and CTR calculation. We manually annotated the lung boundary with 84 points in 100 digital chest radiographs, and calculated an average lung model for the subsequent work. Firstly, in order to localize the lung region, generalized Hough transform was employed to identify the upper, lower, and outer boundaries of lung by use of Sobel gradient information. The average lung model was aligned to the localized lung region to obtain the initial lung outline. Secondly, we separately applied dynamic programming method to detect the upper, lower, outer and inner boundaries of lungs, and then linked the four boundaries to segment the lungs. Based on the identified outer boundaries of left lung and right lung, we corrected the center and the declination of the original radiography. Finally, CTR was calculated as a ratio of the transverse diameter of the heart to the internal diameter of the chest, based on the segmented lungs. The preliminary results on 106 digital chest radiographs showed that the proposed method could obtain accurate segmentation of lung based on subjective observation, and achieved sensitivity of 88.9% (40 of 45 abnormalities), and specificity of 100% (i.e. 61 of 61 normal) for the identification of heart enlargements.

  2. Significant Digit Computation of the Incomplete Beta Function Ratios

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    1988-11-01

    Profile, Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 24, 1981, 11-29. 8. Henrici P., Applied and Computational Complex Analysis (Vol. 1), John Wiley and Sons...SHrTITI E 5 FUINPING ,IRS Significant Digit Computation of the Incomplete Beta Function Ratios 6 AtITImOR(S) Armido I. DiI)onato Alfred H. Morris, Jr. I...ASSII l,) UNCLASSIFIED IN i i FOREWORD I he work described in this report was done in the Space and Surface Systems Division and tile Computer and

  3. Low second to fourth digit ratio in Dupuytren disease.

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    Yokoi, Takuya; Uemura, Takuya; Kazuki, Kenichi; Onode, Ema; Shintani, Kosuke; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    The ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D) has been described as reflecting endogenous prenatal androgen exposure. In general, 2D:4D is lower in men than in women and has potential as a biomarker or predictor for various diseases, athletic ability, and academic performance. Dupuytren disease has digital flexion contractures and is known to predominate in men, but the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear. To clarify the relationships between Dupuytren disease and endogenous androgens, we performed a retrospective analysis of hand radiographs to investigate 2D:4D in Dupuytren disease. The study included male patients with Dupuytren disease (n = 22) and a control group (n = 18) of male patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Only unaffected hands, without contractures or osteoarthritis, were evaluated for the purpose of radiographic assessment. The lengths of the phalanx and metacarpal bones in the second and fourth digits were measured by 2 independent observers who each performed 2 sets of measurements separated by a minimum 1-week interval. The 2D:4D was calculated separately for the phalanges and metacarpals, and a combined (phalanx + metacarpal) 2D:4D was also calculated. The reliability of the observer measurements was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient, and both the intra- and interobserver reliability showed excellent agreement. We found that compared with control group, the Dupuytren disease group had significantly lower phalanx and combined 2D:4D. These findings suggest that endogenous prenatal androgens could contribute to the development of Dupuytren disease, leading to its characteristic clinical presentation predominantly in men and affecting the ulnar rays.

  4. Myopia and digit ratio in medical college students.

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    Mathangi Krishnakumar

    Full Text Available Myopia is amongst the most common refractive errors in the world. Both environmental and genetic factors are attributed to its causation, however all factors contributing to the development of myopia is yet to be found. Recent studies show presence of sex hormone receptor in the eyes. This has been shown to have a role in the development of various ocular pathologies. The second to fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D has been hypothesised to be determined by exposure to sex steroids prenatally and thus considered a crude measure for prenatal androgen exposure. Hence this study was initiated to assess the association between myopia and 2D:4D ratio (a proxy marker to prenatal sex steroid exposure among 100 medical college students of either sex and explore the possibility of role of prenatal sex steroids in causation of myopia. This study showed significant negative associations between myopia and digit ratio favouring a probable causal role of sex steroids on eye growth and development of myopia.

  5. Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios

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    Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.

  6. Second-to-fourth digit ratio and impulsivity: a comparison between offenders and nonoffenders.

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    Yaniv Hanoch

    Full Text Available Personality characteristics, particularly impulsive tendencies, have long been conceived as the primary culprit in delinquent behavior. One crucial question to emerge from this line of work is whether impulsivity has a biological basis. To test this possibility, 44 male offenders and 46 nonoffenders completed the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, and had their 2D∶4D ratio measured. Offenders exhibited smaller right hand digit ratio measurements compared to non-offenders, but higher impulsivity scores. Both impulsivity and 2D∶4D ratio measurements significantly predicted criminality (offenders vs. nonoffenders. Controlling for education level, the 2D∶4D ratio measurements had remained a significant predictor of criminality, while impulsivity scores no longer predicted criminality significantly. Our data, thus, indicates that impulsivity but not 2D∶4D ratio measurements relate to educational attainment. As offenders varied in their number of previous convictions and the nature of their individual crimes, we also tested for differences in 2D∶4D ratio and impulsivity among offenders. Number of previous convictions did not correlate significantly with the 2D∶4D ratio measurements or impulsivity scores. Our study established a link between a biological marker and impulsivity among offenders (and lack thereof among non-offenders, which emphasise the importance of studying the relationship between biological markers, impulsivity and criminal behavior.

  7. Second-to-fourth digit ratio and impulsivity: a comparison between offenders and nonoffenders.

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    Hanoch, Yaniv; Gummerum, Michaela; Rolison, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Personality characteristics, particularly impulsive tendencies, have long been conceived as the primary culprit in delinquent behavior. One crucial question to emerge from this line of work is whether impulsivity has a biological basis. To test this possibility, 44 male offenders and 46 nonoffenders completed the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, and had their 2D∶4D ratio measured. Offenders exhibited smaller right hand digit ratio measurements compared to non-offenders, but higher impulsivity scores. Both impulsivity and 2D∶4D ratio measurements significantly predicted criminality (offenders vs. nonoffenders). Controlling for education level, the 2D∶4D ratio measurements had remained a significant predictor of criminality, while impulsivity scores no longer predicted criminality significantly. Our data, thus, indicates that impulsivity but not 2D∶4D ratio measurements relate to educational attainment. As offenders varied in their number of previous convictions and the nature of their individual crimes, we also tested for differences in 2D∶4D ratio and impulsivity among offenders. Number of previous convictions did not correlate significantly with the 2D∶4D ratio measurements or impulsivity scores. Our study established a link between a biological marker and impulsivity among offenders (and lack thereof among non-offenders), which emphasise the importance of studying the relationship between biological markers, impulsivity and criminal behavior.

  8. Digit ratio (2Dratio4D differences between 20 strains of inbred mice.

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    Reginia H Y Yan

    Full Text Available The second to fourth digit ratio (2Dratio4D is sexually differentiated in a variety of species, including humans, rats, birds, and lizards. In humans, this ratio tends to be lower in males than in females. Lower digit ratios are believed to indicate increased prenatal testosterone exposure, and are associated with more masculinized behavior across a range of traits. The story seems more complicated in laboratory mice. We have previously shown that there is no sex difference in the digit ratios of inbred mice, but found behavioral evidence to suggest that higher 2Dratio4D is associated with more masculinized behaviors. Work examining intrauterine position effects show that neighbouring males raise pup digit ratio, suggesting again that higher digit ratios are associated with increased developmental androgens. Other work has suggested that masculinization is associated with lower digit ratios in lab mice. Here, we examine the fore- and hindlimb digit ratios of 20 inbred mouse strains. We find large inter-strain differences, but no sexual dimorphism. Digit ratios also did not correlate with mice behavioral traits. This result calls into question the use of this trait as a broadly applicable indicator for prenatal androgen exposure. We suggest that the inbred mice model presents an opportunity for researchers to investigate the genetic, and gene-environmental influence on the development of digit ratios.

  9. No Sexual Dimorphism Detected in Digit Ratios of the Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogová, Monika; Nelson, Emma; Uhrin, Marcel; Figurová, Mária; Ledecký, Valent; Zyśk, Bartłomiej

    2015-10-01

    It has been proposed that digit ratio may be used as a biomarker of early developmental effects. Specifically, the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been linked to the effects of sex hormones and their receptor genes, but other digit ratios have also been investigated. Across taxa, patterns of sexual dimorphism in digit ratios are ambiguous and a scarcity of studies in basal tetrapods makes it difficult to understand how ratios have evolved. Here, we focus on examining sex differences in digit ratios (2D:3D, 2D:4D, and 3D:4D) in a common amphibian, the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra). We used graphic software to measure soft tissue digit length and digit bone length from X-rays. We found a nonsignificant tendency in males to have a lower 2D:3D than females; however, no sexual differences were detected in the other ratios. We discuss our results in the context of other studies of digit ratios, and how sex determination systems, as well as other factors, might impact patterns of sexual dimorphism, particularly in reptiles and in amphibians. Our findings suggest that caution is needed when using digit ratios as a potential indicator of prenatal hormonal effects in amphibians and highlight the need for more comparative studies to elucidate the evolutionary and genetic mechanisms implicated in sexually dimorphic patterns across taxonomic groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prediction of release ratios of multicomponent pheromones from rubber septa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, R R; Teal, P E; Tumlinson, J H; Mengelkoch, L J

    1986-12-01

    A method has been developed to predict the release ratio of the components of blends of alcohols, acetates, and/or aldehydes from rubber septa. The calculations of predicted release ratios are based on the relative vapor pressures of the components. The relative vapor pressures of the compounds were calculated from their retention indices on a liquid crystal capillary gas chromatographie column. The correlation between the theoretically predicted and experimentally determined ratios was very good. Thus, formulations can be prepared that will release a desired ratio of the components of a multicomponent pheromone blend.

  11. The use of digit ratios as markers for perinatal androgen action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre Matthew H

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the ratio of the second-to-fourth finger length was first proposed as a marker for prenatal androgen action in 1998, over 100 studies have been published that have either further tested the association between the digit ratio and prenatal androgens, or employed digit ratios as a marker to investigate the association between prenatal androgens and a variety of outcomes, including behavior, fertility, and disease risks. Despite the clear demand for an adult marker of prenatal androgen action and increased use of digit ratios as such a marker, its validity remains controversial. This review (1 evaluates current evidence for the relationship between digit ratios and prenatal androgens (using experimentation with animal models, amniotic testosterone, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia case-control studies, (2 describes opportunities for future validation tests, and (3 compares the potential advantages and disadvantages of digit ratio measures with more established methods for studying the effects of prenatal androgens.

  12. A polymorphism in the oestrogen receptor gene explains covariance between digit ratio and mating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmeier, Wolfgang; Mueller, Jakob C; Kempenaers, Bart

    2010-11-07

    In vertebrates, including humans, the relative length of the second to the fourth digit correlates with sex hormone-dependent behavioural, psychological and physiological traits. However, despite a decade of research, the underlying mechanism linking digit ratio to these sex hormone-dependent traits remains unclear. Previous work suggests that during embryo development, circulating levels of plasma androgens or oestrogens may act through their receptors to affect transcription levels of posterior HOX genes in the developing digits, thereby possibly influencing their relative length. The correlation between digit ratio and sex hormone-dependent traits might thus stem from variation in expression or sensitivity of the sex hormone receptors, or from variation in sex hormone levels in the embryo. Here, we show that in a population of 1156 zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a polymorphism in the oestrogen receptor α gene (ESR1) explains 11.3 per cent of the variation in digit ratio, and is also associated with male and female-mating behaviour. By contrast, we found no associations between digit ratio or mating behaviours and polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene. Thus, our results (i) provide an explanation for the observed significant genetic covariance between digit ratio and male and female mating behaviour and (ii) strongly confirm the indicator function of digit ratio through the oestrogen pathway. Finally, we note that the commonly invoked effect of foetal testosterone on human digit ratio seems to be substantially weaker than the effect described here.

  13. Reengineering Aircraft Structural Life Prediction Using a Digital Twin

    OpenAIRE

    Eric J. Tuegel; Anthony R. Ingraffea; Eason, Thomas G.; S. Michael Spottswood

    2011-01-01

    Reengineering of the aircraft structural life prediction process to fully exploit advances in very high performance digital computing is proposed. The proposed process utilizes an ultrahigh fidelity model of individual aircraft by tail number, a Digital Twin, to integrate computation of structural deflections and temperatures in response to flight conditions, with resulting local damage and material state evolution. A conceptual model of how the Digital Twin can be used for predicting the lif...

  14. Can persistence hunting signal male quality? A test considering digit ratio in endurance athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Longman

    Full Text Available Various theories have been posed to explain the fitness payoffs of hunting success among hunter-gatherers. 'Having' theories refer to the acquisition of resources, and include the direct provisioning hypothesis. In contrast, 'getting' theories concern the signalling of male resourcefulness and other desirable traits, such as athleticism and intelligence, via hunting prowess. We investigated the association between androgenisation and endurance running ability as a potential signalling mechanism, whereby running prowess, vital for persistence hunting, might be used as a reliable signal of male reproductive fitness by females. Digit ratio (2D:4D was used as a proxy for prenatal androgenisation in 439 males and 103 females, while a half marathon race (21km, representing a distance/duration comparable with that of persistence hunting, was used to assess running ability. Digit ratio was significantly and positively correlated with half-marathon time in males (right hand: r = 0.45, p<0.001; left hand: r = 0.42, p<0.001 and females (right hand: r = 0.26, p<0.01; left hand: r = 0.23, p = 0.02. Sex-interaction analysis showed that this correlation was significantly stronger in males than females, suggesting that androgenisation may have experienced stronger selective pressure from endurance running in males. As digit ratio has previously been shown to predict reproductive success, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that endurance running ability may signal reproductive potential in males, through its association with prenatal androgen exposure. However, further work is required to establish whether and how females respond to this signalling for fitness.

  15. Reengineering Aircraft Structural Life Prediction Using a Digital Twin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Tuegel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reengineering of the aircraft structural life prediction process to fully exploit advances in very high performance digital computing is proposed. The proposed process utilizes an ultrahigh fidelity model of individual aircraft by tail number, a Digital Twin, to integrate computation of structural deflections and temperatures in response to flight conditions, with resulting local damage and material state evolution. A conceptual model of how the Digital Twin can be used for predicting the life of aircraft structure and assuring its structural integrity is presented. The technical challenges to developing and deploying a Digital Twin are discussed in detail.

  16. Digit ratio, color polymorphism and egg testosterone in the Australian painted dragon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tobler

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to sex hormones during early development contributes to phenotypic plasticity in vertebrate offspring. As a proposed marker for prenatal sex hormone exposure and because of their association with various physiological and behavioral characteristics, digit ratio and/or digit length have received notable interest within the field of evolutionary ecology. However, the validity of digit measures as a proxy of prenatal sex hormone exposure is controversial and only few studies have provided direct evidence for the link between digit development and prenatal sex hormones. Here, we report morph- and sex-specific variation in digit ratio in wild painted dragon lizards (Ctenophorus pictus. Lizards expressing a yellow bib have significantly larger third-to-fourth toe ratios (3D:4D than lizards without a bib. Males have significantly smaller 3D:4D than females. Furthermore, we show that experimental elevation of yolk testosterone significantly increases 3D:4D in hatchling painted dragon lizards, but has no influence on hatchling size. Our results provide direct and indirect evidence for the involvement of prenatal sex steroids in digit development and it is suggested that digit ratio may be used as a biomarker for prenatal steroid exposure in this reptilian species. As such, digit ratio may provide a useful tool to study temporal or spatial differences in the proximate hormonal mechanisms modulating physiological and behavioural phenotypes.

  17. SOLVENCY RATIO AS A TOOL FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU–OLARIU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the potential of the solvency ratio in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The research is focused on Romania and, in particular, on Timis County. The interest for the solvency ratio was based on the recommendations of the scientific literature, as well as on the availability of information concerning its values to all stakeholders. The event on which the research was focused was represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were performed over 2 paired samples of 1176 companies in total. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the solvency ratio was based on the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.646 and the general accuracy ensured by the ratio (64.5% out-of-sample accuracy. The results confirm the practical utility of the solvency ratio in the prediction of bankruptcy.

  18. Digit Ratio (2D:4D and cancer: What is known so far?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Nicolás Hopp

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The ratio between the second and fourth digits is a proxy marker for prenatal exposure and sensitivity to sexual hormones, which can be genetically influenced. The influence of prenatal hormone exposure can reflect on adult life traits such as psychological traits, athletic performance and diseases such as cardiovascular. An important and newly explored field on digit ratio research is its correlation to different types of cancer, as a marker for prevalence and severity. In this review, the different types of cancer already correlated to digit ratios are discussed.----------------------------------------------Cite this article as: Hopp RN, Lima N, Filho J, Sena-Filho M, Samuel RO, Amaral JG, Jorge J. Digit Ratio (2D:4D and cancer: What is known so far? Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(1:020111.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0201.11

  19. PROFITABILITY RATIO AS A TOOL FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the potential of the profitability ratio in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The research is focused on Romanian companies, with the targeted event being represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were conducted over 2 paired samples of 1176 Romanian companies. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the profitability ratio was based on the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.663 and the general accuracy ensured by the ratio (62.6% out-of-sample accuracy. The results confirm the practical utility of the profitability ratio in the prediction of bankruptcy and thus validate the need for further research focused on developing a methodology of analysis.

  20. Experimental study on prediction model for maximum rebound ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Wei-dong; TENG Jun; A.HEFNY; ZHAO Jian; GUAN Jiong

    2007-01-01

    The proposed prediction model for estimating the maximum rebound ratio was applied to a field explosion test, Mandai test in Singapore.The estimated possible maximum Deak particle velocities(PPVs)were compared with the field records.Three of the four available field-recorded PPVs lie exactly below the estimated possible maximum values as expected.while the fourth available field-recorded PPV lies close to and a bit higher than the estimated maximum possible PPV The comparison results show that the predicted PPVs from the proposed prediction model for the maximum rebound ratio match the field.recorded PPVs better than those from two empirical formulae.The very good agreement between the estimated and field-recorded values validates the proposed prediction model for estimating PPV in a rock mass with a set of ipints due to application of a two dimensional compressional wave at the boundary of a tunnel or a borehole.

  1. Poisson’s Ratio Extrapolation from Digital Image Correlation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    base propellant was composed of nitroglycerin and nitrocellulose . The composite propellant was a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant ...uses speckle patterns to determine surface strains, has been used recently to investigate values for Poisson’s ratio in solid propellant specimens...Work was performed on both a double-base and a composite propellant , and results indicate that the method is useful for determination of Poisson’s

  2. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF SECOND AND FOURTH DIGIT RATIO WITH PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Jacob

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Study of the index (2D and ring (4D digit ratios and their association with some physical characteristics of South Indian Population was done to determine the values of 2D:4D digit ratios and their association with other anthropometric variables. Materials and Methods: 160 adults (80 males and 80 females between ages of 18 years and above were randomly selected with exclusion of those with hand deformities. The digit lengths were measured from the basal crease to the tips using vernier calipers. The 2D:4D ratios were determined for each subject while height and weight were used to calculate the body mass index and data analyzed. Results: The results showed significant difference in 2D:4D ratio between males and females. (p<0.001. Mean height of males exceeded the mean height of females and the mean weight of males exceeded the mean weight of females .Mean BMI of males also exceeded that of females. There was a positive correlation between the second digit length and Height and weight in males and females both on right and left sides. There was also a significant correlation weight and second digit length in males.The 2D:4D ratio for both left and right hand did not show any positive correlation with height, weight or BMI of an individual from people of South India. Conclusion: The results show a positive correlation between the digit lengths and height in both males and females and between weight and second digit length in case of males but the 2D:4D digit ratio had no relationship to height ,weight or BMI.The analysis also demonstrated that the males have greater 2D:4D ratio compared to females. The results of the study can be of importance in the field of forensic anthropology.

  3. Quantitative visually lossless compression ratio determination of JPEG2000 in digitized mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Verislav T; Karahaliou, Anna N; Skiadopoulos, Spyros G; Arikidis, Nikos S; Kazantzi, Alexandra D; Panayiotakis, George S; Costaridou, Lena I

    2013-06-01

    The current study presents a quantitative approach towards visually lossless compression ratio (CR) threshold determination of JPEG2000 in digitized mammograms. This is achieved by identifying quantitative image quality metrics that reflect radiologists' visual perception in distinguishing between original and wavelet-compressed mammographic regions of interest containing microcalcification clusters (MCs) and normal parenchyma, originating from 68 images from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography. Specifically, image quality of wavelet-compressed mammograms (CRs, 10:1, 25:1, 40:1, 70:1, 100:1) is evaluated quantitatively by means of eight image quality metrics of different computational principles and qualitatively by three radiologists employing a five-point rating scale. The accuracy of the objective metrics is investigated in terms of (1) their correlation (r) with qualitative assessment and (2) ROC analysis (A z index), employing pooled radiologists' rating scores as ground truth. The quantitative metrics mean square error, mean absolute error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and structural similarity demonstrated strong correlation with pooled radiologists' ratings (r, 0.825, 0.823, -0.825, and -0.826, respectively) and the highest area under ROC curve (A z , 0.922, 0.920, 0.922, and 0.922, respectively). For each quantitative metric, the highest accuracy values of corresponding ROC curves were used to define metric cut-off values. The metrics cut-off values were subsequently used to suggest a visually lossless CR threshold, estimated to be between 25:1 and 40:1 for the dataset analyzed. Results indicate the potential of the quantitative metrics approach in predicting visually lossless CRs in case of MCs in mammography.

  4. A novel trajectory prediction control for proximate time-optimal digital control DC—DC converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Wang; Ning, Chen; Shen, Xu; Weifeng, Sun; Longxing, Shi

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a novel trajectory prediction method for proximate time-optimal digital control DC—DC converters. The control method provides pre-estimations of the duty ratio in the next several switching cycles, so as to compensate the computational time delay of the control loop and increase the control loop bandwidth, thereby improving the response speed. The experiment results show that the fastest transient response time of the digital DC—DC with the proposed prediction is about 8 μs when the load current changes from 0.6 to 0.1 A.

  5. Using Frequency Ratio Method for Spatial Landslide Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirnazari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous landslides have occurred in the study area and they damage to agriculture and pasturelands. Since the study area do not have any landslide inventory and landslide predicted maps, landslide inventory produced based on field research (GPS and satellite image (Geoeye and Ikonos. Frequency ratio technique is a statistical approach to simulation environmental conditions. It also uses to take the factors related to dependent variable. Frequency technique considered for generating landslide susceptibility map. Pixel landsliding and non-landsliding calculated in eight factors related-landslide. Landslide susceptibility map produce in five insensitive to very high sensitive classes based on natural breaks method. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC graph implement to evaluate of the frequency ratio method. In particular, the model will be able to predict landslide area occurrence in future completely (sensitivity = 1. Although, model identify insensitive area with 17% errors (specificity = 0.83.

  6. Females Have Larger Ratio of Second‐to‐Fourth Digits Than Males in Four Species of Salamandridae, Caudata

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaczmarski, Mikołaj; Kubicka, Anna Maria; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Hromada, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. It is considered to be a suitable biomarker of the in utero balance of fetal sex hormones, which affect early development...

  7. Early diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: comparison of digit 1 with wrist and distoproximal ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K R; Rotta, F; Romano, J; Ayyar, D R

    2001-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the median sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) from digit 1 to wrist with those of the distoproximal (D/P) ratio of the median SNCV from palm to digit 3/palm to wrist in the diagnosis of mild carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) by using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. To achieve this objective, we studied prospectively (January 1997-October 1998) 370 patients referred for CTS. One hundred forty-two patients (38.4%) with moderate to severe CTS and 15 patients (4.1%) with multiple (> or = 3) compressive neuropathies in upper limbs with subclinical peripheral neuropathy were excluded. The remaining 213 patients (302 hands with mild CTS; 167 women; mean age, 50 y +/- 12 y) and 38 controls (71 hands; 25 women; mean age, 47 y +/- 13 y) had median and ulnar nerve conduction studies. ROC curves were constructed for median SNCV digit 1 to wrist and median SNCV D/P ratio from the patients' and controls' data. The median SNCV at or = 1.12, corresponding to an optimal cutoff point on ROC curve, discriminated 67.2% of mild CTS from controls with specificity of 97.2%. Of the 10.3% (31/302) of hands in which digit 1 to wrist was within normal limits at the selected optimal cutoff value ( or = 1.12), and 3.3% (10/302) had a normal electrophysiologic examination. The likelihood ratio (true-positive ratio to false-positive ratio, assessing the discriminative power of a test) of the median SNCV digit 1 to wrist, at an optimal point on ROC curve (63.9), was higher than that of the median SNCV D/P ratio (23.9, chi2 = 36.9, P wrist is more sensitive than the median SNCV D/P ratio in the diagnosis of mild CTS.

  8. Second-to-fourth digit ratio has a non-monotonic impact on altruism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Brañas-Garza

    Full Text Available Gene-culture co-evolution emphasizes the joint role of culture and genes for the emergence of altruistic and cooperative behaviors and behavioral genetics provides estimates of their relative importance. However, these approaches cannot assess which biological traits determine altruism or how. We analyze the association between altruism in adults and the exposure to prenatal sex hormones, using the second-to-fourth digit ratio. We find an inverted U-shaped relation for left and right hands, which is very consistent for men and less systematic for women. Subjects with both high and low digit ratios give less than individuals with intermediate digit ratios. We repeat the exercise with the same subjects seven months later and find a similar association, even though subjects' behavior differs the second time they play the game. We then construct proxies of the median digit ratio in the population (using more than 1000 different subjects, show that subjects' altruism decreases with the distance of their ratio to these proxies. These results provide direct evidence that prenatal events contribute to the variation of altruistic behavior and that the exposure to fetal hormones is one of the relevant biological factors. In addition, the findings suggest that there might be an optimal level of exposure to these hormones from social perspective.

  9. Individual Differences in Nonsymbolic Ratio Processing Predict Symbolic Math Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Percival G; Lewis, Mark Rose; Hubbard, Edward M

    2016-02-01

    What basic capacities lay the foundation for advanced numerical cognition? Are there basic nonsymbolic abilities that support the understanding of advanced numerical concepts, such as fractions? To date, most theories have posited that previously identified core numerical systems, such as the approximate number system (ANS), are ill-suited for learning fraction concepts. However, recent research in developmental psychology and neuroscience has revealed a ratio-processing system (RPS) that is sensitive to magnitudes of nonsymbolic ratios and may be ideally suited for supporting fraction concepts. We provide evidence for this hypothesis by showing that individual differences in RPS acuity predict performance on four measures of mathematical competence, including a university entrance exam in algebra. We suggest that the nonsymbolic RPS may support symbolic fraction understanding much as the ANS supports whole-number concepts. Thus, even abstract mathematical concepts, such as fractions, may be grounded not only in higher-order logic and language, but also in basic nonsymbolic processing abilities.

  10. The 2D:4D digit ratio as biomarker for substance abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernstrand, A.M.; Van Den Borne, L.; Lensvelt, L.M.H.; Ribbert, L.L.A.; De With, A.C.; Goede, L.X.Y.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The second (2D, index finger) to fourth (4D, ring finger) digit ratio is a biomarker for prenatal testosterone and estrogen exposure. It has been hypothesized that the developmental origins of health and behavior are modulated by the presence or absence of prenatal sex hormones. Several stu

  11. Digit ratio (2D:4D is associated with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helena Costa Mendes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Digit ratio (2D:4D has been considered as a proxy biomarker for prenatal hormonal exposure and may represent an individual’s predisposition to breast cancer. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether there is a link between digit ratio and breast cancer in a Brazilian population.Methods: Digital measurements of the lengths of the index and ring fingers of both hands were obtained from women with breast cancer (n = 100 and age-matched controls (n = 100 using a digital Vernier calliper. Mean digit ratios of right hands, left hands, and right minus left hand 2D:4D (DR-L were compared between both groups. Data were analysed by the Student's t-test for unpaired samples, Mann-Whitney test, and Spearman`s correlation with a significance level of 5%.Results: The patients with breast cancer presented significantly higher right and left 2D:4D (both p < 0.001 and higher DR-L (p = 0.032 than controls. Among breast cancer cases, there was a significantly negative correlation between left 2D:4D and age diagnosed with breast cancer (p = 0.018.Conclusion: Digit ratio offers a valid retrospective biomarker of action of prenatal hormones and might be associated with breast cancer risk and age at onset of breast cancer. It suggests that higher exposure or sensitivity to prenatal oestrogen might be associated with a higher risk of breast cancer and with earlier onset of the disease.

  12. Relationships among musical aptitude, digit ratio and testosterone in men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy C Borniger

    Full Text Available Circulating adult testosterone levels, digit ratio (length of the second finger relative to the fourth finger, and directional asymmetry in digit ratio are considered sexually dimorphic traits in humans. These have been related to spatial abilities in men and women, and because similar brain structures appear to be involved in both spatial and musical abilities, neuroendocrine function may be related to musical as well as spatial cognition. To evaluate relationships among testosterone and musical ability in men and women, saliva samples were collected, testosterone concentrations assessed, and digit ratios calculated using standardized protocols in a sample of university students (N = 61, including both music and non-music majors. Results of Spearman correlations suggest that digit ratio and testosterone levels are statistically related to musical aptitude and performance only within the female sample: A those females with greater self-reported history of exposure to music (p = 0.016 and instrument proficiency (p = 0.040 scored higher on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation test, B those females with higher left hand digit ratio (and perhaps lower fetal testosterone levels were more highly ranked (p = 0.007 in the orchestra, C female music students exhibited a trend (p = 0.082 towards higher testosterone levels compared to female non-music students, and D female music students with higher rank in the orchestra/band had higher testosterone levels (p = 0.003 than lower ranked students. None of these relationships were significant in the male sample, although a lack of statistical power may be one cause. The effects of testosterone are likely a small part of a poorly understood system of biological and environmental stimuli that contribute to musical aptitude. Hormones may play some role in modulating the phenotype of musical ability, and this may be the case for females more so than males.

  13. Relationships among musical aptitude, digit ratio and testosterone in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Chaudhry, Adeel; Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Circulating adult testosterone levels, digit ratio (length of the second finger relative to the fourth finger), and directional asymmetry in digit ratio are considered sexually dimorphic traits in humans. These have been related to spatial abilities in men and women, and because similar brain structures appear to be involved in both spatial and musical abilities, neuroendocrine function may be related to musical as well as spatial cognition. To evaluate relationships among testosterone and musical ability in men and women, saliva samples were collected, testosterone concentrations assessed, and digit ratios calculated using standardized protocols in a sample of university students (N = 61), including both music and non-music majors. Results of Spearman correlations suggest that digit ratio and testosterone levels are statistically related to musical aptitude and performance only within the female sample: A) those females with greater self-reported history of exposure to music (p = 0.016) and instrument proficiency (p = 0.040) scored higher on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation test, B) those females with higher left hand digit ratio (and perhaps lower fetal testosterone levels) were more highly ranked (p = 0.007) in the orchestra, C) female music students exhibited a trend (p = 0.082) towards higher testosterone levels compared to female non-music students, and D) female music students with higher rank in the orchestra/band had higher testosterone levels (p = 0.003) than lower ranked students. None of these relationships were significant in the male sample, although a lack of statistical power may be one cause. The effects of testosterone are likely a small part of a poorly understood system of biological and environmental stimuli that contribute to musical aptitude. Hormones may play some role in modulating the phenotype of musical ability, and this may be the case for females more so than males.

  14. Relationships among Musical Aptitude, Digit Ratio and Testosterone in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C.; Chaudhry, Adeel; Muehlenbein, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Circulating adult testosterone levels, digit ratio (length of the second finger relative to the fourth finger), and directional asymmetry in digit ratio are considered sexually dimorphic traits in humans. These have been related to spatial abilities in men and women, and because similar brain structures appear to be involved in both spatial and musical abilities, neuroendocrine function may be related to musical as well as spatial cognition. To evaluate relationships among testosterone and musical ability in men and women, saliva samples were collected, testosterone concentrations assessed, and digit ratios calculated using standardized protocols in a sample of university students (N = 61), including both music and non-music majors. Results of Spearman correlations suggest that digit ratio and testosterone levels are statistically related to musical aptitude and performance only within the female sample: A) those females with greater self-reported history of exposure to music (p = 0.016) and instrument proficiency (p = 0.040) scored higher on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation test, B) those females with higher left hand digit ratio (and perhaps lower fetal testosterone levels) were more highly ranked (p = 0.007) in the orchestra, C) female music students exhibited a trend (p = 0.082) towards higher testosterone levels compared to female non-music students, and D) female music students with higher rank in the orchestra/band had higher testosterone levels (p = 0.003) than lower ranked students. None of these relationships were significant in the male sample, although a lack of statistical power may be one cause. The effects of testosterone are likely a small part of a poorly understood system of biological and environmental stimuli that contribute to musical aptitude. Hormones may play some role in modulating the phenotype of musical ability, and this may be the case for females more so than males. PMID:23520475

  15. Signal-to-noise ratio estimation in digital computer simulation of lowpass and bandpass systems with applications to analog and digital communications, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, W. H.; Turner, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are developed to estimate power gain, delay, signal-to-noise ratio, and mean square error in digital computer simulations of lowpass and bandpass systems. The techniques are applied to analog and digital communications. The signal-to-noise ratio estimates are shown to be maximum likelihood estimates in additive white Gaussian noise. The methods are seen to be especially useful for digital communication systems where the mapping from the signal-to-noise ratio to the error probability can be obtained. Simulation results show the techniques developed to be accurate and quite versatile in evaluating the performance of many systems through digital computer simulation.

  16. Investigation of zero-order light suppression methods for digital holograms in various ratio factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jung-Ping; Poon, Ting-Chung; Yang, Tsung-Hsun

    2011-09-01

    Owing to the resolution of the recording device, digital holograms are generally fabricated with in-line configurations. However, holograms obtained in this way are plagued by the annoying problems of zero-order noise and the twin images. Here, we investigate methods to suppress the zero-order noise. We compare the suppression ability of each method with different ratio factors. The ratio factor is defined as the ratio between the reference light amplitude and the object light amplitude. We also introduce a new parameter, the normalized correlation peak value, to evaluate the fidelities of holograms obtained under various ratio factors. Results show that the suppression abilities and the hologram fidelities strongly depend on the ratio factor.

  17. Side-specific effect of yolk testosterone elevation on second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gergely; Blázi, György; Hegyi, Gergely; Török, János

    2016-02-01

    Second-to-fourth digit ratio is a widely investigated sexually dimorphic morphological trait in human studies and could reliably indicate the prenatal steroid environment. Conducting manipulative experiments to test this hypothesis comes up against ethical limits in humans. However, oviparous tetrapods may be excellent models to experimentally investigate the effects of prenatal steroids on offspring second-to-fourth digit ratio. In this field study, we injected collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis) eggs with physiological doses of testosterone. Fledglings from eggs with elevated yolk testosterone, regardless of their sex, had longer second digits on their left feet than controls, while the fourth digit did not differ between groups. Therefore, second-to-fourth digit ratio was higher in the testosterone-injected group, but only on the left foot. This is the first study which shows experimentally that early testosterone exposure can affect second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild population of a passerine bird.

  18. Predicting Protein Subcellular Location Using Digital Signal Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xi PAN; Da-Wei LI; Yun DUAN; Zhi-Zhou ZHANG; Ming-Qing XU; Guo-Yin FENG; Lin HE

    2005-01-01

    The biological functions of a protein are closely related to its attributes in a cell. With the rapid accumulation of newly found protein sequence data in databanks, it is highly desirable to develop an automated method for predicting the subcellular location of proteins. The establishment of such a predictor will expedite the functional determination of newly found proteins and the process of prioritizing genes and proteins identified by genomic efforts as potential molecular targets for drug design. The traditional algorithms for predicting these attributes were based solely on amino acid composition in which no sequence order effect was taken into account. To improve the prediction quality, it is necessary to incorporate such an effect. However, the number of possible patterns in protein sequences is extremely large, posing a formidable difficulty for realizing this goal. To deal with such difficulty, a well-developed tool in digital signal processing named digital Fourier transform (DFT) [1] was introduced. After being translated to a digital signal according to the hydrophobicity of each amino acid, a protein was analyzed by DFT within the frequency domain. A set of frequency spectrum parameters, thus obtained, were regarded as the factors to represent the sequence order effect. A significant improvement in prediction quality was observed by incorporating the frequency spectrum parameters with the conventional amino acid composition. One of the crucial merits of this approach is that many existing tools in mathematics and engineering can be easily applied in the predicting process. It is anticipated that digital signal processing may serve as a useful vehicle for many other protein science areas.

  19. Predicting protein subcellular location using digital signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu-Xi; Li, Da-Wei; Duan, Yun; Zhang, Zhi-Zhou; Xu, Ming-Qing; Feng, Guo-Yin; He, Lin

    2005-02-01

    The biological functions of a protein are closely related to its attributes in a cell. With the rapid accumulation of newly found protein sequence data in databanks, it is highly desirable to develop an automated method for predicting the subcellular location of proteins. The establishment of such a predictor will expedite the functional determination of newly found proteins and the process of prioritizing genes and proteins identified by genomic efforts as potential molecular targets for drug design. The traditional algorithms for predicting these attributes were based solely on amino acid composition in which no sequence order effect was taken into account. To improve the prediction quality, it is necessary to incorporate such an effect. However, the number of possible patterns in protein sequences is extremely large, posing a formidable difficulty for realizing this goal. To deal with such difficulty, a well-developed tool in digital signal processing named digital Fourier transform (DFT) [1] was introduced. After being translated to a digital signal according to the hydrophobicity of each amino acid, a protein was analyzed by DFT within the frequency domain. A set of frequency spectrum parameters, thus obtained, were regarded as the factors to represent the sequence order effect. A significant improvement in prediction quality was observed by incorporating the frequency spectrum parameters with the conventional amino acid composition. One of the crucial merits of this approach is that many existing tools in mathematics and engineering can be easily applied in the predicting process. It is anticipated that digital signal processing may serve as a useful vehicle for many other protein science areas.

  20. Signal-Noise Ratio Control Subsystem of Digital Equipment for Transmission of "Strela" Relay Protection Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zabenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurement function of relative noise and interference level in the information transmission channel is considered as an important one for controlling parameters of high-frequency signal. The present paper simulates an algorithm for measuring signal-noise ratio in the transmission channel of high-voltage lines which is used in the digital equipment for transmission of relay protection and emergency automation commands of "Strela" complex.

  1. Automated Measurement of the Arteriolar-to-Venular Width Ratio in Digital Color Fundus Photographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, M.; Xu, X.; Dumitrescu, A.V.; Gupta, P.; Ginneken, B. van; Folk, J.C.; Abramoff, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    A decreased ratio of the width of retinal arteries to veins [arteriolar-to-venular diameter ratio (AVR)], is well established as predictive of cerebral atrophy, stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults. Tortuous and dilated arteries and veins, as well as decreased AVR are also markers for

  2. Automated Measurement of the Arteriolar-to-Venular Width Ratio in Digital Color Fundus Photographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, M.; Xu, X.; Dumitrescu, A.V.; Gupta, P.; Ginneken, B. van; Folk, J.C.; Abramoff, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    A decreased ratio of the width of retinal arteries to veins [arteriolar-to-venular diameter ratio (AVR)], is well established as predictive of cerebral atrophy, stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults. Tortuous and dilated arteries and veins, as well as decreased AVR are also markers for pl

  3. The predictive value of the height ratio and thyromental distance: four predictive tests for difficult laryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krobbuaban, Banjong; Diregpoke, Siriwan; Kumkeaw, Sujarit; Tanomsat, Malin

    2005-11-01

    Preoperative evaluation of anatomical landmarks and clinical factors help identify potentially difficult laryngoscopies; however, predictive reliability is unclear. Because the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD) has a demonstrably better predictive value than the thyromental distance (TMD), we evaluated the predictive value and odds ratios of RHTMD versus mouth opening, TMD, neck movement, and oropharyngeal view (modified Mallampati). We collected data on 550 consecutive patients scheduled for elective-surgery general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then assessed all five factors before surgery. An experienced anesthesiologist, not apprised of the recorded preoperative airway assessment, performed the laryngoscopy and grading (as per Cormack and Lehane's classification). Difficult laryngoscopy (Grade 3 or 4) occurred in 69 patients (12.5%). RHTMD had a higher sensitivity, positive predictive value, and fewer false negatives than the other variables tested. In the multivariate analysis, three criteria were found independent for difficult laryngoscopy (neck movement or =23.5). The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of the RHTMD, Mallampati class, and neck movement were 6.72 (3.29-13.72), 2.96 (1.63-5.35), and 2.73 (1.14-6.51), respectively. The odds ratio for RHTMD was the largest and thus may prove a useful screening test for difficult laryngoscopy.

  4. Automated measurement of the arteriolar-to-venular width ratio in digital color fundus photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; Xu, Xiayu; Dumitrescu, Alina V; Gupta, Priya; van Ginneken, Bram; Folk, James C; Abramoff, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    A decreased ratio of the width of retinal arteries to veins [arteriolar-to-venular diameter ratio (AVR)], is well established as predictive of cerebral atrophy, stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults. Tortuous and dilated arteries and veins, as well as decreased AVR are also markers for plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity. This work presents an automated method to estimate the AVR in retinal color images by detecting the location of the optic disc, determining an appropriate region of interest (ROI), classifying vessels as arteries or veins, estimating vessel widths, and calculating the AVR. After vessel segmentation and vessel width determination, the optic disc is located and the system eliminates all vessels outside the AVR measurement ROI. A skeletonization operation is applied to the remaining vessels after which vessel crossings and bifurcation points are removed, leaving a set of vessel segments consisting of only vessel centerline pixels. Features are extracted from each centerline pixel in order to assign these a soft label indicating the likelihood that the pixel is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected vessel segment should be the same type, the median soft label is assigned to each centerline pixel in the segment. Next, artery vein pairs are matched using an iterative algorithm, and the widths of the vessels are used to calculate the AVR. We trained and tested the algorithm on a set of 65 high resolution digital color fundus photographs using a reference standard that indicates for each major vessel in the image whether it is an artery or vein. We compared the AVR values produced by our system with those determined by a semi-automated reference system. We obtained a mean unsigned error of 0.06 (SD 0.04) in 40 images with a mean AVR of 0.67. A second observer using the semi-automated system obtained the same mean unsigned error of 0.06 (SD 0.05) on the set of images with a mean AVR of 0.66. The testing data and

  5. PROBABILISTIC PREDICTION OF BANK FAILURES WITH FINANCIAL RATIOS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON TURKISH BANKS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gamze özel; Nihal Ata Tutkun

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper examines some bank failure prediction models using financial ratios. Survival, ordinary and conditional logistic regression models are employed in order to develop these prediction models...

  6. Medication possession ratio predicts antiretroviral regimens persistence in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L Salinas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru. DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010. Three OPs were defined: 1 Medication possession ratio (MPR: days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2 Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC: proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3 Clinic visit constancy (CVC: proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit. Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH models (one per OP were fit for (1 time of first-line ART persistence and (2 time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. RESULTS: 856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%. In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71 and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96 were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies. Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99. CONCLUSIONS: The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes.

  7. Second-to-fourth digit ratio related to verbal and numerical intelligence and the big five

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxen, M.F.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    2005-01-01

    Androgens influence individual differences in a predictable way: they "masculinise" people. The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D) is an index of prenatal androgen exposure. We related 213:413 to Verbal Intelligence, Numerical Intelligence and the Big Five personality

  8. Second-to-fourth digit ratio related to verbal and numerical intelligence and the big five

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxen, M.F.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    2005-01-01

    Androgens influence individual differences in a predictable way: they "masculinise" people. The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D) is an index of prenatal androgen exposure. We related 213:413 to Verbal Intelligence, Numerical Intelligence and the Big Five personality dimensi

  9. Intrinsic Axis Ratio Distribution of Early-type Galaxies From Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kimm, Taysun

    2007-01-01

    Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5, we have investigated the intrinsic axis ratio distribution (ARD) for early-type galaxies. We have constructed a volume-limited sample of 3,922 visually-inspected early-type galaxies at $0.05 \\leq z \\leq 0.06$ carefully considering sampling biases caused by the galaxy isophotal size and luminosity. We attempt to de-project the observed ARD into three-dimensional types (oblate, prolate, and triaxial), which are classified in terms of triaxiality. We confirm that no linear combination of $randomly$-distributed axis ratios of the three types can reproduce the observed ARD. However, using Gaussian intrinsic distributions, we have found reasonable fits to the data with preferred mean axis ratios for oblate, prolate, and triaxial (triaxials in two axis ratios), $\\mu_o=0.44, \\mu_p=0.72, \\mu_{t,\\beta}=0.92, \\mu_{t,\\gamma}=0.78$ where the fractions of oblate, prolate and triaxial types are \\textrm{O:P:T}=0.29^{\\pm0.09}:0.26^{\\pm0.11}:0.45^{\\pm0.13}$. We have also found tha...

  10. Prediction of transparency perception based on cone-excitation ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Caterina; Westland, Stephen

    2003-09-01

    Perceptual transparency was measured in two experiments by using simulations of illuminated surfaces presented on a CRT monitor. In a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm, observers viewed two simulated Mondrians in temporal sequence. In one sequence the Mondrian was simulated to be partially covered by a transparent filter; in the other sequence the filter color over each Mondrian patch was modified. Observers were instructed to select the sequence containing a transparent filter. Observers' selections corresponded to sequences in which the cone-excitation ratios for each adjacent pair of Mondrian patches were approximately the same as the cone-excitation ratios for the pair of patches covered by a filter. The results suggest that cone-excitation ratios may be a cue for perceptual transparency.

  11. Digit ratio (2D:4D), lateral preferences, and performance in fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Reimer, Barbara; Ertl, Clara; Dressler, Stefan G

    2006-10-01

    The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait (men tend to have lower values than women) and a likely biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal androgens on the human brain and body. Prenatal testosterone, as reflected by 2D:4D, has many extragenital effects, including its relevance for the formation of an efficient cardiovascular system. Previous research, reviewed here, has therefore investigated possible associations of 2D:4D with sport performance. Several studies found more masculinized digit ratio patterns (low 2D:4D values or a negative right-minus-left difference in 2D:4D) to be related to high performance in running, soccer, and skiing. The present research tested this hypothesis in a sample of 54 tournament fencers, predominantly from Austria. For men, negative right-left differences in 2D:4D corresponded significantly to better current as well as highest national fencing rankings, independent of training intensity and fencing experience. The mean 2D:4D values of these fencers were significantly lower and the proportion of left-handers was elevated relative to the local general population. For the right hand, the ratio was somewhat lower in male sabre fencers than in male epée and foil fencers combined and significantly lower in left-handed compared to right-handed fencers. Although nonsignificant due to low statistical power, effect sizes suggested that crossed versus congruent hand-eye and hand-foot preferences might also be related to fencing performance. The present findings add to the evidence that 2D:4D might be a performance indicator for men across a variety of sports.

  12. Age estimation using pulp/tooth area ratio: A digital image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasidhar Singaraju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Age is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of the person. Estimation of the human age is a procedure adopted by anthropologists, archeologists, and forensic scientists. Inspection of radiographs and subsequent comparison with radiographic images, in charts yield ′maturity scores′ that help us to assess the age of an individual. Alternative approaches based on digitalization of panoramic radiographs and their computerized storage have recently become available that exploit image analysis to obtain nondestructive metric measurements of both pulp chambers and teeth, which can be used to assess the age of an individual. The purpose of the present study was to present a method for assessing the chronological age based on the relationship between age and measurement of the pulp/tooth area ratio on single-rooted teeth, using orthopantomographs and a computer-aided drafting program AutoCAD 2000.

  13. CD4/CD8 Ratio and KT Ratio Predict Yellow Fever Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Peter W.; Huang, Yong; Simoes, Marisol; Lima, Sheila B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H.; Hong, Marisa A.; Costa, Dayane Alves; Dias, Juliana Zanatta C.; Cerqueira, Natalia B.; Nishiya, Anna Shoko; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Sartori, Ana M.; Kallas, Esper G.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-infected individuals have deficient responses to Yellow Fever vaccine (YFV) and may be at higher risk for adverse events (AE). Chronic immune activation–characterized by low CD4/CD8 ratio or high indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) activity—may influence vaccine response in this population. Methods We prospectively assessed AE, viremia by the YFV virus and YF-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAb) in HIV-infected (CD4>350) and -uninfected adults through 1 year after vaccination. The effect of HIV status on initial antibody response to YFV was measured during the first 3 months following vaccination, while the effect on persistence of antibody response was measured one year following vaccination. We explored CD4/CD8 ratio, IDO activity (plasma kynurenine/tryptophan [KT] ratio) and viremia by Human Pegivirus as potential predictors of NAb response to YFV among HIV-infected participants with linear mixed models. Results 12 HIV-infected and 45-uninfected participants were included in the final analysis. HIV was not significantly associated with AE, YFV viremia or NAb titers through the first 3 months following vaccination. However, HIV–infected participants had 0.32 times the NAb titers observed for HIV-uninfected participants at 1 year following YFV (95% CI 0.13 to 0.83, p = 0.021), independent of sex, age and prior vaccination. In HIV-infected participants, each 10% increase in CD4/CD8 ratio predicted a mean 21% higher post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.024). Similarly, each 10% increase in KT ratio predicted a mean 21% lower post-baseline YFV Nab titer (p = 0.009). Viremia by Human Pegivirus was not significantly associated with NAb titers. Conclusions HIV infection appears to decrease the durability of NAb responses to YFV, an effect that may be predicted by lower CD4/CD8 ratio or higher KT ratio. PMID:27941965

  14. Prenatal Influences on Sexual Orientation: Digit Ratio (2D:4D and Number of Older Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Kangassalo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal androgen levels are suggested to influence sexual orientation in both sexes. The 2D:4D digit ratio has been found to associate with sexual orientation, but published findings have often been contradictory, which may partly be due to the large ethnic diversity between and within studied populations. In men, number of older brothers has been found to correlate positively with homosexuality. This phenomenon has been explained with a maternal immune reaction, which is provoked only by male fetuses and which gets stronger after each pregnancy. Here we assessed the relationship of sexual orientation to 2D:4D ratios and number of older siblings in Finland, where the population is found to be genetically relatively homogeneous. As in many previous studies, heterosexual men had lower 2D:4D than non-heterosexual men, which supports the notion that non-heterosexual men experience higher androgen levels in utero than population norms. Contrary to previous reports, non-heterosexual women had higher 2D:4D than heterosexual women. Non-heterosexual men had more older brothers and older sisters than heterosexual men. The greater number of older sisters in non-heterosexual men indicates that there are other factors that contribute to the higher birth order of homosexual men than the maternal immunization.

  15. Digit ratio (2D:4D and handgrip strength in Hani ethnicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Zhao

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The ratio of the length of the second finger to the fourth finger (2D:4D in humans is considered as a putative marker of prenatal exposure to testosterone, and has been progressively adopted as one useful tool to evaluate the effect of prenatal hormones in some traits such as physical ability. Handgrip strength is one authentic measure of physical ability and is generally used on the anthropological research within an evolutionary viewpoint. METHODS: Here we present the first evidence on 2D:4D and handgrip strength on adult participants of Hani ethnicity and explore the relationship between digit ratio (2D:4D and handgrip strength. We examined 2D:4D and handgrip strength of 80 males and 60 females at Bubeng village, in the Yunnan province of China. RESULTS: The mean 2D:4D in females was higher than that in males for each hand. Females showed significantly higher 2D:4D than males in the right hand rather than in the left hand. Males displayed significantly higher handgrip strength than females for both hands. Handgrip strength decreased with age for both sexes. A significant negative correlation between 2D:4D and handgrip strength was found in the right hand of males. CONCLUSION: The relationship between 2D:4D and handgrip strength may be attributed to evolutionary drive of sexual selection operating on fetal programming.

  16. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D and concentrations of circulating sex hormones in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Howard A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D is used as a marker of prenatal sex hormone exposure. The objective of this study was to examine whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones and SHBG measured in adulthood was associated with 2D:4D. Methods This analysis was based on a random sample from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. The sample consisted of of 1036 men and 620 post-menopausal women aged between 39 and 70 at the time of blood draw. Concentrations of circulating sex hormones were measured from plasma collected at baseline (1990-1994, while digit length was measured from hand photocopies taken during a recent follow-up (2003-2009. The outcome measures were circulating concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenediol glucoronide for men only and oestrone sulphate for women only. Free testosterone and oestradiol were estimated using standard formulae derived empirically. Predicted geometric mean hormone concentrations (for tertiles of 2D:4D and conditional correlation coefficients (for continuous 2D:4D were obtained using mixed effects linear regression models. Results No strong associations were observed between 2D:4D measures and circulating concentrations of hormones for men or women. For males, right 2D:4D was weakly inversely associated with circulating testosterone (predicted geometric mean testosterone was 15.9 and 15.0 nmol/L for the lowest and highest tertiles of male right 2D:4D respectively (P-trend = 0.04. There was a similar weak association between male right 2D:4D and the ratio of testosterone to oestradiol. These associations were not evident in analyses of continuous 2D:4D. Conclusions There were no strong associations between any adult circulating concentration of sex hormone or SHGB and 2D:4D. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence indicating that 2D:4D is unrelated to adult sex

  17. Digital examination and transvaginal scan - competing or complementary for predicting preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, Eva; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Fedder, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The transvaginal ultrasonographic cervix scan has partly replaced digital examination for diagnosing preterm birth; conflicting results are reported about their respective contribution to birth prediction.......The transvaginal ultrasonographic cervix scan has partly replaced digital examination for diagnosing preterm birth; conflicting results are reported about their respective contribution to birth prediction....

  18. Mammary gland density predicts the cancer inhibitory activity of the N-3 to N-6 ratio of dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zongjian; Jiang, Weiqin; McGinley, John N; Prokopczyk, Bogden; Richie, John P; El Bayoumy, Karam; Manni, Andrea; Thompson, Henry J

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of a broad range of dietary ratios of n-3:n-6 fatty acids on mammary gland density and mammary cancer risk. Cancer was induced in female rats by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Purified diet that provided 30% of dietary kilocalories from fat was formulated to contain ratios of n-3:n-6 fatty acids from 25:1 to 1:25. Mammary gland density was determined by digital analysis, fatty acids by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection, and other plasma analytes via ELISA. Mammary gland density was reduced dose dependently at n-3:n-6 ratios from 1:1 to 25:1 (r = -0.477, P = 0.038), with a 20.3% decrease of mammary gland density between n-3:n-6 of 1:1 versus 25:1, P effect of the n-3:n-6 ratio on plasma leptin (decreased, P = 0.005) and adiponectin (increased, P tissue function was modulated. However, neither cytokine was predictive of mammary gland density. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) decreased with increasing dietary n-3:n-6 ratio (P = 0.004) and was predictive of the changes in mammary gland density (r = 0.362, P effects in the presence or absence of hormonal regulation of carcinogenesis, and (iii) signaling pathways regulated by IGF-I are potential targets for further mechanistic investigation.

  19. Financial and Staffing Ratio Analysis: Predicting Fiscal Distress in School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert Alan

    1983-01-01

    From analysis of data from 579 school districts it is concluded that financial ratios have the ability to forecast fiscal distress a year in advance. Liquidity ratios and salary and fringe benefit ratios were found to be strong forecasters, while per pupil expenditure data had little predictive value. (MJL)

  20. Accounting Ratios and Bankruptcy Prediction: Woolworths Geoup PLC as A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Okuguni, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research attempts to ascertain the predictive ability of accounting ratios using Woolworths Group plc. This was achieved by carrying out Financial Ratio Analysis, Altman Z-score, Robertson R-ratio and Trend Analysis of Woolworths Group plc. In addition, the causes of bankruptcy at Woolworths Group plc would be ascertained. Finally the research would use mathematical models to ascertain the predictability of bankruptcy at Woolworths Group plc. The main findings of this re...

  1. Using a Cocontraction Ratio to Predict Antagonistic Behavior During Elbow Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Pontonnier, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Inverse dynamics methods for muscle forces prediction are globally unable to predict antagonistic activity during a joint motion. This is due to a lack of physiological information describing how forces are shared between flexors and extensors. The aim of this study is the definition and the use of a new EMG-based cocontraction ratio in an inverse dynamics muscle forces prediction approach applied to the elbow flexion motion. Results show the relevance of the ratio.

  2. Females Have Larger Ratio of Second-to-Fourth Digits Than Males in Four Species of Salamandridae, Caudata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarski, Mikołaj; Kubicka, Anna Maria; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Hromada, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. It is considered to be a suitable biomarker of the in utero balance of fetal sex hormones, which affect early development of individuaĺs behavioral and morphological characteristics. In recent decades, digit ratio attracted a great attention in biology and psychology. However, for unmasking the biological basis of the phenomenon, extensive studies on non-human animals are necessary. Despite it was hypothesized that digit ratio is well conserved in all Tetrapoda, and there exist studies on mammals, birds, and reptiles, there are only two such study on anuran amphibians. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the 2D:4D in the most basal salamanders, Caudata. We have studied digit ratio in four species of newts: Triturus cristatus, Mesotriton alpestris, Lissotriton montandoni, and Lissotriton vulgaris, using museum collection. We used computerized measuring of each limbś photos. We have found out that, in M. alpestris, females 2D:4D of all four limbs were significantly larger than in males. In L. montandoni and L. vulgaris, only 2D:4D of rear limbs significantly differed, in females being larger. In T. cristatus, digit ratios of males and females did not statistically differ. Thus, the results confirmed our hypothesis that at least in M. alpestris, L. montandoni, and L. vulgaris, females seem to have larger 2D:4D comparing to males, the pattern known from most mammals and opposite to birds, reptiles and anuran amphibians. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Copy number ratios determined by two digital polymerase chain reaction systems in genetically modified grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Urquiza, M.; Acatzi Silva, A. I.

    2014-02-01

    Three certified reference materials produced from powdered seeds to measure the copy number ratio sequences of p35S/hmgA in maize containing MON 810 event, p35S/Le1 in soybeans containing GTS 40-3-2 event and DREB1A/acc1 in wheat were produced according to the ISO Guides 34 and 35. In this paper, we report digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) protocols, performance parameters and results of copy number ratio content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in these materials using two new dPCR systems to detect and quantify molecular deoxyribonucleic acid: the BioMark® (Fluidigm) and the OpenArray® (Life Technologies) systems. These technologies were implemented at the National Institute of Metrology in Mexico (CENAM) and in the Reference Center for GMO Detection from the Ministry of Agriculture (CNRDOGM), respectively. The main advantage of this technique against the more-used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is that it generates an absolute number of target molecules in the sample, without reference to standards or an endogenous control, which is very useful when not much information is available for new developments or there are no standard reference materials in the market as in the wheat case presented, or when it was not possible to test the purity of seeds as in the maize case presented here. Both systems reported enhanced productivity, increased reliability and reduced instrument footprint. In this paper, the performance parameters and uncertainty of measurement obtained with both systems are presented and compared.

  4. Fast identification of digital amplitude modulation level at low signal-to-noise ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xiao-wei; CAO Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    In order to rapidly and automatically identify the modulation level of digital amplitude modulated signals at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR),a method of identifying the modulation levels of M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM)and M-ary amplitude shift keying (M-ASK) is proposed.In this method,wavelet transform with the optimal scale is used to identify the modulation levels of M-QAM and M-ASK signals.The performance of this method was investigated through simulations.Simulation results show that when the SNR is not lower than - 4 dB,the percentage of correct identification of M-QAM is higher than 93%,and when the SNR is not lower than -10 dB,the percentage of correct identification of M-ASK is higher than 90%,using only 100 observed symbols.It shows that this method can rapidly acquire good performance at a low SNR.

  5. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and hand preference for writing in the BBC Internet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, J T; Peters, M

    2009-09-01

    The ratio of the length of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) may be negatively correlated with prenatal testosterone. Hand preference has been linked with prenatal testosterone and 2D:4D. Here we show that 2D:4D is associated with hand preference for writing in a large internet sample (n>170,000) in which participants self-reported their finger lengths. We replicated a significant association between right 2D:4D and writing hand preference (low right 2D:4D associated with left hand preference) as well as a significant correlation between writing hand preference and the difference between left and right 2D:4D or Dr-l (low Dr-l associated with left hand preference). A new significant correlation between left 2D:4D and writing hand preference was also shown (high left 2D:4D associated with left hand preference). There was a clear interaction between writing hand preference and 2D:4D: The left 2D:4D was significantly larger than the right 2D:4D in male and female left-handed writers, and the right hand 2D:4D was significantly larger than the left hand 2D:4D in male and female right-handed writers.

  6. The Relationship Between Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Sexual Orientation in Men from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2016-04-01

    We examined the relationship between 2D:4D digit ratio and sexual orientation in men from China and analyzed the influences of the components used to assess sexual orientation and the criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual on this relationship. A total of 309 male and 110 female participants took part in a web-based survey. Our results showed that heterosexual men had a significantly lower 2D:4D than heterosexual women and exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher left 2D:4D than heterosexual men whereas only exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher right 2D:4D than heterosexual men when sexual orientation was assessed via sexual attraction. The left 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, and the right 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual attraction. The effect sizes for differences in 2D:4D between homosexual and heterosexual men varied according to criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual and sexual orientation components; the more stringent the criteria (scores closer to the homosexual category), the larger the effect sizes; further, sexual attraction yielded the largest effect size. There were no significant effects of age and latitude on Chinese 2D:4D. This study contributes to the current understanding of the relationship between 2D:4D and male sexual orientation.

  7. A predictive relationship between population and genetic sex ratios in clonal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLetchie, D. Nicholas; García-Ramos, Gisela

    2017-04-01

    Sexual reproduction depends on mate availability that is reflected by local sex ratios. In species where both sexes can clonally expand, the population sex ratio describes the proportion of males, including clonally derived individuals (ramets) in addition to sexually produced individuals (genets). In contrast to population sex ratio that accounts for the overall abundance of the sexes, the genetic sex ratio reflects the relative abundance of genetically unique mates, which is critical in predicting effective population size but is difficult to estimate in the field. While an intuitive positive relationship between population (ramet) sex ratio and genetic (genet) sex ratio is expected, an explicit relationship is unknown. In this study, we determined a mathematical expression in the form of a hyperbola that encompasses a linear to a nonlinear positive relationship between ramet and genet sex ratios. As expected when both sexes clonally have equal number of ramets per genet both sex ratios are identical, and thus ramet sex ratio becomes a linear function of genet sex ratio. Conversely, if sex differences in ramet number occur, this mathematical relationship becomes nonlinear and a discrepancy between the sex ratios amplifies from extreme sex ratios values towards intermediate values. We evaluated our predictions with empirical data that simultaneously quantified ramet and genet sex ratios in populations of several species. We found that the data support the predicted positive nonlinear relationship, indicating sex differences in ramet number across populations. However, some data may also fit the null model, which suggests that sex differences in ramet number were not extensive, or the number of populations was too small to capture the curvature of the nonlinear relationship. Data with lack of fit suggest the presence of factors capable of weakening the positive relationship between the sex ratios. Advantages of this model include predicting genet sex ratio using

  8. Comparisons of jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise ratio from directly digitized versus taped voice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfer, M P; Fendel, D M

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measures obtained from tape-recorded samples with the same measures made on directly digitized voice samples, with use of the CSpeech acoustic analysis program. Subjects included 30 young women who phonated the vowel /a/ at a comfortable pitch and loudness level. Voice samples were simultaneously recorded and digitized, and the resulting perturbation measures for the two conditions were compared. Results indicated that there were small but statistically significant differences between percent jitter, percent shimmer, and SNR calculated from taped samples compared with the same measures calculated from directly digitized samples. It was concluded that direct digitization for clinical measures of vocal perturbation was most desirable, but that taped samples could be used, if necessary, with some caution.

  9. Reengineering Aircraft Structural Life Prediction Using a Digital Twin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuegel, Eric J; Ingraffea, Anthony R; Eason, Thomas G; Spottswood, S. Michael

    2011-01-01

    .... The proposed process utilizes an ultrahigh fidelity model of individual aircraft by tail number, a Digital Twin, to integrate computation of structural deflections and temperatures in response...

  10. Critique du rapport signal \\`a bruit en communications num\\'eriques -- Questioning the signal to noise ratio in digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Fliess, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The signal to noise ratio, which plays such an important r\\^ole in information theory, is shown to become pointless for digital communications where the demodulation is achieved via new fast estimation techniques. Operational calculus, differential algebra, noncommutative algebra and nonstandard analysis are the main mathematical tools.

  11. Prediction of failure strain and burst pressure in high yield-to-tensile strength ratio linepipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, M. [Institute of Materials and Engineering Science, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: mlx@ansto.gov.au; Bowie, G. [BlueScope Steel Ltd., Level 11, 120 Collins St, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia)

    2007-08-15

    Failure pressures and strains were predicted for a number of burst tests as part of a project to explore failure strain in high yield-to-tensile strength ratio linepipe. Twenty-three methods for predicting the burst pressure and six methods of predicting the failure strain are compared with test results. Several methods were identified which gave accurate and reliable estimates of burst pressure. No method of accurately predicting the failure strain was found, though the best was noted.

  12. An evaluation of the usefulness of cash flow ratios to predict financial distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jooste

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: With the introduction of the cash flow statement it became an integral part of financial reporting. A need arose to develop ratios for the effective evaluation of cash flow information. This article investigates cash flow ratios suggested by various researchers and suggests a list of ratios with the potential to predict financial failure. Design: The cash flow ratios suggested by researchers, from as early as 1966, are investigated and eight cash flow ratios selected for inclusion in an analysis to predict financial failure. Ten failed entities are selected for a cash flow evaluation by means of the selected ratios for five years prior to failure. For a comparison, non-failed entities in similar sectors are selected and also evaluated by means of the cash flow ratios. The mean values of each ratio, for each year prior to failure, were then calculated and the means of the failed entities were compared to the non-failed entities. Findings: The comparison revealed that cash flow ratios have predictive value with the cash flow to total debt identified as the best indicator of failure. It was also determined that, although failed entities have lower cash flows than non-failed entities, they also had smaller reserves of liquid assets. Furthermore, they have less capacity to meet debt obligations and they tend to incur more debt. The ratios of the failed entities were unstable and fluctuated from one year to the next. Finally, bankruptcy could be predicted three years prior to financial failure. Implications: Income statement and balance sheet ratios are not enough to measure liquidity. An entity can have positive liquidity ratios and increasing profits, yet have serious cash flow problems. Ratios developed from the cash flow statement should supplement traditional accrual-based ratios to provide additional information on the financial strengths and weaknesses of an entity .

  13. Adaptive Digital Calibration of Amplifier Finite Gain Effects and C-ratio Matching Errors for MASH Modulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Hui(冯晖); Lin Zhenghui

    2004-01-01

    Cascaded sigma-delta (MASH) modulators for higher order oversampled analog-to-digital conversion rely on precise matching of contributions from different quantizers to cancel lower order quantization noise from intermediate delta-sigma stages. This paper studies the effect of analog imperfections in the implementation, such as finite gain of the amplifiers and capacitor ratio mismatch, and presents an adaptive algorithm and implementation architectures for digital correction of such analog imperfections. Behavioral simulations on 1-1-1 oversampled converters demonstrate over 10dB improvements in signal-to-noise and over 20 dB improvements in dynamic range performance.

  14. The relationship between the second-to-fourth digit ratios and lifelong premature ejaculation: a prospective, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, D; Kocabas, G U; Kose, T; Degirmenci, T; Aydin, M E; Dincel, C

    2017-02-19

    To investigate the relationship between the fetal androgen exposure and lifelong premature ejaculation by using the ratio of the second (index)-to-fourth (ring) digits (2D : 4D) which is the marker for higher prenatal androgen exposure. Totally 65 patients with lifelong premature ejaculation and 65 control cases without any ejaculatory complaints were enrolled in the study. A detailed medical history was obtained and self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times were recorded. Ejaculation function was evaluated by Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. The lengths of the second and fourth digits of both hands were measured and 2D : 4Ds were calculated. The mean 2D : 4D values were 0.964 ± 0.024 vs. 0.978 ± 0.032 (p = 0.004) for the right hand and 0.966 ± 0.023 vs. 0.979 ± 0.032 (p = 0.006) for the left hand in lifelong premature ejaculation and control groups, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the digit ratios and self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (r = 0.258, p = 0.003 for right hand; r = 0.240, p = 0.06 for left hand), and between the digit ratios and total Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool scores (r = -0.263, p = 0.003 for right hand; r = -0.238, p = 0.06 for left hand). Individuals with lower digit ratios have higher risks of shorter intravaginal ejaculatory latency times. These results suggest that increased fetal androgen exposure may be a new risk factor for the development of lifelong premature ejaculation.

  15. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios in tree rings: how well do models predict observed values?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Waterhouse, JS

    2002-07-30

    Full Text Available the trunk, it is proficient to model the observed annual values of oxygen isotope ratios of alpha-cellulose to a significant level (r = 0.77, P < 0.01). When the same model is applied to hydrogen isotope ratios, results are found, and predictions can be made...

  16. Second to fourth digit ratio is a predictor of sporting ability in elite Indian male kabaddi players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Honnamachanahalli H; Majumdar, Pralay; Umesh, Veena; Panda, Kaninika

    2014-09-01

    To determine the 2D:4D ratio in elite Indian male kabaddi players and compare them with non-athletes. Our study was undertaken to find out a possible relation between digit ratio and sporting ability of male kabaddi players. This study also gives an insight into the possible ethnic differences between Indian sports personnel and other populations. Both right and left hands of 33 male kabaddi players attending training camp at the Bangalore regional centre of Sports Authority of India were scanned. Lengths of second and fourth digits were measured and their ratio calculated. Age, weight, height and body mass index matched subjects (25 males) who did not participate in any sports formed the control group. A highly significant difference was found in 2D:4D ratios of both the hands with Kabaddi players having a lower ratio compared to their controls. There was no statistically significant difference in 2D:4D (Δ r-l) between Kabaddi players and controls. Kabaddi is an intermediate sport not requiring a high level of endurance but at the same time requires masculine traits because of combating nature of the game. 2D:4D ratios can be used as reliable additional criteria when screening for prospective players to be inducted into the team.

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between Digit Ratio, Illusion of Control, and Risk-Taking Behavior Among Chinese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Desmond; Ozorio, Bernadete

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between digit ratio and risk-taking mainly focused on western subjects. Moreover, no researcher has examined the concurrent effect of digit ratio and illusion of control on gambling behavior. This exploratory study investigates the relationship between digit ratio, illusion of control and risk-taking behavior of Chinese subjects. Sixty-six students from a Chinese university were invited to answer a questionnaire and play a purposefully-designed betting game. The results show that the subjects' risk-taking level, measured in terms of average betting amount, is negatively correlated to their digit ratio but not to their illusion of control score. Moreover, there is no significant association between the subjects' digit ratio and illusion of control score. These preliminary findings will have useful implications to gaming regulators and businesses.

  18. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the digit ratio 2D:4D--relationships with body size and microhabitat use in iguanian lizards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla M Gomes

    Full Text Available The ratio between lengths of digit II and IV (digit ratio 2D:4D is a morphological feature that likely affects tetrapod locomotor performances in different microhabitats. Modifications of this trait may be triggered by changes in steroids concentrations during embryo development, which might reflect direct selection acting on digit ratio or be solely a consequence of hormonal differences related for example to body size. Here we apply both conventional and phylogenetic analyses on morphological data from 25 lizard species of 3 families of Iguania (Iguanidae, Polychrotidae, and Tropiduridae, in order to verify whether selective pressures related to locomotion in different microhabitats could override the prenatal developmental cues imposed on the digit ratio 2D:4D by differences in body size between males and females. Data suggest that this trait evolved in association with ecological divergence in the species studied, despite the clear effect of body size on the digit ratio 2D:4D. The ecological associations of size-corrected digit ratios were restricted to one sex, and females of species that often use perches exhibited small digit ratios in the front limbs, which translated into larger sexual dimorphism indexes of arboreal species. The results, together with the subsequent discussion, provide outlines for further investigation about possible developmental mechanisms related to the evolution of adaptive changes in digit lengths that may have occurred during the evolution of ecological divergence in squamates.

  19. Wireless digital information transfer: modelling, prediction and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lager, I.E.; De Hoop, A.T.; Kikkawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The loop-to-loop pulsed electromagnetic field wireless signal transfer is investigated with a view on its application in wireless digital information transfer. Closed-form expressions are derived for the emitted magnetic field and for the open-circuit voltage of the receiving loop in dependence on t

  20. 新疆哈萨克族青年人群指长及指长比的特点%Digit and digit ratio of Xinjiang young Kazakh nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    努尔买买提·巴哈夏尔; 爱华; 吴海忠

    2014-01-01

    背景:在人类胚胎期的前3个月指长比值就基本确定,指长及指长比具有性别和侧别差异,指长比可能还存在民族、地区及人种差异,至今尚未有人进行过新疆哈萨克族成人指长比方面的研究。  目的:探讨新疆哈萨克族青年人群指长比的特点。  方法:随机选择18-25岁健康新疆哈萨克族青年200例(男100例,女100例),进行双手后前位X射线拍片,分别测量指骨长度,同时测量身高,将所得数据用SPSS 19.0软件进行统计学分析处理。  结果与结论:新疆哈萨克族青年人群指长均呈现3D>4D>2D>5D;男性指长比具有3D∶5D>4D∶5D>2D∶5D>3D∶4D>2D∶3D>2D∶4D趋势,女性指长比具有3D∶5D>2D∶5D>3D∶4D>4D∶5D>2D∶4D>2D∶3D趋势;左右手2D∶3D,3D∶4D,4D∶5D指长比均值男性大于女性,左右手2D∶4D,2D∶5D,3D∶5D指长比均数女性大于男性,男女性左右手指长比2D∶4D和4D∶5D的差异有显著性意义(P 4D>2D>5D. Male digit ratio possessed the tendency of 3D:5D>4D:5D>2D:5D>3D:4D>3D:4D>2D:3D>2D:4D;female digit ratio possessed the tendency of 3D:5D>2D:5D>3D:4D>4D:5D>2D:4D>2D:3D. The digit ratio of 2D:3D, 3D:4D, 4D:5D was higher in the male than the female;the digit ratio of 2D:4D, 2D:5D, 3D:5D was higher in the female than the male. Digit ratio had sexual differences, especial y in 3D:5D (P<0.05), and had bilateral differences, especial y in 2D:4D and 4D:5D (P<0.05). These findings indicate that the digit ratio of Xinjiang Kazakh people exhibits a bilateral difference, especial y in 2D:4D and 4D:5D, as wel as a sexual difference, especial y in 3D:5D .

  1. Predictive Contribution of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar Olt; Hasan Ergenç; Seyyid Bilal Açıkgöz

    2015-01-01

    Here we wanted to investigate predictive value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the diagnosis of brucellosis. Thirty-two brucellosis patients diagnosed with positive serum agglutination test and thirty-two randomized healthy subjects were enrolled in this study retrospectively. Result with ROC analyzes the baseline NLR and hemoglobin values were found to be significantly associated with brucellosis (P=0.01, P=0.01, resp.). Herein we demonstrated for ...

  2. Predictive Contribution of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Olt, Serdar; Ergenç, Hasan; Açıkgöz, Seyyid Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Here we wanted to investigate predictive value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the diagnosis of brucellosis. Thirty-two brucellosis patients diagnosed with positive serum agglutination test and thirty-two randomized healthy subjects were enrolled in this study retrospectively. Result with ROC analyzes the baseline NLR and hemoglobin values were found to be significantly associated with brucellosis (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, resp.). Herein we demonstrated ...

  3. Prediction of yield by digital image analysis of vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešlić Zoran S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grape yield per vine of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. was evaluated on the basis of digital image processing of vine part. Digital camera was mounted on tripod and used for taking photos of 1 x 1 m portions of canopy. The Adobe Photoshop software was used to analyse image for the colour counting of the blue pixels of grape in the quadrant region. The actual yield was obtained from the photographed vines by hand harvesting of sampled portions. Linear regression was used for calculation of the correlation between blue pixels and grape weight. The relatively strong relationship between blue pixels and grape weight (R2=0.91 was obtained. Based on these results, we can recommend this simple technique for yield forecasting. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP31063

  4. The Ratio of Second to Fourth Digit Length (2D:4D in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Emerging hypotheses suggest a causal role for prenatal androgen exposure in some cases of Autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The ratios of the lengths of the bones of the 2nd to the 4th digits (2D:4D are purported to be markers for prenatal androgen exposure and to be established early in gestation. Ratio of second and fourth digits (2D:4D  is usually used as a proxy for prenatal testosterone. Methods and Materials In this study, 2D:4D in 48 children with ASD and in 41  control child was measured. Two groups were matched with the gender and age. Both groups were selected by convenience sampling method. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 19.0 software, considering as significant less than .05 (p < .05. Results: Results showed that the average ratio of 2D:4D in ASD children were lower than the ratio in control children (P

  5. A Wake Model for the Prediction of Propeller Performance at Low Advance Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A low order panel method is used to predict the performance of propellers. A wake alignment model based on a pseudounsteady scheme is proposed and implemented. The results from this full wake alignment (FWA model are correlated with available experimental data, and results from RANS for some propellers at design and low advance ratios. Significant improvements have been found in the predicted integrated forces and pressure distributions.

  6. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Ratio Is Improved When Using a Digital, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Onsite in a Diabetes Outpatient Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Roser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of onsite screening with a nonmydriatic, digital fundus camera for diabetic retinopathy (DR at a diabetes outpatient clinic. Research Design and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 502 patients, 112 with type 1 and 390 with type 2 diabetes. Patients attended screenings for microvascular complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN, diabetic polyneuropathy (DP, and DR. Single-field retinal imaging with a digital, nonmydriatic fundus camera was used to assess DR. Prevalence and incidence of microvascular complications were analyzed and the ratio of newly diagnosed to preexisting complications for all entities was calculated in order to differentiate natural progress from missed DRs. Results. For both types of diabetes, prevalence of DR was 25.0% (n=126 and incidence 6.4% (n=32 (T1DM versus T2DM: prevalence: 35.7% versus 22.1%, incidence 5.4% versus 6.7%. 25.4% of all DRs were newly diagnosed. Furthermore, the ratio of newly diagnosed to preexisting DR was higher than those for DN (p=0.12 and DP (p=0.03 representing at least 13 patients with missed DR. Conclusions. The results indicate that implementing nonmydriatic, digital fundus imaging in a diabetes outpatient clinic can contribute to improved early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy.

  7. The Intrinsic Eddington Ratio Distribution of Active Galactic Nuclei in Star-forming Galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, M L; Black, C S; Hainline, K N; DiPompeo, M A; Goulding, A D

    2016-01-01

    An important question in extragalactic astronomy concerns the distribution of black hole accretion rates of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Based on observations at X-ray wavelengths, the observed Eddington ratio distribution appears as a power law, while optical studies have often yielded a lognormal distribution. There is increasing evidence that these observed discrepancies may be due to contamination by star formation and other selection effects. Using a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we test if an intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution that takes the form of a Schechter function is consistent with previous work that suggests that young galaxies in optical surveys have an observed lognormal Eddington ratio distribution. We simulate the optical emission line properties of a population of galaxies and AGN using a broad instantaneous luminosity distribution described by a Schechter function near the Eddington limit. This simulated AGN population is then compared to observe...

  8. Methodologies of the hardware reliability prediction for PSA of digital I and C systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. S.; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Park, J. K.; Kang, H. G.; Park, J

    2000-09-01

    Digital I and C systems are being used widely in the Non-safety systems of the NPP and they are expanding their applications to safety critical systems. The regulatory body shifts their policy to risk based and may require Probabilistic Safety Assessment for the digital I and C systems. But there is no established reliability prediction methodology for the digital I and C systems including both software and hardware yet. This survey report includes a lot of reliability prediction methods for electronic systems in view of hardware. Each method has both the strong and the weak points. This report provides the state-of-art of prediction methods and focus on Bellcore method and MIL-HDBK-217F method in deeply. The reliability analysis models are reviewed and discussed to help analysts. Also this report includes state-of-art of software tools that are supporting reliability prediction.

  9. A NEW APPROACH FOR PREDICTING DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF EXTRA-HIGH SPEED DIGITAL VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜昌; 钟廷修; 许仰曾

    2002-01-01

    High-speed digital valves are devices ideally suited for the direct interface of fluid power components to digital computers due to their on/off characteristics. In this paper, a model of an extra-high speed digital valve applied in fuel injection system was presented. In order to get the ability of fast response and a simple construction, a new concept for designing and predicting the valve was presented herewith. A new predicting simulation model of the entire test stand was utilized in order to parameterize the model against measured data. The new model predicts transient valve behavior and the proper dynamic coupling between the electrical, magnetic, mechanical and fluid subsystems. Based on the model and simulation, a prototype valve with working pressure of 120 MPa and frequency of 2 kHz was designed and fabricated, its experimental and prediction results for armature motion show excellent agreement.

  10. Efficacy of specific gravity as a tool for prediction of biodiesel-petroleum diesel blend ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediction of volumetric biodiesel/petrodiesel blend ratio (VBD) from specific gravity (SG) data was the subject of the current investigation. Fatty acid methyl esters obtained from soybean, palm, and rapeseed oils along with chicken fat (SME-1, SME-2, PME, RME, and CFME) were blended (0 to 20 volum...

  11. Predictions of Crystal Structure Based on Radius Ratio: How Reliable Are They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Lawrence C.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of crystalline solids in undergraduate curricula often includes the use of radius ratio rules as a method for predicting which type of crystal structure is likely to be adopted by a given ionic compound. Examines this topic, establishing more definitive guidelines for the use and reliability of the rules. (JN)

  12. Association of the index (2nd and ring (4th digit ratios with some physical attributes in Ebira Ethnic Group of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Abraham Musa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the index (2D and ring (4D digits ratios and their association with some physical characteristics of the Ebira tribe of Nigeria was carried out to determine the values of the 2D:4D digit ratios and their association with other anthropometric variables. Six hundred adults between ages of 18 years and above were randomly selected with the exclusion of those with hand deformities. Three hundred males and three hundred females, of which one hundred males and one hundred females were selected from each of the participating areas. The index (2D and ring (4D digit lengths were measured from the basal crease to the tips using a digital tape and the height and weight were measured. The 2D:4D ratios were determined for each subject while the height and weight were used to calculate the body mass index (BMI and the data analyzed. The results show significant difference in 2D:4D ratio between the males and the females (P<0.01. Males have longer fourth (4D and shorter second (2D digit lengths with lower 2D:4D digit ratios while females have shorter fourth (4D and longer second (2D digit lengths with higher digit ratio. The results show a positive correlation between the digit lengths and height, weight, and BMI in both males and females but the 2D:4D digit ratio has no relationship with height, weight or BMI of an individual from the people of the Ebira tribe of Nigeria

  13. THE USEFULNESS OF THE AUTONOMY RATIO IN THE PREDICTION OF BANKRUPTCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU-OLARIU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to test the potential of the autonomy ratio in the prediction of bankruptcy. The target population included all the active companies from the Timis County with annual sales of over 10,000 lei. The event the research was focused on is represented by the occurence of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. The bankruptcy was defined in accordance with the Romanian law applicable over the period targeted by the study. The tests were performed over a paired-sample that included all the companies from the target population that went bankrupt during the period 2011-2012. The discrimination power of the autonomy ratio was evaluated for different cut-off values recommended by the existing literature. The research proves the utility of the autonomy ratio in the prediction of bankruptcy two years before its occurence.

  14. Hyomental distance in the different head positions and hyomental distance ratio in predicting difficult intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalezić, Nevena; Lakićević, Mirko; Miličić, Biljana; Stojanović, Marina; Sabljak, Vera; Marković, Dejan

    2016-08-02

    The hyomental distance ratio (HMDR) is the ratio between the hyomental distance (HMD) (the distance between the hyoid bone and the tip of the chin) at the extreme of head extension (HMDe) and the one in the neutral position (HMDn). The objective of the study was to examine the predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of HMDe, HMDn, and HMDR in predicting difficult endotracheal intubation (DI). A prospective study included 262 patients that underwent elective surgical operations. The following parameters were observed as possible predictors of DI: HMDR, HMDe, HMDn, Mallampati score, and body mass index (BMI). The cut-off points for the DI predictors were HMDe predictor of DI with a sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 69.2%. HMDR can be used in the everyday work of anesthesiologists because HMDR values ≤1.2 may reliably predict DI.

  15. Prediction of parenteral nutrition osmolarity by digital refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2011-05-01

    Infusion of high-osmolarity parenteral nutrition (PN) formulations into a peripheral vein will damage the vessel. In this study, the authors developed a refractometric method to predict PN formulation osmolarity for patients receiving PN. Nutrients in PN formulations were prepared for Brix value and osmolality measurement. Brix value and osmolality measurement of the dextrose, amino acids, and electrolytes were used to evaluate the limiting factor of PN osmolarity prediction. A best-fit equation was generated to predict PN osmolarity (mOsm/L): 81.05 × Brix value--116.33 (R(2) > 0.99). To validate the PN osmolarity prediction by these 4 equations, a total of 500 PN admixtures were tested. The authors found strong linear relationships between the Brix values and the osmolality measurement of dextrose (R(2) = 0.97), amino acids (R(2) = 0.99), and electrolytes (R(2) > 0.96). When PN-measured osmolality was between 600 and 900 mOsm/kg, approximately 43%, 29%, 43%, and 0% of the predicted osmolarity obtained by equations 1, 2, 3, and 4 were outside the acceptable 90% to 110% confidence interval range, respectively. When measured osmolality was between 900 and 1,500 mOsm/kg, 31%, 100%, 85%, and 15% of the predicted osmolarity by equations 1, 2, 3, and 4 were outside the acceptable 90% to 110% confidence interval range, respectively. The refractive method permits accurate PN osmolarity prediction and reasonable quality assurance before PN formulation administration.

  16. Data about digit ratio values in two feminine populations of Bihor and Salaj Counties (Oradea and Simleu localities – NW Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mihaela TOMULESCU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the differences of digit ratio in two human populations from two localities. These localities are: Oradea and Simleu, from Bihor and Salaj counties. Oradea is a locality with over two hundred thousands of inhabitants, which means the variability of some phenotipical features must be a large one. Simleu is a smaller locality (has under fifty thousands inhabitants, which means the variability of some phenotipical features is lower than in Oradea. This fact is showed in our study. We investigated 100 females in each locality. It were measured the lenghts of the digits 2, 3 and 4, and then we made the digit ratio. The results are important: the digit lenghts are very different in the two localities; the 2D:4D digit ratio, too.

  17. 2D:4D digit ratio and types of adult paranormal belief: An attempted replication and extension of Voracek (2009) with a UK sample

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Paul; Caswell, Noreen; Brewer, Gayle

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which mean digit length (MDL), second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), digit asymmetry (DA) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) correlate with belief in three types of alleged paranormal phenomena (extrasensory perception, psychokinesis, and life after death). An opportunistic sample of 275 undergraduate students completed standard paranormal belief and demographics questionnaires with the absolute length of their 2D and 4D on both hands measured by participants the...

  18. Platelet count/spleen diameter ratio to predict esophageal varices in Mexican patients with hepatic cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Cervantes-Guevara, Gabino; Chávez-Sánchez, Manuela; Dávalos-Cobián, Carlos; Ornelas-Cázares, Susana; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv; Chávez-Tostado, Mariana; Ramírez-Campos, Kenia Militzi; Ramírez-Arce, Anaís Del Rocío; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde

    2014-02-28

    To validate whether the platelet count/spleen size ratio can be used to predict the presence of esophageal varices in Mexican patients with hepatic cirrhosis. This was an analytical cross-sectional study to validate the diagnostic test for hepatic cirrhosis and was performed between February 2010 and December 2011. Patients with a diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis were included and stratified using their Child-Pugh score. Biochemical parameters were evaluated, and ultrasound was used to measure the longest diameter of the spleen. The platelet count/spleen diameter ratio was calculated and analyzed to determine whether it can predict the presence of esophageal varices. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was used as the gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were determined, with the cutoff points determined by receiver-operating characteristic curves. A total of 91 patients were included. The mean age was 53.75 ± 12 years; 50 (54.9%) were men, and 41 (45.0%) women. The etiology of cirrhosis included alcohol in 48 (52.7%), virally induced in 24 (26.3%), alcoholism plus hepatitis C virus in three (3.2%), cryptogenic in nine (9.8%), and primary biliary cirrhosis in seven (7.6%). Esophageal varices were present in 73 (80.2%) patients. Child-Pugh classification, 17 (18.6%) patients were classified as class A, 37 (40.6%) as class B, and 37 (40.6%) as class C. The platelet count/spleen diameter ratio to detect esophageal varices independent of the grade showed using a cutoff value of ≤ 884.3, had 84% sensitivity, 70% specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 94% and 40%, respectively. Our results suggest that the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio may be a useful tool for detecting esophageal varices in patients with hepatic cirrhosis.

  19. Ratio of patient's height to thyromental distance improves prediction of difficult laryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H J; Kirmse, M; Radespiel-Troger, M

    2002-12-01

    Several tests have been proposed to predict difficult laryngoscopy or intubation. The thyromental distance (TMD) is often used for these purposes but this measurement, used alone, is unreliable. This study tested the hypothesis that the ratio of the patient's height to TMD (ratio of height to TMD = RHTMD) would improve the accuracy of predicting difficult laryngoscopy compared with TMD alone. Two hundred and seventy patients were evaluated preoperatively using the TMD and RHTMD. The two tests were compared analyzing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Difficult laryngoscopy occurred in 16 patients (5.9%). The AUC of RHTMD was significantly greater (P < 0.007) when compared to TMD, indicating a more accurate prediction by the RHTMD. A ratio of 25 for the RHTMD was found to be the optimal cut-off value to predict difficult laryngoscopy. When the sensitivity of both tests was 0.81, the RHTMD had a significantly greater specificity (0.91) than the TMD (0.73). Based on our results, we recommend that the RHTMD should be used instead of the TMD.

  20. Relationship between Ratio of Second and Fourth Digit and Obesity Traits among Different Ethnic Groups in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji Fatai OYEYEMI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Digit ratio (2D:4D denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. There are contradicting reports on its relationship with ethnicity/race, whereas convincing studies show it is related to obesity. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to demystify ethnic difference in 2D:4D ratio and to analyze its relationship with obesity among adults in Ilorin Nigeria. The cross-sectional study included 701 individuals. Finger lengths were measured with electronic calipers and other anthropometric traits were measured with standard procedure. Student t test and one-way ANOVA were used to detect differences among groups and relationship was computed with Pearson correlation. The receiver operator characteristic curves were used to detect the diagnostic effect of 2D:4D for obesity. The obtained results showed sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D ratio and other anthropometrics at p < 0.01. Obesity was associated with significantly higher mean of 2D:4D in both genders (female 0.9814 ± 0.012:0.9700 ± 0.012; male 0.9700 ± 0.010:0.9592 ± 0.010 at p < 0.001. The area under the curve was 0.753 (95% CI 0.677-0.829, p < 0.01 and 0.798 (95% CI 0.756-0.804, p < 0.01 in female and male R2D:4D respectively for obesity, implying that 2D:4D might be a surrogate marker for obesity in future.  No significant difference was found in 2D:4D among different ethnic groups studied (p >0.05; this result proved that there was no ethnic specificity in 2D:4D ratio among study’ participants. Thus, it can be reported that the digit ratio was related to high 2D:4D, but this cannot be said for different ethnic groups. The results imply that 2D:4D might be a good surrogate indicator for obesity, but not ethnicity.

  1. Predictive contribution of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olt, Serdar; Ergenç, Hasan; Açıkgöz, Seyyid Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Here we wanted to investigate predictive value of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in the diagnosis of brucellosis. Thirty-two brucellosis patients diagnosed with positive serum agglutination test and thirty-two randomized healthy subjects were enrolled in this study retrospectively. Result with ROC analyzes the baseline NLR and hemoglobin values were found to be significantly associated with brucellosis (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, resp.). Herein we demonstrated for the first time that NLR values were significantly associated with brucellosis. This situation can help clinicians during diagnosis of brucellosis.

  2. Predictive analog-to-digital converter for Fourier-transform spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Potvin, Simon; Ash, Jean-Simon; Genest, Jérôme

    2010-09-10

    This paper proposes the use of predictive analog-to-digital converters (ADC) to handle dynamic range issues in Fourier-transform spectrometers. Several predictive approaches are proposed, and one is implemented experimentally to show that the technique works. A system was implemented with 16 bit (13 bits effective) ADCs and digital-to-analog converters (DACs) operated at 8 bits to provide a comparison basis. Measurements of a blackbody at 900 °C performed using the setup show a 13 bit effective performance, limited by the input noise of the data acquisition card.

  3. Predicting rotator cuff tears using data mining and Bayesian likelihood ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Yi Lu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Rotator cuff tear is a common cause of shoulder diseases. Correct diagnosis of rotator cuff tears can save patients from further invasive, costly and painful tests. This study used predictive data mining and Bayesian theory to improve the accuracy of diagnosing rotator cuff tears by clinical examination alone. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 169 patients who had a preliminary diagnosis of rotator cuff tear on the basis of clinical evaluation followed by confirmatory MRI between 2007 and 2011 were identified. MRI was used as a reference standard to classify rotator cuff tears. The predictor variable was the clinical assessment results, which consisted of 16 attributes. This study employed 2 data mining methods (ANN and the decision tree and a statistical method (logistic regression to classify the rotator cuff diagnosis into "tear" and "no tear" groups. Likelihood ratio and Bayesian theory were applied to estimate the probability of rotator cuff tears based on the results of the prediction models. RESULTS: Our proposed data mining procedures outperformed the classic statistical method. The correction rate, sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve of predicting a rotator cuff tear were statistical better in the ANN and decision tree models compared to logistic regression. Based on likelihood ratios derived from our prediction models, Fagan's nomogram could be constructed to assess the probability of a patient who has a rotator cuff tear using a pretest probability and a prediction result (tear or no tear. CONCLUSIONS: Our predictive data mining models, combined with likelihood ratios and Bayesian theory, appear to be good tools to classify rotator cuff tears as well as determine the probability of the presence of the disease to enhance diagnostic decision making for rotator cuff tears.

  4. Sex-specific relationship between digit ratio (2D : 4D) and romantic jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Justin H.; Wieling, Martijn B.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Massar, Karlijn

    2008-01-01

    The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:D4) is an index of prenatal androgen exposure. In a study with 71 female and 52 male undergraduate students, we assessed the relationship between 2D:D4 and jealousy with respect to various dimensions of rival characteristics. Following the p

  5. Sex-specific relationship between digit ratio (2D : 4D) and romantic jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Justin H.; Wieling, Martijn B.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Massar, Karlijn

    The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:D4) is an index of prenatal androgen exposure. In a study with 71 female and 52 male undergraduate students, we assessed the relationship between 2D:D4 and jealousy with respect to various dimensions of rival characteristics. Following the

  6. Effect of compression, digital noise reduction and directionality on envelope difference index, log-likelihood ratio and perceived quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnaraj Geetha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of the envelope difference index (EDI and log-likelihood ratio (LLR to quantify the independent and interactive effects of wide dynamic range compression, digital noise reduction and directionality, and to carry out selfrated quality measures. A recorded sentence embedded in speech spectrum noise at +5 dB signal to noise ratio was presented to a four channel digital hearing aid and the output was recorded with different combinations of algorithms at 30, 45 and 70 dB HL levels of presentation through a 2 cc coupler. EDI and LLR were obtained in comparison with the original signal using MATLAB software. In addition, thirty participants with normal hearing sensitivity rated the output on the loudness and clarity parameters of quality. The results revealed that the temporal changes happening at the output is independent of the number of algorithms activated together in a hearing aid. However, at a higher level of presentation, temporal cues are better preserved if all of these algorithms are deactivated. The spectral components speech tend to get affected by the presentation level. The results also indicate the importance of quality rating as this helps in considering whether the spectral and/or temporal deviations created in the hearing aid are desirable or not.

  7. Your fate is in your hands? Handedness, digit ratio (2D:4D), and selection to a national talent development system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Kungl, Ann-Marie; Pabst, Jan; Strauß, Bernd; Büsch, Dirk; Schorer, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade a small evidence base has highlighted the potential importance of seemingly innocuous variables related to one's hands, such as hand dominance and the relative length of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D ratio), to success in sport. This study compared 2D:4D digit ratio and handedness among handball players selected to advance in a national talent development system with those not selected. Participants included 480 youth handball players (240 females and 240 males) being considered as part of the talent selection programme for the German Youth National team. Hand dominance and digit ratio were compared to age-matched control data using standard t-tests. There was a greater proportion of left-handers compared to the normal population in males but not in females. There was also a lower digit ratio in both females and males. However, there were no differences between those selected for the next stage of talent development and those not selected on either handedness or digit ratio. These results add support for general effects for both digit ratio and handedness in elite handball; however, these factors seem inadequate to explain talent selection decisions at this level.

  8. A two-gene expression ratio predicts clinical outcome in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Zuncai; Ryan, Paula D; Isakoff, Steven J; Barmettler, Anne; Fuller, Andrew; Muir, Beth; Mohapatra, Gayatry; Salunga, Ranelle; Tuggle, J Todd; Tran, Yen; Tran, Diem; Tassin, Ana; Amon, Paul; Wang, Wilson; Wang, Wei; Enright, Edward; Stecker, Kimberly; Estepa-Sabal, Eden; Smith, Barbara; Younger, Jerry; Balis, Ulysses; Michaelson, James; Bhan, Atul; Habin, Karleen; Baer, Thomas M; Brugge, Joan; Haber, Daniel A; Erlander, Mark G; Sgroi, Dennis C

    2004-06-01

    Tamoxifen significantly reduces tumor recurrence in certain patients with early-stage estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, but markers predictive of treatment failure have not been identified. Here, we generated gene expression profiles of hormone receptor-positive primary breast cancers in a set of 60 patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen monotherapy. An expression signature predictive of disease-free survival was reduced to a two-gene ratio, HOXB13 versus IL17BR, which outperformed existing biomarkers. Ectopic expression of HOXB13 in MCF10A breast epithelial cells enhances motility and invasion in vitro, and its expression is increased in both preinvasive and invasive primary breast cancer. The HOXB13:IL17BR expression ratio may be useful for identifying patients appropriate for alternative therapeutic regimens in early-stage breast cancer.

  9. The second to fourth digit ratio and age at first marriage in semi-nomadic people from Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Danel, Dariusz; Mberira, Mara L; Pokrywka, Leszek

    2012-06-01

    The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is used as a potential marker for prenatal androgen exposure. It is associated with many behavioral and biological variables, including fertility and sexual behavior. However, direct association between 2D:4D and reproductive success--in populations where no contraceptives are used--has not been investigated. Here, we present a study conducted among the semi-nomad Himba population living in northern Namibia. 2D:4D ratios were calculated for a sample of this population (N=99; 60 women, 39 men), and the results were correlated with age, marital status, age at first marriage, number of children, and number of marriages. As found in the majority of previous studies, males had lower 2D:4D ratios than females. The 2D:4D ratio did not correlate with number of children. Females and males with a more masculine 2D:4D were married earlier and were more likely to have a husband or wife. We suggest that mating preferences for females with masculine 2D:4D are related to masculinity of phenotypic and personality traits of such women, which are beneficial in harsh environmental conditions and/or higher facial masculinity, which influences the perceived age of an individual. At the same time, masculine (physically strong, dominant, and hardworking) males might gather resources necessary to marry their first wife earlier.

  10. Model Predictive Engine Air-Ratio Control Using Online Sequential Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang-cheong Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine power, brake-specific fuel consumption, and emissions relate closely to air ratio (i.e., lambda among all the engine variables. An accurate and adaptive model for lambda prediction is essential to effective lambda control for long term. This paper utilizes an emerging technique, relevance vector machine (RVM, to build a reliable time-dependent lambda model which can be continually updated whenever a sample is added to, or removed from, the estimated lambda model. The paper also presents a new model predictive control (MPC algorithm for air-ratio regulation based on RVM. This study shows that the accuracy, training, and updating time of the RVM model are superior to the latest modelling methods, such as diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN and decremental least-squares support vector machine (DLSSVM. Moreover, the control algorithm has been implemented on a real car to test. Experimental results reveal that the control performance of the proposed relevance vector machine model predictive controller (RVMMPC is also superior to DRNNMPC, support vector machine-based MPC, and conventional proportional-integral (PI controller in production cars. Therefore, the proposed RVMMPC is a promising scheme to replace conventional PI controller for engine air-ratio control.

  11. Low digit ratio 2D:4D in alcohol dependent patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kornhuber

    Full Text Available The ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth finger (2D∶4D has been described as reflecting the degree of prenatal androgen exposure in humans. 2D∶4D is smaller for males than females and is associated with traits such as left-handedness, physical aggression, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and a genetic polymorphism of the androgen receptor. All of these traits are known to be correlated to the vulnerability for alcohol dependency. We therefore hypothesized low 2D∶4D in patients with alcohol dependency. In the present study on 131 patients suffering from alcohol dependency and 185 healthy volunteers, we found that alcohol dependent patients had smaller 2D∶4D ratios compared to controls with preserved sexual dimorphism but with reduced right-left differences. The detection of alcohol dependency based on 2D∶4D ratios was most accurate using the right hand of males (ROC-analysis: AUC 0.725, sensitivity 0.667, specificity 0.723. These findings provide novel insights into the role of prenatal androgen exposure in the development of alcohol dependency and for the use of 2D∶4D as a possible trait marker in identifying patients with alcohol dependency.

  12. All-Digital RF Phase-Locked Loops Exploiting Phase Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, J.; Staszewski, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL) architecture in a new light that allows it to significantly save power through complexity reduction of its phase locking and detection mechanisms. The natural predictive nature of the ADPLL to estimate next edge occurrence of the reference

  13. All-Digital RF Phase-Locked Loops Exploiting Phase Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, J.; Staszewski, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL) architecture in a new light that allows it to significantly save power through complexity reduction of its phase locking and detection mechanisms. The natural predictive nature of the ADPLL to estimate next edge occurrence of the reference

  14. Fully iterative scatter corrected digital breast tomosynthesis using GPU-based fast Monte Carlo simulation and composition ratio update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyungsang; Ye, Jong Chul, E-mail: jong.ye@kaist.ac.kr [Bio Imaging and Signal Processing Laboratory, Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taewon; Cho, Seungryong [Medical Imaging and Radiotherapeutics Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Younghun; Lee, Jongha; Jang, Kwang Eun [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130, Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jaegu; Choi, Young Wook [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI), 111, Hanggaul-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, 426-170 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Cha, Joo Hee [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro, 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), scatter correction is highly desirable, as it improves image quality at low doses. Because the DBT detector panel is typically stationary during the source rotation, antiscatter grids are not generally compatible with DBT; thus, a software-based scatter correction is required. This work proposes a fully iterative scatter correction method that uses a novel fast Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) with a tissue-composition ratio estimation technique for DBT imaging. Methods: To apply MCS to scatter estimation, the material composition in each voxel should be known. To overcome the lack of prior accurate knowledge of tissue composition for DBT, a tissue-composition ratio is estimated based on the observation that the breast tissues are principally composed of adipose and glandular tissues. Using this approximation, the composition ratio can be estimated from the reconstructed attenuation coefficients, and the scatter distribution can then be estimated by MCS using the composition ratio. The scatter estimation and image reconstruction procedures can be performed iteratively until an acceptable accuracy is achieved. For practical use, (i) the authors have implemented a fast MCS using a graphics processing unit (GPU), (ii) the MCS is simplified to transport only x-rays in the energy range of 10–50 keV, modeling Rayleigh and Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect using the tissue-composition ratio of adipose and glandular tissues, and (iii) downsampling is used because the scatter distribution varies rather smoothly. Results: The authors have demonstrated that the proposed method can accurately estimate the scatter distribution, and that the contrast-to-noise ratio of the final reconstructed image is significantly improved. The authors validated the performance of the MCS by changing the tissue thickness, composition ratio, and x-ray energy. The authors confirmed that the tissue-composition ratio estimation was quite

  15. Fully iterative scatter corrected digital breast tomosynthesis using GPU-based fast Monte Carlo simulation and composition ratio update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsang; Lee, Taewon; Seong, Younghun; Lee, Jongha; Jang, Kwang Eun; Choi, Jaegu; Choi, Young Wook; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Cha, Joo Hee; Cho, Seungryong; Ye, Jong Chul

    2015-09-01

    In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), scatter correction is highly desirable, as it improves image quality at low doses. Because the DBT detector panel is typically stationary during the source rotation, antiscatter grids are not generally compatible with DBT; thus, a software-based scatter correction is required. This work proposes a fully iterative scatter correction method that uses a novel fast Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) with a tissue-composition ratio estimation technique for DBT imaging. To apply MCS to scatter estimation, the material composition in each voxel should be known. To overcome the lack of prior accurate knowledge of tissue composition for DBT, a tissue-composition ratio is estimated based on the observation that the breast tissues are principally composed of adipose and glandular tissues. Using this approximation, the composition ratio can be estimated from the reconstructed attenuation coefficients, and the scatter distribution can then be estimated by MCS using the composition ratio. The scatter estimation and image reconstruction procedures can be performed iteratively until an acceptable accuracy is achieved. For practical use, (i) the authors have implemented a fast MCS using a graphics processing unit (GPU), (ii) the MCS is simplified to transport only x-rays in the energy range of 10-50 keV, modeling Rayleigh and Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect using the tissue-composition ratio of adipose and glandular tissues, and (iii) downsampling is used because the scatter distribution varies rather smoothly. The authors have demonstrated that the proposed method can accurately estimate the scatter distribution, and that the contrast-to-noise ratio of the final reconstructed image is significantly improved. The authors validated the performance of the MCS by changing the tissue thickness, composition ratio, and x-ray energy. The authors confirmed that the tissue-composition ratio estimation was quite accurate under a variety of

  16. Distal Ureteral Diameter Ratio is Predictive of Breakthrough Febrile Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, Angela M; Leong, Traci; Guidos, Paul J; Alexander, Siobhan E; Cooper, Christopher S

    2017-07-08

    Distal ureteral diameter ratio is an objective measure that is prognostic of spontaneous resolution of vesicoureteral reflux. Along with likelihood of resolution, improved identification of children at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infections may impact management decisions. We evaluated the usefulness of ureteral diameter ratio as a predictive factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram were identified. Ureteral diameter ratio was computed by measuring largest ureteral diameter within the pelvis and dividing by the distance between L1 and L3 vertebral bodies. Demographics, vesicoureteral reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction, and ureteral diameter ratio were tested in univariate and multivariable analyses. Primary outcome was breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. We analyzed 112 girls and 28 boys with a mean ± SD age of 2.5 ± 2.3 years at diagnosis. Vesicoureteral reflux was grade 1 to 2 in 64 patients (45.7%), grade 3 in 50 (35.7%), grade 4 in 16 (11.4%) and grade 5 in 10 (7.2%). Mean ± SD followup was 3.2 ± 2.7 years. A total of 40 children (28.6%) experienced breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Ureteral diameter ratio was significantly greater in children with (0.36) vs without (0.25) breakthrough febrile infections (p = 0.004). Controlling for vesicoureteral reflux grade, every 0.1 U increase in ureteral diameter ratio resulted in 1.7 times increased odds of breakthrough infection (95% CI 1.24 to 2.26, p urinary tract infections independent of reflux grade. Ureteral diameter ratio provides valuable prognostic information about risk of recurrent pyelonephritis and may assist with clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Predicting Its Dependence on Capillary Number and Viscosity Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferer, M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Anna, Shelley L. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tortora, Paul [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kadambi, J. R. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Oliver, M. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Bromhal, Grant S. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Smith, Duane H. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the need to determine the dependencies of two-phase flow in a wide range of applications from carbon dioxide sequestration to enhanced oil recovery, we have developed a standard two-dimensional, pore-level model of immiscible drainage, incorporating viscous and capillary effects. This model has been validated through comparison with several experiments. For a range of stable viscosity ratios (M=μinjected,nwfdefending,wf ≥ 1), we had increased the capillary number, Nc and studied the way in which the flows deviate from fractal capillary fingering at a characteristic time and become compact for realistic capillary numbers. This crossover has enabled predictions for the dependence of the flow behavior upon capillary number and viscosity ratio. Our results for the crossover agreed with earlier theoretical predictions, including the universality of the leading power-law indicating its independence of details of the porous medium structure. In this article, we have observed a similar crossover from initial fractal viscous fingering (FVF) to compact flow, for large capillary numbers and unstable viscosity ratios M < 1. In this case, we increased the viscosity ratio from infinitesimal values, and studied the way in which the flows deviate from FVF at a characteristic time and become compact for non-zero viscosity ratios. This crossover has been studied using both our pore-level model and micro-fluidic flow-cell experiments. The same characteristic time, τ = 1/M0.7, satisfactorily describes both the pore-level results.

  18. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    Processes of digitization have for years represented a major trend in the developments of modern society but have only recently been related to processes of mediatization. The purpose of this article is to look into the relation between the concepts of mediatization and digitization and to clarify...... what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...... not anticipated in previous conceptualizations of media and mediatization. If digital media are to be included, the concept of mediatization has to be revised and new parameters are to be built into the concept of media. At the same time it is argued that the concept of mediatization still provides a variety...

  19. Hyomental distance in the different head positions and hyomental distance ratio in predicting difficult intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena Kalezić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hyomental distance ratio (HMDR is the ratio between the hyomental distance (HMD (the distance between the hyoid bone and the tip of the chin at the extreme of head extension (HMDe and the one in the neutral position (HMDn. The objective of the study was to examine the predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of HMDe, HMDn, and HMDR in predicting difficult endotracheal intubation (DI. A prospective study included 262 patients that underwent elective surgical operations. The following parameters were observed as possible predictors of DI: HMDR, HMDe, HMDn, Mallampati score, and body mass index (BMI. The cut-off points for the DI predictors were HMDe <5.3 cm, HMDn ≤5.5 cm, and HMDR ≤1.2. The assessment that DI existed was made by the anesthesiologist while performing laryngoscopy by applying the Cormack-Lehane classification. DI was present in 13 patients (5%. No significant difference was observed in the frequency of DI with regard to the sex, age, and BMI of the patients. Our research indicated HMDR as the best predictor of DI with a sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 69.2%. HMDR can be used in the everyday work of anesthesiologists because HMDR values ≤1.2 may reliably predict DI.

  20. A critical review of the research on the extreme male brain theory and digit ratio (2D:4D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teatero, Missy L; Netley, Charles

    2013-11-01

    Boys are more likely than girls to be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The extreme male brain (EMB) theory of ASD suggests that fetal testosterone (FT) exposure may underlie sex differences in autistic traits. A link between the organizational effects of FT on the brain and ASD is often drawn based on research using digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative biomarker, without a full survey of the findings. This paper critically and quantitatively reviews the research on the relationship between 2D:4D and ASD as well as autism spectrum, empathizing, and systemizing measures in neurotypical populations. Overall, there is some support for the EMB theory in all four areas, particularly the 2D:4D-ASD relationship. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  1. Punishing Tobacco Industry Misconduct: The Case for Exceeding a Single Digit Ratio Between Punitive and Compensatory Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara D. Guardino

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In State Farm v. Campbell, the U.S. Supreme Court announced that “few awards exceeding a single-digit ratio between punitive and compensatory damages” will be constitutional. Several appeals courts have mistaken this language to be a strict mandate prohibiting punitive damages awards in excess of nine times the compensatory damages amount. This trend, however, may be changing. For example, in one recent smoking and health case brought against Philip Morris, an Oregon appeals court allowed a punitive damages award that was almost 97 times the compensatory damages award. This decision was based on the court’s finding that Philip Morris “used fraudulent means to continue a highly profitable business knowing that, as a result, it would cause death and injury to large numbers of Oregonians.” This article proposes that such wrongdoing (or, “primary” reprehensibility justifies high punitive damages awards in the context of smoking and health litigation.

  2. Digital versus conventional panoramic radiography in predicting inferior alveolar nerve injury after mandibular third molar removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, József; Lempel, Edina; Jeges, Sára; Olasz, Lajos

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of conventional and digital panoramic radiography (OPG) in relation to 4 specific high-risk signs (interruption of the superior cortical line, diversion, narrowing of the canal, and dark band of the root), which would indicate a close anatomic relationship between third molar roots and the inferior alveolar canal.Four hundred mandibular third molar surgical removals after conventional and 272 after digital radiographs were evaluated in the study. The association between postoperative inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paresthesia and the presence of any preoperative high-risk signs in the OPG was investigated. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were completed to compare the accuracy of conventional and digital radiographic techniques detecting high-risk signs predicting possible IAN paresthesia.Digital OPG results showed significantly higher sensitivity in diversion (P = 0.014) and narrowing (P paresthesia, whereas low positive predictive values indicate both imaging techniques as inadequate screening methods for predicting IAN paresthesia after mandibular third molar removal.

  3. Aggressive behavior of the male parent predicts brood sex ratio in a songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szász, Eszter; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Hegyi, Gergely; Szöllősi, Eszter; Markó, Gábor; Török, János; Rosivall, Balázs

    2014-08-01

    Brood sex ratio is often affected by parental or environmental quality, presumably in an adaptive manner that is the sex that confers higher fitness benefits to the mother is overproduced. So far, studies on the role of parental quality have focused on parental morphology and attractiveness. However, another aspect, the partner's behavioral characteristics, may also be expected to play a role in brood sex ratio adjustment. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether the proportion of sons in the brood is predicted by the level of territorial aggression displayed by the father, in the collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis). The proportion of sons in the brood was higher in early broods and increased with paternal tarsus length. When controlling for breeding date and body size, we found a higher proportion of sons in the brood of less aggressive fathers. Male nestlings are more sensitive to the rearing environment, and the behavior of courting males may often be used by females to assess their future parental activity. Therefore, adjusting brood sex ratio to the level of male aggression could be adaptive. Our results indicate that the behavior of the partner could indeed be a significant determinant in brood sex ratio adjustment, which should not be overlooked in future studies.

  4. Theoretical Model for Predicting Moisture Ratio during Drying of Spherical Particles in a Rotary Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Ademiluyi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed for predicting the drying kinetics of spherical particles in a rotary dryer. Drying experiments were carried out by drying fermented ground cassava particles in a bench scale rotary dryer at inlet air temperatures of 115–230°C, air velocities of 0.83 m/s–1.55 m/s, feed mass of 50–500 g, drum drive speed of 8 rpm, and feed drive speed of 100 rpm to validate the model. The data obtained from the experiments were used to calculate the experimental moisture ratio which compared well with the theoretical moisture ratio calculated from the newly developed Abowei-Ademiluyi model. The comparisons and correlations of the results indicate that validation and performance of the established model are rather reasonable.

  5. Can body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio predict the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects?

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Liping; Tong Weiwei; Tong Guanghui; Liu Yong; Qin Xiaosong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is associated with metabolic risk factors. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) are used to predict the risk of obesity related diseases. However, it has not been examined whether these four indicators can detect the clustering of metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects. Methods There are 772 Chinese subjects in the present study. Metabolic risk factors including high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and gl...

  6. THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF FINANCIAL RATIOS AND NONFINANCIAL VARIABLES IN PREDICTING OF INSOLVENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Pervan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important decisions in every bank is approving loans to firms, which is based on evaluated credit risk and collateral. Namely, it is necessary to evaluate the risk that client will be unable to repay the obligations according to the contract. After Beaver's (1967 and Altman's (1968 seminal papers many authors extended the initial research by changing the methodology, samples, countries, etc. But majority of business failure papers as predictors use financial ratios, while in the real life banks combine financial and nonfinancial variables. In order to test predictive power of nonfinancial variables authors in the paper compare two insolvency prediction models. The first model that used financial rations resulted with classification accuracy of 82.8%, while the combined model with financial and nonfinancial variables resulted with classification accuracy of 88.1%.

  7. PROBABILISTIC PREDICTION OF BANK FAILURES WITH FINANCIAL RATIOS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON TURKISH BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Özel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Banking risk management has become more important during the last 20 years in response to a worldwide increase in the number of bank failures. Turkey has experienced a series of economic and financial crisis since the declaration of Republic and banking system has the most affected sector from the results of these crises. This paper examines some bank failure prediction models using financial ratios. Survival, ordinary and conditional logistic regression models are employed in order to develop these prediction models. The empirical results indicate that the bank is more likely to go bankrupt if it is unprofitable, small, highly leveraged, and has liquidity problems and less financial flexibility to invest itself. 

  8. The gastric/pancreatic amylase ratio predicts postoperative pancreatic fistula with high sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuo; Shi, Xiao-Ju; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Ping; Lv, Guo-Yue; Du, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Si-Yuan; Wang, Guang-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to identify risk factors for postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) and evaluate the gastric/pancreatic amylase ratio (GPAR) on postoperative day (POD) 3 as a POPF predictor in patients who undergo pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).POPF significantly contributes to mortality and morbidity in patients who undergo PD. Previously identified predictors for POPF often have low predictive accuracy. Therefore, accurate POPF predictors are needed.In this prospective cohort study, we measured the clinical and biochemical factors of 61 patients who underwent PD and diagnosed POPF according to the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula. We analyzed the association between POPF and various factors, identified POPF risk factors, and evaluated the predictive power of the GPAR on POD3 and the levels of serum and ascites amylase.Of the 61 patients, 21 developed POPF. The color of the pancreatic drain fluid, POD1 serum, POD1 median output of pancreatic drain fluid volume, and GPAR were significantly associated with POPF. The color of the pancreatic drain fluid and high GPAR were independent risk factors. Although serum and ascites amylase did not predict POPF accurately, the cutoff value was 1.24, and GPAR predicted POPF with high sensitivity and specificity.This is the first report demonstrating that high GPAR on POD3 is a risk factor for POPF and showing that GPAR is a more accurate predictor of POPF than the previously reported amylase markers.

  9. Solum depth spatial prediction comparing conventional with knowledge-based digital soil mapping approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Duarte de Menezes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Solum depth and its spatial distribution play an important role in different types of environmental studies. Several approaches have been used for fitting quantitative relationships between soil properties and their environment in order to predict them spatially. This work aimed to present the steps required for solum depth spatial prediction from knowledge-based digital soil mapping, comparing the prediction to the conventional soil mapping approach through field validation, in a watershed located at Mantiqueira Range region, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Conventional soil mapping had aerial photo-interpretation as a basis. The knowledge-based digital soil mapping applied fuzzy logic and similarity vectors in an expert system. The knowledge-based digital soil mapping approach showed the advantages over the conventional soil mapping approach by applying the field expert-knowledge in order to enhance the quality of final results, predicting solum depth with suited accuracy in a continuous way, making the soil-landscape relationship explicit.

  10. Evaluating the Benefits of Displaying Word Prediction Lists on a Personal Digital Assistant at the Keyboard Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Cynthia; Wells, David

    2009-01-01

    Visual-cognitive loads influence the effectiveness of word prediction technology. Adjusting parameters of word prediction programs can lessen visual-cognitive loads. This study evaluated the benefits of WordQ word prediction software for users' performance when the prediction window was moved to a personal digital assistant (PDA) device placed at…

  11. Ratio of exercise and recovery systolic blood pressure integrals in prediction of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Mirat

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim This study was performed to determine whether the ratio (Q =A/B of area A under the curve of exercise systolic blood pressure(SBP increase and area B under curve of recovery SBP decreaseis predictive of angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD.Methods Patients who performed exercise testing and subsequentlyunderwent coronary angiography, within three months, wereanalyzed in this study. According to angiographic report, patientswere divided in three groups: without disease or with stenosis lessthan 50% (group 1, significant (group 2, and severe (group 3.Severe disease was defined as left main, three-vessel or two-vesseldisease with involvement of proximal left anterior descending artery.Results There were 137 patients included in this study (age 59 ±10, 70% male. Group 1 included 57%, group 2 included 30%,and group 3 included 13% of patients. Mean values of the Q ratiowere 2.72 ± 0.9, 1.74 ± 0.76, 1.01 ± 0.38 in groups 1, 2 and 3,respectively. By means of robust discrimination analysis, statisticallysignificant difference between groups 1, 2 and 3 in values ofthe ratio Q (p < 0.001 was found.Conclusion The ratio of exercise SBP increase and recovery SBPdecrease areas under the curve suggests severity of CAD.

  12. A prediction model for wind speed ratios at pedestrian level with simplified urban canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaya, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Hagishima, A.; Razak, A. A.; Tanimoto, J.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review and improve prediction models for wind speed ratios at pedestrian level with simplified urban canopies. We adopted an extensive database of velocity fields under various conditions for arrays consisting of cubes, slender or flattened rectangles, and rectangles with varying roughness heights. Conclusions are summarized as follows: first, a new geometric parameter is introduced as a function of the plan area index and the aspect ratio so as to express the increase in virtual density that causes wind speed reduction. Second, the estimated wind speed ratios in the range 0.05 database to within an error of ±25%. Lastly, the effects of the spatial distribution of the flow were investigated by classifying the regions near building models into areas in front of, to the side of, or behind the building. The correlation coefficients between the wind speeds averaged over the entire region, and the front or side region values are larger than 0.8. In contrast, in areas where the influence of roughness elements is significant, such as behind a building, the wind speeds are weakly correlated.

  13. Single Colour Diagnostics of the Mass-to-light Ratio: Predictions from Galaxy Formation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkins, Stephen M; Baugh, Carlton M; Lacey, Cedric G; Zuntz, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Accurate galaxy stellar masses are crucial to better understand the physical mechanisms driving the galaxy formation process. We use synthetic star formation and metal enrichment histories predicted by the {\\sc galform} galaxy formation model to investigate the precision with which various colours $(m_{a}-m_{b})$ can alone be used as diagnostics of the stellar mass-to-light ratio. As an example, we find that, at $z=0$, the {\\em intrinsic} (B$_{f435w}-$V$_{f606w}$) colour can be used to determine the intrinsic rest-frame $V$-band stellar mass-to-light ratio ($\\log_{10}\\Gamma_{V}=\\log_{10}[(M/M_{\\odot})/(L_{V}/L_{V\\odot})]$) with a precision of $\\sigma_{lg\\Gamma}\\simeq 0.06$ when the initial mass function and redshift are known beforehand. While the presence of dust, assuming a universal attenuation curve, can have a systematic effect on the inferred mass-to-light ratio using a single-colour relation, this is typically small as it is often possible to choose a colour for which the dust reddening vector is appro...

  14. Relationship Between Financial Ratios amp Share Prices And Prediction Of Financial Failure Evidence From Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.D.S Rajapaksha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available in this paper a thorough analysis regarding the listed companies on Colombo Stock Exchange is conducted. The main objective of this study is to determine a relationship between share price and financial ratios of the companies which are listed on the Colombo Stock Exchange for the period 2011 to 2013 using an econometric model called panel data regression. Then a group of companies are categorized by their share price using factor analysis. Finally the financial failure of companies is predicted using k-nearest neighbor discriminant analysis. The results of the study showed that there is a high positive relationship between the share price and Earnings per share EPS. At the same time there is a moderate positive relationship between share price and Dividends per share DPS. Also there are significant low positive associations between share price and Return on Equity ROE Return on Assets ROA Asset Turnover Price to Book PB and Net profit Margin NP margin respectively. Using panel data regression analysis a feasible generalized least squares FGLS model is fitted to determine the share price using the variables DPS EPS ROE PB Ratio and NP Margin. Then using factor analysis hidden relationships are examined by considering 10 stocks which are listed one Colombo Stock Exchange. Using the analysis three factors are found. They are general market component multinational company component and diversified component. Finally the financial failure of companies is predicted using k-nearest neighbor discriminant analysis. The predicted financial failure is the compared with the results that were obtained using Altman Z score. It is found that the percentage of classifying a successful company and an unsuccessful company correctly are 65 and 95 respectively.

  15. Value of digit ratio 2D:4D, a biomarker of prenatal hormone exposure, is stable across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Magdalena; Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Jasienska, Grazyna

    2017-07-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) is used as a marker of prenatal hormone exposure and, consequently, as a predictor of many characteristics throughout a woman's lifespan. A previous study has suggested that values of 2D:4D vary across menstrual cycles and further questioned the reliability of a single measurement of 2D:4D among cycling women, while another study failed to confirm these results. However, these studies estimated the timing of cycle phases based on a date of menstruation reported by participants and also had small sample sizes. For our study, we evaluated potential changes in 2D:4D values across a menstrual cycle in a group of women among whom the phases of the menstrual cycle were determined by hormonal (luteinizing hormone based) ovulation tests. We studied 32 naturally cycling women aged 22-37 from rural Poland. Lengths of second and fourth digits were measured based on scans of both hands taken three times (i.e. in the follicular phase, peri-ovulatory phase and luteal phase of the cycle) for each participant. No differences in 2D:4D value across the menstrual cycle were detected either when right-hand, left-hand, and mean 2D:4D for both hands were analysed, nor when difference in the 2D:4D value between hands (Dleft-right) was evaluated. We documented that 2D:4D is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and these findings suggest that among naturally cycling women, a value of 2D:4D can be reliably obtained from measurements taken during any day of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Automated image processing of LANDSAT 2 digital data for watershed runoff prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, R. R.; Jensen, J. R.; Estes, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Soil Conservation Service (SCS) model for watershed runoff prediction uses soil and land cover information as its major drivers. Kern County Water Agency is implementing the SCS model to predict runoff for 10,400 sq cm of mountainous watershed in Kern County, California. The Remote Sensing Unit, University of California, Santa Barbara, was commissioned by KCWA to conduct a 230 sq cm feasibility study in the Lake Isabella, California region to evaluate remote sensing methodologies which could be ultimately extrapolated to the entire 10,400 sq cm Kern County watershed. Digital results indicate that digital image processing of Landsat 2 data will provide usable land cover required by KCWA for input to the SCS runoff model.

  17. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in the Prediction of Microscopic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyzullah Ucmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR in predicting microscopic colitis (MC in patients with diarrhea-dominant type irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D. Material and Method: Between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012, 49 patients who fulfilled the Roma III criteria for IBS-D were included in the study. All patients had underwent colonoscopy and colonoscopic biopsy (cecum, ascending, transverse, descending and rectosigmoid sections to diagnose MC (25 patients with MC. Complete blood count parameters were evaluated in the two groups (IBS-D and MC using standard methodology. Results: The patients were evaluated in two groups: MC and IBS-D. The groups were similar with respect to age, gender and presence of hypertension. The NLO was significantly higher in the MC group compared to the IBS-D group (2.48±0.99, 1.92±0.84; p=0.041, respectively. A cut-off value of 1.86 had a sensitivity of 76% and spesificity of 55% in predicting MC in patients with symptoms of IBS-D. Discussion: A significant association was found between the presence of MC in patients with IBS-D and increased NLR. The NLR may be a useful marker in predicting MC in patients with symptoms of IBS-D.

  18. Territory Quality and Plumage Morph Predict Offspring Sex Ratio Variation in a Raptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarov, Nayden; Pauli, Martina; Mueller, Anna-Katharina; Potiek, Astrid; Grünkorn, Thomas; Dijkstra, Cor; Krüger, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Parents may adapt their offspring sex ratio in response to their own phenotype and environmental conditions. The most significant causes for adaptive sex-ratio variation might express themselves as different distributions of fitness components between sexes along a given variable. Several causes for differential sex allocation in raptors with reversed sexual size dimorphism have been suggested. We search for correlates of fledgling sex in an extensive dataset on common buzzards Buteo buteo, a long-lived bird of prey. Larger female offspring could be more resource-demanding and starvation-prone and thus the costly sex. Prominent factors such as brood size and laying date did not predict nestling sex. Nonetheless, lifetime sex ratio (LSR, potentially indicative of individual sex allocation constraints) and overall nestling sex were explained by territory quality with more females being produced in better territories. Additionally, parental plumage morphs and the interaction of morph and prey abundance tended to explain LSR and nestling sex, indicating local adaptation of sex allocation However, in a limited census of nestling mortality, not females but males tended to die more frequently in prey-rich years. Also, although females could have potentially longer reproductive careers, a subset of our data encompassing full individual life histories showed that longevity and lifetime reproductive success were similarly distributed between the sexes. Thus, a basis for adaptive sex allocation in this population remains elusive. Overall, in common buzzards most major determinants of reproductive success appeared to have no effect on sex ratio but sex allocation may be adapted to local conditions in morph-specific patterns.

  19. Obesity Index That Better Predict Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Hip Ratio, or Waist Height Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist hip ratio (WHR, and waist height ratio (WHtR to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.. Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.. Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5 cm in men and 91 cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar.

  20. A Cooperative Test of the Load/Unload Response Ratio Proposed Method of Earthquake Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, J. E.; Tullis, T. E.

    2004-12-01

    The Load/Unload Response Ratio (LURR) method is a proposed technique to predict earthquakes that was first put forward by Yin in 1984 (Yin, 1987). LURR is based on the idea that when a region is near failure, there is an increase in the rate of seismic activity during loading of the tidal cycle relative to the rate of seismic activity during unloading of the tidal cycle. Typically the numerator of the LURR ratio is the number, or the sum of some measure of the size (e.g. Benioff strain), of small earthquakes that occur during loading of the tidal cycle, whereas the denominator is the same as the numerator except it is calculated during unloading. LURR method suggests this ratio should increase in the months to year preceding a large earthquake. Regions near failure have tectonic stresses nearly high enough for a large earthquake to occur, thus it seems more likely that smaller earthquakes in the region would be triggered when the tidal stresses add to the tectonic ones. However, until recently even the most careful studies suggested that the effect of tidal stresses on earthquake occurrence is very small and difficult to detect. New studies have shown that there is a tidal triggering effect on shallow thrust faults in areas with strong tides from ocean loading (Tanaka et al., 2002; Cochran et al., 2004). We have been conducting an independent test of the LURR method, since there would be important scientific and social implications if the LURR method were proven to be a robust method of earthquake prediction. Smith and Sammis (2003) also undertook a similar study. Following both the parameters of Yin et al. (2000) and the somewhat different ones of Smith and Sammis (2003), we have repeated calculations of LURR for the Northridge and Loma Prieta earthquakes in California. Though we have followed both sets of parameters closely, we have been unable to reproduce either set of results. A general agreement was made at the recent ACES Workshop in China between research

  1. The Relationship between the Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio and Behavioral Sexual Dimorphism in School-Aged Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Mitsui

    Full Text Available Sexually dimorphic brain development and behavior are known to be influenced by sex hormones exposure in prenatal periods. On the other hand, second-to forth digit ratio (2D/4D has been used as an indirect method to investigate the putative effects of prenatal exposure to androgen. In the present study, we herein investigated the relationship between gender-role play behavior and the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D/4D, which has been used as an indirect method to investigate the putative effects of prenatal exposure to androgens, in school-aged children. Among 4981 children who became 8 years old by November 2014 and were contactable for this survey by The Hokkaido Study of Environment and Children's Health, 1631 (32.7%, who had data for 2D/4D and Pre-school Activities Inventory (PSAI as well as data for the survey at baseline, were available for analysis. Parents sent reports of PSAI on the sex-typical characteristics, preferred toys, and play activities of children, and black and white photocopies of the left and right hand palms via mail. PSAI consisted of 12 masculine items and 12 feminine items, and a composite score was created by subtracting the feminine score from the masculine score, with higher scores representing masculine-typical behavior. While composite scores in PSAI were significantly higher in boys than in girls, 2D/4D was significantly lower in boys than in girls. Although the presence or absence of brothers or sisters affected the composite, masculine, and feminine scored of PSAI, a multivariate regression model revealed that 2D/4D negatively correlated with the composite scores of PSAI in boys, whereas no correlation was found in girls. Although 2D/4D negatively correlated with the masculine score in boys and girls, no correlation was observed between 2D/4D and the feminine score. In conclusion, although social factors, such as the existence of brother or sisters, affect dimorphic brain development and behavior in childhood

  2. Velocity ratio predicts outcomes in patients with low gradient severe aortic stenosis and preserved EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Hochholzer, Willibald; Kaufmann, Beat A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of velocity ratio (VR) in patients with low gradient severe aortic stenosis (LGSAS) and preserved EF. BACKGROUND: LGSAS despite preserved EF represents a clinically challenging entity. Reliance on mean pressure gradient (MPG) may underestimate stenosis severity...... as has been reported in the context of paradoxical low flow, LGSAS. On the other hand, grading of stenosis severity by aortic valve area (AVA) may overrate stenosis severity due to erroneous underestimation of LV outflow tract (LVOT) diameter, small body size or inconsistencies in cut-off values...... for severe stenosis. We hypothesised that VR may have conceptual advantages over MPG and AVA, predict clinical outcomes and thereby be useful in the management of patients with LGSAS. METHODS: Patients from the prospective Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study with an AVA

  3. Mendel's use of mathematical modelling: ratios, predictions and the appeal to tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicher, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The seventh section of Gregor Mendel's famous 1866 paper contained a peculiar mathematical model, which predicted the expected ratios between the number of constant and hybrid types, assuming self-pollination continued throughout further generations. This model was significant for Mendel's argumentation and was perceived as inseparable from his entire theory at the time. A close examination of this model reveals that it has several perplexing aspects which have not yet been systematically scrutinized. The paper analyzes those aspects, dispels some common misconceptions regarding the interpretation of the model, and re-evaluates the role of this model for Mendel himself. In light of the resulting analysis, Mendel's position between nineteenth-century hybridist tradition and twentieth-century population genetics is reassessed, and his sophisticated use of mathematics to legitimize his innovative theory is uncovered.

  4. Predicting Firms' Financial Failure Using Financial Ratios:an Empirical Studies of Chinese Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xiao-min

    2004-01-01

    The stock market has played an important role in today's China economy. Due to the fact that a number of the listed companies did not generate the return that the investors expected, the research on the causes of financial failure and predicting such financial failure becomes very important for future capital market development. The paper selected 43 ST(Special Treat) and 43 Non-ST companies as sample, using financial ratio and the factor analysis model to compare and analyse. This study especially analyses profitability, operation efficiency and development ability of firms and focuses on the design of an early warning system for possible financial failure of the listed companies by using factor analysis.

  5. Sexual dimorphism in ratio of second and fourth digits and its relationship with metabolic syndrome indices and cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji Fatai Oyeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ratio of second and fourth digit (2D:4D is known to be germane in analyzing utero concentrations of testosterone and estrogen in human and other vertebrates. 2D:4D had been linked to several traits like athletes′ abilities, reproductive success, risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a clustering of several cardiovascular risk factors. Waist circumference (WC, neck circumference (NC, body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR are important in measuring MetS. This study investigated sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D and its relationship with MetS indices and CVD factors among adult residing in Ilorin, North central Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional, stratified multi-staged sampling study. Participants residing in different neighborhoods were visited at home where finger lengths and anthropometric traits were measured. Participants include 801 healthy adults aged 18-44 years (56% male who had been living in the area for more than 3 years. Results: Males showed significantly lower 2D:4D than females (unpaired t-test; t [699] = 11.49, P = 0.001. A significant positive correlation was observed in MetS markers and 2D:4D. WHtR showed the highest correlation with 2D:4D in male (r = 0.461, P ≤ 0.001 and female (r = 0.408, P ≤ 0.001 when compared with BMI, NC and WC. All positive correlations recorded in this study were high in male and right hand. Conclusion: Our results showed that 2D:4D is sexual dimorphic and right hand 2D:4D as a predictor of MetS is better. We concluded that 2D:4D is a proxy for MetS and CVD risk factors in Ilorin.

  6. Preoperative albumin-to-globulin ratio and prognostic nutrition index predict prognosis for glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Zhe; Li, Feng; Xu, Zhen-Kuan; Chen, Xuan; Sun, Bin; Cao, Jing-Wei; Liu, Yu-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Objective Impaired immunonutritional status has disadvantageous effects on outcomes for cancer patients. Preoperative albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR) and the prognostic nutrition index (PNI) have been used as prognostic factors in various cancers. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of the AGR and PNI in glioblastoma. Materials and methods This retrospective analysis involved 166 patients. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. AGR and the PNI were calculated as AGR = albumin/(total serum protein − albumin) and PNI = albumin (g/L) + 5 × total lymphocyte count (109/L). Overall survival (OS) was estimated by Kaplan–Meier analysis. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the predictive ability of AGR and the PNI. Cox proportional-hazard models estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for univariable and multivariable survival analyses. Results The cutoff values of AGR and PNI were 1.75 and 48. OS was enhanced, with high AGR (>1.75) and the PNI (>48) (Pglioblastoma. AGR and the PNI could also help in developing good adjuvant-therapy schedules. PMID:28223828

  7. MONDian predictions for Newtonian mass-to-light ratios for ultrafaint dSphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, R. A. M.; Hernandez, X.

    2017-09-01

    Under Newtonian gravity, total masses for dSph galaxies will scale as MT ∝ Reσ2, with Re the effective radius and σ their velocity dispersion. When both of the above quantities are available, the resulting masses are compared to observed stellar luminosities to derive Newtonian mass-to-light ratios (M/L), given a physically motivated proportionality constant in the above expression. For local dSphs and the growing sample of ultrafaint such systems, the above results in the largest (M/L) of any galactic systems known, with values in the hundreds and even thousands being common. The standard interpretation is for a dominant presence of an as yet undetected dark matter component. If, however, reality is closer to a MONDian theory at the extremely low accelerations relevant to such systems, σ will scale with stellar mass M_{*}^{1/4}. This yields an expression for the mass-to-light ratio that will be obtained under Newtonian assumptions of (M/L)N = 120Re(ϒ*/L)1/2. Here, we compare (M/L)N values from this expression to Newtonian inferences for this ratios for the actual (Re, σ, L) observed values for a sample of recently observed ultrafaint dSphs, obtaining good agreement. Then, for systems where no σ values have been reported, we give predictions for the (M/L)N values, which under a MONDian scheme are expected once kinematical observations become available. For the recently studied Dragonfly 44 and Crater II systems, reported (M/L)N values are also in good agreement with MONDian expectations.

  8. Lack of association between digit ratio (2D:4D) and assertiveness: replication in a large sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Findings regarding within-sex associations of digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative pointer to long-lasting effects of prenatal androgen action, and sexually differentiated personality traits have generally been inconsistent or unreplicable, suggesting that effects in this domain, if any, are likely small. In contrast to evidence from Wilson's important 1983 study, a forerunner of modern 2D:4D research, two recent studies in 2005 and 2008 by Freeman, et al. and Hampson, et al. showed assertiveness, a presumably male-typed personality trait, was not associated with 2D:4D; however, these studies were clearly statistically underpowered. Hence this study examined this question anew, based on a large sample of 491 men and 627 women. Assertiveness was only modestly sexually differentiated, favoring men, and a positive correlate of age and education and a negative correlate of weight and Body Mass Index among women, but not men. Replicating the two prior studies, 2D:4D was throughout unrelated to assertiveness scores. This null finding was preserved with controls for correlates of assertiveness, also in nonparametric analysis and with tests for curvilinear relations. Discussed are implications of this specific null finding, now replicated in a large sample, for studies of 2D:4D and personality in general and novel research approaches to proceed in this field.

  9. Feminist activist women are masculinized in terms of digit-ratio and dominance: A possible explanation for the feminist paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eMadison

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The feminist movement purports to improve conditions for women, and yet only a minority of women in modern societies self-identify as feminists. This is known as the feminist paradox. It has been suggested that feminists exhibit both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with heightened masculinization, which may predispose women for heightened competitiveness, sex-atypical behaviors, and belief in the interchangeability of sex roles. If feminist activists, i.e. those that manufacture the public image of feminism, are indeed masculinized relative to women in general, this might explain why the views and preferences of these two groups are at variance with each other. We measured the 2D:4D digit ratios (collected from both hands and a personality trait known as dominance (measured with the Directiveness scale in a sample of women attending a feminist conference. The sample exhibited significantly more masculine 2D:4D and higher dominance ratings than comparison samples representative of women in general, and these variables were furthermore positively correlated for both hands. The feminist paradox might thus to some extent be explained by biological differences between women in general and the activist women who formulate the feminist agenda.

  10. Filling high aspect ratio trenches by superconformal chemical vapor deposition: Predictive modeling and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjiao B.; Abelson, John R.

    2014-11-01

    Complete filling of a deep recessed structure with a second material is a challenge in many areas of nanotechnology fabrication. A newly discovered superconformal coating method, applicable in chemical vapor deposition systems that utilize a precursor in combination with a co-reactant, can solve this problem. However, filling is a dynamic process in which the trench progressively narrows and the aspect ratio (AR) increases. This reduces species diffusion within the trench and may drive the component partial pressures out of the regime for superconformal coating. We therefore derive two theoretical models that can predict the possibility for filling. First, we recast the diffusion-reaction equation for the case of a sidewall with variable taper angle. This affords a definition of effective AR, which is larger than the nominal AR due to the reduced species transport. We then derive the coating profile, both for superconformal and for conformal coating. The critical (most difficult) step in the filling process occurs when the sidewalls merge at the bottom of the trench to form the V shape. Experimentally, for the Mg(DMADB)2/H2O system and a starting AR = 9, this model predicts that complete filling will not be possible, whereas experimentally we do obtain complete filling. We then hypothesize that glancing-angle, long-range transport of species may be responsible for the better than predicted filling. To account for the variable range of species transport, we construct a ballistic transport model. This incorporates the incident flux from outside the structure, cosine law re-emission from surfaces, and line-of-sight transport between internal surfaces. We cast the transport probability between all positions within the trench into a matrix that represents the redistribution of flux after one cycle of collisions. Matrix manipulation then affords a computationally efficient means to determine the steady-state flux distribution and growth rate for a given taper angle. The

  11. The left hand second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D is not related to any physical fitness component in adolescent girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W Peeters

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D, a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with fitness and sports performance, although results are not univocal. Most studies however focus on a single aspect of physical fitness or one sports discipline. METHODS: In this study the 2D:4D ratio of 178 adolescent girls (age 13.5-18 y was measured on X-rays of the left hand. The relation between 2D:4D digit ratio and multiple aspects of physical fitness (balance, speed of limb movement, flexibility, explosive strength, static strength, trunk strength, functional strength, running speed/agility, and endurance was studied by correlation analyses and stepwise multiple regression. For comparison the relation between these physical fitness components and a selected number of objectively measured anthropometric traits (stature, mass, BMI, somatotype components and the Bayer & Bailey androgyny index are presented alongside the results of 2D:4D digit ratio. RESULTS: Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio (0.925±0.019 was not significantly correlated with any of the physical fitness components nor any of the anthropometric variables included in the present study. 2D:4D did not enter the multiple stepwise regression for any of the physical fitness components in which other anthropometric traits explained between 9.2% (flexibility and 33.9% (static strength of variance. CONCLUSION: Unlike other anthropometric traits the 2D:4D digit ratio does not seem to be related to any physical fitness component in adolescent girls and therefore most likely should not be considered in talent detection programs for sporting ability in girls.

  12. Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio. A simple test to predict gentamicin nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderka, D; Tene, M; Graff, E; Levo, Y

    1988-05-01

    The initial target of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity is the proximal tubule. Yet, no simple test is available to predict such toxicity. Taking advantage of the fact that amylase is filtered in the glomerulus and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules, we prospectively examined in 23 patients if changes in renal amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) can predict gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Eighteen of these patients had an initial creatinine clearance (rCcr) above 30 mL/min. Eleven of them (group A) had an ACCR above 3.5% (control 3% +/- 1.03%) and all exhibited an average reduction of 32.2% +/- 11.6% in rCcr following one week of gentamicin therapy. In contrast, only one of seven patients (group B) with an initial ACCR below 3.5% had a reduction, albeit transient, in rCcr. During gentamicin therapy, group A patients had a further increase in ACCR which was proportional to the reduction observed in rCcr (r = -.54). Our preliminary data suggest that ACCR may prove a simple and possibly a reliable predictor of kidney function deterioration during gentamicin therapy in patients with rCcr above 30 mL/min: patients with pretherapy ACCR above 3.5% may exhibit a deterioration in the creatinine clearance during the first week of therapy. For patients with pretherapy renal failure (rCcr less than 30 mL/min) the creatinine levels (but not the ACCR) seem to retain their significance in predicting and monitoring further renal function deterioration during aminoglycoside therapy.

  13. Significance of preoperative neutrophil–lymphocyte count ratio on predicting postoperative sepsis after percutaneous nephrolithotomy

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    Volkan Sen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the usefulness of preoperative neutrophil–lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR in predicting postoperative sepsis after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL. In total, 487 patients who underwent PCNL for renal stones were included in the present retrospective study. The stone burden, number of tracts and location, operation time, fluoroscopy time, presence of residual stones, and blood transfusion rates were postoperatively recorded in all patients. All patients were followed up for signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and sepsis. The association of sepsis/SIRS with the risk factors of infectious complications, including NLCR, was evaluated. SIRS was detected in 91 (18.7% patients, 25 (5.1% of whom were diagnosed with sepsis. Stone burden, operation time, irrigation rate, previous surgery, nephrostomy time, access number, blood transfusion, residual stone, postoperative urinary culture, renal pelvis urinary culture, and stone culture were found to be predictive factors for SIRS and sepsis development. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an NLCR cutoff of 2.50 for predicting the occurrence of SIRS/sepsis. We found that the incidence of sepsis was significantly higher in patients with NLCR ≥ 2.50 than in patients with NLCR < 2.50 (p = 0.006. Preoperative and postoperative urine culture positivity were associated with high NLCR (p = 0.039 and p = 0.003, respectively. We believe that preoperative NLCR may be a promising additive predictor of bacteremia and postoperative sepsis in patients who undergo PCNL for renal stones. This marker is simple, easily measured, and easy to use in daily practice without extra costs.

  14. The plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio predicts first cardiovascular event in men : A prospective nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van Beek, Andre P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The plasma leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio has been proposed as a preferential marker of atherosclerosis susceptibility compared to leptin and adiponectin alone. We determined the extent to which the L/A ratio predicts incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) taking account of clinical risk f

  15. A Digital Signal Processing Method for Gene Prediction with Improved Noise Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreira Alex

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that the protein-coding regions of DNA sequences exhibit period-three behaviour, which can be exploited to predict the location of coding regions within genes. Previously, discrete Fourier transform (DFT and digital filter-based methods have been used for the identification of coding regions. However, these methods do not significantly suppress the noncoding regions in the DNA spectrum at . Consequently, a noncoding region may inadvertently be identified as a coding region. This paper introduces a new technique (a single digital filter operation followed by a quadratic window operation that suppresses nearly all of the noncoding regions. The proposed method therefore improves the likelihood of correctly identifying coding regions in such genes.

  16. Predictive vegetation modeling for conservation: impact of error propagation from digital elevation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niel, Kimberly P; Austin, Mike P

    2007-01-01

    The effect of digital elevation model (DEM) error on environmental variables, and subsequently on predictive habitat models, has not been explored. Based on an error analysis of a DEM, multiple error realizations of the DEM were created and used to develop both direct and indirect environmental variables for input to predictive habitat models. The study explores the effects of DEM error and the resultant uncertainty of results on typical steps in the modeling procedure for prediction of vegetation species presence/absence. Results indicate that all of these steps and results, including the statistical significance of environmental variables, shapes of species response curves in generalized additive models (GAMs), stepwise model selection, coefficients and standard errors for generalized linear models (GLMs), prediction accuracy (Cohen's kappa and AUC), and spatial extent of predictions, were greatly affected by this type of error. Error in the DEM can affect the reliability of interpretations of model results and level of accuracy in predictions, as well as the spatial extent of the predictions. We suggest that the sensitivity of DEM-derived environmental variables to error in the DEM should be considered before including them in the modeling processes.

  17. Study on the digit ratio of Maonan children in Guizhou%贵州毛南族儿童指长比的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 余跃生; 李建富; 王雪梅; 朱玲; 田建平

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the digit ratio of Maonan nationality in Guizhou. METHODS Physique measurements were used to study the digit ratios (2D : 3D, 2D : 4D, 2D : 5D, 3D : 4D, 3D : 5D, 4D : 5D) of left and right hands of 534 children (275 boys, 259 girls) of the Maonanbetween ages of 7 and 14 years living in Guizhou. RESULTS The mean values of digit ratios presented a trend as: 2D : 3D < 2D : 4D < 3D : 4D < 2D : 5D < 4D : 5D < 3D :5D. Girls had higher mean values than males. CONCLUSION There is sexual difference in digit ratio, and children' s digit ratio is not related to age.%目的 了解毛南族人群指长比的分布特点.方法 采用体质测量法,研究534例(男275例,女259例)7~14岁贵州毛南族儿童左右手指长比(2D∶3D、2D∶4D、2D∶5D、3D∶4D、3D∶5D、4D∶5D).结果 毛南族儿童指长比均呈现2D∶ 3D<2D∶4D<3D∶4D<2D∶5D<4D∶5D<3D∶5D的趋势,男性左右手指长比均数低于女性.结论 指长比存在性别差异,与年龄关系不密切.

  18. Interpreting digit ratio (2D:4D)-behavior correlations: 2D:4D sex difference, stability, and behavioral correlates and their replicability in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wang I; Hines, Melissa

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of using the ratio of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) to study influences of early androgen exposure on human behavior relies, in part, on a report that the ratio is sex-dimorphic and stable from age 2 years (Manning etal., 1998). However, subsequent research has rarely replicated this finding. Moreover, although 2D:4D has been correlated with many behaviors, these correlations are often inconsistent. Young children's 2D:4D-behavior correlations may be more consistent than those of older individuals, because young children have experienced fewer postnatal influences. To evaluate the usefulness of 2D:4D as a biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure in studies of 2D:4D-behavior correlations, we assessed its sex difference, temporal stability, and behavioral correlates over a 6- to 8-month period in 126, 2- to 3-year-old children, providing a rare same-sample replicability test. We found a moderate sex difference on both hands and high temporal stability. However, between-sex overlap and within-sex variability were also large. Only 3 of 24 correlations with sex-typed behaviors-scores on the Preschool Activities Inventory (PSAI), preference for a boy-typical toy, preference for a girl-typical toy, were significant and in the predicted direction, all of which involved the PSAI, partially confirming findings from another study. Correlation coefficients were larger for behaviors that showed larger sex differences. But, as in older samples, the overall pattern showed inconsistency across time, sex, and hand. Therefore, although sex-dimorphic and stable, 2D:4D-behavior correlations are no more consistent for young children than for older samples. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio for Predicting Loss of Response to Infliximab in Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Yu; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Yukawa, Tomomi; Otani, Koji; Nagami, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Fumio; Taira, Koichi; Kamata, Noriko; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Toshio; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been used to determine the outcome in malignancies and coronary heart disease. Some reports considered the value of NLR as a predictor of response to infliximab in patients with Crohn’s disease or rheumatoid arthritis; however, no similar studies have been reported for ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of the baseline NLR in patients with UC treated by infliximab. Materials and Methods Patients with moderate-to-severe active UC who received the first infliximab infusion in our hospital between 2010 and 2015, who showed clinical response during the induction period, were retrospectively evaluated for long-term outcomes and risk factors for loss of response (LOR) during infliximab maintenance therapy. Baseline inflammatory markers including NLR were measured within one week before the initiation of infliximab. Results Fifty-nine patients with moderate-to-severe active UC started treatment with infliximab and 37 patients (62.7%) experienced clinical response after induction therapy. Fourteen of 37 patients on maintenance therapy lost the response during follow-up. Baseline NLR of patients with LOR was significantly higher than in patients with sustained response. The NLR cut-off value of 4.488 was predictive of LOR, using receiver operating characteristic analysis (sensitivity: 78.6%, specificity: 78.3%). A univariate analysis revealed a significant relationship between relapse-free survival and the NLR (P = 0.018). Multivariate analysis indicated the NLR as an independent prognostic factor for LOR (hazard ratio = 3.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.20–12.4, P = 0.023). Conclusions Baseline NLR is a useful prognostic marker in patients with moderate-to-severe active UC treated with infliximab, and may contribute to appropriate use of infliximab. PMID:28076386

  20. 指长比在运动员科学选材中的应用%Application and Progress of Digit Ratios in Scientific Identification of Talent Athlete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党晓云; 李玫红; 党英; 杨文超

    2011-01-01

    指长比于胚胎发育早期形成,且由HOX基因调控.尤其是食指与环指的指长比(2D∶4D),与产前性激素有关,且与雄性激素呈负相关.研究表明:2D∶4D与个体的攻击性行为、运动能力、性倾向和音乐才能等特性有一定关系.提示:指长比有一定的稳定性,而且与运动能力高度相关,有望作为一个简便可靠的选材指标,在运动员科学选材领域中有广泛的应用前景.%Digit ratios are fixed in early pregnancy and controlled by Hox gene. The index finger-to-ring finger length ratio (2D :4 D) is related to the prenatal hormones. 2D : 4D ratios are negatively related to androgen levels. Digit ratios have been found to correlate with the individual aggressive behavior, athletic ability, sexual orientation and musical ability. It indicates that digit ratios may be used in athletes' scientific selection as a simple and reliable indicator.

  1. Radio Luminosity,Black Hole Mass and Eddington Ratio for Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Hao Bian; Yan-Mei Chen; Chen Hu; Kai Huang; Yan Xu

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the MBH-O'.relation for radio-loud quasars with redshift z<0.83 in Data Release 3 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS).The sample consists of 3772 quasars with better models of the H/~ and [O III] lines and available radio luminosity,including 306 radio-loud quasars,3466 radio-quiet quasars with measured radio luminosity or upper-limit of radio luminosity (181 radio-quiet quasars with measured radio luminosity).The virial supermassive black hole mass (MBH) is calculated from the broad H/line,and the host stellar velocity dispersion (σ*) is traced by the core [O III] gaseous velocity dispersion.The radio luminosity and radio loudness are derived from the FIRST catalog.Our results are as follows:(1) For radio-quiet quasars,we confirm that there is no obvious deviation from the MBH-O".relation defined for inactive galaxies when the uncertainties in MBH and the luminosity bias are concerned.(2) We find that the radio-loud quasars deviate more from the MBH-σ.relation than do the radio-quiet quasars.This deviation is only partly due to a possible cosmological evolution of the MBH-σ* relation and the luminosity bias.(3) The radioluminosity is proportional to M128+0.23-0.16 BH(LBol/LEdd)1.29+0.31-0.24 for radio-quiet quasars and to M3.10+0.6.-0.70(LBol.LEdd)4.18+1.40-1.10 for radio-loud quasars.The weaker dependence of the radio luminosity on the mass and the Eddington ratio for radio-loud quasars shows that other physical effects would account for their radio luminosities,such as the spin of the black hole.

  2. Positive predictive value of albumin: globulin ratio for feline infectious peritonitis in a mid-western referral hospital population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Unity; Deitz, Krysta; Hostetter, Shannon

    2012-12-01

    Low albumin to globulin ratio has been found previously to have a high positive predictive value for feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats with clinical signs highly suggestive of the disease. However, FIP can have a more vague clinical presentation. This retrospective study found that the positive predictive value of an albumin:globulin (A:G) ratio of <0.8 and <0.6 was only 12.5% and 25%, respectively, in a group of 100 cats with one or more clinical signs consistent with FIP. The negative predictive value was 100% and 99% for an A:G ratio of <0.8 and A:G<0.6%, respectively. Therefore, when the prevalence of FIP is low, the A:G ratio is useful to rule out FIP but is not helpful in making a positive diagnosis of FIP.

  3. Optic nerve magnetisation transfer ratio after acute optic neuritis predicts axonal and visual outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yejun; van der Walt, Anneke; Paine, Mark; Klistorner, Alexander; Butzkueven, Helmut; Egan, Gary F; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Kolbe, Scott C

    2012-01-01

    Magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) can reveal the degree of proton exchange between free water and macromolecules and was suggested to be pathological informative. We aimed to investigate changes in optic nerve MTR over 12 months following acute optic neuritis (ON) and to determine whether MTR measurements can predict clinical and paraclinical outcomes at 6 and 12 months. Thirty-seven patients with acute ON were studied within 2 weeks of presentation and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Assessments included optic nerve MTR, retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness, multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) amplitude and latency and high (100%) and low (2.5%) contrast letter acuity. Eleven healthy controls were scanned twice four weeks apart for comparison with patients. Patient unaffected optic nerve MTR did not significantly differ from controls at any time-point. Compared to the unaffected nerve, affected optic nerve MTR was significantly reduced at 3 months (mean percentage interocular difference = -9.24%, p = 0.01), 6 months (mean = -12.48%, p<0.0001) and 12 months (mean = -7.61%, p = 0.003). Greater reduction in MTR at 3 months in patients was associated with subsequent loss of high contrast letter acuity at 6 (ρ = 0.60, p = 0.0003) and 12 (ρ = 0.44, p = 0.009) months, low contrast letter acuity at 6 (ρ = 0.35, p = 0.047) months, and RNFL thinning at 12 (ρ = 0.35, p = 0.044) months. Stratification of individual patient MTR time courses based on flux over 12 months (stable, putative remyelination and putative degeneration) predicted RNFL thinning at 12 months (F(2,32) = 3.59, p = 0.02). In conclusion, these findings indicate that MTR flux after acute ON is predictive of axonal degeneration and visual disability outcomes.

  4. Optic nerve magnetisation transfer ratio after acute optic neuritis predicts axonal and visual outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yejun Wang

    Full Text Available Magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR can reveal the degree of proton exchange between free water and macromolecules and was suggested to be pathological informative. We aimed to investigate changes in optic nerve MTR over 12 months following acute optic neuritis (ON and to determine whether MTR measurements can predict clinical and paraclinical outcomes at 6 and 12 months. Thirty-seven patients with acute ON were studied within 2 weeks of presentation and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Assessments included optic nerve MTR, retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL thickness, multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP amplitude and latency and high (100% and low (2.5% contrast letter acuity. Eleven healthy controls were scanned twice four weeks apart for comparison with patients. Patient unaffected optic nerve MTR did not significantly differ from controls at any time-point. Compared to the unaffected nerve, affected optic nerve MTR was significantly reduced at 3 months (mean percentage interocular difference = -9.24%, p = 0.01, 6 months (mean = -12.48%, p<0.0001 and 12 months (mean = -7.61%, p = 0.003. Greater reduction in MTR at 3 months in patients was associated with subsequent loss of high contrast letter acuity at 6 (ρ = 0.60, p = 0.0003 and 12 (ρ = 0.44, p = 0.009 months, low contrast letter acuity at 6 (ρ = 0.35, p = 0.047 months, and RNFL thinning at 12 (ρ = 0.35, p = 0.044 months. Stratification of individual patient MTR time courses based on flux over 12 months (stable, putative remyelination and putative degeneration predicted RNFL thinning at 12 months (F(2,32 = 3.59, p = 0.02. In conclusion, these findings indicate that MTR flux after acute ON is predictive of axonal degeneration and visual disability outcomes.

  5. Changes in Income at Macro Level Predict Sex Ratio at Birth in OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanninen, Ohto; Karhula, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth.

  6. The hip strength:ankle proprioceptive threshold ratio predicts falls and injury in diabetic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, James K.; DeMott, Trina; Allet, Lara; Kim; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We determined lower limb neuromuscular capacities associated with falls and fall-related injuries in older people with declining peripheral nerve function. Methods Thirty-two subjects (67.4 ± 13.4 years; 19 with type 2 diabetes), representing a spectrum of peripheral neurologic function, were evaluated with frontal plane proprioceptive thresholds at the ankle, frontal plane motor function at the ankle and hip, and prospective follow-up for 1 year. Results Falls and fall-related injuries were reported by 20 (62.5%) and 14 (43.8%) subjects, respectively. The ratio of hip adductor rate of torque development to ankle proprioceptive threshold (HipSTR/AnkPRO) predicted falls (pseudo-R2 = .726) and injury (pseudo-R2 = .382). No other variable maintained significance in the presence of HipSTR/AnkPRO. Discussion Fall and injury risk in the population studied is related inversely to HipSTR/AnkPRO. Increasing rapidly available hip strength in patients with neuropathic ankle sensory impairment may decrease risk of falls and related injuries. PMID:24282041

  7. Low MITF/AXL ratio predicts early resistance to multiple targeted drugs in melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Judith; Krijgsman, Oscar; Tsoi, Jennifer; Robert, Lidia; Hugo, Willy; Song, Chunying; Kong, Xiangju; Possik, Patricia A.; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien D.M.; Foppen, Marnix H. Geukes; Kemper, Kristel; Goding, Colin R.; McDermott, Ultan; Blank, Christian; Haanen, John; Graeber, Thomas G.; Ribas, Antoni; Lo, Roger S.; Peeper, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Increased expression of the Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) contributes to melanoma progression and resistance to BRAF pathway inhibition. Here we show that the lack of MITF is associated with more severe resistance to a range of inhibitors, while its presence is required for robust drug responses. Both in primary and acquired resistance, MITF levels inversely correlate with the expression of several activated receptor tyrosine kinases, most frequently AXL. The MITF-low/AXL-high/drug-resistance phenotype is common among mutant BRAF and NRAS melanoma cell lines. The dichotomous behaviour of MITF in drug response is corroborated in vemurafenib-resistant biopsies, including MITF-high and -low clones in a relapsed patient. Furthermore, drug cocktails containing AXL inhibitor enhance melanoma cell elimination by BRAF or ERK inhibition. Our results demonstrate that a low MITF/AXL ratio predicts early resistance to multiple targeted drugs, and warrant clinical validation of AXL inhibitors to combat resistance of BRAF and NRAS mutant MITF-low melanomas. PMID:25502142

  8. Postoperative Elevation of the Neutrophil: Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Complications Following Esophageal Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulliamy, Paul; McCluney, Simon; Mukherjee, Samrat; Ashby, Luke; Amalesh, Thangadorai

    2016-06-01

    Complications following esophagectomy are a significant source of morbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the early identification of complications following esophagectomy, as compared to other routinely available parameters. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy at a single centre. Baseline characteristics and complications occurring within the first 30 days of surgery were recorded. White blood cell counts and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels immediately following surgery (day 0) and over the subsequent three postoperative days were analysed. Sixty-five patients were included, of whom 29 (45 %) developed complications. The median NLR was similar among patients with and without a complicated recovery on day 0 (12.7 vs 13.6, p = 0.70) and day 1 (10.0 vs 9.3, p = 0.29). Patients who subsequently developed complications had a higher NLR on day 2 (11.8 vs 7.5, p 8.3 on day 2 had a sensitivity of 93 % and a specificity of 72 % for predicting complications. The NLR is a simple and routinely available parameter which has a high sensitivity in the early detection of complications following esophagectomy.

  9. Monocyte/high-density lipoprotein ratio predicts the mortality in ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolayir, Asli; Gokce, Seyda Figul; Cigdem, Burhanettin; Bolayir, Hasan Ata; Yildiz, Ozlem Kayim; Bolayir, Ertugrul; Topaktas, Suat Ahmet

    2017-08-24

    The inflammatory process is a very important stage in the development and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The monocyte to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio (MHR) is accepted as a novel marker for demonstrating inflammation. However, the role of MHR as a predictor of mortality in patients with AIS remains unclear. We retrospectively enrolled 466 patients who were referred to our clinic within the first 24hours of symptom presentation and who were diagnosed with AIS between January 2008 and June 2016. Four hundred and eight controls of similar age and gender were also included. The patient group was classified into two groups according to 30-day mortality. The groups were compared in terms of monocyte counts, HDL, and MHR values. The patient group had significantly higher monocyte counts and lower HDL levels; therefore, this group had higher values of MHR compared to controls. Additionally, the monocyte count and MHR value were higher, and the HDL level was lower in non-surviving patients (pMHR value was also observed as a significant independent variable of 30-day mortality in patients with AIS (pMHR in predicting the 30-day mortality for patients with AIS was 17.52 (95% CI 0.95-0.98). Our study demonstrated that a high MHR value is an independent predictor of 30-day mortality in patients with AIS. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Automated image processing of Landsat II digital data for watershed runoff prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, R. R.; Jensen, J. R.; Estes, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Digital image processing of Landsat data from a 230 sq km area was examined as a possible means of generating soil cover information for use in the watershed runoff prediction of Kern County, California. The soil cover information included data on brush, grass, pasture lands and forests. A classification accuracy of 94% for the Landsat-based soil cover survey suggested that the technique could be applied to the watershed runoff estimate. However, problems involving the survey of complex mountainous environments may require further attention

  11. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio are predictive of chemotherapeutic response and prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yi; Yan, Qin; Li, Shuangdi; Li, Bilan; Feng, Youji

    2016-06-07

    The aim of present study was to investigate the role of preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) used as prognostic markers for predicting chemotherapeutic response and survival outcomes in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who are receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. A total of 344 patients diagnosed with EOC who are receiving platinum-based chemotherapy from 2005 to 2010 in the hospital were enrolled. NLR and PLR were calculated from complete blood cell count taken before operation. The patients were divided into platinum-resistant (P-R) group and platinum-sensitive (P-S) group according to chemotherapeutic response. Clinicopathologic variables and outcomes were retrospectively collected and compared among groups. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to calculate optimal cut-off values for NLR and PLR to predict chemotherapeutic response and prognosis. The AUC, sensitivity, specificity of NLR > 3.02 to predict platinum resistance were 0.819, 75.0% and 81.45%, respectively. The corresponding values of PLR > 207 were 0.727, 60.42% and 85.48%, respectively. Patients with lower value of NLR (NLR platinum resistance in patients with EOC.

  12. Fault Tolerance Automotive Air-Ratio Control Using Extreme Learning Machine Model Predictive Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Pak Kin Wong; Hang Cheong Wong; Chi Man Vong; Tong Meng Iong; Ka In Wong; Xianghui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Effective air-ratio control is desirable to maintain the best engine performance. However, traditional air-ratio control assumes the lambda sensor located at the tail pipe works properly and relies strongly on the air-ratio feedback signal measured by the lambda sensor. When the sensor is warming up during cold start or under failure, the traditional air-ratio control no longer works. To address this issue, this paper utilizes an advanced modelling technique, kernel extreme learning machine (...

  13. Digit ratio (2D:4D): Is it possible to use it for sex determination in the study of human skeletal remains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakholdina, Varvara Yu; Movsesian, Alla A; Sineva, Irina M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the relative length of the second-to-fourth digits (the digit ratio, or 2D:4D) in humans has been reported in many studies. The aim of our study was to ascertain possibility of using the 2D:4D ratio as an additional marker for sex determination in the study of human skeletal remains. We have studied 2D:4D ratios obtained from measurements of finger phalanges and metacarpal bones in Russian (45 adult males and 26 adult females) and German (58 adult males and 29 adult females) skeletal series. The difference in 2D:4D ratio between the male and female subsamples in both skeletal series was not statistically significant. Analysis of variance revealed that the 2D:4D ratios in our sample varied more by ethnicity than by the sexual identity of the skeletal material. Our results suggest that the 2D:4D ratio cannot be used as an appropriate trait for the sex determination of human skeletal remains. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:591-593, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Development and implementation of algorithms for automatic and robust measurement of the 2D:4D digit ratio using image data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Robert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Early in the 20th century it could be observed that the finger lengths of second (2D and fourth digit (4D represents a sexually dimorphic feature, whereby in general the second digit is longer than the fourth digit for men and vice versa for women. In the early 1980s first studies could show a correlation between the 2D:4D ratio and the concentration of androgens one is exposed to during a short window within the prenatal development phase. Therefore, the 2D:4D digit ratio can serve as an additional marker for certain physiological and psychological traits like fertility, assertiveness, aggressiveness and alcohol addiction. Manual measurements are the established method to retrieve the finger lengths e.g. by using a ruler on printed scans of hands. For higher reliability these extremely time-consuming procedures have to be done multiple times. In this contribution two automated procedures are proposed to reduce the time for measurements whilst maintaining the accuracy. A deviation of maximal 2% from the manual measurement could be achieved for more than 75% of the 22 participants.

  15. Dispersal, niche breadth and population extinction: colonization ratios predict range size in North American dragonflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Shannon J; Davis, Christopher J; Werner, Earl E; Robeson, Michael S

    2014-07-01

    Species' range sizes are shaped by fundamental differences in species' ecological and evolutionary characteristics, and understanding the mechanisms determining range size can shed light on the factors responsible for generating and structuring biological diversity. Moreover, because geographic range size is associated with a species' risk of extinction and their ability to respond to global changes in climate and land use, understanding these mechanisms has important conservation implications. Despite the hypotheses that dispersal behaviour is a strong determinant of species range areas, few data are available to directly compare the relationship between dispersal behaviour and range size. Here, we overcome this limitation by combining data from a multispecies dispersal experiment with additional species-level trait data that are commonly hypothesized to affect range size (e.g. niche breadth, local abundance and body size.). This enables us to examine the relationship between these species-level traits and range size across North America for fifteen dragonfly species. Ten models based on a priori predictions about the relationship between species traits and range size were evaluated and two models were identified as good predictors of species range size. These models indicated that only two species' level traits, dispersal behaviour and niche breadth were strongly related to range size. The evidence from these two models indicated that dragonfly species that disperse more often and further had larger North American ranges. Extinction and colonization dynamics are expected to be a key linkage between dispersal behaviour and range size in dragonflies. To evaluate how extinction and colonization dynamics among dragonflies were related to range size we used an independent data set of extinction and colonization rates for eleven dragonfly species and assessed the relationship between these populations rates and North American range areas for these species. We found a

  16. Cervical assessment at 22 and 27 weeks for the prediction of spontaneous birth before 34 weeks in twin pregnancies: is transvaginal sonography more accurate than digital examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssière, C; Favre, R; Audibert, F; Chauvet, M P; Gaucherand, P; Tardif, D; Grangé, G; Novoa, A; Descamps, P; Perdu, M; Andrini, E; Janse-Marec, J; Maillard, F; Nisand, I

    2005-12-01

    This study compared the accuracy of ultrasound cervical assessment (cervical length and cervical index) and digital examination (Bishop score and cervical score) in the prediction of spontaneous birth before 34 weeks in twin pregnancies. In a prospective multicenter study, digital examination and transvaginal sonography were performed consecutively in twin pregnancies attending for routine sonography at either 22 weeks (175 women) or 27 weeks (153 women). The digital examination took place first, and the Bishop score and cervical score (cervical length minus cervical dilatation) were calculated. Ultrasound measurements were then made of cervical length and funnel length to yield the cervical index (1 + funnel length/cervical length). The association between each variable and delivery before 34 weeks was tested by the Mann-Whitney U-test. The receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves of the ultrasound and digital indicators were determined for both gestational age periods, and the areas under the ROC curves compared. The best cut-off values for each indicator were used to determine predictive values for delivery before 34 weeks. The median gestational age at delivery among the women included in the 22-week examination period was 36.0 (range, 21-40) weeks; 10.9% (19) gave birth spontaneously before 34 weeks. The median cervical length was 40 (range, 6-65) mm. All four parameters were predictors of delivery before 34 weeks. The areas under the ROC curves for cervical index, cervical length, Bishop score and cervical score did not differ significantly. The median gestational age at delivery among the women in the 27-week examination period was 36.0 (range, 27-40) weeks; 9.2% (14) gave birth spontaneously before 34 weeks. The median cervical length was 35 (range, 1-57) mm. All parameters except the Bishop score were predictors of delivery before 34 weeks. The likelihood ratio of the positive and negative tests for cervical length digital examination at the 27-week

  17. The predictive value of the ratio of neck circumference to thyromental distance in comparison with four predictive tests for difficult laryngoscopy in obstetric patients scheduled for caesarean delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Anahita Hirmanpour; Mohammadreza Safavi; Azim Honarmand; Mitra Jabalameli; Golnaz Banisadr

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative assessment of anatomical landmarks andclinical factors help detect potentially difficult laryngoscopies. The aim of the present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from thefollowing preoperative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: Neck circumference to thyromental distance (NC/TMD), neck circumference (NC), modified Mallampatitest (MMT), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), and the uppe...

  18. Predicted coverage of a COFDM single frequency network for UHF digital terrestrial TV broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. B. R.

    The Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (COFDM) transmission system provides a very high degree of tolerance towards multipath interference. Three factors contribute towards this tolerance: the inclusion of a guard interval, coding to provide error correction and the division of the digital data amongst a very large number of low bit rate carriers. It follows from this that a national network of co-channel transmitters can be developed such that not only do neighboring transmitters not cause mutual interference but can combine in a constructive manner. This is the principle of the Single Frequency Network, or SFN. Experience with Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) suggests that an SFN could be utilized for Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB). Such a system would make very efficient use of the available UHF channels. The Report presents the results of coverage predictions performed for a network of 128 transmitters sited at the locations of existing high and medium power UK UHF broadcast transmitters. Predictions were carried out for a range of values of guard interval, and for both directional and omnidirectional receiving antennas. Use of COFDM and the latest data compression techniques allows a High Definition Television (HDTV) program to be transmitted in a standard UHF channel. However it will require a higher-order modulation scheme than is used for DAB. This will reduce the tolerance towards noise and interference. The guard interval may therefore have to be lengthened so that signals from more distant transmitters within the network arrive within the guard interval. The results of the predictions show that the ad hoc transmitter network examined will serve 90 percent or more of the UK population, using the same guard interval as has been chosen for Mode 1 of the Eureka DAB system, provided that a directional antenna is used. The directional antenna provides most of the extra protection required against interfering signals. The same coverage can be

  19. Predicting intrapartum fetal compromise using the fetal cerebro-umbilical ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabdia, S; Greer, R M; Prior, T; Kumar, S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between the cerebro-umbilical ratio measured at 35-37 weeks and intrapartum fetal compromise. This retrospective cross sectional study was conducted at the Mater Mothers' Hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Maternal demographics and fetal Doppler indices at 35-37 weeks gestation for 1381 women were correlated with intrapartum and neonatal outcomes. Babies born by caesarean section or instrumental delivery for fetal compromise had the lowest median cerebro-umbilical ratio 1.60 (IQR 1.22-2.08) compared to all other delivery groups (vaginal delivery, emergency delivery for failure to progress, emergency caesarean section for other reasons or elective caesarean section). The percentage of infants with a cerebro-umbilical ratio cerebro-umbilical ratio between the 10th-90th centile and 9.6% of infants with a cerebro-umbilical ratio > 90th centile required delivery for the same indication (p cerebro-umbilical ratio was associated with an increased risk of emergency delivery for fetal compromise, OR 2.03 (95% CI 1.41-2.92), p cerebro-umbilical ratio measured at 35-37 weeks is associated with a greater risk of intrapartum compromise. This is a relatively simple technique which could be used to risk stratify women in diverse healthcare settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Digital contract approach for consistent and predictable multimedia information delivery in electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konana, Prabhudev; Gupta, Alok; Whinston, Andrew B.

    1997-01-01

    A pure 'technological' solution to network quality problems is incomplete since any benefits from new technologies are offset by the demand from exponentially growing electronic commerce ad data-intensive applications. SInce an economic paradigm is implicit in electronic commerce, we propose a 'market-system' approach to improve quality of service. Quality of service for digital products takes on a different meaning since users view quality of service differently and value information differently. We propose a framework for electronic commerce that is based on an economic paradigm and mass-customization, and works as a wide-area distributed management system. In our framework, surrogate-servers act as intermediaries between information provides and end- users, and arrange for consistent and predictable information delivery through 'digital contracts.' These contracts are negotiated and priced based on economic principles. Surrogate servers pre-fetched, through replication, information from many different servers and consolidate based on demand expectations. In order to recognize users' requirements and process requests accordingly, real-time databases are central to our framework. We also propose that multimedia information be separated into slowly changing and rapidly changing data streams to improve response time requirements. Surrogate- servers perform the tasks of integration of these data streams that is transparent to end-users.

  1. Prediction on adsorption ratio of carbon dioxide to methane on coals with multiple linear regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; MENG Xian-ming; FAN Wei-tang; YE Jian-ping

    2007-01-01

    The multiple linear regression equations for adsorption ratio of CO2/CH4 and its coal quality indexes were built with SPSS software on basis of existing coal quality data and its adsorption amount of CO2 and CH4.The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some S,and the influences of coal quality indexes on adsorption ratio of CO2/CH4 were studied with investigation of regression equations.The study results show that the regression equation for adsorption ratio of CO2/CH4 and volatile matter,ash and moisture in coal can be Obtained with multiple linear regression analysis,that the influence of same coal quality index with the degree of metamorphosis or influence of coal quality indexes for same coal rank on adsorption ratio is not consistent.

  2. The dividend-price ratio does predict dividend growth: International evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    large cross-country differences regarding return and dividend growth predictability. For the US, we confirm Chen's (2008) finding of a 'tale of two periods' but with the important difference that short- and long-horizon real returns are significantly predictable in both sub-periods (1871- 1949 and 1950......-2008), while long-horizon real dividend growth is unpredictable in the early period and significantly predictable in the 'wrong' direction in the post war period. These results are directly opposite to those reported by Chen using nominal returns and dividend growth. For the UK, the results are more or less...... similar to those for the US. For Sweden and Denmark we find no evidence of return predictability, but strong evidence of predictable dividend growth in the 'right' direction on both short and long horizons and over both the full sample periods and the post war period. We also document that implied long-horizon...

  3. Private traits and attributes are predictable from digital records of human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Graepel, Thore

    2013-04-09

    We show that easily accessible digital records of behavior, Facebook Likes, can be used to automatically and accurately predict a range of highly sensitive personal attributes including: sexual orientation, ethnicity, religious and political views, personality traits, intelligence, happiness, use of addictive substances, parental separation, age, and gender. The analysis presented is based on a dataset of over 58,000 volunteers who provided their Facebook Likes, detailed demographic profiles, and the results of several psychometric tests. The proposed model uses dimensionality reduction for preprocessing the Likes data, which are then entered into logistic/linear regression to predict individual psychodemographic profiles from Likes. The model correctly discriminates between homosexual and heterosexual men in 88% of cases, African Americans and Caucasian Americans in 95% of cases, and between Democrat and Republican in 85% of cases. For the personality trait "Openness," prediction accuracy is close to the test-retest accuracy of a standard personality test. We give examples of associations between attributes and Likes and discuss implications for online personalization and privacy.

  4. Predictive value of digital subtraction angiography in patients with tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Echeverri, L.A. [Dept. of Neuroimaging and Endovascular Therapy, National Inst. for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City (Mexico); Soto-Hernandez, J.L. [Infectious Disease Dept., National Inst. for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Tlalpan (Mexico); Garza, S. [Div. of Neurology, National Inst. for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Tlalpan (Mexico); Martinez-Zubieta, R. [Div. of Neurology, National Inst. for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Tlalpan (Mexico); Miranda, L.I. [Div. of Neurology, National Inst. for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Tlalpan (Mexico); Garcia-Ramos, G. [Div. of Neurology, National Inst. for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Tlalpan (Mexico); Zenteno, M. [Dept. of Neuroimaging and Endovascular Therapy, National Inst. for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1996-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed in 24 adults with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and results were correlated with 24 admission and 16 follow-up CT examinations. 19 MRI studies and clinical outcome at a mean follow-up of 44 weeks. DSA was abnormal in 11 patients. Abnormal DSA was associated with advenced clinical stages of the Medical Research Council classification, admission CT with hydrocephalus or gyral cortical enhancement. MRI disclosed brain infarcts not seen on initial CT in 8 cases. Of seven patients who died, 4 had abnormal and 3 normal DSA. Among patients who survived, those with normal DSA had a better functional outcome by Karnofsky scores. During follow-up infarcts were evident in 16 patients. Abnormal DSA in relation to brain infarcts had a sensitivity of 0.56, specificity 0.75, positive predictive value 0.82 and negative predictive value 0.46. A single arteriogram does not predict the outcome in patients with TBM and its value is limited in the assessment of vascular complications of TBM. Angiography in TBM is justified only in specific clinical trials to assess new therapeutic modalities against infarcts. (orig.)

  5. Prediction of Microcystis Blooms Based on TN:TP Ratio and Lake Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Amano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between TN:TP ratio and Microcystis growth via a database that includes worldwide lakes based on four types of lake origin (dammed, tectonic, coastal, and volcanic lakes. We used microcosm and mesocosm for the nutrient elution tests with lake water and four kinds of sediment (nontreated, MgO sprinkling treated, dissolved air flotation [DAF] treated, and combined treated sediment in order to control TN:TP ratio and to suppress Microcystis growth. Microcystis growth was related to TN:TP ratio, with the maximum value at an optimum TN:TP ratio and the minimum values when the TN:TP ratios reached to 0 or ∞. The kurtosis of the distribution curve varied with the type of lake origin; the lowest kurtosis was found in dammed lakes, while the highest was found in volcanic lakes. The lake trophic state could affect the change in the kurtosis, providing much lower kurtosis at eutrophic lakes (dammed lakes than that at oligotrophic lakes (volcanic lakes. The relationship between TN:TP ratio and Microcystis growth could be explained by the nutrient elution tests under controlled TN:TP ratios through the various sediment treatments. A significant suppression of Microcystis growth of 70% could be achieved when the TN:TP ratios exceeded 21. Lake origin could be regarded as an index including morphological and geographical factors, and controlling the trophic state in lakes. The origin rather than trophic state for lakes could be considered as an important factor of TN:TP influences on Microcystis growth.

  6. Path (un)predictability of two interacting cracks in polycarbonate sheets using Digital Image Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, J.; Dalbe, M.-J.; Alava, M. J.; Santucci, S.

    2016-08-01

    Crack propagation is tracked here with Digital Image Correlation analysis in the test case of two cracks propagating in opposite directions in polycarbonate, a material with high ductility and a large Fracture Process Zone (FPZ). Depending on the initial distances between the two crack tips, one may observe different complex crack paths with in particular a regime where the two cracks repel each other prior to being attracted. We show by strain field analysis how this can be understood according to the principle of local symmetry: the propagation is to the direction where the local shear - mode KII in fracture mechanics language - is zero. Thus the interactions exhibited by the cracks arise from symmetry, from the initial geometry, and from the material properties which induce the FPZ. This complexity makes any long-range prediction of the path(s) impossible.

  7. Path (un)predictability of two interacting cracks in polycarbonate sheets using Digital Image Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, J; Dalbe, M-J; Alava, M J; Santucci, S

    2016-01-01

    Crack propagation is tracked here with Digital Image Correlation analysis in the test case of two cracks propagating in opposite directions in polycarbonate, a material with high ductility and a large Fracture Process Zone (FPZ). Depending on the initial distances between the two crack tips, one may observe different complex crack paths with in particular a regime where the two cracks repel each other prior to being attracted. We show by strain field analysis how this can be understood according to the principle of local symmetry: the propagation is to the direction where the local shear - mode KII in fracture mechanics language - is zero. Thus the interactions exhibited by the cracks arise from symmetry, from the initial geometry, and from the material properties which induce the FPZ. This complexity makes any long-range prediction of the path(s) impossible.

  8. Triglycerides to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Can Predict Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Do Kyeong; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon Ah; Oh, Jee Young

    2016-11-01

    The triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio could be related to insulin resistance (IR). We previously reported that Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) had a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We aimed to determine the cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR and to examine whether the TG/HDL-C ratio is useful for identifying individuals at risk of IGT in young Korean women with PCOS. We recruited 450 women with PCOS (24±5 yrs) and performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). IR was assessed by a homeostasis model assessment index over that of the 95th percentile of regular-cycling women who served as the controls (n=450, 24±4 yrs). The cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR was 2.5 in women with PCOS. Among the women with PCOS who had normal fasting glucose (NFG), the prevalence of IGT was significantly higher in the women with PCOS who had a high TG/HDL-C ratio compared with those with a low TG/HDL-C ratio (15.6% vs. 5.6%, p2.5 are recommended to be administered an OGTT to detect IGT even if they have NFG.

  9. An assessment of the ratio of height to thyromental distance compared to thyromental distance as a predictive test for prediction of difficult tracheal intubation in Thai patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krobbuaban, B; Diregpoke, S; Kumkeaw, S

    2006-05-01

    Preoperative evaluation is important in the detection of patients at risk for difficult tracheal intubation. Thyromental distance (TMD) is often used for these purposes, but its value as an indicator for difficult intubation is questionable, as it varies with patient size and body proportions. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the accuracies of the ratio of patient's height to TMD (ratio of height to TMD = RHTMD) and TMD alone in the prediction of difficult tracheal intubation in Thai patients. The authors collected data on 382 consecutive patients scheduled to receive general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation for elective surgery. Thyromental distance and RHTMD were evaluated preoperatively. Difficult intubation was defined in the present study by Cormack and Lehane grade 3 or 4. The optimal predictive value was chosen using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The areas under the ROC curves (AUC) of TMD and RHTMD were compared to determine the performance of the different predictive tests used. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of each of the predictive tests were calculated according to standard formulae. Difficult intubation occurred in 42 patients (10.9 %). The predictive advantage of RHTMD has a similar specificity with improved sensitivity in comparison with TMD. The AUC of RHTMD was significantly greater than the AUC of TMD (p = 0.00). The authors concluded that RHTMD had better accuracy in predicting difficult intubation than TMD.

  10. Sagittal abdominal diameter to triceps skinfold thickness ratio: a novel anthropometric index to predict premature coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Masoudkabir, Farzad; Karbalai, Shahrokh; Koleini, Maryam; Aiatollahzade-Esfahani, Farah; Pashang, Mina; Hakki, Elham

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to compare the accuracy of a novel index defined by us, as a ratio of Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) with other indices of adiposity for prediction of presence, severity and extension of premature coronary artery disease (CAD). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 238 younger patients (females <55 years; males <45 years) who underwent coronary angiography. Anthropometric indices including TSF, SAD, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured before catheterization and body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, abdominal diameter index, index of central obesity as well as our proposed index, SAD-to-TSF ratio, were calculated accordingly. Evaluation of severity and extension of coronary stenosis was by Gensini score and extent score, respectively. After adjustment for age and sex in multivariate regression models, the SAD-to-TSF ratio was the best predictor for the presence (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.44-4.30; p = 0.001) and extension (β = 1.10, p = 0.004) of premature CAD. TSF and the SAD-to-TSF ratio were the only indices that significantly predicted the Gensini score and the correlation remained significant even after adjustment for age and sex (β = -7.28, p < 0.0001 and β = 3.76, p < 0.0001, respectively). We showed that our proposed index, SAD-to-TSF ratio, has a substantially better accuracy than do the known indices of obesity like body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio for the prediction of premature CAD. Furthermore, our index was the only index that positively correlated with the severity of premature CAD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Low plasma arginine:asymmetric dimethyl arginine ratios predict mortality after intracranial aneurysm rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalsø, Jonatan Myrup; Bergström, Anita; Edsen, Troels

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases, predicts mortality in cardiovascular disease and has been linked to cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this prospective study, we assessed whether circulating ADMA, arginine...

  12. In silico prediction of brain exposure: drug free fraction, unbound brain to plasma concentration ratio and equilibrium half-life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Morena; Jacobson, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of CNS drug pharmacokinetics programs has recently shifted from determining the total concentrations in brain and blood to considering also unbound fractions and concentrations. Unfortunately, assessing unbound brain exposure experimentally requires demanding in vivo and in vitro studies. We propose a physical model, based on lipid binding and pH partitioning, to predict in silico the unbound volume of distribution in the brain. The model takes into account the partition of a drug into lipids, interstitial fluid and intracellular compartments of the brain. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the contributions of lipid binding and pH partitioning are important in determining drug exposure in brain. The predicted values are used, together with predictions for plasma protein binding, as corrective terms in a second model to derive the unbound brain to plasma concentration ratio starting from experimental values of total concentration ratio. The calculated values of brain free fraction and passive permeability are also used to qualitatively determine the brain to plasma equilibration time in a model that shows promising results but is limited to a very small set of compounds. The models we propose are a step forward in understanding and predicting pharmacologically relevant exposure in brain starting from compounds’ chemical structure and neuropharmacokinetics, by using experimental total brain to plasma ratios, in silico calculated properties and simple physics-based approaches. The models can be used in central nervous system drug discovery programs for a fast and cheap assessment of unbound brain exposure. For existing compounds, the unbound ratios can be derived from experimental values of total brain to plasma ratios. For both existing and hypothetical compounds, the unbound volume of distribution due to lipid binding and pH partitioning can be calculated starting only from the chemical structure. PMID:23578025

  13. Triglyceride/HDL ratio as a screening tool for predicting success at reducing anti-diabetic medications following weight loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intentional weight loss, by reducing insulin resistance, results in both better glycemic control and decreased need for anti-diabetic medications. However, not everyone who is successful with weight loss is able to reduce anti-diabetic medication use. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed the predictive accuracy of baseline triglyceride (TGL/HDL ratio, a marker of insulin resistance, to screen patients for success in reducing anti-diabetic medication use with weight loss. METHODS: Case records of 121 overweight and obese attendees at two outpatient weight management centers were analyzed. The weight loss intervention consisted of a calorie-restricted diet (~1000Kcal/day deficit, a behavior modification plan, and a plan for increasing physical activity. RESULTS: Mean period of follow-up was 12.5 ± 3.5 months. By study exit, mean weight loss and mean HbA1c% reduction were 15.4 ± 5.5 kgs and 0.5 ± 0.2% respectively. 81 (67% in the study cohort achieved at least 1 dose reduction of any anti-diabetic medication. Tests for predictive accuracy of baseline TGL/HDL ratio ≤ 3 to determine success with dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, area under the curve, likelihood ratio (LR + and LR-of 81, 83, 90, 70, 78, 4.8 and 0.2, respectively. Reproducibility of TGL/HDL ratio was acceptable. CONCLUSION: TGL/HDL ratio shows promise as an effective screening tool to determine success with dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications. The results of our study may inform the conduct of a systematic review using data from prior weight loss trials.

  14. Triglyceride/HDL ratio as a screening tool for predicting success at reducing anti-diabetic medications following weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Kumar, Anita Ashok; Kahan, Scott; Irukulla, Pavan Kumar; Cheskin, Lawrence Jay

    2013-01-01

    Intentional weight loss, by reducing insulin resistance, results in both better glycemic control and decreased need for anti-diabetic medications. However, not everyone who is successful with weight loss is able to reduce anti-diabetic medication use. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed the predictive accuracy of baseline triglyceride (TGL)/HDL ratio, a marker of insulin resistance, to screen patients for success in reducing anti-diabetic medication use with weight loss. Case records of 121 overweight and obese attendees at two outpatient weight management centers were analyzed. The weight loss intervention consisted of a calorie-restricted diet (~1000Kcal/day deficit), a behavior modification plan, and a plan for increasing physical activity. Mean period of follow-up was 12.5 ± 3.5 months. By study exit, mean weight loss and mean HbA1c% reduction were 15.4 ± 5.5 kgs and 0.5 ± 0.2% respectively. 81 (67%) in the study cohort achieved at least 1 dose reduction of any anti-diabetic medication. Tests for predictive accuracy of baseline TGL/HDL ratio ≤ 3 to determine success with dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, area under the curve, likelihood ratio (LR) + and LR-of 81, 83, 90, 70, 78, 4.8 and 0.2, respectively. Reproducibility of TGL/HDL ratio was acceptable. TGL/HDL ratio shows promise as an effective screening tool to determine success with dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications. The results of our study may inform the conduct of a systematic review using data from prior weight loss trials.

  15. Measurement of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of metals by means of ESPI using a digital camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, J. B. Pascual; Michtchenko, A.; Barragán Pérez, O.; Susarrey Huerta, O.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, mechanical experiments with a low-cost interferometry set-up are presented. The set-up is suitable for an undergraduate laboratory where optical equipment is absent. The arrangement consists of two planes of illumination, allowing the measurement of the two perpendicular in-plane displacement directions. An axial load was applied on three different metals, and the longitudinal and transversal displacements were measured sequentially. A digital camera was used to acquire the images of the different states of load of the illuminated area. A personal computer was used to perform the digital subtraction of the images to obtain the fringe correlations, which are needed to calculate the displacements. Finally, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of the metals were calculated using the displacement data.

  16. Using Digital Elevation Model to Improve Soil pH Prediction in an Alpine Doline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. BUTTAFU0C; R. COMOLLI; A. CASTRIGNAN(O)

    2011-01-01

    Among spatial interpolation techniques, geostatistics is generally preferred because it takes into account the spatial correlation between neighbouring observations in order to predict attribute values at unsampled locations. A doline of approximately 15 000 m2 at 1900 m above sea level (North Italy) was selected as the study area to estimate a digital elevation model (DEM) using geostatistics,to provide a realistic distribution of the errors and to demonstrate whether using widely available secondary data provided more accurate estimates of soil pH than those obtained by univariate kriging. Elevation was measured at 467 randomly distributed points that were converted into a regular DEM using ordinary kriging. Further. 110 pits were located using spatial simulated annealing (SSA) method. The interpolation techniques were multi-linear regression analysis (MLR), ordinary kriging (OK), regression kriging (RK), knging with external drift (KED) and multi-collocated ordinary cokriging (CKmc). A cross-validation test was used to assess the prediction performances of the different algorithms and then evaluate which methods performed best. RK and KED yielded better results than the more complex CKmc and OK. The choice of the most appropriate interpolation method accounting for redundant auxiliary information was strongly conditioned by site specific situations.

  17. Digit ratios by computer-assisted analysis confirm lack of anatomical evidence of prenatal androgen exposure in clinical phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehotay Denis C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently showed that women with four clinical phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS do not demonstrate anatomical evidence of elevated prenatal androgen exposure as judged by a lower ratio of the index (2D to ring (4D finger. However, those findings conflicted with a previous study where women with PCOS had lower right hand 2D:4D compared to healthy female controls. Both these studies used Vernier calipers to measure finger lengths - a method recently shown to be less reliable at obtaining finger length measurements than computer-assisted analysis. Methods Ninety-six women diagnosed with PCOS according to the 2003 Rotterdam criteria had their finger lengths measured with computer-assisted analysis. Participants were categorized into four recognized phenotypes of PCOS and their 2D:4D compared to healthy female controls (n = 48 and men (n = 50. Results Digit ratios assessed by computer-assisted analysis in women with PCOS did not differ from female controls, but were significantly lower in men. When subjects were stratified by PCOS phenotype, 2D:4D did not differ among phenotypes or when compared to female controls. Conclusion Computer-assisted measurements validated that digit ratios of women with PCOS do not show anatomical evidence of increased prenatal androgen exposure.

  18. RATIO OF PATIENTS HEIGHT TO THYROMENTAL DISTANCE ( RHTMD COMPARED TO THYROMENTAL DISTANCE FOR PREDICTION OF DIFFICULT INTUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE : Preoperative evaluation is important in the detection of patients at risk for difficult tracheal intubation. Thyromental distance (TMD is often used for these purposes, but its value as an indicator for difficult intubation is questionable, as it varies with patient size and body proportions. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the accuracies of th e Ratio o f Patient’s Height t o TMD (ratio of height to TMD=RHTMD, with TMD and Modified Mallampati classification (MP in the prediction of difficult tracheal intubation. OBJECTIVE : This study is an attempt in finding an airway index by making simple measurements to anticipate difficult airway and compare RHTMD with TMD and MP classification for predicting difficult airway. METHODS : 170 apparently normal ASA I & II patients who were u ndergoing elective surgeries under General Anaesthesia (GA were included in the study. The MP, TMD and RHTMD were determined in each patient preoperatively and Cormack – Lehane (CL grading was assessed during laryngoscopy. TMD ≤6.5cm, RHTMD > 25 and MP c lass III & IV were considered difficult intubation; these values were compared with CL grading. CL grade III&IV were considered as difficult intubation. The optimal predictive value was chosen using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. The area s under the ROC curves (AUC of TMD and RHTMD were compared to determine the performance of the different predictive tests used. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of each of the predictive tests were calculated accor ding to standard formulae. RESULTS : Difficult intubation occurred in 6 out of 170 patients (3.5% in the study. The sensitivity of Modified Mallampati classification was 33.3% and specificity was 90.8%. The test has a positive predictive value of 11.7%, ne gative predictive value of 97.3% and overall accuracy of 88.8%. The sensitivity of TMD was 33.3% and

  19. Cardiovascular risk prediction: the old has given way to the new but at what risk-benefit ratio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeboah J

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Yeboah Heart and Vascular Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: The ultimate goal of cardiovascular risk prediction is to identify individuals in the population to whom the application or administration of current proven lifestyle modifications and medicinal therapies will result in reduction in cardiovascular disease events and minimal adverse effects (net benefit to society. The use of cardiovascular risk prediction tools dates back to 1976 when the Framingham coronary heart disease risk score was published. Since then a lot of novel risk markers have been identified and other cardiovascular risk prediction tools have been developed to either improve or replace the Framingham Risk Score (FRS. In 2013, the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator was published by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association to replace the FRS for cardiovascular risk prediction. It is too soon to know the performance of the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator. The risk-benefit ratio for preventive therapy (lifestyle modifications, statin +/− aspirin based on cardiovascular disease risk assessed using the FRS is unknown but it was assumed to be a net benefit. Should we also assume the risk-benefit ratio for the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator is also a net benefit? Keywords: risk prediction, prevention, cardiovascular disease

  20. Digital Education Governance: Data Visualization, Predictive Analytics, and "Real-Time" Policy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Educational institutions and governing practices are increasingly augmented with digital database technologies that function as new kinds of policy instruments. This article surveys and maps the landscape of digital policy instrumentation in education and provides two detailed case studies of new digital data systems. The Learning Curve is a…

  1. Digital Education Governance: Data Visualization, Predictive Analytics, and "Real-Time" Policy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Educational institutions and governing practices are increasingly augmented with digital database technologies that function as new kinds of policy instruments. This article surveys and maps the landscape of digital policy instrumentation in education and provides two detailed case studies of new digital data systems. The Learning Curve is a…

  2. Primary analysis of current studies on the digit ratio%对指长比研究现状的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席焕久; 赵红; 李文慧; 李超; 张美芝; 温有锋

    2012-01-01

    指长比常用食指指长(2D)和环指指长(4D) 的比值来表示,是产前雄性激素活动公认的生物学标记,具有性别、民族、种族和地域差异,对某些疾病的发生有一定的关系,可预测部分运动潜能.我们应用文献计量法,通过中外数据库,收集了近十年来国内外指长比的出版物,对其出版时间、专业领域分布、影响因子等进行了初步分析.研究表明,英国、美国、奥地利和德国等国研究较多,而我国起步较晚.当前,除对人进行指长比研究外,还对灵长类动物等进行了研究.这对深入研究健康的危险因素、预防疾病和研究人的行为、认知能力等都具有重要意义.指长比作为人体测量的指标仍是当前研究的热点,今后对指长比的人群差异,某些动物中的指长比研究及其在医学、体育科学、行为科学中的应用和其分子生物学基础还需要进一步深入地探讨.%The digit length ratio of the second finger length to fourth finger length (2D:4D) is a putative marker for prenatal androgen action, exists sexual, ethnic, racial, and geographic differences, is associated to the incidences of diseases and may pre-estimate physical capacity potential. This study reviewed publications on digit ratio over the past decade and analysed their publication time, professional distribution and impact factors. It indicated that the major ications came from British, United States, Austria and. G-ermany and lew trom L.nina. In addition in numans, digit ratio was studied in the primates. The digit ratio, as a anthropometry index, still is a hotpoint as it is important to estimate health risk factors, prevent some diseases, study human behavior and cognizence and so on. In the future, it needs to be probed thoroughly in differences of intergroups digit ratio, animas digit ratio, applications in medicine, sport science, behavior science and foundation molecular biology

  3. Using the amplitude variation of a reverberation chamber channel to predict the synchronization of a wireless digital communication test system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanuhardja, Ray R.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Wang, Chih-Ming; Young, William F.; Remley, Kate A.; Ladbury, John M.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the use of a metric based on the amplitude variation of a channel in the signal bandwidth to predict whether or not a digital wireless communication test system receiver will be able to demodulate a test signal. This metric is compared to another method consisting of the correlation calcu

  4. Structure Prediction Based on Hydrophobic to Hydrophilic Volume Ratios in Small Molecule Amphiphilic Organic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The structure type for the crystal of 4,4'-bis-(2-hydroxy-ethoxyl)-biphenyl 1 has been predicted by using the previously developed interfacial model for small organic molecules. Based on the calculated hydrophobic to hydrophilic volume of 1, this model predicts the crystal structure to be of lamellar or bicontinuous type, which has been confirmed by the X-ray single-crystal structure analysis (C20H26O6, monoclinic, P21/c, a = 16.084(1), b = 6.0103(4), c = 9.6410(7)(A), β = 103.014(2)°, V = 908.1(1)(A)3, Z = 2, Dc = 1.325 g/cm3, F(000)=388, μ = 0.097 mm-1, MoKα radiation, λ = 0.71073 (A), R = 0.0382 and wR = 0.0882 with I > 2σ(I) for 7121 reflections collected, 1852 unique reflections and 170 parameters). As predicted, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions of 1 form in the lamellae. The same interfacial model is applied to other amphilphilic small molecule organic systems for structural type prediction.

  5. Flight Loads Prediction of High Aspect Ratio Wing Aircraft Using Multibody Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Castellani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A framework based on multibody dynamics has been developed for the static and dynamic aeroelastic analyses of flexible high aspect ratio wing aircraft subject to structural geometric nonlinearities. Multibody dynamics allows kinematic nonlinearities and nonlinear relationships in the forces definition and is an efficient and promising methodology to model high aspect ratio wings, which are known to be prone to structural nonlinear effects because of the high deflections in flight. The multibody dynamics framework developed employs quasi-steady aerodynamics strip theory and discretizes the wing as a series of rigid bodies interconnected by beam elements, representative of the stiffness distribution, which can undergo arbitrarily large displacements and rotations. The method is applied to a flexible high aspect ratio wing commercial aircraft and both trim and gust response analyses are performed in order to calculate flight loads. These results are then compared to those obtained with the standard linear aeroelastic approach provided by the Finite Element Solver Nastran. Nonlinear effects come into play mainly because of the need of taking into account the large deflections of the wing for flight loads computation and of considering the aerodynamic forces as follower forces.

  6. STUDY ON THE DIGIT RATIO OF BOUYEI ETHNIC GROUP IN GUIZHOU%布依族群体指长比的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建富; 骆文斌; 余跃生

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究贵州布依族群体指长比,比较分析布依族群体不同性别左右手指指长比均值的分布特点.[方法]采用人类体质测量法,研究布依族312例(男153例,女159例)左右手指长比(2D:3D、2D:4D、2D:5D、3D:4D、3D:5D、4D:5D).[结果]布依族指长比均值呈现2D:3D<2D:4D<3D:4D<2D:5D<4D:5D<3D:5D的趋势,左右手指长比均数是女性高于男性,且2D:3D,2D:4D差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).[结论]指长比存在性别问差异,2D:4D尤为明显.%[Objective] To study the digit ratio of Bouyei ethnic group in Guizhou, ananlyze the mean values of left and right hands of different sexes. [Methods] Physique measurements were used to study the digit ratios (2D ∶ 3D, 2D∶ 4D, 2D ∶ 5D, 3D ∶ 4D, 3D ∶ 5D, 4D ∶ 5D) of left and right hands of 312 individuals (153 males, 159 females) of the Bouyei. [Results] The mean values of digit ratios presented a trend as∶ 2D ∶ 3D < 2D ∶ 4D < 3D ∶ 4D < 2D ∶ 5D < 4D ∶ 5D < 3D ∶ 5D. Significant differences of 2D ∶ 3D, 2D ∶ 4D of left and right hands were found between males and females (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Females had higher mean values than males. [Conclusion] There is sexual difference in digit ratio and an obvious sexual difference in 2D ∶ 4D.

  7. Usefulness of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio in Prediction of Coronary Artery Lesions in Patients with Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Fikri; Karadeniz, Cem; Özdemir, Rahmi; Yozgat, Yılmaz; Çelegen, Kübra; Karaaslan, Utku; Demirol, Mustafa; Meşe, Timur; Ünal, Nurettin

    2015-10-01

    Kawasaki disease is an inflammatory condition. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio is a marker reflecting inflammation. The aim of the study is to evaluate usefulness of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in diagnosis of Kawasaki disease and in prediction of coronary artery lesions. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Seventy-five children with Kawasaki disease and 66 controls were retrospectively enrolled. Their leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were recorded. Abnormally distributed data were shown as median (interquartile range). Cases having coronary artery diameter two standard deviation above mean were diagnosed to have coronary artery lesions. Median age of Kawasaki disease patients was 34 months. Twentyfive of those (33.33%) had incomplete Kawasaki disease and twenty-six (34.66%) had coronary artery lesions. Leukocyte [12.61 (6.09)×10(3)/µL vs. 8.48 (5.58)×10(3)/µL], neutrophil [6.73 (4.10) ×10(3)/µL vs. 4.62 (5.47)×10(3)/µL], and lymphocyte [4.04 (2.91)×10(3)/µL vs. 3.02 (2.57) ×10(3)/µL] counts were significantly higher in Kawasaki disease patients compared to controls (all p values Kawasaki disease and incomplete Kawasaki disease cases did not differ, while comparison of patients with and without coronary artery lesions revealed significantly higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio values in former group [2.02 (1.63) vs. 1.50 (1.28), p=0.01]. The cut-off neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio value for prediction of coronary artery lesions was determined as 1.32. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio values in Kawasaki patients with coronary lesions were significantly higher than the ones without and values greater than 1.32 were useful in prediction of coronary lesions.

  8. Prediction of Clay/Organic Carbon Ratio Using On-The-Go Proximal Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabai, Salman; Knadel, Maria; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    -index using laboratory visible near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) for a wide range of soils was recently published. In this study, we tested a direct prediction of n-index in the field using a proximal spectrometer. Spectral reflectance of eight agricultural fields was measured in the range of 350-2200 nm...... using a commercial mobile sensor platform (Veris Technologies, USA). Principal components analysis was performed on spectra followed by fuzzy c-means clustering to select 15 representative sampling locations on each field. Clay and OC were determined for all samples using pipette and ignition methods......, respectively and n-index was calculated (range: 1.16-8.45). Partial least squares (PLS) models were calibrated using pretreated vis-NIR spectra as predictors and n-index as the response. Ventian Blinds (VB) cross validation (CV) using 15 segments, one-field-out (OFO) CV and regression prediction using...

  9. Sand production prediction using ratio of shear modulus to bulk compressibility (case study)

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Khamehchi; Ebrahim Reisi

    2015-01-01

    Sand production is a serious problem widely existing in oil/gas production. The problems resulting from sand influx include abrasion of downhole tubular/casing, subsurface safety valve and surface equipment; casing/tubing buckling, failure of casing or liners from removal of surrounding formation, compaction and erosion; and loss of production caused by sand bridging in tubing and/or flow lines. There are several methods for predicting sand production. The methods include use of production da...

  10. The effects of digital elevation model resolution on the calculation and predictions of topographic wetness indices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drover, Damion, Ryan

    2011-12-01

    One of the largest exports in the Southeast U.S. is forest products. Interest in biofuels using forest biomass has increased recently, leading to more research into better forest management BMPs. The USDA Forest Service, along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Georgia and Oregon State University are researching the impacts of intensive forest management for biofuels on water quality and quantity at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Surface runoff of saturated areas, transporting excess nutrients and contaminants, is a potential water quality issue under investigation. Detailed maps of variable source areas and soil characteristics would therefore be helpful prior to treatment. The availability of remotely sensed and computed digital elevation models (DEMs) and spatial analysis tools make it easy to calculate terrain attributes. These terrain attributes can be used in models to predict saturated areas or other attributes in the landscape. With laser altimetry, an area can be flown to produce very high resolution data, and the resulting data can be resampled into any resolution of DEM desired. Additionally, there exist many maps that are in various resolutions of DEM, such as those acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. Problems arise when using maps derived from different resolution DEMs. For example, saturated areas can be under or overestimated depending on the resolution used. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DEM resolution on the calculation of topographic wetness indices used to predict variable source areas of saturation, and to find the best resolutions to produce prediction maps of soil attributes like nitrogen, carbon, bulk density and soil texture for low-relief, humid-temperate forested hillslopes. Topographic wetness indices were calculated based on the derived terrain attributes, slope and specific catchment area, from five different DEM resolutions. The DEMs were resampled from LiDAR, which is a

  11. A PRISMA-driven systematic review for predictive risk factors of digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I; Almeida, J; Vasconcelos, C

    2015-02-01

    Vasculopathy has a major role in the pathogenesis and tissue injury in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is frequently the first clinical manifestation of SSc preceding by years other clinical manifestations. RP in SSc patients is frequent, often very severe and long lasting. The repeated bouts of RP lead to prolonged digital ischemia that may progress to digital ulceration or in extreme to critical digital ischemia with gangrene. Digital ulcers (DU) are a true burden for all patients. They are very painful, with a long and slow healing course, have high risk of infection and are extremely disabling. In adults, up to 40-50% of patients will experience at least one DU in the course of the disease and of these 31-71% will have recurrent ulcers. In order to try to identify predictive risk factors for DU in SSc patients, an extensive literature review was conducted, according to the guidelines proposed at the PRISMA statement. MEDLINE database (PubMed) and Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge platform were searched for articles published in peer-reviewed journals since 1990 with the last search run on June 2014 and published in English language. The keyword search terms included: digital ulcer/s, systemic sclerosis, scleroderma, digital scars, ischemic complications, autoantibodies, biomarkers, endothelium dysfunction, endothelin-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endostatin, ADMA, endoglin, angiostatin, and capillaroscopy. The following criteria were included: (1) cohorts of SSc patients including patients with DU, (2) endothelium dysfunction and angiogenesis biomarkers compared with a healthy control group, (3) autoantibodies, capillary morphology and distribution, endothelium dysfunction and angiogenesis biomarkers compared between patients with and without digital ulcers, (4) detailed description of the statistical methods used to conclude for predictive factors, and (5) English language. Our search provided a total of 376 citations. Of

  12. Physiologically-based, predictive analytics using the heart-rate-to-Systolic-Ratio significantly improves the timeliness and accuracy of sepsis prediction compared to SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Omar K; Hendren, Sandra; Santiago, Ethel; Nye, Brittany; Abraham, Prasad

    2017-04-01

    Enhancing the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment of severe sepsis by using physiologically-based, predictive analytical strategies has not been fully explored. We hypothesize assessment of heart-rate-to-systolic-ratio significantly increases the timeliness and accuracy of sepsis prediction after emergency department (ED) presentation. We evaluated the records of 53,313 ED patients from a large, urban teaching hospital between January and June 2015. The HR-to-systolic ratio was compared to SIRS criteria for sepsis prediction. There were 884 patients with discharge diagnoses of sepsis, severe sepsis, and/or septic shock. Variations in three presenting variables, heart rate, systolic BP and temperature were determined to be primary early predictors of sepsis with a 74% (654/884) accuracy compared to 34% (304/884) using SIRS criteria (p sepsis identification via detection of variations in HR-to-systolic ratio. This approach may lead to earlier sepsis workup and life-saving interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting speech intelligibility based on the signal-to-noise envelope power ratio after modulation-frequency selective processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2011-09-01

    A model for predicting the intelligibility of processed noisy speech is proposed. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model has a similar structure as the model of Ewert and Dau [(2000). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1181-1196], developed to account for modulation detection and masking data. The model estimates the speech-to-noise envelope power ratio, SNR(env), at the output of a modulation filterbank and relates this metric to speech intelligibility using the concept of an ideal observer. Predictions were compared to data on the intelligibility of speech presented in stationary speech-shaped noise. The model was further tested in conditions with noisy speech subjected to reverberation and spectral subtraction. Good agreement between predictions and data was found in all cases. For spectral subtraction, an analysis of the model's internal representation of the stimuli revealed that the predicted decrease of intelligibility was caused by the estimated noise envelope power exceeding that of the speech. The classical concept of the speech transmission index fails in this condition. The results strongly suggest that the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of a modulation frequency selective process provides a key measure of speech intelligibility.

  14. The PE Ratio and the Predicted Earnings Growth – the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurach Radosław

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the components of equity returns on the Polish capital market. To analyse the underlying complexity of returns we took into consideration the model designed by Leibowitz (1999. This model captures three factors: dividend yield, expected growth in earnings and expected change in price-to-earnings (PE ratio. We applied this model to analyse the average discount/premium not only to particular shares but to market averages as well. Firstly, we examined the variation of PE across the companies (as adapted from Penman (1996 to analyse the average rate of return and their striking distance of individual stocks from a ‘normal’ level. Then we checked the transitory earnings in the portfolios of high PE, whereby a fall in current earnings relative to sustainable level of earnings leads to a transitory high PE ratio. We expect that the effect of transience in current year earnings can be significant. Lastly, we analysed the individual companies in order to check what percentage of companies give a “correct” signal about future prospects.

  15. The genetic sex-determination system predicts adult sex ratios in tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipoly, Ivett; Bókony, Veronika; Kirkpatrick, Mark; Donald, Paul F; Székely, Tamás; Liker, András

    2015-11-05

    The adult sex ratio (ASR) has critical effects on behaviour, ecology and population dynamics, but the causes of variation in ASRs are unclear. Here we assess whether the type of genetic sex determination influences the ASR using data from 344 species in 117 families of tetrapods. We show that taxa with female heterogamety have a significantly more male-biased ASR (proportion of males: 0.55 ± 0.01 (mean ± s.e.m.)) than taxa with male heterogamety (0.43 ± 0.01). The genetic sex-determination system explains 24% of interspecific variation in ASRs in amphibians and 36% in reptiles. We consider several genetic factors that could contribute to this pattern, including meiotic drive and sex-linked deleterious mutations, but further work is needed to quantify their effects. Regardless of the mechanism, the effects of the genetic sex-determination system on the adult sex ratio are likely to have profound effects on the demography and social behaviour of tetrapods.

  16. High Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Cardiovascular Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ruifang

    2017-01-01

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a novel simple biomarker of inflammation. It has emerged as a predictor of poor prognosis in cancer and cardiovascular disease in general population. But little was known of its prognostic value in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Here we investigated the association between NLR and cardiovascular risk markers, including increased pulse pressure (PP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and intima-media thickness (IMT), and mortality in HD patients. Two hundred and sixty-eight HD patients were enrolled in this study and were followed for 36 months. The primary end point was all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios for NLR on all-cause and cardiovascular survival. We pinpointed that higher NLR in HD patients was a predictor of increased PP, LVMI, and IMT; HD patients with higher NLR had a lower survival at the end of the study; furthermore, high NLR was an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality when adjusted for other risk factors. In conclusion, higher NLR in HD patients was associated with cardiovascular risk factors and mortality.

  17. High ratio of triglycerides to hdl-cholesterol predicts extensive coronary disease

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    Protasio Lemos da Luz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An abnormal ratio of triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-c indicates an atherogenic lipid profile and a risk for the development of coronary disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between lipid levels, specifically TG/HDL-c, and the extent of coronary disease. METHODS: High-risk patients (n = 374 submitted for coronary angiography had their lipid variables measured and coronary disease extent scored by the Friesinger index. RESULTS: The subjects consisted of 220 males and 154 females, age 57.2 ± 11.1 years, with total cholesterol of 210± 50.3 mg/dL, triglycerides of 173.8 ± 169.8 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c of 40.1 ± 12.8 mg/dL, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c of 137.3 ± 46.2 mg/dL, TG/HDL-c of 5.1 ± 5.3, and a Friesinger index of 6.6 ± 4.7. The relationship between the extent of coronary disease (dichotomized by a Friesenger index of 5 and lipid levels (normal vs. abnormal was statistically significant for the following: triglycerides, odds ratio of 2.02 (1.31-3.1; p = 0.0018; HDL-c, odds ratio of 2.21 (1.42-3.43; p = 0.0005; and TG/HDL-c, odds ratio of 2.01(1.30-3.09; p = 0.0018. However, the relationship was not significant between extent of coronary disease and total cholesterol [1.25 (0.82-1.91; p = 0.33] or LDL-c [1.47 (0.96-2.25; p = 0.0842]. The chi-square for linear trends for Friesinger > 4 and lipid quartiles was statistically significant for triglycerides (p = 0.0017, HDL-c (p = 0.0001, and TG/HDL-c (p = 0.0018, but not for total cholesterol (p = 0.393 or LDL-c (p = 0.0568. The multivariate analysis by logistic regression OR gave 1.3 ± 0.79 (p = .0001 for TG/HDL-c, 0.779 ± 0.074 (p = .0001 for HDL-c, and 1.234 ± 0.097 (p = 0.03 for LDL. Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that only TG/HDL-c and HDL-c were useful for detecting extensive coronary disease, with the former more strongly associated with disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although some lipid variables were associated with the extent of

  18. Predicting speech intelligibility based on the signal-to-noise envelope power ratio after modulation-frequency selective processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    A model for predicting the intelligibility of processed noisy speech is proposed. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model has a similar structure as the model of Ewert and Dau [(2000). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1181-1196], developed to account for modulation detection and masking data....... The model estimates the speech-to-noise envelope power ratio, SNR env, at the output of a modulation filterbank and relates this metric to speech intelligibility using the concept of an ideal observer. Predictions were compared to data on the intelligibility of speech presented in stationary speech......-shaped noise. The model was further tested in conditions with noisy speech subjected to reverberation and spectral subtraction. Good agreement between predictions and data was found in all cases. For spectral subtraction, an analysis of the model's internal representation of the stimuli revealed...

  19. Agreement in Measurement of Optic Cup-to-Disc Ratio with Stereo Biomicroscope Funduscopy and Digital Image Analysis: Results from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Gilbert, Clare

    2017-02-01

    To determine agreement in estimations of vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) between clinical stereo-biomicroscopic funduscopy and digital fundus image analysis. Systematic sampling of 1-in-7 from a sample of 13,591 participants aged ≥40 years gave a subsample who were examined in detail. VCDR was estimated clinically by 60 diopter aspheric lens biomicroscopic funduscopy (c-VCDR) and by digital fundus images (i-VCDR) graded at the Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre. Spearman's correlation coefficient, paired t-test and the Bland-Altman method to assess limits of agreement (LOA) between the two methods were applied. Of 1759 participants in the subsample, 848 participants (48%) with normal frequency doubling technology (FDT) visual fields and data for i-VCDR and c-VCDR in both eyes (n = 1696 eyes) were included in the analysis. By absolute difference of VCDR values for each eye between the two methods, 1585 eyes (94%) differed by ≤0.2. Mean i-VCDR was 0.381 (standard deviation, SD 0.156), and mean c-VCDR 0.321 (SD 0.145). i-VCDRs were significantly larger by a mean difference of 0.061 (SD 0.121; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.055-0.066; p Digital image analysis and clinical assessment are two distinct methods to measure VCDR; with larger i-VCDRs in this survey. Applying i-VCDR cut-off values to c-VCDR measurements in the Nigeria Blindness Survey might have underestimated glaucoma prevalence. It is recommended that all participants in glaucoma surveys have VCDR by digital image measurement.

  20. Do FSH/LH ratio and gonadal hormone levels predict clinical improvement in postmenopausal schizophrenia women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Bernardo, Miquel; Penadés, Rafael; Arias, Bárbara; Ruiz Cortés, Victoria; Seeman, Mary V; Catalán, Rosa

    2017-07-12

    Menopause is a process characterized by a decline in estrogen levels and is therefore a period of biological vulnerability for psychotic relapse in women with schizophrenia. Our goal was to correlate not only gonadal hormone levels but also follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels with improvement in specific clinical symptoms. Thirty-seven acutely ill postmenopausal schizophrenia women with a newly initiated, clinically determined change in antipsychotic medication participated in a 12-week prospective observational outcome study. Scales used were the PANSS scale for psychotic symptoms, the PSP for functioning, and CGI for global clinical impression. Circulating FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone serum levels were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Partial correlational analyses were performed along with a Bonferroni significance correction (p schizophrenia symptom domains, we recommend further investigation of pituitary, adrenal, and gonadal hormone ratios as potential markers of clinical improvement in this population.

  1. Predictive value of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Gülistan; Aktoğu, Serir; Erer, Onur Fevzi; Kır, Serpil Bulaç; Doruk, Sibel; Demir, Melike; Sonat, Kübra

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to assess the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and platelet parameters in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 60 stable COPD patients, 50 acute exacerbation COPD patients and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The platelet distribution width and PLR were higher and the mean platelet volume was lower in the COPD patients during acute exacerbation compared with the stable patients and controls. The PLR was negatively correlated with the forced expiratory volume in 1 s. The PLR may be used as a useful and easily accessible tool for evaluating the ongoing inflammation during stable period and the disease severity during acute exacerbations in COPD patients.

  2. Study on the digit ratio and digit length/height of soldiers in the Chinese people's armed tactical unit%武警某机动部队战士指长比和指长/身高的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亮; 周玉来; 李勇; 陈志忠; 雷晴

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨武警部队战士指长比和指长/身高的特点,旨在获得军队此方面体质人类学数据,并为军队科学训练、安全管理提供理论依据。方法对武警某机动部队421名战士测量身高及左右4个手指长度,将指长与军标比较,计算指长比和指长/身高,并与年龄和文化程度进行相关分析。结果①该机动部队战士左右手指长大小关系均为3D>4D>2D>5D。左手2D、3D和右手的2D、5D均较军标长。左手和右手的指长比大小关系均为3D∶5D>4D∶5D>2D∶5D>3D∶4D>2D∶4D>2D∶3D;指长/身高大小关系均为3D∶H>4D∶H>2D∶H>5D∶H。②左手的2D∶4D、3D∶4D、右手的2D∶3D与年龄呈正相关。右手的3D∶4D及3D∶5D与年龄均呈负相关。指长/身高与年龄不相关。③右手的2D∶4D、3D∶4D与文化程度呈正相关,4D:H与文化程度呈负相关。结论该武警机动部队战士指长较军标长,年龄、文化程度与指长比、指长/身高具有部分较弱的相关性。本研究获得了部队指长比和指长/身高的体质人类学数据,并为武警部队科学训练和保持高度安全稳定提供了基础资料。%Objective To explore the traits of digit ratio and digit length/height, as to obtain the parameter of physical anthropology while to provide theoretical basis of scientific training and safety management for the army.Methods A total of 421 soldiers were measured by anthropometry technology for their heights and 4 digit lengths of two hands.Compared the digit length with the GJB. Calculated the digit ratio and digit length/height and then analysed their correlation with their age and educational level.Results ①The trend of the digit length was presented 3D>4D>2D>5D. 2D、3D of the left hand and 2D、5D of the right hand were all longer than the GJB.The digit ratio was 3D∶5D>4D∶5D>2D∶5D>3D:4D>2D∶4D>2D∶3D,and the digit length/height was 3D∶H>4D∶H>2D

  3. Infused autograft lymphocyte to monocyte ratio predicts survival in classical Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porrata LF

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Luis F Porrata, David J Inwards, Stephen M Ansell, Ivana N Micallef, Patrick B Johnston, William J Hogan, Svetomir N Markovic Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: The infused autograft lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (A-LMR as a surrogate marker of host immunity (ie, absolute lymphocyte count and CD14+ HLA-DRlow/neg immunosuppressive monocytes (ie, absolute monocyte count is a prognostic factor for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (APHSCT. Thus, we set out to investigate if A-LMR can also affect survival post-APHSCT in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. From 1994 to 2012, 183 patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent APHSCT were studied. The patients were randomly divided into a training set (n=122 and a validation set (n=61. The receiver operating characteristic and area under the curve identified an A-LMR ≥1 as the best cut-off value and validated by the k-fold cross-validation in the training set. Multivariate analysis showed A-LMR to be an independent prognostic factor for survival in the training set. Patients with an A-LMR ≥1.0 experienced a superior overall survival (OS versus patients with an A-LMR <1.0 (median OS not reached versus 40.4 months, 5-year OS rates of 86% [95% CI 72–93] versus 43% [95% CI 28–58], P<0.0001, respectively in the training set. In the validation set, an A-LMR ≥1 showed a median OS of not reached versus 41.4 months for an A-LMR ,1, 5-year OS rates of 90% (95% CI 73–97 versus 48% (95% CI 28–68; P<0.0001. A-LMR provides a platform to engineer an autograft versus tumor effect to improve clinical outcomes in patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma undergoing APHSCT. Keywords: autograft absolute lymphocyte to monocyte count ratio, survival, autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, classical Hodgkin lymphoma

  4. Predicting prey population dynamics from kill rate, predation rate and predator-prey ratios in three wolf-ungulate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetich, John A; Hebblewhite, Mark; Smith, Douglas W; Peterson, Rolf O

    2011-11-01

    1. Predation rate (PR) and kill rate are both fundamental statistics for understanding predation. However, relatively little is known about how these statistics relate to one another and how they relate to prey population dynamics. We assess these relationships across three systems where wolf-prey dynamics have been observed for 41 years (Isle Royale), 19 years (Banff) and 12 years (Yellowstone). 2. To provide context for this empirical assessment, we developed theoretical predictions of the relationship between kill rate and PR under a broad range of predator-prey models including predator-dependent, ratio-dependent and Lotka-Volterra dynamics. 3. The theoretical predictions indicate that kill rate can be related to PR in a variety of diverse ways (e.g. positive, negative, unrelated) that depend on the nature of predator-prey dynamics (e.g. structure of the functional response). These simulations also suggested that the ratio of predator-to-prey is a good predictor of prey growth rate. That result motivated us to assess the empirical relationship between the ratio and prey growth rate for each of the three study sites. 4. The empirical relationships indicate that PR is not well predicted by kill rate, but is better predicted by the ratio of predator-to-prey. Kill rate is also a poor predictor of prey growth rate. However, PR and ratio of predator-to-prey each explained significant portions of variation in prey growth rate for two of the three study sites. 5. Our analyses offer two general insights. First, Isle Royale, Banff and Yellowstone are similar insomuch as they all include wolves preying on large ungulates. However, they also differ in species diversity of predator and prey communities, exploitation by humans and the role of dispersal. Even with the benefit of our analysis, it remains difficult to judge whether to be more impressed by the similarities or differences. This difficulty nicely illustrates a fundamental property of ecological

  5. A random protein-creatinine ratio accurately predicts baseline proteinuria in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, Adi; Draper, Jennifer; Curley, Cara; Sammel, Mary D; Schwartz, Nadav

    2014-12-01

    Data surrounding the use of a random urine protein:creatinine ratio (PCR) in the diagnosis of preeclampsia is conflicting. We sought to determine whether PCR in early pregnancy can replace the 24-hour urine collection as the primary screening test in patients at risk for baseline proteinuria. Women requiring a baseline evaluation for proteinuria supplied a urine sample the morning after their 24-hour collection. The PCR was analyzed as a predictor of significant proteinuria (≥150 mg). A regression equation to estimate the 24-hour protein value from the PCR was then developed. Sixty of 135 subjects enrolled completed the study. The median 24-hour urine protein and PCR were 90 mg (IQR: 50-145) and 0.063 (IQR: 0.039-0.083), respectively. Fifteen patients (25%) had significant proteinuria. PCR was strongly correlated with the 24-hour protein value (r = 0.99, p proteinuria (AUC = 0.86). A PCR cut-point of 0.079 yielded a sensitivity of 93.3% and a specificity of 57.8%. The resulting regression equation [total protein = 46.5 + 904.2*PCR] accurately estimates the actual 24-hour protein (95% CI: ±88 mg). A random urine PCR accurately estimates the 24-hour protein excretion in the first half of pregnancy and can be used as the primary screening test for baseline proteinuria in at-risk patients.

  6. Return and Risk of Pairs Trading Using a Simulation-Based Bayesian Procedure for Predicting Stable Ratios of Stock Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ardia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the direct connection between the uncertainty related to estimated stable ratios of stock prices and risk and return of two pairs trading strategies: a conditional statistical arbitrage method and an implicit arbitrage one. A simulation-based Bayesian procedure is introduced for predicting stable stock price ratios, defined in a cointegration model. Using this class of models and the proposed inferential technique, we are able to connect estimation and model uncertainty with risk and return of stock trading. In terms of methodology, we show the effect that using an encompassing prior, which is shown to be equivalent to a Jeffreys’ prior, has under an orthogonal normalization for the selection of pairs of cointegrated stock prices and further, its effect for the estimation and prediction of the spread between cointegrated stock prices. We distinguish between models with a normal and Student t distribution since the latter typically provides a better description of daily changes of prices on financial markets. As an empirical application, stocks are used that are ingredients of the Dow Jones Composite Average index. The results show that normalization has little effect on the selection of pairs of cointegrated stocks on the basis of Bayes factors. However, the results stress the importance of the orthogonal normalization for the estimation and prediction of the spread—the deviation from the equilibrium relationship—which leads to better results in terms of profit per capital engagement and risk than using a standard linear normalization.

  7. Digit Ratio (2D:4D, Aggression, and Testosterone in Men Exposed to an Aggressive Video Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam P. Kilduff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relative lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in “challenge” situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a “challenge” is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression.

  8. Predicting grain yield in rice using multi-temporal vegetation indices from UAV-based multispectral and digital imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Zheng, H. B.; Xu, X. Q.; He, J. Y.; Ge, X. K.; Yao, X.; Cheng, T.; Zhu, Y.; Cao, W. X.; Tian, Y. C.

    2017-08-01

    Timely and non-destructive assessment of crop yield is an essential part of agricultural remote sensing (RS). The development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has provided a novel approach for RS, and makes it possible to acquire high spatio-temporal resolution imagery on a regional scale. In this study, the rice grain yield was predicted with single stage vegetation indices (VIs) and multi-temporal VIs derived from the multispectral (MS) and digital images. The results showed that the booting stage was identified as the optimal stage for grain yield prediction with VIs at a single stage for both digital image and MS image. And corresponding optimal color index was VARI with R2 value of 0.71 (Log relationship). While the optimal vegetation index NDVI[800,720] based on MS images showed a linear relationship with the grain yield and gained a higher R2 value (0.75) than color index did. The multi-temporal VIs showed a higher correlation with grain yield than the single stage VIs did. And the VIs at two random growth stage with the multiple linear regression function [MLR(VI)] performed best. The highest correlation coefficient were 0.76 with MLR(NDVI[800,720]) at the booting and heading stages (for the MS image) and 0.73 with MLR(VARI) at the jointing and booting stages (for the digital image). In addition, the VIs that showed a high correlation with LAI performed well for yield prediction, and the VIs composed of red edge band (720 nm) and near infrared band (800 nm) were found to be more effective in predicting yield and LAI at high level. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that both MS and digital sensors mounted on the UAV are reliable platforms for rice growth and grain yield estimation, and determined the best period and optimal VIs for rice grain yield prediction.

  9. Speed Ratio Prediction and Performance Analysis of Single Ball Traction Drive for CVT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal S. Marathe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drives are basically used to transmit power and speed from the prime mover to the machine. The power transmission and speed reduction between the prime-mover and the driven machine can be achieved by using conventional drives like Belt drive, Rope drive, Chain drive, Gears, etc. with their numerous advantages and disadvantages. There are many machines and mechanical units that under varying circumstances make it desirable to be able to drive at a barely perceptible speed, an intermediate speed or a high speed. Thus an infinitely variable (step less speed variation in which it is possible to get any desirable speed. Some mechanical, hydraulic, drives serve as such step less drives. However the torque versus speed characteristics of these drives do not match torque at low speeds. Hence the need of a step less or infinitely variable speed drive came into existence. The drive presented by the end of this research work is single ball traction drive for continuously variable transmission systems. Dissertation includes the brief history of existing drives, speed prediction methodology and performance analysis of the drive developed.

  10. The left hand second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D does not discriminate world-class female gymnasts from age matched sedentary girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W Peeters

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D, a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. METHODS: In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129, competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129, alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy using AN(COVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. RESULTS: Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020 did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018, either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p0.01, somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01, mesomorphy (p<0.01 and ectomorphy (p<0.05 respectively all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. CONCLUSION: Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples, the present study cannot discriminate sedentary girls from world-class female gymnasts by means of the left hand 2D:4D ratio.

  11. A comparison of between hyomental distance ratios, ratio of height to thyromental, modified Mallamapati classification test and upper lip bite test in predicting difficult laryngoscopy of patients undergoing general anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Azim Honarmand; Mohammadreza Safavi; Narges Ansari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Failed intubation is imperative source of anesthetic interrelated patient′s mortality. The aim of this present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from the following pre-operative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: Modified Mallampati test (MMT), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), hyomental distance ratios (HMDR), and the upper-lip-bite test (ULBT). Materials and Methods: We collected data on...

  12. Prediction of speech masking release for fluctuating interferers based on the envelope power signal-to-noise ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) presented by Jørgensen and Dau [(2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 1475-1487] estimates the envelope signal-to-noise ratio (SNRenv) after modulation-frequency selective processing, which accurately predicts the speech intelligibility for normal......-hearing listeners in conditions with additive stationary noise, reverberation, and nonlinear processing with spectral subtraction. The latter condition represents a case in which the standardized speech intelligibility index and speech transmission index fail. However, the sEPSM is limited to conditions...... with stationary interferers due to the long-term estimation of the envelope power and cannot account for the well known phenomenon of speech masking release. Here, a short-term version of the sEPSM is presented, estimating the envelope SNR in 10-ms time frames. Predictions obtained with the short-term s...

  13. "Three-Component" Digital Prospecting Method:A New Approach for Mineral Resources Quantitative Prediction and Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Pengda; Chen Jianping; Chen Jianguo; Zhang Shouting; Chen Yongqing

    2004-01-01

    "Three-component" method consists of three close-connected aspects: geological anomaly, diversity of mineralization and mineral deposit spectrum. All these three concepts are not new separately, but it is a new approach to combine these three aspects in one single concept for quantitative mineral resources prediction and assessment and it is also the first time to conduct a more detailed study in each aspect. Investigation and clarification of geological anomalies, diversity of mineralization and spectrum of mineral deposits are realized by digitization and quantification of ore forming controlling factors, ore-existing symbols or marks, characteristics of mineralization and regulation of ore-genesis and laws of distribution. These procedures lead to construction of a "digital model" for mineral resources prediction and assessment.

  14. The role of plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to predict cardiovascular outcomes in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Alper; Yilmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Saglam, Mutlu; Unal, Hilmi Umut; Gok, Mahmut; Cetinkaya, Hakki; Karaman, Murat; Haymana, Cem; Eyileten, Tayfun; Oguz, Yusuf; Vural, Abdulgaffar; Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P

    2015-04-16

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is substantially increased in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Triglycerides (TG) to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio is an indirect measure of insulin resistance and an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. No study to date has been performed to evaluate whether the TG/HDL-C ratio predicts CVD risk in patients with CKD. A total of 197 patients (age 53±12 years) with CKD Stages 1 to 5, were enrolled in this longitudinal, observational, retrospective study. TG/HDL-C ratio, HOMA-IR indexes, serum asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorous, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and albumin levels were measured. Flow mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery was assessed by using high-resolution ultrasonography. A total of 11 cardiovascular (CV) deaths and 43 nonfatal CV events were registered in a mean follow-up period of 30 (range 9 to 35) months. Subjects with TG/HDL-C ratios above the median values (>3.29) had significantly higher plasma ADMA, PTH, and phosphorous levels (p=0.04, p=0.02, p=0.01 respectively) and lower eGFR and FMD values (p=0.03, pcardiovascular outcomes [HR: 1.36 (1.11-1.67) (p=0.003)] along with plasma ADMA levels [HR: 1.31 (1.13-1.52) (p<0.001)] and a history of diabetes mellitus [HR: 4.82 (2.80-8.37) (p<0.001)]. This study demonstrates that the elevated TG/HDL-C ratio predicts poor CVD outcome in subjects with CKD. Being a simple, inexpensive, and reproducible marker of CVD risk, the TG/HDL-C ratio may emerge as a novel and reliable indicator among the many well-established markers of CVD risk in CKD. Clinical trial registration number and date: NCT02113462 / 10-04-2014.

  15. Predicting Teachers' Use of Digital Learning Materials: Combining Self-Determination Theory and the Integrative Model of Behaviour Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijns, Karel; Vermeulen, Marjan; Van Acker, Frederik; van Buuren, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report on a study that investigated the motivational (e.g. intrinsic motivation) and dispositional variables (e.g. attitudes) that determine teachers' intention to use or not to use digital learning materials (DLMs). To understand the direct and indirect relationships between these variables, we replicated a study in which…

  16. Development, Optimization, and Evaluation of a Duplex Droplet Digital PCR Assay To Quantify the T-nos/hmg Copy Number Ratio in Genetically Modified Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Urquídez, Dalmira; Pérez-Urquiza, Melina; Valdez Torres, José-Benigno; León-Félix, Josefina; García-Estrada, Raymundo; Acatzi-Silva, Abraham

    2016-01-05

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are required to guarantee the reliability of analytical measurements. The CRMs available in the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are characterized using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This technology has limited application, because of its dependence on a calibrant. The objective of this study was to obtain a method with higher metrological quality, to characterize the CRMs for their contents of T-nos/hmg copy number ratio in maize. A duplex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay was developed and optimized by a central composite design. The developed method achieved an absolute limit of detection (LOD) of 11 cP T-nos, a relative LOD of 0.034%, a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 23 cP (relative LOQ of 0.08%), and a dynamic range of 0.08%-100% T-nos/hmg ratio. The specificity and applicability of the assay were established for the analysis of low T-nos concentrations (0.9%) in several corn varieties. The convenience of DNA digestion to reduce measurement bias in the case of multiple-copy binding was confirmed through an enzymatic restriction assay. Given its overall performance, this method can be used to characterize CRM candidates for their contents of T-nos/hmg ratio.

  17. Predicting returns and rent growth in the housing market using the rent-to-price ratio: Evidence from the OECD countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We investigate the predictive power of the rent-to-price ratio for future real estate returns and rent growth in 18 OECD countries over the period 1970 to 2011. First, we document that in most countries returns are signi…cantly predictable by the rent-price ratio. An increase (decrease...... dependent on whether returns and rents are measured in nominal or real terms. Finally, there is some evidence of sub-sample instability in the predictive patterns, especially wrt. rent growth predictability. The predictability tests are conducted within a restricted VAR framework based on the dynamic Gordon...

  18. Prediction of CO Concentration and Maximum Smoke Temperature beneath Ceiling in Tunnel Fire with Different Aspect Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gannouni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a tunnel fire, the production of smoke and toxic gases remains the principal prejudicial factors to users. The heat is not considered as a major direct danger to users since temperatures up to man level do not reach tenable situations that after a relatively long time except near the fire source. However, the temperatures under ceiling can exceed the thresholds conditions and can thus cause structural collapse of infrastructure. This paper presents a numerical analysis of smoke hazard in tunnel fires with different aspect ratio by large eddy simulation. Results show that the CO concentration increases as the aspect ratio decreases and decreases with the longitudinal ventilation velocity. CFD predicted maximum smoke temperatures are compared to the calculated values using the model of Li et al. and then compared with those given by the empirical equation proposed by kurioka et al. A reasonable good agreement has been obtained. The backlayering length decreases as the ventilation velocity increases and this decrease fell into good exponential decay. The dimensionless interface height and the region of bad visibility increases with the aspect ratio of the tunnel cross-sectional geometry.

  19. Partially obstructed channel: Contraction ratio effect on the flow hydrodynamic structure and prediction of the transversal mean velocity profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Meftah, M.; Mossa, M.

    2016-11-01

    In this manuscript, we focus on the study of flow structures in a channel partially obstructed by arrays of vertical, rigid, emergent, vegetation/cylinders. Special attention is given to understand the effect of the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the obstructed area width to the width of the unobstructed area, on the flow hydrodynamic structures and to analyze the transversal flow velocity profile at the obstructed-unobstructed interface. A large data set of transversal mean flow velocity profiles and turbulence characteristics is reported from experiments carried out in a laboratory flume. The flow velocities and turbulence intensities have been measured with a 3D Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV)-Vectrino manufactured by Nortek. It was observed that the arrays of emergent vegetation/cylinders strongly affect the flow structures, forming a shear layer immediately next to the obstructed-unobstructed interface, followed by an adjacent free-stream region of full velocity flow. The experimental results show that the contraction ratio significantly affects the flow hydrodynamic structure. Adaptation of the Prandtl's log-law modified by Nikuradse led to the determination of a characteristic hydrodynamic roughness height to define the array resistance to the flow. Moreover, an improved modified log-law predicting the representative transversal profile of the mean flow velocity, at the obstructed-unobstructed interface, is proposed. The benefit of this modified log-law is its easier practical applicability, i.e., it avoids the measurements of some sensitive turbulence parameters, in addition, the flow hydrodynamic variables forming it are predictable, using the initial hydraulic conditions.

  20. Digital computer program predicts effects of local pressure transients on deformation and stresses in cylindrical ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echenoz, Y.; Luberacki, W.; Padlog, J.; Reismann, H.

    1967-01-01

    Digital computer program determines the dynamic response of circular cylinders subjected to pressure transient forms commonly encountered in propulsion systems. The method can be readily used to obtain solutions for all possible combinations of admissible boundary conditions.

  1. Improved method for predicting the peak signal-to-noise ratio quality of decoded images in fractal image coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Bi, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    To predict the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) quality of decoded images in fractal image coding more efficiently and accurately, an improved method is proposed. After some derivations and analyses, we find that the linear correlation coefficients between coded range blocks and their respective best-matched domain blocks can determine the dynamic range of their collage errors, which can also provide the minimum and the maximum of the accumulated collage error (ACE) of uncoded range blocks. Moreover, the dynamic range of the actual percentage of accumulated collage error (APACE), APACEmin to APACEmax, can be determined as well. When APACEmin reaches a large value, such as 90%, APACEmin to APACEmax will be limited in a small range and APACE can be computed approximately. Furthermore, with ACE and the approximate APACE, the ACE of all range blocks and the average collage error (ACER) can be obtained. Finally, with the logarithmic relationship between ACER and the PSNR quality of decoded images, the PSNR quality of decoded images can be predicted directly. Experiments show that compared with the previous similar method, the proposed method can predict the PSNR quality of decoded images more accurately and needs less computation time simultaneously.

  2. Correlating observed odds ratios from lung cancer case-control studies to SNP functional scores predicted by bioinformatic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hoffman, Aaron; Wu, Xifeng; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Yawei; Leaderer, Derek; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2008-03-01

    Bioinformatic tools are widely utilized to predict functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genotyping in molecular epidemiological studies. However, the extent to which these approaches are mirrored by epidemiological findings has not been fully explored. In this study, we first surveyed SNPs examined in case-control studies of lung cancer, the most extensively studied cancer type. We then computed SNP functional scores using four popular bioinformatics tools: SIFT, PolyPhen, SNPs3D, and PMut, and determined their predictive potential using the odds ratios (ORs) reported. Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) for the association with SNP score from SIFT, PolyPhen, SNPs3D, and PMut, and the summary ORs were r=-0.36 (p=0.007), r=0.25 (p=0.068), r=-0.20 (p=0.205), and r=-0.12 (p=0.370), respectively. By creating a combined score using information from all four tools we were able to achieve a correlation coefficient of r=0.51 (ptools. Our findings suggest that bioinformatic tools are useful in predicting SNP functionality and may facilitate future genetic epidemiological studies.

  3. Combining Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Brain Metastasis of Resected Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the role of pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR in predicting brain metastasis after radical surgery for lung adenocarcinoma patients. The records of 103 patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma between 2013 and 2014 were reviewed. Clinicopathologic characteristics of these patients were assessed in the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Brain metastasis occurred in 12 patients (11.6%. On univariate analysis, N2 stage (P = 0.013, stage III (P = 0.016, increased CEA level (P = 0.006, and higher PLR value (P = 0.020 before treatment were associated with an increased risk of developing brain metastasis. In multivariate model analysis, CEA above 5.2 ng/mL (P = 0.014 and PLR ≥ 120 (P = 0.036 remained as the risk factors for brain metastasis. The combination of CEA and PLR was superior to CEA or PLR alone in predicting brain metastasis according to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis (area under ROC curve, AUC 0.872 versus 0.784 versus 0.704. Pretreatment CEA and PLR are independent and significant risk factors for occurrence of brain metastasis in resected lung adenocarcinoma patients. Combining these two factors may improve the predictability of brain metastasis.

  4. Classifying organic materials by oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio to predict the activation regime of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kuwata

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The governing highly soluble, slightly soluble, or insoluble activation regime of organic compounds as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN was examined as a function of oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C. New data were collected for adipic, pimelic, suberic, azelaic, and pinonic acids. Secondary organic materials (SOMs produced by α-pinene ozonolysis and isoprene photo-oxidation were also included in the analysis. The saturation concentrations C of the organic compounds in aqueous solutions served as the key parameter for delineating regimes of CCN activation, and the values of C were tightly correlated to the O : C ratios. The highly soluble, slightly soluble, and insoluble regimes of CCN activation were found to correspond to ranges of [O : C] > 0.6, 0.2 < [O : C] < 0.6, and [O : C] < 0.2, respectively. These classifications were evaluated against CCN activation data of isoprene-derived SOM (O : C = 0.69–0.72 and α-pinene-derived SOM (O : C = 0.38–0.48. Isoprene-derived SOM had highly soluble activation behavior, consistent with its high O : C ratio. For α-pinene-derived SOM, although CCN activation can be modeled as a highly soluble mechanism, this behavior was not predicted by the O : C ratio, for which a slightly soluble mechanism was anticipated. Complexity in chemical composition, resulting in continuous water uptake and the absence of a deliquescence transition that can thermodynamically limit CCN activation, might explain the difference in the behavior of α-pinene-derived SOM compared to that of pure organic compounds. The present results suggest that atmospheric particles dominated by hydrocarbon-like organic components do not activate (i.e., insoluble regime whereas those dominated by oxygenated organic components activate (i.e., highly soluble regime for typical atmospheric cloud life cycles.

  5. Critique of the two-fold measure of prediction success for ratios: application for the assessment of drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Eleanor J; Aarons, Leon; Houston, J Brian; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2011-02-01

    Current assessment of drug-drug interaction (DDI) prediction success is based on whether predictions fall within a two-fold range of the observed data. This strategy results in a potential bias toward successful prediction at lower interaction levels [ratio of the area under the concentration-time profile (AUC) in the presence of inhibitor/inducer compared with control is assessment of different DDI prediction algorithms if databases contain large proportion of interactions in this lower range. Therefore, the current study proposes an alternative method to assess prediction success with a variable prediction margin dependent on the particular AUC ratio. The method is applicable for assessment of both induction and inhibition-related algorithms. The inclusion of variability into this predictive measure is also considered using midazolam as a case study. Comparison of the traditional two-fold and the new predictive method was performed on a subset of midazolam DDIs collated from previous databases; in each case, DDIs were predicted using the dynamic model in Simcyp simulator. A 21% reduction in prediction accuracy was evident using the new predictive measure, in particular at the level of no/weak interaction (AUC ratio assessed via the new predictive measure. Thus, the study proposes a more logical method for the assessment of prediction success and its application for induction and inhibition DDIs.

  6. Usefulness of the monocyte-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to predict bare metal stent restenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Samet; Akboga, Mehmet K; Sen, Fatih; Balcı, Kevser G; Aras, Dursun; Temizhan, Ahmet; Aydogdu, Sinan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive value of preprocedural monocyte count-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR) on development of in-stent restenosis in patients undergoing coronary bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. Data from 705 patients who had undergone BMS implantation and additional control coronary angiography were analyzed. Patients were divided into three tertiles based on preprocedural MHR. Restenosis occurred in 59 patients (25%) in the lowest tertile, 84 (35%) in the middle tertile and 117 (50%) in the highest MHR tertile (p MHR and C-reactive protein levels emerged as independent predictors of in-stent restenosis. High preprocedural MHR is related to BMS restenosis.

  7. Prediction of speech masking release for fluctuating interferers based on the envelope power signal-to-noise ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) presented by Jørgensen and Dau [(2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 1475-1487] estimates the envelope signal-to-noise ratio (SNRenv) after modulation-frequency selective processing. This approach accurately predicts the speech intelligibility...... for normal-hearing listeners in conditions with additive stationary noise, reverberation, and nonlinear processing with spectral subtraction. The latter condition represents a case in which the standardized speech intelligibility index and the speech transmission index fail. However, the sEPSM is limited...... to conditions with stationary interferers due to the long-term estimation of the envelope power and cannot account for the well-known phenomenon of speech masking release. Here, a short-term version of the sEPSM is described [Jørgensen and Dau, 2012, in preparation], which estimates the SNRenv in short temporal...

  8. The predictive value of the ratio of neck circumference to thyromental distance in comparison with four predictive tests for difficult laryngoscopy in obstetric patients scheduled for caesarean delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Hirmanpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preoperative assessment of anatomical landmarks andclinical factors help detect potentially difficult laryngoscopies. The aim of the present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from thefollowing preoperative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: Neck circumference to thyromental distance (NC/TMD, neck circumference (NC, modified Mallampatitest (MMT, the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD, and the upper-lip-bite test (ULBT. Materials and Methods: We collected data on657 consecutive patients scheduled for elective caesarean delivery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then evaluated all five factors before caesarean. An experienced anesthesiologist, not informed of the recorded preoperative airway evaluation, performed the laryngoscopy and grading (as per Cormack and Lehane′s classification. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for each airway predictor in isolation and in combination were determined. Results: Difficult laryngoscopy (Grade 3 or 4 occurred in 53 (8.06% patients. There were significant differences in thyromental distance (TMD, RHTMD, NC, and NC/TMD between difficult visualization of larynx and easy visualization of larynx patients (P < 0.05.The main end-point area under curve (AUC of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC was lower for MMT (AUC = 0.497; 95% Confidence Interval = CI,0.045-0.536 and ULBT (AUC = 0.500, 95% CI, 0.461-0.539 compared to RHTMD, NC, TMD, and NC/TMD score ([AUC = 0.627, 95% CI, 0.589-0.664], [AUC = 0.691; 95% CI, 0.654-0.726], [AUC = 0.606; 95% CI, 0.567-0.643], [AUC = 0.689;95% CI, 0.625-0.724], respectively, and the differences of six ROC curves were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The NC/TM Discomparable with NC, RHTMD, and ULBT for the prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in caes are an delivery.

  9. The predictive value of the ratio of neck circumference to thyromental distance in comparison with four predictive tests for difficult laryngoscopy in obstetric patients scheduled for caesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirmanpour, Anahita; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Honarmand, Azim; Jabalameli, Mitra; Banisadr, Golnaz

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative assessment of anatomical landmarks andclinical factors help detect potentially difficult laryngoscopies. The aim of the present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from thefollowing preoperative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: Neck circumference to thyromental distance (NC/TMD), neck circumference (NC), modified Mallampatitest (MMT), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), and the upper-lip-bite test (ULBT). We collected data on657 consecutive patients scheduled for elective caesarean delivery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then evaluated all five factors before caesarean. An experienced anesthesiologist, not informed of the recorded preoperative airway evaluation, performed the laryngoscopy and grading (as per Cormack and Lehane's classification). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for each airway predictor in isolation and in combination were determined. Difficult laryngoscopy (Grade 3 or 4) occurred in 53 (8.06%) patients. There were significant differences in thyromental distance (TMD), RHTMD, NC, and NC/TMD between difficult visualization of larynx and easy visualization of larynx patients (P < 0.05). The main end-point area under curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) was lower for MMT (AUC = 0.497; 95% Confidence Interval = CI,0.045-0.536) and ULBT (AUC = 0.500, 95% CI, 0.461-0.539) compared to RHTMD, NC, TMD, and NC/TMD score ([AUC = 0.627, 95% CI, 0.589-0.664], [AUC = 0.691; 95% CI, 0.654-0.726], [AUC = 0.606; 95% CI, 0.567-0.643], [AUC = 0.689;95% CI, 0.625-0.724], respectively), and the differences of six ROC curves were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The NC/TM Discomparable with NC, RHTMD, and ULBT for the prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in caes are an delivery.

  10. Automated digital volume measurement of melanoma metastases in sentinel nodes predicts disease recurrence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Nyengaard, Jens R; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    aim was to investigate whether digital image analysis can estimate TMV accurately in melanoma SLNs. Methods and results: TMV was measured in 147 SLNs from 95 patients both manually and by automated digital image analysis. The results were compared by Bland-Altman plots (numerical data) and kappa......Aims: Total metastatic volume (TMV) is an important prognostic factor in melanoma sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) that avoids both the interobserver variation and unidirectional upstaging seen when using semi-quantitative size estimates. However, it is somewhat laborious for routine application. Our...... statistics (categorical data). In addition, disease-free and melanoma-specific survivals were calculated. Mean metastatic volume per patient was 10.6 mm(3) (median 0.05 mm(3); range 0.0001-621.3 mm(3)) and 9.62 mm(3) (median 0.05 mm(3); range 0.00001-564.3 mm(3)) with manual and digital measurement...

  11. Development of a digital reactivity meter for criticality prediction and control rod worth evaluation in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, Renato Y.R.; Miranda, Anselmo F.; Valladares, Gastao Lommez; Prado, Adelk C. [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. - ELETRONUCLEAR, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto], e-mail: kuramot@eletronuclear.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we have proposed the development of a digital reactivity meter in order to monitor subcriticality continuously during criticality approach in a PWR. A subcritical reactivity meter can provide an easy prediction of the estimated critical point prior to reactor criticality, without complicated hand calculation. Moreover, in order to reduce the interval of the Physics Tests from the economical point of view, a subcritical reactivity meter can evaluate the control rod worth from direct subcriticality measurement. In other words, count rate of Source Range (SR) detector recorded during the criticality approach could be used for subcriticality evaluation or control rod worth evaluation. Basically, a digital reactivity meter is based on the inverse solution of the kinetic equations of a reactor with the external neutron source in one-point reactor model. There are some difficulties in the direct application of a digital reactivity meter to the subcriticality measurement. When the Inverse Kinetic method is applied to a sufficiently high power level or to a core without an external neutron source, the neutron source term may be neglected. When applied to a lower power level or in the sub-critical domain, however, the source effects must be taken in account. Furthermore, some treatments are needed in using the count rate of Source Range (SR) detector as input signal to the digital reactivity meter. To overcome these difficulties, we have proposed a digital reactivity meter combined with a methodology of the modified Neutron Source Multiplication (NSM) method with correction factors for subcriticality measurements in PWR. (author)

  12. Digital technology ownership, usage, and factors predicting downloading health apps among caucasian, filipino, korean, and latino americans: the digital link to health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Melinda S; Choi, JiWon; Arai, Shoshana; Paul, Steven M; Gonzalez, Prisila; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2014-10-22

    Interventions using mobile health (mHealth) apps have been effective in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior change and hold promise in improving health outcomes to thereby reduce health disparities among diverse racial/ethnic populations, particularly Latino and Asian American subgroups (Filipinos and Koreans) at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Latinos and Asian Americans are avid digital technology owners and users. However, limited datasets exist regarding digital technology ownership and use, especially among specific racial/ethnic subgroups. Such information is needed to inform development of culturally tailored mHealth tools for use with lifestyle interventions promoting healthy behaviors for these at-risk racial/ethnic populations. The intent of the study was to examine (1) digital technology ownership and usage, and (2) factors predicting downloading health apps for Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino American subgroups. A cross-sectional survey conducted in August 2013 through December 2013 recruited 904 participants (Caucasians n=172, Filipinos n=250, Koreans n=234, and Latinos n=248), age >18 years, from California community events, clinics, churches, and online. English, Spanish, and Korean surveys were administered via paper or online. Descriptive statistics characterized the sociodemographics and digital technology ownership/usage of the 904 participants. Differences among groups in categorical variables were examined using chi-square statistics. Logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting downloading health apps. Overall, mean age was 44 years (SD 16.1), with 64.3% (581/904) female. Only 44.7% (404/904) of all participants reported English as their primary language (Caucasian 98.3%, 169/172; Filipino 67.6%, 169/250; Korean 9.4%, 22/234, and Latino 17.7%, 44/248. Overall, mobile phone ownership was 92.8% (839/904). Compared to all groups, Koreans were more likely to own a mobile phone (82.8%, 194/234), computer

  13. High pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio predicts recurrence and poor prognosis for combined small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, N; Cai, Q

    2015-10-01

    Compared to pure small cell lung cancer (SCLC), combined small cell lung cancer (C-SCLC) has its own characteristics. High neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been shown to be related to poor prognosis in several types of tumors. The aim of this study was to explore the prognosis value of NLR and PLR in patients with C-SCLC. A total of 112 patients diagnosed with C-SCLC between January 2000 and March 2009 were enrolled in the study. The clinicopathological parameters, laboratory analyses, and survival time were collected and analyzed. The correlation between NLR, PLR, and clinicopathological characters was analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic significance of these parameters for C-SCLC. The pretreatment NLR was elevated in 37.5 % patients (NLR ≥ 4.15; n = 42; H-NLR). NLR was significantly related to disease stage (p = 0.033) and tumor recurrence (p = 0.014). The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were significantly worse in the H-NLR group (OS: 22.0 months vs 11.7 months, p = 0.001; PFS: 11.1 vs 6.0 months, p recurrence and predicts a poor long-term prognosis for C-SCLC, which should be considered in defining the prognosis with other well-known prognosticators in C-SCLC patients.

  14. Monocyte to HDL Cholesterol Ratio Predicts Coronary Artery Disease Severity and Future Major Cardiovascular Adverse Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Mehmet Serkan; Ozcan Cetin, Elif Hande; Kalender, Erol; Aydin, Selahattin; Topaloglu, Serkan; Kisacik, Halil Lutfi; Temizhan, Ahmet

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the usefulness of monocyte to HDL cholesterol ratio (MHR) in predicting coronary artery disease severity and future major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). 2661 patient with ACS were enrolled and followed up during median 31.6 months. MHR were significantly positively correlated with neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (r=0.438), CRP (r=0.394), Gensini (r=0.407), and SYNTAX score (r=0.333). During in-hospital and long-term follow-up, MACE, stent thrombosis, non-fatal MI, and mortality occurred more frequently in the third tertile group. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed the higher occurrence of MACE in the third tertile group compared with other tertiles. Adjusting for other factors, a MHR value in the third tertile group was determined as an independent predictor of in-hospital and long-term MACE. MHR as a novel inflammation-based marker seemed to be an independent predictor of severity of coronary artery disease and future cardiovascular events in patients with ACS. MHR may utilise the identification of patients who are at higher risk for MACE and individualisation of targeted therapy. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An improved predictive association rule based classifier using gain ratio and T-test for health care data diagnosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Nandhini; S N Sivanandam

    2015-09-01

    Health care data diagnosis is a significant task that needs to be executed precisely, which requires much experience and domain-knowledge. Traditional symptoms-based disease diagnosis may perhaps lead to false presumptions. In recent times, Associative Classification (AC), the combination of association rule mining and classification has received attention in health care applications which desires maximum accuracy. Though several AC techniques exist, they lack in generating quality rules for building efficient associative classifier. This paper aims to enhance the accuracy of the existing CPAR (Classification based on Predictive Association Rule) algorithm by generating quality rules using Gain Ratio. Mostly, health care applications deal with high dimensional datasets. Existence of high dimensions causes unfair estimates in disease diagnosis. Dimensionality reduction is commonly applied as a preprocessing step before classification task to improve classifier accuracy. It eliminates redundant and insignificant dimensions by keeping good ones without information loss. In this work, dimensionality reductions by T-test and reduct sets (or simply reducts) are performed as preprocessing step before CPAR and CPAR using Gain Ratio (CPAR-GR) algorithms. An investigation was also performed to determine the impact of T-test and reducts on CPAR and CPAR-GR. This paper synthesizes the existing work carried out in AC, and also discusses the factors that influence the performance of CPAR and CPAR-GR. Experiments were conducted using six health care datasets from UCI machine learning repository. Based on the experiments, CPAR-GR with T-test yields better classification accuracy than CPAR.

  16. Platelet to lymphocyte ratio in the prediction of adverse outcomes after acute coronary syndrome: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhang; Liu, Qianqian; Tang, Yin

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) to be a potential inflammatory marker in cardiovascular diseases. We performed a meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the prognostic role of PLR in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A comprehensive literature search up to May 18, 2016 was conducted from PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of science to identify related studies. The risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was extracted or calculated for effect estimates. Totally ten studies involving 8932 patients diagnosed with ACS were included in our research. We demonstrated that patients with higher PLR level had significantly higher risk of in-hospital adverse outcomes (RR = 2.24, 95%CI = 1.81–2.77) and long-term adverse outcomes (RR = 2.32, 95%CI = 1.64–3.28). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the stability of our results. We didn’t detect significant publication bias by Begg’s and Egger’s test (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed that PLR is promising biomarker in predicting worse prognosis in ACS patients. The results should be validated by future large-scale, standard investigations. PMID:28071752

  17. Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gomes da Silva Junior

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In chronic hepatitis C (CHC, liver biopsy is the gold standard method for assessing liver histology, however it is invasive and can have complications. Non-invasive markers have been proposed and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI has been shown as an easy and inexpensive marker of liver fibrosis. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of APRI for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in CHC patients. This study included treatment-naive CHC patients who had undergone liver biopsy from January 2000 to August 2006. All histological slides were reviewed according to the METAVIR system. APRI was calculated based on laboratory results performed within four months from the biopsy. Twenty-eight (56% patients had significant fibrosis (F2-F4 and 13 (26% had cirrhosis (F4. The area under ROC curves of APRI for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis were 0.92 (0.83-1.00 and 0.92 (0.85-1.00, respectively. Using cut-off values recommended by prior studies, significant fibrosis could be identified, in accordance with liver biopsy, in 44% and cirrhosis in 66% of patients. APRI could identify significant fibrosis and cirrhosis at a high degree of accuracy in studied patients.

  18. The platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts poor survival in patients with huge hepatocellular carcinoma that received transarterial chemoembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Tong-Chun; Jia, Qing-An; Ge, Ning-Ling; Zhang, Bo-Heng; Wang, Yan-Hong; Ren, Zheng-Gang; Ye, Sheng-Long

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation is particularly strong in huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it is unclear whether the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), as an inflammatory-related marker, can predict survival of patients with huge HCC. In this study, we enrolled 291 patients with huge HCC (diameter over 10 cm) who were undergoing repeated transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) at our institute. The baseline PLR was calculated from complete serum blood counts before the first chemoembolization. We found that a baseline PLR cutoff value over 150 best predicted huge HCC survival. The 12, 24, and 36 months survival rates in the high PLR group (22.6, 8.1, and 4.1 %, respectively) were significantly lower than in the low PLR group (35.6, 22.4, and 14 %, respectively). Thus, a significant difference was found in overall survival (log-rank test, p huge HCC, a high baseline PLR is a useful predictor of poor survival in patients undergoing chemoembolization. Additional anti-inflammatory or anti-platelet treatments, in combination with TACE, may improve survival in HCC patients with high PLR.

  19. The harmonic ratio of trunk acceleration predicts falling among older people: results of a 1-year prospective study

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    Doi Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait variables derived from trunk accelerometry may predict the risk of falls; however, their associations with falls are not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to determine which gait variables derived from upper and lower trunk accelerometry are associated with the incidence of falls, and to compare the discriminative ability of gait variables and physical performance. Methods This study was a 1-year prospective study. Older people (n = 73 walked normally while wearing accelerometers attached to the upper and lower trunk. Participants were classified as fallers (n = 16 or non-fallers (n = 57 based on the incidence of falls over 1 year. The harmonic ratio (HR of the upper and lower trunk was measured. Physical performance was measured in five chair stands and in the timed up and go test. Results The HR of the upper and lower trunk were consistently lower in fallers than non-fallers (P P Conclusions HR derived from upper trunk accelerometry may predict the risk of falls, independently of physical performance. The discriminative ability of HR for the risk of falls may have some validity, and further studies are needed to confirm the clinical relevance of trunk HR.

  20. Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gomes da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available In chronic hepatitis C (CHC, liver biopsy is the gold standard method for assessing liver histology, however it is invasive and can have complications. Non-invasive markers have been proposed and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI has been shown as an easy and inexpensive marker of liver fibrosis. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of APRI for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in CHC patients. This study included treatment-naive CHC patients who had undergone liver biopsy from January 2000 to August 2006. All histological slides were reviewed according to the METAVIR system. APRI was calculated based on laboratory results performed within four months from the biopsy. Twenty-eight (56% patients had significant fibrosis (F2-F4 and 13 (26% had cirrhosis (F4. The area under ROC curves of APRI for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis were 0.92 (0.83-1.00 and 0.92 (0.85-1.00, respectively. Using cut-off values recommended by prior studies, significant fibrosis could be identified, in accordance with liver biopsy, in 44% and cirrhosis in 66% of patients. APRI could identify significant fibrosis and cirrhosis at a high degree of accuracy in studied patients.

  1. The ratio of CRP to prealbumin levels predict mortality in patients with hospital-acquired acute kidney injury

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    Hao Chuanming

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and human studies suggest that inflammation and malnutrition are common in acute kidney injury (AKI patients. However, only a few studies reported CRP, a marker of inflammation, albumin, prealbumin and cholesterol, markers of nutritional status were associated with the prognosis of AKI patients. No study examined whether the combination of inflammatory and nutritional markers could predict the mortality of AKI patients. Methods 155 patients with hospital-acquired AKI were recruited to this prospective cohort study according to RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Lost or End Stage Kidney criteria. C-reactive protein (CRP, and the nutritional markers (albumin, prealbumin and cholesterol measured at nephrology consultation were analyzed in relation to all cause mortality of these patients. In addition, CRP and prealbumin were also measured in healthy controls (n = 45, maintenance hemodialysis (n = 70 and peritoneal dialysis patients (n = 50 and then compared with AKI patients. Results Compared with healthy controls and end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, patients with AKI had significantly higher levels of CRP/prealbumin (p 28 days. Similarly, the combined factors including the ratio of CRP to albumin (CRP/albumin, CRP/prealbumin and CRP/cholesterol were also significantly higher in the former group (p p = 0.027 while the others (CRP, albumin, prealbumin, cholesterol, CRP/albumin and CRP/cholesterol became non-significantly associated. The hazard ratio was 1.00 (reference, 1.85, 2.25 and 3.89 for CRP/prealbumin increasing according to quartiles (p = 0.01 for the trend. Conclusions Inflammation and malnutrition were common in patients with AKI. Higher level of the ratio of CRP to prealbumin was associated with mortality of AKI patients independent of the severity of illness and it may be a valuable addition to SOFA score to independent of the severity of illness and it may be a

  2. Comparison of five methods in predicting difficult laryngoscopy: Neck circumference, neck circumference to thyromental distance ratio, the ratio of height to thyromental distance, upper lip bite test and Mallampati test

    OpenAIRE

    Azim Honarmand; Mohammadreza Safavi; Ahmad Yaraghi; Mohammadali Attari; Mehdi Khazaei; Majid Zamani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preoperative airway assessment tests have been presented to help in anticipating a difficult airway. We conducted this study to compare five methods in prediction of difficult laryngoscopy: Neck circumference (NC), NC to thyromental distance ratio (NC/TMD), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), upper lip bite test (ULBT) and Mallampati test (MMT). These five methods are the most commonly used ones and have different powers for it. It was not clear which of these met...

  3. Does Navigation Always Predict Performance? Effects of Navigation on Digital Reading Are Moderated by Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Johannes; Salmerón, Ladislao

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interactive effects of navigation and offline comprehension skill on digital reading performance. As indicators of navigation, relevant page selection and irrelevant page selection were considered. In 533 Spanish high school students aged 11-17 positive effects of offline comprehension skill and relevant page selection on…

  4. Neural-Fuzzy Digital Strategy of Continuous-Time Nonlinear Systems Using Adaptive Prediction and Random-Local-Optimization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ren Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A tracking problem, time-delay, uncertainty and stability analysis of a predictive control system are considered. The predictive control design is based on the input and output of neural plant model (NPM, and a recursive fuzzy predictive tracker has scaling factors which limit the value zone of measured data and cause the tuned parameters to converge to obtain a robust control performance. To improve the further control performance, the proposed random-local-optimization design (RLO for a model/controller uses offline initialization to obtain a near global optimal model/controller. Other issues are the considerations of modeling error, input-delay, sampling distortion, cost, greater flexibility, and highly reliable digital products of the model-based controller for the continuous-time (CT nonlinear system. They are solved by a recommended two-stage control design with the first-stage (offline RLO and second-stage (online adaptive steps. A theorizing method is then put forward to replace the sensitivity calculation, which reduces the calculation of Jacobin matrices of the back-propagation (BP method. Finally, the feedforward input of reference signals helps the digital fuzzy controller improve the control performance, and the technique works to control the CT systems precisely.

  5. Pre-diagnostic digital imaging prediction model to discriminate between malignant melanoma and benign pigmented skin lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Soerensen, Mads B T; Linghui, Zhong; Chen, Sun; Jensen, Morten O

    2010-02-01

    Malignant cutaneous melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer with an increasing incidence over the past decades. The final diagnosis provided is typically based on a biopsy of the skin lesion under consideration. To assist the naked-eye examination and decision on whether or not a biopsy is necessary, digital image processing techniques provide promising results. The hypothesis of this study was that a computer-aided assessment tool could assist the evaluation of a pigmented skin lesion. Hence, the overall aim was to discriminate between malignant and benign pigmented skin lesions using digital image processing. Discriminating algorithms utilizing novel well-established morphological operations and methods were constructed. The algorithms were implemented utilizing graphical programming (LabVIEW Vision). Verification was performed with reference to an image database consisting of 97 pigmented skin lesion pictures of various resolutions and light distributions. The outcome of the algorithms was analysed statistically with MATLAB and a prediction model was constructed. The prediction model evaluates pigmented skin lesions with regards to the overall shape, border and colour distribution with a total of nine different discriminating parameters. The prediction model outputs an index score, and by using the optimal threshold value, a diagnostic accuracy of 77% in discriminating between malignant and benign skin lesions was obtained. This is an improvement compared with the naked-eye analysis performed by professionals, rendering the system a significant assistance in detecting malignant cutaneous melanoma.

  6. Preoperative Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Peripheral Blood Predicts Stages, Metastasis, and Histological Grades in Patients with Ovarian Cancer

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    Jiangdong Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR has been shown to be associated with the prognosis of various solid tumors. This study sought to evaluate the important value of the MLR in ovarian cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 133 ovarian cancer patients and 43 normal controls were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' demographics were analyzed along with clinical and pathologic data. The counts of peripheral neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets were collected and used to calculate the MLR, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR. and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR. The optimal cutoff value of the MLR was determined by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. We compared the MLR, NLR, and PLR between ovarian cancer and normal control patients and among patients with different stages and different grades, as well as between patients with lymph node metastasis and non–lymph node metastasis. We then investigated the value of the MLR in predicting the stage, grade, and lymph node positivity by using logistic regression. The impact of the MLR on overall survival (OS was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in the MLR were observed between ovarian cancer patients and normal controls. However, no difference was found for the NLR and PLR. Highly significant differences in the MLR were found among patients with different stages (stage I-II and stage III-IV, grades (G1 and >G1, and lymph node metastasis status. The MLR was a significant and independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis, as determined by logistic regression. The optimal cutoff value of the MLR was 0.23. We also classified the data according to tumor markers (CA125, CA199, HE4, AFP, and CEA and conventional coagulation parameters (International Normalized Ratio [INR] and fibrinogen. Highly significant differences in CA125, CA199, HE4, INR, fibrinogen levels, and lactate

  7. On the short-term predictability of fully digital chaotic oscillators for pseudo-random number generation

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2014-06-18

    This paper presents a digital implementation of a 3rd order chaotic system using the Euler approximation. Short-term predictability is studied in relation to system precision, Euler step size and attractor size and optimal parameters for maximum performance are derived. Defective bits from the native chaotic output are neglected and the remaining pass the NIST SP. 800-22 tests without post-processing. The resulting optimized pseudorandom number generator has throughput up to 17.60 Gbits/s for a 64-bit design experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with logic utilization less than 1.85%.

  8. Relationship between digit ratios and aggressive behavior in male undergraduates%大学男生指长比与攻击行为的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 席焕久; 牛志民; 温有锋; 杜雪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between digit ratios and aggressive behavior in male undergraduates, and to provide evidence for the further study.Methods Totally 326 male undergraduates aged from 18 to 23 years old were surveyed with revised aggression questionnaire.Twenty-three male students were selected as the higher aggressive behavior group, and 303 male were normal group.Measurements were taken from the middle of the basal crease to the tip of the finger.Results Aggressive behavior was significantly related to father's work, father's eucational attainments, family's economic condition, parental rearing style, relationship between parents and children, academic performance and popularity ( P < 0.05 ).The left index finger ( 2D ) & ring finger ( 4D ) were significantly longer than those of right hand in male undergraduates ( P < 0.05 ).The ratio of 2D and 3D and of 2D and 5D on left was significantly higher than on right hand in male undergraduates( P <0.05 ).In higher aggressive behavior male, 2D:3D on left and 2D:4D on right was significantly related to physical aggression, verbal aggression,anger and total aggression( P <0.05 ).The ratio of 3D and 4D on right was significantly related to physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and total aggression ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Digit ratios maybe partly relates to physical aggression, verbal aggression,anger and total aggression.%目的 探讨大学男生指长比与攻击行为的相关性,为相关研究的深入开展提供参考.方法 采用修订后攻击问卷,抽取辽宁医学院326名18~23岁大学男生为研究对象,筛查出高攻击行为组23人,其余303人为低攻击行为组,运用直接测量法测定左右手指长.结果 大学男生攻击行为与父亲职业、父亲学历、家庭经济条件、教养方式、与父母关系、学习成绩、受欢迎程度均存在明显相关(P值均<0.05).大学男生左手食指(2D)和环指(4D)明显长于右手(P值均<0

  9. The postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and changes in this ratio predict survival after the complete resection of stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Feng; Han, Anqin; Shi, Fang; Kong, Li; Yu, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although numerous studies have demonstrated associations between the preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and long-term outcomes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the prognostic significance of postoperative NLR and change in NLR (ΔNLR) is unknown for patients who underwent complete resection of stage I NSCLC. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of postoperative NLR and ΔNLR in 123 patients with stage I NSCLC. Patients and methods This retrospective study included preoperative and postoperative data of 123 patients who underwent surgical resection for stage I NSCLC. The relationship between disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and clinicopathological factors, including NLR, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and their changes, was analyzed using both univariate Kaplan–Meier and multivariate Cox regression methods. Results The 5-year DFS and OS rates in our cohort were 60.16% and 67.48%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that age (P=0.045), smoking status (P=0.033), preoperative NLR (P=0.032), postoperative NLR (P<0.001), ΔNLR (P=0.004), and change in LMR (ΔLMR) (P=0.025) were significant predictors of DFS and that age (P=0.039), smoking status (P=0.042), postoperative NLR (P<0.001), ΔNLR (P=0.004), and ΔLMR (P=0.011) were independent predictors of OS. Multivariate analysis confirmed that postoperative NLR (hazard ratio [HR] =2.435, P=0.001) and ΔNLR (HR =2.103, P=0.012) were independent predictors of DFS and that postoperative NLR (HR =2.747, P=0.001) and ΔNLR (HR =2.052, P=0.018) were significant prognostic factors of OS. Conclusion Our study reported for the first time that postoperative NLR and ΔNLR – but not preoperative NLR – were independent prognostic factors of DFS and OS in patients with stage I NSCLC who underwent complete resection. This easily available biomarker might be helpful in individual risk

  10. Lipid ratios and appropriate cut off values for prediction of diabetes: a cohort of Iranian men and women

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    Hadaegh Farzad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes; however, no study has specifically assessed the lipid ratios (i.e. total cholesterol (TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglyceride (TG/HDL-C as predictors of diabetes. We aimed to compare the independent association between the different lipid measures with incident diabetes over a median follow up of 6.4 years in Iranian men and women. Method The study population consisted of 5201 non diabetic (men = 2173, women = 3028 subjects, aged ≥20 years. The risk factor adjusted odds ratios (ORs for diabetes were calculated for every 1 standard deviation (SD change in TC, log-transformed TG, HDL-C, non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and log-transformed TG/HDL-C using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to define the points of the maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity (MAXss of each lipid measure as a predictor of diabetes. Result We found 366 (146 men and 220 women new diabetes cases during follow-up. The risk-factor-adjusted ORs for a 1 SD increase in TG, TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C were 1.23, 1.27 and 1.25 in men; the corresponding risks in females were 1.36, 1.14, 1.39 respectively (all p Conclusion TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C showed similar performance for diabetes prediction in men population however; among women TG/HDL-C highlighted higher risk than did TC/HDL-C, although there was no difference in discriminatory power. Importantly, HDL-C had a protective effect for incident diabetes only among women.

  11. Predicting local recurrence following breast-conserving treatment: parenchymal signal enhancement ratio (SER) around the tumor on preoperative MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Nariya; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Yun, Bo La; Bae, Min Sun; Moon, Woo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail: river7774@gmail.com; Chie, Eui Kyu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National Univ. Coll. of Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Background: The level of background parenchymal enhancement around tumor is known to be associated with breast cancer risk. However, there is no study investigating predictive power of parenchymal signal enhancement ratio (SER) around tumor for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Purpose: To investigate whether the breast parenchymal SER around the tumor on preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with subsequent IBTR in breast cancer patients who had undergone breast-conserving treatment. Material and Methods: Nineteen consecutive women (mean age, 44 years; range, 34-63 years) with breast cancer who developed IBTR following breast-conserving treatment and 114 control women matched for age, as well as T and N stages were included. We compared the clinicopathologic features of the two groups including nuclear grade, histologic grade, hormonal receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) status, lymphovascular invasion, negative margin width, use of adjuvant therapy, and parenchymal SER around the tumor on preoperative DCE-MRI. The SER was measured on a slice showing the largest dimension of the tumor. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with IBTR. Results: In univariate analysis, ER negativity (odds ratio [OR] = 4.7; P = 0.040), PR negativity (OR = 4.0; P = 0.013), HER-2 positivity (OR = 3.6; P = 0.026), and a parenchymal SER greater than 0.53 (OR = 23.3; P = 0.011) were associated with IBTR. In multivariate analysis, ER negativity (OR = 3.8; P = 0.015) and a parenchymal SER greater than 0.53 (OR = 13.2; P = 0.040) on preoperative MRI were independent factors associated with IBTR. Conclusion: In addition to ER negativity, a higher parenchymal SER on preoperative MRI was an independent factor associated with subsequent IBTR in patients with breast cancer who had undergone breast-conserving treatment.

  12. Low-Complexity Seizure Prediction From iEEG/sEEG Using Spectral Power and Ratios of Spectral Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zisheng; Parhi, Keshab K

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of seizures is a difficult problem as the EEG patterns are not wide-sense stationary and change from seizure to seizure, electrode to electrode, and from patient to patient. This paper presents a novel patient-specific algorithm for prediction of seizures in epileptic patients from either one or two single-channel or bipolar channel intra-cranial or scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings with low hardware complexity. Spectral power features are extracted and their ratios are computed. For each channel, a total of 44 features including 8 absolute spectral powers, 8 relative spectral powers and 28 spectral power ratios are extracted every two seconds using a 4-second window with a 50% overlap. These features are then ranked and selected in a patient-specific manner using a two-step feature selection. Selected features are further processed by a second-order Kalman filter and then input to a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The algorithm is tested on the intra-cranial EEG (iEEG) from the Freiburg database and scalp EEG (sEEG) from the MIT Physionet database. The Freiburg database contains 80 seizures among 18 patients in 427 hours of recordings. The MIT EEG database contains 78 seizures from 17 children in 647 hours of recordings. It is shown that the proposed algorithm can achieve a sensitivity of 100% and an average false positive rate (FPR) of 0.0324 per hour for the iEEG (Freiburg) database and a sensitivity of 98.68% and an average FPR of 0.0465 per hour for the sEEG (MIT) database. These results are obtained with leave-one-out cross-validation where the seizure being tested is always left out from the training set. The proposed algorithm also has a low complexity as the spectral powers can be computed using FFT. The area and power consumption of the proposed linear SVM are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than a radial basis function kernel SVM (RBF-SVM) classifier. Furthermore, the total energy consumption of a system using linear

  13. LEARNING ONE-DIGIT DECIMAL NUMBERS BY MEASUREMENT AND GAME PREDICTING LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Astuti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe how students develop understanding of one-digit decimals. To achieve the aim, Local Instruction Theory (LIT about the process of learning decimals and the means designed to support that learning are developed. Along with this idea, the framework of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME is proposed. Based on the aim, design research methodology is used. This paper discusses learning activities of three meetings from teaching experiment of the focus group students of the fourth grade elementary school in Surabaya: SDIT Al Ghilmani. The data indicated that the learning activities promoted the students’ understanding of one-digit decimal numbers.Keyword: measurement, decimal numbers, number line DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.5.1.1447.35-46

  14. Feminist activist women are masculinized in terms of digit-ratio and social dominance: a possible explanation for the feminist paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Guy; Aasa, Ulrika; Wallert, John; Woodley, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The feminist movement purports to improve conditions for women, and yet only a minority of women in modern societies self-identify as feminists. This is known as the feminist paradox. It has been suggested that feminists exhibit both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with heightened masculinization, which may predispose women for heightened competitiveness, sex-atypical behaviors, and belief in the interchangeability of sex roles. If feminist activists, i.e., those that manufacture the public image of feminism, are indeed masculinized relative to women in general, this might explain why the views and preferences of these two groups are at variance with each other. We measured the 2D:4D digit ratios (collected from both hands) and a personality trait known as dominance (measured with the Directiveness scale) in a sample of women attending a feminist conference. The sample exhibited significantly more masculine 2D:4D and higher dominance ratings than comparison samples representative of women in general, and these variables were furthermore positively correlated for both hands. The feminist paradox might thus to some extent be explained by biological differences between women in general and the activist women who formulate the feminist agenda.

  15. A scoring model based on neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicts recurrence of HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ying Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR has been proposed to predict prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, the cut-off values are empirical. We determined the optimal cut-off value to predict HCC recurrence after liver transplantation (LT and further established a scoring model based on NLR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the outcome of 101 HBV-associated HCC patients undergoing LT. Preoperative risk factors for tumor recurrence were evaluated by univariate analysis. By using ROC analysis, NLR≥3 was considered elevated. The disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS for patients with high NLR was significantly worse than that for patients with normal NLR (the 5-year DFS and OS of 28.5% and 19.5% vs. 64.9% and 61.8%, respectively; P5 cm, tumor number >3, macrovascular invasion, AFP≥400 µg/L, NLR≥3, and HBV-DNA level >5 log10 copies/mL were preoperative predictors of DFS. Cox regression analysis showed macrovascular invasion, tumor number, and high NLR were independent prognostic factors. We then established a preoperative prognostic score based on multivariate analysis. Each factor was given a score of 1. Area under the ROC curve of the score was 0.781. All nine patients with score 3 developed recurrence within 6 months after LT. Of 71 patients without vascular invasion, three patients with both tumor number >3 and NLR≥3 developed recurrence within 14 months after LT while the 5-year DFS and OS for patients with a score of 0 or 1 were 68.1% and 62.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Preoperative elevated NLR significantly increases the risk of recurrence in patients underwent LT for HCC. Patients with both NLR≥3 and tumor number >3 are not a good indication for LT. Our score model may aid in the selection of patients that would most benefit from transplantation for HCC.

  16. Real-time random delay compensation with prediction-based digital redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongpeng; Cofie, Penrose; Ajuzie, Augustine N; Zhang, Jian; Akujuobi, Cajetan M

    2011-04-01

    Today's technological demands require challenging control solutions such as real-time applications of Networked Control System (NCS). However, due to communication protocol and shared data bus, NCS experiences uncertain and unpredictable time delays in both input and output channels. These delays cause asynchronization between the controller and the plant thereby degrading the performance of closed-loop control systems. To address this problem, this paper proposes to utilize digital redesign technique to provide real-time random delay compensation.

  17. Comparison of upper lip bite test and ratio of height to thyromental distance with other airway assessment tests for predicting difficult endotracheal intubation

    OpenAIRE

    Jigisha Prahladrai Badheka; Doshi, Pratik M.; Vyas, Ashutosh M.; Nirav Jentilal Kacha; Parmar, Vandana S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various anatomical measurements and noninvasive clinical tests, singly or in various combinations can be performed to predict difficult intubation. Upper lip bite test (ULBT) and ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD) are claimed to have high predictability. Hence, we have conducted this study to compare the predictive value of ULBT and RHTMD with the following parameters: Mallampati grading, inter-incisor gap, thyromental distance, sternomental distance, head and neck mo...

  18. Predictive value of upper lip bite test and ratio of height to thyromental distance compared to other multivariate airway assessment tests for difficult laryngoscopy in apparently normal patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pratibha Jain Shah; Kamta Prasad Dubey; Jai Prakash Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Background: Various anatomical measurements and non-invasive clinical tests, singly or in various combinations can be performed to predict difficult intubation. Recently introduced "Upper lip bite test" (ULBT) and "Ratio of height to Thyromental distance" (RHTMD) are claimed to have high predictability. We conducted a study to compare the Predictive Value of ULBT and RHTMD with Mouth opening (Inter-Incisor gap) (IIG), Modified Mallampatti Test (MMT), Head and neck movement (HNM) and Thyroment...

  19. A lymph node ratio of 10% is predictive of survival in stage III colon cancer: a French regional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Charles; Mauvais, François; Cosse, Cyril; Rebibo, Lionel; Joly, Jean-Paul; Dromer, Didier; Aubert, Christine; Carton, Sophie; Dron, Bernard; Dadamessi, Innocenti; Maes, Bernard; Perrier, Guillaume; Manaouil, David; Fontaine, Jean-François; Gozy, Michel; Panis, Xavier; Foncelle, Pierre Henri; de Fresnoy, Hugues; Leroux, Fabien; Vaneslander, Pierre; Ghighi, Caroline; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node ratio (LNR) (positive lymph nodes/sampled lymph nodes) is predictive of survival in colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to validate the LNR as a prognostic factor and to determine the optimum LNR cutoff for distinguishing between "good prognosis" and "poor prognosis" colon cancer patients. From January 2003 to December 2007, patients with TNM stage III colon cancer operated on with at least of 3 years of follow-up and not lost to follow-up were included in this retrospective study. The two primary endpoints were 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) as a function of the LNR groups and the cutoff. One hundred seventy-eight patients were included. There was no correlation between the LNR group and 3-year OS (P=0.06) and a significant correlation between the LNR group and 3-year DFS (P=0.03). The optimal LNR cutoff of 10% was significantly correlated with 3-year OS (P=0.02) and DFS (P=0.02). The LNR was not an accurate prognostic factor when fewer than 12 lymph nodes were sampled. Clarification and simplification of the LNR classification are prerequisites for use of this system in randomized control trials. An LNR of 10% appears to be the optimal cutoff.

  20. Penerapan PID Predictive Air-Ratio Controller Pada Mesin Mobil Mitsubishi Tipe 4G63 Untuk Meminimumkan Emisi Gas Buang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendre Angga Prasetya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan adanya perkembangan sistem otomasi dalam dunia otomotif saat ini. dituntut untuk menghasilkan mesin dengan kadar emisi gas buang yang berada diambang batas kewajaran dan hemat bahan bakar sehingga diperlukan suatu sistem terhadap berbagai macam variabel yang mempengaruhi performansi mesin. Untuk menjaga supaya pemakaian bahan bakar pada kondisi optimal dapat diperoleh dengan cara mengatur waktu injeksi bahan bakar. Sistem waktu injeksi bahan bakar ini dipengaruhi oleh kecepatan mesin dan tekanan pada intake manifold. Dengan adanya pengaturan terhadap waktu injeksi bahan bakar akan meningkatkan efektifitas pembakaran yang secara tidak langsung juga mengurangi kadar emisi pada gas buang pada saat kondisi kecepatan stasioner. Pada tugas akhir ini, akan dilakukan penelitian tentang pengaruh waktu pengapian dan waktu injeksi yang diterapkan pada sistem pengaturan injeksi bahan bakar yang diaplikasikan pada mesin Mitsubishi 4G63 untuk mengatur waktu injeksi bahan bakar dan waktu pengapian pada saat mesin dalam kecepatan stasioner. Penelitian ini diujikan pada mesin Mitsubshi 4G63 empat silinder sebagai plant dengan kondisi kecepatan stasioner. Penerapan PID Predictive Air-Ratio Controller memberikan waktu injeksi  yang tepat pada saat kecepatan stasioner sehingga dapat menmaksimalkan perbandingan rasio udara sebesar 14,7 :1 standar performansi mesin .

  1. Using the Maximum X-ray Flux Ratio and X-ray Background to Predict Solar Flare Class

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of a relationship between the maximum ratio of the flare flux (namely, 0.5-4 Ang to the 1-8 Ang flux) and non-flare background (namely, the 1-8 Ang background flux), which clearly separates flares into classes by peak flux level. We established this relationship based on an analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) X-ray observations of ~ 50,000 X, M, C, and B flares derived from the NOAA/SWPC flares catalog. Employing a combination of machine learning techniques (K-nearest neighbors and nearest-centroid algorithms) we show a separation of the observed parameters for the different peak flaring energies. This analysis is validated by successfully predicting the flare classes for 100% of the X-class flares, 76% of the M-class flares, 80% of the C-class flares and 81% of the B-class flares for solar cycle 24, based on the training of the parametric extracts for solar flares in cycles 22-23.

  2. Comparison of upper lip bite test and ratio of height to thyromental distance with other airway assessment tests for predicting difficult endotracheal intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigisha Prahladrai Badheka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various anatomical measurements and noninvasive clinical tests, singly or in various combinations can be performed to predict difficult intubation. Upper lip bite test (ULBT and ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD are claimed to have high predictability. Hence, we have conducted this study to compare the predictive value of ULBT and RHTMD with the following parameters: Mallampati grading, inter-incisor gap, thyromental distance, sternomental distance, head and neck movements, and horizontal length of mandible for predicting difficult intubation. Materials and Methods: In this single blinded, prospective, observational study involving 170 adult patients of either sex belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I-III scheduled to undergo general anesthesia were recruited. All patients were subjected to the preoperative airway assessment and, the above parameters were recorded correlated with Cormack and Lehane grade and analyzed. The number of intubation attempts and use of intubation aids were also noted. Results: ULBT and RHTMD had highest sensitivity (96.64%, 90.72%, specificity (82.35%, 80.39%, positive predictive value (92.74%, 91.53%, and negative predictive value (91.3%, 78.8%, respectively, compared to other parameters. While odds ratio and likelihood ratio >1 for all the tests. Conclusion: ULBT can be used as a simple bedside screening test for prediction of difficult intubation, but it should be combined with other airway assessment tests for better airway predictability. RHTMD can also be used as an acceptable alternative.

  3. Comparison of upper lip bite test and ratio of height to thyromental distance with other airway assessment tests for predicting difficult endotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badheka, Jigisha Prahladrai; Doshi, Pratik M; Vyas, Ashutosh M; Kacha, Nirav Jentilal; Parmar, Vandana S

    2016-01-01

    Various anatomical measurements and noninvasive clinical tests, singly or in various combinations can be performed to predict difficult intubation. Upper lip bite test (ULBT) and ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD) are claimed to have high predictability. Hence, we have conducted this study to compare the predictive value of ULBT and RHTMD with the following parameters: Mallampati grading, inter-incisor gap, thyromental distance, sternomental distance, head and neck movements, and horizontal length of mandible for predicting difficult intubation. In this single blinded, prospective, observational study involving 170 adult patients of either sex belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I-III scheduled to undergo general anesthesia were recruited. All patients were subjected to the preoperative airway assessment and, the above parameters were recorded correlated with Cormack and Lehane grade and analyzed. The number of intubation attempts and use of intubation aids were also noted. ULBT and RHTMD had highest sensitivity (96.64%, 90.72%), specificity (82.35%, 80.39%), positive predictive value (92.74%, 91.53%), and negative predictive value (91.3%, 78.8%), respectively, compared to other parameters. While odds ratio and likelihood ratio >1 for all the tests. ULBT can be used as a simple bedside screening test for prediction of difficult intubation, but it should be combined with other airway assessment tests for better airway predictability. RHTMD can also be used as an acceptable alternative.

  4. Digital ulcers predict a worse disease course in patients with systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihai, Carina; Landewé, Robert; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    ulcers (DUs) at prospective visits (HR (95% CI)): 2.41 (1.91 to 3.03), ppressure on heart ultrasound (US-PAPs):1.36 (1.03 to 1.80), p=0.032, for any cardiovascular event (new DUs, elevated US-PAPs or LV failure): 3.56 (2.26 to 5.62), p.... In this study, we evaluated whether a history of digital ulcers (HDU) at presentation may be a predictor of vascular outcomes and of overall clinical worsening and death in patients with SSc. METHODS: Patients from the EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) database, satisfying at inclusion the 1980...

  5. Early prediction of mandibular third molar eruption/impaction using linear and angular measurements on digital panoramic radiography: A radiographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Rachninder; Kumar, Anand C.; Garg, Ranjana; Sharma, Sugandha; Rastogi, Trisha; Gupta, Vivek Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impaction rate is higher for the third molars than for any other tooth in modern human population. This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the validity of linear and angular measurements on the digital panoramic radiograph as a reference for early prediction of mandibular third molar eruption/impaction. Materials and Methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of 200 subjects were selected based on their status of eruption of mandibular third molars; fully erupted (Group ...

  6. Adiposity to muscle ratio predicts incident physical limitation in a cohort of 3,153 older adults--an alternative measurement of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auyeung, Tung Wai; Lee, Jenny Shun Wah; Leung, Jason; Kwok, Timothy; Woo, Jean

    2013-08-01

    Conventionally, sarcopenia is defined by muscle mass and physical performance. We hypothesized that the disability caused by sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity was related to the amount of adiposity or body weight bearing on a unit of muscle mass, or the adiposity to muscle ratio. We therefore examined whether this ratio could predict physical limitation by secondary analysis of the data in our previous study. We recruited 3,153 community-dwelling adults aged >65 years and their body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Assessment of physical limitation was undertaken 4 years later. The relationship between baseline adiposity to muscle ratio and incident physical limitation was examined by logistic regression. In men, the adiposity to muscle ratios, namely total body fat to lower-limb muscle mass, total body fat to fat-free mass (FFM), and body weight to FFM, were predictive of physical limitation before and after adjustment for the covariates: age, Mini-mental Status Examination score, Geriatric Depression Scale score >8, and the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, and stroke (all p values obesity as measured by the body weight or adiposity bearing on a unit of muscle mass (the adiposity to muscle ratio) could predict incident or worsening physical limitation in older women across the entire range of the total body fat to lower-limb muscle mass ratio; and in older men when this ratio was equal to or greater than 0.75.

  7. Can neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predict lamina propria invasion in patients with non muscle invasive bladder cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, Haci Ibrahim; Halis, Fikret; Saglam, Hasan Salih; Gokce, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Recent studies have demonstrated the role of systemic inflammation in the development and progression of cancer. In this study, we evaluated whether preoperatively measured neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can predict lamina propria invasion in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Material and Methods We reviewed the medical records of 304 consecutive and newly diagnosed patients with bladder cancer who had been treated with transurethral resection between January 2008 and June 2014. In total, 271 patients were included in the study and the patients were divided into two groups according to the pathological stage (Group 1: Ta, Group 2: T1). NLR was calculated by dividing the absolute neutrophil count (N) by the absolute lymphocyte count (L). Results In total, 271 patients (27 women and 244 men) were enrolled. Mean age was higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (67.3±10.8 vs. 62.9±10.8, pblood cell (WBC) and N counts were statistically insignificant (7.63±1.87 vs. 7.69±1.93, p=0.780; 4.72±1.54 vs. 4.46±1.38, p=0.140; respectively), L was significantly lower and NLR was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (2.07±0.75 vs. 2.4±0.87, p=0.001; 2.62±1.5 vs. 2.19±1.62, p=0.029; respectively). Conclusion Our data indicate that high NLR and low L are statistically associated with T1 stage, whereas low L are able to predict lamina propria invasion in patients with NMIBC. These findings suggest that pretreatment measurement of NLR may provide valuable information for the clinical management of patients with NMIBC. Prospective studies are now required to further validate the role of NLR as a risk factor in NMIBC. PMID:28124528

  8. 关于提高公安院校图书馆数字资源利用率的探析%On the Improvement of Digital Resource Utilization Ratio of Police Universities' Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    信晓红

    2012-01-01

    Police universities need to develop digital resource in library, but the existing conditions make the construction of library digital resource difficult to develop to an extent. So libraries are short of unique resources and difficult to attract the existing reader groups, the utilization ratio is low. We should provide the service of developing readers, build digital resource database and offer digital resource service, so we can improve digital resource utilization ratio.%公安院校图书馆需要发展数字资源馆藏,但现有条件使得数字资源建设难以形成规模,造成馆藏中现有的数字资源缺乏独到的资源优势,难以吸引现有的用户群体,利用率较低,需要从读者培养服务、数字馆藏建设、数字资源服务手段等方面加以调整,以提高馆藏数字资源的利用率。

  9. (137)Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F; Bogen, Kenneth T; Conrado, Cynthia L; Kehl, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict (137)Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate (137)Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of (137)Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in (137)Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD)=1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD=1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  10. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  11. Effects of prenatal Leydig cell function on the ratio of the second to fourth digit lengths in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Mitsui

    Full Text Available Prenatal sex hormones can induce abnormalities in the reproductive system and adversely impact on genital development. We investigated whether sex hormones in cord blood influenced the ratio of the second to fourth digit lengths (2D/4D in school-aged children. Of the 514 children who participated in a prospective cohort study on birth in Sapporo between 2002 and 2005, the following sex hormone levels were measured in 294 stored cord blood samples (135 boys and 159 girls; testosterone (T, estradiol (E, progesterone, LH, FSH, inhibin B, and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3. A total of 350 children, who were of school age and could be contacted for this survey, were then requested via mail to send black-and-white photocopies of the palms of both the left and right hands. 2D/4D was calculated in 190 children (88 boys and 102 girls using photocopies and derived from participants with the characteristics of older mothers, a higher annual household income, higher educational level, and fewer smokers among family members. 2D/4D was significantly lower in males than in females (p<0.01. In the 294 stored cord blood samples, T, T/E, LH, FSH, Inhibin B, and INSL3 levels were significantly higher in samples collected from males than those from females. A multivariate regression model revealed that 2D/4D negatively correlated with INSL3 in males and was significantly higher in males with <0.32 ng/mL of INSL3 (p<0.01. No correlations were observed between other hormones and 2D/4D. In conclusion, 2D/4D in school-aged children, which was significantly lower in males than in females, was affected by prenatal Leydig cell function.

  12. Maternal corticosterone but not testosterone level is associated with the ratio of second-to-fourth digit length (2D:4D) in field vole offspring (Microtus agrestis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Thomas; Laaksonen, Toni; Huitu, Otso; Helle, Samuli

    2010-03-30

    The steroid environment encountered by a foetus can strongly affect its post-natal physiology and behaviour. It has been proposed that steroid concentrations experienced in utero could be estimated from adults by measuring their second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D). However, there is still little direct evidence that intra-uterine steroid levels affect individual 2D:4D. We examined whether maternal pre-pregnancy testosterone and corticosterone levels (as estimates of intra-uterine testosterone and corticosterone exposure) affected the 2D:4D of pups in non-domesticated field voles (Microtus agrestis), measured by X-rays at the age of weaning (21 days). Furthermore, for the first time in a non-human species, we studied whether testosterone and corticosterone levels correlated with 2D:4D in adult females. We found that the maternal pre-pregnancy level of testosterone was not associated with offspring 2D:4D in either the left or the right paw. Instead, maternal pre-pregnancy corticosterone level was positively correlated with offspring 2D:4D in the right paw, but unrelated to 2D:4D in the left paw. In addition, the 2D:4D of adult females was not associated with either their circulating testosterone or corticosterone levels. Our results suggest that in field voles maternally administered testosterone is not a major determinant of offspring 2D:4D, whereas maternal stress appears to account for some of the variation in the 2D:4D of their offspring.

  13. Digit ratio (2D:4D), sex differences, allometry, and finger length of 12-30-year olds: evidence from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Internet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, John T

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have reported digit ratio (2D:4D) to be sexually dimorphic, (males lower 2D:4D than females). However, Kratochvíl and Flegr ([2009]: Biol Lett 5:643-646) have suggested that 2D regressed on 4D has an allometric regression line with nonzero Y-intercept that is shared by males and females. Thus, 2D is shorter than expected when 4D is long, and males have lower 2D:4D than females because they have longer fingers. In this study, it is shown that this suggestion may be incorrect because sex differences in slope were not considered. Participants were recruited in an Internet study and had an age range of 12-30 years. The expected sex difference in 2D:4D was found, and the regression of 2D on 4D showed a significant sex difference in slope (males lower than females). A comparison of 10 age groups (12 years, 13 years..., 21-30 years) showed that sexual dimorphism for fingers was age dependent, varying from monomorphic to very dimorphic. Changes in sexual dimorphism of 2D:4D were much less marked, but there was a significant reduction in mean 2D:4D with age. The tendency for slopes of 2D regressed on 4D to be lower in males compared with females was significant in eight age groups. Sex difference in 2D:4D varied across the age groups and was positively related to the magnitude of the difference in female and male slopes. In contrast to the report of Kratochvíl and Flegr, it was found that the regression of 2D on 4D showed sex differences in slope, and such differences gave rise to the sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D.

  14. A comparison of between hyomental distance ratios, ratio of height to thyromental, modified Mallamapati classification test and upper lip bite test in predicting difficult laryngoscopy of patients undergoing general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarmand, Azim; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Ansari, Narges

    2014-01-01

    Failed intubation is imperative source of anesthetic interrelated patient's mortality. The aim of this present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from the following pre-operative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: Modified Mallampati test (MMT), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), hyomental distance ratios (HMDR), and the upper-lip-bite test (ULBT). We collected data on 525 consecutive patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then evaluated all four factors before surgery. A skilled anesthesiologist, not imparted of the noted pre-operative airway assessment, did the laryngoscopy and rating (as per Cormack and Lehane's classification). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for every airway predictor in isolation and in combination were established. The most sensitive of the single tests was ULBT with a sensitivity of 90.2%. The hyomental distance extreme of head extension was the least sensitive of the single tests with a sensitivity of 56.9. The HMDR had sensitivity 86.3%. The ULBT had the highest negative predictive value: And the area under a receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC of ROC curve) among single predictors. The AUC of ROC curve for ULBT, HMDR and RHTMD was significantly more than for MMT (P 0.05). The HMDR is comparable with RHTMD and ULBT for prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in the general population, but was significantly more than for MMT.

  15. Prediction of Digital Resource Cost in the University Library%高校图书馆数字资源的成本预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭凯波

    2013-01-01

    The digital resource cost in the university library including purchase cost and use cost, and the cost prediction can provide a reference for the construction of digital resources in a university library. The Markov model and grey prediction model are combined to discuss a scientific prediction method about digital resource cost in the university.%高校图书馆数字资源成本主要包括购置成本与使用成本,将马尔可夫模型与灰色预测模型相结合,对成本进行科学预测,可以为高校图书馆数字资源建设提供决策参考。

  16. A comparison of the ratio of patient's height to thyromental distance with the modified Mallampati and the upper lip bite test in predicting difficult laryngoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Safavi; Azim Honarmand; Narges Zare

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from the following preoperative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: modified Mallampati test (MMT), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD) and the Upper-Lip-Bite test (ULBT). Methods: We collected data on 603 consecutive patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then evaluated all thr...

  17. Visible–Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Can Predict the Clay/Organic Carbon and Mineral Fines/Organic Carbon Ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Cecilie; Knadel, Maria; Møldrup, Per;

    2016-01-01

    The ratios of mineral fines (... of preferential flow, water repellency, and chemical adsorption. Conventional texture and OC measurements are time consuming and expensive, and visible–near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy may provide a fast and inexpensive alternative for obtaining the n- and m-ratios. In this study, a total of 480 soil samples...

  18. The Predictive Value of Total Neutrophil Count and Neutrophil/ Lymphocyte Ratio in Predicting In-hospital Mortality and Complications after STEMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ghaffari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leukocytosis, predominantly neutrophilia, has previously been described following ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. The exact contribution of this phenomenon to the clinical outcome of STEMI is yet to be shown. We examined cellular inflammatory response to STEMI in the blood and its association with in-hospital mortality and/or adverse clinical events.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 404 patients who were admitted with the diagnosis of acute STEMI at Madani Heart Hospital from March 2010 to March 2012 were studied. The complete blood cell count (CBC was obtained from all patientswithin12-24 hours of the onset of symptoms. Total leukocytes were counted and differential count was obtained for neutrophils, lymphocytes and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR were evaluated. Association of cellular response with the incidence of post-MI mortality/complications was assessed by multiple logistic regression analyses.Results: In-hospital mortality and post-STEMI complication rate were 3.7% and 43.6%, respectively. Higher age (P=0.04, female gender (0.002, lower ejection fraction (P<0.001 and absolute neutrophil count (P=0.04 were predictors of mortality. Pump failure in the form of acute pulmonary edema or cardiogenic shock occurred in 35 (8.9% of patients. Higher leukocyte (P<0.03 and neutrophil counts (P<0.03 and higher NLR (P=0.01 were predictors of failure. The frequency of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT/VF at the first day was associated with higher neutrophil count (P<0.001 and higher NLR level (P<0.001. In multivariate analysis neutrophil count was an independent predictor of mortality (OR=2.94; 1.1-8.4, P=0.04, and neutrophil count [OR=1.1, CI (1.01-1.20, P=0.02], female gender [OR=2.34, CI (1.02-4.88, P=0.04] and diabetes [OR=2.52, CI (1.21-5.2, P=0.003] were independent predictors of heart failure.Conclusion: A single CBC analysis may help to identify STEMI patients at risk for mortality and heart failure, and total

  19. Digital literacy of youth and young adults with intellectual disability predicted by support needs and social maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

    2016-04-08

    This study investigated relationships between digital propensity and support needs as well as predictors of digital propensity in the context of support intensity, age, gender, and social maturity. A total of 118 special education teachers rated the support intensity, digital propensity, and social maturity of 352 students with intellectual disability. Leveraging the Digital Propensity Index, Supports Intensity Scale, and the Social Maturity Scale, descriptive statistics, correlations, multiple regressions, and regression analyses were employed. The findings revealed significant relationships between digital propensity and support needs. In addition, significant predictors of digital propensity were found with regard to support intensity, age, gender, and social maturity.

  20. An evaluation of protein/fat ratio in first DHI test milk for prediction of subsequent displaced abomasum in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geishauser, T D; Leslie, K E; Duffield, T F; Edge, V L

    1998-04-01

    First DHI test milk that was sampled prior to displaced abomasum (DA) diagnosis was used to evaluate milk protein/fat ratio (PFR) for prediction of subsequent DA in dairy cows. Odds ratio, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio were determined. Twenty-seven DA cases were matched to 3 controls per case by herd and calving date. Milk was tested at a median of 19 d after calving, which was 8 d prior to the median time of DA diagnosis. Adjusted for parity and days in milk, a protein/fat ratio 0.72. Using the cut off value of 0.72, the sensitivity of PFR for DA was 80% and the specificity was 68%. A receiver operating characteristics curve indicated that the minimum sum of false negative and false positive results was at a PFR cut off value of 0.72. The likelihood ratio indicated that protein/fat ratios DHI test milk may predict subsequent DA in dairy cows.

  1. Lifting scheme-based method for joint coding 3D stereo digital cinema with luminace correction and optimized prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darazi, R.; Gouze, A.; Macq, B.

    2009-01-01

    Reproducing a natural and real scene as we see in the real world everyday is becoming more and more popular. Stereoscopic and multi-view techniques are used for this end. However due to the fact that more information are displayed requires supporting technologies such as digital compression to ensure the storage and transmission of the sequences. In this paper, a new scheme for stereo image coding is proposed. The original left and right images are jointly coded. The main idea is to optimally exploit the existing correlation between the two images. This is done by the design of an efficient transform that reduces the existing redundancy in the stereo image pair. This approach was inspired by Lifting Scheme (LS). The novelty in our work is that the prediction step is been replaced by an hybrid step that consists in disparity compensation followed by luminance correction and an optimized prediction step. The proposed scheme can be used for lossless and for lossy coding. Experimental results show improvement in terms of performance and complexity compared to recently proposed methods.

  2. WAIS-IV Digit Span variables: are they valuable for use in predicting TOMM and MSVT failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Kriscinda A; Shepard, Polly H; Davis, Jeremy J

    2013-01-01

    The Digit Span (DS) task in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition differs substantially from earlier versions of the measure, with one of the major changes being the addition of a sequencing component. In the present investigation, the usefulness of the new sequencing task and other DS variables (i.e., DS Age-Scaled Score, DS Forward Total, DS Backward Total, and Reliable DS) was investigated with regard to the ability of these variables to predict negative response bias. Negative response bias was first defined and examined using below-cutoff performance on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) (N = 99). Then, for comparison purposes, negative response bias was examined using below-cutoff performance on the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT; N = 95). Study participants included primarily middle-aged outpatients at a Veterans Affairs medical center. Findings from this retrospective analysis showed that, regardless of whether the TOMM or the MSVT was used as the negative response bias criterion, of all the DS variables examined, DS Sequencing Total showed the best classification accuracy. Yet, due to its relatively low positive and negative predictive power, DS Sequencing Total is not recommended for use in isolation to identify negative response bias.

  3. The Predictive Role of Serum Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio According to Renal Function in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong Shin; Lee, Tae Won; Ihm, Chun Gyoo; Kim, Yang Gyoon; Moon, Joo Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Jeong, Myung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective A high serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been reported as an independent predictor for cardiovascular events in the general population. However, the prognostic value of this ratio in patients with renal dysfunction is unclear. We examined the association of the TG/HDL-C ratio with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) according to renal function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Method This study was based on the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry database. Of 13,897 patients who were diagnosed with AMI, the study population included the 7,016 patients with available TG/HDL-C ratio data. Patients were stratified into three groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and the TG/HDL-C ratio was categorized into tertiles. We investigated 12-month MACEs, which included cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and repeated percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. Results During the 12-month follow up period, 593 patients experienced MACEs. There was a significant association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and MACEs (p<0.001) in the entire study cohort. Having a TG/HDL-C ratio value in the highest tertile of TG/HDL-C ratio was an independent factor associated with increased risk of MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26–1.93; p<0.001). Then we performed subgroup analyses according to renal function. In patients with normal renal function (eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73m2) and mild renal dysfunction (eGFR ≥ 60 to < 90ml/min/1.73m2), a higher TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly associated with increased risk of MACEs (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.04–2.60; p = 0.035; and HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.14–2.12; p = 0.005, respectively). However, in patients with moderate renal dysfunction (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2), TG/HDL-C ratio lost its predictive value on the risk of MACEs (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.82–1.83; p = 0.317). Conclusions In

  4. A comparison of between hyomental distance ratios, ratio of height to thyromental, modified Mallamapati classification test and upper lip bite test in predicting difficult laryngoscopy of patients undergoing general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Honarmand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Failed intubation is imperative source of anesthetic interrelated patient′s mortality. The aim of this present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from the following pre-operative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: Modified Mallampati test (MMT, the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD, hyomental distance ratios (HMDR, and the upper-lip-bite test (ULBT. Materials and Methods: We collected data on 525 consecutive patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then evaluated all four factors before surgery. A skilled anesthesiologist, not imparted of the noted pre-operative airway assessment, did the laryngoscopy and rating (as per Cormack and Lehane′s classification. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for every airway predictor in isolation and in combination were established. Results: The most sensitive of the single tests was ULBT with a sensitivity of 90.2%. The hyomental distance extreme of head extension was the least sensitive of the single tests with a sensitivity of 56.9. The HMDR had sensitivity 86.3%. The ULBT had the highest negative predictive value: And the area under a receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC of ROC curve among single predictors. The AUC of ROC curve for ULBT, HMDR and RHTMD was significantly more than for MMT (P 0.05. Conclusion: The HMDR is comparable with RHTMD and ULBT for prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in the general population, but was significantly more than for MMT.

  5. Interactive Digital Serious Games for the Assessment, Rehabilitation, and Prediction of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Kazmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a serious, progressive, and often debilitating illness with no known cure, having a severe adverse effect on memory, behaviour, reasoning, and communication. A comprehensive review of current refereed research material in the use of games in this area is scarce and suffers from being orientated towards commercially available games or derivatives such as “Dr. Kawashima’s brain training.” There is much lesser concern for bespoke research grade alternatives. This review will attempt to assess the current state of the art in research orientated games for dementia, importantly identifying systems capable of prediction before the onset of the disease. It can be ascertained from the literature reviewed that there are clearly a large number of interactive computer game based mechanisms used for dementia. However, these are each highly intrusive in terms of affecting normal living and the patient is aware of being tested; furthermore their long-term or real benefits are unknown as is their effect over conventional tests. It is important to predict cognitive impairment at a stage early enough to maximise benefit from treatment and therapeutic intervention. Considering the availability, use, and increasing power of modern mobile smartphones, it is logically plausible to explore this platform for dementia healthcare.

  6. Digital radiographic evaluation of hand-wrist bone maturation and prediction of age in South Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Reddy, M Asha Lata; Jain, Megha; Singh, Johar Rajvinder; Sanghvi, Praveen; Thetay, Anshuj Ajay Rao

    2014-09-01

    In the growing years, indicators of the level of maturational development of the individual provide the best means for evaluating biologic age and the associated timing of skeletal growth. The relative stage of maturity of a child may be determined by comparing the child's hand-wrist radiograph to the known standards of skeletal development. In this study, we assessed various levels of skeletal maturation and also identified the relationship between chronological age (CA) and maturation stage using the hand-wrist radiographs in adolescents of Indian origin. Three hundred and thirty hand-wrist digital radiographs of individuals aged 8 to 18 years were evaluated for skeletal maturity levels using Fishman's method. The data was analysed using the SPSS software package (version 12, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Regression analysis was performed for calculating bone age of both males and females. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients were estimated separately for males and females to assess the relation between CA and maturation level. An association between skeletal maturation indicator stages and CA (r = 0.82) was significant. Interestingly, female subjects were observed to be advanced in skeletal maturity compared to males. Regression equations were derived to calculate bone age in males, females and the whole sample. The results of this study showed significant association between hand-wrist skeletal maturation levels and CA. Digital radiographic assessment of hand-wrist skeletal maturation can be used as a better choice for predicting average bone age of an individual because of its simplicity, reliability and lesser radiation exposure.

  7. Predictive value of upper lip bite test and ratio of height to thyromental distance compared to other multivariate airway assessment tests for difficult laryngoscopy in apparently normal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Jain Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various anatomical measurements and non-invasive clinical tests, singly or in various combinations can be performed to predict difficult intubation. Recently introduced "Upper lip bite test" (ULBT and "Ratio of height to Thyromental distance" (RHTMD are claimed to have high predictability. We conducted a study to compare the Predictive Value of ULBT and RHTMD with Mouth opening (Inter-Incisor gap (IIG, Modified Mallampatti Test (MMT, Head and neck movement (HNM and Thyromental Distance (TMD for Difficult Laryngoscopy. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, single blinded observational study, 480 adult patients of either sex, ASA grade I and II were assessed and graded for ULBT, RHTMD, TMD, MMT, IIG, and HNM according to standard methods and correlated with the Cormack and Lehane grade. Results: ULBT and RHTMD had highest sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio, i.e., 74.63%, 91.53%, 58.82%, 95.7%, 31.765 and 71.64%, 92.01%, 59.26%, 95.24%, 8.96 respectively, compared to TMD, MMT, IIG and HNM. Conclusions: ULBT is the best predictive test for difficult laryngoscopy in apparently normal patients but RHTMD can also be used as an acceptable alternative.

  8. Predictive value of upper lip bite test and ratio of height to thyromental distance compared to other multivariate airway assessment tests for difficult laryngoscopy in apparently normal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pratibha Jain; Dubey, Kamta Prasad; Yadav, Jai Prakash

    2013-04-01

    Various anatomical measurements and non-invasive clinical tests, singly or in various combinations can be performed to predict difficult intubation. Recently introduced "Upper lip bite test" (ULBT) and "Ratio of height to Thyromental distance" (RHTMD) are claimed to have high predictability. We conducted a study to compare the Predictive Value of ULBT and RHTMD with Mouth opening (Inter-Incisor gap) (IIG), Modified Mallampatti Test (MMT), Head and neck movement (HNM) and Thyromental Distance (TMD) for Difficult Laryngoscopy. In this prospective, single blinded observational study, 480 adult patients of either sex, ASA grade I and II were assessed and graded for ULBT, RHTMD, TMD, MMT, IIG, and HNM according to standard methods and correlated with the Cormack and Lehane grade. ULBT and RHTMD had highest sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, likelihood ratio, i.e., 74.63%, 91.53%, 58.82%, 95.7%, 31.765 and 71.64%, 92.01%, 59.26%, 95.24%, 8.96 respectively, compared to TMD, MMT, IIG and HNM. ULBT is the best predictive test for difficult laryngoscopy in apparently normal patients but RHTMD can also be used as an acceptable alternative.

  9. Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-06-01

    Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB (r = 0.54 to 0.57, p wealth, son preference, latitude, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality in the regression models. These results suggest that the striking variation of offspring sex ratio across nations could be caused in part by the difference in general condition of populations.

  10. Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-06-01

    Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB ( r = 0.54 to 0.57, p low birth weight, and neonatal mortality in the regression models. These results suggest that the striking variation of offspring sex ratio across nations could be caused in part by the difference in general condition of populations.

  11. Perturbative stability of the QCD predictions for the ratio $R=F_L/F_T$ and azimuthal asymmetry in heavy-quark leptoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, N Ya

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the perturbative and parametric stability of the QCD predictions for the Callan-Gross ratio $R(x,Q^2)=F_L/F_T$ and azimuthal $\\cos(2\\varphi)$ asymmetry in heavy-quark leptoproduction. Our analysis shows that large radiative corrections to the structure functions cancel each other in their ratio $R(x,Q^2)$ and azimuthal asymmetry with good accuracy. As a result, the NLO contributions to the Callan-Gross ratio and $\\cos(2\\varphi)$ asymmetry are less than 10% in a wide region of the variables $x$ and $Q^2$. We provide compact analytic predictions for $R(x,Q^2)$ and asymmetry in the case of low $x\\ll 1$. Simple formulae connecting the high-energy behavior of the Callan-Gross ratio and azimuthal asymmetry with the low-$x$ asymptotics of the gluon density in the target are derived. It is shown that the obtained hadron-level predictions for $R(x,Q^2)$ and azimuthal asymmetry are stable at $x\\ll 1$ under the DGLAP evolution of the gluon distribution function. Concerning the experimental aspects, we propose...

  12. Lymphocytopenia and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio predict bacteremia better than conventional infection markers in an emergency care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, C.P.C.; van Wijk, P.T.I.; Mathoera, R.B.; de Jongh-Leuvenink, J.; van der Poll, T.; Wever, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Absolute lymphocytopenia has been reported as a predictor of bacteremia in medical emergencies. Likewise, the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) has been shown a simple promising method to evaluate systemic inflammation in critically ill patients. Methods: We retrospectively eval

  13. Ratio of total carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed is predictive of VO2 max during graded exercise testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID BELLAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the ratio between total cO2 expiration and O2 consumption to vO2max. Twenty-six male (vO2 max: 55.4± 8.3 ml O2/kg*min and thirty- five female (vO2 max: 44.1± 8.1 ml O2/kg*min recreationally active adults volunteered. The participants underwent a custom ramped treadmill protocol (gXT with expired gases monitored. Third order polynomial regression was undertaken for the vO2 and vcO2 by time (r>0.950. regression equations were integrated from 60seconds after the start of the test (to negate any initial hyperventilation until vO2 max. This area under the curve calculation was equal to the total accumulated expired cO2 and consumed O2. The ratio of total cO2 to O2 was calculated (auc ratio. Data analysis was undertaken using multiple linear regression analysis. The model included gender, rer at vO2 max and auc ratio as predictors and relative vO2 max as the outcome. The model was significant with predictor variable gender (b =0.582, p<0.001 and auc ratio (b=-0.298, p=0.019 significant in the model. Based upon these results it would appear that individuals who are more fit relying more heavily on oxidative pathways throughout the course of a GXT.

  14. Comparison of five methods in predicting difficult laryngoscopy: Neck circumference, neck circumference to thyromental distance ratio, the ratio of height to thyromental distance, upper lip bite test and Mallampati test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarmand, Azim; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Attari, Mohammadali; Khazaei, Mehdi; Zamani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative airway assessment tests have been presented to help in anticipating a difficult airway. We conducted this study to compare five methods in prediction of difficult laryngoscopy: Neck circumference (NC), NC to thyromental distance ratio (NC/TMD), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), upper lip bite test (ULBT) and Mallampati test (MMT). These five methods are the most commonly used ones and have different powers for it. It was not clear which of these methods predicts difficult laryngoscopy better. Six hundred consecutive patients participated in this study. NC, NC/TMD and RHTMD were measured, and ULBT and MMT were performed and recorded. The laryngoscopy view was graded according to Cormack and Lehane's scale (CLS) and difficult laryngoscopy was defined as CLS grades 3 and 4. Accuracy of tests in predicting difficult laryngoscopy was assessed using the area under a receiver-operating characteristic curve. The area under the curve in ULBT and RHTMD were significantly larger than that in TMD, NC and MMT. No statistically significant differences were noted between TMD, NC and MMT (all P > 0.05) (ULBT = RHTMD > NC/TMD > TMD = NC = MMT). RHTMD (>22.7 cm) exhibited the highest sensitivity (sensitivity = 64.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.9-74.7) and the most specific test was ULBT (specificity = 99.41%, 95% CI: 98.3-99.9). RHTMD and ULBT as simple preoperative bedside tests have a higher level of accuracy compared to NC/TMD, TMD, NC, MMT in predicting a difficult airway.

  15. Association of second to fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D with some anthropometric measurements: a comparison between Polish and Indian young adults aged 18-25 years

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    R. Chakraborty

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ratio of lengths of second to the fourth digit (2D:4D is a proxy indicator of prenatal sex-hormone exposure. The male has lower 2D:4D than the female. The ratio and its sexual dimorphism vary across ethnicity. The relationships of 2D:4D with anthropometric dimensions are not consistent. Objective: To compare 2D:4D and its sexual dimorphism between the young Indian and Polish populations and to examine the relationship between 2D:4D and anthropometric measures. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 152 Indian (males: 71 females: 81 and 110 Polish (55 each sex young adults aged between 18 and 25 years. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, second and fourth digit lengths were measured. Results: Males had significantly lower 2D:4D than the female in both hands in both the ethnic groups. All the anthropometric measurements were higher in Polish males, including the 2D:4D of both hands, than the Indians, except for BMI and WHR. Polish females had higher digit lengths, height, weight and HC than the Indian females. In Polish males, 2D:4D was negatively associated with height and WHR in both hands. No significant correlation was observed between any anthropometric measure (except for height and 2D:4D among the Indians. However, the Indian Female had a nearly significant positive correlation between left 2D:4D and HC. In Indian Male correlation between left hand 2D:4D and Height is significant and similar to that of the Polish men. Conclusion: It was not possible to draw any conclusion regarding the nature of association between 2D:4D and anthropometric parameters. The findings indicate a link between fat patterning and digit ratio.

  16. Prediction of radiation ratio and sound transmission of complex extruded panel using wavenumber domain Unite element and boundary element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Ryue, J.; Thompson, D. J.; Müller, A. D.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, complex shaped aluminium panels have been adopted in many structures to make them lighter and stronger. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of these complex panels has been of interest for many years but conventional finite element and boundary element methods are not efficient to predict their performance at higher frequencies. Where the cross-sectional properties of the panels are constant in one direction, wavenumber domain numerical analysis can be applied and this becomes more suitable for panels with complex cross-sectional geometries. In this paper, a coupled wavenumber domain finite element and boundary element method is applied to predict the sound radiation from and sound transmission through a double-layered aluminium extruded panel, having a typical shape used in railway carriages. The predicted results are compared with measured ones carried out on a finite length panel and good agreement is found.

  17. High total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio predicting deterioration of ankle brachial index in Asian type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Te; Huang, Chien-Ning; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lee, Hong-Shen; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2008-03-01

    We conducted a prospective study to determine the risk factors for decrease in ABI in Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes during a 3-year period. Type 2 diabetic subjects with normal ABI were enrolled in this study. The risk factors for PVD and ABI were examined before and after the follow-up period. A total of 107 type 2 diabetic subjects completed the assessment. Based on the change of ABI, the study subjects were divided into two groups. Forty subjects, in Group 1, had a decrease in ABI; 67 subjects, in Group 2, had no decrease in ABI after the 3-year follow-up. The baseline total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio (4.5+/-1.2 vs. 3.9+/-1.0, P=0.018) and serum creatinine (99.0+/-18.0micromol/L vs. 88.8+/-15.7micromol/L, P=0.004) were significantly higher, and the HDL cholesterol concentration was significantly lower (1.11+/-0.26mmol/L vs. 1.27+/-0.39mmol/L, P=0.011) in Group 1 than in Group 2. Furthermore, total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio was the variable showed an inverse correlation and independent predictor for the change in ABI after the 3-year follow-up. Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio is a major risk factor for PVD and showed an inverse trend to change in ABI in Asian type 2 diabetic subjects.

  18. Preoperative red cell distribution width and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predict survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Hong, Na; Robertson, Melissa; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Guoqian

    2017-01-01

    Several parameters of preoperative complete blood count (CBC) and inflammation-associated blood cell markers derived from them have been reported to correlate with prognosis in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but their prognostic importance and optimal cutoffs are still needed be elucidated. Clinic/pathological parameters, 5-year follow-up data and preoperative CBC parameters were obtained retrospectively in 654 EOC patients underwent primary surgery at Mayo Clinic. Cutoffs for neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were optimized by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Prognostic significance for overall survival (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) were determined by Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier method. Associations of RDW and NLR with clinic/pathological parameters were analyzed using non-parametric tests. RDW with cutoff 14.5 and NLR with cutoff 5.25 had independent prognostic significance for OS, while combined RDW and NLR scores stratified patients into low (RDW-low and NLR-low), intermediate (RDW-high or NLR-high) and high risk (RDW-high and NLR-high) groups, especially in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Moreover, high NLR was associated with poor RFS as well. Elevated RDW was strongly associated with age, whereas high NLR was strongly associated with stage, preoperative CA125 level and ascites at surgery. PMID:28223716

  19. Decreased CD8+CD28+/CD8+CD28- T cell ratio can sensitively predict poor outcome for patients with complicated Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shi-Xue; Gu, Hong-Xiang; Lin, Qian-Yi; Wu, Yan-Kun; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Shao-Zhuo; Xing, Tiao-Si; Chen, Min-Hua; Zhang, Qing-Fang; Zheng, Zhong-Wen; Sha, Wei-Hong

    2017-06-01

    Crohn disease (CD) with complications such as penetrating, stricturing, and perianal disease is called complicated CD. The aim of this study is to test the efficiency with which the CD8CD28/CD8CD28 cell balance can predict a subsequent active stage in patients with newly diagnosed complicated CD.Seventeen patients with complicated CD and 48 CD patients with no complications were enrolled. Blood CD8 T cells were tested from all of the 65 newly diagnosed CD patients upon enrollment. The potential risk factors were compared between the 2 groups. A 30-week follow-up was performed, and the efficiency of the CD8 cell balance at predicting active CD was analyzed using receiver-operating characteristic curves. The cumulative remission lasting rates (CRLRs) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method.Compared with the control CD group, patients with complicated CD were predominantly male and younger in age; they also had lower body mass indices (BMIs), higher Crohn disease activity indices (CDAIs), higher immunosuppressant and steroid prescription rates, and significantly higher surgical rates. The CD8CD28/CD8CD28 balance was associated with BMI, CDAI, steroids, and surgery. The CD8CD28/CD8CD28 ratios were significantly lower at week 0 and on the 6th, 22nd, and 30th week during follow-up with a shorter lasting time of remission for the complicated CD patients. The CD8CD28/CD8CD28 ratio could accurately predict the active stage for the patients with complicated CD, and the highest sensitivity (89.2%) and specificity (85.3%) were found when the ratio was 1.03. Treatment with steroids and surgery, along with a significantly lower CD8CD28/CD8CD28 ratio and lower CRLRs, was closely related to a worse outcome for the patients with complicated CD.Patients requiring steroids and surgery experience more severe disease activity and thus a disequilibrated immunological balance, which could be the main reason for a decreased CD8CD28/CD8CD28 ratio. This ratio can sensitively predict the

  20. Review: Systematic review of the utility of the fetal cerebroplacental ratio measured at term for the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Liam; Sherrell, Helen; Kumar, Sailesh

    2017-06-01

    This systematic review evaluates the utility of the fetal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) when assessed at term (from 37 + 0 weeks gestation) as a predictor of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. An electronic search of Pubmed and Embase using variations of 'cerebroplacental ratio' and 'cerebroumbilical ratio' was conducted by two independent reviewers. Full text studies written in English that reported on low CPR and its correlation with relevant obstetric and perinatal outcomes were included. Twenty one studies satisfied inclusion with 13 prospective and eight retrospective analyses. Fetal CPR was predictive of caesarean section for intrapartum fetal compromise, small for gestational age and fetal growth restriction and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Low CPR was also significantly associated with abnormal fetal heart rate pattern, meconium stained liquor, low Apgar score, acidosis at birth and composite adverse perinatal outcome scores. The CPR when taken at term had comparable if not better predictive value than that when taken at preterm. Most studies included small for gestational age fetuses and postdate pregnancies. Subtle variation existed in the threshold for low CPR. The CPR at term has a strong association with adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. This review suggests the predictive utility of CPR at term is promising however there is insufficient evidence to demonstrate its value as a stand-alone test. Inclusion of CPR as a component of clinical care may help better identify fetuses at risk of adverse outcome, and this should be tested with randomised control trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance of the waist-to-height ratio in identifying obesity and predicting non-communicable diseases in the elderly population: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Márcia Mara; Thumé, Elaine; De Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Tomasi, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was carried out aiming to collect evidence on the use of the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) on the elderly population, focusing on validity measures to identify the best anthropometric indicator in assessing obesity associated with non-communicable diseases. The review consisted in a search of papers published on the databases Pubmed, Web of Science, and Lilacs, with no restriction regarding period of publication, using the following combinations: abdominal fat or overweight or obesity and waist-to-height ratio or waist height or waist ht or WHtR or waist to stature ratio or wst stature or WSR or stature and girth. Sixteen papers were selected, most of which with high methodological quality. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was the validity measure explored in 13 papers, followed by sensitivity and specificity measures. In all studies, the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) received special attention for analysis along with WHtR. Five manuscripts showed evidence of WHtR being the best anthropometric index when used alone, four showed that both WHtR and WC had the best discriminatory power in predicting cardiovascular risk factors compared to the other indices, and two ranked WHtR at the same performance level as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and BMI. An association was shown of the obesity assessed by WHtR in predicting risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes compared to other anthropometric parameters.

  2. The relationship between second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratios and problematic and pathological Internet use among Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canan, Fatih; Karaca, Servet; Düzgün, Melike; Erdem, Ayşe Merve; Karaçaylı, Esranur; Topan, Nur Begüm; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Zhai, Zu Wei; Kuloğlu, Murat; Potenza, Marc N

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The ratio of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D ratio) is a sexually dimorphic trait, with men tending to have lower values than women. This ratio has been related to prenatal testosterone concentrations and addictive behaviors including problematic video-gaming. We aimed to investigate the possible association between 2D:4D ratios and Internet addiction and whether such a relationship would be independent of impulsivity. Methods A total of 652 university students (369 women, 283 men), aged 17-27 years, were enrolled in the study. Problematic and pathological Internet use (PPIU) was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). The participants also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (version 11; BIS-11) and had their 2D:4D ratios measured. Results 2D:4D ratios were not significantly different in women with PPIU and in those with adaptive Internet use (AIU). Men with PPIU exhibited lower 2D:4D ratios on both hands when compared with those with AIU. Correlation analysis revealed that 2D:4D ratios on both hands were negatively correlated with IAT scores among men, but not among women. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age, duration of weekly Internet use, impulsiveness, and 2D:4D ratios on the right hand were independently associated with IAT scores among men, and impulsivity did not mediate the relationship between 2D:4D ratios and PPIU. Conclusions For men, 2D:4D ratios on the right hand were inversely correlated with Internet addiction severity even after controlling for individual differences in impulsivity. These findings suggest that high prenatal testosterone levels may contribute to the occurrence of PPIU among men.

  3. The Predictive Role of the Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Survival with Multiple Myeloma: A Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onec, Birgul; Okutan, Harika; Albayrak, Murat; Saribacak Can, Esra; Aslan, Vedat; Unver Koluman, Basak; Soyer Kosemehmetoglu, Ozge; Albayrak, Aynur; Kos, Durdu Mehmet

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have shown a positive correlation between tumor-related immune response markers and the poor outcome in solid tumors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in multiple myeloma. To the best of our knowledge, this would be the second report concerning this topic. We retrospectively reviewed the data for 52 multiple myeloma patients. The patients were grouped using the baseline NLR as NLR ≤ 1.72 and NLR > 1.72 using receiver operating characteristic analysis to determine a cut off. We compared the two groups in terms of both the known prognostic factors of the myeloma and the overall survival (OS). Our study showed that NLR is associated with C-reactive protein and β2 microglobulin (P = 0.02 and P = 0.001, respectively). The patients with NLR > 1.72 had significantly worse stages, performance status, and kidney functions. The whole group's OS was estimated as 35.1 months while the patients with lower NLR had better OS when compared with those with NLR > 1.72 (42.75 and 26.14 months, respectively, P: 0.04). Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, which is associated with stage, performance status, and kidney functions, can be used in daily practice as a predictor for survival in multiple myeloma. Simply adding NLR to the routine charts may enrich our data for larger studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios: are they useful for predicting gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargın MA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Akif Sargın, Murat Yassa, Bilge Dogan Taymur, Ayhan Celik, Emrah Ergun, Niyazi Tug Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: We aimed to investigate whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR could be utilized to screen for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.Subjects and methods: NLR and PLR were assessed by retrospective analysis of 762 healthy and pregnant women with GDM. The patients were stratified into four groups, as follows: GDM (n=144, impaired glucose tolerance (n=76, only screen positive (n=238, and control (n=304.Results: The leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the study groups compared with the control group (P=0.001; P<0.01. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to the NLR and PLR (P>0.05.Conclusion: We do not recommend that blood NLR and PLR can be used to screen for GDM. However, increase in the leukocyte count is an important marker for GDM as it provides evidence of subclinical inflammation. Keywords: inflammation, lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, pregnancy

  5. Pretreatment Lymphocyte Monocyte Ratio Predicts Long-Term Outcomes in Patients with Digestive System Tumor: A Meta-Analysis

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    Jingwen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The prognostic value of pretreatment lymphocyte monocyte ratio (LMR in digestive system cancer patients remains controversial. The aim of this study was to quantify the prognostic impact of this biomarker and assess its consistency in digestive system tumors. Methods. We searched “PubMed,” “Embase,” and “CBM” for published eligible studies before June 2016 and conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled hazard ratios (HRs for disease recurrence and mortality focusing on LMR. Subgroup analyses, meta-regression, and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results. A total of 22 cohort studies enrolling 12829 patients with digestive system cancer were included. The summary results showed that lower LMR was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS, cancer-specific survival (CSS, and tumor disease or recurrence-free survival (DFS/RFS in analyses using the studies reporting HRs either by the univariate analyses (HR = 1.32, HR = 1.35, and HR = 1.26 for OS, CSS, and DFS/RFS, resp. or by multivariate analyses (HR = 1.21, HR = 1.18, and HR = 1.26 for OS, CSS, and DFS/RFS, resp.. Conclusion. Our results support the fact that decreased LMR indicates worse prognosis in multiple digestive system tumors.

  6. Predictive role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios for diagnosis of acute appendicitis during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet Yazar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis (AA is not uncommon during pregnancy but can be difficult to diagnose. This study evaluated the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR in addition to conventional diagnostic indicators of the disease to diagnose AA during pregnancy. Age, gestational age, white blood cell (WBC count, Alvarado scores, C-reactive protein (CRP, lymphocyte count, NLR and PLR were compared among 28 pregnant women who underwent surgery for AA, 35 pregnant women wrongly suspected as having AA, 29 healthy pregnant women, and 30 nonpregnant healthy women. Mean WBC counts and CRP levels were higher in women with proven AA than in those of control groups (all p < 0.05. Among all the groups, the median NLR and PLR were significantly different in women with proven AA (all p < 0.05. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine cut-off values for WBC count, CRP, lymphocyte count, NLR and PLR, and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that NLR and PLR used with routine methods could diagnose AA with 90.5% accuracy. Used in addition to routine diagnostic methods, NLR and PLR increased the accuracy of the diagnosis of AA in pregnant women.

  7. A comparison of vaginal ultrasound and digital examination in predicting preterm delivery in women with threatened preterm labor: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Anne; Severac, François; Meyer, Nicolas; Akladios, Cherif Y; Gaudineau, Adrien; Favre, Romain; Langer, Bruno; Sananes, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of digital examination in addition to ultrasonic measurement of cervical length for predicting spontaneous preterm delivery in women with threatened preterm labor. This was a prospective cohort study in Strasbourg University Hospital, France, between January 2013 and January 2015. All women with a singleton pregnancy hospitalized with threatened preterm labor between 23 and 34 weeks of gestation were included. Cases of iatrogenic preterm delivery were excluded. A multivariable logistic regression model to estimate the significant predictive parameters of spontaneous preterm delivery was performed. The primary endpoint of our study was a preterm birth before 34 weeks of gestation. A total of 395 women were included in our study. The rate of preterm delivery before 34 weeks was 13%. In univariate analysis every single cervical parameter assessed by the digital examination and all the ultrasound parameters were significantly associated with preterm delivery. The final model included five variables predicting preterm birth: visualization of the membranes at the speculum examination (OR 15.8, 95% CI 2.43-146), ultrasound cervical length (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75-0.89), signs of inflammation (OR 6.23, 95% CI 2.07-22.9), gestational age on admission (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71-1.0), and presence of vaginal infection (OR 4.28, 95% CI 1.52-12.7). None of the cervical parameters assessed by the digital examination provided additional predictive value of preterm delivery. Our study suggests that digital examination does not add to the information given by vaginal ultrasound evaluation in predicting preterm labor. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Waist height ratio: A universal screening tool for prediction of metabolic syndrome in urban and rural population of Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Methods and Results: A total of 3,042 adults (1,693 in rural area and 1,349 in urban area were screened for the presence of MetS according to the IDF definition. Among 3,042 adults selected as subjects, 1,518 were male and 1,524 were female. The receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was done to determine the optimal cut-off value and the best discriminatory value of each of these anthropometric parameters to predict two or more non-obese components of metabolic syndrome. The area under ROC (AURC for WC was superior to that for other anthropometric variables. The optimal cut-off value of WC in urban and rural males was >89 cm, which is higher than that in urban and rural females at 83 cm and 79 cm, respectively; the optimal cut-off for WHtR was >0.51 in rural females, 0.52 in rural males, and 0.53 in both urban males and females. Both parameters were found to be better than BMI and WHR. ROC and AURC values for WC were better than those for WHtR in men and women in both urban and rural areas (P = 0.0054; however, when the entire study cohort was analyzed together, irrespective of gender and place of residence, then at a value of 0.52, WHtR scored over WC as a predictor of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Although the predictive value of different gender-specific WC values is clearly superior to other anthropometric measures for predicting two or more non-adipose components of MetS, a single value of WHtR irrespective of gender and the area of residence can be used as a universal screening tool for the identification of individuals at high risk of development of metabolic complications.

  9. Performance of in-hospital mortality prediction models for acute hospitalization: Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratio in Japan

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    Motomura Noboru

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In-hospital mortality is an important performance measure for quality improvement, although it requires proper risk adjustment. We set out to develop in-hospital mortality prediction models for acute hospitalization using a nation-wide electronic administrative record system in Japan. Methods Administrative records of 224,207 patients (patients discharged from 82 hospitals in Japan between July 1, 2002 and October 31, 2002 were randomly split into preliminary (179,156 records and test (45,051 records groups. Study variables included Major Diagnostic Category, age, gender, ambulance use, admission status, length of hospital stay, comorbidity, and in-hospital mortality. ICD-10 codes were converted to calculate comorbidity scores based on Quan's methodology. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was then performed using in-hospital mortality as a dependent variable. C-indexes were calculated across risk groups in order to evaluate model performances. Results In-hospital mortality rates were 2.68% and 2.76% for the preliminary and test datasets, respectively. C-index values were 0.869 for the model that excluded length of stay and 0.841 for the model that included length of stay. Conclusion Risk models developed in this study included a set of variables easily accessible from administrative data, and still successfully exhibited a high degree of prediction accuracy. These models can be used to estimate in-hospital mortality rates of various diagnoses and procedures.

  10. Individual stress vulnerability is predicted by short-term memory and AMPA receptor subunit ratio in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mathias V; Trümbach, Dietrich; Weber, Peter; Wagner, Klaus; Scharf, Sebastian H; Liebl, Claudia; Datson, Nicole; Namendorf, Christian; Gerlach, Tamara; Kühne, Claudia; Uhr, Manfred; Deussing, Jan M; Wurst, Wolfgang; Binder, Elisabeth B; Holsboer, Florian; Müller, Marianne B

    2010-12-15

    Increased vulnerability to aversive experiences is one of the main risk factors for stress-related psychiatric disorders as major depression. However, the molecular bases of vulnerability, on the one hand, and stress resilience, on the other hand, are still not understood. Increasing clinical and preclinical evidence suggests a central involvement of the glutamatergic system in the pathogenesis of major depression. Using a mouse paradigm, modeling increased stress vulnerability and depression-like symptoms in a genetically diverse outbred strain, and we tested the hypothesis that differences in AMPA receptor function may be linked to individual variations in stress vulnerability. Vulnerable and resilient animals differed significantly in their dorsal hippocampal AMPA receptor expression and AMPA receptor binding. Treatment with an AMPA receptor potentiator during the stress exposure prevented the lasting effects of chronic social stress exposure on physiological, neuroendocrine, and behavioral parameters. In addition, spatial short-term memory, an AMPA receptor-dependent behavior, was found to be predictive of individual stress vulnerability and response to AMPA potentiator treatment. Finally, we provide evidence that genetic variations in the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 are linked to the vulnerable phenotype. Therefore, we propose genetic variations in the AMPA receptor system to shape individual stress vulnerability. Those individual differences can be predicted by the assessment of short-term memory, thereby opening up the possibility for a specific treatment by enhancing AMPA receptor function.

  11. Development of a prediction equation for depth, aspect ratio, and trench roughness pertaining to excimer laser ablation of polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Sean; O'Connor, Gerard M.; Glynn, Thomas J.

    2005-06-01

    Excimer based laser ablation of micro-fluidic circuits for micro-total analysis systems (μTAS) is an alternative to more expensive techniques of LIGA or micro-moulding. In the interests of developing a rapid prototyping method for direct writing of micro-fluidic circuits in polymer materials the ablation process was characterised using Design of Experiment techniques and a robust full factorial model was developed. Input factors of pulse energy, repetition rate, scan speed and number of passes were considered. Output responses of trench bottom width, sidewall angle, trench depth and trench roughness were measured. From this a prediction equation was created to forecast the output responses prior to machining and to allow the development of a process prior to machining. The accuracy of the prediction equation is discussed for four materials; Polystyrene, Polycarbonate, Non-CQ grade PMMA and CQ grade PMMA. For the four materials studied the response of Polystyrene and Polycarbonate were similar while the two grades of PMMA behave differently.

  12. Renovascular hypertension. Ability to renal vein ratio to predict the blood pressure level 18-24 months after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Fjeldborg, O; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, B

    1986-01-01

    Fourteen patients with severe hypertension and renal artery stenosis were treated surgically. One patient died 4 days after surgery due to a cerebral thrombosis. The other 13 patients were followed for 18-24 months. Five were considered cured since the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was less than or equal to 90 mm Hg without therapy. Five were improved since DBP was less than or equal to 100 mm Hg during treatment with only one or two antihypertensive agents. There were unchanged. Renal vein renin ratio (RVRR) was greater than or equal to 1.5 either before or after furosemide in all patients who were cured or improved and less than or equal to 1.5 in 2 of 3 who were unchanged. It can be concluded that surgical treatment cured or improved 77% of the patients, and that a RVRR greater than or equal to 1.5 is a good predictor of the blood pressure lowering effect of surgery.

  13. Ankle Brachial Index Compared With Different Lipid Ratios to Predict Coronary Events in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

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    Zinat Nadia Hatmi

    2014-02-01

    Multivariable adjusted relations revealed that HDL-C and #8804;34 Mg/dl significantly increased the risk of future UA, HDL-C and #8804;53 Mg/dl and sedentary life style increased the risk of MI. CONCLUSION: Multivariate adjusted relationships revealed that HDL-C and #8804;34 Mg/dl was a strong predictor of unstable angina pectoris after 15 months of follow up period. HDL-C and #8804;53 Mg/dl and physical inactivity were associated with increased risk of MI after 15 months. Of the lipid ratios the strongest predictors for developing future MI and unstable angina were TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 29-36

  14. Potential of right to left ventricular volume ratio measured on chest CT for the prediction of pulmonary hypertension: correlation with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure estimated by echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heon [Soon Chun Hyang University, Department of Radiology, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Yeon [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Jeong [Terarecon Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyun [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Reddy, Ryan P.; Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate the correlation of right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) volume ratio measured by chest CT with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) estimated by echocardiography. 104 patients (72.47 {+-} 13.64 years; 39 male) who had undergone chest CT and echocardiography were divided into two groups (hypertensive and normotensive) based upon an echocardiography-derived PASP of 25 mmHg. RV to LV volume ratios (RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}) were calculated. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was then correlated with PASP using regression analysis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for predicting pulmonary hypertension on chest CT was calculated. In the hypertensive group, the mean PASP was 46.29 {+-} 14.42 mmHg (29-98 mmHg) and there was strong correlation between the RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} and PASP (R = 0.82, p < 0.001). The intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} were 0.990 and 0.892. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was 1.01 {+-} 0.44 (0.51-2.77) in the hypertensive and 0.72 {+-} 0.14 (0.52-1.11) in the normotensive group (P <0.05). With 0.9 as the cutoff for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}, sensitivity and specificity for predicting pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg were 79.5 % and 90 %, respectively. The AUC for predicting pulmonary hypertension was 0.87 RV/LV volume ratios on chest CT correlate well with PASP estimated by echocardiography and can be used to predict pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg with high sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  15. From a single encapsulated detector to the spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite: predicting the peak-to-total ratio at high gamma-energies

    CERN Document Server

    Kshetri, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    In two recent papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P04008; ibid., P07006), a probabilistic formalism was introduced to predict the response of encapsulated type composite germanium detectors like the SPI (spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite). Predictions for the peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios are given at 1.3 MeV for the addback mode of operation. The application of the formalism to clover germanium detector is discussed in two separate papers (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P07008; ibid., P08015). Using the basic approach developed in those papers, for the first time we present a procedure for calculating the peak-to-total ratio of the cluster detector for gamma-energies up to 8 MeV. Results are shown for both bare and suppressed detectors as well as for the single crystal and addback modes of operation. We have considered the experimental data of (i) peak-to-total ratio at 1.3 MeV, and (ii) single detector efficiency and addback factor for other energies up to 8 MeV. Using this data, an approximate metho...

  16. Waist-to-height ratio is more predictive of years of life lost than body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Ashwell

    Full Text Available Our aim was to compare the effect of central obesity (measured by waist-to-height ratio, WHtR and total obesity (measured by body mass index, BMI on life expectancy expressed as years of life lost (YLL, using data on British adults.A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to data from the prospective Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS and the cross sectional Health Survey for England (HSE. The number of years of life lost (YLL at three ages (30, 50, 70 years was found by comparing the life expectancies of obese lives with those of lives at optimum levels of BMI and WHtR.Mortality risk associated with BMI in the British HALS survey was similar to that found in US studies. However, WHtR was a better predictor of mortality risk. For the first time, YLL have been quantified for different values of WHtR. This has been done for both sexes separately and for three representative ages.This study supports the simple message "Keep your waist circumference to less than half your height". The use of WHtR in public health screening, with appropriate action, could help add years to life.

  17. Peripheral venous blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Li Chen,1 Yanjiao Zuo,1 Lihua Zhu,2 Yuxin Zhang,3 Sen Li,1 Fei Ma,4 Yu Han,5 Hongjiang Song,1 Yingwei Xue11Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 2Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei, 3Department of General Surgery, Mudanjiang First People’s Hospital, Mudanjiang, 4Department of Breast Surgery, 5Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Accurate and useful predictors of gastric carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy are lacking at present. We aim to explore the potential prognostic significance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR in advanced gastric cancer receiving S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX or oxaliplatin and capecitabine (XELOX regimen.Methods: We enrolled 91 patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy from August 2008 to September 2015. The peripheral venous blood samples were collected before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The NLR was divided into two groups: low NLR <2.17 group and high NLR ≥2.17 group. Univariate analysis on disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS were generated using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Prognostic factors were assessed by univariate analyses, and the independent prognostic factors were evaluated using multivariate analysis (Cox’s proportional-hazards regression model.Results: The univariate analysis showed that median DFS and median OS were worse for high NLR values than low NLR values before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (median DFS: 19.97 and 26.87 months, respectively, P=0.299; median OS: 25.83 and 29.73 months, respectively, P=0.405. Multivariate analysis showed that the NLR before neoadjuvant

  18. Elevated preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts poor disease-free survival in Chinese women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin; Mao, Yan; Chen, Xiaosong; Zhu, Li; He, Jianrong; Chen, Weiguo; Li, Yafen; Lin, Lin; Fei, Xiaochun; Shen, Kunwei

    2016-03-01

    Inflammation and tumor immune microenviroment are critical factors for prognosis in numerous cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in breast cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of 487 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer at Shanghai Ruijin hospital from January 2009 to December 2010. Hematological parameters before surgery, clinicopathological data, and survival status were obtained. Survival analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic value of NLR. The optimal cutoff value was determined as 1.93 for NLR and the median follow-up time was 55.0 months. On univariate analysis, patients with high NLR (>1.93) had worse 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) compared to those with low NLR (77.9 vs 88.0 %, p = 0.002). Regarding overall survival, there was no significant difference between patients with high NLR and low NLR, with 5-year overall survival of 90.8 and 91.7 % (p = 0.707). In triple-negative breast cancer, patients with high NLR was associated with worse 5-year DFS compared with patients with low NLR (63.4 vs 84.9 %, p = 0.040). Mutivariate analysis revealed that NLR was an independent prognostic factor for DFS in breast cancer (HR = 1.867, 95 % confidence interval; (95%CI) = 1.155-3.017, p = 0.011). Preoperative NLR is an independent predictor of DFS in breast cancer patients, especially in triple-negative subtype. Further studies are required to validate the prognostic value of NLR before clinical application.

  19. Postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio change predicts survival of patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing radiofrequency ablation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqiang Dan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An elevated preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR has been reported to be a prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients after treatment. However, the clinical implication of postoperative NLR change remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2005 to Aug 2008, a cohort of consecutive 178 small HCC patients treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA was retrospectively reviewed. The NLR was recorded within 3 days before and 1 month after RFA. Baseline characteristics, overall survival (OS and recurrence free survival (RFS were compared according to preoperative NLR and/or postoperative NLR change. Prognostic factors were assessed by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Compared with preoperative NLR level, postoperative NLR decreased in 87 patients and increased in 91 patients after RFA. No significant differences were identified between two groups in commonly used clinic-pathologic features. The 1, 3, 5 years OS was 98.8%, 78.6%, 67.1% for NLR decreased group, and 92.2%, 55.5%, 35.4% for NLR increased group respectively (P<0.001; the corresponding RFS was 94.2%, 65.2%, 33.8% and 81.7%, 46.1%, 12.4% respectively (P<0.001. In subgroup analysis, the survival of patients with lower or higher preoperative NLR can be distinguished more accurate by postoperative NLR change. Multivariate analysis showed that postoperative NLR change, but not preoperative NLR, was an independent prognostic factor for both OS (P<0.001, HR = 2.39, 95%CI 1.53-3.72 and RFS (P = 0.003, HR = 1.69, 95%CI 1.87-8.24. CONCLUSION: The postoperative NLR change was an independent prognostic factor for small HCC patient undergoing RFA, and patients with decreased NLR indicated better survival than those with increased NLR.

  20. Prenatal prediction of neonatal survival in cases diagnosed with congenital diaphragmatic hernia using abdomen-to-thorax ratio determined by ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Jun, Jong Kwan; Lee, JoonHo

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of abdomen-to-thorax ratio (ATR) measured by antenatal ultrasonography for predicting neonatal survival of fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We identified 75 fetuses who were prenatally diagnosed with CDH and delivered in Seoul National University Hospital from 1998 to 2012, retrospectively. Of these, 40 cases who met the following criteria were included: (i) singleton pregnancy; (ii) a case that had available ultrasonographic images; and (iii) a neonate in whom follow-up until discharge from the hospital was available. ATR was measured as follows: each anteroposterior distance (APD) in the abdominal and thoracic cavity was measured in the same midsagittal plane with the fetal neutral position. A thoracic APD was measured from the back to the distal end of the sternum and an abdominal APD from the back to the most protruding abdominal surface. ATR is the ratio of the abdominal APD versus the thoracic APD. Survival rates were 57.5%. There were significant differences in ATR, lung-head ratio (LHR), observed/expected-LHR, quantitative lung index and intrathoracic liver between survivors and non-survivors. Regression analysis demonstrated that only ATR and intrathoracic position of the liver were independent predictors of survival. ATR by multivariate analysis had the most influence on survival rate (P = 0.002). The area under the receiver-operator curve for prediction of survival from ATR was 0.770 (P = 0.004). The diagnostic cut-off value for ATR was 0.96. Because ATR is effective to predict neonatal survival in CDH fetuses and is easy to measure, it can be used as another powerful parameter for managing CDH fetuses. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Predicting leaf wax n-alkane 2H/1H ratios: controlled water source and humidity experiments with hydroponically grown trees confirm predictions of Craig-Gordon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Brett J; Berke, Melissa A; Hambach, Bastian; Roden, John S; Ehleringer, James R

    2015-06-01

    The extent to which both water source and atmospheric humidity affect δ(2)H values of terrestrial plant leaf waxes will affect the interpretations of δ(2)H variation of leaf waxes as a proxy for hydrological conditions. To elucidate the effects of these parameters, we conducted a long-term experiment in which we grew two tree species, Populus fremontii and Betula occidentalis, hydroponically under combinations of six isotopically distinct waters and two different atmospheric humidities. We observed that leaf n-alkane δ(2)H values of both species were linearly related to source water δ(2)H values, but with slope differences associated with differing humidities. When a modified version of the Craig-Gordon model incorporating plant factors was used to predict the δ(2)H values of leaf water, all modelled leaf water values fit the same linear relationship with n-alkane δ(2)H values. These observations suggested a relatively constant biosynthetic fractionation factor between leaf water and n-alkanes. However, our calculations indicated a small difference in the biosynthetic fractionation factor between the two species, consistent with small differences calculated for species in other studies. At present, it remains unclear if these apparent interspecies differences in biosynthetic fractionation reflect species-specific biochemistry or a common biosynthetic fractionation factor with insufficient model parameterization.

  2. Predicting the effect of spectral subtraction on the speech recognition threshold based on the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    rarely been evaluated perceptually in terms of speech intelligibility. This study analyzed the effects of the spectral subtraction strategy proposed by Berouti at al. [ICASSP 4 (1979), 208-211] on the speech recognition threshold (SRT) obtained with sentences presented in stationary speech-shaped noise....... The SRT was measured in five normal-hearing listeners in six conditions of spectral subtraction. The results showed an increase of the SRT after processing, i.e. a decreased speech intelligibility, in contrast to what is predicted by the Speech Transmission Index (STI). Here, another approach is proposed......, denoted the speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) which predicts the intelligibility based on the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain. In contrast to the STI, the sEPSM is sensitive to the increased amount of the noise envelope power as a consequence of the spectral subtraction...

  3. Predicting the effect of spectral subtraction on the speech recognition threshold based on the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    . The SRT was measured in five normal-hearing listeners in six conditions of spectral subtraction. The results showed an increase of the SRT after processing, i.e. a decreased speech intelligibility, in contrast to what is predicted by the Speech Transmission Index (STI). Here, another approach is proposed...... rarely been evaluated perceptually in terms of speech intelligibility. This study analyzed the effects of the spectral subtraction strategy proposed by Berouti at al. [ICASSP 4 (1979), 208-211] on the speech recognition threshold (SRT) obtained with sentences presented in stationary speech-shaped noise......, denoted the speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) which predicts the intelligibility based on the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain. In contrast to the STI, the sEPSM is sensitive to the increased amount of the noise envelope power as a consequence of the spectral subtraction...

  4. Prediction of the presence of ovarian cancer at surgery by an immunochemical panel: CA 125 and copper-to-zinc ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, D; Lischinsky, S; Friedman, M; Zinder, O

    1989-11-01

    Preoperative levels of the trace elements copper and zinc, in addition to the level of the known marker CA 125, were studied in sera of 32 patients undergoing exploratory laparotomy for suspicion of ovarian cancer and in sera of 49 patients with the diagnosis of ovarian cancer prior to second-look operation. Most patients (63/81) had stage III or IV disease. CA 125 levels greater than 35 U/ml, copper levels greater than 1.5 mg/liter, and zinc levels less than 0.9 mg/liter were considered pathologic. An immunochemical panel composed of CA 125 serum level and ratio of copper to zinc (Cu/Zn) (normal less than 1.65) was found to be most sensitive (98%) in predicting the existence of ovarian cancer before laparotomy, and its overall predictability was 89%. In 14 of 14 patients (100%) who had complete primary surgery for ovarian cancer, the panel was correct in predicting no tumor at second-look operation. In 13 of 14 patients (93%) who had incomplete primary surgery but had no clinical evidence of disease prior to second-look operation, the panel was correct in predicting ovarian cancer. In these two groups of patients, second-look operation could have been replaced by the results of the immunochemical panel.

  5. Hypoxic Prostate/Muscle PO{sub 2} Ratio Predicts for Outcome in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turaka, Aruna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K., E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra L. [School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Greenberg, Richard E. [Department of Surgery, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To correlate tumor oxygenation status with long-term biochemical outcome after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Custom-made Eppendorf PO{sub 2} microelectrodes were used to obtain PO{sub 2} measurements from the prostate (P), focused on positive biopsy locations, and normal muscle tissue (M), as a control. A total of 11,516 measurements were obtained in 57 men with localized prostate cancer immediately before prostate brachytherapy was given. The Eppendorf histograms provided the median PO{sub 2}, mean PO{sub 2}, and % <5 mm Hg or <10 mm Hg. Biochemical failure (BF) was defined using both the former American Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) (three consecutive raises) and the current Phoenix (prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2 ng/mL) definitions. A Cox proportional hazards regression model evaluated the influence of hypoxia using the P/M mean PO{sub 2} ratio on BF. Results: With a median follow-up time of 8 years, 12 men had ASTRO BF and 8 had Phoenix BF. On multivariate analysis, P/M PO{sub 2} ratio <0.10 emerged as the only significant predictor of ASTRO BF (p = 0.043). Hormonal therapy (p = 0.015) and P/M PO{sub 2} ratio <0.10 (p = 0.046) emerged as the only independent predictors of the Phoenix BF. Kaplan-Meier freedom from BF for P/M ratio <0.10 vs. {>=}0.10 at 8 years for ASTRO BF was 46% vs. 78% (p = 0.03) and for the Phoenix BF was 66% vs. 83% (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Hypoxia in prostate cancer (low mean P/M PO{sub 2} ratio) significantly predicts for poor long-term biochemical outcome, suggesting that novel hypoxic strategies should be investigated.

  6. Correlation of morphological variants of the soft palate and Need's ratio in normal individuals: A digital cephalometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Juneja, Suruchi [Surendera Dental College and Research Institute, Sriganganagar (India); Kumaraswam; Kikkeri Lakshminarayana [Dept. of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Farooqia Dental College, Mysore (India); Basavaraju, Suman [Dept. of Periodontics, J.S.S Dental College, Mysore (India)

    2014-09-15

    The present study was aimed to investigate the variation of soft palate morphology in different age and gender groups. The correlations of radiographic velar length (VL), velar width (VW), pharyngeal depth (PD), and Need's ratio with soft palate variants were also studied in the North Indian subpopulation. The study sample consisted of 300 subjects aged between 15 and 45 (mean: 31.32) years. The velar morphology on lateral cephalograms was examined and grouped into six types. The results obtained were subjected to a statistical analysis to find the correlation between variants of the soft palate with gender and different age groups. The most frequent type of soft palate was leaf shaped (48.7%), and the least common was crook shaped (3.0%) among both the genders and various age groups, showing a significant correlation. The mean VL, VW, and PD values were significantly higher in males and significantly correlated with the types of soft palate. A significant correlation was observed between the mean VL, VW, PD, and Need's ratio with various age groups, showing an inconsistent pattern with an increase in age. The types of soft palate, gender, and Need's ratio were also significantly correlated, with an overall higher mean value of the Need's ratio among female subjects and the S-shaped soft palate. The knowledge of a varied spectrum of velar morphology and the variants of the soft palate help in a better understanding of the velopharyngeal closure and craniofacial anomalies.

  7. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and psychopathic traits moderate the effect of exogenous testosterone on socio-cognitive processes in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Ortiz, Triana L; Labine, Brandy; Moreau, Benjamin J P; Viding, Essi; Neumann, Craig S; Goldfarb, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that testosterone is negatively correlated with empathic processes in both men and women. Also, administration of testosterone to young women impairs socio-cognitive performance as assessed using the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task", especially among those exposed to elevated testosterone concentrations prenatally. However, the extent to which testosterone plays a similar causal role in socio-cognitive abilities in men is currently unknown. Here, using a crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject design, we investigated the extent to which a single administration of testosterone to healthy young men (N=30) would impair socio-cognitive abilities assessed using the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task" (RMET). Also, we investigated whether individual differences in 2D:4D ratio and psychopathic traits would moderate the effect of testosterone on task performance. Results indicated that testosterone administration on its own did not impair RMET performance. However, variability in both 2D:4D ratio and psychopathic traits moderated the effect of testosterone on task performance. Specifically, testosterone impaired RMET performance among individuals with relatively low (i.e., masculinized) 2D:4D ratio and among individuals scoring relatively low on the interpersonal/affective facet (i.e., Factor 1) of psychopathy. Our findings highlight the importance of considering theoretically- and empirically-based individual difference factors when attempting to characterize the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying socio-cognitive processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  9. The Ratio of Partial Pressure Arterial Oxygen and Fraction of Inspired Oxygen 1 Day After Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Onset Can Predict the Outcomes of Involving Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Sung, Mei-I; Liu, Hsiao-Hua; Chen, Chin-Ming; Chiang, Shyh-Ren; Liu, Wei-Lun; Chao, Chien-Ming; Ho, Chung-Han; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hsing, Shu-Chen; Cheng, Kuo-Chen

    2016-04-01

    The initial hypoxemic level of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) defined according to Berlin definition might not be the optimal predictor for prognosis. We aimed to determine the predictive validity of the stabilized ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2 ratio) following standard ventilator setting in the prognosis of patients with ARDS.This prospective observational study was conducted in a single tertiary medical center in Taiwan and compared the stabilized PaO2/FiO2 ratio (Day 1) following standard ventilator settings and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio on the day patients met ARDS Berlin criteria (Day 0). Patients admitted to intensive care units and in accordance with the Berlin criteria for ARDS were collected between December 1, 2012 and May 31, 2015. Main outcome was 28-day mortality. Arterial blood gas and ventilator setting on Days 0 and 1 were obtained.A total of 238 patients met the Berlin criteria for ARDS were enrolled, and they were classified as mild (n = 50), moderate (n = 125), and severe (n = 63) ARDS, respectively. Twelve (5%) patients who originally were classified as ARDS did not continually meet the Berlin definition, and a total of 134 (56%) patients had the changes regarding the severity of ARDS from Day 0 to Day 1. The 28-day mortality rate was 49.1%, and multivariate analysis identified age, PaO2/FiO2 on Day 1, number of organ failures, and positive fluid balance within 5 days as significant risk factors of death. Moreover, the area under receiver-operating curve for mortality prediction using PaO2/FiO2 on Day 1 was significant higher than that on Day 0 (P = 0.016).PaO2/FiO2 ratio on Day 1 after applying mechanical ventilator is a better predictor of outcomes in patients with ARDS than those on Day 0.

  10. Prediction model of echo-to-reverberation ratio in shallow water waveguide%浅海波导远程信混比预报模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王升; 马力; 吴金荣

    2012-01-01

    For active detection in shallow water, seafloor reverberation has great influence on target detection, so echo-to-reverberation ratio determines the performance of active sonar. Both reverberation and target echo are scattering problems in ocean. In the paper, long-distance echo-to-reverberation ratio prediction model in shallow water has been built by associating normal-mode theory with plane-wave scattering function. The advantage of this model is that it enables making quantitative predictions of echo-to-reverberation ratio. The model has been applied to rigid sphere submerged in homogeneous water with various signals, frequencies and seafloor conditions. Results show: it is difficult to detect target by using omnidirectional source because of low echo-to-reverberation ratio; broadband signal makes echo smooth relatively; echo fluctuation phenomenon is found and analyzed theoretically as a result of interference among modes especially at high frequency; echo-to-reverberation ratio is low relatively and fluctuates obviously for hard seafloor.%浅海主动探测时,海底混响是目标回波的主要背景干扰,信混比影响主动声纳的性能.混响和目标回波都属于海洋中的散射问题,利用简正波方法,结合平面波散射函数建立了浅海远程信混比预报模型,实现了不同环境参数下信混比的量化分析.仿真比较了不同信号形式、频率以及不同海底底质下的刚性球信混比曲线,从理论上分析了回波随距离的振荡现象.结果表明:用无指向性的声源探测目标时,信混比较低,探测较为困难;宽带信号照射下目标回波更加平稳;简正波之间的干涉导致回波随距离发生振荡,频率越高,干涉结构越复杂;在硬海底环境中信混比相对较小且目标回波振荡剧烈.

  11. A comparison of the ratio of patient′s height to thyromental distance with the modified Mallampati and the upper lip bite test in predicting difficult laryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Safavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx from the following preoperative airway predictive indices, in isolation and combination: modified Mallampati test (MMT, the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD and the Upper-Lip-Bite test (ULBT. Methods: We collected data on 603 consecutive patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then evaluated all three factors before surgery. An experienced anesthesiologist, not informed of the recorded preoperative airway evaluation, performed the laryngoscopy and grading (as per Cormack and Lehane′s classification. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value, Receiver operating characteristic (ROC Curve and the area under ROC curve (AUC for each airway predictor in isolation and in combination were determined. Results: Difficult laryngoscopy (Grade 3 or 4 occurred in 41 (6.8% patients. The main endpoint of the present study, the AUC of the ROC, was significantly lower for the MMT (AUC, 0.511; 95% CI, 0.470-0.552 than the ULBT (AUC, 0.709; 95% CI, 0.671-0.745, P=0.002 and the RHTMD score (AUC, 0.711; 95% CI, 0.673-0.747, P=0.001. There was no significant difference between the AUC of the ROC for the ULBT and the RHTMD score. By using discrimination analysis, the optimal cutoff point for the RHTMD for predicting difficult laryngoscopy was 21.06 (sensitivity, 75.6%; specificity, 58.5%. Conclusion: The RHTMD is comparable with ULBT for prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in general population.

  12. A comparison of the ratio of patient's height to thyromental distance with the modified Mallampati and the upper lip bite test in predicting difficult laryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Mohammadreza; Honarmand, Azim; Zare, Narges

    2011-07-01

    THE AIM OF THE PRESENT STUDY WAS TO COMPARE THE ABILITY TO PREDICT DIFFICULT VISUALIZATION OF THE LARYNX FROM THE FOLLOWING PREOPERATIVE AIRWAY PREDICTIVE INDICES, IN ISOLATION AND COMBINATION: modified Mallampati test (MMT), the ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD) and the Upper-Lip-Bite test (ULBT). We collected data on 603 consecutive patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation and then evaluated all three factors before surgery. An experienced anesthesiologist, not informed of the recorded preoperative airway evaluation, performed the laryngoscopy and grading (as per Cormack and Lehane's classification). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value, Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) Curve and the area under ROC curve (AUC) for each airway predictor in isolation and in combination were determined. Difficult laryngoscopy (Grade 3 or 4) occurred in 41 (6.8%) patients. The main endpoint of the present study, the AUC of the ROC, was significantly lower for the MMT (AUC, 0.511; 95% CI, 0.470-0.552) than the ULBT (AUC, 0.709; 95% CI, 0.671-0.745, P=0.002) and the RHTMD score (AUC, 0.711; 95% CI, 0.673-0.747, P=0.001). There was no significant difference between the AUC of the ROC for the ULBT and the RHTMD score. By using discrimination analysis, the optimal cutoff point for the RHTMD for predicting difficult laryngoscopy was 21.06 (sensitivity, 75.6%; specificity, 58.5%). The RHTMD is comparable with ULBT for prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in general population.

  13. Predicting Teachers' Use of Digital Learning Materials: Combining Self-Determination Theory and the Integrative Model of Behaviour Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijns, Karel; Vermeulen, Marjan; Van Acker, Frederik; van Buuren, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report on a study that investigated the motivational (e.g. intrinsic motivation) and dispositional variables (e.g. attitudes) that determine teachers' intention to use or not to use digital learning materials (DLMs). To understand the direct and indirect relationships between these variables, we replicated a study in which…

  14. Prediction value of the ratio of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and prealbumin on acute myocardial infarction complicated with acute heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Yun Zu; Shuang Wang; Feng-Lan Yang; Bao-Gui Chen; Ming-Zhe Ma

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To through counting serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), prealbumin (PAB) and the ratio of the two to analyze its predictive value on acute myocardial infarction complicated with postoperative acute heart failure.Methods: 100 cases of acute myocardial infarction patients treated in our hospital from January 2013 to January 2015 were selected as research objects. Serum PAB and hs-CRP values on the next day of admission as well as after PCI surgery were recorded respectively. Then PAB data change before and after surgery, PAB and hs-CRP change with or without postoperative cardiovascular events (heart failure) as well as the value of the ratio of hs-CRP and PAB on prediction of acute myocardial infarction complicated with acute heart failure was compared.Results:Postoperative PAB in 100 cases of myocardial infarction patients increased from (0.19±0.05) to (0.24±0.06), and the differences had statistical significance; 40 cases had postoperative cardiovascular events (heart failure), incidence being 40%; PAB in patients without postoperative cardiovascular events (heart failure) increased significantly, hs-CRP decreased significantly, and the differences had statistical significance; Logistic regression univariate analysis showed that acute myocardial infarction complicated with heart failure was associated with diabetes, PAB, hs-CRP and In (hs-CRP/PAB), and multivariate analysis showed that it was associated with In (hs-CRP/PAB). Conclusion:hs-CRP in patients with acute myocardial infarction increases, PAB decreases, postoperative PAB increases relatively, hs-CRP and PAB data shows different degrees of change with or without postoperative cardiovascular (heart failure), and In (hs-CRP/PAB) is associated with acute myocardial infarction complicated with heart failure and can be used as its prediction index.

  15. Plasma IL-6/IL-10 Ratio and IL-8, LDH, and HBDH Level Predict the Severity and the Risk of Death in AIDS Patients with Pneumocystis Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Su, Junwei; Xie, Yirui; Yin, Michael T; Huang, Ying; Xu, Lijun; Zhou, Qihui; Zhu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify blood biomarkers to predict severity and mortality in AIDS PCP patients. Methods. Biomarkers including clinical parameters and plasma inflammatory cytokines were assessed in 32 HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) at time of admission. Predictive value of the biomarkers for clinical severity and in-hospital mortality was evaluated by corresponding ROC curve. Results. Levels of CRP, WBC, LDH, HBDH, and Ferritin were significantly higher in the severe and nonsurvivor AIDS PCP patients. These important biochemical indicators have inverse correlation with oxygenation index, especially levels of LDH (P = 0.008, R (2) = 0.258), HBDH (P = 0.001, R (2) = 0.335), and Ferritin (P = 0.005, R (2) = 0.237). Plasma IL-8 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 mmHg and nonsurvivors than in those with PaO2/FiO2 > 200 mmHg and survivors. Severe and nonsurvival groups showed higher ratio of mean IL-6/IL-10 level (1.78 ± 1.56, P < 0.001; 1.11 ± 0.72, P = 0.043), larger AUC (95% CI 0.781-1.000, P < 0.001; 95% CI 0.592-0.917, P = 0.043), and more significantly inverse correlation with the oxygenation index. Conclusion. Plasma IL-8, LDH, and HBDH levels and IL-6/IL-10 ratio could be helpful for early evaluation of the severity and predicting fatal outcomes in AIDS PCP patients.

  16. Plasma IL-6/IL-10 Ratio and IL-8, LDH, and HBDH Level Predict the Severity and the Risk of Death in AIDS Patients with Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify blood biomarkers to predict severity and mortality in AIDS PCP patients. Methods. Biomarkers including clinical parameters and plasma inflammatory cytokines were assessed in 32 HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP at time of admission. Predictive value of the biomarkers for clinical severity and in-hospital mortality was evaluated by corresponding ROC curve. Results. Levels of CRP, WBC, LDH, HBDH, and Ferritin were significantly higher in the severe and nonsurvivor AIDS PCP patients. These important biochemical indicators have inverse correlation with oxygenation index, especially levels of LDH (P=0.008, R2=0.258, HBDH (P=0.001, R2=0.335, and Ferritin (P=0.005, R2=0.237. Plasma IL-8 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 mmHg and nonsurvivors than in those with PaO2/FiO2 > 200 mmHg and survivors. Severe and nonsurvival groups showed higher ratio of mean IL-6/IL-10 level (1.78 ± 1.56, P<0.001; 1.11 ± 0.72, P=0.043, larger AUC (95% CI 0.781–1.000, P<0.001; 95% CI 0.592–0.917, P=0.043, and more significantly inverse correlation with the oxygenation index. Conclusion. Plasma IL-8, LDH, and HBDH levels and IL-6/IL-10 ratio could be helpful for early evaluation of the severity and predicting fatal outcomes in AIDS PCP patients.

  17. Insulin Therapy of Nondiabetic Septic Patients Is Predicted by para-Tyrosine/Phenylalanine Ratio and by Hydroxyl Radical-Derived Products of Phenylalanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilárd Kun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyl radical converts Phe to para-, meta-, and ortho-Tyr (p-Tyr, m-Tyr, o-Tyr, while Phe is converted enzymatically to p-Tyr in the kidney and could serve as substrate for gluconeogenesis. Pathological isoforms m- and o-Tyr are supposed to be involved in development of hormone resistances. Role of Phe and the three Tyr isoforms in influencing insulin need was examined in 25 nondiabetic septic patients. Daily insulin dose (DID and insulin-glucose product (IGP were calculated. Serum and urinary levels of Phe and Tyr isoforms were determined using a rpHPLC-method. Urinary m-Tyr/p-Tyr ratio was higher in patients with DID and IGP over median compared to those below median (P=0.005 and P=0.01, resp.. Urinary m-Tyr and m-Tyr/p-Tyr ratio showed positive correlation with DID (P=0.009 and P=0.023, resp. and with IGP (P=0.004 and P=0.008, resp.. Serum Phe was a negative predictor, while serum p-Tyr/Phe ratio was positive predictor of both DID and IGP. Urinary m-Tyr and urinary m-Tyr/p-Tyr, o-Tyr/p-Tyr, and (m-Tyr+o-Tyr/p-Tyr ratios were positive predictors of both DID and IGP. Phe and Tyr isoforms have a predictive role in carbohydrate metabolism of nondiabetic septic patients. Phe may serve as substrate for renal gluconeogenesis via enzymatically produced p-Tyr, while hydroxyl radical derived Phe products may interfere with insulin action.

  18. Insulin Therapy of Nondiabetic Septic Patients Is Predicted by para-Tyrosine/Phenylalanine Ratio and by Hydroxyl Radical-Derived Products of Phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Szilárd; Molnár, Gergő A; Sélley, Eszter; Szélig, Lívia; Bogár, Lajos; Csontos, Csaba; Miseta, Attila; Wittmann, István

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical converts Phe to para-, meta-, and ortho-Tyr (p-Tyr, m-Tyr, o-Tyr), while Phe is converted enzymatically to p-Tyr in the kidney and could serve as substrate for gluconeogenesis. Pathological isoforms m- and o-Tyr are supposed to be involved in development of hormone resistances. Role of Phe and the three Tyr isoforms in influencing insulin need was examined in 25 nondiabetic septic patients. Daily insulin dose (DID) and insulin-glucose product (IGP) were calculated. Serum and urinary levels of Phe and Tyr isoforms were determined using a rpHPLC-method. Urinary m-Tyr/p-Tyr ratio was higher in patients with DID and IGP over median compared to those below median (P = 0.005 and P = 0.01, resp.). Urinary m-Tyr and m-Tyr/p-Tyr ratio showed positive correlation with DID (P = 0.009 and P = 0.023, resp.) and with IGP (P = 0.004 and P = 0.008, resp.). Serum Phe was a negative predictor, while serum p-Tyr/Phe ratio was positive predictor of both DID and IGP. Urinary m-Tyr and urinary m-Tyr/p-Tyr, o-Tyr/p-Tyr, and (m-Tyr+o-Tyr)/p-Tyr ratios were positive predictors of both DID and IGP. Phe and Tyr isoforms have a predictive role in carbohydrate metabolism of nondiabetic septic patients. Phe may serve as substrate for renal gluconeogenesis via enzymatically produced p-Tyr, while hydroxyl radical derived Phe products may interfere with insulin action.

  19. The ratio of clay content to total organic carbon content is a useful parameter to predict adsorption of the herbicide butachlor in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongzhen; He, Yan; Xu, Jianming; Huang, Panming; Jilani, Ghulam

    2008-03-01

    Thirteen soils collected from 11 provinces in eastern China were used to investigate the butachlor adsorption. The results indicated that the total organic carbon (TOC) content, clay content, amorphous Fe2O3 content, silt content, CEC, and pH had a combined effect on the butachlor sorption on soil. Combination of the data obtained from the 13 soils in the present study with other 23 soil samples reported by other researchers in the literature showed that Koc would be a poor predictive parameter for butachlor adsorption on soils with TOC content higher than 4.0% and lower than 0.2%. The soils with the ratio of clay content to TOC content (RCO) values less than 60 adsorbed butachlor mainly by the partition into soil organic matter matrix. The soils with RCO values higher than 60 apparently adsorbed butachlor by the combination of the partition into soil organic matter matrix and adsorption on clay surface.

  20. [Application of the concetrations ratio of soluble receptor tyrosine kinase type 1, and placental growth factor for short-term prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeníková, Š; Cíchová, A; Roubalová, L; Durdová, V; Vlk, R

    Bring a comprehensive overview of the available information about applications of the concetration ratio of soluble receptor tyrosine kinase type 1 (sFlt-1), and placental growth factor for short-term prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia. Overview study. Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Olomouc; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University Hospital Olomouc; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Olomouc; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Motol University Hospital. Analysis of literary sources and databases Ovid, Medline (2001-2016). Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease with not fully understood etiology. This disease occurs in 2-5% of pregnant women. Preeclampsia is one of the main causes of global maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It manifests itself as a newborn hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of pregnancy in previously normotensive women. The only effective treatment is the delivery of the child. Diagnosis of preeclampsia comprises measuring blood pressure and proteinuria. These indicators have low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. In preeclampsia, there is a decrease of serum levels of placental growth factor (PlGF). Soluble receptor tyrosine kinase type 1 (sFlt-1) is an antagonist of PlGF. Increased levels of sFlt-1 in proportion to the reduced level of PlGF are associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio can be a better predictive marker in the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia after 20 weeks of gestation.

  1. Predicting the variation in Echinogammarus marinus at its southernmost limits under global warming scenarios: can the sex-ratio make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Alexandra; Leite, Nuno; Marques, João Carlos; Ford, Alex T; Martins, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental parameters that constrain the distribution of a species at its latitudinal extremes is critical for predicting how ecosystems react to climate change. Our first aim was to predict the variation in the amphipod populations of Echinogammarus marinus from the southernmost limit of its distribution under global warming scenarios. Our second aim was to test whether sex-ratio fluctuations - a mechanism frequently displayed by amphipods - respond to the variations in populations under altered climate conditions. To achieve these aims, scenarios were run with a validated model of E. marinus populations. Simulations were divided into: phase I - simulation of the effect of climate change on amphipod populations, and phase II - simulation of the effect of climate change on populations with male and female proportions. In both phases, temperature (T), salinity (S) and temperature and salinity (T-S) were tested. Results showed that E. marinus populations are highly sensitive to increases in temperature (>2 °C), which has adverse effects on amphipod recruitment and growth. Results from the climate change scenarios coupled with the sex-ratio fluctuations depended largely on the degree of female bias within population. Temperature increase of 2 °C had less impact on female-biased populations, particularly when conjugated with increases in salinity. Male-biased populations were highly sensitive to any variation in temperature and/or salinity; these populations exhibited a long-term decline in density. Simulations in which temperature increased more than 4 °C led to a continuous decline in the E. marinus population. According to this work, E. marinus populations at their southernmost limit are vulnerable to global warming. We anticipate that in Europe, temperature increases of 2 °C will incite a withdrawal of the population of 5°N from the amphipod species located at southernmost geographical borders. This effect is discussed in relation to the

  2. Incorporation of satellite remote sensing pan-sharpened imagery into digital soil prediction and mapping models to characterize soil property variability in small agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiming; Smith, Scot E.; Grunwald, Sabine; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Wani, Suhas P.

    2017-01-01

    Soil prediction models based on spectral indices from some multispectral images are too coarse to characterize spatial pattern of soil properties in small and heterogeneous agricultural lands. Image pan-sharpening has seldom been utilized in Digital Soil Mapping research before. This research aimed to analyze the effects of pan-sharpened (PAN) remote sensing spectral indices on soil prediction models in smallholder farm settings. This research fused the panchromatic band and multispectral (MS) bands of WorldView-2, GeoEye-1, and Landsat 8 images in a village in Southern India by Brovey, Gram-Schmidt and Intensity-Hue-Saturation methods. Random Forest was utilized to develop soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil exchangeable potassium (Kex) prediction models by incorporating multiple spectral indices from the PAN and MS images. Overall, our results showed that PAN remote sensing spectral indices have similar spectral characteristics with soil TN and Kex as MS remote sensing spectral indices. There is no soil prediction model incorporating the specific type of pan-sharpened spectral indices always had the strongest prediction capability of soil TN and Kex. The incorporation of pan-sharpened remote sensing spectral data not only increased the spatial resolution of the soil prediction maps, but also enhanced the prediction accuracy of soil prediction models. Small farms with limited footprint, fragmented ownership and diverse crop cycle should benefit greatly from the pan-sharpened high spatial resolution imagery for soil property mapping. Our results show that multiple high and medium resolution images can be used to map soil properties suggesting the possibility of an improvement in the maps' update frequency. Additionally, the results should benefit the large agricultural community through the reduction of routine soil sampling cost and improved prediction accuracy.

  3. Quinolinic acid/tryptophan ratios predict neurological disease in SIV-infected macaques and remain elevated in the brain under cART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Julia L.; Meulendyke, Kelly A.; Liao, Zhaohao; Witwer, Kenneth W.; Gama, Lucio; Ubaida-Mohien, Ceereena; Li, Ming; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Schwarcz, Robert; Graham, David R.; Zink, M. Christine

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan catabolism likely contributes to HIV-associated neurological disorders. However, KP activation in brain tissue during HIV infection has been understudied, and the effect of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) on KP induction in the brain is unknown. To examine these questions, tryptophan, kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, quinolinic acid, and serotonin levels were measured longitudinally during SIV infection in striatum and CSF from untreated and cART-treated pigtailed macaques. mRNA levels of KP enzymes also were measured in striatum. In untreated macaques, elevations in KP metabolites coincided with transcriptional induction of upstream enzymes in the KP. Striatal KP induction was also temporally associated - but did not directly correlate - with serotonin losses in the brain. CSF quinolinic acid/tryptophan ratios were found to be the earliest predictor of neurological disease in untreated SIV-infected macaques, outperforming other KP metabolites as well as the putative biomarkers Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Finally, cART did not restore KP metabolites to control levels in striatum despite control of virus, though CSF metabolite levels were normalized in most animals. Overall these results demonstrate that cerebral KP activation is only partially resolved with cART, and that CSF QUIN/TRP ratios are an early, predictive biomarker of CNS disease. PMID:25776527

  4. The tumor-to-breast volume ratio (TBR) predicts cancer-specific survival in breast cancer patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiahuai; Ye, Feng; Huang, Xiaojia; Li, Shuaijie; Yang, Lu; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women globally, and tumor size measured as the largest diameter of the tumor focus is currently used in tumor-lymph node-metastasis (TNM) staging for prognosis and treatment decisions. The present study utilized the tumor-to-breast volume ratio (TBR) to evaluate the relative tumor size and determined the prognostic impact of TBR on survival in patients with breast cancer. Two thousand twenty-five consecutive breast cancer patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy between January 2002 and December 2008 at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center were enrolled in this retrospective study. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the prognostic effect of TBR on cancer-specific survival (CSS), and univariate log-rank test and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model were performed to identify independent prognostic factors. The optimal cutoff value of TBR was determined to be 1.70 %, and 1473 and 552 patients were categorized to low-TBR and high-TBR groups, respectively. In the whole patient cohort, CSS was significantly shorter in the high-TBR group (110.2 vs 128.5 months, P breast cancer patients (hazard ratio (HR) 1.489, 95 % CI 1.130-1.961, P = 0.005). High TBR was independently associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. This variable may serve as a valuable parameter to predict the outcomes of breast cancer.

  5. The ratio of clay content to total organic carbon content is a useful parameter to predict adsorption of the herbicide butachlor in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhongzhen; He Yan [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Xu Jianming [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: jmxu@zju.edu.cn; Huang Panming [Department of Soil Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Jilani Ghulam [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Thirteen soils collected from 11 provinces in eastern China were used to investigate the butachlor adsorption. The results indicated that the total organic carbon (TOC) content, clay content, amorphous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content, silt content, CEC, and pH had a combined effect on the butachlor sorption on soil. Combination of the data obtained from the 13 soils in the present study with other 23 soil samples reported by other researchers in the literature showed that K{sub oc} would be a poor predictive parameter for butachlor adsorption on soils with TOC content higher than 4.0% and lower than 0.2%. The soils with the ratio of clay content to TOC content (RCO) values less than 60 adsorbed butachlor mainly by the partition into soil organic matter matrix. The soils with RCO values higher than 60 apparently adsorbed butachlor by the combination of the partition into soil organic matter matrix and adsorption on clay surface. - The relative importance of organic matter and clay in butachlor adsorption in soil will depend on the ratio of clay content to total organic carbon content.

  6. Elevated Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Intermediate-Term Outcomes in Patients Who Have Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease with Peripheral Artery Disease Receiving Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Chih; Yu, Chao-Chin; Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Chao, Ting-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an inflammatory biomarker, has not been evaluated in patients who have advanced CKD with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), especially in Taiwan. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 148 advanced CKD (creatinine clearance rate ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) identified from a prospective registry in our hospital (303 PTA cases in total). Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test was used to study event-free survival, and all univariables (p value Rutherford grade 6, either NLR or NLR ≥ 3.76, and a history of hypertension had a positively prognostic impact on the occurrence of primary composite endpoint, whereas higher albumin level (≥ 3.0 mg/dL) and technical success had a significantly protective effect. History of hypertension, either NLR or NLR ≥ 3.76, and age were associated with all-cause mortality. In addition, Rutherford 6, higher albumin level (≥ 3.0 mg/dL), technical success, NLR, and age could predict the occurrence of major amputation. Conclusions NLR, but not C-reactive protein or platelet-lymphocyte ratio, is an important prognostic predictor of all major clinical outcomes in patients with advanced CKD and PAD receiving PTA. Further studies are warranted to establish a better strategy and healthcare program in this clinical setting. PMID:27713601

  7. Minimal invasive biopsy results of 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital mammography screening. High prevalence but also high predictive value for malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, S.; Heindel, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Decker, T. [Dietrich Bonhoeffer Klinikum, Neubrandenburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Korsching, E. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioinformatik; Biesheuvel, C.; Woestmann, A.; Boecker, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Hungermann, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Gerhard-Domagk-Inst. fuer Pathologie; Roterberg, K.; Tio, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Bereich Senologie

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the rate, the histological spectrum and the positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential (B3)' in digital mammography screening. Methods and Materials: Consecutive data of 37 178 participants of one digital unit of the German screening program were included. Results: The B 3 rate was 15.1 % (148/979). The frequencies of lesion subtypes were as follows: atypical epithelial proliferation of ductal type (AEPDT) 35.1 % (52/148), radial scar (RS) 28.4 % (42/148), papillary lesions (PAP) 20.3 % (30/148), lobular carcinoma in situ 8.8 % (13/148), flat epithelial atypia 5.4 % (8/148), and mucocele-like lesions 2.0 % (3/148). The PPV for malignancy in surgical excisions was overall 0.28 (25/91); in detail 0.40 (19/47) for AEPDT, 0.20 (5/25) for RS, 0.08 (1/12) for PAP. Conclusion: Despite a higher B 3 rate of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital screening, the benign surgical biopsy rate is not disproportionally increased compared with analog screening programs. Together with defined management protocols, this results in an increased cancer detection rate per screening participant with surgical excision. (orig.)

  8. Platelet indices and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio predict coronary chronic total occlusion in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadadi Laszlo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO is caused by organized thrombi or atherosclerotic plaque progression. The presence of a CTO is an independent predictor of mortality in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. Platelets have a crucial role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate platelet indices as predictors of CTO in patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI. A total number of 334 patients admitted for STEMI between January 2011 and December 2013 were included and divided in two groups based on the presence of CTO (48 patients in CTO+ group, 286 patients in CTO-group. Platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV, platelet distribution width (PDW, platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR, lymphocyte and neutrophil count determined on admission were analyzed. MPV was larger in patients with CTO compared with patients without CTO (p=0.02, as were PDW (p=0.03 and P-LCR (p=0.01. Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLT/LYM was lower in patients with CTO: 105.2 (75.86-159.1 compared to 137 (97-188.1, p<0.01. Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis identified an area under the curve of 0.61 (95%CI=0.57-0.67, p< 0.01 for PLT/LYM in predicting the presence of a CTO, with a cut-off value at 97.73. Lower values than this were independent predictors of a CTO in multivariate logistic regression analysis, with an Odds Ratio of 2.2 (95%CI=1.15-4.20, p=0.02. Our results support the use of platelet indices and PLT/LYM as predictors of CTO in patients presenting with STEMI.

  9. Aspartate aminotransferase-lymphocyte ratio index and systemic immune-inflammation index predict overall survival in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zongguo; Zhang, Jianliang; Lu, Yunfei; Xu, Qingnian; Tang, Bozong; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Wensi; Chen, Shishi; Lu, Lingqing; Chen, Xiaorong

    2015-12-15

    It has been suggested that lymphocytes play central roles in host antitumor immune responses and control cancer outcome. We reviewed the clinical parameters of 189 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and investigated the prognostic significance of lymphocyte-related scores in HCC patients following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Survival analysis revealed that an elevated aspartate aminotransferase-lymphocyte ratio index (ALRI) > 57 and a systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) > 300 were negatively associated with overall survival in HBV-related HCC (HR = 2.181, P = 0.003 and HR = 2.453, P = 0.003; respectively). Spearman chi-square analysis showed that ALRI had a specificity of 82.4% and that SII index had a sensitivity of 71.9% for HCC overall survival. ALRI and SII had negative predictive values of 74.6% and 80%, respectively for HCC overall survival. Additionally, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage C patients had significantly higher ALRI and SII scores (both P SII scores (P SII should be used as negative predictive factors for overall survival in HBV-related HCC in clinical practice.

  10. The lymphocyte–monocyte ratio predicts tumor response and survival in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who received definitive chemoradiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Li, Minghuan; Zhao, Fen; Zhu, Yingming; Luo, Yijun; Kong, Li; Zhu, Hui; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Fang; Yu, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Background The lymphocyte–monocyte ratio (LMR), a simple biomarker that can reflect the antitumor immune response of the host, has been associated with patient prognosis in several solid tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LMR can predict clinical tumor response and prognosis in patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who received definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Patients and methods A total of 162 advanced ESCC patients treated at our institution between January 2012 and December 2013 were retrospectively recruited for analysis. Patients were treated with a platinum-based bimodal cytotoxic drug chemotherapy and concurrent radiation therapy. The LMR was calculated from blood counts in samples collected prior to treatment initiation. The predictive value of LMR for clinical tumor response and prognosis was examined. Results The LMR before CRT was significantly higher in 48 patients who achieved clinical complete response (CR) compared to that in patients who did not achieve clinical CR (4.89±1.17 vs 3.87±1.29, P4.02) showed a good clinical tumor response (Pimmune system, is associated with both a good clinical tumor response after definitive CRT and favorable prognosis.

  11. Is monocyte to HDL ratio superior to monocyte count in predicting the cardiovascular outcomes: evidence from a large cohort of Chinese patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Gao, Ying; Xu, Rui-Xia; Dong, Qian; Liu, Geng; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Recently, monocyte-to-high density lipoprotein ratio (MHR) has been proposed as a novel prognostic indicator of cardiovascular diseases. However, no study is currently available regarding the comparison between MHR and monocyte count (MC) in predicting the outcomes among patients undergoing coronary angiography. A total of 3798 patients scheduled for selective coronary angiography were enrolled and followed up to capture major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs, death, acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke, heart failure, and unexpected coronary revascularization). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk of MHR or MC on MACEs. During a median of 24.6 months follow-up, 347 (9.1%) MACEs occurred. The upper tertiles of MC and MHR have a significant lower event-free survival (p = 0.011; p = 0.014, respectively). Significantly, both MC and MHR were associated with increased MACEs risk after adjusting for potential confounders [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.734 (1.547-4.832); 2.031 (1.268-3.254), respectively]. Additionally, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves of MC or MHR in predicting MACEs were 0.574 (0.542-0.606) and 0.562 (0.530-0.594) (p MHR was an independent predictor of MACEs whereas the prognostic impact was not superior to MC in patients who underwent coronary angiography. Key Messages MHR has been suggested as a novel prognostic indicator of several cardiovascular diseases. No study is currently available regarding the comparison of MHR to MC in predicting the outcomes in a large cohort of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Our data firstly indicate that MHR is independently associated with MACEs in patients undergoing coronary angiography whereas the prognostic impact is similar to MC.

  12. Digital Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubler, Alfred

    2009-03-01

    The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

  13. Investigation on Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR Specimen to Predict Moisture Sensitivity of Asphalt Pavements Mixture and Using Polymer to Reduce Moisture Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aziz Hameed Al-Shaybani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage of asphalt concrete is defined as losing the strength and Permanence caused by the active presence of moisture.The most common technique to reduce moisture damage is using modifiers with the asphalt binder or the aggregate.The goal of this study was to explore the effect of various modifiers of polymer on the moisture susceptibility mixture of asphaltic concrete pavement. Modifiers included in this research selected two kinds of polymers Crumb Rubber No 50 (CR No 50 and Methyl Methacrylates (MMA(which are available in the local markets in Iraq and have been used in three percentages for each type. These percentages are (5, 10 and 15% for (CR No 50 and (2.5, 5 and 7.5(% for (MMA.Each type of these polymers is blended with asphalt by wet process at constant blending times for a suitable range of temperatures. The experimental works showed that all polymers modified mixtures have indirect tensile strength higher than control asphalt mixtures, its about (2-15 %, dependent on different type of polymer and polymer concentration under predicted suitable blending time.Test results of indirect tensile strength indicated betterment in modifying the proprieties of mixture, the increased resistance mixture of asphalt concrete pavement versus moisture damage, and reduced the effect of water on asphalt concrete properties. The final result is the addition of (10% CR No 50 and (5% MMA to asphalt mixtures showed an improved mixture of asphalt concrete properties and produced strong mixtures for road construction.One model is predicted for tensile strength ratio [TSR]to estimate the effects of polymer modification on moisture susceptibility mixture of asphalt concrete.

  14. Comparing the efficiency of digital and conventional soil mapping to predict soil types in a semi-arid region in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraatpisheh, Mojtaba; Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Jafari, Azam; Finke, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The efficiency of different digital and conventional soil mapping approaches to produce categorical maps of soil types is determined by cost, sample size, accuracy and the selected taxonomic level. The efficiency of digital and conventional soil mapping approaches was examined in the semi-arid region of Borujen, central Iran. This research aimed to (i) compare two digital soil mapping approaches including Multinomial logistic regression and random forest, with the conventional soil mapping approach at four soil taxonomic levels (order, suborder, great group and subgroup levels), (ii) validate the predicted soil maps by the same validation data set to determine the best method for producing the soil maps, and (iii) select the best soil taxonomic level by different approaches at three sample sizes (100, 80, and 60 point observations), in two scenarios with and without a geomorphology map as a spatial covariate. In most predicted maps, using both digital soil mapping approaches, the best results were obtained using the combination of terrain attributes and the geomorphology map, although differences between the scenarios with and without the geomorphology map were not significant. Employing the geomorphology map increased map purity and the Kappa index, and led to a decrease in the 'noisiness' of soil maps. Multinomial logistic regression had better performance at higher taxonomic levels (order and suborder levels); however, random forest showed better performance at lower taxonomic levels (great group and subgroup levels). Multinomial logistic regression was less sensitive than random forest to a decrease in the number of training observations. The conventional soil mapping method produced a map with larger minimum polygon size because of traditional cartographic criteria used to make the geological map 1:100,000 (on which the conventional soil mapping map was largely based). Likewise, conventional soil mapping map had also a larger average polygon size that resulted

  15. 武警某机动部队战士指长比与心理健康水平关系的研究%Study on correlations of digit ratio and mental health status for soldiers in a Chinese people's armed tactical unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉来; 宋国林; 朱守兰; 严凤; 李勇; 柴晓萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study correlations of digit ratio and mental health status for soldiers in a Chinese people's armed tac-tical unit. Methods:318 soldiers' 4 digit lengths of two hands were measured, while SCL-90 was applied. Further, the correlations of digit ratio and SCL-90 were statistically analyzed. Results:The digit ratios of the left hand and right hand had significant correlations with many SCL-90 factor scores, total scores and positive item numbers. Conclusions: The digit ratio has a certain correlations with the mental health status.%目的:探讨武警部队战士指长比与心理健康水平的关系。方法:对武警某机动部队318名战士测量左右手食指、中指、环指、小指4个手指长度和SCL-90。统计分析各指长比与SCL-90的相关性。结果:左右手的多个指长比与SCL-90多个因子分、总分和阳性项目数显著相关。结论:指长比与心理健康水平有一定的相关性。

  16. Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Tariq Ahmad; Ausloos, Marcel; Cerqueti, Roy

    2014-11-01

    The yearly aggregated tax income data of all, more than 8000, Italian municipalities are analyzed for a period of five years, from 2007 to 2011, to search for conformity or not with Benford's law, a counter-intuitive phenomenon observed in large tabulated data where the occurrence of numbers having smaller initial digits is more favored than those with larger digits. This is done in anticipation that large deviations from Benford's law will be found in view of tax evasion supposedly being widespread across Italy. Contrary to expectations, we show that the overall tax income data for all these years is in excellent agreement with Benford's law. Furthermore, we also analyze the data of Calabria, Campania and Sicily, the three Italian regions known for strong presence of mafia, to see if there are any marked deviations from Benford's law. Again, we find that all yearly data sets for Calabria and Sicily agree with Benford's law whereas only the 2007 and 2008 yearly data show departures from the law for Campania. These results are again surprising in view of underground and illegal nature of economic activities of mafia which significantly contribute to tax evasion. Some hypothesis for the found conformity is presented.

  17. Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions

    CERN Document Server

    Mir, Tariq Ahmad; Cerqueti, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The yearly aggregated tax income data of all, more than 8000, Italian municipalities are analyzed for a period of five years, from 2007 to 2011, to search for conformity or not with Benford's law, a counter-intuitive phenomenon observed in large tabulated data where the occurrence of numbers having smaller initial digits is more favored than those with larger digits. This is done in anticipation that large deviations from Benford's law will be found in view of tax evasion supposedly being widespread across Italy. Contrary to expectations, we show that the overall tax income data for all these years is in excellent agreement with Benford's law. Furthermore, we also analyze the data of Calabria, Campania and Sicily, the three Italian regions known for strong presence of mafia, to see if there are any marked deviations from Benford's law. Again, we find that all yearly data sets for Calabria and Sicily agree with Benford's law whereas only the 2007 and 2008 yearly data show departures from the law for Campania. ...

  18. Facial width-to-height ratio predicts self-reported dominance and aggression in males and females, but a measure of masculinity does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Carmen E; Etchells, Peter J; Howell, Emma C; Clark, Andrew P; Penton-Voak, Ian S

    2014-10-01

    Recently, associations between facial structure and aggressive behaviour have been reported. Specifically, the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is thought to link to aggression, although it is unclear whether this association is related to a specific dimension of aggression, or to a more generalized concept of dominance behaviour. Similarly, an association has been proposed between facial masculinity and dominant and aggressive behaviour, but, to date, this has not been formally tested. Because masculinity and fWHR are negatively correlated, it is unlikely that both signal similar behaviours. Here, we thus tested these associations and show that: (i) fWHR is related to both self-reported dominance and aggression; (ii) physical aggression, verbal aggression and anger, but not hostility are associated with fWHR; (iii) there is no evidence for a sex difference in associations between fWHR and aggression; and (iv) the facial masculinity index does not predict dominance or aggression. Taken together, these results indicate that fWHR, but not a measure of facial masculinity, cues dominance and specific types of aggression in both sexes.

  19. Facial width-to-height ratio predicts self-reported dominance and aggression in males and females, but a measure of masculinity does not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Carmen E.; Etchells, Peter J.; Howell, Emma C.; Clark, Andrew P.; Penton-Voak, Ian S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, associations between facial structure and aggressive behaviour have been reported. Specifically, the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is thought to link to aggression, although it is unclear whether this association is related to a specific dimension of aggression, or to a more generalized concept of dominance behaviour. Similarly, an association has been proposed between facial masculinity and dominant and aggressive behaviour, but, to date, this has not been formally tested. Because masculinity and fWHR are negatively correlated, it is unlikely that both signal similar behaviours. Here, we thus tested these associations and show that: (i) fWHR is related to both self-reported dominance and aggression; (ii) physical aggression, verbal aggression and anger, but not hostility are associated with fWHR; (iii) there is no evidence for a sex difference in associations between fWHR and aggression; and (iv) the facial masculinity index does not predict dominance or aggression. Taken together, these results indicate that fWHR, but not a measure of facial masculinity, cues dominance and specific types of aggression in both sexes. PMID:25339656

  20. Prediction of Abdominal Visceral Obesity From Body Mass Index,Waist Circumference and Waist-hip Ratio in Chinese Adults:Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI-PING JIA; JUN-XI LU; KUN-SAN XIANG; YU-QIAN BAO; HUI-JUAN LU; LEI CHEN

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) measurements in diagnosing abdominal visceral obesity. Methods BMI, WC, and WHR were assessed in 690 Chinese adults (305 men and 385women) and compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and used to determine the threshold point for each anthropometric parameter. Results 1) MRI showed that 61.7% of overweight/obese individuals (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and 14.2% of normal weight (BMI<25kg/m2) individuals had abdominal visceral obesity (VA≥ 100 cm2). 2) VA was positively correlated with each anthropometric variable, of which WC showed the highest correlation (r=0.73-0.77,P<0.001 ). 3) The best cut-off points for assessing abdominal visceral obesity were as followed: BMI of 26 kg/m2, WC of 90 cm, and WHR of 0.93, with WC being the most sensitive and specific factor. 4)Among subjects with BMI≥28 kg/m2 or WC≥95 cm, 95% of men and 90% of women appeared to have abdominal visceral obesity. Conclusion Measurements of BMI, WC, and WHR can be used in the prediction of abdominal visceral obesity, of which WC was the one with better accuracy.

  1. The Predictive Value of Waist-To-Height Ratio for Ischemic Stroke in a Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study among Mongolian Men in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Xu, Tian; Bu, Xiaoqing; Peng, Hao; Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Mingzhi; Zhang, Yonghong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and risk of ischemic stroke among Mongolian men in China. Methods A population-based prospective cohort study was conducted from June 2003 to July 2012 in Inner Mongolia, an autonomous region in north China. A total of 1034 men aged 20 years and older free of cardiovascular disease were included in the cohort and followed up for an average of 9.2 years. The subjects were divided into four groups by WHtR levels (WHtR0.60). The cumulative survival rates of ischemic stroke among the four groups were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier curves and compared by log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were employed to evaluate the associations between obesity indices and ischemic stroke. Results A total of 47 ischemic stroke patients were observed during the follow-up period. The cumulative incidence and incidence density of ischemic stroke were 4.55% and 507.61/100 000 person-years, respectively. After the major risk factors were adjusted, individuals with WHtR>0.60 had a 3.56-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke compared with those with 0.40≤WHtR≤0.50. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ischemic stroke for a 1-SD increase in WHtR was 1.34(95% CI: 1.00–1.81). After adding BMI or WC to models, higher WHtR remained significantly associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the cumulative survival rate in the group with WHtR>0.60 was significantly lower than in the group with 0.40≤WHtR≤0.50 (log-rank test, P = 0.025). The areas under the curve for each index were as follows: 0.586 for WHtR, 0.543 for WC; 0.566 for BMI. Conclusions Higher WHtR is associated with risk of ischemic stroke in Mongolian males. WHtR may be useful in predicting ischemic stroke incidence in males. PMID:25353632

  2. A nomogram based on age,prostate-specific antigen level,prostate volume and digital rectal examination for predicting risk of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Tang; Hui Chen; Matthew Uhlman; Yu-Rong Lin; Xiang-Rong Deng; Bin Wang; Wen-Jun Yang; Ke-Ji Xie

    2013-01-01

    Nomograms for predicting the risk of prostate cancer developed using other populations may introduce sizable bias when applied to a Chinese cohort.In the present study,we sought to develop a nomogram for predicting the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy in a Chinese population.A total of 535 Chinese men who underwent a prostatic biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer in the past decade with complete biopsy data were included.Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of a positive initial biopsy.Age,prostate-specific antigen (PSA),prostate volume (PV),digital rectal examination (DRE) status,% free PSA and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) findings were included in the analysis.A nomogram model was developed that was based on these independent predictors to calculate the probability of a positive initial prostate biopsy.A receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to assess the accuracy of using the nomogram and PSA levels alone for predicting positive prostate biopsy.The rate for positive initial prostate biopsy was 41.7% (223/535).The independent variables used to predict a positive initial prostate biopsy were age,PSA,PV and DRE status.The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for a positive initial prostate biopsy for PSA alone and the nomogram were 79.7% and 84.8%,respectively.Our results indicate that the risk of a positive initial prostate biopsy can be predicted to a satisfactory level in a Chinese population using our nomogram.The nomogram can be used to identify and Counsel patients who should consider a prostate biopsy,ultimately enhancing accuracy in diagnosing prostate cancer.

  3. Digital-image analysis to predict weight and yields of boneless subprimal beef cuts Análise de imagem digital para a previsão de pesos e rendimentos de cortes de carne bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Teira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, beef carcass evaluation for grading or research purposes has relied upon subjective visual scores, and manually taken measurements, but in recent times there has been a growing interest in new technologies capable of improving accuracy of estimates. Equations to predict weight and yield of beef pistol subprimal cuts were developed in this work using digital image analysis (VIA of the 12th rib steak. Equations to predict total pistol subprimal cuts weight (CUTS had coefficients of determination (CD of 0.84, or 0.87 to 0.88, when the independent variables were the VIA parameters and the half carcass weight (HC or the total pistol weight (TP, respectively. The predicted values for the total seven subprimal cuts, as a percentage of half carcass weight (CUTS%, presented CD values ranging from 0.37 to 0.47, or 0.21 to 0.31, using HC or TP as a principal independent variable. Likewise, the equation for weight of the individual subprimal cuts had CD values ranging from 0.40 to 0.72, or 0.43 to 0.74 using HC or TP, respectively. In this research, the developed VIA procedure has demonstrated good repeatability and accuracy to estimate the total pistol subprimal weights, and some individual subprimal weights.Por várias décadas, a avaliação de carcaça bovina em sistemas de tipificação ou em pesquisas tem dependido de escores subjetivos e medidas obtidas manualmente, mas ultimamente tem havido um crescente interesse por novas tecnologias capazes de aumentar a acurácia das estimativas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver equações para a previsão de pesos e rendimentos de cortes bovinos, através da análise de imagem digital (VIA de uma seção do contrafilé da 12ª costela. As equações de previsão do peso dos cortes do traseiro especial (CUTS apresentaram coeficientes de determinação (CD de 0,84 e de 0,87 – 0,88, quando as variáveis independentes usadas eram os parâmetros VIA e o peso da meia carcaça (HC ou

  4. Strategy for the Prediction of Steady-State Exposure of Digoxin to Determine Drug-Drug Interaction Potential of Digoxin With Other Drugs in Digitalization Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2016-01-20

    Digoxin, a narrow therapeutic index drug, is widely used in congestive heart failure. However, the digitalization therapy involves dose titration and can exhibit drug-drug interaction. Ctrough versus area under the plasma concentration versus time curve in a dosing interval of 24 hours (AUC0-24h) and Cmax versus AUC0-24h for digoxin were established by linear regression. The predictions of digoxin AUC0-24h values were performed using published Ctrough or Cmax with appropriate regression lines. The fold difference, defined as the quotient of the observed/predicted AUC0-24h values, was evaluated. The mean square error and root mean square error, correlation coefficient (r), and goodness of the fold prediction were used to evaluate the models. Both Ctrough versus AUC0-24h (r = 0.9215) and Cmax versus AUC0-24h models for digoxin (r = 0.7781) showed strong correlations. Approximately 93.8% of the predicted digoxin AUC0-24h values were within 0.76-fold to 1.25-fold difference for Ctrough model. In sharp contrast, the Cmax model showed larger variability with only 51.6% of AUC0-24h predictions within 0.76-1.25-fold difference. The r value for observed versus predicted AUC0-24h for Ctrough (r = 0.9551; n = 177; P < 0.001) was superior to the Cmax (r = 0.6134; n = 275; P < 0.001) model. The mean square error and root mean square error (%) for the Ctrough model were 11.95% and 16.2% as compared to 67.17% and 42.3% obtained for the Cmax model. Simple linear regression models for Ctrough/Cmax versus AUC0-24h were derived for digoxin. On the basis of statistical evaluation, Ctrough was superior to Cmax model for the prediction of digoxin AUC0-24h and can be potentially used in a prospective setting for predicting drug-drug interaction or lack of it.

  5. {sup 137}Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, William L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Energy and Environment Directorate, 7000 East Avenue, L-642, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States)], E-mail: robison1@llnl.gov; Hamilton, Terry F.; Bogen, Kenneth T.; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Kehl, Steven R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Energy and Environment Directorate, 7000 East Avenue, L-642, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bq g{sup -1137}Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bq g{sup -1137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate {sup 137}Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  6. A high LDL-C to HDL-C ratio predicts poor prognosis for initially metastatic colorectal cancer patients with elevations in LDL-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fangxin; He, Wenzhuo; Jiang, Chang; Yin, Chenxi; Guo, Guifang; Chen, Xuxian; Qiu, Huijuan; Rong, Yuming; Zhang, Bei; Xu, Dazhi; Xia, Liangping

    2015-01-01

    Although lipid disequilibrium has been documented for several types of cancer including colorectal cancer (CRC), it remains unknown whether lipid parameters are associated with the outcome of metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients. Here, we retrospectively examined the lipid profiles of 453 mCRC patients and investigated whether any of the lipid parameters correlated with the outcome of mCRC patients. Pretreatment serum lipids, including triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), were collected in 453 initially mCRC patients. The LDL-C to HDL-C ratio (LHR) was calculated and divided into the first, second, and third tertiles. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of lipids on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Nearly two-fifths of the patients (41.3%) exhibited elevations in LDL-C while most patients (88.3%) showed normal HDL-C levels. Decreased HDL-C (P=0.542) and increased LDL-C (P=0.023) were prognostic factors for poor OS, while triglyceride (P=0.542) and cholesterol (P=0.215) were not. Multivariate analysis revealed that LDL-C (P=0.031) was an independent prognostic factor. Triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C did not correlate with PFS. Among patients with elevations in LDL-C levels, patients in the third tertile of the LHR had a markedly shorter median OS compared to those in the first or second tertile (P=0.012). Thus, increased LDL-C level is an independent prognostic factor for poor prognosis in mCRC patients, and a high LHR predicts poor prognosis for initially mCRC patients with elevations in LDL-C.

  7. Digital PCR quantification of MGMT methylation refines prediction of clinical benefit from alkylating agents in glioblastoma and metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barault, L.; Amatu, A.; Bleeker, F.E.; Moutinho, C.; Falcomata, C.; Fiano, V.; Cassingena, A.; Siravegna, G.; Milione, M.; Cassoni, P.; Braud, F. De; Ruda, R.; Soffietti, R.; Venesio, T.; Bardelli, A.; Wesseling, P.; Hamer, P. de Witt; Pietrantonio, F.; Siena, S. Di; Esteller, M.; Sartore-Bianchi, A.; Nicolantonio, F. Di

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: O(6)-methyl-guanine-methyl-transferase (MGMT) silencing by promoter methylation may identify cancer patients responding to the alkylating agents dacarbazine or temozolomide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the prognostic and predictive value of MGMT methylation testing both in tumor a

  8. Digital PCR quantification of MGMT methylation refines prediction of clinical benefit from alkylating agents in glioblastoma and metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barault, L.; Amatu, A.; Bleeker, F.E.; Moutinho, C.; Falcomata, C.; Fiano, V.; Cassingena, A.; Siravegna, G.; Milione, M.; Cassoni, P.; Braud, F. De; Ruda, R.; Soffietti, R.; Venesio, T.; Bardelli, A.; Wesseling, P.; Hamer, P. de Witt; Pietrantonio, F.; Siena, S. Di; Esteller, M.; Sartore-Bianchi, A.; Nicolantonio, F. Di

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: O(6)-methyl-guanine-methyl-transferase (MGMT) silencing by promoter methylation may identify cancer patients responding to the alkylating agents dacarbazine or temozolomide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the prognostic and predictive value of MGMT methylation testing both in tumor a

  9. Digital PCR quantification of MGMT methylation refines prediction of clinical benefit from alkylating agents in glioblastoma and metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barault, L.; Amatu, A.; Bleeker, F.E.; Moutinho, C.; Falcomata, C.; Fiano, V.; Cassingena, A.; Siravegna, G.; Milione, M.; Cassoni, P.; Braud, F. De; Ruda, R.; Soffietti, R.; Venesio, T.; Bardelli, A.; Wesseling, P.; Hamer, P. de Witt; Pietrantonio, F.; Siena, S. Di; Esteller, M.; Sartore-Bianchi, A.; Nicolantonio, F. Di

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: O(6)-methyl-guanine-methyl-transferase (MGMT) silencing by promoter methylation may identify cancer patients responding to the alkylating agents dacarbazine or temozolomide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the prognostic and predictive value of MGMT methylation testing both in tumor

  10. Digital PCR quantification of MGMT methylation refines prediction of clinical benefit from alkylating agents in glioblastoma and metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barault, L.; Amatu, A.; Bleeker, F. E.; Moutinho, C.; Falcomatà, C.; Fiano, V.; Cassingena, A.; Siravegna, G.; Milione, M.; Cassoni, P.; de Braud, F.; Rudà, R.; Soffietti, R.; Venesio, T.; Bardelli, A.; Wesseling, P.; de Witt Hamer, P.; Pietrantonio, F.; Siena, S.; Esteller, M.; Sartore-Bianchi, A.; di Nicolantonio, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Background: O6-methyl-guanine-methyl-transferase (MGMT) silencing by promoter methylation may identify cancer patients responding to the alkylating agents dacarbazine or temozolomide. Patients and methods: We evaluated the prognostic and predictive value of MGMT methylation testing both in tumor and

  11. Predictive effect of microRNA ratio in osteosarcoma%微小RN A表达比在骨肉瘤中的预测作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任慧文; 杨澄; 苏宏伟; 李宏伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨微小RNA(miRNA)表达比在骨肉瘤中的生物标志物作用。方法选取经病理证实为骨肉瘤患者的血样22例,年龄相近的30例健康者血样作为对照组。运用高通量芯片的方法对差异表达的miRNA进行筛选,对分析结果进行qRT-PCR验证;用受试者工作特征曲线分析miRNA表达比,找出最具预测潜能的组合型标志物。结果与正常血样相比,基因芯片检测出258个差异表达的miRNA(F=5.564,P<0.05),选取其中4个miRNA在22例骨肉瘤患者血样和正常对照组血样中进行验证。其中miR-181b、miR-199b-5p、miR-451在骨肉瘤血样中的表达较正常血样明显增高(F=6.283, P<0.05),而miR-124在骨肉瘤中则是低表达(F=7.201,P<0.05);miR-199b-5p/miR-124的表达比表现出很高的敏感性(96%)和特异性(97%)。结论 miRNA在骨肉瘤中的异常表达使其具备一定的预测作用,而miR-199b-5p/miR-124表达比或许可以成为预测骨肉瘤的生物标志物。%Objective To explore the roles of biomarkers of the ratios of microRNA (miRNA)in osteosarcoma.Methods The blood samples from 20 patients with osteosarcoma and 30 healthy people with similar age were choosed.The miRNA expression profiles were filtered by gene chips of high flux.The results were verified by qRT-PCR.The miRNA expression ratio was analysed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC)curve aiming to find the most predictive potential combination-type markers.Results Two hundred and fifty-eight miRNAs were found to be significantly deregulated in blood samples from 30 patients with osteo-sarcoma as compared with their matching normal blood samples (F=5.564,P<0.05).Four miRNAs were choosed from blood samples of22 patients with osteosarcoma and normal blood samples.MiR-181b,miR-199b-5p and miR-451 were significantly higher than that in normal blood sample (F=6.283,P<0.05),while miR-124 showed low expression

  12. Comparison of Capability of Digitizing Methods to Predict Soil classification According to the Soil Taxonomy and World Reference Base for Soil Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zohreh mosleh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil classification generally aims to establish a taxonomy based on breaking the soil continuum into homogeneous groups that can highlight the essential differences in soil properties and functions between classes.The two most widely used modern soil classification schemes are Soil Taxonomy (ST and World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB.With the development of computers and technology, digital and quantitative approaches have been developed. These new techniques that include the spatial prediction of soil properties or classes, relies on finding the relationships between soil and the auxiliary information that explain the soil forming factors or processes and finally predict soil patterns on the landscape. These approaches are commonly referred to as digital soil mapping (DSM (14. A key component of any DSM mapping activity is the method used to define the relationship between soil observation and auxiliary information (4. Several types of machine learning approaches have been applied for digital soil mapping of soil classes, such as logistic and multinomial logistic regressions (10,12, random forests (15, neural networks (3,13 and classification trees (22,4. Many decisions about the soil use and management are based on the soil differences that cannot be captured by higher taxonomic levels (i.e., order, suborder and great group (4. In low relief areas such as plains, it is expected that the soil forming factors are more homogenous and auxiliary information explaining soil forming factors may have low variation and cannot show the soil variability. Materials and Methods: The study area is located in the Shahrekord plain of Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari province. According tothe semi-detailed soil survey (16, 120 pedons with approximate distance of 750 m were excavated and described according to the “field book for describing and sampling soils” (19. Soil samples were taken from different genetic horizons, air dried and

  13. 断层活动协调比在地震预测中的应用%Application of Fault Motion Coordination Ratio in Earthquake Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 黎凯武; 武艳强; 李春光

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively obtain earthquake precursors of potential seismic source and state of fault strain accumulation, we analyzed the fault movements in Sichuan-Yunnan region and the Capital area of China applying the concept of fault motion coordination ratio (FCR). The results show that: ① The fault had been locked for at least ten years at the source region of M7. 0 Lijiang earthquake. The different characteristics of spatial and temporal of FCR change among several surveying sites, which may reflect the evolution of abnormal changes in the seismic source and external regions. ② The nature of fault motion can be identified using parameter of FCR. Fault movement is in free and non-strain accumulation state if FCR is in normal level, even though baseline and level surveying curve showed abnormal changes. ③ Certain kind of discrete changes of FCR appear before the majority of great earthquakes, which has certain values in analyzing the nature of fault motion, strain accumulation state and long-term earthquake prediction.%为了有效捕获潜在震源区前兆变化信息与断层应变积累状态,本文应用断层活动协调比概念,对川滇地区和首都圈地区断层活动进行了分析.结果表明:①丽江7.0级地震前震源区经历了至少有10多年的断层闭锁阶段,不同观测场地协调比变化的时空差异性特征可能反映了震源区以及外围的异常演化特征;②断层活动协调比参数可帮助判识断层活动的性质,当基线、水准原始观测曲线出现显著的变化,而协调比处于正常水平时,断层活动即为无应变积累的自由蠕滑;③断层活动协调比在大部分地震前都出现一定的离散性变化,对分析强震前的断层活动性质和应变积累状态以及地震中长期预测具有一定的参考价值.

  14. 固定性伴和多性伴男男性行为人群指长比的研究%Research on the digit ratio of fixed partner and the multi-partner men who have sex with men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩霞; 贾曼红; 马艳玲; 罗红兵; 李琪; 王玉淼; 李真晖; 宋丽军; 章任重

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the digit ratio of men who have sex with men (MSM), and the relationship between digit ratio and the partner types of MSM.Methods Participants were required from Yunnan Rainbow Sky, a community organization that specialized in HIV testing, intervention and counseling services for MSM between December 2014 and April 2015.Inclusion criteria of MSM as the following: more than 18 years old;men who have had sex with men;HIV test was negative.Exclusion criteria were as this: those who couldn't attend the research due to disability.Eventually, there were 115 MSM participated in the research.According to the nationality, we adopted 1:1 matched case-control study, and we selected 115 men as control group.According to the partner number of MSM, the MSM were divided into two groups.One group was fixed partner and another was multi-partner.We used a questionnaire to collect the demographic characteristics, knowledge about HIV/AIDS, sexual behaviors during nearly 6 months, sexual orientation, the places where looked for sex partners, sex roles, drug use, preventive services etc.Then, the physical measurements were used to measure the length from second to the fifth finger in MSM group and control group.The results were expressed as nD.The chi-square test was used to compare the demographic differences between MSM group and the control group, and the T-test was used to compare the digit ratio between two groups.Results Among 115 MSM, there were 26%(30/115) MSM who had a fixed partner, and there were 74% (85/115)MSM who had multi-partner.The mean values of digit ratio of MSM presented a trend as 2D : 3D<2D : 4D<3D : 4D<2D : 5D<4D : 5D<3D : 5D.The right 2D : 4D and 2D:5D of MSM were 0.957 7±0.048 1 and 1.229 8±0.083 4, and the mean value was significasntly higher than control group (0.941 4±0.038 0 and 1.204 1±0.069 5, t values were 2.84,2.54 and P values were 0.005,0.012).The right 2D:4D of the fixed partner group and multi-partner group

  15. Apolipoprotein B/A-I and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios both predict cardiovascular events in the general population independently of nonlipid risk factors, albuminuria and C-reactive protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, P.J.W.H.; Gansevoort, R. T.; Hillege, J. L.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Dullaart, R. P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B/A-I ratios predict major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). The extent to which these associations are modified by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and albuminuria is largely

  16. Usefulness of the right ventricular systolic to diastolic duration ratio to predict functional capacity and survival in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Jaime; Humpl, Tilman; Manlhiot, Cedric; McCrindle, Brian W; Reyes, Janette T; Friedberg, Mark K

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the systolic to diastolic duration ratio (S:D ratio) in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and its association with right ventricular (RV) performance, hemodynamics, 6-minute walk test, clinical outcomes, and survival. We reviewed 503 serial echocardiograms in 47 children with PAH (mean pulmonary artery pressure >or=25 mm Hg) and compared the S:D ratio, assessed from Doppler flow of tricuspid valve regurgitation, to that in 47 age-matched controls. We reviewed echocardiograms, catheterization data, 6-minute walk tests, clinical data, lung transplantation, and death and used univariate linear regression models with a maximum likelihood algorithm for parameter estimation to investigate associations between S:D ratio and RV function, hemodynamics, functional capacity, and clinical outcomes. The S:D ratio was significantly higher in patients than in controls (1.38 +/- 0.61 vs 0.72 +/- 0.16, p 1.40 was associated with a high risk of a negative outcome. In conclusion, in children with PAH, an increased S:D ratio is temporally associated with worse RV function, hemodynamics, exercise capability, clinical status, and survival. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  18. Digital Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  19. Importance of Android/Gynoid Fat Ratio in Predicting Metabolic and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Normal Weight as well as Overweight and Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that android or truncal obesity is associated with a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, yet there is evidence that gynoid fat distribution may be protective. However, these studies have focused on adults and obese children. The purpose of our study was to determine if the android/gynoid fat ratio is positively correlated with insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR, and dislipidemia in a child sample of varying body sizes. In 7–13-year-old children with BMI percentiles ranging from 0.1 to 99.6, the android/gynoid ratio was closely associated with insulin resistance and combined LDL + VLDL-cholesterol. When separated by sex, it became clear that these relationships were stronger in boys than in girls. Subjects were stratified into BMI percentile based tertiles. For boys, the android/gynoid ratio was significantly related to insulin resistance regardless of BMI tertile with and LDL + VLDL in tertiles 1 and 3. For girls, only LDL + VLDL showed any significance with android/gynoid ratio and only in tertile 2. We conclude that the android/gynoid fat ratio is closely associated with insulin resistance and LDL + VLDL-, “bad,” cholesterol in normal weight boys and may provide a measurement of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in that population. PMID:25302115

  20. Importance of android/gynoid fat ratio in predicting metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in normal weight as well as overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsell, Lennie; Regier, Michael; Walton, Cheryl; Cottrell, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that android or truncal obesity is associated with a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, yet there is evidence that gynoid fat distribution may be protective. However, these studies have focused on adults and obese children. The purpose of our study was to determine if the android/gynoid fat ratio is positively correlated with insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR, and dislipidemia in a child sample of varying body sizes. In 7-13-year-old children with BMI percentiles ranging from 0.1 to 99.6, the android/gynoid ratio was closely associated with insulin resistance and combined LDL + VLDL-cholesterol. When separated by sex, it became clear that these relationships were stronger in boys than in girls. Subjects were stratified into BMI percentile based tertiles. For boys, the android/gynoid ratio was significantly related to insulin resistance regardless of BMI tertile with and LDL + VLDL in tertiles 1 and 3. For girls, only LDL + VLDL showed any significance with android/gynoid ratio and only in tertile 2. We conclude that the android/gynoid fat ratio is closely associated with insulin resistance and LDL + VLDL-, "bad," cholesterol in normal weight boys and may provide a measurement of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in that population.

  1. Bayesian spatial risk prediction of Schistosoma mansoni infection in western Côte d'Ivoire using a remotely-sensed digital elevation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Wörner, Christian; Raso, Giovanna; Vounatsou, Penelope; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Rigo, Gergely; Parlow, Eberhard; Utzinger, Jürg

    2007-05-01

    An important epidemiologic feature of schistosomiasis is the focal distribution of the disease. Thus, the identification of high-risk communities is an essential first step for targeting interventions in an efficient and cost-effective manner. We used a remotely-sensed digital elevation model (DEM), derived hydrologic features (i.e., stream order, and catchment area), and fitted Bayesian geostatistical models to assess associations between environmental factors and infection with Schistosoma mansoni among more than 4,000 school children from the region of Man in western Côte d'Ivoire. At the unit of the school, we found significant correlations between the infection prevalence of S. mansoni and stream order of the nearest river, water catchment area, and altitude. In conclusion, the use of a freely available 90 m high-resolution DEM, geographic information system applications, and Bayesian spatial modeling facilitates risk prediction for S. mansoni, and is a powerful approach for risk profiling of other neglected tropical diseases that are pervasive in the developing world.

  2. Can the evaluation of a simple test object be used to predict the performance of a contrast-detail analysis in digital mammography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, H.; Lemmens, K.; Jacobs, J.; Vandenbroucke, D.; Zanca, F.; Michielsen, K.; Verbrugge, B.; Smans, K.; Marchal, G.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose was to find the correlation between a Figure of Merit (FoM) calculated from a new (simple) test object for Quality Control in digital mammography and CDMAM threshold thicknesses. The FoM included the signal difference to noise ratio, modulation transfer function of the complete system (including scatter and grid) and normalized noise power spectrum. The pre-programmed exposure settings for clinical work were used, as was done for the CDMAM acquisitions. The FoM is calculated from 2 images only (an image from the QC test object and an image of a corresponding homogeneous plate imaged with the same exposure settings). This FoM was evaluated in frequencies that match with the diameters of the gold disks in the CDMAM phantom. Computerized CDMAM analysis uses 16 images per system. The software program "cdcom" (www.euref.org) was used for the 4-AFC experiment. All matrices were averaged, smoothed with a Gaussian filter and psychometric curves were fitted through the correctly detected fractions to obtain the threshold thickness with a detectability of 62.5% for all diameters. Images have been acquired on 10 different systems (2 computed radiography (CR) systems, 6 direct radiology (DR) systems and 2 photon counting systems). The reproducibility of the QC metrics from images of the new phantom was assessed. The standard error on the mean of the FoM was for the highest frequency 8.1% for a CR system and 5.6% for a DR system. The main component in this error is due to the NNPS and the limited number of independent pixels used in this analysis. Parameters calculated from both phantoms are sensitive to variation in mean glandular dose levels. Present results show a weak correlation (R2=0.60) between the FoM at 5lp/mm and CDMAM threshold values for the 0.1mm objects when all system data are pooled. If evaluated for separate systems, the correlation holds promise for automated, periodic performance evaluations of digital mammography systems with the simplified

  3. Predictions by the multimedia environmental fate model SimpleBox compared to field data: Intermedia concentration ratios of two phthalate esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs J; Peijnenburg WJGM; ECO

    2003-01-01

    The multimedia environmental fate model SimpleBox is applied to compute steady-state concentration ratios with the aim to harmonize environmetal quality objectives of air, water, sediment and soil. In 1995 the Dutch Health Council recommended validation of the model. Several activities were initiate

  4. Prediction of cannibalism in juvenile Oreochromis niloticus based on predator to prey weight ratio, and effects of age and stocking density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fessehaye, Y.; Kabirb, A.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Factors influencing size-dependent cannibalism in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were investigated in controlled conditions. First, individual-based trials were conducted to develop a linear regression model to predict the occurrence of cannibalism based on body measurements. Oral gape (G, mm)

  5. Theoretically predicted and experimentally determined effects of the Si/(Si + C) gas phase ratio on the growth and character of monocrystalline beta silicon carbide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. J.; Davis, R. F.

    1986-10-01

    The effects of the Si/(Si + C) ratio in the reaction gas stream on the growth and properties of monocrystalline beta-SiC films grown on Si(100) substrates via chemical vapor deposition have been theoretically and experimentally studied. The amounts of condensed phases of beta-SiC and Si, and the partial pressures of the remaining Si and C-containing gases as a function of the Si/(Si + C) ratio in the source gases have been initially obtained from thermodynamic calculations using the 'SOLGASMIX-PV' computer program. Complementary and comparative experimental growth studies have shown that inclusion-free films having maximum values in growth rate and carrier concentration and a minimum value of resistivity were obtained near Si/(Si + C) = 0.5.

  6. Research on the equivalence between digital core and rock physics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xingyao; Zheng, Ying; Zong, Zhaoyun

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we calculate the elastic modulus of 3D digital cores using the finite element method, systematically study the equivalence between the digital core model and various rock physics models, and carefully analyze the conditions of the equivalence relationships. The influences of the pore aspect ratio and consolidation coefficient on the equivalence relationships are also further refined. Theoretical analysis indicates that the finite element simulation based on the digital core is equivalent to the boundary theory and Gassmann model. For pure sandstones, effective medium theory models (SCA and DEM) and the digital core models are equivalent in cases when the pore aspect ratio is within a certain range, and dry frame models (Nur and Pride model) and the digital core model are equivalent in cases when the consolidation coefficient is a specific value. According to the equivalence relationships, the comparison of the elastic modulus results of the effective medium theory and digital rock physics is an effective approach for predicting the pore aspect ratio. Furthermore, the traditional digital core models with two components (pores and matrix) are extended to multiple minerals to more precisely characterize the features and mineral compositions of rocks in underground reservoirs. This paper studies the effects of shale content on the elastic modulus in shaly sandstones. When structural shale is present in the sandstone, the elastic modulus of the digital cores are in a reasonable agreement with the DEM model. However, when dispersed shale is present in the sandstone, the Hill model cannot describe the changes in the stiffness of the pore space precisely. Digital rock physics describes the rock features such as pore aspect ratio, consolidation coefficient and rock stiffness. Therefore, digital core technology can, to some extent, replace the theoretical rock physics models because the results are more accurate than those of the theoretical models.

  7. Mercury and selenium in European catfish (Silurus glanis) from Northern Italian Rivers: can molar ratio be a predictive factor for mercury toxicity in a top predator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, S; Benedetto, A; Brizio, P; Prearo, M; Abete, M C

    2015-01-01

    The study of mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in fish is crucially important for evaluating the extent of contamination in freshwater environments, and the possible health risk posed for humans when the antagonistic interactions of these two elements are considered. Several factors affect the risk of mercury intake from fish consumption, including mercury levels, human consumption patterns, and sensitive populations (e.g., pregnant women, foetuses, young children and unknown genetic factors). The protective effects of selenium on mercury toxicity have been extensively publicised in recent years, particularly targeting fish consumers. In this study, mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations were determined in the muscle of European catfish (Silurus glanis) collected from North Italian Rivers. Differences in mercury and selenium levels, as a function of size, gender and location were investigated. Hg was strongly related to length, gender and location, while Se levels are not dependent on fish size or location. The mean Se/Hg molar ratio was strongly affected by location, and significantly related to length and age. Selenium was in molar excess of mercury in all sites, with a rank order of mean Se/Hg molar ratio of the Parma River (2.55)>Po River (1.71)>Tanaro River (1.66)>Bormida River (1.36). However, in 37% of analyzed samples, Hg exceeded the maximum level set by 1881/2006/EC and 629/2008/EC in fish muscle. The molar ratio of Se/Hg was 0.5mg/kg), and therefore the mean molar ratio cannot be considered as a safety criterion in top predator fish.

  8. Predicting Intrinsic mid-IR to optical flux ratios for galaxies of different types using Spectral Synthesis Models of Composite Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duho; Jansen, Rolf A.; Windhorst, Rogier A.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the intrinsic flux ratios of simple and composite stellar populations for various visible--near-infrared filters with respect to ˜3.5μm (L-band), and their dependence on metallicity, star-formation history, and effective mean age. This study is motivated by the fact that light from galaxies is reddened and attenuated by dust via scattering and absorption, where different sightlines across the face of a galaxy suffer various amounts of extinction. Ignoring the effects of this extinction could lead one to infer lower stellar mass, and SFR, or higher metallicity. Tamura et al. (2009) developed an approximate method, dubbed the "βV" method, which corrects for dust-extinction on a pixel-by-pixel basis, by comparing the observed flux ratio and empirical estimate of the intrinsic flux ratio of optical and ˜3.5μm broadband data. Here, we aim to validate and test the limits of the βV method for various filters spanning the visible through near-infrared wavelength range. Through extensive modeling, we test their assumptions for the intrinsic flux ratios for a wide variety of simple and composite stellar populations. We build spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of simple stellar populations (SSPs), by adopting Starburst99 and BC03 models for young (100Myr) stellar populations, respectively, and linear combinations of these for intermediate ages. We then construct composite stellar population (CSP) SEDs by combining SSP SEDs for various realistic star-formation histories (SFHs). We convolve filter response curves of visible--near-infrared filters for HST imaging surveys and mid-infrared filters in current (WISE, Spitzer/IRAC) and near-future use (JWST/NIRCam) with each model SED, to obtain intrinsic flux ratios (βλ,0). We find that βNIR,0 is only varying slightly as a function of metallicity but is insensitive to SFH or redshift (z≤2). We also find a narrow range of βV,0 (0.7+0.05-0.08) for early Hubble type galaxies (E and S0) using SEDs of randomly

  9. Digital Culture and Digital Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Yalçınkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study; digital culture and digital library which have a vital connection with each other are examined together. The content of the research consists of the interaction of culture, information, digital culture, intellectual technologies, and digital library concepts. The study is an entry work to integrity of digital culture and digital library theories and aims to expand the symmetry. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the relation between the digital culture and digital library theories acting intersection of the subjects that are examined. Also the perspective of the study is based on examining the literature and analytical evaluation in both studies (digital culture and digital library. Within this context, the methodology of the study is essentially descriptive and has an attribute for the transmission and synthesis of distributed findings produced in the field of the research. According to the findings of the study results, digital culture is an inclusive term that describes the effects of intellectual technologies in the field of information and communication. Information becomes energy and the spectrum of the information is expanding in the vertical rise through the digital culture. In this context, the digital library appears as a new living space of a new environment. In essence, the digital library is information-oriented; has intellectual technology support and digital platform; is in a digital format; combines information resources and tools in relationship/communication/cooperation by connectedness, and also it is the dynamic face of the digital culture in time and space independence. Resolved with the study is that the digital libraries are active and effective in the formation of global knowing and/or mass wisdom in the process of digital culture.

  10. The development and initial validation of a virtual dripping sweat rate and a clothing wetness ratio for use in predictive heat strain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, H.; Kuwabara, K.; Hamada, Y.

    2014-08-01

    This paper applies the heat balance equation (HBE) for clothed subjects as a linear function of mean skin temperature ( t sk ) by a new sweating efficiency ( η sw ) and an approximation for the thermoregulatory sweat rate. The equation predicting t sk in steady state conditions was derived as the solution of the HBE and used for a predictive heat strain scale. The heat loss from the wet clothing (WCL) area was identified with a new variable of `virtual dripping sweat rate VDSR' ( S wdr ). This is a subject's un-evaporated sweat rate in dry clothing from the regional sweat rate exceeding the maximum evaporative capacity, and adds the moisture to the clothing, reducing the intrinsic clothing insulation. The S wdr allowed a mass balance analysis of the wet clothing area identified as clothing wetness ( w cl ). The w cl was derived by combining the HBE at the WCL surface from which the evaporation rate and skin heat loss from WCL region are given. Experimental results on eight young male subjects wearing typical summer clothing, T-shirt and trousers verified the model for predicting t sk with WCL thermal resistance ( R cl,w ) identified as 25 % of dry clothing ( R cl,d ).

  11. Higher Ratio of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Could Predict Outcomes in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Kim

    Full Text Available The role of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels in the surveillance and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serially measured serum AFP levels in HCC progression or recurrence after initial treatment.A total of 722 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with HCC and treated at the National Cancer Center, Korea, between January 2004 and December 2009 were enrolled. The AFP ratios between 4-8 weeks post-treatment and those at the time of HCC progression or recurrence were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to correlate the post-treatment AFP ratios with the presence of HCC progression or recurrence.The etiology of HCC was related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in 562 patients (77.8%, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in 74 (10.2%, and non-viral cause in 86 (11.9%. There was a significant decrease in serum AFP levels from the baseline to 4 to 8 weeks after treatment (median AFP, 319.6 ng/mL vs. 49.6 ng/mL; p 1.0 was an independently associated with HCC progression or recurrence. Among the different causes of HCC analyzed, this association was significant only for HCC related to chronic hepatitis B (p< 0.001 and non-viral causes (p<0.05, and limited only to patients who had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels.Serial measurements of serum AFP ratios could be helpful in detecting progression or recurrence in treated patients with HBV-HCC and normal ALT.

  12. Digital photography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Windsor, J S; Rodway, G W; Middleton, P M; McCarthy, S

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of a new generation of "point-and-shoot" digital cameras offers doctors a compact, portable and user-friendly solution to the recording of highly detailed digital photographs and video images...

  13. Digital Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Borup, Ruben; Søndergaard, Asbjørn;

    2014-01-01

    Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated.......Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated....

  14. Digital squares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Kim, Chul E

    1988-01-01

    Digital squares are defined and their geometric properties characterized. A linear time algorithm is presented that considers a convex digital region and determines whether or not it is a digital square. The algorithm also determines the range of the values of the parameter set of its preimages....... The analysis involves transforming the boundary of a digital region into parameter space of slope and y-intercept...

  15. Digital Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Aytekin; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21st century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and …

  16. Physical meaning and prediction efficiency of the load/unload response ratio of rocks in strain-weakening phase before failure*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许昭永; 杨润海; 王彬; 赵晋明; 王赟赟; 梅世蓉

    2002-01-01

    Rock experiment results indicate that the load/unload response ratio (LURR) of rocks expressed via strain energy may have singular or negative value after the stress in the rock reaches its maximum before rock failure or when the rock goes into the strain-weakening phase. The universality of this phenomenon is discussed. Expressed via strain or strain energy and the travel time of P wave, the variation form of the reciprocal of LURR during the process of rock failure preparation is derived. The results show that after a sharp decrease the reciprocal of LURR reaches its minimum when the main fracture of the rock is about to appear. This feature can be taken as an indication that the rock main fracture is impending.

  17. A method for predicting the factor of safety of an infinite slope based on the depth ratio of the wetting front induced by rainfall infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, B.-G.; Lee, J.-H.; Park, H.-J.; Choi, J.

    2015-08-01

    Most landslides in Korea are classified as shallow landslides with an average depth of less than 2 m. These shallow landslides are associated with the advance of a wetting front in the unsaturated soil due to rainfall infiltration, which results in an increase in water content and a reduction in the matric suction in the soil. Therefore, this study presents a modified equation of infinite slope stability analysis based on the concept of the saturation depth ratio to analyze the slope stability change associated with the rainfall on a slope. A rainfall infiltration test in unsaturated soil was performed using a column to develop an understanding of the effect of the saturation depth ratio following rainfall infiltration. The results indicated that the rainfall infiltration velocity due to the increase in rainfall in the soil layer was faster when the rainfall intensity increased. In addition, the rainfall infiltration velocity tends to decrease with increases in the unit weight of soil. The proposed model was applied to assess its feasibility and to develop a regional landslide susceptibility map using a geographic information system (GIS). For that purpose, spatial databases for input parameters were constructed and landslide locations were obtained. In order to validate the proposed approach, the results of the proposed approach were compared with the landslide inventory using a ROC (receiver operating characteristics) graph. In addition, the results of the proposed approach were compared with the previous approach used: a steady-state hydrological model. Consequently, the approach proposed in this study displayed satisfactory performance in classifying landslide susceptibility and showed better performance than the steady-state approach.

  18. A method for predicting the factor of safety of an infinite slope based on the depth ratio of the wetting front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, B.-G.; Lee, J.-H.; Park, H.-J.; Choi, J.

    2015-01-01

    Most landslides in Korea are classified as shallow landslides with an average depth of less than 2 m. These shallow landslides are associated with the advance of a wetting front in the unsaturated soil due to rainfall infiltration, which results in an increase in water content and a reduction in the matric suction in the soil. Therefore, this study presents a modified equation of infinite slope stability analysis based on the concept of the saturation depth ratio to analyze the slope stability change associated with the rainfall on a slope. A rainfall infiltration test in unsaturated soil was performed using a column to develop an understanding of the effect of the saturation depth ratio following rainfall infiltration. The results indicated that the rainfall infiltration velocity due to the increase in rainfall in the soil layer was faster when the rainfall intensity increased. In addition, the rainfall infiltration velocity tends to decrease with increases in the unit weight of soil. The proposed model was applied to assess its feasibility and to develop a regional landslide susceptibility map using a Geographic Information System (GIS). For that purpose, the spatial databases for input parameters were constructed and landslide locations were obtained. In order to validate the proposed approach, the results of the proposed approach were compared with the landslide inventory using ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics) graph. In addition, the results of the proposed approach were compared with the previous approach used steady state hydrological model. Consequently, the approach proposed in this study displayed satisfactory performance in classifying landslide susceptibility and showed better performance than the steady state approach.

  19. CD4/CD8 ratio is not predictive of multi-morbidity prevalence in HIV-infected patients but identify patients with higher CVD risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Menozzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: CD4/CD8=2006. High CVD risk was defined for Framingham Risk Score (FRS≥6. Subclinical CVD was defined using cardiac CT scan for calcium score (CAC≥100. Logistic univariate and multivariable adjusted analysis were performed to assess relationships between variables. Results: Demographic and HIV-specific variables distribution in patients with and without MM are shown in Table 1. Figure 1 shows HANA distribution across CD4/CD8 strata: CVD prevalence only appeared to be higher in patients with no CD4/CD8>0.8.In multivariable analyses CD4/CD8<0.8 was not an independent predictor of MM (OR=1.225, CI 0.891; 1.681, p=0.211 after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. Patients with CD4/CD8<0.8 displayed higher CVD risk but not higher prevalence of subclinical CVD. At multivariable analyses CD4/CD8<0.8 remained predictor of higher CVD risk (OR=0.65, CI 0.47–0.917, p=0.014 after correction for sex, BMI, age strata and HIV infection duration. Conclusions: Low CD4/CD8 ratio was not associated with MM prevalence. Patients with CD4/CD8<0.8 ratio displayed higher prevalence of CVD. At multivariable logistic regression CD4/CD8<0.8 is an independent prepredictor of enhanced CVD risk. This may support role of immune-activation/senescence in the pathogenesis of CVD.

  20. Absolute Monocyte Count and Lymphocyte-Monocyte Ratio Predict Outcome in Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma: Evaluation Based on Data From 1450 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Tamar; Bari, Alessia; Marcheselli, Luigi; Sacchi, Stefano; Aviv, Ariel; Baldini, Luca; Gobbi, Paolo G; Pozzi, Samantha; Ferri, Paola; Cox, Maria Christina; Cascavilla, Nicola; Iannitto, Emilio; Federico, Massimo; Polliack, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    To verify whether absolute monocyte count (AMC) and lymphocyte- monocyte ratio (LMR) at diagnosis are valid prognostic parameters in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Data were collected from 1450 patients with cHL treated in Israel and Italy from January 1, 1988, through December 31, 2007. The median age of the patients was 33 years (range, 17-72 years), and 70% (1017) of the patients had nodular sclerosis (NS); the median follow-up duration was 87 months. The best cutoff value for AMC was 750 cells/mm(3), and the best ratio for LMR was 2.1. The adverse prognostic impact of an AMC of more than 750 cells/mm(3) was confirmed for the entire cohort, and its clinical significance was particularly evident in patients with NS histology. The progression-free survival (PFS) at 10 years for an AMC of more than 750 cells/mm(3) was 65% (56%-72%), and the PFS at 10 years for an AMC of 750 cells/mm(3) or less was 81% (76%-84%; PHR], 1.54, P=.006, and HR, 1.50, P=.006) after adjusting for the international prognostic score, whereas the impact on OS was confirmed (HR, 1.56; P=.04) only in patients with NS and an AMC of more than 750 cells/mm(3). This study confirms that AMC has prognostic value in cHL that is particularly significant in patients with NS subtype histology. This finding links the known impact of macrophages and monocytes in Hodgkin lymphoma with routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ratio of a strange quark mass ms to up or down quark mass mu,d predicted by a quark propagator in the framework of the chiral perturbation theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jin-Song; ZHOU Li-Juan; MENG Cheng-Ju; PAN Ji-Huan; MA Wei-Xing; YUAN Tong-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Based on the fully dressed quark propagator and chiral perturbation theory,we study the ratio of the strange quark mass ms to up or down quark mass mu,d.The ratio is related to the determination of quark masses which are fundamental input parameters of QCD Lagrangian in the Standard Model of particle physics and can not be directly measured since the quark is confined within a hadron.An accurate determination of these QCD free parameters is extremely important for both phenomenological and theoretical applications.We begin with a brief introduction to the non-perturbation QCD theory,and then study the mass ratio in the framework of the chiral perturbation theory (xPT) with a parameterized fully dressed quark propagator which describes confining fully dressed quark propagation and is analytic everywhere in the finite complex p2-plane and has no Lehmann representation so there are no quark production thresholds in any theoretical calculations of observable data.Our prediction for the ratio ms/mu,d is consistent with other model predictions such as Lattice QCD,instanton model,QCD sum rules and the empirical values used widely in the literature.As a by-product of this study,our theoretical results,together with other predictions of physical quantities that used this quark propagator in our previous publications,clearly show that the parameterized form of the fully dressed quark propagator is an applicable and reliable approximation to the solution of the Dyson-Schwinger Equation of quark propagator in the QCD.

  2. Introduction to digital mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Akaiwa, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduces digital mobile communications with an emphasis on digital transmission methods This book presents mathematical analyses of signals, mobile radio channels, and digital modulation methods. The new edition covers the evolution of wireless communications technologies and systems. The major new topics are OFDM (orthogonal frequency domain multiplexing), MIMO (multi-input multi-output) systems, frequency-domain equalization, the turbo codes, LDPC (low density parity check code), ACELP (algebraic code excited linear predictive) voice coding, dynamic scheduling for wireless packet data t

  3. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  4. Digital subtraktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder

    2004-01-01

    Digital subtraktion er en metode til at fjerne uønskede oplysninger i et røntgenbillede. Subtraktionsteknikken bruges primært i forbindelse med angiografi hvor man kun er interesseret i at se selve karret. Derfor er digital subtraktion i daglig tale synonymt med DSA eller DVI – hhv. Digital...... Subtraction Angiography eller Digital Vascular Imaging. Benævnelserne er to røntgenfirmaers navn for den samme teknik. Digital subtraktion kræver speciel software, samt at apparaturet kan eksponere i serier....

  5. Percutaneous permeation of enantiomers and racemates of chiral drugs and prediction of their flux ratios using thermal data: a pharmaceutical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afouna, Mohsen I; Fincher, Timothy K; Khan, Mansoor A; Reddy, Indra K

    2003-05-15

    Albeit pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological differences between enantiomeric pairs or between the pure enantiomers and racemate of chiral drugs are known to exist for decades, we are just beginning to realize that there are apparent differences between these species with respect to their percutaneous permeation as well. Such differences in permeation are likely to be enhanced when chiral drugs are formulated with chiral excipients, necessitating a careful assessment of the effect of formulation excipients on the permeation as well as the overall therapeutic outcomes. The in vitro transport data from the preclinical investigations, using laboratory animal models and/or in vitro cell culture systems, must be carefully validated in vivo as there are differences between these models and the human skin. Mathematical models such as MTMT that utilize the interdependence of certain physicochemical characteristics and percutaneous permeability have a predictive value in assessing the flux behavior of enantiomers and racemates.

  6. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  7. Elevated preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio can predict poor survival in early stage gastric cancer patients receiving radical gastrectomy: The Fujian prospective investigation of cancer (FIESTA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan; Zhang, Hejun; Lin, Xiandong; Chen, Gang; Li, Chao; Liang, Binying; Chen, Yan; Cui, Zhaolei; Peng, Feng; Zheng, Xiongwei; Niu, Wenquan

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This cohort study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic impact of blood-routine parameters before radical gastrectomy on gastric cancer mortality. Methods: Total 3012 patients with gastric cancer were consecutively enrolled from a mono-center between 2000 and 2010, and the latest follow-up was completed in 2015. Results: The median follow-up time was 44.05 months. Finally, 1331 out of 3012 gastric cancer patients died from gastric cancer. Per standard deviation increment in neutrophil (hazard ratio or HR=1.08, P2.61 with ≤2.61 and NLR>1.87 with ≤1.87 were respectively associated with a 5.21-fold (P=0.004) and 2.36-fold (P=0.001) increased risk of gastric cancer mortality. The effect-size magnitude of NLR was further potentiated in patients with invasion depth T1/T2 (HR=1.73, P=0.001), regional lymph node metastasis N0 (HR=1.60, P<0.001), TNM stage I/II (HR=1.36, P=0.009) and tumor size ≤ 4.5 cm (HR=1.17, P<0.001). Conclusions: Our findings consolidated the prognostic impact of preoperative NLR on gastric mortality, and demonstrated that elevated preoperative NLR was a robust indicator of poor survival in patients at early stage.

  8. Assessing the Predictive Power of Customer Satisfaction for Financial and Market Performances: Price-to-Earnings Ratio is a Better Predictor Overall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Rostan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our paper shows that based on the RMSE criteria, Price-to-Earnings ratio is a better predictor of financial and market performances of the firm than the Customer Satisfaction index (CS. This conclusion is based on the choice of five financial and seven market indicators that we consider as proxies for financial and market performances with a sample comprising eighty-six companies: Book value, dividend yield, Gross Profit Margin, Price to Cash-Flows, Price-to-Earnings, Price to Sales, Annual return, ROA, ROE, ROI, Volatility and Tobin’s Q. However, CS clearly outperforms our five benchmarks (Tobin’s Q, Price-to-Cash Flows, Price-to-Earnings, Volatility or the indicator itself when forecasting Tobin’s Q, Volatility, ROE and ROI. In periods of volatile market such as year 2008, CS is a more stable predictor of Volatility or ROE than the indicators themselves (i.e. Volatility for Volatility, ROE for ROE.

  9. An Elevated Peripheral Blood Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Primary Pulmonary Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    Full Text Available Primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC is a rare type of non-small cell lung cancer. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the data from 74 consecutive patients with pulmonary LELC and investigated the prognostic value of pretreatment monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR. The cut-off value determined by ROC curve for MLR was 0.262. According to this cut-off value, 36 (48.6% patients had lower MLR value ( = 0.262 were significantly associated with poor OS and PFS. In a multivariate Cox regression model that included stage, LDH and MLR level, all of these three factors were found to be independent prognostic factors for both PFS and OS. In patients who received radical surgery, MLR level remained significantly correlated with OS and PFS. In conclusion, we firstly demonstrated that pretreatment MLR can be used as a useful independent prognostic marker in patients with pulmonary LELC, and might guide us to optimize the treatment strategies. However, due to the relatively rarity of this disease and the limitation of a retrospective study, further prospective studies performed in multicenter are necessary to validate the prognostic value of MLR in pulmonary LELC.

  10. Ratio between maximum standardized uptake value of N1 lymph nodes and tumor predicts N2 disease in patients with non-small cell lung cancer in 18F-FDG PET-CT scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honguero Martínez, A F; García Jiménez, M D; García Vicente, A; López-Torres Hidalgo, J; Colon, M J; van Gómez López, O; Soriano Castrejón, Á M; León Atance, P

    2016-01-01

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose integrated PET-CT scan is commonly used in the work-up of lung cancer to improve preoperative disease stage. The aim of the study was to analyze the ratio between SUVmax of N1 lymph nodes and primary lung cancer to establish prediction of mediastinal disease (N2) in patients operated on non-small cell lung cancer. This is a retrospective study of a prospective database. Patients operated on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with N1 disease by PET-CT scan were included. None of them had previous induction treatment, but they underwent standard surgical resection plus systematic lymphadenectomy. There were 51 patients with FDG-PET-CT scan N1 disease. 44 (86.3%) patients were male with a mean age of 64.1±10.8 years. Type of resection: pneumonectomy=4 (7.9%), lobectomy/bilobectomy=44 (86.2%), segmentectomy=3 (5.9%). adenocarcinoma=26 (51.0%), squamous=23 (45.1%), adenosquamous=2 (3.9%). Lymph nodes after surgical resection: N0=21 (41.2%), N1=12 (23.5%), N2=18 (35.3%). Mean ratio of the SUVmax of N1 lymph node to the SUVmax of the primary lung tumor (SUVmax N1/T ratio) was 0.60 (range 0.08-2.80). ROC curve analysis to obtain the optimal cut-off value of SUVmax N1/T ratio to predict N2 disease was performed. At multivariate analysis, we found that a ratio of 0.46 or greater was an independent predictor factor of N2 mediastinal lymph node metastases with a sensitivity and specificity of 77.8% and 69.7%, respectively. SUVmax N1/T ratio in NSCLC patients correlates with mediastinal lymph node metastasis (N2 disease) after surgical resection. When SUVmax N1/T ratio on integrated PET-CT scan is equal or superior to 0.46, special attention should be paid on higher probability of N2 disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictions for Boson-Jet Observables and Fragmentation Function Ratios from a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We have previously introduced a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jet quenching in heavy ion collisions that describes the production and fragmentation of jets at weak coupling, using PYTHIA, and describes the rate at which each parton in the jet shower loses energy as it propagates through the strongly coupled plasma, dE/dx, using an expression computed holographically at strong coupling. The model has a single free parameter that we fit to a single experimental measurement. We then confront our model with experimental data on many other jet observables, focusing here on boson-jet observables, finding that it provides a good description of present jet data. Next, we provide the predictions of our hybrid model for many measurements to come, including those for inclusive jet, dijet, photon-jet and Z-jet observables in heavy ion collisions with energy $\\sqrt{s}=5.02$ ATeV coming soon at the LHC. As the statistical uncertainties on near-future measurements of photon-jet observables are expected to be much sm...

  12. Concentration of apolipoprotein B is comparable with the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio and better than routine clinical lipid measurements in predicting coronary heart disease mortality: findings from a multi-ethnic US population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Fisher, Rachel M.; Romero-Corral, Abel; Somers, Virend K.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Öhrvik, John; Walldius, Göran; Hellenius, Mai-Lis; Hamsten, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Aims Prospective studies indicate that apolipoprotein measurements predict coronary heart disease (CHD) risk; however, evidence is conflicting, especially in the US. Our aim was to assess whether measurements of apolipoprotein B (apoB) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) can improve the ability to predict CHD death beyond what is possible based on traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and clinical routine lipid measurements. Methods and results We analysed prospectively associations of apolipoprotein measurements, traditional CV risk factors, and clinical routine lipid measurements with CHD mortality in a multi-ethnic representative subset of 7594 US adults (mean age 45 years; 3881 men and 3713 women, median follow-up 124 person-months) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey mortality study. Multiple Cox-proportional hazards regression was applied. There were 673 CV deaths of which 432 were from CHD. Concentrations of apoB [hazard ratio (HR) 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–3.61], apoA-I (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.27–0.85) and total cholesterol (TC) (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02–1.34) were significantly related to CHD death, whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.45–1.05) was borderline significant. Both the apoB/apoA-I ratio (HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.11–4.10) and the TC/HDL-C ratio (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16) were related to CHD death. Only apoB (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.05–3.86) and the apoB/apoA-I ratio (HR 2.09, 95% CI 1.04–4.19) remained significantly associated with CHD death after adjusting for CV risk factors. Conclusion In the US population, apolipoprotein measurements significantly predict CHD death, independently of conventional lipids and other CV risk factors (smoking, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity, diabetes and C-reactive protein). Furthermore, the predictive ability of apoB alone to detect CHD death was better than any of the routine clinical lipid measurements. Inclusion of apolipoprotein

  13. Digital Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark

    , by incorporating media as both channel, frame, and apparatus for advertising response, the dissertation brings into attention that more aspects than the text-reader relationship influence ad response. Finally, the dissertation proposes the assemblage approach for exploring big data in consumer culture research......This dissertation forwards the theory of digital consumer-response as a perspective to examine how digital media practices influence consumers’ response to advertising. Digital consumer-response is a development of advertising theory that encompasses how consumers employ their knowledge...... and practices with digital media, when they meet and interpret advertising. Through studies of advertising response on YouTube and experiments with consumers’ response to digitally manipulated images, the dissertation shows how digital media practices facilitate polysemic and socially embedded advertising...

  14. Optimal V̇O2max-to-mass ratio for predicting 15 km performance among elite male cross-country skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsson T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomas Carlsson,1,2 Magnus Carlsson,1,2 Daniel Hammarström,3 Bent R Rønnestad,3 Christer B Malm,2 Michail Tonkonogi1 1School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, 2Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 3The Lillehammer Research Center for Medicine and Exercise Physiology, Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway Abstract: The aim of this study was 1 to validate the 0.5 body-mass exponent for maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max as the optimal predictor of performance in a 15 km classical-technique skiing competition among elite male cross-country skiers and 2 to evaluate the influence of distance covered on the body-mass exponent for V̇O2max among elite male skiers. Twenty-four elite male skiers (age: 21.4±3.3 years [mean ± standard deviation] completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine their V̇O2max. Performance data were collected from a 15 km classical-technique cross-country skiing competition performed on a 5 km course. Power-function modeling (ie, an allometric scaling approach was used to establish the optimal body-mass exponent for V̇O2max to predict the skiing performance. The optimal power-function models were found to be race speed = 8.83 • (V̇O2max m-0.530.66 and lap speed = 5.89 • (V̇O2max m-(0.49+0.018lap0.43e0.010age, which explained 69% and 81% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. All the variables contributed to the models. Based on the validation results, it may be recommended that V̇O2max divided by the square root of body mass (mL • min-1 • kg-0.5 should be used when elite male skiers’ performance capability in 15 km classical-technique races is evaluated. Moreover, the body-mass exponent for V̇O2max was demonstrated to be influenced by the distance covered, indicating that heavier skiers have a more pronounced positive pacing profile (ie, race speed gradually decreasing throughout the race compared to that of lighter

  15. Digital Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Ψευτέλης, Αθανάσιος Δημήτρης

    2013-01-01

    A reprint from American Scientist the magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society Since the 1980s, computers have had increasing roles in all aspects of human life—including an involvement in criminal acts. This development has led to the rise of digital forensics, the uncovering and examination of evidence located on all things electronic with digital storage, including computers, cell phones, and networks. Digital forensics researchers and practitione...

  16. Measurement of Nutritional Status Using Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Hip Ratio, and Waist Circumference to Predict Treatment Outcome in Females and Males with Acute First-Ever Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembenek, Jan Paweł; Karlinski, Michał; Niewada, Maciej; Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Iwona; Członkowska, Anna

    2017-09-08

    We aimed to investigate whether increased waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), or improper body mass index (BMI) may differently predict short-term outcomes in females and males with first-ever acute ischemic stroke. This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients (1109 females and 939 males) admitted for first-ever ischemic stroke between 2003 and 2015. Data were collected in a detailed hospital stroke registry. BMI of 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) and gender-specific normal values of WHC and WC were used as references for comparisons. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of in-hospital death or being dead or dependent at discharge, adjusted for patients' age and prestroke disability. In both sexes a high WHR increased the odds of death or dependency at discharge (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-3.08 for females and 1.43; 95% CI, 1.00-2.04 for males), but not in-hospital death alone. Increased WC was significantly associated with lower odds of either death or death and dependency at discharge in females only (OR, .36; 95% CI, .22-.58 and .69; 95% CI, .48-.97, respectively). BMI did not show any clear predictive value in either sex. Our findings suggest that being overweight measured with WC is a strong predictor of good outcome in women but not in men. The WHR less consistently predicts stroke outcome, as it is not associated with death at discharge alone; however, the WHR seems to be of similar clinical relevance in both genders. BMI seems to have the least clinical value in predicting stroke outcome in both genders. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The absolute lymphocyte/monocyte ratio recovery during ABVD treatment cycles is not significantly impacted by the use of myeloid growth factors and predicts clinical outcomes in classical Hodgkin lymphoma regardless of their use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufman GP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gregory P Kaufman,1 Kay M Ristow,1,2 Svetomir N Markovic,1,2 Luis F Porrata1,2 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Risk stratification of patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL remains suboptimal. The ratio of the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC to absolute monocyte count (AMC both at diagnosis and during subsequent recovery from serial cycles of chemotherapy predicts survival in cHL, and possesses advantages over other commonly used prognostic markers. Myeloid growth factors (MGFs, while not strongly recommended for use in adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD treatment cycles, are not uncommonly used to prevent the negative consequences of neutropenia. The effect that MGFs have on the ALC/AMC ratio during ABVD treatment cycles, if any, remains unclear. We retrospectively evaluated 208 patients with cHL, who were diagnosed, treated, and followed at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 1990 and 2014, and who had quantifiable records for the use of MGFs during ABVD treatment cycles. Having an ALC/AMC ratio <1.1 during all treatment cycles was confirmed as being a negative predictor of overall and progression free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03–0.14 and HR 0.08, 95% CI 0.04–0.17, respectively. Data on both the ALC/AMC ratio and use of MGFs were available for 1,979 half treatment cycles. When stratified to whether or not MGFs were given, the change in the ALC/AMC ratio as compared to the prior half cycle was found to be statistically insignificant (P=0.3445. No survival advantage was found with the administration of MGFs in any cycle of therapy (log rank P=0.5713. Our data validate the prognostic significance of having an ALC/AMC ratio of ≥1.1 regardless of the use of MGFs. Keywords: myeloid growth factors, classical Hodgkin lymphoma, survival ALC/AMC ratio, ABVD chemotherapy

  18. Digital printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Werner K.

    1997-02-01

    Digital printing is described as a tool to replace conventional printing machines completely. Still this goal was not reached until now with any of the digital printing technologies to be described in the paper. Productivity and costs are still the main parameters and are not really solved until now. Quality in digital printing is no problem anymore. Definition of digital printing is to transfer digital datas directly on the paper surface. This step can be carried out directly or with the use of an intermediate image carrier. Keywords in digital printing are: computer- to-press; erasable image carrier; image carrier with memory. Digital printing is also the logical development of the new digital area as it is pointed out in Nicholas Negropotes book 'Being Digital' and also the answer to networking and Internet technologies. Creating images text and color in one country and publishing the datas in another country or continent is the main advantage. Printing on demand another big advantage and last but not least personalization the last big advantage. Costs and being able to coop with this new world of prepress technology is the biggest disadvantage. Therefore the very optimistic growth rates for the next few years are really nonexistent. The development of complete new markets is too slow and the replacing of old markets is too small.

  19. Digital displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2014-01-01

    In recent years digital reforms are being introduced in the municipal landscape of Denmark. The reforms address the interaction between citizen and local authority. The aim is, that by 2015 at least 80 per cent of all correspondence between citizens and public authority will be transmitted through...... digital interface. However, the transformation of citizen services from traditional face-to-face interaction to digital self-service gives rise to new practices; some citizens need support to be able to manage self-service through digital tools. A mixture of support and teaching, named co...

  20. An Open-Source Building System with Digitally Fabricated Components: A design- and production process that makes optimal use of the predicted next industrial revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutjesdijk, P.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    With digital fabrication, our hardware is starting to bear greater resemblance to software. This paper explores the potential of processes used in the development of open-source software for the field of Architecture. The developed design process is connected to a building system that provides new i

  1. Digital Libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Papy, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Of vital interest to all librarians and information specialists, this book presents all aspects of the effects of digitization of today's and tomorrow's libraries. From social to technical issues, Digital Libraries includes chapters on the growth of the role of librarian, the reader experience, cataloging, search engines, OPAC, law, ergonomic studies, and the future of libraries.

  2. Digital Audiobooks:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben; Pedersen, Birgitte Stougaard

    Audiobooks are rapidly gaining popularity with widely accessible digital downloading and streaming services. The paper is framing how the digital audiobook expands and changes the target groups for book publications and how it as an everyday activity is creating new reading experiences, places...

  3. Pre-treatment serum levels of interleukin-10, interleukin-12 and their ratio predict response to therapy and probability of event-free and overall survival in childhood soft tissue sarcomas, Hodgkin's lymphomas and acute lymphoblastic leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Ewa; Balcerska, Anna; Adamkiewicz-Drozynska, Elzbieta; Rapala, Malgorzata; Krawczyk, Malgorzata; Stepinski, Jan

    2009-07-01

    Deregulated serum IL-10, IL-12 and their reciprocal balance have been stated in malignancies of adults. In children with cancer the issue has not been investigated so far. To determine the diagnostic and prognostic roles of pre-treatment serum levels of IL-10 (Th2 cytokine), IL-12 (Th1) and their ratios (measured by the IL-10 and IL-12p70 ELISA kits; Endogen) in 91 children with soft tissue sarcomas (STS), Hodgkin's lymphomas (HL) and acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL). Median IL-10 and IL-12 levels were significantly higher in cancer patients than in healthy controls. Increased IL-10 indicated presence of general symptoms in HL and high risk group in ALL. Elevated IL-10 and IL-10/IL-12 ratios and decreased IL-12 correlated with poor-risk histology in STS, poor response to therapy, relapse and death from cancer. Multivariate analysis identified IL-10/IL-12 ratio>0.14 and IL-12<40 pg/mL as significant predictors for shorter EFS and OS, respectively. Pre-treatment serum levels of IL-10, IL-12 and IL-10/IL-12 balance in children with STS, HL and ALL may be of value as additional prognostic tools to predict the response to therapy and probability of EFS and OS.

  4. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  5. The Th17/Treg ratio, IL-1RA and sCD14 levels in primary HIV infection predict the T-cell activation set point in the absence of systemic microbial translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu F Chevalier

    Full Text Available Impairment of the intestinal barrier and subsequent microbial translocation (MT may be involved in chronic immune activation, which plays a central role in HIV pathogenesis. Th17 cells are critical to prevent MT. The aim of the study was to investigate, in patients with primary HIV infection (PHI, the early relationship between the Th17/Treg ratio, monocyte activation and MT and their impact on the T-cell activation set point, which is known to predict disease progression. 27 patients with early PHI were included in a prospective longitudinal study and followed-up for 6 months. At baseline, the Th17/Treg ratio strongly negatively correlated with the proportion of activated CD8 T cells expressing CD38/HLA-DR or Ki-67. Also, the Th17/Treg ratio was negatively related to viral load and plasma levels of sCD14 and IL-1RA, two markers of monocyte activation. In untreated patients, the Th17/Treg ratio at baseline negatively correlated with CD8 T-cell activation at month 6 defining the T-cell activation set point (% HLA-DR(+CD38(+ and %Ki-67(+. Soluble CD14 and IL-1RA plasma levels also predicted the T-cell activation set point. Levels of I-FABP, a marker of mucosal damages, were similar to healthy controls at baseline but increased at month 6. No decrease in anti-endotoxin core antibody (EndoCAb and no peptidoglycan were detected during PHI. In addition, 16S rDNA was only detected at low levels in 2 out 27 patients at baseline and in one additional patient at M6. Altogether, data support the hypothesis that T-cell and monocyte activation in PHI are not primarily driven by systemic MT but rather by viral replication. Moreover, the "innate immune set point" defined by the early levels of sCD14 and IL-1RA might be powerful early surrogate markers for disease progression and should be considered for use in clinical practice.

  6. Digital Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zupancic, Tadeja; Verbeke, Johan; Achten, Henri

    2016-01-01

    . With this paper we intend to initiate a discussion in the eCAADe community to reflect and develop ideas in order to develop digital leadership skills amongst the membership. This paper introduces some important aspects, which may be valuable to look into when developing digital leadership skills.......Leadership is an important quality in organisations. Leadership is needed to introduce change and innovation. In our opinion, in architectural and design practices, the role of leadership has not yet been sufficiently studied, especially when it comes to the role of digital tools and media...

  7. Digital holography

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a substantial description of the principles and applications of digital holography.The first part of the book deals with mathematical basics and the linear filtering theory necessary to approach the topic. The next part describes the fundamentals of diffraction theory and exhaustively details the numerical computation of diffracted fields using FFT algorithms. A thorough presentation of the principles of holography and digital holography, including digital color holography, is proposed in the third part.A special section is devoted to the algorithms and method

  8. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  9. DIGITAL ASSESSMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard; Petersen, Lise

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with The Danish eGOVERNMENT strategy 2011-2015 digital assessment and exam should be implemented at all Danish universities by the end of 2013. University of Southern Denmark (SDU) decided to start the implementation in May 2010.By the exam term of January 2013, the implementation proved successful, and close to completion. The majority of assessments at all of the 5 faculties and 5 campuses were digital, and students had handed in a total of 17.021 digital assessments.On the ba...

  10. Digital Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zupancic, Tadeja; Verbeke, Johan; Achten, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Leadership is an important quality in organisations. Leadership is needed to introduce change and innovation. In our opinion, in architectural and design practices, the role of leadership has not yet been sufficiently studied, especially when it comes to the role of digital tools and media....... With this paper we intend to initiate a discussion in the eCAADe community to reflect and develop ideas in order to develop digital leadership skills amongst the membership. This paper introduces some important aspects, which may be valuable to look into when developing digital leadership skills....

  11. Digital Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark

    and practices with digital media, when they meet and interpret advertising. Through studies of advertising response on YouTube and experiments with consumers’ response to digitally manipulated images, the dissertation shows how digital media practices facilitate polysemic and socially embedded advertising......, by incorporating media as both channel, frame, and apparatus for advertising response, the dissertation brings into attention that more aspects than the text-reader relationship influence ad response. Finally, the dissertation proposes the assemblage approach for exploring big data in consumer culture research...

  12. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  13. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    the humanities for decades, starting with research fields such as humanities computing or computational linguistics in the 1950s, and later new media studies and internet studies. The historical development of digital humanities has been characterized by a focus on three successive, but co-existing types......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting......, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within...

  14. Digital Snaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbye, Mette; Larsen, Jonas

    The New Face of Snapshot Photography / Jonas Larsen and Mette Sandbye -- pt. I. IMAGES ON WEB 2.0 AND THE CAMERA PHONE -- ch. 1. Overlooking, Rarely Looking and Not Looking / Martin Lister -- ch. 2. The (Im)mobile Life of Digital Photographs: The Case of Tourist Photography / Jonas Larsen -- ch. 3....... Distance as the New Punctum / Mikko Villi -- pt. II. FAMILY ALBUMS IN TRANSITION -- ch. 4. How Digital Technologies Do Family Snaps, Only Better / Gillian Rose -- ch. 5. Friendship Photography: Memory, Mobility and Social Networking / Joanne Garde-Hansen -- ch. 6. Play, Process and Materiality in Japanese...... Purikura Photography / Mette Sandbye -- ch. 7. 'Buying an Instrument Does Not Necessarily Make You a Musician': Studio Photography and the Digital Revolution / Sigrid Lien -- pt. III. NEW PUBLIC FORMS -- ch. 8 Paparazzi Photography, Seriality and the Digital Photo Archive / Anne Jerslev and Mette Mortensen...

  15. Becoming digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of e-government reforms on street-level bureaucrats’ professionalism and relation to citizens, thus demonstrating how the bureaucratic encounter unfolds in the digital era. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on an ethnographic study....... An ethnographic account of how digital reforms are implemented in practice shows how street-level bureaucrat’s classic tasks such as specialized casework are being reconfigured into educational tasks that promote the idea of “becoming digital”. In the paper, the author argues that the work of “becoming digital....... Originality/value: The study contributes to ethnographic research in public administration by combining two separate subfields, e-government and street-level bureaucracy, to discern recent transformations in public service delivery. In the digital era, tasks, control and equality are distributed in ways...

  16. Digital Information and Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital information changes the ways in which people and organisations interact. This paper examines the nature of this change in the context of the author’s Model for Information (MfI. It investigates the relationship between outcomes and value, selection processes and some attributes of information and explores how this relationship changes in the move from analogue to digital information. Selection processes shape the evolution of information ecosystems in which conventions are established for the ways in which information is used. The conventions determine norms for information friction and information quality as well as the sources of information and channels used. Digital information reduces information friction, often dramatically, and changes information quality. The increasing use of analytics in business increasingly delivers predictive or prescriptive digital information. These changes are happening faster than information ecosystem conventions can change. The relationships established in the paper enable an analysis of, and guide changes to, these conventions enabling a more effective use of digital information.

  17. Digital Steganography

    OpenAIRE

    KOCIÁNOVÁ, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Digital steganography is a technique for hiding data mostly into multimedia files (images, audio, video). With the development of information technology this technique has found its use in the field of copyright protection and secret data transfer, could be even applied in places where is limited possibility of using cryptography (e. g. by law). This thesis gives insight into digital steganography and contains an application using this technique.

  18. Digital watermark

    OpenAIRE

    Jasna Maver

    2004-01-01

    The huge amount of multimedia contents available on the World-Wide-Web is beginning to raise the question of their protection. Digital watermarking is a technique which can serve various purposes, including intellectual property protection, authentication and integrity verification, as well as visible or invisible content labelling of multimedia content. Due to the diversity of digital watermarking applicability, there are many different techniques, which can be categorised according to diffe...

  19. High BAX/BCL2 mRNA ratio predicts favorable prognosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, particularly in patients with negative lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakis, Aris I; Kontos, Christos K; Manolopoulos, Leonidas D; Sismanis, Aristides; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M; Scorilas, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), a common type of head and neck cancer, is associated with high rates of metastasis and recurrence. Therefore, accurate prognostic stratification of LSCC patients based on molecular prognostic tumor biomarkers would definitely lead to a better clinical management of this malignancy. The aim of this study was the investigation of the potential combinatorial prognostic value of BCL2 and BAX mRNA expression in LSCC. Total RNA was isolated from 105 cancerous laryngeal tissue specimens obtained from patients having undergone surgical treatment for primary LSCC. After cDNA preparation, a low-cost, in-house developed, sensitive and accurate real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) methodology was applied for the quantification of BCL2 and BAX mRNA levels. Then, we carried out a biostatistical analysis to assess the prognostic value of the BAX/BCL2 mRNA expression ratio. High BAX/BCL2 mRNA expression constitutes a favorable prognosticator in LSCC, predicting significantly longer disease-free survival (P=0.011) and overall survival (P=0.014) of patients. More importantly, the significant prognostic value of the BAX/BCL2 mRNA expression appeared to be independent of the histological grade and size of the malignant laryngeal tumor as well as TNM stage, as revealed by the multivariate bootstrap Cox regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated also that the BAX/BCL2 ratio can stratify node-negative (N0) LSCC patients into two subgroups with significantly different DFS and OS (P=0.021 and P=0.009, respectively). The BAX/BCL2 mRNA ratio is a putative molecular tissue biomarker in CLL and hence deserves further validation in larger cohorts of LSCC patients. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimal cut-off point of waist-to-height ratio for predicting metabolic syndrome%腰围身高比预测代谢综合征的切点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建家; 张雅萍; 林振忠; 牟伦盼; 孙炳庆; 苏劲波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between waist-to-height ratio and metabolic syndrome,in order to identify the optimal cut-off point of waist-to-height ratio for predicting metabolic syndrome.Methods In this cross-sectional study,we recruited 343 people who received physical examination in First Hospital of Quanzhou between January 2012 and June 2014,and collected the information of their waist circumference,height,weight,blood pressure,laboratory test results (including fasting blood glucose,2-hour glucose after oral glucose tolerance test,triglyceride,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and visceral fat area assessed by computed tomography.Then a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to estimate the optimal cut-off points of waist-to-height ratio for the prediction of metabolic syndrome.Results Among the 343 people,there were 195 metabolic syndrome patients,the prevalence rate was 56.8%,which was 70.2% in men (127/181) and 42.0% in women (68/162).In ROC curve analysis,the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio for the prediction of metabolic syndrome was 0.664 for men,and 0.673 for women.The optimal cut-off point of waist-to-height ratio for predicting metabolic syndrome was 0.543 0 (sensitivity 88.2%,specificity 44.4%) for men,and 0.568 3 (sensitivity 86.8%,specificity 46.8%).Conclusion The optimal cut-off point of waist-to-height ratio for predicting metabolic syndrome in Quanzhou population is 0.543 0 for men and 0.568 3 for women.%目的 研究腰围身高比与代谢综合征的关系,寻找腰围身高比预测代谢综合征的最佳切