WorldWideScience

Sample records for diffractometers

  1. Powder neutron diffractometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2002-01-01

    Basic properties and applications of powder neutron Diffractometers are described for optimum use of the continuous neutron beams. These instruments are equipped with position sensitive detectors, neutron guide tubes, and both high intensity and high resolution modes of operation are possible .The principles of both direct and Fourier reverse time-of-flight neutron Diffractometers are also given

  2. Neutron Diffractometer; Neutronski difraktometar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zivadinovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    RA nuclear reactor is considered as a relatively strong neutron source producing the thermal neutron flux of about 3x10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} sec when operating at nominal power of 6.5 MW. Neutron diffraction method is applied in the field of solid state physics, material science, crystallography, magnetism, nuclear physic. Neutron diffractometer at the RA reactor consists of: system for obtaining collimated neutron beam from the horizontal experimental channel neutron monochromator; goniometer and electronic equipment for measurements and collecting the the measurement data. Nuklearni reaktor RA koji pri radu na snazi od 6,5 MW ima fluks termalnih neutrona oko 3x10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} sec predstavlja relativno jak izvor neutrona. Tehnika difrakcije neutrona primenjuje se u istrazivanjima fizike crvstog stanja, strukture materijala, kristalografije, magnetizma, nuklearne fizike. Neutronski difraktometar na reaktoru RA sastoji se od sistema za dobijanje kolimisanog snopa neutrona kroz horizontalni kanal reaktora; neutroskog monohromatora; goniometra i elektronskih uredjaja za merenja i registrovanje rezultata. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljan opis i seme neutronskog difraktometra sa pratecom opremom i elektronskim komponentama.

  3. Multiwire area x-ray diffractometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlin, R.

    1985-01-01

    The multiwire proportional counter is at this writing the only type of two-dimensional position-sensitive X-ray detector capable of collecting diffraction data accurate enough for solution of new protein structures. The first diffractometer system to use this type of detector (the Mark I diffractometer system) was assembled at the University of California, San Diego and has collected the data used to solve for four new protein structures. Similar diffractometer systems using a single thin, flat multiwire counter are now being constructed in several other laboratories around the world, and several of these should routinely be collecting good diffraction data from protein and perhaps even virus crystals by 1986. A table describing some of these other systems is included later in this chapter. The next step in the evolution of area diffractometer systems based on the multiwire proportional counter is more complete coverage of the solid angle of the diffraction pattern - more complete than the 10 - 40% coverage possible with one flat multiwire counter. The phenomenon called ''parallax'' makes it impractical to intercept the whole diffraction pattern with one flat, xenon-filled multiwire counter. Two strategies for dealing with parallax are now being pursued. One strategy involves adding a spherical drift region to the front of a flat multiwire counter and a detector using this idea will be described. The other strategy, one being pursued by the author, involves building an array of flat detectors arranged to approximate a section of the surface of a sphere. The array of flat detectors gives more flexibility in crystal-to-detector distance and distributes the dead time over many detectors, thereby allowing the full array to have a high counting rate capacity even using only medium speed (2 μsec) position readout circuits for each individual detector

  4. Instrumentation of a manually programmed neutron diffractometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.B.; Neisig, K.E.

    1966-01-01

    This paper describes essentially the digital part of the instrumentation for a neutron diffractometer in which the measuring procedure is governed by a control unit involving a fixed number of program points. A simultaneously running test program monitors the information transfer from the data...... sources and to the print-out in table form. The experimental conditions must be set by a panel switch selected program, which allows a desired parameter program to be executed....

  5. IBARAKI materials design diffractometer (iMATERIA)-Versatile neutron diffractometer at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, T.; Hoshikawa, A.; Yonemura, M.; Morishima, T.; Kamiyama, T.; Oishi, R.; Aizawa, K.; Sakuma, T.; Tomota, Y.; Arai, M.; Hayashi, M.; Ebata, K.; Takano, Y.; Komatsuzaki, K.; Asano, H.; Takano, Y.; Kasao, T.

    2009-01-01

    Ibaraki prefecture, the local government of the area for J-PARC site, was decided to build a versatile neutron diffractometer (IBARAKI Materials Design Diffractometer, iMATERIA) to promote an industrial application for neutron beam in J-PARC. iMATERIA is planned to be a high throughput diffractometer so that materials engineers and scientists can use it like the chemical analytical instruments in their materials development process. It covers in d range 0.18< d (A)<5 with Δd/d=0.16% at high resolution bank, and covers 5< d (A)<800 with gradually changing resolution at three detector bank (90 deg., low angle and small angle). Typical measuring time to obtain a 'Rietveld-quality' data is several minutes with the sample size of laboratory X-ray diffractometer. To promote industrial application, a utilization system for this diffractometer is required. We will establish a support system for both academic and industrial users who are willing to use neutron but have not been familiar with neutron diffraction. The analysis software is also very important for powder diffraction, we will also prepare a software package consisting of combination of several powder-diffraction software, structural databases and visualization. The construction of iMATERIA will be completed in the end of April 2008, as one of day-one instruments for J-PARC.

  6. High-resolution diffractometer MINI-SFINKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunov, W.A.; Kudryaschev, W.A.; Uljanov, W.A.; Bulkin, A.P.; Muratov, W.G.; Korotkova, T.K.; Schebetov, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical principles of the RTOF (reverse time-of-flight) method as well as the basic equations, the optimization of the neutron guides with Fourier chopper and the time-focussing detector setup are outlined. The powder diffractometer is described and some experimental results are given. The report was used as conceptual design basis for the FSS spectrometer at FRG-1 (GKSS Research Center) which has been optimized for non-destructive determination of residual stress. (orig.) With 18 figs., 3 tabs [de

  7. Powder neutron diffractometers HRPT and DMCG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P; Doenni, A; Staub, U; Zolliker, M [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Basic properties and applications of SINQ powder neutron diffractometers are described. For optimum use of the continuous neutron beams these instruments are equipped with position sensitive detectors, and both high-intensity and high-resolution modes of operation are possible. HRPT attaining resolutions {delta}d/d{<=}10{sup -3}, d=lattice spacing, at a thermal neutron channel of the target station and DMCG at a cold neutron guide coated with m=2 supermirrors, are complementary concerning the applications: the former will be mainly used for structural studies and the latter to investigate magnetic ordering phenomena. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  8. TOF powder diffractometer on a reactor source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleif, H.J.; Wechsler, D.; Mezei, F.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The performance of time-of-flight (TOF) methods on Long Pulse Spallation Sources can be studied at a reactor source. For this purpose a prototype TOF monochromator instrument will be installed at the KFKI reactor in Budapest. The initial setup will be a powder diffractometer with a resolution of δd/d down to 2 x 10 -3 at a wavelength of 1 A. The instrument uses choppers to produce neutron pulses of down to 10 μs FWHM. The optimal neutron source for a chopper instrument is a Long Pulse Spallation Source, but even on a continuous source simulations have shown that this instrument outperforms a conventional crystal monochromator powder diffractometer at high resolution. The main components of the TOF instrument are one double chopper defining the time resolution and two single choppers to select the wavelength range and to prevent frame overlap. For inelastic experiments a further chopper can be added in front of the sample. The neutron guide has a super-mirror coating and a curvature of 3500m. The total flight path is 20m and there are 24 single detectors in backscattering geometry. (author)

  9. IBARAKI Materials Design Diffractometer for J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Toru; Harjo, Stefanus; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Aizawa, Kazuya; Oikawa, Kenichi; Sakuma, Takashi; Morii, Yukio; Arai, Masatoshi; Ebata, Kazuhiro; Takano, Yoshiki; Kasao, Takuro

    2006-01-01

    Ibaraki prefecture, the local government of the area for J-PARC site, has decided to build a versatile powder diffractometer (IBARAKI Materials Design Diffractometer) to promote industrial applications for neutron beams in J-PARC. This diffractometer is designed to be a high throughput one enabling materials scientists to use it like the chemical analytical instruments in their material development processes. It covers in d range 0.18< d(A)<5 with Δd/d=0.16% at the high-resolution scattering detector bank, and covers 5< d(A)<800 with gradually changing resolution. Typical measuring time to obtain a 'Rietveld-quality' data is several minutes for the sample size of laboratory X-ray diffractometer. To promote industrial application, a utilization system for this diffractometer is required. We will establish a support system for both academic and industrial users who are willing to use neutron but have not been familiar with neutron diffraction

  10. Control of an X-ray diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleif, H.J.; Degenhardt, K.H.; Herdam, G.

    1980-09-01

    As to the four-axis diffractometer control the following problems have beeen solved by using CAMAC-instrumentation: 1) Orientation of the crystal and adjustment of the limit switch are possible by manual operation. 2) The temperature of the crystal is adjusted and controlled by a process computer. 3) The computer controls the measuring sequence as follows: a) the crystal and the detector are put in the calculated position; b) measuring of the intensity with the measuring time being determined by a monitor counter (impulse pre-selection) or by a timer (time pre-selection); c) analog output of intensity; d) storing of the data on a data file. (orig./HP)

  11. The development of a time of flight diffractometer, FIONA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodyear, A.G.; Miller, R.J.R.

    1975-11-01

    A neutron diffractometer, FIONA, has been built at AWRE in order to study structure and equation of state data of materials at high pressures and elevated temperatures. It is required that the sample should be subjected to pressures up to 60 kbar and temperatures up to 800 0 K. There is a further requirement that the diffractometer should have a multi-detector system to make the maximum use of the neutrons available from the 5 MW HERALD reactor. Both these requirements can be met by using a time of flight diffractometer. The instrument is described. (author)

  12. Resolution of the neutron diffractometer of the Mexican Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Garcia C, R.M.; Ita T, A. De

    2003-01-01

    The neutron diffractometer has three collimators and a monochromator of which it depends the resolution of the same one and exists a commitment between the resolution of the diffractometer and its intensity; if it is sought to work with more resolution, the intensity will diminish, and also, if one has little volume of the material, the diffracted light it is diminished, so the selection of the values of the collimators is this way important to have an unique value of the resolution of the diffractometer. (Author)

  13. Design of Double PG Crystal Neutron Diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; El-Mesiry, M.S.; Fathallah, M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a diffractometer containing two pyrolytic graphite (PG) crystals to select monochromatic neutrons in the range of wavelengths longer than 0.26 nm is given. The first crystal is high oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) set at glancing angle to reflect monochromatic neutrons with a selected wavelength. The second is a low quality PG crystal filter, set at take-off-angle such that, it transmits the selected monochromatic neutrons and rejects the higher order contaminations accompanying the first order reflection. It was shown that, 2 mm thick of PG crystal having 0.30 FWHM on mosaic spread are the optimum parameters of monochromator PG crystal. While the optimum thickness and mosaic spread of the PG crystal filter were selected to have low contamination factor of higher order reflections. The optimum parameters of the PG filter crystal were calculated using the computer package Graphite recently developed in our laboratory. Calculation shows that, 3 cm thick PG filter (20 on mosaic spread) is sufficient to almost eliminate the higher order contaminations accompanying the main monochromatic neutrons with

  14. Instrumentation for PSD-based neutron diffractometers at Dhruva ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These include three diffractometers with multiple PSDs and four with single ... causes ionization in the gas, the charge is collected at both ends of the wire and .... terface required for data acquisition, control, presentation and system setup. The.

  15. A control and recording system for a neutron diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czech, Z.; Turek, L.; Wierzewski, K.

    1982-01-01

    A digital system for automatic control and data recording being a part of a neutron diffractometer designed for measurement of the angular distribution of monochromatic neutrons is described. The system is built using digital TTL integrated circuits. Particular attention is drawn to the interesting design of the optimized cross-matrix which selects the elements subjected to recording. The system successfully works with the neutron diffractometer at the EWA reactor. (author)

  16. Development of engineering diffractometer at J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriai, Atsushi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: atsushi.moriai@jaea.go.jp; Torii, Shuki [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Suzuki, Hiroshi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Harjo, Stefanus [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Morii, Yukio [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Arai, Masatoshi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Tomota, Yo [Ibaraki University, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki, 316-8511 (Japan); Suzuki, Tetsuya [Ibaraki University, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki, 316-8511 (Japan); Akiniwa, Yoshiaki [Nagoya University, Nagoya-shi, Aichi, 464-8603 (Japan); Kimura, Hidehiko [Nagoya University, Nagoya-shi, Aichi, 464-8603 (Japan); Akita, Koich [Musashi Institute of Technology, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 158-8557 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    An engineering diffractometer for investigations of stresses and crystallographic structures within engineering components is now being developed at J-PARC project. The diffractometer is designed to view a decoupled-poisoned liquid H{sub 2} moderator providing neutrons with good symmetrical diffraction profiles in the acceptable wavelength range. The diffractometer will have a primary flight path of 40 m and a secondary flight path of 2.0 m for 90{sup o} scattering detector banks, and will include a curved supermirror neutron guide to avoid intensity loss due to the long flight path and to reduce backgrounds from fast neutrons and gamma rays. Therefore, stresses with sufficient accuracies in many engineering studies are quite promising. The diffractometer involves a sample translator which is able to handle large and heavy real industrial-scaled components. Detailed design works are being continuously promoted. The optimization of the diffractometer has been performed with a Monte Carlo simulation, and an appropriate resolution of less than 0.2% in {delta}d/d has been confirmed.

  17. Time-of-flight neutron diffractometer for monocrystal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'ev, B.N.; Balagurov, A.M.; Barabash, I.P.; Georgiu, Z.; Shibaev, V.D.

    1979-01-01

    The design of a neutron diffractometer is discussed. It is used for structural analysis of single crystals on the basis of time-of-flight measurements. The diffractometer is positioned along the axis of a beam of the IBR-30 pulse reactor, its average power is 29 kW. The mechanical part of the diffractometer consists of a massive foundation with a threeaxial goniometer, a rotatable platform with a collimator and a 3 He counter. The flowsheet of a control unit is given, which is used to position the rotatable platform of the diffractometer. The control unit includes a 14 digic binary counter for rotation angle recording, a parallel-to-series converter, a control signal shaper, two position shift registers, and a servo mechanism. The accuracy of diffraction maxima is evaluated. It is found that the ratio D(t)sup(1/2)/t (D(t) is a time dispersion of diffraction maxima, t is total time-of-flight time), which characterize the resolution of the diffractometer, is equal to 0.5% at the Bragg angle Q=45 deg and the neutron wavelength Λ=1 A

  18. Development of engineering diffractometer at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriai, Atsushi; Torii, Shuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Harjo, Stefanus; Morii, Yukio; Arai, Masatoshi; Tomota, Yo; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Hidehiko; Akita, Koich

    2006-01-01

    An engineering diffractometer for investigations of stresses and crystallographic structures within engineering components is now being developed at J-PARC project. The diffractometer is designed to view a decoupled-poisoned liquid H 2 moderator providing neutrons with good symmetrical diffraction profiles in the acceptable wavelength range. The diffractometer will have a primary flight path of 40 m and a secondary flight path of 2.0 m for 90 o scattering detector banks, and will include a curved supermirror neutron guide to avoid intensity loss due to the long flight path and to reduce backgrounds from fast neutrons and gamma rays. Therefore, stresses with sufficient accuracies in many engineering studies are quite promising. The diffractometer involves a sample translator which is able to handle large and heavy real industrial-scaled components. Detailed design works are being continuously promoted. The optimization of the diffractometer has been performed with a Monte Carlo simulation, and an appropriate resolution of less than 0.2% in Δd/d has been confirmed

  19. Thermoluminescent dosemeter in a X-ray diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.; Falcon B, T.; Castano, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this work it was presented the results obtained of the dosimetry which was realized in a X-ray diffractometer for powders, trademark Siemens D5000, using the thermoluminescent signal generated by the X-rays in the commercial dosemeter TLD-100 of Harshaw, US. In according to the results obtained, the radiation quantity received by an analysed material in the diffractometer, will be proportional to exposure time and it can vary from unities until tenths of grays. These results are very outstanding when are analysed crystalline materials in a diffractometer, for knowing the present crystalline phases, mainly if these are highly sensitive to the ionizing radiation, as it is the case of the thermoluminescent materials. (Author)

  20. Residual Stress Studies Using the Cairo Fourier Diffractometer Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; El-Shaer, Y.H.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper deals with residual stress studies using the Cairo Fourier diffractometer facility CFDF. The CFDF is a reverse - time of -flight (RTOF) diffractometer; applies a Fourier chopper. The measurements were performed for copper samples in order to study the residual stress after welding. The maximum modulation of the Fourier chopper during the measurements was 136 khz; leading to a time resolution half-width of about 7 μ s. It has been found from the present measurements that, the resulting diffraction spectra could be successfully used for studying the residual stress; in the wavelength range between 0.7-2.9 A degree at ∼ 0.45 % relative resolution

  1. A high resolution powder diffractometer using focusing optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: siruguri@csr.ernet.in. Abstract. In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of a new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer that has been installed at the Dhruva reactor, Trombay, India. The instrument employs novel design concepts like the use of bent, perfect crystal monochromator ...

  2. Write-up for the diffractometer D1 at Risoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundgaard, J.; Krebs Larsen, F.; Lebech, B.; Nielsen, M.H.; Skaarup, P.

    1982-05-01

    Manual for the crystallographic program system used to control the 4-circle neutron diffractometer D1/TASII at DR3, Risoe. The mechanical part of the diffractometer consists of a monochromator part which allows an easy change of incident neutron wavelenght and a four-circle HUBER goniostate consisting of an Euler cradle (HUBER 512) and two horizontal goniometers (HUBER 440 and HUBER 430). The goniostate is computer controlled by a PDP-11/34 interfaced via CAMAC modules. The PDP-11/34 computer has a 128 k byte memory, two hard magnetic disc stations, a fast DEC-writer terminal and a screen terminal. The diffractometer can be operated remotely via modem and telephone line connections from remote stations such as the University of Aarhus and ILL, Grenoble. Minor parts of the software used to control the diffractometer were developed at Risoe while the major parts were a generous gift to Risoe from College 5, the diffraction group, at the Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. (editors)

  3. Slit and phase grating diffraction with a double crystal diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treimer, Wolfgang; Hilger, Andre; Strobl, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The lateral coherence properties of a neutron beam (λ=0.5248nm) in a double crystal diffractometer (DCD) were studied by means of single slit diffraction and by diffraction by different perfect Silicon phase gratings. Perfect agreements were found for the lateral coherence length measured with the slit and for the one determined by Silicon phase gratings, however, some peculiarities are still present

  4. Instrumentation for PSD based neutron diffractometers at Dhruva reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, S.S.; Borkar, S.P.; Prafulla, S.; Srivastava, V.D.; Behare, A.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Kataria, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Linear position sensitive detectors (PSDs) are widely used to configure neutron diffractometers and other instruments. Necessary front-end electronics and a data acquisition system is developed to cater to such instruments built around the Dhruva research reactor in BARC. These include three diffractometers with multiple PSDs and four with single PSD. The front-end electronics consists of high voltage units, preamplifiers, shaping amplifiers, ratio ADCs (RDC). The data acquisition system consists of an interface card and software. Commercially available hardware like temperature controller or stepper motor controller connected over GPIB or RS232 are also integrated in the data acquisition system. The data acquisition is automated so that it can continue unattended for control parameter like temperature, thus enabling optimum utilization of available beam time. The instrumentation is scalable and can be easily configured for various instrumental requirements. The front-end electronics and the data acquisition system are described here. (author)

  5. Instrumentation for PSD-based neutron diffractometers at Dhruva reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, S. S.; Borkar, S. P.; Prafulla, S.; Srivastava, V. D.; Behare, A.; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.; Ghodgaonkar, M. D.; Kataria, S. K.

    2004-08-01

    Linear position sensitive detectors (PSDs) are widely used to configure neutron diffractometers and other instruments. Necessary front-end electronics and a data acquisition system [1] is developed to cater to such instruments built around the Dhruva research reactor in BARC. These include three diffractometers with multiple PSDs and four with single PSD. The front-end electronics consists of high voltage units, preamplifiers [2], shaping amplifiers, ratio ADCs (RDC) [3]. The data acquisition system consists of an interface card and software. Commercially available hardware like temperature controller or stepper motor controller connected over GPIB or RS232 are also integrated in the data acquisition system. The data acquisition is automated so that it can continue unattended for control parameter like temperature, thus enabling optimum utilization of available beam time. The instrumentation is scalable and can be easily configured for various instrumental requirements. The front-end electronics and the data acquisition system are described here.

  6. X-ray diffractometer configurations for thin film analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, A.

    1996-01-01

    A presentation of various configurations of focusing Seemann-Bohlin diffractometer, parafocusing Bragg-Brentano diffractometer and parallel beam are demonstrated. Equipped with different thin film attachments a comparison to conventional measurements are given. The application of different detector types like scintillation, gas proportional, electroluminescence (LUX) and solid state are described. Typical instrument set-ups for reflectometry, grazing incidence diffraction, total reflection, high resolution X-ray diffraction are explained. Different elements like slits, soller slits, pinhole collimators, crystal monochromators, monofiber (FOX) and polycapillaries (multifiber lens, Kumakhov lens'), flat or curved multilayer with constant or variable d-spacing, and their combinations are presented. The comparison of different beam conditioners in peak-to-background ratios are given. Wavelength dispersive scans show the energy discrimination possibilities of different beam optics

  7. X-ray diffraction analysis with diffractometer DRON-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochenin, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    Rapid methods of phase quantitative analysis of wolframite (FeMn)WO 4 and molybdenite MoS 2 in industrial materials using DRON-1 diffractometer are suggested. Diffractometer with spectrometric attachment was used for determination of (FeMn)WO 4 in industrial raw materials. Results of the above analysis have been compared with the data of chemical analysis, their good agreement has been shown. Time of wolframite determination in one sample is 8-10 min. Method of standard background with respect to absorption properties of medium has been developed for MoS 2 rapid determination in enriched molybdenum ore. Time of molybdenite determination in one sample is 3-4min., error is 4 % rel. in MoS 2 concentration range from 15.4 to 36.7 %

  8. Development of BATAN’s texture diffractometer (current status)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyanto, T. H., E-mail: thardi@batan.go.id; Bharoto,; Mugirahardjo, H.; Muslih, R.; Ramadhani, A.; Sairun [Center for Nuclear Industrial Material Technology (PTBIN) National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Texture Diffractometer, called DN2, is one of neutron diffractometers in BATAN which is dedicated for texture measurement using neutron diffraction method. To obtain better performance of the DN2, a flight tube goniometer have been installed between the monochromator and sample position. By adjusting the flight tube goniometer, defocusing effect at direct beam and background effect could be reduced significantly. Some experiments have been carried out to characterize DN2 performance. The flight tube goniometer alignment and neutron wavelength calibration were characterized using silicon standard sample Si640d. Data refinement of diffraction pattern was analyzed using MAUD software and it is obtained reliability factor with background, R{sub wpb}, reduced significantly, from 42.53 % to 19.36 % after setting of flight tube goniometer. Reliability factor without background (R{sub wp}) was reduced from 27.41% to 21.36%. Calibrated of neutron wavelengh, λ = 1,2799 Angstrom is obtained.

  9. A nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer for the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuefeind, Joerg; Chipley, Kenneth K.; Tulk, Chris A.; Simonson, J. Michael; Winokur, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The Nanoscale Ordered Materials Diffractometer (NOMAD) is one of five neutron scattering instruments being managed within the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Instruments-Next Generation (SING) project. NOMAD is designed as a high-flux, medium-resolution diffractometer using a large bandwidth of neutron energies and extensive detector coverage to perform structural determinations of local order in crystalline and amorphous materials. The instrument will enable studies of a large variety of samples ranging from liquids, solutions, glasses, polymers, and nanocrystalline materials to long-range ordered crystals and will allow unprecedented access to high-resolution pair distribution functions, small-contrast isotope substitution experiments, small sample sizes, and parametric studies. Project completion for the instrument is anticipated in 2010 and a review of the design status will be given

  10. X-ray diffractometer configurations for thin film analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, A [Rich. Seifert and Co., Analytical X-ray Systems, Ahrensburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    A presentation of various configurations of focusing Seemann-Bohlin diffractometer, parafocusing Bragg-Brentano diffractometer and parallel beam are demonstrated. Equipped with different thin film attachments a comparison to conventional measurements are given. The application of different detector types like scintillation, gas proportional, electroluminescence (LUX) and solid state are described. Typical instrument set-ups for reflectometry, grazing incidence diffraction, total reflection, high resolution X-ray diffraction are explained. Different elements like slits, soller slits, pinhole collimators, crystal monochromators, monofiber (FOX) and polycapillaries (multifiber lens, Kumakhov lens`), flat or curved multilayer with constant or variable d-spacing, and their combinations are presented. The comparison of different beam conditioners in peak-to-background ratios are given. Wavelength dispersive scans show the energy discrimination possibilities of different beam optics.

  11. Data acquisition system for linear PSD based neutron diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, S.S.; Borkar, S.P.; Behere, Anita; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Single or multi-PSD configurations are used in different neutron diffractometer setups. A data acquisition system is developed to serve the gross requirements of all the diffractometer setups. It is also customized to specific requirements of different setups. The hardware is developed as a Transputer based add-on card. Most of the hardware functionality is handled in the Transputer program thus improving throughput of the system. The card can handle 16 RDCs, a few motor controls and on/off controls. The software comprises of a front-end Windows98 application, a Transputer program and a device driver. The data acquisition system performs data acquisition, analysis, display and storage. Analysis includes converting raw data of linear PSD to equiangular format, merging and clubbing the data to make a continuous equiangular spectrum. Calibration of individual PSD is a crucial activity in correctly merging the data coming from PSDs. (author)

  12. User guide for the POLARIS powder diffractometer at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, S.; Mayers, J.

    1989-11-01

    The POLARIS spectrometer at ISIS is currently being scheduled for use as a high intensity, medium resolution powder diffractometer. The particularly high neutron flux on POLARIS enables experiments to be performed with comparatively short counting times or on small sample volumes. This ability has been exploited during kinetic experiments of phase changes, where diffraction data is collected whilst the furnace is heating up. The provision of a large detector bank at 2 θ ∼ 90 0 is particularly important for studies of powder samples at high pressures. This scattering geometry has significant advantages for experiments of this kind, as suitable collimation of the incident and outgoing beams eliminates scattering from the surrounding pressure transmitting medium. This guide is intended to give a short description of the POLARIS powder diffractometer and to provide the basic information required to perform a powder diffraction experiment. (author)

  13. User guide for the ECN stress-diffractometer facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmholdt, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a description of the experimental set-up for residual stress measurements at beam hole HB4 of the High Flux Reactor at Petten. With this manual an experimentalist familiar with the properties of neutrons, diffraction techniques and the phenomenon (residual) stress will be able to operate the diffractometer, to check all the components on their proper operation and, if necessary, to repeat the alignment procedures. (orig.)

  14. High-speed single-crystal television diffractometer (software)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Area-detector diffractometers make possible almost ideal diffraction experiments. Until recently the performance of such instruments has been limited in practice by the available software. This general account discusses an unconventional way of indexing a lattice which is more appropriate for the calculations needed with normal-beam rotation geometry, and asserts the need to perform a continuous 'real-time' adaptive refinement to monitor the condition of the crystal and the detector. (orig.)

  15. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  16. Tricks and tips on handling a powder diffractometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veroli, C [CNR, Montelibretti, Rome (Italy). Istituto Chimica dei Materiali

    1996-09-01

    In the present work, the authors illustrate the procedure to be followed when small quantities of powder have to be analysed, and they also report how to generally reduce the measurement background. In addition, they describe how the diffractometer can be used to collect thin-film spectra. The experimental procedure requires careful handling because inappropriate or careless use of the instrument can lead to its damage.

  17. Automation of angular movement of the arm neutron diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar H, F.; Herrera A, E.; Quintana C, G.; Torres R, C. E.; Reyes V, M.

    2015-09-01

    A technique to determine the crystal structure of some materials is the neutron diffraction. This technique consists on placing the material in question in a monoenergetic neutron beam obtained by neutron diffraction in a monochromator crystal. The neutron energy depends of the diffraction angle. The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares has a neutron diffractometer and monochromator crystals of pyrolytic graphite. This crystal can be selecting the neutron energy depending on the angle of diffraction in the glass. The radiation source for the neutron diffractometer is the TRIGA Mark III reactor of the Nuclear Center Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores. During their operation are also obtained besides neutrons, β and γ radiation. The interest is to have thermal neutrons, so fast neutrons and γ rays are removed using appropriate shielding. The average neutron fluxes of the radial port RE2 of neutron diffractometer at power 1 MW are: heat flow 2,466 x 10 8 n cm -2 sec -1 and fast flow 1,239 x 10 8 n cm -2 sec -1 . The neutron detector is housed in a shield mounted on a mechanical linkage with which the diffraction angle is selected, and therefore the energy of the neutrons. The movement of this joint was performed by the equipment operator manually, so that accuracy to select the diffraction angle was not good and the process rather slow. Therefore a mechanical system was designed, automated by means of a motor as an actuator, a system of force transmission and an electronic control in order that the operator will schedule the diffraction angles and allow the count in the neutrons detection system in a simple manner. (Author)

  18. Enhancement of TOF diffractometer Sirius with 90 detector bank

    CERN Document Server

    Oikawa, K; Torii, S; Mochiku, T

    2002-01-01

    A TOF powder diffractometer, Sirius, installed at the Neutron Science Laboratory (KENS) of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), has realized both high resolution and high intensity with its large backward detector bank together with supermirror guide. Sirius also has a large 90 detector bank (0.54 str), which is used for diffraction studies under special environments, such as high pressure, high temperature, and so on. Recent works using a high-pressure cell (Paris-Edinburgh cell) and a high-temperature furnace with a gas-control device (modeled on the Miller Furnace at IPNS) are presented. (orig.)

  19. Soft X-ray diffractometer for synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gau, T S; Liu, K Y; Chung, C H; Chen, C K; Lai, S C; Shu, C H; Huang, Y S; Chao, C H; Lee, Y R; Chen, C T; Chang, S L

    2001-01-01

    An ultra-high vacuum soft X-ray diffractometer has been constructed and commissioned at the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) to investigate materials structures in mesoscale. The diffractometer, housed in a UHV tank, consists of a 6-circle goniometer, together with the systems for beam-collimation, signal detection, vacuum, and control panels. The kappa-phi (cursive,open) Greek-psi goniostat is adopted for the sample orientation. Crystal samples can be rotated along a given reciprocal lattice vector by using psi scan. Two orthogonal axes, gamma (or 2 theta) and delta, are used to move the detector. The detector is a semiconductor pin diode, which can be used in UHV ambient. This 6-circle goniometer allows for sample scanning of a wide range in the momentum space. The motors used for goniometer rotation and slit selection are UHV compatible. The UHV tank is placed on an XYZ table capable of positioning the center of the goniometer onto the incident beam. Test experiments have been carried on the 1-...

  20. Portable X-ray diffractometer equipped with XRF for archaeometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, M.; Ishizaki, A.; Satoh, R.; Okada, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Yamashita, D.; Ohashi, K.; Sakuraba, Y.; Shimono, A.; Kojima, D.

    2005-09-01

    A portable X-ray diffractometer equipped with an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was improved so as to get a diffraction pattern and a fluorescence spectrum simultaneously in air from one and the same small area on a specimen. Here, diffraction experiments were performed in two modes, i.e. an angle rotation mode and an energy dispersive mode. In the latter a diffraction pattern and a fluorescence spectrum were simultaneously recorded in a short time, 100 s or less, on one display. The diffractometer was tested in the field to confirm its performance. Targets chosen for this purpose were a bronze mirror from the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), and a stupa and its pedestal which are part of the painted statue of "Tamonten holding a stupa" from the Heian Period (794-1192), enshrined in the Engyouji temple founded in 996. The bronze mirror was identified as a product of the Han Dynasty from its chemical composition and the existence of the δ phase in the Cu-Sn alloy. The stupa and its pedestal were decorated with gold powder and gold leaf, respectively. From the XRF data of the pedestal, the underlying layer of gold leaf seems to have been painted with emerald green.

  1. Portable X-ray diffractometer equipped with XRF for archaeometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.; Ishizaki, A.; Satoh, R.; Okada, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Yamashita, D.; Ohashi, K.; Sakuraba, Y.; Shimono, A.; Kojima, D.

    2005-01-01

    A portable X-ray diffractometer equipped with an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was improved so as to get a diffraction pattern and a fluorescence spectrum simultaneously in air from one and the same small area on a specimen. Here, diffraction experiments were performed in two modes, i.e. an angle rotation mode and an energy dispersive mode. In the latter a diffraction pattern and a fluorescence spectrum were simultaneously recorded in a short time, 100 s or less, on one display. The diffractometer was tested in the field to confirm its performance. Targets chosen for this purpose were a bronze mirror from the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), and a stupa and its pedestal which are part of the painted statue of 'Tamonten holding a stupa' from the Heian Period (794-1192), enshrined in the Engyouji temple founded in 996. The bronze mirror was identified as a product of the Han Dynasty from its chemical composition and the existence of the δ phase in the Cu-Sn alloy. The stupa and its pedestal were decorated with gold powder and gold leaf, respectively. From the XRF data of the pedestal, the underlying layer of gold leaf seems to have been painted with emerald green

  2. New diffractometers at ILL Grenoble - the millennium program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A. W.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: New techniques for constructing detectors and monochromators are being used to build a number of new diffractometers at ILL Grenoble to provide an order of magnitude gain in efficiency, and higher resolution. Similar techniques might be applied at the new Australian reactor to provide world-class neutron instruments. These projects include a high resolution multi-detector powder diffractometer super-D2B, a modular microstrip detector for liquids and amorphous materials D4c, an array of 2D microstrip detectors for large molecular structures and fibre diffraction D19, a large high flux microstrip detector D20, a neutron image plate camera for structural and magnetic transitions T-LADI, and a dedicated neutron strain-scanner built with a large grant from the UK EPSRC. The super-D2B project will consist of 128 linear wire detectors behind an array of very fine Soeller collimators, which will provide a horizontal resolution of 5x10 -4 in d-spacing. Vertical resolution by charge division along the 300mm detector length will be used to correct for the curvature of the diffraction cones, greatly increasing the useful vertical acceptance angle. Prototype collimators and detectors have already been constructed. The new D4c detector is being installed in June 2000 on the liquids and amorphous materials diffractometer D4. It consists of a bank of 9 individual microstrip detectors covering a total of 160 degrees, with each detector containing 64 microstrip 'wires'. The complete diffraction pattern will be obtained with 2 positions of this detector bank, which is very efficient for short wavelength neutrons, and highly stable, as needed to measure small differences between amorphous materials using for example isotope contrast. The world's first microstrip powder diffractometer D20 is currently being re-built, and will be available again in October 2000. It consists of 1600 microstrip 'wires' in a single 160-degree chamber. The machine is so fast that it can follow

  3. Write-up for the Diffractometer D1 at Risø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jørgen; Krebs Larsen, F.; Lebech, Bente

    Manual for the crystallographic program system used to control the 4-circle neutron diffractometer D1/TASII at DR3, Risø. The mechanical part of the diffractometer consists of a monochromator part which allows an easy change of incident neutron wavelength and a four-circle HUBER goniostate consis...

  4. The IPEN/CNEN-SP PSD neutron diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parente, Carlos Benedicto Ramos; Mazzocchi, Vera Lucia; Mascarenhas, Yvonne Primerano

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A new IPEN-CNEN/SP neutron powder diffractometer is under construction at the 4 MW thermal IEA-R1m research reactor. It is an upgrading of the old IPEN-CNEN/SP multipurpose neutron diffractometer. The main modifications introduced in the old instrument are: installation of a position sensitive detector (PSD) and a bent perfect single crystal monochromator (a focusing Si monochromator). The PSD is formed by eleven linear detector elements, clamped together at each end to form a rigid plane. The PSD is installed in a detector shielding which is supported by two arms fixed in a large rotary table. This table provides the instrument with the 2θ angular movement. A smaller rotary table, placed underneath and concentric with the larger one, provides the ω(θ) movement. Both tables are driven by a computer controlled geared mechanism. The computer also makes the data acquisition. A rotating-oscillating collimator, placed at the entrance to the detector shielding, eliminates parasitic scattering from furnace or cryorefrigerator heat shields in the vicinity of the sample. The collimator also makes the PSD less sensitive to ambient background. The PSD spans an angular range of 20 deg of a diffraction pattern, resulting in a quite good resolution for the instrument. An extended powder diffraction pattern can be obtained by moving the detector and collecting the data in 20 deg segments. With a take-off angle of 84 deg, the monochromator can be positioned to produce 4 different wavelengths, namely 1.111, 1.399, 1.667 and 2.191 A. Other parts constructed for the new instrument are: a in-pile collimator, a monochromatic beam collimator and a neutron shield, large enough to accommodate the monochromator, a beam shutter and the monochromatic beam collimator. In comparison to the former instrument, the new diffractometer will have better resolution and will be ca. 600 times faster in data acquisition. At the present time, the new instrument is in the final steps of

  5. IPNS time-of-flight single crystal diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, A.J.; Teller, R.G.; Williams, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The single crystal diffractometer (SCD) at the Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) utilizes the time-of-flight (TOF) Laue technique to provide a three-dimensional sampling of reciprocal space during each pulse. The instrument contains a unique neutron position-sensitive 6 Li-glass scintillation detector with an active area of 30 x 30 cm. The three-dimensional nature of the data is very useful for fast, efficient measurement of Bragg intensities and for the studies of superlattice and diffuse scattering. The instrument was designed to achieve a resolution of 2% or better (R = δQ/Q) with 2 THETA > 60 0 and lambda > 0.7A

  6. Research studies performed using the Cairo Fourier Diffractometer Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; Ridikas, D.

    2009-12-01

    This report represents the results of the research studies performed using the Cairo Fourier Diffractometer Facility (CFDF), within 10 years after it was installed and put into operation at the beginning of 1996. The main components of the CFDF were supplied by the IAEA according to the technical assistance project EGY/1/022 'Upgrading of Research Reactor Utilization'. The present report is the second published INDC report, while the first one, published at the beginning of 1997, was about the performance of the CFDF and its main characteristic parameters. Plenty of measurements were performed since then, yielding several publications both in local and international scientific periodicals and resulting in 8 M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from Egyptian Universities. In addition, a new approach for the analysis of the neutron spectra was implemented using the CFDF. Specially designed interface card with proper software program was applied instead of the reverse time of flight (RTOF) and Finnish made analyzer originally attached to the facility. It has been verified that the new approach can successfully replace the RTOF analyzer, significantly decreasing the time of measurement and saving the reactor's operation time. Besides, a special fault diagnostic system program was developed and tested for caring and handling the possible failures of the CFDF. Moreover, measurements were carried out for the diffraction spectra emitted at different points of one of the samples. The latter was scanned across the neutron beam of the CFDF, for studying the stress after welding; used in industrial applications. (author)

  7. Neutron diffractometers for structural biology at spallation neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenborn, B.P.; Pitcher, E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Spallation neutron sources are ideal for diffraction studies of proteins and oriented molecular complexes. With spoliation neutrons and their time dependent wavelength structure, it is easy to electronically select data with an optimal wavelength bandwidth and cover the whole Laue spectrum as time (wavelength) resolved snapshots. This optimized data quality with best peak-to-background ratios and provides adequate spatial and energy resolution to eliminate peak overlaps. The application of this concept will use choppers to select the desired Laue wavelength spectrum and employ focusing optics and large cylindrical {sup 3}He detectors to optimize data collection rates. Such a diffractometer will cover a Laue wavelength range from 1 to 5{Angstrom} with a flight path length of 10m and an energy resolution of 0.25{Angstrom}. Moderator concepts for maximal flux distribution within this energy range will be discussed using calculated flux profiles. Since the energy resolution required for such timed data collection in this super Laue techniques is not very high, the use of a linac only (LAMPF) spoliation target is an exciting possibility with an order of magnitude increase in flux.

  8. Neutron diffractometers for structural biology at spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenborn, B.P.; Pitcher, E.

    1994-01-01

    Spallation neutron sources are ideal for diffraction studies of proteins and oriented molecular complexes. With spoliation neutrons and their time dependent wavelength structure, it is easy to electronically select data with an optimal wavelength bandwidth and cover the whole Laue spectrum as time (wavelength) resolved snapshots. This optimized data quality with best peak-to-background ratios and provides adequate spatial and energy resolution to eliminate peak overlaps. The application of this concept will use choppers to select the desired Laue wavelength spectrum and employ focusing optics and large cylindrical 3 He detectors to optimize data collection rates. Such a diffractometer will cover a Laue wavelength range from 1 to 5 Angstrom with a flight path length of 10m and an energy resolution of 0.25 Angstrom. Moderator concepts for maximal flux distribution within this energy range will be discussed using calculated flux profiles. Since the energy resolution required for such timed data collection in this super Laue techniques is not very high, the use of a linac only (LAMPF) spoliation target is an exciting possibility with an order of magnitude increase in flux

  9. DREAM — a versatile powder diffractometer at the ESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweika, W; Violini, N; Lieutenant, K; Nekrassov, D; Zendler, C; Henry, P F; Houben, A; Jacobs, P

    2016-01-01

    The instrument DREAM, in construction at the long pulse European Spallation Source (ESS), is a new type of neutron time-of-flight powder diffractometer, which utilizes additional choppers to meet the typical high resolution requests. Pulses will be of symmetric shape and their width can be varied from 10 μs to 1 ms, providing an unprecedented flexibility from highest to low resolution with optimized intensities at the superior brightness of the 5 MW source. The design is driven particularly by the needs and challenges for small and complex samples, large unit cell materials, thermoelectric cage structures or metal-organic framework structures, multiphase battery materials and complex magnetic structures. Therefore, the chosen wavelength bandwidth of 3.7 Å may cover well the peak intensities of the thermal and cold moderator used simultaneously and provides a sufficient Q (and d ) range for obtaining diffraction patterns in a single setting. VITESS simulations show a performance that is about two orders of magnitude higher than current best instruments. (paper)

  10. The high resolution powder diffractometer (HRPD) at ISIS - a user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibberson, R.M.; David, W.I.F.; Knight, K.S.

    1992-05-01

    This guide is intended to give a short description of the High Resolution Powder Diffractometer, HRPD, at ISIS and to provide the basic information required in order to perform a routine powder diffraction experiment. (Author)

  11. A computer-controlled CAMAC system for the operation of a neutron diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwoll, K.; Mueller, K.D.; Will, G.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes a computer-controlled four-circle diffractometer for the investigation of single crystals by neutron diffraction. The hardware is based on the internationally standardised CAMAC system. This makes the system described here independent of the type of computer used and also largely independent of the mechanical equipment used. The software is written in the interpretative language FOCAL which is easy to learn and ensures high flexibility in programming and thus also in the use of the diffractometer. (orig.) [de

  12. Data acquisition system for linear position sensitive detector based neutron diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, S.S.; Borkar, S.P.; Behere, A.; Prafulla, S.; Srivastava, V.D.; Mukhopadhyaya, P.K.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Kataria, S.K.

    2003-03-01

    This data acquisition system is developed to serve the requirements of various linear 1PSD based neutron diffractometers. A neutron diffractometer uses a neutron beam as a probe to study the crystallographic properties of materials. Presently two multi-PSD and two single-PSD diffractometers are commissioned and a few more are being installed in Dhruva. This data acquisition system is installed at each of these - diffractometers. Different requirements of individual diffractometers were studied and reconciled to design a single data acquisition system, which can be easily configured or customized for individual setups. The charge division in a linear PSD is converted to a position output with the help of an RDC (Ratio ADC). The ftont-end electronics, which consist of preamplifiers and shaping amplifiers, provide an interface between a PSD and an RDC. A PC add-on card is designed around a Transputer. It can interface 16 RDCs, a few motor controls and on/off controls. Data acquisition and other controls are implemented in the Transputer program. A front-end Windows98 application merges the raw data of different RDCs to obtain the equiangular data. Through software the data acquisition system can be configured for diffetent diffractometers. Commercially available hardware is also integrated as,a part of the data acquisition system in some of the setups. The data acquisition system is working reliably as a part of two single PSD and two multi-PSD diffractometers. It can handle data rates upto 15 K/Sec without any loss of counts. It has played a significant role in providing improved throughput and utilization ofvarious diffractometers. The'data acquisition system and its different applications are presented in this report. (author)

  13. Computer-controlled CAMAC system for the operation of a neutron diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwoll, K; Mueller, K D [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik; Will, G [Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Mineralogisches Inst.

    1976-10-01

    The paper describes a computer-controlled four-circle diffractometer for the investigation of single crystals by neutron diffraction. The hardware is based on the internationally standardised CAMAC system. This makes the system described here independent of the type of computer used and also largely independent of the mechanical equipment used. The software is written in the interpretative language FOCAL which is easy to learn and ensures high flexibility in programming and thus also in the use of the diffractometer.

  14. An X-ray diffractometer specimen holder for use with reactive and toxic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyton, A.; Munden, A.B.

    1979-04-01

    An X-ray diffractometer specimen holder has been designed for analysis of reactive sodium compounds which will satisfactorily seal the sample from the atmosphere. The holder can be readily filled in a glove-box and is easily transported for mounting on a vertical Philips PW 1051 X-ray diffractometer. It is considered that this holder could also be applied to a wide range of other reactive and toxic materials, e.g. plutonium or its compounds. (author)

  15. D1A, a high resolution neutron powder diffractometer with a bank of mylar collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.; Bailey, I.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes a first attempt at following the design criteria set out earlier for a high resolution conventional powder diffractometer. An existing machine, D1A, has been modified using a bank of ten high pressure 3 He counters and almost perfect 10minutes of arc mylar foil collimators. The system is more successful than earlier multicollimator arrangements because each of the collimator/counters is virtually identical; this permits automatic addition of the intensities so that a single high resolution profile, up to X40 times as intense as on the original diffractometer, is obtained just as easily as on a single counter machine. A comparison is made with the other powder diffractometers, D1B and D2 at the ILL. (Auth.)

  16. Thermoluminescent dosemeter in a X-ray diffractometer; Dosimetria termoluminiscente en un difractometro de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.; Falcon B, T. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Castano, V.M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Laboratorio Juriquilla, A.P. 1-1010, C.P. 76001, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this work it was presented the results obtained of the dosimetry which was realized in a X-ray diffractometer for powders, trademark Siemens D5000, using the thermoluminescent signal generated by the X-rays in the commercial dosemeter TLD-100 of Harshaw, US. In according to the results obtained, the radiation quantity received by an analysed material in the diffractometer, will be proportional to exposure time and it can vary from unities until tenths of grays. These results are very outstanding when are analysed crystalline materials in a diffractometer, for knowing the present crystalline phases, mainly if these are highly sensitive to the ionizing radiation, as it is the case of the thermoluminescent materials. (Author)

  17. New development for the reverse time of flight analysis of spectra measured using Fourier Diffractometer Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Maayouf, R M A

    2002-01-01

    The present work introduces a new design to replace the (Finnish make) reverse time of flight (RTOF) analyzer used for the Fourier diffractometer facilities. The new design applies a data acquisition system, a special interface card and software program installed in a PC computer, to perform the cross-correlation functions between signals received from the chopper-decoder and detector. It has been found from test measurements performed with the Cairo Fourier diffractometer facility (CFDF) and the similar high resolution one at JINR (Dubna-Russia) that the new design can successfully replace the Finnish make RTOF analyzer.

  18. D2B, a new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer at ILL Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Applications of high resolution neutron powder diffraction to materials science have grown rapidly in the past 10 years, with the development of Rietveld methods of profile refinement, and new high resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. Materials studied range from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrodes to prestressed superconducting wires. Although the techniques have now been adapted for X-ray and synchrotron radiation, neutron powder diffraction retains unique advantages. In this paper we describe the design and first test measurements on the latest high resolution powder diffractometer D2B at ILL Grenoble. A review of the applications is published in Chemica Scripta (1986). (author) 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Angle calculations for a z-axis/(2S+2D) hybrid diffractometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunk, Oliver; Nielsen, Martin Meedom

    2004-01-01

    calculations are presented for a new 'hybrid' diffractometer consisting of a base instrument that can be combined with two different detector arms. With one of the detector arms, the instrument is a standard z-axis diffractometer as commonly used in surface studies. The other detector arm is designed...... for a heavy two-dimensional detector. The calculations are formulated in a general framework making it easy to incorporate, e. g. a second sample rotation stage, whereby it is possible to perform reflectivity and standard surface-crystallography measurements in the same geometry....

  20. Improvement of detector system of the two-axis neutron powder diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yanjie; Guo Liping; Chen Dongfeng; Zhang Baisheng; Chen Na; Zhang Li; Sun Kai; Xiao Hongwen; Zhang Lingfei; Wang Hongli; Li Junhong; Wu Erdong; Yuan Xuezhong

    2005-01-01

    The detector system of the two-axis neutron powder diffractometer at the Heavy Water Research Reactor of China Institute of Atomic Energy was improved by increasing the number of detectors from one to four and by installing the third Soller collimators with horizontal divergence of 20'. The measurements of Fe powder diffraction patterns show that the counting rate of the diffractometer is increased by a factor of 2.3 and the resolution is also improved at the lower and mediate scattering angle region. (author)

  1. Control program of the neutron four-circle-diffractometer P32 at the SILOE reactor/CEN Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, H.; Paulus, H.; Reimers, W.; Heger, G.

    1983-09-01

    The four-circle diffractometer P32 for elastic neutron scattering on single crystals was installed at the SILOE reactor/CEN Grenoble in 1981. The control program, presented here, is a new update of the former program versions used at the FR2 reactor/Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Important improvements concerning reliability and handling of the diffractometer are added. (orig.) [de

  2. Control program of the neutron four-circle-diffractometer P110 at the ORPHEE reactor/CEN Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, H.; Paulus, H.; Reimers, W.; Heger, G.

    1984-05-01

    The four-circle diffractometer P110 for elastic neutron scattering on single crystals was installed at the ORPHEE reactor/CEN Saclay in 1982. The control progam, presented here, is a new update of the former program versions used at the FR2 reactor. Important improvements concerning reliability and handling of the diffractometer are added. (orig./HP) [de

  3. JAX: a micro-computer based X-ray diffractometer controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naval, P.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes a micro-computer based X-ray diffractometer controller and explores its possibilities in simplifying acquisition and analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data. The interrupt-driven controller can operate in both present time and present count data acquisition modes and allows a data analysis program to execute concurrently with data collection. (Auth.). 16 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. The new fourier diffractometer at the IBR-2 reactor: design and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Balagurov, A.M.; Simkin, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    A high-resolution neutron powder Fourier diffractometer has been constructed at the pulsed reactor IBR-2 in Dubna. Preliminary results have confirmed resolution predictions indicating that Δd/d can be as small as 5x10 -4 over a wide d range with a good data accumulation rate. 3 refs.; 10 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Simple methods of aligning four-circle diffractometers with crystal reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, Y [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1979-08-01

    Simple methods of aligning four-circle diffractometers with crystal reflections are devised. They provide the methods to check (1) perpendicularity of chi plane to the incident beam, (2) zero point of 2theta and linearity of focus-chi center-receiving aperture and (3) zero point of chi.

  6. Resolution of the neutron diffractometer of the Mexican Nuclear Center; Resolucion del difractometro de neutrones del Centro Nuclear de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia C, R.M. [Administracion Central de Laboratorio y Servicios Cientificos, Legaria 608, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ita T, A. De [UAM-A, San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The neutron diffractometer has three collimators and a monochromator of which it depends the resolution of the same one and exists a commitment between the resolution of the diffractometer and its intensity; if it is sought to work with more resolution, the intensity will diminish, and also, if one has little volume of the material, the diffracted light it is diminished, so the selection of the values of the collimators is this way important to have an unique value of the resolution of the diffractometer. (Author)

  7. Analysis of a drum chopper for use on a new small angle diffractometer at IPNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.K.; Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Carpenter, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Light-weight drum choppers rotating at 15 Hz have been in use on the IPNS powder diffractometers for several years, where they serve to eliminate the delayed-neutron background from much of the spectral region of interest. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that a similar chopper operated at 15 Hz should do an excellent job of delayed-neutron removal in the new small-angle diffractometer being designed at IPNS. The simulations also show that when the same chopper is operated at 7.5 Hz it performs quite successfully as a frame-elimination chopper, effectively eliminating neutrons from alternate pulses and allowing extension of the useful wavelength range of the instrument to ∼28 Angstrom. Thus the incorporation of such a chopper should add considerably to the range and flexibility of the new instrument. 7 refs., 9 figs

  8. A New approach for the data acquisition system of the cairo fourier diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; Khalil, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The present work deals with a new approach for the reverse time of flight (RTOF) analysis of the diffraction spectra. The approach is based on the same RTOF concept used for the design of a separate RTOF analyzer and applies, for data acquisition, a special interface card and software program installed in a PC computer, to perform the cross-correlation functions between the three signals received from the chopper decoder, detector and the pulsed neutron source respectively. The new approach have been realized for use with a Fourier diffractometer facility based on the RTOF concept. It has been found from test measurements performed with the high resolution Fourier diffractometer (HRFD) at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna) that the new approach can successfully replace the RTOF analyzer

  9. Optimization of flat and horizontally curved neutron monochromators for given diffractometer geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, H.A.

    1983-08-01

    The computer program MONREF was written for calculating the integrated intensity and the k-vector distribution produced by mosaic-crystal monochromators in neutron diffractometers of given geometries. The program treats flat and horizontally curved monochromators in Bragg reflection. Its basic algorithm is derived from Zachariasen's coupled differential equations which were modified to include the case of asymmetrically cut crystals. The calculations are restricted to the scattering in the experimental plane. In the first part of the report the program and its applications are described. In the second part a compilation of intensities is presented, calculated for crystals of Cu, Si, Ge and pyrolytic graphite commonly used as monochromators, in a standard diffractometer configuration. (orig.)

  10. Automation of an X-ray diffractometer using a manually preset control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.; Prentice, P.C.

    1978-11-01

    The measurements of lattice parameters of beta silicon carbide nuclear reactor temperature monitors at Dounreay were formerly carried out using an X-ray diffractometer connected to a simple step scan control system with an analysis time of 8 hours per specimen. A system is described whereby the step scan throughout of the X-ray diffractometer is increased by using an automatic sample charger and additional control electronics, allowing round-the-clock analysis. The original system which used Harwell 2000 series electronic units has been expanded to include an AERE designed goniometer control unit, a Philips sample changer with control unit, and a Honeywell chart recorder. The integrated circuit logic used, interconnections of modules, and operating instructions are given in appendices. (UK)

  11. Instrumentation for Position Sensitive Detector-Powder diffractometer at CENM-Maamora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messous, M.-Y.; Belhorma, B.; Labrim, H.; El-Bakkari, B.; Jabri, H.

    2013-06-01

    Linear position sensitive detectors are widely used to configure neutron diffractometer and other instruments. Necessary front-end electronics and data acquisition system was developed to fulfil such instruments built around the research reactor. In this paper, the front-end electronics dedicated to the neutron powder diffractometer which will be installed in the axial beam port of the Triga Mark II research reactor (Center of Nuclear Studies of Maamora) is described. It consists of High voltage power supply, a Position-decoder and a Multichannel analyzer and data acquisition software. The 3 He-PSD detector response exposed to the neutron flow emitted by 252 Cf source held in paraffin spheres with distinct thicknesses for moderation effect, is shown. Monte-Carlo N Particles code (MCNP) simulations were also performed to study both the detector performance and the paraffin efficiency. (authors)

  12. HiQ - A high-Q diffractometer for PDF measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelli, M.; Fischer, H.E.; Gaehler, R.; Chatterji, T.

    2011-01-01

    The local structure of many important functional materials is often different from the average structure, as revealed by diffraction, due to, e.g. doping, mixed site occupancy, or formation of time-dependent local distortions. To get information on both the average and the local structures one needs to perform a joint Rietveld and PDF (Pair Distribution Function) analysis of the total scattering, for which we need data to Q = 30 - 35 Angstroms with Δd/d ∼ 3*10 -3 . Here, we describe how the hot-source diffractometer D4 can be adapted to achieve this capability, and outline one possible design of a dedicated high-Q diffractometer at the ILL (Laue Langevin Institute), using the vacant inclined hot-neutron beam IH2. (authors)

  13. High-efficiency transmision neutron polarizer for high-resolution double crystal diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, A.; Krist, T.; Mezei, F.; Gordeev, G.; Ibrayev, B.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient transmission geometry neutron polarizer for the high-resolution double crystal diffractometer at HMI (λ=4.8 A) is described. A polarization of about 94% was achieved and the polarized neutron beam intensity amounts to 40% of the nonpolarized beam intensity. This opens up wide possibilities for the study of magnetic small-angle scattering for extremely small momentum transfer (Q∝10 -5 A -1 ). (orig.)

  14. ASTACUS, a time focussing neutron diffractometer based on the reverse Fourier principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiitta, A.; Hiismaeki, P.

    1979-01-01

    Design principles, technical realization, and performance of a new time-of-flight neutron diffractometer, built for high resolution powder work and successfully operated for one year, are reported. The range of lattice spacings covered by the instrument extends from 0.3 down to 0.04 nm while the resolution varies from about 0.16% up to 0.8% respectively as dicated by the 10 μs time resolution and about 8 m flight path. (Auth.)

  15. Application of the X-ray diffractometer DRON to the study of long period structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordelij, V.I.; Lushchikov, V.I.; Syrykh, A.G.; Cherezon, V.G.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the stock-produced X-ray diffractometer DRON can be adapted for the study of long period structures up to ∼150 A. The experimental data on small-angle diffraction spectra, measured on it, from both lamellar and lateral structures of biological and lipid membranes are reported. The data show that lattice constants of these structures could be determined within the accuracy of 1 A. 15 refs.; 7 figs

  16. Data transmission from the DRON-2 X-ray diffractometers to a computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.G.; Monov, N.A.; Sazonov, V.F.; Chernomorskaya, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    The circuit of data transmission from DRON-2 X-ray diffractometer to a measurement-computation complex based on UVK SM-3 computer and CAMAC crate is described. The data is transmitted along two-wire TRP 1x2 telephone line of 'current loop type'. Pulses from intensity channel outlet are transmitted as unipolar mark pulses of ∼1 μs duration. The channels are separated by amplitudes

  17. Data acquisition and processing software for linear PSD based neutron diffractometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, S.S.; Borkar, S.P.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    As a part of data acquisition system for various single and multi-PSD diffractometers software is developed to acquire the data and support the requirements of diffraction experiments. The software is a front-end Windows 98 application on PC and a transputer program on the MPSD card. The front-end application provides entire user interface required for data acquisition, control, presentation and system setup. Data is acquired and the diffraction spectra are generated in the transputer program. All the required hardware control is also implemented in the transputer program. The two programs communicate using a device driver named VTRANSPD. The software plays a vital role in customizing and integrating the data acquisition system for various diffractometer setups. Also the experiments are effectively automated in the software which has helped in making best use of available beam time. These and other features of the data acquisition and processing software are presented here. This software is being used along with the data acquisition system at a few single PSD and multi-PSD diffractometers. (author)

  18. A new beauty for 'ADONE': a high resolution powder diffractometer for synchrotron radiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burattini, E.; Simeoni, S.

    1991-01-01

    A high resolution powder diffractometer, connected to the wiggler magnet line BX1, is now operative at the Adone storage ring in Frascati. A Si channel-cut monochromator on the line allows operation in the range 1-3 A. To achieve the desired high resolution in the diffraction spectra, a 'triple-axis configuration' has been chosen: a vertical standing goniometer supports a flat Ge(111) crystal analyzer on the 2O arm. With this configuration, a value of less than 0.02 o for the FWHM of the diffraction peaks has been reached. The special design solutions adopted for a Seifer MZ VI goniometer and the microstep technology used in the stepper motor actuation assure a mechanical resolution better than 0.001 o . A special supporting table, with six degrees of freedom, has been made for the diffractometer orientation in front of the X-ray beam. An IBM-PC is dedicated to the diffractometer positioning control and preliminary data collection. As a Macintosh IICX provides for the data processing, a special software package, named 'Mac Dust', has been developed and is continuously updated. The first experimental results collected on-line during the instrument check-up are presented. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs

  19. A comparison between Engin and Engin-X, a new diffractometer optimized for stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dann, J.A.; Daymond, M.R.; Edwards, L.; James, J.A.; Santisteban, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Engineering diffractometers are used extensively by both engineers and materials scientists for the measurement of strain within polycrystalline materials, both metallic and ceramic. In the past neutron diffractometers have generally been built as 'all-purpose' instruments, with designs that are compromises, balancing competing requirements to measure the intensities, positions and widths of diffraction peaks simultaneously. In contrast the newly constructed diffractometer ENGIN-X was designed with the single aim of making engineering strain measurements; essentially the accurate measurement of polycrystalline lattice parameters, at a precisely determined position. Under this design philosophy, considerable performance improvements have been obtained compared to the existing instrument. This paper details the design philosophy of this instrument, including tuneable incident resolution, together with the approaches used to realise the performance required. The improved instrument performance is demonstrated here, with results obtained during the commissioning of ENGIN-X. These results include strain mapping experiments, and demonstrate the influence of resolution on required count times, and provide a direct comparison with measurements from the existing ENGIN instrument at ISIS

  20. Multipurpose RTOF Fourier diffractometer at the ET-RR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; Tiitta, A.T.

    1993-09-01

    The present work represents a further study of the basic RTOF Fourier multipurpose diffractometer, to start with, at the ET-RR-1 reactor. The functions of the suggested arrangement are thoroughly discussed and the possibilities if its expansion are also assessed. The flexibility of the arrangement allows its further expansion both for stress measurement at 90 deg. scattering angle with two detector banks at opposite sides of the incident beam and for operation in the transmission diffraction mode. (orig.). (19 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.)

  1. Neutron diffractometer for bio-crystallography (BIX) with an imaging plate neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    We have constructed a dedicated diffractometer for neutron crystallography in biology (BIX) on the JRR-3M reactor at JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute). The diffraction intensity from a protein crystal is weaker than that from most inorganic materials. In order to overcome the intensity problem, an elastically bent silicon monochromator and a large area detector system were specially designed. A preliminary result of diffraction experiment using BIX has been reported. An imaging plate neutron detector has been developed and a feasibility experiment was carried out on BIX. Results are reported. An imaging plate neutron detector has been developed and a feasibility test was carried out using BIX.

  2. Software of structure experiMents in a neutron time-of-flight diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurov, A.M.; Dlouga, M.; Zlokazov, V.B.; Mironova, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    A set of programs is discussed to be used in diffraction experiment in a neutron time-of-flight diffractometer. The DIFRAT program, which processes spectra of poly and monocrystals, locates all spectrum maxima and assesses their width on the basis of given experimental data and elementary cell parameters. Accurate location of maxima, evaluation of their area and width is done by the IREAK program. The most important feature of this program is a capability to set an experimental model of maxima patterns. The EXPDAT program is developed to investigate structural characteristics of a sample. It calculates corrections for absorbtion and extinction

  3. Design and construction of a data acquisition system for a neutron diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza F, Lorena M.

    1995-01-01

    This work presents the design and construction of a data acquisition system for the neutron diffractometer of the La Reina Nuclear Studies Center. The system counts simultaneously the events produced in 17 detection channels, in 128 time channels with 10 μs duration, synchronized with a external signal. The event counting is performed by associating each detection and time channel to a binary code which determine a storage memory. The system is operated by a computer which controls the data acquisition and transfer. The designed software allows the data acquisition and storage in a file for later processing

  4. USB port compatible virtual instrument based automation for x-ray diffractometer setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayapandian, J.; Sheela, O.K.; Mallika, R.; Thiruarul, A.; Purniah, B.

    2004-01-01

    Windows based virtual instrument (VI) programs in graphic language simplify the design automation in R and D laboratories. With minimal hardware and maximum support of software, the automation becomes easier and user friendly. A novel design approach for the automation of SIEMENS make x-ray diffractometer setup is described in this paper. The automation is achieved with an indigenously developed virtual instrument program in labVIEW ver.6.0 and with a simple hardware design using 89C2051 micro-controller compatible with PC's USB port for the total automation of the experiment. (author)

  5. The D18 diffractometer for neutron interferometry at the I.L.L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauspiess, W.

    1978-01-01

    Three things are needed for neutron interferometry: an interferometer (a crystal in the case of Bragg diffraction interferometry), a neutron source, and a device to select and handle the neutrons that shall be used. It is this last technical aspect of neutron interferometry which is discussed in the paper, using as an example the new diffractometer for neutron interferometry that is being built at the I.L.L. Results of performance tests are not presently available but its characteristics are visible from the design. The experimental figures given in the paper refer to experiments performed with the prototype machine, or are extrapolated from said experiments

  6. Initial results from the high resolution powder diffractometer HRPD at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.I.F.; Harrison, W.T.A.; Johnson, M.W.

    1986-07-01

    The paper reviews the initial commissioning of the high resolution time-of-flight neutron powder diffractometer, HRPD, on the Spallation Neutron Source, ISIS, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Preliminary results have confirmed both intensity and resolution predictions indicating that (Δd/d) lies between 0.04% and 0.08% for all d-spacings between 0.2 and 5A. The scientific potential of this increased resolution over existing time-of-flight diffractometers has been demonstrated in the successful ab initio structure determination of an unknown inorganic material, FeAsO 4 , and the detailed study of subtle symmetry changes in NiO. The true instrumental resolution, however, has been observed in only a small number of experiments: sample broadening is often seen to play a dominant role in the determination of the peak shape, particularly at longer d-spacings. This leads to additional useful information about macroscopic properties, such as anisotropic crystallite size, strain distribution and sample homogeneity, but also results in a significant increase in complexity of peak-shape description and data-analysis strategy. (author)

  7. A new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer at the Brookhaven high flux beam reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, L.; Bar-Ziv, S.; Gardner, D.W.; Cox, D.E.; Axe, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    A high resolution neutron powder diffractometer under construction at the Brookhaven HFBR is expected to be completed by mid-1991. The new machine will have a Ge (511) monochromator with a take-off angle of 120 o (λ=1.89A) and 64 3 He counters in the detector bank. There will be interchangeable collimators before the monochromator allowing a choice of 5 or 11' horizontal divergence, and 10 cm-high, 5' collimators in front of the detectors. In the higher resolution mode, Δd/d is expected to be about 6x10 -4 at the resolution minimum. The diffractometer is generally similar to D2B at the Institut Laue-Langevin except for the monochromator. This will consist of a vertically focussing array of segments 3x1.27 cm in dimensions cut from stacks of 20 0.43 mm wafers that have been pressed and brazed together. Preliminary measurements indicate that a mosaic width of 0.1-0.15 o and a peak reflectivity of 25% can be achieved in this way. (author) 2 figs., 22 refs

  8. Universal crystal cooling device for precession cameras, rotation cameras and diffractometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdu, J.; McLaughlin, P.J.; Helliwell, J.R.; Sheldon, J.; Thompson, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    A versatile crystal cooling device is described for macromolecular crystallographic applications in the 290 to 80 K temperature range. It utilizes a fluctuation-free cold-nitrogen-gas supply, an insulated Mylar crystal cooling chamber and a universal ball joint, which connects the cooling chamber to the goniometer head and the crystal. The ball joint is a novel feature over all previous designs. As a result, the device can be used on various rotation cameras, precession cameras and diffractometers. The lubrication of the interconnecting parts with graphite allows the cooling chamber to remain stationary while the crystal and goniometer rotate. The construction allows for 360 0 rotation of the crystal around the goniometer axis and permits any settings on the arcs and slides of the goniometer head (even if working at 80 K). There are no blind regions associated with the frame holding the chamber. Alternatively, the interconnecting ball joint can be tightened and fixed. This results in a set up similar to the construction described by Bartunik and Schubert where the cooling chamber rotates with the crystal. The flexibility of the systems allows for the use of the device on most cameras or diffractometers. THis device has been installed at the protein crystallographic stations of the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory and in the Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Oxford. Several data sets have been collected with processing statistics typical of data collected without a cooling chamber. Tests using the full white beam of the synchrotron also look promising. (orig./BHO)

  9. A Novel X-ray Diffractometer for the Florida Split Coil 25 Tesla Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengyu; Kovalev, Alexey; Suslov, Alexey; Siegrist, Theo

    2014-03-01

    At National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), we are developing a unique X-ray diffractometer for the 25 Tesla Florida Split Coil Magnet for scattering experiments under extremely high static magnetic fields. The X-ray source is a sealed tube (copper or molybdenum anode), connected to the magnet by an evacuated beam tunnel. The detectors are either an image plate or a silicon drift detector, with the data acquisition system based on LabVIEW. Our preliminary experimental results showed that the performance of the detector electronics and the X-ray generator is reliable in the fringe magnetic fields produced at the highest field of 25 T. Using this diffractometer, we will make measurements on standard samples, such as LaB6, Al2O3 and Si, to calibrate the diffraction system. Magnetic samples, such as single crystal HoMnO3 and stainless steel 301 alloys will be measured subsequently. The addition of X-ray diffraction to the unique split coil magnet will significantly expand the NHMFL experimental capabilities. Therefore, external users will be able to probe spin - lattice interactions at static magnetic fields up to 25T. This project is supported by NSF-DMR Award No.1257649. NHMFL is supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement No. DMR-1157490, the State of Florida, and the U.S. DoE.

  10. GLAD: The IPNS (Intense Pulsed Neutron Source) Glass, Liquid, and Amorphous materials Diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.K.; Price, D.L.; Haumann, J.R.; Kleb, R.; Montague, D.G.; Carpenter, J.M.; Susman, S.; Dejus, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A number of years of experience in diffraction from amorphous materials has now been accumulated at various pulsed neutron sources. Workshops t IPNS and elsewhere have distilled some of this experience to provide a set of criteria for a new diffractometer dedicated to an optimized for structural studies of amorphous materials. This paper discusses the instrument GLAD (Glass, Liquid, and Amorphous Materials Diffractometer) which has been designed to meet these criteria and is now being built at IPNS. This instrument involves the use of relatively short-wavelength neutrons and a sophisticated neutron detection and acquisition system. A preliminary, simplified version of the instrument has been constructed while the final version is still under design, in order to develop the data acquisition and analysis techniques and to develop methods for collection of data with adequate quality (low background) at short wavelengths. This paper will briefly outline the final instrument envisioned and its calculated performance, but will focus mostly on the details of the detection/acquisition system and the calibration and data collection procedures which have been developed. The brief operating experience which has been gained to data with the preliminary instrument version will also be summarized. 6 refs., 12 figs

  11. Optimization of a neutron detector system for the fourier RTOF-diffractometer facility at the ETRR-1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maayouf, R M.A.; El-Kady, A S.I.; El-Shaer, Y H [Reactor and Neutron physics Dept., NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    This work deals with optimization of a detector system for use with the fourier reverse time of flight (RTOF) diffractometer facility recently installed at the ETRR-1 reactor. The detector system of the diffractometer was designed for detecting neutrons scattered from the sample. It consists of 4 independent scintillation detector elements arranged according to the time focusing geometry in order to increase the luminosity of the diffractometer for the given resolution. Each of the detector elements is made of 1 mm thick {sup 6} Li-glass scintillator (NE-912) whose surface area is 200 mm{sup 2}. The present detector system ensures reliable identification and separation of thermal neutron pulses from fast neutrons and gamma- quanta. It was found from measurements with Fe sample that it is possible to make neutron diffraction measurement, within one hour using the present detector system and with resultion 0.5%. 6 FIGS.

  12. Mechanical design of a high-resolution x-ray powder diffractometer at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, D.; Lee, P.; Preissner, C.; Ramanathan, M.; Beno, M.; VonDreele, R.; Ranay, R.; Ribaud, L.; Kurtz, C.; Jiao, X.; Kline, D.; Jemian, P.; Toby, B.

    2007-01-01

    A novel high-resolution x-ray powder diffractometer has been designed and commissioned at the bending magnet beamline 11-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This state-of-the-art instrument is designed to meet challenging mechanical and optical specifications for producing high-quality powder diffraction data with high throughput. The 2600 mm (H) X 2100 mm (L) X 1700 mm (W) diffractometer consists of five subassemblies: a customized two-circle goniometer with a 3-D adjustable supporting base; a twelve-channel high-resolution crystal analyzer system with an array of precision x-ray slits; a manipulator system for a twelve scintillator x-ray detectors; a 4-D sample manipulator with cryo-cooling capability; and a robot-based sample exchange automation system. The mechanical design of the diffractometer as well as the test results of its positioning performance are presented in this paper.

  13. Mechanical design of a high-resolution x-ray powder diffractometer at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Lee, P.; Preissner, C.; Ramanathan, M.; Beno, M.; VonDreele, R.; Ranay, R.; Ribaud, L.; Kurtz, C.; Jiao, X.; Kline, D.; Jemian, P.; Toby, B.

    2007-01-01

    A novel high-resolution x-ray powder diffractometer has been designed and commissioned at the bending magnet beamline 11-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This state-of-the-art instrument is designed to meet challenging mechanical and optical specifications for producing high-quality powder diffraction data with high throughput. The 2600 mm (H) X 2100 mm (L) X 1700 mm (W) diffractometer consists of five subassemblies: a customized two-circle goniometer with a 3-D adjustable supporting base; a twelve-channel high-resolution crystal analyzer system with an array of precision x-ray slits; a manipulator system for a twelve scintillator x-ray detectors; a 4-D sample manipulator with cryo-cooling capability; and a robot-based sample exchange automation system. The mechanical design of the diffractometer as well as the test results of its positioning performance are presented in this paper.

  14. Design and implementation of low-Q diffractometers at spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, P.A.; Hjelm, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    Low-Q diffractometers at spallation sources that use time of flight methods have been successfully implemented at several facilities, including the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center. The proposal to build new, more powerful, advanced spallation sources using advanced moderator concepts will provide luminosity greater than 20 times the brightest spallation source available today. These developments provide opportunity and challenge to expand the capabilities of present instruments with new designs. The authors review the use of time of flight for low-Q measurements and introduce new designs to extend the capabilities of present-day instruments. They introduce Monte Carlo methods to optimize design and simulate the performance of these instruments. The expected performance of the new instruments are compared to present day pulsed source- and reactor-based small-angle neutron scattering instruments. They review some of the new developments that will be needed to use the power of brighter sources effectively

  15. Note: Detector collimators for the nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004 (United States); Weber, J. K. R., E-mail: rweber@anl.gov; Alderman, O. L. G. [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Neuefeind, J. C.; Carruth, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Skinner, L. B. [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Five neutron collimator designs were constructed and tested at the nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) instrument. Collimators were made from High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) or 5% borated HDPE. In all cases, collimators improved the signal to background ratio and reduced detection of secondary scattering. In the Q-range 10-20 Å{sup −1}, signal to background ratio improved by factors of approximately 1.6 and 2.0 for 50 and 100 mm deep collimators, respectively. In the Q-range 40-50 Å{sup −1}, the improvement factors were 1.8 and 2.7. Secondary scattering as measured at Q ∼ 9.5 Å{sup −1} was significantly decreased when the collimators were installed.

  16. A design for a high resolution very-low-Q time-of flight diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R. P.

    1998-01-01

    The design of a high resolution view low-Q time of flight diffractometer was motivated by the anticipated need to perform small-angle neutron scattering measurements at far lower momentum transfer and higher precision than currently available at either pulsed or steady state sources. In addition, it was recognized that flexibility in the configuration of the instrument and ease in which data is acquired are important. The design offers two configurations, a high intensity/very low Q geometry employing a focusing mirror and a medium to high Q-precision/low Q configuration using standard pinhole collimation geometry. The quality of the mirror optics is very important to the performance of the high intensity/very low Q configuration. We believe that the necessary technology exists to fabricate the high quality mirror optics required for the instrument

  17. OCTOPUS: an innovative multimodal diffractometer for neutron macromolecular crystallography across the length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakeley, M.P.; Andersen, K.; Kreuz, M.; Giroud, B.; McSweeney, S.; Mitchell, E.; Teixeira, S.C.M.; Forsyth, V.T.

    2011-01-01

    We propose to construct a novel protein diffractometer at position H112B. The new instrument will deliver major efficiency gains, as well as offering greatly extended flexibility through the option of several easily interchangeable modes of operation. This proposal builds on the demonstrable need to extend ILL's capacity for high resolution structural studies of protein systems, as well as a need to widen the scope of biological crystallography - in particular for monochromatic studies at both high and low resolution. The development will be carried out in close collaboration with structural biologists at the ESRF, and engineered in such a way that the user interface of the instrument (from sample to software) will be transparently identifiable to a large, dynamic, and driven community of European synchrotron X-ray macromolecular crystallographers. (authors)

  18. Use of a CCD-based area detection system of a fibre diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.; Windle, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a new X-ray fibre diffractometer, consisting of a commercial X-ray sensitive video camera coupled to a conventional 3 goniometer in place of a more traditional single-point detector. The active element of the video camera is a charge-coupled device (CCD). Diffraction images, obtained at various goniometer settings, are transformed into reciprocal space, and combined to give a complete section through the origin and parallel to the symmetry axis of cylindrically averaged reciprocal space. A greater density of measurements is needed in the vicinity of the reciprocal fibre axis in order to avoid information loss due to the curvature of the Ewald sphere. The pros and cons of using CCD's as X-ray detectors are discussed and sample results from polymer fibers are shown. 17 refs., 5 figs

  19. The new powder diffractometer D1B of the Institut Laue Langevin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente Orench, I.; Clergeau, J. F.; Martínez, S.; Olmos, M.; Fabelo, O.; Campo, J.

    2014-11-01

    D1B is a medium resolution high flux powder diffractometer located at the Institut Laue Langevin, ILL. D1B a suitable instrument for studying a large variety of polycrystalline materials. D1B runs since 1998 as a CRG (collaborating research group) instrument, being exploited by the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) and CSIC (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Spain). In 2008 the Spanish CRG started an updating program which included a new detector and a radial oscillating collimator (ROC). The detector, which has a sensitive height of 100mm, covers an angular range of 128°. Its 1280 gold wires provide a neutron detection point every 0.1°. The ROC is made of 198 gadolinium- based absorbing collimation blades, regular placed every 0.67°. Here the present characteristics of D1B are reviewed and the different experimental performances will be presented.

  20. Sensitivity of triple-crystal X-ray diffractometers to microdefects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molodkin, V.B.; Olikhovskii, S.I.; Len, E.G.; Kislovskii, E.N.; Kladko, V.P.; Reshetnyk, O.V.; Vladimirova, T.P.; Sheludchenko, B.V.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical theory, which describes both diffraction profiles and reciprocal space maps measured from imperfect crystals with account for instrumental factors of triple-crystal diffractometer (TCD), has been developed for adequate quantitative characterization of microdefects. Analytical expressions for coherent and diffuse scattering (DS) intensities measured by TCD in the Bragg diffraction geometry have been derived by using the generalized statistical dynamical theory of X-ray scattering in real single crystals with randomly distributed defects. The DS intensity distributions from single crystals containing clusters and dislocation loops have been described by explicit analytical expressions. Particularly, these expressions take into account anisotropy of displacement fields around defects with discrete orientations. Characteristics of microdefect structures in silicon single crystals grown by Czochralsky- and float-zone methods have been determined by analyzing the measured TCD profiles and reciprocal space maps. The sensitivities of reciprocal space maps and diffraction profiles to defect characteristics have been compared. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Measurement of the neutron intensity data using the HANARO four circle diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Ho; Lee, Chang Hee; Seong, Baek Seok; Lee, Jeong Soo; Shim, Hae Seop; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Song, Su Ho; Suh, Il Hwan

    1999-04-01

    As the four circle diffractometer(FCD) has been set up in HANARO, it has become possible to study single crystal structures by means of the neutron diffraction. By introducing the constitution and characteristics of FCD, it has been shown that the feature of neutron diffraction experiment are different from that of X-ray or electronic beam. Besides we have explained the processes of determining experimental information in order to acquire intensity data and constructed the experimental system based on geometry of the FCD. As the computer programme performing all experimental processes automatically has been installed and the accuracy of experimental processes were confirmed by KCl single crystal experiment, the original experimental system for single crystal experiments and analyses by the neutron diffraction method using FCD has been established. (Author). 12 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  2. Better powder diffractometers. II—Optimal choice of U, V and W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, L. D.

    2007-12-01

    This article presents a technique for optimising constant wavelength (CW) neutron powder diffractometers (NPDs) using conventional nonlinear least squares methods. This is believed to be the first such design optimisation for a neutron spectrometer. The validity of this approach and discussion should extend beyond the Gaussian element approximation used and also to instruments using different radiation, such as X-rays. This approach could later be extended to include vertical and perhaps horizontal focusing monochromators and probably other types of instruments such as three axis spectrometers. It is hoped that this approach will help in comparisons of CW and time-of-flight (TOF) instruments. Recent work showed that many different beam element combinations can give identical resolution on CW NPDs and presented a procedure to find these combinations and also find an "optimum" choice of detector collimation. Those results enable the previous redundancy in the description of instrument performance to be removed and permit a least squares optimisation of design. New inputs are needed and are identified as the sample plane spacing ( dS) of interest in the measurement. The optimisation requires a "quality factor", QPD, chosen here to be minimising the worst Bragg peak separation ability over some measurement range ( dS) while maintaining intensity. Any other QPD desired could be substituted. It is argued that high resolution and high intensity powder diffractometers (HRPDs and HIPDs) should have similar designs adjusted by a single scaling factor. Simulated comparisons are described suggesting significant improvements in performance for CW HIPDs. Optimisation with unchanged wavelength suggests improvements by factors of about 2 for HRPDs and 25 for HIPDs. A recently quantified design trade-off between the maximum line intensity possible and the degree of variation of angular resolution over the scattering angle range leads to efficiency gains at short wavelengths. This

  3. A time-focusing Fourier chopper time-of-flight diffractometer for large scattering angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, R.; Hiismaeki, P.; Piirto, A.; Poeyry, H.; Tiitta, A.

    1975-01-01

    A high-resolution time-of-flight diffractometer utilizing time focusing principles in conjunction with a Fourier chopper is under construction at Otaniemi. The design is an improved version of a test facility which has been used for single-crystal and powder diffraction studies with promising results. A polychromatic neutron beam from a radial beam tube of the FiR 1 reactor, collimated to dia. 70 mm, is modulated by a Fourier chopper (dia. 400 mm) which is placed inside a massive boron-loaded particle board shielding of 900 mm wall thickness. A thin flat sample (5 mm x dia. 80 mm typically) is mounted on a turntable at a distance of 4 m from the chopper, and the diffracted neutrons are counted by a scintillation detector at 4 m distance from the sample. The scattering angle 2theta can be chosen between 90deg and 160deg to cover Bragg angles from 45deg up to 80deg. The angle between the chopper disc and the incident beam direction as well as the angle of the detector surface relative to the diffracted beam can be adjusted between 45deg and 90deg in order to accomplish time-focusing. In our set-up, with equal flight paths from chopper to sample and from sample to detector, the time-focusing conditions are fulfilled when the chopper and the detector are parallel to the sample-plane. The time-of-flight spectrum of the scattered neutrons is measured by the reverse time-of-flight method in which, instead of neutrons, one essentially records the modulation function of the chopper during constant periods preceding each detected neutron. With a Fourier chopper whose speed is varied in a suitable way, the method is equivalent to the conventional Fourier method but the spectrum is obtained directly without any off-line calculations. The new diffractometer is operated automatically by a Super Nova computer which not only accumulates the synthetized diffraction pattern but also controls the chopper speed according to the modulation frequency sweep chosen by the user to obtain a

  4. Automated IBM PC/XT/AT based measurement and control system for the DRON-3M X-ray diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulaev, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    An automated IBM PC/XT/AT based measurement and control system for the DRON-3M X-ray diffractometer is decribed. The system permits carrying out of real time diffractometer control automatic X-spectra measurement and data acquisition, as well as experimental information computing and representation. The electronic of the system consists of a CAMAC crate with analog and power modules, and a control and measurement organization module, performed as a single bord in the standard of PC electronics. The system provides X-spectra acquisition with volume up to 4K in the angle range from 100 to 160 degrees with a resolution of 0.01 degree, a dead time less than 1mks and an exposition time from tenths of a second to dozens of minutes. 3 refs.; 5 figs

  5. Structural study of hydrogen and hydration by the IBARAKI biological crystal diffractometer (iBIX)/industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ichiro; Hosoya, Takaaki; Kusaka, Katsuhiro; Niimura, Nobuo; Yamada, Taro; Tomoyori, Katsuaki; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ohhara, Takashi; Kurihara, Kazuo; Ohnishi, Yuki; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kawamura, Takahiro; Oosumi, Takashi; Uchida, Hirohisa; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Kashiwagi, Tatsuki; Miyamoto, Akio; Furukawa, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    IBARAKI Biological Crystal Diffractometer (iBIX), a new neutron diffractometer for protein crystallography, was constructed as a next generation neutron source in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) and it has begun operation since December 2008. During a fiscal year of 2009, 14 detector units, the basic part of data reduction software and an equipment of cryostream cooler to 20K became available, and measurements and structural analysis of an organic standard crystal were succeeded. Since 120kW accelerator operation in December 2009, neutron measurements for structural analysis of several crystals of inorganic, organic compounds and proteins including industrial users' have been carried out and some of these data sets have been analyzed to the degree that positions of the hydrogen and the hydrated water could be identified. (author)

  6. Compact femtosecond electron diffractometer with 100 keV electron bunches approaching the single-electron pulse duration limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldecker, Lutz; Bertoni, Roman; Ernstorfer, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and implementation of a highly compact femtosecond electron diffractometer working at electron energies up to 100 keV. We use a multi-body particle tracing code to simulate electron bunch propagation through the setup and to calculate pulse durations at the sample position. Our simulations show that electron bunches containing few thousands of electrons per bunch are only weakly broadened by space-charge effects and their pulse duration is thus close to the one of a single-electron wavepacket. With our compact setup, we can create electron bunches containing up to 5000 electrons with a pulse duration below 100 fs on the sample. We use the diffractometer to track the energy transfer from photoexcited electrons to the lattice in a thin film of titanium. This process takes place on the timescale of few-hundred femtoseconds and a fully equilibrated state is reached within 1 ps

  7. The time-of-flight small-angle neutron diffractometer (SAD) at IPNS, Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Epperson, J.E.; Crawford, R.K.; Carpenter, J.M.; Klippert, T.E.; Wozniak, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    The design, development and performance of the time-of-flight (TOF) small-angle diffractometer (SAD) at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory are described. Similar TOF-SANS instruments are in operation at the pulsed neutron sources at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA, at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, England, and at KEK, Japan. These instruments have an advantage by comparison with their steady-state counterparts in that a relatively wide range of momentum transfer (q) can be monitored in a single experiment without the need to alter the collimation or the sample-to-detector distance. This feature makes SANS experiments easy and very effective for studying systems such as those undergoing phase transitions under different conditions, samples that cannot be easily reproduced for repetitive experiments, and systems under high temperature, pressure or shear. Three standard samples are used to demonstrate that the quality of the SANS data from SAD is comparable with those from other established steady-state SANS facilities. Two examples are given to illustrate that the wide q region accessible in a single measurement at SAD is very effective for following the time-dependent phase transitions in paraffins and temperature- and pressure-dependent phase transitions in model biomembranes. (orig.)

  8. High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer HRPT for Thermal Neutrons at SINQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Koch, M.; Koennecke, M.; Pomjakushin, V.; Schefer, J.; Schlumpf, N.

    1999-01-01

    The new neutron powder diffractometer at the Swiss continuous spallation neutron source SINQ is designed as a flexible instrument for high resolution [best values δd/d: ( -3 with d = lattice spacing in the high resolution or high intensity modes, respectively]. It uses large scattering angles 2Θ M = 120 deg or 90 deg of the monochromator, a 28 cm high, vertically focusing wafer type Ge(hkk) monochromator and a position-sensitive 3 He detector(3.6 bar) produced by Cerca at Romans, France. It has 1600 (25x64) detectors with an angular separation of 0.1 deg and includes modern electronics developed by E. Berruyer, Cerca and PSI. The SICS software of PSI controls the instrument with a server running on an unix workstation and clients written in Java through the TCP/IP network. The design principles and first experiences are presented. The interdisciplinary applications of HRPT will permit high-resolution refinement of chemical and magnetic structures as well as phase analysis including the detection of defects and internal microstrain. In particular real-time investigations of chemical or structural changes and of magnetic phase transitions in crystalline, quasicrystalline, amorphous and liquid samples including technically interesting new materials are possible. (author)

  9. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Freeland, J. W.; Hong, Hawoong, E-mail: hhong@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Tung, I. C. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chang, S.-H.; Bhattacharya, A.; Fong, D. D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques.

  10. Design of a microcomputer-based X-ray diffractometer controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naval, P.C. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This work describes the design of an Apple II-based X-ray diffractometer controller capable of acquiring and analyzing X-ray powder diffraction data. The controller's interrupt-drivers hardware includes an on-based scaler for counting X-ray pulses, a closed-loop stepper motor driver for Philips PW 1050 Vertical Goniometer, and circuits for present data collection and safety. ACQUIRE - data acquisition program for the controller coordinates its various devices so that it can perform sample scanning in any of the following modes: continuous, present tome or present count scanning. This program watches over the scanning process and will try to correct any error it detects. Any fault monitored is logged on disk. The collected diffraction data are stored on disk together with its data acquisition parameters and may be transported to another computer. Data analysis is done by ANALYZE a program that operates on the output file generated by ACQUIRE. Its 15 single-keystroke commands permit panning and zooming of the sample's diffractogram, data smoothing, data peak search, peak report generation, and digital plotting. Data smoothing uses a third-degree Savitzky-Golay Convoluting Filter of user defined width. For peak detection, the peak search algorithm examines the diffractograms second derivative for any Gaussian resemblance and checks the peaks' area for statistical significance. The hard copy plot is available from any on-line digital plotted supporting EPSON's Mode D Plotter Commands. (Author). 15 refs. Appendixes p. 85-163

  11. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Freeland, J. W.; Hong, Hawoong; Tung, I. C.; Chang, S.-H.; Bhattacharya, A.; Fong, D. D.

    2016-01-01

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques

  12. Design and implementation of a multiaxial loading capability during heating on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benafan, O.; Padula, S. A.; Skorpenske, H. D.; An, K.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2014-01-01

    A gripping capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during multiaxial loading and heating on the VULCAN engineering materials diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed capability allowed for the acquisition of neutron spectra during tension, compression, torsion, and/or complex loading paths at elevated temperatures. The design consisted of age-hardened, Inconel ® 718 grips with direct attachment to the existing MTS load frame having axial and torsional capacities of 100 kN and 400 N·m, respectively. Internal cooling passages were incorporated into the gripping system for fast cooling rates during high temperature experiments up to ∼1000 K. The specimen mounting couplers combined a threaded and hexed end-connection for ease of sample installation/removal without introducing any unwanted loads. Instrumentation of this capability is documented in this work along with various performance parameters. The gripping system was utilized to investigate deformation in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes (e.g., isothermal, isobaric, and cyclic), and preliminary results are presented. The measurements facilitated the quantification of the texture, internal strain, and phase fraction evolution in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes

  13. Design and implementation of a multiaxial loading capability during heating on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benafan, O., E-mail: othmane.benafan@nasa.gov [NASA Glenn Research Center, Structures and Materials Division, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Padula, S. A. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Structures and Materials Division, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Skorpenske, H. D.; An, K. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Vaidyanathan, R. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A gripping capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during multiaxial loading and heating on the VULCAN engineering materials diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed capability allowed for the acquisition of neutron spectra during tension, compression, torsion, and/or complex loading paths at elevated temperatures. The design consisted of age-hardened, Inconel{sup ®} 718 grips with direct attachment to the existing MTS load frame having axial and torsional capacities of 100 kN and 400 N·m, respectively. Internal cooling passages were incorporated into the gripping system for fast cooling rates during high temperature experiments up to ~1000 K. The specimen mounting couplers combined a threaded and hexed end-connection for ease of sample installation/removal without introducing any unwanted loads. Instrumentation of this capability is documented in this work along with various performance parameters. The gripping system was utilized to investigate deformation in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes (e.g., isothermal, isobaric, and cyclic), and preliminary results are presented. The measurements facilitated the quantification of the texture, internal strain, and phase fraction evolution in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes.

  14. Position controller for the arm of a neutron diffractometer using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala P, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    The neutron diffractometer is an important instrument coupled to one of the radial outlets of the TRIGA-3-Salazar Reactor and is used mainly to analyze textures and crystal lattices. One of its main components is the velocity analysis goniometer which controls in a tangential way the movements of the sensor requiring for this a resolution of a hundredth of degree, but at the same time wide displacements are required. It is necessary to design and construct a system on the basis of a micro controller which control the long movements in a rapid way and with the needed accuracy. In this work, a proposition is presented: to replace the A.C. motor with a D.C. motor with a wide range of velocity and supplied with a card (DAC) to control the velocity by means of digital data. Moreover, a programmed micro controller with an algorithm based on fuzzy logic receiving data in BCD will be use. The use of micro controller will allow to set free the personal computer of the position of the goniometer; nevertheless, the system will report to the P C and its control program about the present position of the goniometer and the time when the desired position is reached. It is also consider that the user will be away from the system (a minimum of 15 meters) in order to avoid the zone with a high intensity of background radiation. (Author)

  15. New POLDI - project of reincarnation of a polarized neutron diffractometer at the reactor PIK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobkalo, I.; Gavrilov, S.; Matveev, V.; Fenske, J.

    2017-06-01

    The project of a considerable modernization of the polarized neutron diffractometer POLDI is discussed. It assumes the adoption of POLDI to a broader range of magnetic investigations such as determination of magnetic structures, detailed investigation of complex magnetic structures, studies of magnetic domains, study of the magnetization density maps, magnetic form-factor particularities, local susceptibility, etc. The flexible construction should permit to use either spherical neutron polarimetry technique or flipping ratio technique. Different types of polarization system were analyzed. Original focusing fan-like bender is proposed as polarizer unit. Our simulations give evidence that for the wavelength range 1.3 - 3 Å and with suitable size, such a device can give much better efficiency than 3He cells, which are often in use. The higher flux at the sample position of a factor of at least 3.3, with lower divergence and good polarization degree from 98% (1.3 Å) to above 94% (3 Å) makes the bender set-up favorable over the layout with a 3He-cell.

  16. Design and performance of a gamma-ray diffractometer at 0.12A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkire, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma-ray diffractometry is a relatively new field in which radioisotopes are used to provide highly penetrating, monoenergetic radiation for diffraction experiments. The first part of this work details the design of a gamma-ray diffractometer using the 103 keV gamma-rays from 153 Sm (γ = 0.12A). Complete description of source material, transport cask, full circle, detector and associated electronics is presented along with alignment and testing procedures. The second part of this work covers theoretical advantages and disadvantages afforded by 0.12A radiation, and experimental capabilities are tested by determining the absolute structure factor for the forbidden 222 reflection in silicon. F(222) was determined to be 1.456 +- 0.008 which is in excellent agreement with previous studies but with a reduction in error of between two and ten. General applications of 0.12A gamma radiation are also explored, including mosaic characterizations, structural phase transformations, electron density mapping, powder diffraction and experiments in special environmental devices

  17. Automatic attenuator upgrade for a Siemens D500 diffractometer via a generic software library to overcome hardware limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, Sina; Randau, Christian; Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    A proxy software was developed which allows the Siemens D500 x-ray diffractometer to be upgraded with add-ons that have never been officially available for it. For demonstration, we designed and integrated an automatic attenuator option and demonstrated the feasibility of our upgrade path by typical comparative x-ray measurements, which would usually saturate the x-ray detector, if no attenuator is used.

  18. Automatic attenuator upgrade for a Siemens D500 diffractometer via a generic software library to overcome hardware limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, Sina, E-mail: sina.mayr@frm2.tum.de [Technische Universität München, Physik-Department E21, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Randau, Christian [Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Fakultät für Geowissenschaften und Geologie, Abteilung Isotopengeologie Außenstelle MLZ (FRM II), Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kreuzpaintner, Wolfgang [Technische Universität München, Physik-Department E21, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-05-21

    A proxy software was developed which allows the Siemens D500 x-ray diffractometer to be upgraded with add-ons that have never been officially available for it. For demonstration, we designed and integrated an automatic attenuator option and demonstrated the feasibility of our upgrade path by typical comparative x-ray measurements, which would usually saturate the x-ray detector, if no attenuator is used.

  19. HIPPO, the high-pressure preferred orientation diffractometer at LANSCE for characterization of bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.; Dreele, R.B. von; Wenk, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    United States National Laboratory researchers and University of California faculty, representing a broad range of scientific disciplines, is building a novel time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffractometer and associated in situ equipment at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center), under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy. The goal with the High-Pressure Preferred Orientation Instrument (HIPPO) is to investigate dynamic processes in heterogeneous bulk materials in a variety of environments. The instrument, which will become available in summer 2001, has the extremely high count-rates necessary to study time-dependent processes in small (1-mm diameter) and large (2-cm diameter) samples, and in a large variety of environmental conditions (10-2000 K cryostats and furnaces, 0-20 GPa pressure vessels, straining cells, goniometers, magnets, etc.). The 3-D arrangement of detectors allows direct measurements of crystal orientation distributions in polycrystalline materials. The analysis of TOF diffraction patterns with versatile Rietveld codes provides simultaneous information on crystal structure, texture, microstructure and phase proportions. While this instrument has many applications in materials science, it is also of great interest for geology and geophysics. Some applications include: kinetics of reactions, structure of silicate glasses and melts, high-pressure investigations of complex systems, evolution of texture and anisotropy during deformation and recrystallization. The Lujan Center aims at creating an instrument with high data through-put and easy access to researchers and students. While the HIPPO instrument will be part of the national user facility operated by the Lujan Center, the scientific program will be guided by the University of California consortium with the goal of satisfying national priorities and establishing an environment of scientific excellence. (author)

  20. HIPPO, the high-pressure preferred orientation diffractometer at LANSCE for characterization of bulk materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.; Dreele, R.B. von [Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wenk, H.R. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Univ. of California, Berkely, CA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    United States National Laboratory researchers and University of California faculty, representing a broad range of scientific disciplines, is building a novel time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffractometer and associated in situ equipment at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center), under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy. The goal with the High-Pressure Preferred Orientation Instrument (HIPPO) is to investigate dynamic processes in heterogeneous bulk materials in a variety of environments. The instrument, which will become available in summer 2001, has the extremely high count-rates necessary to study time-dependent processes in small (1-mm diameter) and large (2-cm diameter) samples, and in a large variety of environmental conditions (10-2000 K cryostats and furnaces, 0-20 GPa pressure vessels, straining cells, goniometers, magnets, etc.). The 3-D arrangement of detectors allows direct measurements of crystal orientation distributions in polycrystalline materials. The analysis of TOF diffraction patterns with versatile Rietveld codes provides simultaneous information on crystal structure, texture, microstructure and phase proportions. While this instrument has many applications in materials science, it is also of great interest for geology and geophysics. Some applications include: kinetics of reactions, structure of silicate glasses and melts, high-pressure investigations of complex systems, evolution of texture and anisotropy during deformation and recrystallization. The Lujan Center aims at creating an instrument with high data through-put and easy access to researchers and students. While the HIPPO instrument will be part of the national user facility operated by the Lujan Center, the scientific program will be guided by the University of California consortium with the goal of satisfying national priorities and establishing an environment of scientific excellence. (author)

  1. Automation of angular movement of the arm neutron diffractometer; Automatizacion del movimiento angular del brazo del difractometro de neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F.; Herrera A, E.; Quintana C, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Torres R, C. E.; Reyes V, M., E-mail: fortunato.aguilar@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    A technique to determine the crystal structure of some materials is the neutron diffraction. This technique consists on placing the material in question in a monoenergetic neutron beam obtained by neutron diffraction in a monochromator crystal. The neutron energy depends of the diffraction angle. The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares has a neutron diffractometer and monochromator crystals of pyrolytic graphite. This crystal can be selecting the neutron energy depending on the angle of diffraction in the glass. The radiation source for the neutron diffractometer is the TRIGA Mark III reactor of the Nuclear Center Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores. During their operation are also obtained besides neutrons, β and γ radiation. The interest is to have thermal neutrons, so fast neutrons and γ rays are removed using appropriate shielding. The average neutron fluxes of the radial port RE2 of neutron diffractometer at power 1 MW are: heat flow 2,466 x 10{sup 8} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} and fast flow 1,239 x 10{sup 8} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. The neutron detector is housed in a shield mounted on a mechanical linkage with which the diffraction angle is selected, and therefore the energy of the neutrons. The movement of this joint was performed by the equipment operator manually, so that accuracy to select the diffraction angle was not good and the process rather slow. Therefore a mechanical system was designed, automated by means of a motor as an actuator, a system of force transmission and an electronic control in order that the operator will schedule the diffraction angles and allow the count in the neutrons detection system in a simple manner. (Author)

  2. A high performance neutron powder diffractometer at 3 MW Triga Mark-II research reactor in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, I., E-mail: imtiaz-kamal26@yahoo.com; Yunus, S. M., E-mail: yunussm11@yahoo.com; Datta, T. K., E-mail: tk-datta4@yahoo.com; Zakaria, A. K. M.; Das, A. K.; Aktar, S.; Hossain, S. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Ganakbari, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Berliner, R., E-mail: RB@instrumentationAssociates.com [Instrumentation Associates, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yelon, W. B., E-mail: yelonwb@hotmail.com [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

    2016-07-12

    A high performance neutron diffractometer called Savar Neutron Diffractometer (SAND) was built and installed at radial beam port-2 of TRIGA Mark II research reactor at AERE, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Structural studies of materials are being done by this technique to characterize materials crystallograpohically and magnetically. The micro-structural information obtainable by neutron scattering method is very essential for determining its technological applications. This technique is unique for understanding the magnetic behavior in magnetic materials. Ceramic, steel, electronic and electric industries can be benefited from this facility for improving their products and fabrication process. This instrument consists of a Popovicimonochromator with a large linear position sensitive detector array. The monochromator consists of nine blades of perfect single crystal of silicon with 6 mm thickness each. The monochromator design was optimized to provide maximum flux on 3 mm diameter cylindrical sample with a relatively flat angular dependence of resolution. Five different wave lengths can be selected by orienting the crystal at various angles. A sapphire filter was used before the primary collimator to minimize the first neutron. The detector assembly is composed of 15 linear position sensitive proportional counters placed at either 1.1 m or 1.6 m from the sample position and enclosed in a air pad supported high density polythene shield. Position sensing is obtained by charge division using 1-wide NIM position encoding modules (PEM). The PEMs communicate with the host computer via USB. The detector when placed at 1.1 m, subtends 30° (2θ) at each step and covers 120° in 4 steps. When the detector is placed at 1.6 m it subtends 20° at each step and covers 120° in 6 steps. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The diffractometer is a state-of-the art technology

  3. AND/R: Advanced neutron diffractometer/reflectometer for investigation of thin films and multilayers for the life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dura, Joseph A.; Pierce, Donald J.; Majkrzak, Charles F.; Maliszewskyj, Nicholas C.; McGillivray, Duncan J.; Loesche, Mathias; O'Donovan, Kevin V.; Mihailescu, Mihaela; Perez-Salas, Ursula; Worcester, David L.; White, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    An elastic neutron scattering instrument, the advanced neutron diffractometer/reflectometer (AND/R), has recently been commissioned at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research. The AND/R is the centerpiece of the Cold Neutrons for Biology and Technology partnership, which is dedicated to the structural characterization of thin films and multilayers of biological interest. The instrument is capable of measuring both specular and nonspecular reflectivity, as well as crystalline or semicrystalline diffraction at wave-vector transfers up to approximately 2.20 A -1 . A detailed description of this flexible instrument and its performance characteristics in various operating modes are given

  4. The OSIRIS diffractometer and polarisation analysis spectrometer at ISIS. New developments and 3He spin-filter polarisation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Ken H.; Marero, David Martin y; Barlow, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    OSIRIS combines a long-wavelength powder diffractometer with a polarisation analysis backscattering spectrometer. The diffractometer can access wavelengths up to 70 A with a resolution of better than 1% Δd/d. The very high counting-rate at shorter wavelengths is ideal for in-situ, real-time and parametric experiments. The spectroscopy section incorporates an array of graphite crystals arranged in near-backscattering to give a high counting rate with 25 μeV energy resolution. The incident beam is polarised using a supermirror bender and the scattered beam is polarisation-analysed by a 3 He spin-filter in the process of being constructed. The spin-filter system consists of a fibre laser, a peristaltic pump and a wide-angle banana-shaped quartz cell in a continuous-flow setup. The scattered beam passes twice through the spin-filter cell, thus doubling the optical path length in the cell. The aim is to achieve 70% nuclear polarisation with no variation in time. (author)

  5. Development of portable X-ray diffractometer equipped with X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and its application to archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Daisuke; Ishizaki, Atsushi; Uda, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    A portable X-ray diffractometer equipped with an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was improved so as to obtain a diffraction pattern and a fluorescence spectrum in air from one and the same small area of a specimen. The reason why the portable XRD with an XRF spectrometer was specially designed for archaeology may be understood from the following facts: (1) some objects exhibited in museums are not allowed to be transferred from the open air to a vacuum, even if their volumes are small; (2) some objects are very difficult to move from their original sites; (3) some parts of exhibits are extremely fragile and cannot be examined in a vacuum; and (4) information on the chemical composition and structure from the same area of an object offers a better understanding of the constitutive materials of the object. Some examples of the use of a portable X-ray diffractometer equipped with an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in the field are also introduced. Experimental results of Sho-kannon, Snew's mask and Tutankhamun's golden mask are shown here. (author)

  6. Modification of conventional X-ray diffractometer for the measurement of phase distribution in a narrow region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yang-Soon; Han, Sun-Ho; Kim, Jong-Goo; Jee, Kwang-Yong; Kim, Won-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    An X-ray diffractometer for spatially resolved X-ray diffraction measurements was developed to identify phase in the narrow (micron-scaled) region of high burn-up fuels and some nuclear materials. The micro-SRD was composed of an X-ray microbeam alignment system and a sample micro translation system instead of a normal slit and a fixed sample stage in a commercial XRD. The X-ray microbeam alignment system was fabricated with a microbeam concentrator having two Ni deposited mirrors, a vertical positioner, and a tilt table for the generation of a concentrated microbeam. The sample micro translation system was made with a sample holder and a horizontal translator, allowing movement of a specimen at 5 {mu}m steps. The angular intensity profile of the microbeam generated through a concentrator was symmetric and not distorted. The size of the microbeam was 4,000 x 20{mu}m and the spatial resolution of the beam was 47 {mu}m at the sample position. When the diffraction peaks were measured for a UO{sub 2} pellet specimen by this system, the reproducibility (2{theta} = {+-}0.01 .deg.) of the peaks was as good as a conventional X-ray diffractometer. For the cross section of oxidized titanium metal, not only TiO{sub 2} in an outer layer but also TiO near an oxide-metal interface was observed.

  7. Applications of RIGAKU Dmax Rapid II micro-X-ray diffractometer in the analysis of archaeological metal objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgai, Viktória; Szabó, Máté; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Weiszburg, Tamás G.; Fórizs, István; Mráv, Zsolt; Tóth, Mária

    2017-04-01

    During material analysis of archaeological metal objects, especially their inlays or corrosion products, not only microstructure and chemical composition, but mineralogical composition is necessary to be determined. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a widely-used method to specify the mineralogical composition. However, when sampling is not or limitedly allowed due to e.g. the high value of the object, the conventional XRD analysis can hardly be used. Laboratory micro-XRD instruments provide good alternatives, like the RIGAKU Dmax Rapid II micro-X-ray diffractometer, which is a unique combination of a MicroMax-003 third generation microfocus, sealed tube X-ray generator and a curved 'image plate' detector. With this instrument it is possible to measure as small as 10 µm area in diameter on the object. Here we present case studies for the application of the micro-XRD technique in the study of archaeological metal objects. In the first case niello inlay of a Late Roman silver augur staff was analysed. Due to the high value of the object, since it is the only piece known from the Roman Empire, only non-destructive analyses were allowed. To reconstruct the preparation of the niello, SEM-EDX analysis was performed on the niello inlays to characterise their chemical composition and microstructure. Two types of niello are present: a homogeneous, silver sulphide niello (acanthite) and an inhomogeneous silver-copper sulphide niello (exsolution of acanthite and jalpaite or jalpaite and stromeyerite). The micro-X-ray diffractometer was used to verify the mineralogical composition of the niello, supposed on the base of SEM results. In the second case corrosion products of a Late Roman copper cauldron with uncertain provenance were examined, since they may hold clues about the burial conditions (pH, Eh, etc.) of the object. A layer by layer analysis was performed in cross sections of small metal samples by using electron microprobe and micro-X-ray diffractometer. The results

  8. Performance and main characteristic parameters of the Cairo fourier diffractometer facility at the ET-RR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Latif, I.; El-Kady, A.; El-Shafey, A.; Khalil, M.; El-Shaer, Y.

    1997-05-01

    This report represents the results of measurements performed recently with the Cairo Fourier diffractometer facility (CFDF). The main components of the CFDF were supplied by the IAEA according to the technical assistance project EGY/1/022. The CFDF performance is assessed and the main parameters are given. The neutron guide system attached to the CFDF provides a thermal neutron flux ∼ 10 6 n/cm 2 .sec at the sample position; free from fast neutrons and gamma rays background. It has been found, from measurements with different powder samples, that such value of the thermal neutron flux is adequate for neutron diffraction measurements, at scattering angle 2θ 90 deg. and D values between 0.7A and 2.5A; with 52% resolution. (author). 26 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Structural characterization of advanced ceramics using the neutron diffractometer developed by Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parente, C.B.R.; Mazzocchi, V.L.

    1999-01-01

    Application of neutron diffractometer at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares, Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the structural investigations of advanced ceramics was presented. Methodology of the analysis of neutron diffraction patterns was tested with BaLiF 3 single crystals and also doped with Ni 2+ or Pb 2+ ions. The same methodology was used to investigate the HTSC phases in the system Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. The system Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca 2.2 Cu 3.5 O 10.6 was also investigated. Addition of Pb 2+ ions increased the fraction of high-T c phase 2223. Symmetry in neutron multiple diffraction patterns, obtained for aluminium single crystal, was elaborated. Crystal lattice parameter for aluminium single crystal was determined at different temperatures using neutron multiple diffraction. (author)

  10. Neutron Powder Diffraction Measurements of the Spinel MgGa2O4:Cr3+ - A Comparative Study between the High Flux Diffractometer D2B at the ILL and the High Resolution Powder Diffractometer Aurora at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, M A F M; Sosman, L P; Yokaichiya, F; Henry, P F; Bordallo, H N; Mazzocchi, V L; Parente, C B R; Mestnik-Filho, J

    2012-01-01

    Optical materials that emit from the visible to the near-infrared spectral region are of great interest due to their possible application as tunable radiation sources, as signal transmission, display, optoelectronics signal storage, cellulose industry as well as in dosimetry. One important family of such systems are the spinel compounds doped with Cr 3+ , in which the physical the properties are related to the insertion of punctual defects in the crystalline structure. The purpose of our work is two fold. First, we compare the luminescence of the MgGa 2 O 4 -Ga 2 O 3 system with the single phase Ga 2 O 3 and MgGa 2 O 4 and relate structural changes observed in MgGa 2 O 4 -Ga 2 O 3 system to the optical properties, and secondly, to compare the neutron powder diffraction results obtained using two diffractometers: D2B located at the ILL (Grenoble, France) and Aurora located at IPEN (São Paulo, Brazil). In the configuration chosen, Aurora shows an improved resolution, which is related to the design of its silicon focusing monochromator.

  11. Note: An X-ray powder diffractometer with a wide scattering-angle range of 72° using asymmetrically positioned one-dimensional detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuya, Yoshio; Tanaka, Masahiko [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Song, Chulho [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Global Research Center for Environment and Energy based Nanomaterials Science (GREEN), Lithium Air Battery Specially Promoted Research Team, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ito, Kimihiko; Kubo, Yoshimi [Global Research Center for Environment and Energy based Nanomaterials Science (GREEN), Lithium Air Battery Specially Promoted Research Team, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Sakata, Osami, E-mail: SAKATA.Osami@nims.go.jp [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Global Research Center for Environment and Energy based Nanomaterials Science (GREEN), Lithium Air Battery Specially Promoted Research Team, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Synchrotron X-ray Group, Quantum Beam Unit, NIMS, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    An X-ray powder diffractometer has been developed for a time-resolved measurement without the requirement of a scattering angle (2θ) scan. Six one-dimensional detector modules are asymmetrically arranged in a vertical line at a designed distance of 286.5 mm. A detector module actually covers a diffraction angle of about 12° with an angular resolution of 0.01°. A diffracted intensity pattern is simultaneously recorded in a 2θ angular range from 1.63° to 74.37° in a “one shot” measurement. We tested the performance of the diffractometer with reference CeO{sub 2} powders and demonstrated diffraction measurements from an operating lithium-air battery.

  12. Detector for the FSD Fourier-diffractometer based on ZnS(Ag)/6LiF scintillation screen and wavelength shifting fibers readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'min, E.S.; Balagurov, A.M.; Bokuchava, G.D.; Zhuk, V.V.; Kudryashev, V.A.; Bulkin, A.P.; Trunov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    At the IBR-2 pulsed reactor (FLNP, JINR, Dubna), a specialized time-of-flight instrument Fourier-Stress-Diffractometer (FSD) intended for the measurement of internal stresses in bulk samples by using high-resolution neutron diffraction is under construction. One of the main components of the diffractometer is a new-type detector with combined electronic - geometrical focusing uniting a large solid angle and a small geometry contribution to the instrumental resolution. The first two modules of the detector, based on scintillation screen ZnS(Ag)/ 6 LiF with wavelength shifting fibers readout have been developed and tested. The design of the detector and associated electronics are described. The method of time focusing surface approximation, using the screen flexibility is proposed. Characteristics of the tested modules in comparison with a detector of the previous generation are presented and advantages of the new detector design for high-resolution diffractometry are discussed

  13. Neutron beam applications - Development of single crystal structure analysis technique using the HANARO neutron four circle diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Il Hwan; Kim, Moon Jib; Kim, Jin Gyu [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    As the four circle diffractometer (FCD) has been set up in HANARO, it has become possible to study the single crystal structures by means of the neutron diffraction. Taking account of the geometry of the FCD, a program for the control of te FCD and neutron data acquisition operating under Windows' circumstance has been accomplished. Also, a computer program which can automatically measure the diffraction intensity data has been developed. All data obtained from the FCD are processed automatically for further work and a software for the single crystal structure analyses has been prepared. A KC1 single crystal was selected as first test sample for a structure analysis had been successfully performed on the FCD using in-house developed program and accordingly their functionings with precision were confirmed. For regular single crystal diffraction experiments, the structure analyses of chrysoberyl and Zr(Y)0{sub 1.87} single crystals were performed using both neutron and X-ray diffraction methods, and the result showed that the neutron diffraction work is superior to the X-ray one from the viewpoint of certain crystallographic information obtainable only from the former one. 24 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  14. Estimation of residual stress in cold rolled iron-disks from strain measurements on the high resolution Fourier diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Balagurov, A.M.; Taran, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    The results of estimating residual stresses in cold rolled iron disks by measurements with the high resolution Fourier diffractometer (HRFD) at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor are presented. These measurements were made for calibration of magnetic and ultrasonic measurements carried out at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Nondestructive Testing in Saarbrucken (Germany). The tested objects were cold rolled steel disks of 2.5 mm thickness and diameter of about 500 mm used for forming small, gas pressure tanks. Neutron diffraction experiments were carried out at the scattering angle 2θ=+152 d eg with resolution Δd/d=1.5·10 -3 . The gauge volume was chosen according to the magnetic measurements lateral resolution 20x20 mm 2 . In the nearest future the neutron diffraction measurements with cold rolled iron disks at the scattering angle 2θ=±90 0 are planned. Also the texture analysis will be included in the Rietveld refinement procedure for more correct calculation of residual stress fields in the cold rolled materials. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  15. A temperature-controlled cell for X-ray study of liquid systems using a commercial DRON-UM1 diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrun'kin, S.P.; Garavina, E.V.; Trostin, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    A container (cell) and a temperature-control system have been designed enabling one to carry out x-ray diffraction study of liquid samples both at a fixed temperature and within a certain temperature range using a commercial DRON-UMl x-ray diffractometer. Special features of the cell and the materials used for it allow one to study both chemically inert and corrosive liquids

  16. A horizontal two-axis diffractometer for high-energy X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation on bending magnet beamline BL04B2 at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Kohara, S; Kashihara, Y; Matsumoto, N; Umesaki, N; Sakai, I

    2001-01-01

    A horizontal two-axis diffractometer for glasses and liquids, installed at SPring-8 bending magnet beamline BL04B2, operated at 8 GeV electron energy, is described. Photon energies of 37.8 and 61.7 keV were obtained using a bent Si (1 1 1) crystal and a bent Si (2 2 0) crystal, respectively. The instrument has been successfully applied to measure diffraction spectra of vitreous SiO sub 2 in transmission geometry up to scattering vector Q=36 A sup - sup 1 , and measured total structure factor S(Q) was well reproduced by reverse Monte Carlo modelling.

  17. A horizontal two-axis diffractometer for high-energy X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation on bending magnet beamline BL04B2 at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Shinji; Suzuya, Kentaro; Kashihara, Yasuharu; Matsumoto, Norimasa; Umesaki, Norimasa; Sakai, Ichiro

    2001-01-01

    A horizontal two-axis diffractometer for glasses and liquids, installed at SPring-8 bending magnet beamline BL04B2, operated at 8 GeV electron energy, is described. Photon energies of 37.8 and 61.7 keV were obtained using a bent Si (1 1 1) crystal and a bent Si (2 2 0) crystal, respectively. The instrument has been successfully applied to measure diffraction spectra of vitreous SiO 2 in transmission geometry up to scattering vector Q=36 A -1 , and measured total structure factor S(Q) was well reproduced by reverse Monte Carlo modelling

  18. An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik Ejler; Christensen, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode...... to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li4Ti5O12 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na0.84Fe0.56Mn0.44O2)....

  19. Surface correlation function analysis of high resolution scattering data from mirrored surfaces obtained using a triple-axis X-ray diffractometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    methods is that they are bandwidth-limited. A crucial point in the analysis of data is, therefore, to specify accurately the wavelength bandwidth limitation and to determine the surface autocorrelation function within this bandwidth. The authors present a number of scattering measurements obtained using...... a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer and the results of an autocorrelation function analysis. Furthermore, they present some measurements of integrated reflectivity, which they believe provide evidence for microroughness in the range from a few angstroms to tens of microns...

  20. Solutions for implementing time-of-flight techniques in low-angle neutron scattering, as realized on the Low-Q Diffractometer at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P. Jr.; Seeger, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of small-angle (Low-momentum transfer) neutron scattering at pulsed spallation sources, using time of flight methods, has meant the introduction of some new ideas in instrument design, data acquisition, data reduction and computer management of the experiment and the data. Here we recount some of the salient aspects of solutions for implementing time of fight small-angle neutron scattering instruments at pulsed sources, as realized on the Low-Q Diffractometer, LQD, at Los Alamos. We consider, fortlier, some of the problems that are yet to be solved, and take a short excursion into the future of SANS instrumentation at pulsed sources

  1. Improved sample manipulation at the STRESS-SPEC neutron diffractometer using an industrial 6-axis robot for texture and strain analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randau, C.; Brokmeier, H.G.; Gan, W.M.; Hofmann, M.; Voeller, M.; Tekouo, W.; Al-hamdany, N.; Seidl, G.; Schreyer, A.

    2015-01-01

    The materials science neutron diffractometer STRESS-SPEC located at FRM II is a dedicated instrument for strain and pole figure measurements. Both methods make complementary demands on sample handling. On one hand pole figure measurements need a high degree of freedom to orient small samples and on the other hand in strain investigations it is often necessary to handle large and heavy components. Therefore a robot based sample positioning system was developed, which has the capability to provide both possibilities. Based on this new robot system further developments like a full automated sample changer system for texture measurements were accomplished. Moreover this system opens the door for combined strain and texture analysis at STRESS-SPEC

  2. A possibility of parallel and anti-parallel diffraction measurements on neu- tron diffractometer employing bent perfect crystal monochromator at the monochromatic focusing condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Nam; Kim, Shin Ae; Kim, Sung Kyu; Kim, Sung Baek; Lee, Chang-Hee; Mikula, Pavel

    2004-07-01

    In a conventional diffractometer having single monochromator, only one position, parallel position, is used for the diffraction experiment (i.e. detection) because the resolution property of the other one, anti-parallel position, is very poor. However, a bent perfect crystal (BPC) monochromator at monochromatic focusing condition can provide a quite flat and equal resolution property at both parallel and anti-parallel positions and thus one can have a chance to use both sides for the diffraction experiment. From the data of the FWHM and the Delta d/d measured on three diffraction geometries (symmetric, asymmetric compression and asymmetric expansion), we can conclude that the simultaneous diffraction measurement in both parallel and anti-parallel positions can be achieved.

  3. Improved sample manipulation at the STRESS-SPEC neutron diffractometer using an industrial 6-axis robot for texture and strain analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randau, C. [Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Brokmeier, H.G., E-mail: heinz-guenter.brokmeier@tu-clausthal.de [Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Centre Geesthacht, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Gan, W.M. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Centre Geesthacht, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Hofmann, M.; Voeller, M. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Tekouo, W. [Institute for Machine Tools and Industrial Management, TU München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Al-hamdany, N. [Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Seidl, G. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Schreyer, A. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Centre Geesthacht, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2015-09-11

    The materials science neutron diffractometer STRESS-SPEC located at FRM II is a dedicated instrument for strain and pole figure measurements. Both methods make complementary demands on sample handling. On one hand pole figure measurements need a high degree of freedom to orient small samples and on the other hand in strain investigations it is often necessary to handle large and heavy components. Therefore a robot based sample positioning system was developed, which has the capability to provide both possibilities. Based on this new robot system further developments like a full automated sample changer system for texture measurements were accomplished. Moreover this system opens the door for combined strain and texture analysis at STRESS-SPEC.

  4. A Novel Dual Air-Bearing Fixed-χ Diffractometer for Small-Molecule Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction on Beamline I19 at Diamond Light Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David . R Allan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we describe the development of a novel dual air-bearing fixed-χ diffractometer for beamline I19 at Diamond Light Source. The diffractometer is designed to facilitate the rapid data collections possible with a Dectris Pilatus 2M pixel-array photon-counting detector, while allowing remote operation in conjunction with a robotic sample changer. The sphere-of-confusion is made as small as practicably possible, through the use of air-bearings for both the ω and φ axes. The design and construction of the new instrument is described in detail and an accompanying paper by Johnson et al. (also in this issue will provide a user perspective of its operation.

  5. Determination of the zero in the Two theta angle and the wavelength in the neutron diffractometer for the Cyber computer of the ININ and for the IBM compatible microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this work consists on determining the calibration in the angular parameters and the neutron wavelength used in the neutron diffractometer of the TRIGA Mark III reactor, through some readings in that a well-known sample is used by means of a Fortran computer program that is used in the CYBER computer of the ININ in Mexico, and/or in micro computers compatible with IBM. The program was also designed to determine the zero of the 2 θ angle of the goniometer of the diffractometer. The generated data were proven by means of well-known data of the Powder Diffraction File of the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS). (Author)

  6. Neutron beam applications - Development of operational techniques for neutron four-circle diffractometer and structure determination of C{sub 16}H{sub 15}NO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Jib [Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea); Suh, Il Hwan [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    We have been studied to find out the experimental methods and procedures for neutron diffraction method for neutron diffractometer in HANARO -the atomic research reactor in KAERI. We have studied experimental process for the neutron diffraction data analysis, using computer soft-wares such as SHELXS for the calculation the initial phase of crystal structure, SHELXL for refinement of atomic coordinate using least-squares method, ORTEP for the display of the calculated positions of molecule, and PATSEE for the calculation of the phase from the expected structure. In these studies, we analyzed the structure of test sample using these programs, and prepare the user's manual for these soft-wares. We have also studied on bending effect of monochromator in order to increase the intensity of neutron beam, and designed HRPD - High Resolution Powder Diffractometers. 7 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  7. Report on the workshop on neutrons for engineering and its conclusions regarding the residual-stress diffractometer at the Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to: inform the Australian research organizations and universities of the capabilities of an engineering and materials science instrument; promote the use of neutron diffraction to map and investigate strains/stresses in materials and components for industrial applications and research; identify the future needs and opportunities in this area; present the options for a stress mapping diffractometer at the Replacement Research Reactor and receive feedback on these options; identify the ancillary equipment and facilities required. Presented papers and discussions at the workshop indicated that there are a number of important benefits to Australia in the building of a first-class instrument for materials science and engineering and many residual stress-related problems in a wide variety of fields in Australia, such as the manufacturing industries, mining, oil and gas, rail transport, defense and life extension. Stress scanning provides another tool for solving problems to complement facilities at the major research institutes, CSIRO, AMIRA, DSTO, ANSTO and the universities. It will create a regional pool of experts who may tap into the pool of expertise internationally. The turn around time for tests for Australian customers will be reduced thus avoiding having to go overseas to have the tests performed. From an educational perspective the instrument will build expertise in Australia and will help to attract graduates into engineering. A detailed list of the attendees and affiliations is in Appendix C

  8. Position controller for the arm of a neutron diffractometer using fuzzy logic; Controlador de posicion del brazo del difractometro de neutrones utilizando logica difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala P, G F [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The neutron diffractometer is an important instrument coupled to one of the radial outlets of the TRIGA-3-Salazar Reactor and is used mainly to analyze textures and crystal lattices. One of its main components is the velocity analysis goniometer which controls in a tangential way the movements of the sensor requiring for this a resolution of a hundredth of degree, but at the same time wide displacements are required. It is necessary to design and construct a system on the basis of a micro controller which control the long movements in a rapid way and with the needed accuracy. In this work, a proposition is presented: to replace the A.C. motor with a D.C. motor with a wide range of velocity and supplied with a card (DAC) to control the velocity by means of digital data. Moreover, a programmed micro controller with an algorithm based on fuzzy logic receiving data in BCD will be use. The use of micro controller will allow to set free the personal computer of the position of the goniometer; nevertheless, the system will report to the P C and its control program about the present position of the goniometer and the time when the desired position is reached. It is also consider that the user will be away from the system (a minimum of 15 meters) in order to avoid the zone with a high intensity of background radiation. (Author).

  9. A new method of Debye-Scherrer pattern integration on two-dimensional detectors, demonstrated for the new structure powder diffractometer (SPODI) at the FRM-II in Garching

    CERN Document Server

    Elf, F; Artus, G R J; Roth, S

    2002-01-01

    The expected diffraction patterns of the new powder diffractometer SPODI, currently under construction at the FRM-II in Garching, will be smeared Debye-Scherrer rings as depicted by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. To overcome this disadvantage, a concept based on the combination of MC simulations and empirical approximation methods is developed to reverse the smearing by deconvolution and then summing up along the rings, including corrections for different arc lengths, resulting in conventional one-dimensional diffraction patterns suitable for Rietveld-refinement programs without further processing. (orig.)

  10. The use of contrast variation in small angle neutron scattering on the low-Q diffractometer at the Manuel Lujuan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANSCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaccavento, J.

    1993-01-01

    As a Department of Energy Teacher Research Associate at Los Alamos National Laboratory this past summer, the author was given the opportunity to exit the class-room and enter the world of intense scientific research for an eight week period. In this paper the author briefly describes the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos, then focuses specifically on the Low-Q Diffractometer which was the instrument he worked on. The author details one specific experimental technique namely open-quotes Contrast Variation,close quotes and closes by briefly presenting several other interesting applications of neutron scattering

  11. New hardware and software platform for experiments on a HUBER-5042 X-ray diffractometer with a DISPLEX DE-202 helium cryostat in the temperature range of 20-300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudka, A. P.; Antipin, A. M.; Verin, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    Huber-5042 diffractometer with a closed-cycle Displex DE-202 helium cryostat is a unique scientific instrument for carrying out X-ray diffraction experiments when studying the single crystal structure in the temperature range of 20-300 K. To make the service life longer and develop new experimental techniques, the diffractometer control is transferred to a new hardware and software platform. To this end, a modern computer; a new detector reader unit; and new control interfaces for stepper motors, temperature controller, and cryostat vacuum pumping system are used. The system for cooling the X-ray tube, the high-voltage generator, and the helium compressor and pump for maintaining the desired vacuum in the cryostat are replaced. The system for controlling the primary beam shutter is upgraded. A biological shielding is installed. The new program tools, which use the Linux Ubuntu operating system and SPEC constructor, include a set of drivers for control units through the aforementioned interfaces. A program for searching reflections from a sample using fast continuous scanning and a priori information about crystal is written. Thus, the software package for carrying out the complete cycle of precise diffraction experiment (from determining the crystal unit cell to calculating the integral reflection intensities) is upgraded. High quality of the experimental data obtained on this equipment is confirmed in a number of studies in the temperature range from 20 to 300 K.

  12. Determination of the zero in the Two theta angle and the wavelength in the neutron diffractometer for the Cyber computer of the ININ and for the IBM compatible microcomputers; Determinacion del cero en el angulo Dos teta y la longitud de onda en el difractometro de neutrones para la computadora Cyber del ININ y para microcomputadoras compatibles con IBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L R

    1991-05-15

    The objective of this work consists on determining the calibration in the angular parameters and the neutron wavelength used in the neutron diffractometer of the TRIGA Mark III reactor, through some readings in that a well-known sample is used by means of a Fortran computer program that is used in the CYBER computer of the ININ in Mexico, and/or in micro computers compatible with IBM. The program was also designed to determine the zero of the 2 {theta} angle of the goniometer of the diffractometer. The generated data were proven by means of well-known data of the Powder Diffraction File of the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS). (Author)

  13. Neutron detectors for the ESS diffractometers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stefanescu, I.; Christensen, M.; Fenske, J.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Henry, P. F.; Kirstein, O.; Muller, M.; Nowak, G.; Pooley, D.; Raspino, D.; Rhodes, N.; Šaroun, Jan; Schefer, J.; Schooneveld, E.; Sykora, J.; Schweika, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, JAN (2017), č. článku P01019. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015048 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : instrumentation for neutron sources * neutron diffraction detectors * neutron detectors (cold, thermal, fast neutrons) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  14. The new single crystal diffractometer SC3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefer, J.; Koch, M.; Keller, P.; Fischer, S.; Thut, R.

    1996-01-01

    Single crystal diffraction is a powerful method for the determination of precise structure parameters, superlattices, stress. Neutron single crystal diffraction gives additionally to X-rays information on magnetic structures, both commensurate and incommensurate, hydrogen positions, hydrogen bonding behavior and accurate bondlengths, e.g. important in cuprates. The method is therefore especially powerful if combined with X-ray diffraction results. The new instrument at SINQ has been designed for inorganic materials and is positioned at a thermal beam tube, pointing on a water scatterer. This scatterer is presently operating with H 2 O at ambient temperature, but a change to another medium at different temperature is possible. The instrument will be equipped with three area detectors, moving at fixed difference in 2Θ. each detector may be individually moved around a vertical circle (tilting angle γ), allowing to use not only 4-circle geometry in the temperature range from 1.5 to 380 K, but also any equipment from a dilution refrigerator (7 mK) to a heavy magnet. A high temperature furnace for 4-circle geometry is foreseen as a future option. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  15. Neutron detectors for the ESS diffractometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanescu, I.; Christensen, Mogens; Fenske, J.

    2017-01-01

    The ambitious instrument suite for the future European Spallation Source whose civil construction started recently in Lund, Sweden, demands a set of diverse and challenging requirements for the neutron detectors. For instance, the unprecedented high flux expected on the samples to be investigated...

  16. The small angle diffractometer SANS at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, W [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    With the start-up of SINQ an instrument for small angle neutron scattering will be operational which compares well with the world`s largest and most powerful facilities of this kind. Following the classical principle of the D11-instrument of ILL, it is equipped with state-of-the-art components as are nowadays available, including options for further upgrading. Great emphasis was laid upon providing a flexible, universal multi-user facility which guarantees a comfortable and reliable operation. In the present paper, the principle layout of the instrument is presented, and the individual components are described in detail. The paper concludes with model application of small angle scattering to a system of dilute CuCo alloys which undergo a phase separation under thermal treatment, forming spherical Co-precipitates dispersed in a Cu-rich matrix. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  17. The new single crystal diffractometer SC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, J; Koch, M; Keller, P; Fischer, S; Thut, R [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Single crystal diffraction is a powerful method for the determination of precise structure parameters, superlattices, stress. Neutron single crystal diffraction gives additionally to X-rays information on magnetic structures, both commensurate and incommensurate, hydrogen positions, hydrogen bonding behavior and accurate bondlengths, e.g. important in cuprates. The method is therefore especially powerful if combined with X-ray diffraction results. The new instrument at SINQ has been designed for inorganic materials and is positioned at a thermal beam tube, pointing on a water scatterer. This scatterer is presently operating with H{sub 2}O at ambient temperature, but a change to another medium at different temperature is possible. The instrument will be equipped with three area detectors, moving at fixed difference in 2{Theta}. each detector may be individually moved around a vertical circle (tilting angle {gamma}), allowing to use not only 4-circle geometry in the temperature range from 1.5 to 380 K, but also any equipment from a dilution refrigerator (7 mK) to a heavy magnet. A high temperature furnace for 4-circle geometry is foreseen as a future option. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  18. The nev diffractometer ARES for the analysis of residual stresses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staron, P.; Ruhnau, H. U.; Marmotti, M.; Mikula, Pavol; Kampmann, R.

    276/278, - (2000), s. 158-159 ISSN 0921-4526 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : neutron instruments * residual stress Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.893, year: 2000

  19. Back-view Auger electron spectrometer-diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, V.G.; Bol'shunov, I.B.; Romanov, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Design of a device on the base of quasispherical four-grid energy analyzer for recording the Auger electron spectra (AES) and observation of the patterns of slow electron diffraction (SED) on the side of an electron gun, is described. A layout of a small-sized electron gun providing for diffraction pattern recording up to the electron energies E ≅ 20 eV, is presented. At E=100 eV the gun current is ≅ 0.8 muA at electron beam diameter on a sample ≤ 1 mm. In the AES regime the gun allows one to record Auger spectra at electron energy E ≤ 3 keV, current ≅ 5 muA and electron beam diameter on a sample ≤ 0.2 mm. The maximum gun current is ≅ 25 muA for an increased beam diameter. Exapmles illustrating the device operation in AES and SED regimes, are presented

  20. Proposal for a cold neutron diffractometer at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlile, C.J.; David, W.I.F.

    1991-03-01

    It is proposed to take advantage of the opportunity which would occur with the building of IRIS-2 with its mica analysers, to then convert IRIS-1 into a dual-purpose instrument offering both high intensity good resolution inelastic spectroscopy using the cooled graphite analysers and high resolution long d-spacing diffractometry. Each option would be world class and yet the project would be achieved at a modest cost (∼Pound 75K). (author)

  1. User guide for the Polaris powder diffractometer at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.I.; Hull, S.

    1997-09-01

    Version 3.0 of the Polaris User Guide has been produced to coincide with the move of the instrument onto ISIS beamline N7. The new instrument has been built to an almost identical specification as the old, however the ability to start from scratch on a new beamline has allowed certain aspects of Polaris to be optimised. Polaris on beamline N7 retains its four discrete detector banks, situated at backscattering angles, 90 degrees, low angles and very low angles. During the instrument move the Polaris detector complement was increased, with 20 3 He tubes added to the backscattering detector bank and a further two ZnS scintillator modules added to the 90 degrees detector bank. This has approximately doubled the count rate of the backscattering bank, whereas in the 90 degrees bank the detectors have been moved further from the sample resulting in an improvement in resolution while maintaining the count rate. Finally, the geometry of the four ZnS scintillator detector modules in the very low angle bank was altered slightly to improve the performance of this bank. The most significant change in the new Polaris, however is the redesign of the instrument blockhouse. Access to the sample position is now at floor level, and no longer requires entry into the blockhouse. With only a small enclosure built around the sample position sample environment equipment, such as furnaces and cryostats, can be operated in a much more convenient and flexible manner. (Author)

  2. A primary simulation for residual stress neutron diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuying; Liu Lijuan; Sun Liangwei

    2012-01-01

    At present, neutron diffraction method is the unique and nondestructive method that can directly measure the residual stress distribution in deep materials and engineering components. It has an important application in engineering. A simulation of the flux at the position of the sample table was reported, and the resolution of the residual stress instrument was computed at the same time. The effect of the parameters of the second collimator on the flux at the sample position and the resolution of the instrument have been analyzed. The result indicated that the second collimator empress much on the neutron flux and the instrument resolution is well when the sample's diffraction angle is less than 120°. (authors)

  3. PRISMA single crystal cold neutron spectrometer and diffractometer. User manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.; Bull, M.

    1998-01-01

    PRISMA has undergone a complete rebuild since the First Edition of this manual, resulting in a rather different instrument to that of January 1995. Now that the development of the instrument has reached a quiescent stage, this new edition of the manual describes the operation of PRISMA for the foreseeable future

  4. POLARIMETER: A Soft X-Ray 8-Axis UHV-Diffractometer at BESSY II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Sokolov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A versatile UHV-polarimeter for the EUV XUV spectral range is described which incorporates two optical elements: a phase retarder and a reflection analyzer. Both optics are azimuthally rotatable around the incident synchrotron radiation beam and the incidence angle is freely selectable. This allows for a variety of reflectometry, polarimetry and ellipsometry applications on magnetic or non-magnetic samples and multilayer optical elements.

  5. Development of X-ray diffractometers XD-D1 AI qualitative analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hiroshi; Uota, Atsushi; Ishida, Hidenobu

    1994-01-01

    Qualitative X-ray diffraction is a very important analytical method, however, it is also very difficult to perform and needs some special skills. Also, the analysis accuracy depends on the operators' knowledge of qualitative analysis. In order that even a beginner analyst can obtain accurate results, we have developed the 'XD-D1 AI Qualitative Analysis System'. This system can support analytical operations with the experts' knowledge made available by AI techniques. Systematizing the experts' knowledge, we applied the system to our expert shell 'GENZO-I/PRO'. This system enabled a beginner analyst to get the same results as a specialist would get. In this paper, we will describe the process of system design, system construction and an example analysis. (author)

  6. Time pulse profiles on a new data acquisition system for neutron time of flight diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas, R.; Baeza, L.; Navarro, G.

    1999-01-01

    A new differential acquisition system was built for a neutron diffuse scattering instrument. We analyze the time, space and velocity behavior of neutron pulse profiles, which can be obtained in a neutron diffuse scattering system of this nature, consisting of a black disc slit chopper and a circular detector bank, in order to design accurate scattering data analyzing methods. Computed direct pulse time spectra and measured spectra show satisfactory agreement. (author)

  7. A neutron image plate quasi-Laue diffractometer for protein crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipriani, F.; Castagna, J.C.; Wilkinson, C. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble (France)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    An instrument which is based on image plate technology has been constructed to perform cold neutron Laue crystallography on protein structures. The crystal is mounted at the center of a cylindrical detector which is 400mm long and has a circumference of 1000mm, with gadolinium oxide-containing image plates mounted on its exterior surface. Laue images registered on the plate are read out by rotating the drum and translating a laser read head parallel to the cylinder axis, giving a pixel size of 200{mu}m x 200{mu}m and a total read time of 5 minutes. Preliminary results indicate that it should be possible to obtain a complete data set from a protein crystal to atomic resolution in about two weeks.

  8. The DSP-based RTOF-correlator for high resolution Fourier diffractometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butenko, V A; Drozdov, V A; Kirilov, A S [Frank Lab. of Neutron Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Slovakia, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    To improve efficiency of the time-of-flight analysis, the correlation and the Fourier methods are used with a preliminary neutron flux modulation. In this case the elastically scattered neutron spectrum is calculated as a function of the cross-correlation of the detector signal and the neutron flux modulation. 10 refs.; 5 figs.

  9. Neutron diffraction measurements at the INES diffractometer using a neutron radiative capture based counting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, G. [Centro NAST, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); Pietropaolo, A., E-mail: antonino.pietropaolo@roma2.infn.it [Centro NAST, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); Grazzi, F.; Barzagli, E. [CNR-ISC Firenze (Italy); Scherillo, A. [CNR-ISC Firenze (Italy); ISIS facility Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom); Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS facility Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-21

    The global shortage of {sup 3}He gas is an issue to be addressed in neutron detection. In the context of the research and development activity related to the replacement of {sup 3}He for neutron counting systems, neutron diffraction measurements performed on the INES beam line at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source are presented. For these measurements two different neutron counting devices have been used: a 20 bar pressure squashed {sup 3}He tube and a Yttrium-Aluminum-Perovskite scintillation detector. The scintillation detector was coupled to a cadmium sheet that registers the prompt radiative capture gamma rays generated by the (n,{gamma}) nuclear reactions occurring in cadmium. The assessment of the scintillator based counting system was done by performing a Rietveld refinement analysis on the diffraction pattern from an ancient Japanese blade and comparing the results with those obtained by a {sup 3}He tube placed at the same angular position. The results obtained demonstrate the considerable potential of the proposed counting approach based on the radiative capture gamma rays at spallation neutron sources.

  10. Determination of the mechanical, diffractometer and thermal properties of chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose films (HPMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotta, Jefferson; Minatti, Edson; Barreto, Pedro L.M.

    2009-01-01

    This work examined the mechanical, diffractometry and thermal properties of chitosan-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films. The solutions of chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were mixed at different proportions (100/0; 70/30; 50/50; 30/70 and 0/100) respectively, and 20 m L was casting at Petri dishes to posterior analysis of dried films. The miscibility of polymers has been assessed by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). It was shown that although weak hydrogen bonding exists between the polymer functional groups, the films are not fully miscible at a dry state. (author)

  11. Portable X-ray powder diffractometer for the analysis of art and archaeological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Izumi; Abe, Yoshinari

    2012-01-01

    Phase identification based on nondestructive analytical techniques using portable equipment is ideal for the analysis of art and archaeological objects. Portable(p)-XRF and p-Raman are very widely used for this purpose, yet p-XRD is relatively rare despite its importance for the analysis of crystalline materials. This paper overviews 6 types of p-XRD systems developed for analysis of art and archaeological materials. The characteristics of each system are compared. One of the p-XRD systems developed by the authors was brought to many museums as well as many archeological sites in Egypt and Syria to characterize the cultural heritage artifacts, e.g., amulet made of Egyptian blue, blue painted pottery, and Islamic pottery from Egypt, jade from China, variscite from Syria, a Japanese classic painting drawn by Korin Ogata, and oil paintings drawn by Taro Okamoto. Practical application data are shown to demonstrate the potential ability of the method for analysis of various art and archaeological materials. (orig.)

  12. A User’s Manual for Fiber Diffraction: The Automated Picker and Huber Diffractometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    17 3. Layer line scan of degummed silk ( Bombyx mori ) ................................. 18...index (arbitrary units) Figure 3. Layer line scan of degummed silk ( Bombyx mori ) showing layers 0 through 6. If the fit is rejected, new values for... originally made at intervals larger than 0.010. The smoothing and interpolation is done by a least-squares polynomial fit to segments of the data. The number

  13. An in-vacuum diffractometer for resonant elastic soft x-ray scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hawthorn, D.G.; He, F.; Venema, L.; Davis, H.; Achkar, A.J.; Zhang, J.; Sutarto, R.; Wadati, H.; Radi, A.; Wilson, T.; Wright, G.; Shen, K.M.; Geck, J.; Zhang, H.; Novák, Vít; Sawatzky, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2011), 073104/1-073104/8 ISSN 0034-6748 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : gallium arsenide * lanthanum compounds * manganese compounds * neodymium * reflectivity * semiconductor thin films * strontium compounds * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.367, year: 2011

  14. Portable X-ray powder diffractometer for the analysis of art and archaeological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Izumi; Abe, Yoshinari [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Phase identification based on nondestructive analytical techniques using portable equipment is ideal for the analysis of art and archaeological objects. Portable(p)-XRF and p-Raman are very widely used for this purpose, yet p-XRD is relatively rare despite its importance for the analysis of crystalline materials. This paper overviews 6 types of p-XRD systems developed for analysis of art and archaeological materials. The characteristics of each system are compared. One of the p-XRD systems developed by the authors was brought to many museums as well as many archeological sites in Egypt and Syria to characterize the cultural heritage artifacts, e.g., amulet made of Egyptian blue, blue painted pottery, and Islamic pottery from Egypt, jade from China, variscite from Syria, a Japanese classic painting drawn by Korin Ogata, and oil paintings drawn by Taro Okamoto. Practical application data are shown to demonstrate the potential ability of the method for analysis of various art and archaeological materials. (orig.)

  15. Portable X-ray powder diffractometer for the analysis of art and archaeological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Izumi; Abe, Yoshinari

    2012-02-01

    Phase identification based on nondestructive analytical techniques using portable equipment is ideal for the analysis of art and archaeological objects. Portable(p)-XRF and p-Raman are very widely used for this purpose, yet p-XRD is relatively rare despite its importance for the analysis of crystalline materials. This paper overviews 6 types of p-XRD systems developed for analysis of art and archaeological materials. The characteristics of each system are compared. One of the p-XRD systems developed by the authors was brought to many museums as well as many archeological sites in Egypt and Syria to characterize the cultural heritage artifacts, e.g., amulet made of Egyptian blue, blue painted pottery, and Islamic pottery from Egypt, jade from China, variscite from Syria, a Japanese classic painting drawn by Korin Ogata, and oil paintings drawn by Taro Okamoto. Practical application data are shown to demonstrate the potential ability of the method for analysis of various art and archaeological materials.

  16. Improved self-control system for the DR1 high resolution focusing neutron crystal diffractometer operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, I; Florescu, V.

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade new principles for the design of high-resolution configurations for crystal neutron diffractometry have been developed leading to the concept of Q-space high-resolution configuration which proved to be an alternative to the existing conventional configuration. The characteristics of such a focusing configuration are the use of open beam geometry (absence of the Soller collimators), use of the bent crystals in asymmetric reflection as monochromators and the rotation of the sample during the diffraction pattern raise, to fulfill the focusing conditions. High-resolution is obtained with no collimators by controlling the curvature and reflectivity of bent monochromators. At the sample position the beam width is rather wide offering the possibility to use wide plate-like samples with a significant raise of intensity; still high-resolution can be obtained by rotating the sample to get the focusing condition (to compensate the sample width contribution to the line-width) for each value of the scattering angle. This paper aims to clarify in which conditions such a Q-space focusing configuration, particularly that existing at INR Pitesti, can be used for stress determinations. Taking account of the characteristics of such measurements, it is quite obvious that the sample cannot be placed in focusing position appearing a limitation of the dimension of the sample region for which stress determinations are made, if we want still to have a reasonable good resolution. This can be done by using corresponding diaphragms in front of the sample holder but, if an optimal use of the available neutron beam is desired, a real-space focusing at sample position is required. For a two crystals monochromators unit the conditions to get real-space focusing were extensively analyzed by M. Popovici and W.B.Yelon. For the case of a single crystal monochromator, though such instruments are used at HMI Berlin or NRI Rez, a real space focusing is not possible to be achieved and a carefully analysis of the used experimental configuration is to be done. (authors)

  17. The resolution of TOF low-Q diffractometers: Instrumental, data acquisition and reduction factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The resolution of scattering vector, Q, in small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements derives from uncertainties in scattered neutron wavelength and direction. The manner in which these are manifest on brod-band time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometers at pulsed sources is different from that for instruments using monochromated sources. In TOF instruments the uncertainties arise from the TOF measurement as well as the directional uncertainties due to collimation, finite sample and detector-element size that are present in any small-angle scattering instrument. Further, data from a TOF instrument must be mapped into Q space, and the strategy used to accomplish this affects the final resolution of the measurement. Thus for TOF-SANS instruments the question of resolution is more complicated than for instruments on monochromated sources. There is considerable flexibility in TOF data acquisition and Q mapping that can be utilized to optimize for intensity and Q resolution requirements of a particular measurement. In this work, present understanding of the effects of instrument geometry, TOF data acquisition and Q mapping strategies on the precision of the measurement is outlined. The goal is to establish guidelines on the best manner in which a particular measurement can be set up. Toward this end some new aspects are presented of optimal Q-mapping procedures, the effect of inelastic scattering on the measurement, and the calculation of instrument resolution functions. Some of these ideas are tested by comparison of simulations with measurement. (orig.)

  18. Digital controller for stepping motor-driven X-ray diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naval, P.C. Jr.; Saligan, P.P.; Calix, V.B.S.

    1985-01-01

    Presented is a stepping motor controller for the Philips PW 1050 Vertical Goniometer featuring crystal-controlled scan rates of 4, 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16 degree per minute in the continuous scan mode, and step sizes of 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 degree when operated in the step scan mode. A slow rate of 96 degrees per minute is provided for positioning purposes. The TTL-implemented design accomodates upgrading to higher levels of automation by a simple substitution of the control logic card. (Auth.)

  19. The concept of the new structure powder diffractometer (SPODI) at the FRM-II in Garching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gilles, R.; Krimmer, B.; Šaroun, Jan; Boysen, H.; Fuess, H.

    378-3, - (2001), s. 282-287 ISSN 0255-5476 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : Monte Carlo * neutron optics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2001

  20. Neutron optics concept for the materials engineering diffractometer at the ESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šaroun, J.; Fenske, J.; Rouijaa, M.; Beran, P.; Navrátil, J.; Lukáš, P.; Schreyer, A.; Strobl, M.

    2016-09-01

    The Beamline for European Materials Engineering Research (BEER) has been recently proposed to be built at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The presented concept of neutron delivery optics for this instrument addresses the problems of bi-spectral beam extraction from a small moderator, optimization of neutron guides profile for long-range neutron transport and focusing at the sample under various constraints. They include free space before and after the guides, a narrow guide section with gaps for choppers, closing of direct line of sight and cost reduction by optimization of the guides cross-section and coating. A system of slits and exchangeable focusing optics is proposed in order to match various wavelength resolution options provided by the pulse shaping and modulation choppers, which permits to efficiently trade resolution for intensity in a wide range. Simulated performance characteristics such as brilliance transfer ratio are complemented by the analysis of the histories of “useful” neutrons obtained by back tracing neutrons hitting the sample, which helps to optimize some of the neutron guide parameters such as supermirror coating.

  1. Neutron optics concept for the materials engineering diffractometer at the ESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šaroun, J; Beran, P; Navrátil, J; Lukáš, P; Fenske, J; Rouijaa, M; Schreyer, A; Strobl, M

    2016-01-01

    The Beamline for European Materials Engineering Research (BEER) has been recently proposed to be built at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The presented concept of neutron delivery optics for this instrument addresses the problems of bi-spectral beam extraction from a small moderator, optimization of neutron guides profile for long-range neutron transport and focusing at the sample under various constraints. They include free space before and after the guides, a narrow guide section with gaps for choppers, closing of direct line of sight and cost reduction by optimization of the guides cross-section and coating. A system of slits and exchangeable focusing optics is proposed in order to match various wavelength resolution options provided by the pulse shaping and modulation choppers, which permits to efficiently trade resolution for intensity in a wide range. Simulated performance characteristics such as brilliance transfer ratio are complemented by the analysis of the histories of “useful” neutrons obtained by back tracing neutrons hitting the sample, which helps to optimize some of the neutron guide parameters such as supermirror coating. (paper)

  2. Simulations of the temporal and spatial resolution for a compact time-resolved electron diffractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew S.; Lane, Paul D.; Wann, Derek A.

    2016-02-01

    A novel compact electron gun for use in time-resolved gas electron diffraction experiments has recently been designed and commissioned. In this paper we present and discuss the extensive simulations that were performed to underpin the design in terms of the spatial and temporal qualities of the pulsed electron beam created by the ionisation of a gold photocathode using a femtosecond laser. The response of the electron pulses to a solenoid lens used to focus the electron beam has also been studied. The simulated results show that focussing the electron beam affects the overall spatial and temporal resolution of the experiment in a variety of ways, and that factors that improve the resolution of one parameter can often have a negative effect on the other. A balance must, therefore, be achieved between spatial and temporal resolution. The optimal experimental time resolution for the apparatus is predicted to be 416 fs for studies of gas-phase species, while the predicted spatial resolution of better than 2 nm-1 compares well with traditional time-averaged electron diffraction set-ups.

  3. Design, implementation, and testing of a cryogenic loading capability on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, T. R.; Krishnan, V. B.; Vaidyanathan, R. [Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC), University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Clausen, B.; Sisneros, T.; Livescu, V.; Brown, D. W.; Bourke, M. A. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    A novel capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during loading at cryogenic temperatures on the spectrometer for materials research at temperature and stress at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This capability allowed for the application of dynamic compressive forces of up to 250 kN on standard samples controlled at temperatures between 300 and 90 K. The approach comprised of cooling thermally isolated compression platens that in turn conductively cooled the sample in an aluminum vacuum chamber which was nominally transparent to the incident and diffracted neutrons. The cooling/heat rate and final temperature were controlled by regulating the flow of liquid nitrogen in channels inside the platens that were connected through bellows to the mechanical actuator of the load frame and by heaters placed on the platens. Various performance parameters of this system are reported here. The system was used to investigate deformation in Ni-Ti-Fe shape memory alloys at cryogenic temperatures and preliminary results are presented.

  4. Acquisition of an X-Ray Diffractometer with WAXS and SAXS for Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-31

    radiation element detection, (ii) as adsorbents for organic and heavy metal contaminants, and, (iii) heterogeneous catalysis for degradation of...conformation of diffraction patterns from 25°C to 120°C. (ii) MOFs as adsorbents for organics and heavy metals : MOFs are well known for their various...applications in the field of adsorption and separation. MOF-235 is an iron-terephthalate metal -organic framework composed of non-toxic Fe3O clusters

  5. Computer-guided facility for the study of single crystals at the gamma diffractometer GADI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heer, H.; Bleichert, H.; Gruhn, W.; Moeller, R.

    1984-10-01

    In the study of solid-state properties it is in many cases necessary to work with single crystals. The increased requirement in the industry and research as well as the desire for better characterization by means of γ-diffractometry made it necessary to improve and to modernize the existing instrument. The advantages of a computer-guided facility against the conventional, semiautomatic operation are manifold. Not only the process guidance, but also the data acquisition and evaluation are performed by the computer. By a remote control the operator is able to find quickly a reflex and to drive the crystal in every desired measuring position. The complete protocollation of all important measuring parameters, the convenient data storage, as well as the automatic evaluation are much useful for the user. Finally the measuring time can be increased to practically 24 hours per day. By this the versed characterization by means of γ-diffractometry is put on a completely new level. (orig.) [de

  6. Neutron Powder Diffraction Measurements of the Spinel MgGa 2 O 4 :Cr 3+ - A Comparative Study between the High Flux Diffractometer D2B at the ILL and the High Resolution Powder Diffractometer Aurora at IPEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M A F M da; Sosman, L P; Yokaichiya, F

    2012-01-01

    Optical materials that emit from the visible to the near-infrared spectral region are of great interest due to their possible application as tunable radiation sources, as signal transmission, display, optoelectronics signal storage, cellulose industry as well as in dosimetry. One important family...... of such systems are the spinel compounds doped with Cr 3+ , in which the physical the properties are related to the insertion of punctual defects in the crystalline structure. The purpose of our work is two fold. First, we compare the luminescence of the MgGa 2 O 4 -Ga 2 O 3 system with the single phase Ga 2 O 3...

  7. Quantitative analysis on orientation of human bone integrated with midpalatal implant by micro X-ray diffractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Masaru; Akazawa, Toshiyuki; Yuasa, Toshihiro; Okayama, Miki; Tazaki, Junichi; Hanawa, Takao; Arisue, Makoto; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2012-12-01

    A midpalatal implant system has been used as the unmoved anchorage for teeth movement. An 18-year-old male patient presented with reversed occlusion and was diagnosed as malocclusion. A pure titanium fixture (lengths: 4 mm, diameter: 3.3 mm, Orthosystem®, Institute Straumann, Switzerland) was implanted into the palatal bone of the patient as the orthodontic anchorage. The implant anchorage was connected with the upper left and right first molars, and had been used for 3 years. After dynamic treatments, the titanium fixture connected with bone was removed surgically, fixed in formalin solution, and embedded in resin. Specimens were cut along the frontal section of face and the direction of longitudinal axis of the implant, stained, and observed histologically. The titanium fixture was integrated directly with compact bone showing cortical bone-like structure such as lamella and osteon. In addition, to qualitatively characterize the implant-supported human bone, the crystallinity and orientation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) phase were evaluated by the microbeam X-ray diffraction analysis. Preferential alignment of c-axis of HAp crystals was represented by the relative intensity ratio of (0 0 2)-face diffraction peak to (3 1 0)-face one. The values decreased monotonously along the direction of the lateral stress from the site near the implant thread to the distant site in all horizontal lines of the map. These results indicated that the X-ray images for the intensity of c-face in HAp revealed functionally graded distribution of cortical bone quality. The micro-scale measurements of HAp structure could be a useful method for evaluating the mechanical stress distribution in human hard tissues.

  8. Acquisition of a High-Resolution High-Intensity X-ray Diffractometer for Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-20

    exhaust air from the chiller is routed directly into the plenum above the  ceiling  tiles, where  it is accepted by the air handlers. A floor sink was...scattering  Not yet demonstrated  Texture, pole figures  Not yet demonstrated  Crystallography  Good   Non‐cubic  crystals   Basic     3      Figure 1...Dean for  Research, College of  Engineering   Crystal  structure of complex metal  oxides  Research  100+  2000  Federal grant  Ferroelectrics

  9. Quantitative analysis on orientation of human bone integrated with midpalatal implant by micro X-ray diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Masaru; Akazawa, Toshiyuki; Yuasa, Toshihiro; Okayama, Miki; Tazaki, Junichi; Hanawa, Takao; Arisue, Makoto; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A titanium fixture is implanted into palatal bone of an 18-year-old patient as the unmoved anchorage for the orthodontic treatment. ► The fixture is integrated with compact bone with cortical bone-like osteon. ► Microbeam X-ray diffraction denotes the crystallinity and orientation of HAp. ► X-ray images of c-face in HAp reveal functionally graded distribution of bone quality. ► The crystal growth of c-face is caused by propagation of the continuous lateral stress. - Abstract: A midpalatal implant system has been used as the unmoved anchorage for teeth movement. An 18-year-old male patient presented with reversed occlusion and was diagnosed as malocclusion. A pure titanium fixture (lengths: 4 mm, diameter: 3.3 mm, Orthosystem ® , Institute Straumann, Switzerland) was implanted into the palatal bone of the patient as the orthodontic anchorage. The implant anchorage was connected with the upper left and right first molars, and had been used for 3 years. After dynamic treatments, the titanium fixture connected with bone was removed surgically, fixed in formalin solution, and embedded in resin. Specimens were cut along the frontal section of face and the direction of longitudinal axis of the implant, stained, and observed histologically. The titanium fixture was integrated directly with compact bone showing cortical bone-like structure such as lamella and osteon. In addition, to qualitatively characterize the implant-supported human bone, the crystallinity and orientation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) phase were evaluated by the microbeam X-ray diffraction analysis. Preferential alignment of c-axis of HAp crystals was represented by the relative intensity ratio of (0 0 2)-face diffraction peak to (3 1 0)-face one. The values decreased monotonously along the direction of the lateral stress from the site near the implant thread to the distant site in all horizontal lines of the map. These results indicated that the X-ray images for the intensity of c-face in HAp revealed functionally graded distribution of cortical bone quality. The micro-scale measurements of HAp structure could be a useful method for evaluating the mechanical stress distribution in human hard tissues.

  10. A study of the decomposition of silver permanganate at high temperatures with an x-ray diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Witt, B.

    1978-12-01

    A study is made of the thermal decay products of silver permanganate at temperatures between 100 degrees Celsius and 800 degrees Celsius. Previous studies have shown that silver permanganate and the decomposition of silver permanganate decay into an amorphous product and remains in that state until the temperature is higher than 350 degrees Celsius. The amorphous phase is tested at different temperatures

  11. Studies on Cd1Se0.6Te0.4 Thin Films by Spectroscopic and Diffractometer Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliff Orori Mosiori

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium selenide tellurium is a compound containing cadmium, tellurium and selenium elements forming a combined solid. Hall measurements suggest that it is an n-type semiconductor. Related optical studies indicate that is transparent to infra-red radiation. Structural studies clearly show that it has a wurtzite, sphalerite crystalline forms. Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal, and selenium is only toxic in large amounts or doses. By this toxicity, cadmium selenide is a known to be carcinogen to humans; however, this does not stop investigating it for optoelectronic applications. Current research has narrowed down to investigating cadmium selenide when in the form of nanoparticles. Cadmium selenide finds applications has found applications in opto-electronic devices like laser diodes, biomedical imaging, nano-sensing, high-efficiency solar cells and thin-film transistors. By chemical bath deposition, Cd1Se0.6Te0.4 thin films were grown onto glass. Tellurium was gradually introduced as an impurity and its crystalline structure and optical properties were investigated by XRD and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The main Cd1Se0.6Te0.4/glass characteristics were correlated with the conditions of growing and post-growth treatment and it was found out that films were homogeneous films with controllable thickness onto the glass substrate and suitable for n-type “sandwich” heterostructures applications. Comparison of the intensities of equivalent reflexions provided a test for the internal consistency of the measurements. Equivalent reflexions in two specimens differed on average by 1.4 % and 0.6% from the mean measured intensity, attesting to the high internal consistency of measurements from extended-face crystals. By comparison from data obtained from all samples showed their average deviation from the mean to be 0.9 %.

  12. An imaging grating diffractometer for traceable calibration of grating pitch in the range 20 μm to 350 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasil, D A; Alves, J A P; Pekelsky, J R

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of a grating diffratometer to provide traceable calibration of grating pitch in range 20 μm to 350 nm. The approach is based on the Littrow configuration in which a laser beam is directed onto the grating which is mounted on a rotary table and can be turned so that each selected diffraction order is retro-reflected in the laser incidence direction. A beamsplitter and a lens direct the reflected diffraction order to form a small image spot on a CCD camera and the spot centering is used to adjust to rotation angle, thereby giving the diffraction angle. Knowing the diffraction angle for several orders and the wavelength of the laser, the average grating pitch can be determined to an uncertainty the order of 14 pm. (paper)

  13. Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: Probing atomic structure in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Fanelli, Victor R.; Reiche, Helmut M.; Larson, Eric; Taylor, Mark A.; Siewenie, Joan [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Xu, Hongwu [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Zhu, Jinlong [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, USA and National Lab for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Page, Katharine, E-mail: pagekl@ornl.gov [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO{sub 2} measurements. The new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H{sub 2} and natural gas uptake/storage.

  14. Development of Bent Perfect Crystal Monochromator (II): Experiments for the evaluation of BPC for a monochromator of neutron diffractometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Nam; Kim, Shin Ae; Lee, Chang Hee [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Kyu [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Baek [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Mikula, P. [NPI, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2004-11-01

    Various experimental properties of BPC monochromator at the FCD mode of the ST1 test station have been investigated. To test and verify the performance of the Si-BPC monochromator for the substitutional monochromator, diffraction measurements using copper single crystal and polycrystalline copper rod at various diffraction geometries were carried out. Considering the situation of FCD instrument which is used for both single crystal and texture measurement, a special cut silicon BPC slab which contains (331), (311) and (220) diffraction planes would be a best candidate. Diffraction measurements at the monochromatic focusing is the first experimental demonstration of the theoretical properties and give us a suggestion that the simultaneous measurement at both parallel and anti-parallel diffraction positions could be achievable with a reasonal resolution property as well as the intensity gain.

  15. Synchrotron Topographic and Diffractometer Studies of Buried Layered Structures Obtained by Implantation with Swift Heavy Ions in Silicon Single Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.; Zymierska, D.; Graeff, W.; Czosnyka, T.; Choinski, J.

    2006-01-01

    A distribution of crystallographic defects and deformation in silicon crystals subjected to deep implantation (20-50 μm) with ions of the energy of a few MeV/amu is studied. Three different buried layered structures (single layer, binary buried structure and triple buried structure) were obtained by implantation of silicon single crystals with 184 MeV argon ions, 29.7 MeV boron ions, and 140 MeV argon ions, each implantation at a fluency of 1x10 14 ions cm -2 . The implanted samples were examined by means of white beam X-ray section and projection topography, monochromatic beam topography and by recording local rocking curves with the beam restricted to 50 x 50 μm 2 . The experiment pointed to a very low level of implantation-induced strain (below 10 -5 ). The white beam Bragg case section experiment revealed a layer producing district black contrast located at a depth of the expected mean ion range. The presence of these buried layered structures in studied silicon crystals strongly affected the fringe pattern caused by curvature of the samples. In case of white beam projection and monochromatic beam topographs the implanted areas were revealed as darker regions with a very tiny grain like structure. One may interpret these results as the effect of considerable heating causing annihilation of point defects and formation of dislocation loops connected with point defect clusters. (author)

  16. Initial testing of a Compact Crystal Positioning System for the TOPAZ Single-Crystal Diffractometer at the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, Matthew J.; Austin, Michael D.; Viola, Robert; Thomison, Jack; Carmen, Peter; Hoffmann, Christina; Miller, Echo M.; Mosier, Lisa B.; Overbay, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    A precise, versatile, and automated method of orienting a sub-millimeter crystal in a focused neutron beam is required for e cient operation of the TOPAZ Single Crystal Di ractometer at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To ful ll this need, a Compact Crystal Positioning System (CCPS) has been developed in collaboration with Square One Systems Design in Jackson, Wyoming. The system incorporates a tripod design with six vacuum-compatible piezoelectric linear motors capable of < 1 m resolution. National Instruments LabVIEW provides a means of system automation while at the same time accommodating the modular nature of the SNS sample environment control software for straightforward system integration. Initial results in a cryogenic test environment will be presented, as well as results from ambient tests performed at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

  17. Focusing Double Bent Crystal (DBC) diffractometer for medium-resolution small-angle. Neutron scattering (SANS) experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikula, P.; Wagner, V.; Scherm, R.

    1991-01-01

    A new modification of a focusing SANS instrument where at least the first crystal is set for diffraction in the asymmetric transmission geometry is presented. Unlike an earlier version which employed both crystals in the symmetric Bragg-case geometry, the new modification permits one simultaneously to exploit the effects of natural wavelength focusing and space condensation of the diffracted beam due to asymmetric diffraction. This DBC instrument seems to be suitable for use with beams with a large cross section at the first crystal and for SANS experiments on samples with a small width (few mm). (orig.)

  18. Quantitative analysis on orientation of human bone integrated with midpalatal implant by micro X-ray diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Masaru, E-mail: murata@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Tobetsu-cho 061-0293 (Japan); Akazawa, Toshiyuki [Hokkaido Research Organization, Nishi-11, Kita-19, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Yuasa, Toshihiro; Okayama, Miki; Tazaki, Junichi [Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Tobetsu-cho 061-0293 (Japan); Hanawa, Takao [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kandasurugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Arisue, Makoto; Mizoguchi, Itaru [Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Tobetsu-cho 061-0293 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A titanium fixture is implanted into palatal bone of an 18-year-old patient as the unmoved anchorage for the orthodontic treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fixture is integrated with compact bone with cortical bone-like osteon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microbeam X-ray diffraction denotes the crystallinity and orientation of HAp. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray images of c-face in HAp reveal functionally graded distribution of bone quality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal growth of c-face is caused by propagation of the continuous lateral stress. - Abstract: A midpalatal implant system has been used as the unmoved anchorage for teeth movement. An 18-year-old male patient presented with reversed occlusion and was diagnosed as malocclusion. A pure titanium fixture (lengths: 4 mm, diameter: 3.3 mm, Orthosystem{sup Registered-Sign }, Institute Straumann, Switzerland) was implanted into the palatal bone of the patient as the orthodontic anchorage. The implant anchorage was connected with the upper left and right first molars, and had been used for 3 years. After dynamic treatments, the titanium fixture connected with bone was removed surgically, fixed in formalin solution, and embedded in resin. Specimens were cut along the frontal section of face and the direction of longitudinal axis of the implant, stained, and observed histologically. The titanium fixture was integrated directly with compact bone showing cortical bone-like structure such as lamella and osteon. In addition, to qualitatively characterize the implant-supported human bone, the crystallinity and orientation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) phase were evaluated by the microbeam X-ray diffraction analysis. Preferential alignment of c-axis of HAp crystals was represented by the relative intensity ratio of (0 0 2)-face diffraction peak to (3 1 0)-face one. The values decreased monotonously along the direction of the lateral stress from the site near the implant thread to the distant site in all horizontal lines of the map. These results indicated that the X-ray images for the intensity of c-face in HAp revealed functionally graded distribution of cortical bone quality. The micro-scale measurements of HAp structure could be a useful method for evaluating the mechanical stress distribution in human hard tissues.

  19. Intensive structural investigation of R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17-x}M{sub x} intermetallic compounds using high resolution powder neutron diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mujamilah,; Ridwan, [Materials Science Research Center, National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    The crystallographic and magnetic structure of R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17-x}M{sub x} intermetallic compounds system were refined by Rietveld analyses of the high resolution neutron powder diffraction data. The analyses results show that the substituent atoms were not distributed randomly over the Fe sites, but preferentially occupied some Fe sites. More further, it was also found that the substituent atoms which atomic radius smaller than Fe tend to avoid the 6c site at low concentration while the larger substituent atom tend to replace the Fe atom at this 6c site corresponding to their concentration. From these crystallographic data, it was suggested that the change of magnetic ordering temperature Tc, is not mainly determined by the change of short bond distance between this `dumb-bell` atoms, but it was also influenced by the nearest coordinated atoms to this site. (author)

  20. From Modeling of Plasticity in Single-Crystal Superalloys to High-Resolution X-rays Three-Crystal Diffractometer Peaks Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Alain

    2016-12-01

    The dislocation-based modeling of the high-temperature creep of two-phased single-crystal superalloys requires input data beyond strain vs time curves. This may be obtained by use of in situ experiments combining high-temperature creep tests with high-resolution synchrotron three-crystal diffractometry. Such tests give access to changes in phase volume fractions and to the average components of the stress tensor in each phase as well as the plastic strain of each phase. Further progress may be obtained by a new method making intensive use of the Fast Fourier Transform, and first modeling the behavior of a representative volume of material (stress fields, plastic strain, dislocation densities…), then simulating directly the corresponding diffraction peaks, taking into account the displacement field within the material, chemical variations, and beam coherence. Initial tests indicate that the simulated peak shapes are close to the experimental ones and are quite sensitive to the details of the microstructure and to dislocation densities at interfaces and within the soft γ phase.

  1. Mathematical treatment of digitalized spectra of the neutron diffractometer for microcomputer; Tratamiento matematico de espectros digitalizados del difractometro de neutrones para microcomputadora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L R

    1991-06-15

    For the study of materials by means of diffraction, it is required in the first place that the sample is a crystalline material so that the diffraction is possible and the digitized spectra of corresponding diffraction can be generated. This spectra, for any type of study consists of a great number of readings (counting or counts per second Cps) that of some way are related to a determined angle to be able to reproduce a diagram that will be evaluated to conclude the study according to it is. Since the evaluation will depend on the angular readings that are carried out in the mentioned spectra, it is required of a good definition of the curves for its angular reading. Well-known the problem of the no enough definition of the spectra to be able to carry out the angular reading, it was proceeds to outline a possible solution which consists on making a mathematical treatment to the spectra with the purpose of being able to define the angular positions of interest and to correct some operation factors that appear in the spectra. (Author)

  2. The Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) experiment reports, 1991 run cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStravolo, M.A.

    1992-12-01

    This report briefly discusses experiments conducted at the Lansce neutron source facility. The experiments were conducted on the following instruments: high intensity powder diffractometer; neutron powder diffractometer; single crystal diffractometer; low-q diffractometer; surface profile analysis reflectometer; filter difference spectrometer; experiment reports, and pharos

  3. The Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center LANSCE experiment reports 1989 run cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyer, D.K.; DiStravolo, M.A.

    1990-10-01

    This report contains a listing and description of experiments carried on at the LANSCE neutron scattering facility in the following areas: High Density Powder Diffraction; Neutron Powder Diffractometer, (NPD); Single Crystal Diffractometer, (SCD); Low-Q Diffractometer, (LQD); Surface Profile Analysis Reflectometer, (SPEAR); Filter Difference Spectrometer, (FDS); and Constant-Q Spectrometer

  4. The Manuel Lujan, Jr. Neutron Scattering Center LANSCE experiment reports 1989 run cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyer, D.K.; DiStravolo, M.A. (comps.)

    1990-10-01

    This report contains a listing and description of experiments carried on at the LANSCE neutron scattering facility in the following areas: High Density Powder Diffraction; Neutron Powder Diffractometer, (NPD); Single Crystal Diffractometer, (SCD); Low-Q Diffractometer, (LQD); Surface Profile Analysis Reflectometer, (SPEAR); Filter Difference Spectrometer, (FDS); and Constant-Q Spectrometer.

  5. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the neutron polarization analyzer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, the small-angle neutron diffractometers KWS-1/-2, the very-small-angle neutron diffractometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  6. Modern techniques of structural neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; )

    1997-01-01

    Modern techniques of neutron diffraction for structural investigations are analyzed. The time-of-flight method and the reverse time-of-flight method are considered briefly. Characteristics of two-crystal and time-of-flight neutron diffractometers are compared. It is pointed that in the future, the great importance will be possessed the development of high-resolution Fourier neutron diffractometers [ru

  7. The measurement of magnetic structure factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: experimental methods (using unpolarized or polarized neutron diffraction); the polarized beam diffractometer (polarizing the incident beam, the control of neutron polarization, the diffractometer geometry, specimen environment - field and temperature, experiment control, multiple scattering, data processing); corrections and accuracy. (U.K.)

  8. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  9. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornduangkaeo, Areeratt; Pongkasem, Somchai; Putchar, Suriya; Ampornrat, Pantip; Kajornrith, Varavuth; Chamchang, Jipawat

    2006-01-01

    The current neutron powder diffractometer at the Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1) has been modified from the obsolete neutron diffractometer which had been used during 1968-1975. The upgraded diffractometer has medium resolution and is appropriate for studying samples with small unit cell dimensions and training university students in the field of neutron scattering. This paper describes the current activities of neutron scattering research in Thailand, the current status of a new research reactor project at Ongkarak for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future as well as the organizational reformation of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP). (author)

  10. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornduangkaeo, Areeratt; Pongkasem, Somchai; Putchar, Suriya; Ampornrat, Pantip; Kajornrith, Varavuth; Sangariyavanich, Archara

    2003-01-01

    The current neutron powder diffractometer at the Thai Research Reactor-1/M1 (TRR-1/M1) has been modified from the obsolete neutron diffractometer which had been used during 1968-1975. The upgraded diffractometer has medium resolution and is appropriate for studying samples with small unit cell dimensions and training university students in the field of neutron scattering. This paper describes the current activities of neutron scattering research in Thailand as well as a new research reactor for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future. (author)

  11. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  12. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  13. The development of automatic neutron diffractometry at Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.W.

    1978-08-01

    Neutron diffractometry contributes substantially to studies of the structure of materials. Scientists at Harwell were among the first to make the collection of diffractometer data automatic and have continued to contribute to this field. This paper outlines the development of automatic neutron diffractometers at Harwell from 1960, and considers the various ANDROMACHE systems up to a hierarchical computer system that is anticipated for 1979. Appendices provide examples of the documentation provided for users of the ANDROMACHE Mark 6 neutron diffractometer system and give brief descriptions of the elements of the programs. (author)

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of a Schiff Base Cobalt (III) Complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-18

    Dec 18, 2017 ... Bruker SMART Apex II CCD area-detector diffractometer .... most likely weak field, with four unpaired electrons. .... growth signals and to activate gene expression, leading to ..... a newly designed DNA molecular light switch.

  15. Dielectric relaxation and ionic conductivity studies of Na2ZnP2O7

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    compound crystallized in the tetragonal system with the space group P42/n and ... Philips PW 1710 diffractometer operating with copper radiation Kα = 1⋅5418 Å. .... between mobile ions and the environments surrounding them. The transport ...

  16. SYNTHESIS OF NEW NANO SCHIFF BASE COMPLEXES: X-RAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analyses were recorded on Perkin-Elmer Pyris Diamond model. ... measurements were made on a STOE IPDS 2T diffractometer with graphite monochromated ..... It was confirmed that by changing the solvent of the synthesis or.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and oxide ionic conductivity of β-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    examined to detect whether there was a change in the mass of the powder sample ... model diffractometer (Bragg-Brentano geometry, graphite monochromator with ... simultaneous DTA/TG system (Perkin Elmer Diamond type). The samples of ...

  18. Neutron wave optics studied with ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyerl, A.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses experiments demonstrating or utilizing the wave properties of neutrons with wavelengths of about 100 nm. In particular the 'UCN gravity diffractometer' and the gravity spectrometer NESSIE (Neutronen-Schwerkraft-Spectrometrie) are illustrated. (Auth.)

  19. Structural Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Carbopol Polymeric Composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: The ciprofloxacin and Carbopol were mixed in water in a drug:polymer ratio of 1:5 ... and the Carbopol polymeric composites of the drug were obtained using a powder diffractometer. .... 2950 cm-1 represented alkenes and aromatic.

  20. Photocytotoxic ternary copper(II) complexes of histamine Schiff base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energy visible light to display cytotoxicity in the cancer cells, while remaining ... have recently developed a new strategy to increase the. ∗. For correspondence .... temperature using an automated Bruker SMART APEX. CCD diffractometer ...

  1. Vapour phase alkylation of ethylbenzene with t-butyl alcohol over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Alkylation of aromatic hydrocarbons is a reaction of high commercial ... supported phosphoric acid, used for the production of cumene, are also felt to be ... diffractometer equipped with a Cu-Kα radiation source and a liquid nitrogen cooled.

  2. National facility for neutron beam research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first fully automated computer controlled diffractometer was designed and commissioned ... missioning the spectrometers at the reactor with help from Nuclear Physics Division workshop ... ical extensions of the work carried out at CIRUS.

  3. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nubidga

    cLocal Materials Promotion authorithy (MIPROMALO), Ministry of Scientific Research and. Innovation, P.O. Box .... irradiated with Cu K radiation in a diffractometer. The resulting ... stabilization with crushed hard or of hydraulic binders (Lompo ...

  4. nanoparticles synthesized by citrate precursor m

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (M=Co, Cu) nanoparticles synthesized by citrate precursor method ... The structural characterization was carried out using an X-ray Diffractometer (Rikagu Miniflex, Japan) ..... His current area of interest includes magnetic nanomaterials.

  5. New instruments at IPNS: POSY II and SAD II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.K.; Felcher, G.P.; Kleb, R.; Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Three new instruments are currently in varying degrees of development/construction at IPNS. One of these, the Glass, Liquid, and Amorphous Materials Diffractometer (GLAD) is the subject of a separate paper in these Proceedings, and so will not be discussed further here. The other two, a second neutron reflectometer (POSY II) and a second small-angle diffractometer (SAD II) are described briefly below. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Two new tensile devices for X-ray diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freri, N.; Tintori, A.; Depero, L.E.; Sangaletti, L.; Cernuschi, F.; Ghia, S.

    1995-12-01

    Two tensile devices were designed to be used with parallel beam and parafocusing-geometry diffractometers. In the first case the device was designed to be attached to a strainflex diffractometer by Rigaku Inc., dedicated to stress analysis and commonly used in metallurgical industry. Since the sample does not move during the measurement, the tensile device can be kept fixed on the experimental table. The device design takes into account the steric hindrance by moving parts of diffractometer. The maximun load that can be applied to the sample is 60.000 N. An attachement to a Siemens D5000 diffractometer with Eulerian cradle has also benn designed for applying a load up tp 6000 N to a sample in the parafocusing-geometry. The installation does not require a re-alignment of the diffractometer. In both cases strain gages were applied to both sides of the specimen for the simultaneous determination of the macroscopic strains. Experiments based on the use of these devices are planned to determine the crystallographic elastic constants and study the influence of the microstructure on the mechanical behaviour of residual stresses in the zone of almost static stresses as well as the influence of residual stresses on uniaxially loaded samples. In addition, by using these devices, it is possible to measure the unstressed d-0 spacings providing useful information in the neutron diffraction study fo stress fields in steel samples

  7. Instrument basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The earliest powder diffractometers date back to the mid-1930s when Le Galley described the use of a point source, line receiving slit, system. The modern parafocusing system was developed by Parrish et al, in the mid to late 1940s, and most diffractometers today employ this same parafocusing (Bragg-Brentano) geometry. With the arrival of the synchrotron more than a decade ago, many new innovations have come along, both in data collection and data processing. In addition, interest in thin film technology has spawned a new breed of diffractometer which used low glancing angle optics. However, as far as the average, stand-alone, diffractometer systems were concerned, the only real innovation has been along the line of addition of various types of monochromatization device, special types of proportional detector, automated slit systems, multi-sample handling devices and so on. This workshop reviews the optical arrangement of typical 'routine' diffractometers, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  8. Two new tensile devices for X-ray diffraction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freri, N.; Tintori, A.; Depero, L.E.; Sangaletti, L. [Brescia Univ. (Italy); Cernuschi, F.; Ghia, S. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Two tensile devices were designed to be used with parallel beam and parafocusing-geometry diffractometers. In thefirst case the device was designed to be attached to a strainflex diffractometer by Rigaku Inc., dedicated to stress analysis and commonly used in metallurgical industry. Since the sample does not move during the measurement, the tensile device can be kept fixed on the experimental table. The device design takes into account the steric hindrance by moving parts of diffractometer. The maximun load that can be applied to the sample is 60.000 N. An attachement to a Siemens D5000 diffractometer with Eulerian cradle has also benn designed for applying a load up tp 6000 N to a sample in the parafocusing-geometry. The installation does not require a re-alignment of the diffractometer. In both cases strain gages were applied to both sides of the specimen for the simultaneous determination of the macroscopic strains. Experiments based on the use of these devices are planned to determine the crystallographic elastic constants and study the influence of the microstructure on the mechanical behaviour of residual stresses in the zone of almost static stresses as well as the influence of residual stresses on uniaxially loaded samples. In addition, by using these devices, it is possible to measure the unstressed d-0 spacings providing useful information in the neutron diffraction study fo stress fields in steel samples.

  9. RASOR: an advanced instrument for soft x-ray reflectivity and diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, T A W; Hase, T P A; Iida, T; Endo, K; Steadman, P; Marshall, A R; Dhesi, S S; van der Laan, G; Hatton, P D

    2010-07-01

    We report the design and construction of a novel soft x-ray diffractometer installed at Diamond Light Source. The beamline endstation RASOR is constructed for general users and designed primarily for the study of single crystal diffraction and thin film reflectivity. The instrument is comprised of a limited three circle (theta, 2theta, and chi) diffractometer with an additional removable rotation (phi) stage. It is equipped with a liquid helium cryostat, and post-scatter polarization analysis. Motorized motions are provided for the precise positioning of the sample onto the diffractometer center of rotation, and for positioning the center of rotation onto the x-ray beam. The functions of the instrument have been tested at Diamond Light Source, and initial test measurements are provided, demonstrating the potential of the instrument.

  10. Neutron scattering in Indonesia. Country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikram, Abarrul [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, R and D Center for Materials Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Serpong (Indonesia)

    2000-10-01

    Neutron scattering in Indonesia is still alienated due to some reasons and conditions which are discussed. The reactor and its latest operation mode are also described. The neutron beam facilities which include one diffractometer for residual stress measurement, one diffractometer for single crystal structural determination and texture measurement, one high resolution powder diffractometer, one neutron radiography facility, one triple axis spectrometer, one small angle neutron scattering spectrometer and one high resolution small angle neutron scattering spectrometer were presented briefly together with improvements of neutron intensities at some spectrometers in connection with the setting of main beam shutter position. Special attention is given for four instruments mostly related to this workshop. Their performances and problems faced in the past 9 months are presented as well as the future plan for refurbishment and development. (author)

  11. XRD alignment, calibration and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The quality of any diffractometer system is very much dependent on the alignment, calibration and performance. The three subjects are very much related. Firstly, you must know how to carry out the full diffractometer alignment. XRD alignment is easy once you know how. The presentation will show you step by step to carry out the full alignment. Secondly, you need to know how to calibrate the diffractometer system. The presentation will show you how to calibrate the goniometer, detector etc. Thirdly, to prove the system is working within the manufacturer specification. The presentation will show you how to carry out the resolution, reproducibility and linearity test. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  12. Diffraction. Powder, amorphous, liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowska, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction is a unique tool to observe all possible diffraction effects appearing in crystal. High-resolution neutron diffractometers have to be used in this study. Analysis of the magnetic structure of polycrystalline materials requires the use of high-resolution neutron diffraction in the range of large interplanar distances. As distinguished from the double axis diffractometers (DAS), which show high resolution only at small interplanar distances, TOF (time-of-flight) diffractometry offers the best resolution at large interplanar distances. (K.A.)

  13. Crystalline perfection and mechanical investigations on vertical Bridgman grown Bismuth telluride (Bi_2Te_3) single crystals for thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, Anuj; Vijayan, N.; Singh, Budhendra; Thukral, Kanika; Maurya, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    High efficiency thermoelectric materials plays a vital role in power generation and refrigeration applications. Bismuth telluride (Bi_2Te_3) is one among them. In the present work single crystal of bismuth telluride was grown using vertical Bridgman technique. The phase of grown crystals was analysed using a powder X-ray diffractometer. Quality of the grown crystal was assessed by using high resolution X-ray diffractometer and observed that it is fairly good. Further mechanical investigations on grown crystal was carried out using nano-indentation technique and various mechanical properties like hardness, stiffness and Young’s modulus were evaluated. Observed results clearly indicate its suitability for thermoelectric applications.

  14. A 16-ch module for thermal neutron detection using ZnS:{sup 6}LiF scintillator with embedded WLS fibers coupled to SiPMs and its dedicated readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosset, J.-B., E-mail: jean-baptiste.mosset@psi.ch; Stoykov, A.; Greuter, U.; Gromov, A.; Hildebrandt, M.; Panzner, T.; Schlumpf, N.

    2017-02-11

    A scalable 16-ch thermal neutron detection system has been developed in the framework of the upgrade of a neutron diffractometer. The detector is based on a ZnS:{sup 6}LiF scintillator with embedded WLS fibers which are read out with SiPMs. In this paper, we present the 16-ch module, the dedicated readout electronics, a direct comparison between the performance of the diffractometer obtained with the current {sup 3}He detector and with the 16-ch detection module, and the channel-to-channel uniformity.

  15. A 16-ch module for thermal neutron detection using ZnS:6LiF scintillator with embedded WLS fibers coupled to SiPMs and its dedicated readout electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosset, J.-B.; Stoykov, A.; Greuter, U.; Gromov, A.; Hildebrandt, M.; Panzner, T.; Schlumpf, N.

    2017-02-01

    A scalable 16-ch thermal neutron detection system has been developed in the framework of the upgrade of a neutron diffractometer. The detector is based on a ZnS:6LiF scintillator with embedded WLS fibers which are read out with SiPMs. In this paper, we present the 16-ch module, the dedicated readout electronics, a direct comparison between the performance of the diffractometer obtained with the current 3He detector and with the 16-ch detection module, and the channel-to-channel uniformity.

  16. Successful use of a linear position-sensitive neutron detector in solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefer, J.; Fischer, P.; Heer, H.; Isacson, A.; Koch, M.; Thut, R.

    1991-01-01

    The double axis multicounter diffractometer (DMC) installed at the 10 MW reactor SAPHIR (PSI) has been designed as a good flux-good resolution (presently Δd/d≥4x10 -3 ) neutron poder diffractometer. The detector bank is based on a commercial position-sensitive linear BF 3 detector which may be automatically and precisely positioned on air cushions on inexpensive floors. This detector type has an 80deg angular opening, not allowing any standard collimation in front of the detector. We therefore developed an oscillating collimator system allowing easy use of the instrument even with sample environments such as a dilution cryostat. (orig.)

  17. Neutron beam instruments at Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, A.H.; Harris, D.H.C.

    1978-11-01

    A list and brief descriptions are given of the neutron beam facilities for U.K. scientists at Harwell and in academic institutions, available under an agreement between the Science Research Council and AERE (Harwell). The list falls under the following headings: reactor instruments (single crystal diffractometers, powder diffractometers, triple axis spectrometers, time-of-flight cold neutron twin rotor spectrometer, beryllium filter spectrometer, MARX spectrometer, Harwell small-angle scattering spectrometer); LINAC instruments (total scattering spectrometer, back scattering spectrometer, active sample spectrometer, inelastic rotor spectrometer, constant Q spectrometer); ancillary equipment (cryostats, superconducting magnets, electromagnets, furnaces). (U.K.)

  18. Crystal structure of the Ce2Ni2Zn15 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opainich, I.M.; Pavlyuk, V.V.; Bodak, O.I.; Cherny, R.; Yvon, K.

    1996-01-01

    A structure of a new ternary compound of the composition Ce2Ni2Zn15 (sp.gr.R3-barm,a=0.9080(3) nm, c=1.3294(3) nm) was determined on single-crystal and powder specimens. The study was performed on a Philips PW1100 automatic diffractometer and a DRON-4.07 powder diffractometer. The Ce2Ni2Zn15 compound is crystallized in the Ce2Al2Co15 structure type with the aluminum positions being occupied by nickel and cobalt positions being occupied by zinc

  19. Neutron diffraction radiation of solid solution of carbon and hydrogen in the α-titanium in the homogeneity domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaev, B.B.; Khidirov, I.; Mukhtarova, N.N.

    2005-01-01

    In the work by the neutron-graph the homogeneity domain of the introduction solid solution TiC x H y is determined. The sample neutron grams have been taken on the neutron diffractometer (λ=.1085 nm) installed at the thermal column of the WWR-SM reactor (INF AN RUz). For the phase analysis and estimation of solid solutions homogeneity the X-ray graph was used. X-ray grams were taken on the X-ray diffractometer DRON-3M with use of CuK α radiation (λ=0.015418 nm)

  20. X-ray adapter with four freedom degrees for the curvilinear surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakhtin, B.K.; Petrov, P.P.; Moskvin, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Four-freedom degree adapter, which is placed on goniometer of DRON X-ray diffractometer is described. The adapter consists of specimen spring holder, worm pair, which provides for specimen turning by 360 deg, as well as, of three coordination tables. Investigations of prestressed-deformed state of near-the-surface layer of curvilinear surface units and structures are carried out using X-ray diffractometer equipped with the adapter described. Determination accuracy of residual stresses at the surface of turbine vane is no worse, than ±50 MPa

  1. Structure and texture investigations by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vratislav, S [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Fakulta Jaderna a Fysikalne Inzenyrska

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of the KSN-2 neutron diffractometer parameters helped improve the KSN-2 resolution to 7.5x10/sup -3/. Structure analysis of compounds with elementary cell volume down to 5 nm/sup 3/ can now be performed. Resolution analysis of the neutron powder diffractometer and its conclusions are described, results of the structure determination of zeolites and the magnetic structure determination of perovskites are given. The three-dimensional distribution function and its use in calculating the elastic modulus of aluminium sheets are mentioned.

  2. The Crystal Structure of the Malaria Pigment Hemozoin as Elucidated by X-ray Powder Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straasø, Tine

    survival. Successful inhibition of hemozoin crystallization will lead to parasitic death and thus break the cycle. The aim of this thesis is to elucidate the structure of hemozoin by means of X-ray diffraction techniques. Knowledge of the structure will help facilitate intelligent drug design in the future....... As part of the project an all-in-vacuum powder diffractometer was developed, which provides data with a minimum background level and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, the diffractometer is designed with the particular purpose of decreasing the number of parameters to be fitted. Installation...

  3. New developments in instrumentation for strain scanning in NPI Rez

    CERN Document Server

    Vrána, M; Lukás, P; Dubsky, J; Wagner, V

    2000-01-01

    Two high-resolution neutron diffractometers dedicated to strain /stress investigations in polycrystalline materials are routinely operated at the medium-power reactor LVR-15 in Rez and are also opened for external users. Good luminosity of the diffractometers and a sufficiently high-resolution (FWHM of the instrumental Delta d/d - profile can be less than 2*10/sup -3/ at d/sub hkl/=0.2 nm) permit investigations of both the macro- and microstrains in the sample gauge volumes of several cubic millimetres. Excellent properties and abilities of the neutron diffraction strain scanners are documented by some results of experimental measurements. (11 refs).

  4. Study of the experimental parameters associated to the determination of residual macro stresses in stainless steel tubes, through x-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The basic principles related to the determination of residual macro stresses by X-rays diffractometry are present, whereas different techniques associated with the respective experimental errors are discussed. The residual stresses in two 304 L stainless steel tubes were measured using three models of diffractometers, Rigaku SG-8, Jeol JDX-11PA and Rigaku Strainflex. The measured values of stresses as well as the reproducibilities are examined. The suitability of peak location method, by fitting three data points to the parabolic function, is discussed through values of position and intensity obtained by two of the above diffractometers. (author)

  5. Study of the experimental parameters associated to the determination of residual macro stresses in stainless steel tubes through x-rays diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The basic principles related to the determination of residual macro stresses by X-rays diffractometry are present, whereas different techniques associated with the respective experimental errors are discussed. The residual stresses in two 304 L stainless steel tubes were measured using three models of diffractometers, Rigaku SG-8, Jeol JDX-11PA and Rigaku Strainflex. The measured values of stresses as well as the reproducibilities are examined. The suitability of peak location method, by fitting three data points to the parabolic function, is discussed through values of position and intensity obtained by two of the above diffractometers. (author)

  6. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Nano aluminium; arc discharge; scanning electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy; X-ray diffractometer. ... After synthesis of Al Nps, in situ coating process on the nanoparticles was performed immediately. The effects of media on the yield and morphology of aluminium nanoparticles were ...

  7. finite element model for predicting residual stresses in shielded

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This paper investigates the prediction of residual stresses developed ... steel plates through Finite Element Model simulation and experiments. ... The experimental values as measured by the X-Ray diffractometer were of ... Based on this, it can be concluded that Finite Element .... Comparison of Residual Stresses from X.

  8. Synthesis of TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    structure of the titanium oxide species in the TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and the photocatalytic reactiv- ity in order to ... gaku D-max γA diffractometer with graphite mono- chromized ... FT–IR absorption spectra of TiO2-doped SiO2 com-.

  9. Syntheses, structures and properties of two coordination polymers of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipu Sutradhar

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... with a Perkin-Elmer Diamond TG/DTA analyzer heated from. 30–800 .... diffractometer using graphite monochromated Mo-Kα radi- ation (0.71073 Å). The unit ..... the change in complementary unitsPolyhedron 3948; (b). Roy S ...

  10. Designing new guides and instruments using McStas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhi, E.; Hansen, T.; Wildes, A.

    2002-01-01

    of guides, neutron optics and instruments [1]. To date, the McStas package has been extensively used at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France, for various studies including cold and thermal guides with ballistic geometry, diffractometers, triple-axis, backscattering and time-of-flight spectrometers...

  11. Preparation and crystal structure of Ca4Sb2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmann, B.; Limartha, H.; Schaefer, H.

    1980-01-01

    The formerly described compound Ca 2 Sb is to be corrected to Ca 4 Sb 2 O as shown by X-ray diffractometer data of single crystals and neutron diffraction diagrams of powders. The compound crystallizes in the K 2 NiF 4 structure type. (orig.)

  12. Preparation and crystal structure of Ca/sub 4/Sb/sub 2/O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, B; Limartha, H; Schaefer, H; Graf, H A

    1980-12-01

    The formerly described compound Ca/sub 2/Sb is to be corrected to Ca/sub 4/Sb/sub 2/O as shown by X-ray diffractometer data of single crystals and neutron diffraction diagrams of powders. The compound crystallizes in the K/sub 2/NiF/sub 4/ type structure.

  13. Construction and maintenance of SUNY facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Progress report, 1 October 1981-1 July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigeleisen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of the SUNY beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source is described. The line now includes monochromator/mirror optics with tandem arrangement of experiments. The beamline computer system is now working with CAMAC data acquisition, and a four-circle diffractometer, a small-angle-scattering bench, and a fluorescence EXAFS apparatus should be ready soon

  14. A Structural Investigation of the D O Solvated, Acetone Solvated and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    dicarbonyl moiety,[(h5-C5H5)(CO)2Fe (1, 2 and 3 in Scheme 1). 2. Experimental. 2.1. General ... single crystal X-ray diffractometer at 173(2) K using Mo Ka radia- .... Absorption coefficient (mm–1). 1.304 ... 98.0. 100.0. Absorption correction.

  15. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    formation of three intermolecular interactions. Keywords. Crystal structure; molecular interactions; X-ray diffraction; X-ray diffractometer; trifurcated acceptor. 1. Introduction. Alkaloids are used for the treatment of asthma, cough, tuberculosis, etc (Thappa et al 1996). They are also widely being abused as a recreational drug.

  16. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... development laboratory are located at APSARA reactor. All the instruments including the detectors and electronics have been developed within BARC. A new powder diffractometer (PD-3) is being developed by UGC-DAE-CSR. The national facility is utilized in collaboration with various universities and other institutions.

  17. Beam modulation: A novel ToF-technique for high resolution diffraction at the Beamline for European Materials Engineering Research (BEER)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rouijaa, M.; Kampmann, R.; Šaroun, Jan; Fenske, J.; Beran, Přemysl; Muller, M.; Lukáš, Petr; Schreyer, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 889, č. 5 (2018), s. 7-15 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015048 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Time-of-flight diffractometer * strain scanner * residual stress Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2016

  18. Temperature effects on the structure of liquid D-methanol through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, the liquid consists of deuterated methanol and neutron data was collected on the high- diffractometer at Dhruva, BARC. The corrected data at elevated temperatures (BP (boiling point) and double the BP) show that there is a large change in the H-bonded structure of this liquid. The pre-peak or hump, known to be ...

  19. Sol-gel/hydrothermal synthesis of mixed metal oxide of Titanium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed metal oxides of titanium and zinc nanocomposites were prepared through sol-gel method under hydrothermal condition using titanium oxy-(1, 2 - pentadione) and zinc acetate without hazardous additives. The resulting composites were characterized by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope ...

  20. A study on the synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... was maintained in the gel to overcome the difficulties of isomorphous substitution of ruthenium ... UV–Vis (DRS) spectra confirmed the position of ruthenium in the .... A Miniflex Advance X-ray diffractometer (XRD) with Cu-Kα.

  1. Structure investigations of some beryllium materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeldt, I; Lagerberg, G

    1960-05-15

    Metallographic structure, microhardness and texture have been studied on various types of beryllium metal including hot pressed powder, a rolled strip and an extruded tube It was found that beryllium exhibits its highest hardness in directions perpendicular to the basal plane. Good ideas of the prevailing textures were obtained with an ordinary X-ray diffractometer.

  2. In situ investigation of catalysts for alcohol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Sharafutdinov, Irek; Wu, Qiongxiao

    consists of three complimentary in situ techniques: (1) Activity measurements based on a reactor connected to a gas chromatograph (GC), (2) In situ x-ray diffractometer (XRD) measurements based on a reactor cell connected to a mass spectrometer (MS), and (3) environmental TEM (ETEM) that allows...... distribution, measured both macroscopically (XRD) and microscopically (ETEM), with the catalytic activity....

  3. A polarised SUSANS facility to study magnetic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The experiment was carried out at the V12b double crystal diffractometer set ... upper pole piece and just below the lower pole piece, within a magnet-grade soft iron 'C'. ... about 3 µm with the up- and 9 µm with the down-spin neutrons.

  4. Optimization of bent perfect Si(220)-crystal monochromator for residual strain/stress instrument - Part II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moon, MK.; Em, Vt.; Lee, C.H.; Mikula, Pavol; Hong, KP; Choi, YH; Cheon, JK; Nam, UW; Kong, KN; Jin, KC

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 368, 1 2 3 4 (2005), s. 70-75 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0891 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron monochromator * residual stress measurement * neutron diffractometers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.796, year: 2005

  5. NHP(O)(OiPr)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    were collected on STOE. IPDS-II diffractometer with graphite-mono- chromatized Mo-Kα radiation generated by fine- focus X-ray tube operated at 50 kV and 40 mA. The images were indexed, integrated and scaled using the X-ray data reduction package. 13. Data were cor- rected for absorption using the PLATON program.

  6. X-ray structure, hydrogen bonding and lattice energy analysis of (2E ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion data for both the compounds were collected on an X'Calibur CCD area detector diffractometer (Oxford Diffrac- tion) using MoKa .... (Oxford Diffraction make, U.K.) ..... [4] Wang L, Chen G, Lu X, Wang S, Han S, Li Y, Ping G, Jiang. X, Li H ...

  7. Residual stress determination in PECVD TiN coatings by X-ray diffraction: a parametric study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, N.B.; Horsewell, Andy; Mogensen, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to study the residual macroscopic stress in titanium-nitride, TiN, coatings deposited onto a tool steer substrate. The measurements were performed with a theta-theta decoupled X-ray diffractometer. The coatings were manufactured using an industrial pulsed...

  8. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the perfection of state-of-the-art multilayers are presented. Data were obtained using a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer. Measurements reveal large-scale figure errors in the substrate. A high-resolution triple-axis set up is required...

  9. One-pot synthesis of CaAl-layered double hydroxide–methotrexate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-26

    Sep 26, 2017 ... C in pure MTX molecule, indicating enhanced thermal stability, which supports stable ... age specific surface area and higher average pore diameters along with .... C and 20 Pa pressure to get dry CaAl-LDH–MTX nanopowder. .... the effect of instrumental broadening of the diffractometer. [9]. From this ...

  10. Measurement of the velocity of sound in crystals by pulsed neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, B.T.M.; Carlile, C.J.; Ward, R.C.; David, W.I.F.; Johnson, M.W.

    1986-03-01

    The diffraction method of observing elementary excitations in crystals has been applied to the study of one-phonon thermal diffuse scattering from pyrolytic graphite on a high resolution pulsed neutron diffractometer. The variation of the phase velocity of sound as a function of direction in the crystal and efficient method of determining sound velocities in crystals under extreme conditions. (author)

  11. Neutron scattering. Annual progress report 1997; Neutronenstreuung. Annual progress report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenspach, P.; Boeni, B.; Fischer, P.; Furrer, A. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Neutronenstreuung

    1998-02-01

    The present progress report describes the scientific and technical activities obtained by LNS staff members in 1997. It also includes the work performed by external groups at our CRG instruments D1A and IN3 at the ILL Grenoble. Due to the outstanding properties of neutrons and x-rays the research work covered many areas of science and materials research. The highlight of the year 1997 was certainly the production of neutrons at the new spallation neutron source SINQ. From July to November, SINQ was operating for typically two days/week and allowed the commissioning of four instruments at the neutron guide system: - the triple-axis spectrometer Druechal, - the powder diffractometer DMC, - the double-axis diffractometer TOPSI, the polarised triple-axis spectrometer TASP. These instruments are now fully operational and have already been used for condensed matter studies, partly in cooperation with external groups. Five further instruments are in an advanced state, and their commissioning is expected to occur between June and October 1998: - the high-resolution powder diffractometer HRPT, - the single-crystal diffractometer TriCS, - the time-of-flight spectrometer FOCUS, - the reflectometer AMOR, - the neutron optical bench NOB. Together with the small angle neutron scattering facility SANS operated by the spallation source department, all these instruments will be made available to external user groups in the future. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  12. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indices generated from single crystal X-ray data, gave the following cell: a ... on a Siemens Smart-CCD diffractometer equipped with a normal focus, 2⋅4 kW ..... The final calcined product at 850°C is dense Fe(PO3)2 [JCPDS file card no.

  13. Neutron scattering. Annual progress report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, P.; Boeni, B.; Fischer, P.; Furrer, A.

    1998-02-01

    The present progress report describes the scientific and technical activities obtained by LNS staff members in 1997. It also includes the work performed by external groups at our CRG instruments D1A and IN3 at the ILL Grenoble. Due to the outstanding properties of neutrons and x-rays the research work covered many areas of science and materials research. The highlight of the year 1997 was certainly the production of neutrons at the new spallation neutron source SINQ. From July to November, SINQ was operating for typically two days/week and allowed the commissioning of four instruments at the neutron guide system: - the triple-axis spectrometer Druechal, - the powder diffractometer DMC, - the double-axis diffractometer TOPSI, the polarised triple-axis spectrometer TASP. These instruments are now fully operational and have already been used for condensed matter studies, partly in cooperation with external groups. Five further instruments are in an advanced state, and their commissioning is expected to occur between June and October 1998: - the high-resolution powder diffractometer HRPT, - the single-crystal diffractometer TriCS, - the time-of-flight spectrometer FOCUS, - the reflectometer AMOR, - the neutron optical bench NOB. Together with the small angle neutron scattering facility SANS operated by the spallation source department, all these instruments will be made available to external user groups in the future. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  14. Dielectric properties and relaxation of Bi0⋅5Na0⋅5TiO3–BaNb2O6 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Advance X-ray diffractometer with CuKα radiation. (λ = 1⋅5418 .... tics. The samples of BNT–BN with x = 0⋅002 and 0⋅006 exhibited obvious relaxor characteristics near the low temperature ... the technical support and valuable suggestions.

  15. Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of New 1,2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    -II diffractometer with graphite-monochromated MoKa radiation. An empiri- cal absorption correction with the PLATON program20 was performed. The structure was solved by direct methods and refined with full-matrix least-squares on F2 using ...

  16. Composite germanium monochromators - results for the TriCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, J.; Fischer, S.; Boehm, M.; Keller, L.; Horisberger, M.; Medarde, M.; Fischer, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Composite germanium monochromators are in the beginning of their application in neutron diffraction. We show here the importance of the permanent quality control with neutrons on the example of the 311 wafers which will be used on the single crystal diffractometer TriCS at SINQ. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs.

  17. Multifunctional Ceramic Nanostructured Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Composition Condensates The X-ray diffraction analysis of samples was performed using the diffractometer DRON -2 in a filtered Fe-Kα radiation and... DRON -3 in a filtered Cu-Kα radiation at registering X-ray in a discrete survey mode with scanning pitch varying within the interval of ∆(2ϑ) =0.01

  18. Novel Routes for Sintering of Ultra-high Temperature Ceramics and their Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-31

    Structural investigation was carried out on metallographic microscope MIM–10, x-ray phase analysis– x-ray device DRON –2. Microhardness was measured by MPT...high- temperature X-ray diffractometer DRON -UM1 with high-temperature device UVD- 2000 (temperature interval 290-830K) and monochromatic Cu-Kα

  19. Refinement of the crystal structure of lead titanate with different degrees of imperfection of cationic and anionic sublattices by the Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, A.I.; Savchuk, G.K.; Rubtsov, V.A.; Letko, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The parameters of the crystal structure of lead titanate with different degrees of imperfection of the anionic and cationic sublattices are refined by the Rietveld method. The experiments are carried out on a DRON-4 diffractometer (CuK α radiation; 20 deg. d 5.0-6.0%

  20. X-ray diffraction study of surface-layer structure in parallel grazing rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtypulyak, N.I.; Yakimov, I.I.; Litvintsev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction method is described for study of thin polycrystalline and amorphous films and surface layers in an extremely asymmetrical diffraction system in parallel grazing rays using a DRON-3.0 diffractometer. The minimum grazing angles correspond to diffraction under conditions of total external reflection and a layer depth of ∼ 2.5-8 nm

  1. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... The binder burn out was carried out through a slow heating process up to 550. ◦. C. The final sintering of the pellets was carried out at 1250. ◦. C for 24 h. The phase identification of the samples was carried out by room temperature X-ray diffractometry (XRD) using Scintag. X-ray diffractometer with CuKα ...

  2. Gamma and Xray spectroscopy at high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author determines that for many interesting problems in gamma and Xray spectroscopy it is necessary to use crystal diffractometers. The basic features of such instruments are discussed and the special performance of crystal spectrometers is demonstrated by means of typical examples of various applications

  3. Transparent conducting zinc oxide thin film prepared by off-axis rf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and pestle. The powder was pressed and sintered at. 900°C for 10 h in air with a intermediate grinding. Two types of targets, one pure ZnO, and another with 2% of. Al were used for the deposition of the films. Before ... lysed using an X-ray diffractometer. Electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) was used to analyse the actual.

  4. A Michelson interferometer for ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyerl, A.; Malik, S.S.; Steinhauser, K.A.; Berger, L.

    1979-01-01

    We propose a neutron Michelson Interferometer installed within a focussing 'gravity diffractometer' for ultracold neutrons. In this arrangement the expected interference pattern depends only on the well-defined vertical component of neutron wavevector. Possible applications of such an interferometer are discussed. (orig.)

  5. The application of X-ray, γ-ray and neutron diffraction to the characterization of single crystal perfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, A.; Schneider, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The work is divided into the following three chapters: 1) diffraction by perfect and imperfect crystals, 2) experimental apparatus (describing gamma ray, X-ray and neutron diffractometers), 3) application of diffraction methods to the development of neutron monochromators. (WBU) [de

  6. The high-resolution powder diffraction station PO DI STA is ''running'' at Adone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burattini, E.; Simeoni, S.; Cappuccio, G.; Maistrelli, P.

    1992-01-01

    At the end of February 1991, a ''triple-axis'' high-resolution diffractometer for on powder sample measurements with synchrotron radiation was put in operation on the Adone wiggler line BX1 at Frascati. The diffractometer is based on a Seifert goniometer, designed according to our specifications. During the project, particular attention was paid in assuring the highest reliability together with great flexibility in the use. In fact, the diffractometer can also be used in a ''medium resolution'' configuration. For preliminary alignment and data collection, it is possible to operate with a traditional x-ray tube, too. The alignment procedure of the diffractometer to the x-ray beam is very easy. Powder samples can be measured both on the flat holder and on the capillary. An IBM PC computer is used for the instrument actuation and preliminary on-line data collection, while a large software package has been developed for the data analysis performed by a Macintosh IIcx. The instrument performance has been tested with a standard Si sample and quartz and Ni oxide samples. For the two possible resolution configurations, a test on a NiO sample gave FWHM values of 0.16 degree and 0.04 degree, respectively, for the [012] peak

  7. Instrument for liquids, amorphous and power diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    A time-of-flight diffractometer, which has been built at the Los Alamos pulsed neutron source, is described. The concept of resolution focussing is discussed and the application of the instrument to liquid structure over a broad range of momentum transfers is presented

  8. Characterization of X-ray optics by soft X-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biltoft, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have constructed a soft x-ray diffractometer to characterize layered synthetic microstructures (LSMs). The source, sample stage, and counter sections of the diffractometer operate under vacuum. The design differs from most others in two respects: the preamplifier and amplifier that process pulses from the subatmospheric-pressure gas-flow proportional counter are located outside the vacuum chamber and are separated from the proportional counter by approximately 76 cm of shielded cable; in addition, the conventional gear-driven, theta-two-theta diffractometer motion is accomplished with synchronized stepper motors. Characterizations of several LSMs have yielded data on d-spacing (distance between layers of different composition), critical angle, and peak reflectivity. Future work includes incorporation of an improved laser alignment system, in vacuo sample articulation (in addition to the theta-two-theta diffractometer movements), and a higher-flux photon source with a close-coupled fluorescent target carousel. Such a capability will permit multiple-energy diffraction work in a single pumpdown cycle

  9. Physicochemical Properties of Diosmetin and Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ray diffractometer (Bruker, Germany). The powdery samples were packed tightly in a rectangular aluminum cell prior to exposure to the X-ray beam. The scanning regions of the diffraction angle, 2θ, were 5 - 70° and radiation was detected with a proportional detector. RESULTS. UV and IR characteristics. The UV spectra of ...

  10. Structure investigations of some beryllium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeldt, I.; Lagerberg, G.

    1960-05-01

    Metallographic structure, microhardness and texture have been studied on various types of beryllium metal including hot pressed powder, a rolled strip and an extruded tube It was found that beryllium exhibits its highest hardness in directions perpendicular to the basal plane. Good ideas of the prevailing textures were obtained with an ordinary X-ray diffractometer

  11. A comparative study of the defluoridation efficiency of synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    diffractometer with a monochromatic radiation Kα1 of Cu (λ = 1.5418 ... and a known weight of adsorbent material (0.0174; 0.0318; 0.0527;. 0.0623 and ..... precipitated calcium and magnesium phosphates during hard waters softening by ...

  12. Microdefects revealed by X-ray diffusion scattering in Czochralski-growth dislocation-free silicon single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bublik, B.T.; Zotov, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Microdefects in the regions of Si crystals having different thermal history defined by growth conditions was studied by the X-ray diffuse scattering method on a triple crystal X-ray diffractometer. It was shown that in such crystals the microdefects with positive strength are prevalent. However, between the above indicated regions the defects with the strength of opposite sign prevail

  13. Neutron diffraction studies on ordered and disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, P.S.R

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the symmetry and distribution of atoms in the unit cell and the bonding between atoms is the key point for understanding, designing and manipulating chemical behavior or physical properties of novel materials for technological applications. This could be achieved using diffraction techniques. At the Dhruva national facility, BARC, Mumbai, a Powder diffractometer (PD2) and a High-Q diffractometer (HQD) are in operation for more than 2 decades. PD2 and HQD are equipped with banks of 5 and 10 position sensitive detectors (PSD) respectively, to cover the Q-ranges 9.4 Å -1 and 15 Å -1 respectively. The resolutions (Δd/d) of these instruments are 0.8% (λ = 1.24 Å) and 2.5% (λ = 0.78 Å). We report about the studies of changes in the long range order in crystalline materials as a function of temperature and/or composition as well as short and intermediate range orders studied in amorphous materials on these diffractometers in recent years. PD2 has been extensively used in the structural/phase transition studies of ferroics, multiferroics, nanoferrites along with magnetic structure determinations. On the other hand, HQD has been extensively used to understand the short and intermediate range order in network glasses like chalcogenides, H-bonded alcohols, Telluride glasses etc. We will be discussing the recent structural results obtained on many of these crystalline systems, glasses and molecular fluids on both of these diffractometers. (author)

  14. Magnetic structure of molecular magnet Fe[Fe(CN)6]·4H2O

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    perature disordered (paramagnetic) to an ordered magnetic phase transition at 22.6 K. ... three-dimensional network of straight Fe3+–C≡N–Fe3+ chains along the edges of the ... powder diffractometer (λ = 1.249 Å) at Dhruva reactor, Trombay.

  15. Resolution function in neutron diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, N.

    1987-01-01

    The resolution function in the neutron diffractometry is defined, on base of generalizing the resolution formerly formulated for the double axis neutron spectrometer. A polemical discussion is raised concerning an approach to this function existent in literature. The actual approach is concretized for the DN-2 time-of-flight diffractometer installed at the IBR-2 reactor

  16. Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SB/S1/IC-05/2014) for providing financial support to our research endeav- ours. We gratefully acknowledge the single crystal X- ray diffractometer facility funded by IIT Madras. References. 1. (a) Cook T R, Zheng Y-R and Stang P J 2013 Chem. Rev. 113 734; (b) Debata N B, Tripathy D and Chand. D K 2012 Coord. Chem.

  17. New developments of TOF neutron diffraction at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurov, Anatoli M.

    2001-01-01

    Development of high-resolution RTOF Fourier technique for powder neutron diffraction studies is being continued at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor in Dubna. Besides some technical improvements in the operating HRFD instrument, a new dedicated instrument, Fourier Strain Diffractometer (FSD), for investigation of residual stresses in bulk materials has been constructed at IBR-2 in 1999. With a new HRFD Fourier chopper smaller than 10 μs TOF contribution in a resolution function was obtained in the experiment with perfect Si single crystal. A series of diffraction experiments with the beams from a new methane cold neutron moderator installed at the IBR-2 in 1999 is discussed. A comparison with the results obtained with the conventional water comb-like moderator shows that for various types of experiments, which are performed at HRFD and DN-2 diffractometers, the methane cold neutron source provides better conditions. (author)

  18. Crystalline perfection and mechanical investigations on vertical Bridgman grown Bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) single crystals for thermoelectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, Anuj [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR- National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); X-ray Analysis and Crystal Growth Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Vijayan, N., E-mail: nvijayan@nplindia.org [X-ray Analysis and Crystal Growth Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Budhendra [TEMA-NRD, Mechanical Engineering Department and Aveiro Institute of Nanotechnology (AIN), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Thukral, Kanika [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR- National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); X-ray Analysis and Crystal Growth Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Maurya, K.K. [X-ray Analysis and Crystal Growth Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-03-07

    High efficiency thermoelectric materials plays a vital role in power generation and refrigeration applications. Bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) is one among them. In the present work single crystal of bismuth telluride was grown using vertical Bridgman technique. The phase of grown crystals was analysed using a powder X-ray diffractometer. Quality of the grown crystal was assessed by using high resolution X-ray diffractometer and observed that it is fairly good. Further mechanical investigations on grown crystal was carried out using nano-indentation technique and various mechanical properties like hardness, stiffness and Young’s modulus were evaluated. Observed results clearly indicate its suitability for thermoelectric applications.

  19. Combined experimental powder X-ray diffraction and DFT data to obtain the lowest energy molecular conformation of friedelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Djalma Menezes de; Mussel, Wagner da Nova; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima; Duarte, Helio Anderson; Gomes, Elionai Cassiana de Lima; Guimaraes, Luciana; Vieira Filho, Sidney A.

    2012-01-01

    Friedelin molecular conformers were obtained by Density Functional Theory (DFT) and by ab initio structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction. Their conformers with the five rings in chair-chair-chair-boat-boat, and with all rings in chair, are energy degenerated in gas-phase according to DFT results. The powder diffraction data reveals that rings A, B and C of friedelin are in chair, and rings D and E in boat-boat, conformation. The high correlation values among powder diffraction data, DFT and reported single crystal data indicate that the use of conventional X-ray diffractometer can be applied in routine laboratory analysis in the absence of a single-crystal diffractometer. (author)

  20. Investigation of solid solution of hydrogen in α-manganese by neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, V.K.; Antonov, V.E.; Kolesnikov, A.I.; Kornell, K.; Vipf, G.; Grosse, G.; Vagner, F.Eh.; Sikolenko, V.V.; Sumin, V.V.; )

    1997-01-01

    The FCC-lattice of the solid solution α-MnH 0.073 with the mass of 8.45 g is investigated by the neutron diffraction method and the inelastic neutron scattering technique. The neutron diffraction measurements are made by the diffractometer D1B with pyrographite monochromator and the high-resolution Fourier diffractometer HRFD at 300 K. The study of the inelastic incoherent neutron scattering is carried out by means of the inverse geometry spectrometer KDSOG-M at 90 K. The comparative analysis of α-MnH 0.073 and α-Mn spectra is fulfilled for the more correct separation of effects of hydrogen introduction. It is found out that the structure of the solid solution α-MnH 0.073 belongs to the same spatial group I-43m as the structure of α-Mn [ru

  1. Neutron Scattering Investigations of Correlated Electron Systems and Neutron Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sonja Lindahl

    are a unique probe for studying the atomic and molecular structure and dynamics of materials. Even though neutrons are very expensive to produce, the advantages neutrons provide overshadow the price. As neutrons interact weakly with materials compared to many other probes, e.g. electrons or photons...... contains antiferromagnetically coupled Cu2+ S = 1=2 ions forming truncated 24-spin cube clusters of linked triangles. The clusters in boleite afford a situation intermediate between molecular and bulk magnetism, accessible to both experiment and numerical theory, in which a spin liquid can be studied...... the impact of the time structure (pulse length and repetition frequency) choice for ESS are appended. McStas simulations of a low resolution cold powder diffractometer and high resolution thermal powder diffractometer with wavelength frame multiplication have been carried out for 20 different settings...

  2. Texture analysis using angle dispersive neutron nuclear scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brokmeier, H.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the method of texture determination using neutron diffraction. The main advantages of neutron diffraction arise from the high penetration depth for most materials which is a factor of 10 2 -10 4 higher than for X-ray diffraction. Consequently neutron diffraction is an efficient tool for the investigation of global textures and coarse grained materials. Moreover, the measurement of large sample volumes gives excellent grain statistics, allows the influence of texture inhomogeneities to be neglected and allows the measurement of complete pole figures even of minority phases. A number of examples show the application of neutron diffraction to measure textures of metals, alloys, composites, intermetallic compounds and rocks. A detailed description of TEX-2 the neutron texture diffractometer at GKSS Research Centre is given which is completed by a comparison to other neutron texture diffractometers. (orig.) [de

  3. High Dielectric Constant Study of TiO2-Polypyrrole Composites with Low Contents of Filler Prepared by In Situ Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2/polypyrrole composites with high dielectric constant have been synthesized by in situ polymerization of pyrrole in an aqueous dispersion of low concentration of TiO2, in the presence of small amount of HCl. Structural, optical, surface morphological, and thermal properties of the composites were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The data obtained from diffractometer and thermal gravimetric analysis confirmed the crystalline nature and thermal stability of the prepared composites. The dielectric constant of 5 wt% TiO2 increased with filler content up to 4.3 × 103 at 1 kHz and then decreased to 1.25 × 103 at 10 kHz.

  4. HMI carine system. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axmann, A.; Bischoff, M.; Kind, R.; Kubitz, M.; Muellerburg, M.; Pollet, J.L.; Tschammer, V.

    1979-03-01

    A system for control and data acquisition of neutron scattering experiments (diffractometer, diffractometer with multidetector, triple axis spectrometer and time of flight spectrometer) is described. The experiment electronics of the different experiments is extensively standardized. Each experiment is equipped with its own PDP-11 computer and so fully autonomous. The HMI Carine System I is dedicated to a special experiment but the overall design allows an easy adaption to any experiment of similar environment. Besides an interactive dialog between user and experiment system during a measurement session, the system permits preassembling required commands in a command file which can be executed as one program without further user control. The local computer systems are connected to the HMI computer network. (orig.) [de

  5. Structural integrity assessment based on the HFR Petten neutron beam facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Ohms, C; Idsert, P V D

    2002-01-01

    Neutrons are becoming recognized as a valuable tool for structural-integrity assessment of industrial components and advanced materials development. Microstructure, texture and residual stress analyses are commonly performed by neutron diffraction and a joint CEN/ISO Pre-Standard for residual stress analysis is under development. Furthermore neutrons provide for defects analyses, i.e. precipitations, voids, pores and cracks, through small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) or radiography. At the High Flux Reactor, 12 beam tubes have been installed for the extraction of thermal neutrons for such applications. Two of them are equipped with neutron diffractometers for residual stress and structure determination and have been extensively used in the past. Several other facilities are currently being reactivated and upgraded. These include the SANS and radiography facilities as well as a powder diffractometer. This paper summarizes the main characteristics and current status of these facilities as well as recently in...

  6. New software to model energy dispersive X-ray diffraction in polycrystalline materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghammraoui, B., E-mail: bahaa.ghammraoui@cea.fr [CEA-Leti, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Tabary, J. [CEA-Leti, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Pouget, S. [CEA-INAC Sciences de la matieres, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Paulus, C.; Moulin, V.; Verger, L. [CEA-Leti, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Duvauchelle, Ph. [CNDRI-Insa Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2012-02-01

    Detection of illicit materials, such as explosives or drugs, within mixed samples is a major issue, both for general security and as part of forensic analyses. In this paper, we describe a new code simulating energy dispersive X-ray diffraction patterns in polycrystalline materials. This program, SinFullscat, models diffraction of any object in any diffractometer system taking all physical phenomena, including amorphous background, into account. Many system parameters can be tuned: geometry, collimators (slit and cylindrical), sample properties, X-ray source and detector energy resolution. Good agreement between simulations and experimental data was obtained. Simulations using explosive materials indicated that parameters such as the diffraction angle or the energy resolution of the detector have a significant impact on the diffraction signature of the material inspected. This software will be a convenient tool to test many diffractometer configurations, providing information on the one that best restores the spectral diffraction signature of the materials of interest.

  7. Upgrade of detectors of neutron instruments at Neutron Physics Laboratory in Řež

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, E.I., E-mail: litvin@nf.jinr.ru [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 14980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ryukhtin, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS v.v.i., Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Bogdzel, A.A.; Churakov, A.V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 14980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Farkas, G. [Charles University in Prague, Department of Physics of Material, Ke Karlovu 5, CZ-12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Hervoches, Ch.; Lukas, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS v.v.i., Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Pilch, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS v.v.i., Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 1992/2, 1822 Prague (Czech Republic); Saroun, J.; Strunz, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS v.v.i., Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Zhuravlev, V.V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 14980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-01

    Three neutron instruments at the Neutron Physics Laboratory (NPL) in Řež near Prague — small-angle scattering (SANS) MAUD, strain scanner SPN-100 and strain diffractometer TKSN-400 — have been modernized recently with new 2D position-sensitive detectors (PSDs) from JINR, Dubna. Here we report on the progress made in relation to the possibilities of the diffractometers due to the improved performance of the detectors. The first part of the paper is dedicated to a detailed description of the hardware and software of the PSDs, as well as its integration with the in-house experimental control software. Then practical examples of neutron scattering experiments for each of the upgraded facilities are presented.

  8. Structural, Optical, and Morphological Properties of the Cadmium Oxide Thin Film Taif S. Almaadhede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taif S. Almaadhede

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium oxide nanoparticles CdO NPS has been prepared by laser ablation in ethanol at 600 pulses and 600 mJ as laser energy. The structural, optical, and morphological properties of the cadmium oxide CdO thin film deposited on a glass substrate have been studied. X-ray diffrac-tometer (XRD 6000, Shimadzu, X-ray, diffractometer with Cukα radiation at a wavelength of ( = 0.154056 nm was utilized to investigate the structural properties of CdO NPs. The optical absorption of colloidal CdO NPs was measured using a spectrophotometer (Cary, 100 cans plus, UV-Vis-NIR, Split Beam Optics, Dual detectors in the range of (200–900 nm. The morpholo-gy of the CdO NPs was investigated by using AFM (AA 3000 Scanning Probe Microscope. The thickness of the films was measured using ellipsometer (Angstrom sun Technologies Ins.

  9. A flow-through hydrothermal cell for in situ neutron diffraction studies of phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, Brian; Tenailleau, Christophe; Nogthai, Yung; Studer, Andrew; Brugger, Joel; Pring, Allan

    2006-01-01

    A flow-through hydrothermal cell for the in situ neutron diffraction study of crystallisation and phase transitions has been developed. It can be used for kinetic studies on materials that exhibit structural transformations under hydrothermal conditions. It is specifically designed for use on the medium-resolution powder diffractometer (MRPD) at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Sydney. But it is planned to adapt the design for the Polaris beamline at ISIS and the new high-intensity powder diffractometer (Wombat) at the new Australian reactor Opal. The cell will operate in a flow-through mode over the temperature range from 25-300 deg. C and up to pressures of 100 bar. The first results of a successful transformation of pentlandite (Fe,Ni) 9 S 8 to violarite (Fe,Ni) 3 S 4 under mild conditions (pH∼4) at 120 deg. C and 3 bar using in situ neutron diffraction measurements are presented

  10. Status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangariyavanich, Archara; Pongkasem, Somchai; Patchar, Suriya; Ampornrat, Pantip [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2001-03-01

    In 1992, the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace had established a spectrometer upgrade program, the main objective was to improve the performance of the old double-axis spectrometer which used to be situated at TRR1. At present, installation and alignment of the upgraded diffractometer have been accomplished. This report gives brief description about the current status of the facility. In addition, the Office of Atomic Energy is in process of constructing a 10 MW nuclear research reactor at the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center site. The reactor will be equipped with a High Resolution Powder Diffractometer which is anticipated to be in operation soon after the commission of the reactor. Feature of the HRPD including its potential utilization are presented in this report. (author)

  11. Pulsed Neutron Powder Diffraction for Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, T.

    2008-03-01

    The accelerator-based neutron diffraction began in the end of 60's at Tohoku University which was succeeded by the four spallation neutron facilities with proton accelerators at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (Japan), Argonne National Laboratory and Los Alamos Laboratory (USA), and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). Since then, the next generation source has been pursued for 20 years, and 1MW-class spallation neutron sources will be appeared in about three years at the three parts of the world: Japan, UK and USA. The joint proton accelerator project (J-PARC), a collaborative project between KEK and JAEA, is one of them. The aim of the talk is to describe about J-PARC and the neutron diffractometers being installed at the materials and life science facility of J-PARC. The materials and life science facility of J-PARC has 23 neutron beam ports and will start delivering the first neutron beam of 25 Hz from 2008 May. Until now, more than 20 proposals have been reviewed by the review committee, and accepted proposal groups have started to get fund. Those proposals include five polycrystalline diffractometers: a super high resolution powder diffractometer (SHRPD), a 0.2%-resolution powder diffractometer of Ibaraki prefecture (IPD), an engineering diffractometers (Takumi), a high intensity S(Q) diffractometer (VSD), and a high-pressure dedicated diffractometer. SHRPD, Takumi and IPD are being designed and constructed by the joint team of KEK, JAEA and Ibaraki University, whose member are originally from the KEK powder group. These three instruments are expected to start in 2008. VSD is a super high intensity diffractometer with the highest resolution of Δd/d = 0.3%. VSD can measure rapid time-dependent phenomena of crystalline materials as well as glass, liquid and amorphous materials. The pair distribution function will be routinely obtained by the Fourier transiformation of S(Q) data. Q range of VSD will be as wide as 0.01 Å-1stress mapping inside

  12. Introduction of neutron research facilities in Indonesia Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Masayuki; Muslih, M. Refai; Minakawa, Nobuaki

    2004-01-01

    In this report, some facilities for neutron diffraction installed in Indonesia nuclear Agency (BATAN) are introduced. Rough sketch of BATAN, and facility arrangement in the reactor hall and the guide hall are schematically shown. The four facilities (powder diffractometer, four-circle goniometer, three-axis goniometer and neutron radiography system) are installed in the reactor hall and the three (small angle neutron scattering (SANS), high resolution SANS and high resolution powder diffractometer) in the guide hall. Neutron wavelengths determined from four hk1 planes of standard Si powder by the BATAN's neutron diffraction facility are compared with those measured by the similar facility in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The neutron diffraction profile of W-fiber reinforced Cu composite is measured by the BATAN's facility. The experimental results show the strong 110 preferred orientation to the fiber direction. (author)

  13. Combined experimental powder X-ray diffraction and DFT data to obtain the lowest energy molecular conformation of friedelin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Djalma Menezes de; Mussel, Wagner da Nova; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima; Duarte, Helio Anderson; Gomes, Elionai Cassiana de Lima [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Guimaraes, Luciana [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del-Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Vieira Filho, Sidney A., E-mail: bibo@ef.ufop.br [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia

    2012-07-01

    Friedelin molecular conformers were obtained by Density Functional Theory (DFT) and by ab initio structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction. Their conformers with the five rings in chair-chair-chair-boat-boat, and with all rings in chair, are energy degenerated in gas-phase according to DFT results. The powder diffraction data reveals that rings A, B and C of friedelin are in chair, and rings D and E in boat-boat, conformation. The high correlation values among powder diffraction data, DFT and reported single crystal data indicate that the use of conventional X-ray diffractometer can be applied in routine laboratory analysis in the absence of a single-crystal diffractometer. (author)

  14. PREPARATION OF CALCIUM OXIDE FROM Achatina fulica AS CATALYST FOR PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM WASTE COOKING OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Lesbani, Aldes; Tamba, Palita; Mohadi, Risfidian; Fahmariyanti, Fahmariyanti

    2013-01-01

    Preparation of calcium oxide from Achatina fulica shell has been carried out systematically by decomposition for 3 h at various temperatures i.e. 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C. Formation of calcium oxide was characterized using XR diffractometer. The calcium oxide obtained with the optimum temperature decomposition was characterized using FTIR spectroscopy to indicate the functional group in the calcium oxide. The results showed that XRD pattern of materials obtained from decomposition of Achatina...

  15. Characterization and Utilization of Calcium Oxide (CaO) Thermally Decomposed from Fish Bones as a Catalyst in the Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aldes Lesbani; Sabat Okta Ceria Sitompul; Risfidian Mohadi; Nurlisa Hidayati

    2016-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of fish bones to obtain calcium oxide (CaO) was conducted at various temperatures of 400, 500, 800, 900, 1000, and 1100 °C. The calcium oxide was then characterized using X-ray diffractometer, FTIR spectrophotometer, and SEM analysis. The calcium oxide obtained from the decomposition at 1000 °C was then used as a catalyst in the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Diffraction pattern of the calcium oxide produced from decomposition at 1000...

  16. In-house characterization of protein powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Christian Grundahl; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Ståhl, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction patterns of lysozyme and insulin were recorded on a standard in-house powder diffractometer. The experimental powder diffraction patterns were compared with patterns calculated from Protein Data Bank coordinate data. Good agreement was obtained by including straightforward...... to include calculated H-atom positions did not improve the overall fit and was abandoned. The method devised was shown to be a quick and convenient tool for distinguishing precipitates and polymorphs of proteins....

  17. Single Crystal Diffractometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, U. W.; Willis, B. T. M.

    2009-06-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. Introduction; Part II. Diffraction Geometry; Part III. The Design of Diffractometers; Part IV. Detectors; Part V. Electronic Circuits; Part VI. The Production of the Primary Beam (X-rays); Part VII. The Production of the Primary Beam (Neutrons); Part VIII. The Background; Part IX. Systematic Errors in Measuring Relative Integrated Intensities; Part X. Procedure for Measuring Integrated Intensities; Part XI. Derivation and Accuracy of Structure Factors; Part XII. Computer Programs and On-line Control; Appendix; References; Index.

  18. Comparative study of structural properties of trehalose water solutions by neutron diffraction, synchrotron radiation and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaro, A.; Magazu, V.; Migliardo, F.; Sussich, F.; Vadala, M

    2004-07-15

    Neutron diffraction measurements combined with H/D substitution have been performed on trehalose aqueous solutions as a function of temperature and concentration by using the SANDALS diffractometer at ISIS Facility (UK). The findings point out a high capability of trehalose to strongly affect the tetrahedral hydrogen bond network of water. The neutron diffraction results are also compared with simulation and experimental data obtained by synchrotron radiation on the phospholipid bilayer membranes (DPPC)/trehalose/H{sub 2}O ternary system.

  19. Single crystal spectrometer FOX at KENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Single crystal spectrometer FOX installed at H1 thermal neutron line on KENS has been renewed recently for the measurement of very weak scattering. We have installed a multidetector system of 36 linearly placed 3 He detectors with collimators instead of former four-circle diffractometer and scintillator detectors. Though the system is quite simple, a large two-dimensional reciprocal space is observed effectively with high S/N rate on new FOX. (author)

  20. Short review on chemical bath deposition of thin film and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugle, Dhananjay, E-mail: dhananjayforu@gmail.com; Jadhav, Ghanshyam, E-mail: ghjadhav@rediffmail.com [Depertment of Physics, Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji College, Omerga-413606 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This reviews the theory of early growth of the thin film using chemical deposition methods. In particular, it critically reviews the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for preparation of thin films. The different techniques used for characterizations of the chemically films such as X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Electrical conductivity and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are discussed. Survey shows the physical and chemical properties solely depend upon the time of deposition, temperature of deposition.

  1. Effects of Aging and Environmental Conditions on Ammunition/Explosives Storage Magazines - Paper 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    result in the deterioration of the microstructure and the dissolution of water-soluble calcium compounds that 9 are then leached away. Based on...the familiar catenary curve. Thus parabolic arches and catenary cables are commonly found in bridges and related structures. The treatment of the...DIFFRACTOMETER Xpert Data Collector XRD Analysis of sample with X’Pert Highscore Plus X-Ray Diffraction test (XRD) were run to determine the concrete

  2. Single-crystal diffraction instrument TriCS at SINQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schefer, J.; Könnecke, M.; Murasik, A.; Czopnik, A.; Strässle, Th; Keller, P.; Schlumpf, N.

    2000-03-01

    The single-crystal diffractometer TriCS at the Swiss Continuous Spallation Source (SINQ) is presently in the commissioning phase. A two-dimensional wire detector produced by EMBL was delivered in March 1999. The instrument is presently tested with a single detector. First measurements on magnetic structures have been performed. The instrument is remotely controlled using JAVA-based software and a UNIX DEC-α host computer.

  3. Geometrical conditions at the quantitative neutronographic texture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobisch, J.; Kleinstueck, K.

    1975-10-01

    The beam geometry for measuring quantitative pole figures by a neutronographic texture diffractometer is explained for transmission and reflection arrangement of spherical samples and sheets. For given dimensions of counter aperture the maximum possible cross sections of the incident beam are calculated as a function of sample dimensions and the Bragg angle theta. Methods for the calculation of absorption factors and volume correction are given. Under special conditions advantages result in the transmission case for sample motion into the direction +α. (author)

  4. Preparation and photocatalytic properties of YVO4 nanopowders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Haiyan; Wang Hao; Yan Hui

    2007-01-01

    YVO 4 photocatalysts with different grain sizes were obtained by annealing the YVO 4 nanopowders synthesized via microwave irradiation. The products were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), surface area and porosity analyzer, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. Photocatalytic measurements showed that the YVO 4 nanopowders with grain size of about 5 nm possess superior photocatalytic properties in decolorization of methyl orange solution

  5. Thorium effect on the oxidation of uranium: Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) investigation on (U1 − xThx)O2 (x = 0 to 1) thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cakir, P.; Eloirdi, R; Huber, F.; Konings, R.J.M.; Gouder, T

    2017-01-01

    Thin films of U1− xThxO2 (x = 0 to 1) have been deposited via reactive DC sputter technique and characterized by X-ray/Ultra-violet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS/UPS), X-ray Powder Diffractometer (XRD) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) in order to understand the

  6. Nanoparticles of the superconductor MgB2: structural characterization and in situ study of synthesis kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Chunxiang; Liu Debao; Shen Yutian; Sun Jinbin; Meng Fanbin; Wang Ru; Liu Shuangjin; Greer, A.L.; Chen, S.K.; Glowacki, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Single-crystal MgB 2 nanoparticles, with diameters in the range 20-100 nm, have been synthesized in situ in the sample chamber of an X-ray diffractometer. The reaction kinetics are analyzed and related to the atomic-level structure of the particles as observed by high-resolution electron microscopy. Synthesis conditions may have a significant influence on microstructure and superconducting properties

  7. Preferred orientation determination using line source x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, G.; Shmarjahu, D.

    1977-10-01

    A texture goniometer has been attached to a diffractometer connected to a line-focus x-ray source. Reasonable results are obtained for the texture of rolled sheets and the test procedure is given. To illustrate the test procedure, the determination of preferred orientation in cold-rolled copper is described, as compared with random powder of sintered copper. Improvements of the measurements are proposed

  8. J-PARC and the prospective neutron sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masatoshi Arai

    2009-01-01

    Full text: J-PARC is an interdisciplinary facility with high power proton accelerator complex containing particle physics, nuclear physics, muon science and neutron science facilities. After 8 years construction, she is almost ready to open for users. Materials-Life Science Facility (MLF) of J-PARC is composed from very intensive pulsed neutron and muon facilities at 1 MW of the accelerated proton power. The neutron peak flux will be as high as several hundred times of existing high flux reactors. Therefore, it is highly expected that new sciences will be explored by J-PARC, MLF. The first neutrons was already produced in the last May. The MLF facility has 23 neutron beam ports. About 12 instruments are under commissioning or construction. Out of four instruments are already opened for users since December, 2008.. In the commissioning High Resolution Powder Diffractometer showed the world highest resolution d/d=0.04% as was designed. Other instruments, high intensity powder diffractometer, protein crystal diffractometer, residual stress analysis diffractometer, high intensity chopper spectrometer, confirmed expected intensity and spectrum from neutron beam line. By the end of March, a cold neutron chopper spectrometer will also come on line. Those instruments are taking advantages with optical devices for neutron transport to realize very high flux at sample position. By taking high performances of neutron moderators of MLF, the instruments will realize the world class resolution and high intensity. Ranging from Bio-science, material science, engineering, industrial use of neutrons to fundamental physics, we are exciting to see cutting-edge sciences with great anticipation to be produced from J-PARC, MLF. (author)

  9. Dependence of magnetic and structural properties of Ni 0.5 M 0.5 Fe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ni0.5M0.5Fe2O4 (M = Co, Cu) ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using citrate precursor method. The citrate precursor was annealed at temperatures 400oC, 450oC, 500oC and 550oC. The annealed powders were characterized using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Observed ...

  10. Residual Stress Analysis for Engineering Applications by Means of Neutron Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gndupel-Herold, Thomas; Brand, Paul C.; Prask, Henry J.

    1999-01-01

    The economic and scientific importance of neutron diffraction residual stress analysis has led to an increasing number of suitable instruments worldwide. Recently, a dedicated state-of-the-art diffractometer has been installed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology reactor. It has been used for a variety of measurements on basic and engineering stress problems. Among the most prominent examples that have been investigated are residual stresses in rails, weldments, and plasma-sprayed coatings

  11. On the evaluation of X-ray diffraction experiments by the regularization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubin, V.A.; Szasz, A. (Lab. of Surface and Interface Physics, Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary))

    1991-05-16

    The characteristic property of diffractometers as the presence of occasional and systematic errors in measured patterns requires such an evaluation which is as informative as possible. This circumstance gives rise to the problem of optimal planning of the experiment. The X-ray diffraction optimization problem with application of the regularization method is studied. The proposal permits to determine more accurately the unknown true characteristics of the X-ray diffraction experiment. (orig.).

  12. On the evaluation of X-ray diffraction experiments by the regularization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubin, V.A.; Szasz, A.

    1991-01-01

    The characteristic property of diffractometers as the presence of occasional and systematic errors in measured patterns requires such an evaluation which is as informative as possible. This circumstance gives rise to the problem of optimal planning of the experiment. The X-ray diffraction optimization problem with application of the regularization method is studied. The proposal permits to determine more accurately the unknown true characteristics of the X-ray diffraction experiment. (orig.)

  13. The system SnTe-InSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurshumov, A.P.; Alidzhanov, M.A.; Aliev, A.S.; Gadzhiev, T.G.; Mamedov, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of the interaction and physicochemical properties of the alloys of the system SnTe-InSe. The DTA was performed on an NTR-74 pyrometer, XPA on a Dron-2.0 diffractometer and MSA on an MIM-7 metallographic microscope. The microhardness of the samples was determined on a PMT-3 microhardness tester. The congruently melting compound SnInTeSe and solid solutions based on the starting components are formed in the system

  14. Diffractometric method for obtaining of x-ray diffraction patterns of transplutonium element compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubasov, Yu.V.; Aleksandrov, B.M.; Baranov, Yu.I.; Golubev, V.A.; Nikolaev, V.B.

    1986-01-01

    Method allowing to carry out X-ray radiographic investigations of powders of high radioactive α-sources (transuranium and transplutonium compounds) by the diffractometric method have been developed. The method is tested for three americium compounds crystallizing in different syngonies - dioxide, formiate, oxalate. The substance quantity necessary for analysis is 0.5-1 mg. The investigations can be carried out with diffractometers of general purpose of DRON-UMI and DRON-20 types

  15. Neutron scattering. Lectures of the JCNS laboratory course held at Forschungszentrum Juelich and the research reactor FRM II of TU Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, T.; Heger, G.; Richter, D.; Zorn, R.

    2007-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Fourier transform, basic assumptions of quantum mechanics and the Born approximation, symmtery in crystals, neutron sources, neutron elastic scattering and properties, polarized neutron scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, grazing incidence neutron scattering, neutron diffractometers, small-angle scattewring inelastic crystal spectrometers, time-of-flight spectrometers using NSE, structure determination, inelastic neutron scattering with phonon and magnon excitations, structure of complex fluids and macromolecules, polymer dynamics, magnetism. (HSI)

  16. Brookhaven Reactor Experiment Control Facility, a distributed function computer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmler, D.G.; Greenlaw, N.; Kelley, M.A.; Potter, D.W.; Rankowitz, S.; Stubblefield, F.W.

    1975-11-01

    A computer network for real-time data acquisition, monitoring and control of a series of experiments at the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor has been developed and has been set into routine operation. This reactor experiment control facility presently services nine neutron spectrometers and one x-ray diffractometer. Several additional experiment connections are in progress. The architecture of the facility is based on a distributed function network concept. A statement of implementation and results is presented

  17. Global approach to the n-dimensional traveling salesman problem: Application to the optimization of crystallographic data collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinrach, J.B.; Bennett, D.W.

    1987-12-01

    An algorithm for the optimization of data collection time has been written and a subsequent computer program tested for diffractometer systems. The program, which utilizes a global statistical approach to the traveling salesman problem, yields reasonable solutions in a relatively short time. The algorithm has been successful in treating very large data sets (up to 4000 points) in three dimensions with subsequent time savings of ca 30%.

  18. Quantitative analysis of thermal diffuse X-ray scattering on single crystals. Communication 2. FCC metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najsh, V.E.; Novoselova, T.V.; Sagaradze, I.V.; Kvyatkovskij, B.E.; Fedorov, V.I.; Chernenkov, Yu.P.

    1994-01-01

    With the use of X-ray diffractometer a study was made into the intensity of diffuse scattering in Ni crystals with FCC lattice. Earlier accomplished quantitative analysis for BCC crystals was extended to FCC lattices. Comparative evaluation was made for cooperative thermal oscillation patterns and corresponding diffuse scattering in crystals of various structures. Measurements on FCC crystals were carried out at room temperature using AgK a lpha-radiation in 96 points of Ni crystal. 8 refs., 4 figs

  19. Application of the crystalline structure determination method by X-ray diffraction to natural products and organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vencato, I.

    1984-01-01

    The structures of two natural compounds, a synthetic phosphate and a copper complexe were determined and the structure of another copper complex was refined. The reflection intensities were measured with a CAD-4 automatic diffractometer. The structures were solved by direct methods using either MULTAN-80 or the Patterson function and were refined by the least squares method, with a full matrix. (E.G.) [pt

  20. BENSC. Experimental reports 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, Y.; Gast, H.; Michaelsen, R.

    1996-06-01

    The present volume contains a collection of BENSC Experimental Reports. The reports present an overview on the experimental work carried out on BENSC in 1995. About 70 percent of the beam time is available to external users. A qualitative step is the start of user operation of the new advanced Time-of-Flight Spectrometer V3 (NEAT). The increase of SANS project for the Double Crystal Diffractometer V12 is noticed. The current list of instruments and instrument responsibles is given. (DG)

  1. Combinatorial Production and Processing of Oxide Nanopowders for Transparent, Ceramic Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    characterized by XRD, using a Rigaku Rotating Anode Goniometer (Rigaku Denki Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan ), Powder samples for the Rigaku diffractometer were...NJ) were ground using an alumina mortar and pestle , with 1.0 wt% of the sample to be analyzed and packed firmly in the sample holder, leveled off at...acquired using a JEOL 4000EX (Osaka, 99+/o] were purchased from Alfa Aesar and used as received. Japan ) electron microscope operated at 400 kV. Samples

  2. Development and characterisation of Ni-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R, Mohan Reddy; M, Praveen B., E-mail: bm.praveen@yahoo.co.in [Dept of Chemistry, Srinivas School of Engineering, Mukka, Mangalore - 574146, Karnataka (India); M, Praveen C. [Dept. of Chemistry, PESITM, Shimoga – 577204 (India); V, Venkatesha T. [Dept. of Studies in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta - 577451, Karnataka (India); Kumar N B, Rithin [Dept of Physics, Srinivas School of Engineering, Mukka, Mangalore-574 146, Karnataka (India)

    2015-06-24

    Nickel–Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites were generated by means of pulse-reverse (PR) electrodeposition technique. The corrosion rate was calculated for the composites by electrochemical methods such as polarisation and impedance methods. Composites were characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) to evaluate their microstructures. Coatings obtained by PR method shows more corrosion resistance than DC generated coatings.

  3. Development and characterisation of Ni-Si3N4 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R, Mohan Reddy; M, Praveen B.; M, Praveen C.; V, Venkatesha T.; Kumar N B, Rithin

    2015-01-01

    Nickel–Si 3 N 4 composites were generated by means of pulse-reverse (PR) electrodeposition technique. The corrosion rate was calculated for the composites by electrochemical methods such as polarisation and impedance methods. Composites were characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) to evaluate their microstructures. Coatings obtained by PR method shows more corrosion resistance than DC generated coatings

  4. Current Status and Future Works of Neutron Scattering Laboratory at BATAN in Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, A.

    2008-01-01

    Current status of neutron beam instruments using neutrons produced by the Multi Purpose Research Reactor--30MWth (MPR 30, RSG GA Siwabessy) located in Serpong is presented. Description of the reactor as the neutron source is mentioned briefly. There are six neutron beam tubes coming from the beryllium reflector surrounding half of the reactor core providing neutrons in the experimental hall of the reactor (XHR). Four of them are dedicated to R and D in materials science using neutron scattering techniques. Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF), Triple Axis Spectrometer (TAS) and Residual Stress Measurement (RSM) Diffractometer are installed respectively at beam tubes S2, S4 and S6. The largest neutron beam tube (S5) is exploited to accommodate two neutron guide tubes that transfer the neutrons to a neighbouring building called neutron guide hall (NGH). There are three other neutron beam instruments installed in this building, namely Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) Spectrometer (SMARTer), High Resolution SANS (HRSANS) Spectrometer and High Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD). In the XHR, a Four Circle and Texture Diffractometer (FCD/TD) is attached to one of the neutron guide tubes. These seven instruments were installed to utilize the neutrons for materials science research, and recently the RSM diffractometer has shown its capabilities in identifying different amount of stress left due to different treatments of welding in fuel cladding, while the SANS spectrometer is now gaining capabilities in identifying different sizes and shapes of macromolecules in polymers as well as investigations of magnetic samples. In the mean time, non-destructive tests using the NRF is gathering more confidence from some latest real time measurements eventhough there are still some shortcomings in the components and their alignments. Future works including improvement of each facility and its components, even replacement of some parts are necessary and have to be carried out

  5. Implementation of neutron diffraction technique at Nuclear Center of National Institute of Nuclear Research for study of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias Betanzos, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Neutron Diffraction technique, it's a helpful tool for the study of materials. The purpose, was to verify that such technique works with the Neutron Diffractometer of National Institute of Nuclear Research. The scope, is to study crystalline materials by the Neutron Diffraction Method, that means it completion with Bragg's Law. There exist a lot of diffraction techniques that depend on the kind of study to do. In this case the study was to measure known samples to have a correlation between parameters such a extinction factor and dislocation density. Known copper deformed samples were measured to observe the extinction effect and it could be observed. We had to calibrate the Neutron Diffractometer, the detection system and to have an optimal movement control of diffractometer devices by mean of a microcomputer. Also, was necessary to control the Reactor TRIGA operation to minimize the neutron flux oscillation. It was not possible the quantification of dislocation density in the samples because the relation signal/background was about one and it gives high inaccuracy. To correct this problem, it's necessary to have a better shielding to minimize the contribution of the background. The conclusion is that the Neutron Diffractometer is in conditions to carry out investigation on the material field, today it can be lattice constants, crystalline phases and measurements of metallic textures. For such studies, it's necessary to have samples with 2 cm 3 or higher to increase the relation signal/background. At present, we have the process software to give the interpretation of the Neutron Diffraction process. (Author). 12 refs, 16 figs

  6. Application of X-ray technique to characterization of fluorite sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancado, R.Z.L.; Luz Ferreira, O. da.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation had the purpose of characterizing fluorite veins of ''Mineracao Sartor'', in Itaborai region/RJ, which is an excelent geographic position in relation to the consuming market. These studies have in view to give subsidy to future works to the best fluorite utilization. They realized tests with X-rays diffractometer and spectrometer, polarizing microscope and with a mounting of electric circuit to measure the type of semiconductivity. (C.M.C.T.R.) [pt

  7. A new approach in performing microdiffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, D.J.; Squires, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Microdiffraction is defined as the x-ray diffraction analysis performed on small samples or MD areas of large samples. Since smallness is a relative term, microdiffraction is considered the technique of choice when samples are too small for the optics and precision of conventional instrumentation. The limit on the size of the sample is dependent upon the accuracy of the instrumentation, which is measured by such variables as the diameter of the incident beam and the sphere of confusion of the goniometer (accuracy of the circle centers). If the sample area of interest is part of a multiphase material, it is necessary for the diameter of the incident x-ray beam to be smaller than the sample area in order to assure that the diffraction pattern produced is from the sample area of interest only. Today, microdiffraction is being performed on samples as small as a few microns in diameter. Common applications for microdiffraction include composite materials such as wafers and pads used in the semiconductor industry, inclusions on laser disks and forensic studies. The analysis is often complicated by the fact that the sample areas can be a few grains or even a single crystal. Conventional powder diffractometers are very well suited for analyzing large volumes of polycrystalline material, however, they require much longer counting times when the sample volume is very small. Ideally, what is needed is the optics of a single crystal diffractometer with the performance of a conventional powder diffractometer. 6 figs

  8. Status report of BL08 superHRPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Shuki

    2010-01-01

    At the end of May in 2008, the first neutron was produced successfully from a spallation neutron source in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). High resolution Bragg reflections were obtained using the Sirius diffractometer chamber at Super High Resolution Powder Diffractometer (SuperHARD) beam line at Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF). We started up quickly by using the existing Sirius chamber, and had succeeded in achieving resolution as Δd/d=0.035 %, the best among all the entire neutron powder diffractometers in the world. About 300 detectors had been installed in the backward detector bank, and several standard samples had been measured. Simultaneously, we were carrying out basic study to design and construct a new SuperHRPD chamber, and the Sirius chamber had been exchanged for new one in summer of 2009. In the design of a new chamber, a detector solid angle is increased, d-range/Q-range is expanded, and also has options of high-intensity mode and high-resolution mode with incident collimations. (author)

  9. Neutron scattering at the high-flux isotope reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, J.W. Chakoumakos, B.C.; Dai, P.

    1995-01-01

    The title facilities offer the brightest source of neutrons in the national user program. Neutron scattering experiments probe the structure and dynamics of materials in unique and complementary ways as compared to x-ray scattering methods and provide fundamental data on materials of interest to solid state physicists, chemists, biologists, polymer scientists, colloid scientists, mineralogists, and metallurgists. Instrumentation at the High- Flux Isotope Reactor includes triple-axis spectrometers for inelastic scattering experiments, a single-crystal four diffractometer for crystal structural studies, a high-resolution powder diffractometer for nuclear and magnetic structure studies, a wide-angle diffractometer for dynamic powder studies and measurements of diffuse scattering in crystals, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument used primarily to study structure-function relationships in polymers and biological macromolecules, a neutron reflectometer for studies of surface and thin-film structures, and residual stress instrumentation for determining macro- and micro-stresses in structural metals and ceramics. Research highlights of these areas will illustrate the current state of neutron science to study the physical properties of materials

  10. High resolution Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of high-resolution powder diffraction has grown rapidly in the past years, with the development of Rietveld (1967) methods of data analysis and new high-resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. The number of publications in this area has increased from a handful per year until 1973 to 150 per year in 1984, with a ten-year total of over 1000. These papers cover a wide area of solid state-chemistry, physics and materials science, and have been grouped under 20 subject headings, ranging from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrode materials to pre-stressed superconducting wires. In 1985 two new high-resolution diffractometers are being commissioned, one at the SNS laboratory near Oxford, and one at the ILL in Grenoble. In different ways these machines represent perhaps the ultimate that can be achieved with neutrons and will permit refinement of complex structures with about 250 parameters and unit cell volumes of about 2500 Angstrom/sp3/. The new European Synchotron Facility will complement the Grenoble neutron diffractometers, and extend the role of high-resolution powder diffraction to the direct solution of crystal structures, pioneered in Sweden

  11. Graphics of (X,Y) spectrum for microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-08-01

    When carrying out diffraction works is frequently required to visualize the spectra of the data obtained in order to analyzing them. The design for the obtaining of data in the neutron diffractometer by means of the microcomputer allows to store them in a file by means of the one which transferring to the CYBER system so that by means of its utilities the mentioned spectrum is observed in a graph. In diffraction works, it is sought to study crystalline materials by means of the execution of the Bragg law by that the mounted sample on the diffractometer is subjected to a scanning of the sample with a radiation of a well-known wavelength and this way varying the angles, the corresponding interplanar distances are determined. The main objective of this work, is starting of a data set generated by the diffractometer, to generate the graph of the corresponding (X,Y) spectra in visual form in the screen of a microcomputer and if it is required, to obtain the graph in printed form by means of the same computer program for microcomputer. (Author)

  12. Graphics of (X,Y) spectrum for microcomputer; Graficado de espectro (X,Y) para microcomputadora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R

    1991-08-15

    When carrying out diffraction works is frequently required to visualize the spectra of the data obtained in order to analyzing them. The design for the obtaining of data in the neutron diffractometer by means of the microcomputer allows to store them in a file by means of the one which transferring to the CYBER system so that by means of its utilities the mentioned spectrum is observed in a graph. In diffraction works, it is sought to study crystalline materials by means of the execution of the Bragg law by that the mounted sample on the diffractometer is subjected to a scanning of the sample with a radiation of a well-known wavelength and this way varying the angles, the corresponding interplanar distances are determined. The main objective of this work, is starting of a data set generated by the diffractometer, to generate the graph of the corresponding (X,Y) spectra in visual form in the screen of a microcomputer and if it is required, to obtain the graph in printed form by means of the same computer program for microcomputer. (Author)

  13. X-ray analysis of cultural heritage at museums by using portable instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Izumi; Abe, Yoshinari

    2009-01-01

    We have been developing a portable powder diffractometer and XRF spectrometer since 2001 jointly with two X-ray makers: i.e., Institute of X-ray Technologies Co. Ltd. and OURSTEX Co. Ltd., respectively. The instruments were brought to several museums as well as many archeological sites in Egypt, Turkey, Italy, etc. to characterize the cultural heritage and the results were reflected on their improvement. The instruments thus developed are suitable for on site analyses with enough sensitivity, accuracy, and durability. The latest version of our diffractometer (weight 15 kg) adopted Si-PIN as a detector, which enable us to obtain EDX spectrum of the sample as well as a good powder diffraction pattern with low background. The XRF spectrometer (25 kg) is equipped with SDD detector and monochromatic/white X-ray sources. Recently the Be window of the detector was replaced with MOXTEK AP3 polymer window and vacuum sample chamber was introduced to quantify Na and Mg. The instruments were brought to Archaeological Museum in Zadar, Croatia, Okayama Orient Museum and MIHO Museum in Japan. The samples are glass, pottery, metallic and stone objects dated from second millennium B.C. to modern. We have chemically characterized 109 Roman glass artifacts excavated at a Roman necropolis found in Zadar, and classified based on decolorants, impurity and vessel types. We have studied glass, faience, pottery and metal collections at the Orient Museum. The results include identification of cassiterite in glazed Islamic pottery. At MIHO museum, stone objects from China and Middle East were characterized by the diffractometer. The analyses were made as joint projects with S. Gluscevic (Archaeological Museum), R. Shikaku (Orient Museum), Y. Azuma and Y. Kuwabara (MIHO Museum). (author)

  14. ILL. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The reactor worked well during 1979, a total of 260 days being available out of the possible maximum of 264. Two new instruments (IN12 and D18) and one completely rebuilt instrument (D10) came into operation during 1979. In addition, the construction of the instruments IN6, IN13, D19, IN1*, D4* and D1B was continued. Detailed designs were made, and construction should begin soon on the pre-project for the fission product spectrometer and the supermirror polarisation analyser for the diffuse scattering spectrometer. Development projects include the reconstruction of D16 for high resolution, large unit cell, biological single crystal diffraction experiments, the H11 project to produce three instruments, an extremely high intensity powder diffractometer, a very high resolution powder diffractometer, and a multidetector single crystal diffractometer. A noticeable improvement in the data treatment facilities at the time-of-flight, diffraction and nuclear physics instruments has been produced through a major effort during 1979 to allow better control of an experiment whilst it is in progress. Strong emphasis was again given in 1979 to the development of new neutron techniques. The supermirror evaporator (S3) began to work under completely automatic computer control in October and produced the first batch of supermirrors. Regular production is now assured and systematic experimentation to improve the mirror characteristics is underway. Again in the field of neutron techniques, the decision has been made to construct the external ultra cold neutron source relying upon liquid 4 He at 0.7 0 K to produce high densities of ultra cold neutrons in a confined space. The project to replace the present cold source by one with improved performance has gone to the construction stage

  15. Structure determination from small crystals of two aluminophosphates, CrAPO-14 and SAPO-43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helliwell, M.; Kaucic, V.; Cheetham, G.M.T.; Harding, M.M.; Kariuki, B.M.; Rizkallah, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Small single crystals, ca 10 5 μm 3 , of two aluminophosphates have been used to determine their structures. Both compounds were synthesized with the aim of incorporating chromium into the framework, and for CrAPO-14 the X-ray diffraction results show that this has been achieved. For CrAPO-14, Al 3.96 Cr 0.04 (PO 4 ) 4 (OH).C 3 H 10 N.H 2 O, data recorded on a Rigaku AFC-5R diffractometer (Cu Kα) and, independently, on an Enraf-Nonius FAST diffractometer (Mo Kα), showed the structure to be like that of GaPO-14; aluminium atoms occupy four-, five- and six-coordinated sites, and 4-5% of the aluminium in the six-coordinate site is replaced by chromium. For SAPO-43, Al 2 (PO 4 ) 2 (C 3 H 10 N), data were recorded independently on the AFC-5R (Cu Kα) and on a FAST diffractometer with synchrotron radiation of wavelength 0.895 A; the structure is like that of gismondin, but replacement of Al by Cr to a significant extent could not be established. Framework Al, P and O atoms are located with e.s.d.'s of 0.001-0.005 A, template atoms with e.s.d.'s of ca 0.01 A in CrAPO-14, and larger e.s.d.'s in SAPO-43 where there is disorder in the template-molecule position. In all these respects the two independent determinations for each structure are in agreement. The effectiveness of the different methods of intensity-data collection is compared. (orig.)

  16. Real-time measurement of dynamic structure for Pd-D system in heavy-water electrolysis cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Zeng Xianxin; Yang Jilian; Zhang Baisheng; Ruan Jinghui

    1993-01-01

    The real-time dynamic structure of Pd-D system in D 2 O electrolysis cell is measured on neutron powder diffractometer in CIAE. Diffraction patterns in 2 θ range of 34 degree-95 degree are obtained under the conditions of electrolysing for 0, 3 and 48 A ·h respectively, and the gradual transition of Pd-D system from α-phase to β-phase is observed. The real-time measurements of β peak of (220) reflection show that intensity of β peak almost reaches the saturation point after electrolysing for 0.65 A · h and increases slowly with further electrolysis afterwards

  17. Study of residual stresses in CT test specimens welded by electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papushkin, I. V.; Kaisheva, D.; Bokuchava, G. D.; Angelov, V.; Petrov, P.

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports result of residual stress distribution studies in CT specimens reconstituted by electron beam welding (EBW). The main aim of the study is evaluation of the applicability of the welding technique for CT specimens’ reconstitution. Thus, the temperature distribution during electron beam welding of a CT specimen was calculated using Green’s functions and the residual stress distribution was determined experimentally using neutron diffraction. Time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments were performed on a Fourier stress diffractometer at the IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in FLNP JINR (Dubna, Russia). The neutron diffraction data estimates yielded a maximal stress level of ±180 MPa in the welded joint.

  18. The Development of the Chemin Mineralogy Instrument and Its Deployment on Mars (and Latest Results from the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F.

    2014-01-01

    The CheMin instrument (short for "Chemistry and Mineralogy") on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity is one of two "laboratory quality" instruments on board the Curiosity rover that is exploring Gale crater, Mars. CheMin is an X-ray diffractometer that has for the first time returned definitive and fully quantitative mineral identifications of Mars soil and drilled rock. I will describe CheMin's 23-year development from an idea to a spacecraft qualified instrument, and report on some of the discoveries that Curiosity has made since its entry, descent and landing on Aug. 6, 2012, including the discovery and characterization of the first habitable environment on Mars.

  19. A spectrometer for X-ray energy-dispersive diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.; Steenstrup, S.

    1981-10-01

    The paper describes a white-beam X-ray energy dispersive diffractometer using the synchroton radiation from the DORIS ESR. The following features of the instrument are discussed: Horizontal or vertical scattering plane, collimators, sample environment, remote control of gonimeter, data acquisition, energy-sensitive detectors using small-area and large-area detector crystals, modes of operation, powder and single crystal diffraction. An example is given from a high-pressure study of YbH 2 using a diamond anvil cell. (orig./HP)

  20. Effect of performance of Zr-Y alloy target on thin film deposition technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Qianfu; Liu Chaohong; Jiang Mingzhong; Yin Changgeng

    2011-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films are synthesized on corrosion resistant plates by pulsed bias arc ion plating. The arc starting performance and the stability of thin film deposition is explored by improving the uniformity and compactibility of Zr-Y alloy target. The property of Zr-Y alloy target and depositional thin films were measured with the optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer. The result shows that the target with hot rolling and annealing has a good arc starting performance and stability of thin film deposition, and the depositional thin films made of Yttria and amorphous zirconia are homogeneous and compact. (authors)

  1. Uniform silver/polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shibin [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shi Gaoquan [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: gshi@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2007-04-15

    Uniformly sized silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal reaction of pyrrole and silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as protection agent. The morphology and structures of the nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electronic microscopes, X-ray diffractometer and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the particles had 120 nm silver cores with 20 nm polypyrrole (PPy) coatings. The reaction conditions have strong effects on the morphology of the nanoparticles.

  2. Uniform silver/polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shibin; Shi Gaoquan

    2007-01-01

    Uniformly sized silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal reaction of pyrrole and silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as protection agent. The morphology and structures of the nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electronic microscopes, X-ray diffractometer and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the particles had 120 nm silver cores with 20 nm polypyrrole (PPy) coatings. The reaction conditions have strong effects on the morphology of the nanoparticles

  3. Beamline I11 at Diamond: a new instrument for high resolution powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S P; Parker, J E; Potter, J; Hill, T P; Birt, A; Cobb, T M; Yuan, F; Tang, C C

    2009-07-01

    The performance characteristics of a new synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction beamline (I11) at the Diamond Light Source are presented. Using an in-vacuum undulator for photon production and deploying simple x-ray optics centered around a double-crystal monochromator and a pair of harmonic rejection mirrors, a high brightness and low bandpass x-ray beam is delivered at the sample. To provide fast data collection, 45 Si(111) analyzing crystals and detectors are installed onto a large and high precision diffractometer. High resolution powder diffraction data from standard reference materials of Si, alpha-quartz, and LaB6 are used to characterize instrumental performance.

  4. Study the effect of nitrogen flow rate on tribological properties of tantalum nitride based coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Dharmesh B.; Chauhan, Kamlesh V.; Sonera, Akshay L.; Makwana, Nishant S.; Dave, Divyeshkumar P.; Rawal, Sushant K.

    2018-05-01

    Tantalum Nitride (TaN) based coatings are well-known for their high temperature stability and chemical inertness. We have studied the effect of nitrogen flow rate variation on the structural and tribological properties of TaN based coating deposited by RF magnetron sputtering process. The nitrogen flow rate was varied from 5 to 30 sccm. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used to determine structure and surface topography of coating. Pin on disc tribometer was used to determine tribological properties of coating. TaN coated brass and mild steel substrates shows higher wear resistance compared to uncoated substrates of brass and mild steel.

  5. Intercalation of small hydrophobic molecules in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worcester, D.L.; Hamacher, K.; Kaiser, H.; Kulasekere, R.; Torbet, J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Partitioning of small hydrophobic molecules into lipid bilayers containing cholesterol has been studied using the 2XC diffractometer at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. Locations of the compounds were determined by Fourier difference methods with data from both deuterated and undeuterated compounds introduced into the bilayers from the vapor phase. Data fitting procedures were developed for determining how well the compounds were localized. The compounds were found to be localized in a narrow region at the center of the hydrophobic layer, between the two halves of the bilayer. The structures are therefore intercalated structures with the long axis of the molecules in the plane of the bilayer.

  6. Time-of-flight 3D Neutron Diffraction for Multigrain Crystallography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cereser, Alberto

    of the individual grains within the sample. The experiments were conducted at the single crystal diffractometer SENJU at the Japanese neutron source J-PARC. The choice of this instrument was motivated by its large coverage of the reciprocal space. The instrument had to undergo modifications to enable ToF 3DND...... for indexing SENJU data, which then serves as prior information to restrict the extinction spots that belong to the same grain. The ToF 3DND methods are verified through the study of two different samples: an Iron rod and a shape memory alloy (SMA) CoNiGa bi-crystal. Part of this verification involves...

  7. In-house characterization of protein powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Christian Grundahl; Harris, Pernille; Ståhl, Kenny

    2011-01-01

    . For safe identification of the crystal form the experimental patterns have to be compared with patterns calculated from known crystal structures. Very good agreement with Protein Data Bank data was obtained after including corrections for background, unit cell parameters, disordered bulk......Collecting protein powder diffraction data on standard in-house powder diffractometers requires careful handling of the samples. Specially designed sample holders combined with optimized collimation were found to be the key factors in improving the data quality and reducing the data collection time......-solvent, and geometric factors. The data collection and correction procedures were demonstrated by the identification of three different crystal forms of insulin....

  8. Pico-femtosecond image-tube photography in quantum electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelev, M Ya

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of experimental achievement of the time resolution of image-converter tubes (ICTs) corresponding to the theoretical limit of 10 fs is considered as applied to quantum electronics problems. A new generation of ICTs with a temporal resolution of 200 - 500 fs has been developed for recording femtosecond laser radiation. The entirely new devices based on time-analysing ICTs such as femtosecond photoelectronic diffractometers, have been created for studying the dynamics of phase transitions in substances using diffrac-tion of electrons with energies ranging from 20 to 40 keV. (femtosecond technologies)

  9. USANS investigation of early stages of metal foam formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bellmann, D; Banhart, J

    2002-01-01

    Metallic foams are on the verge of being used in industrial applications. However, the mechanism of foam creation, especially the early stages, are still unexplored. Ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), performed with the double-crystal diffractometer (DCD) at the Geesthacht Neutron Facility (GeNF), is a promising method for obtaining a three-dimensional average of a pore size distribution in a wide size range from about 100 nm to about 20 mu m. Analysis of the neutron scattering curves yielded pore size distributions which conformed with the results obtained by microscopy. (orig.)

  10. Applications of neutron powder diffraction in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the applications of neutron powder diffraction in materials science. The technique is introduced with particular attention to comparison with the X-ray powder diffraction technique to which it is complementary. The diffractometers and special environment ancillaries operating around the HIFAR research reactor at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) are described. Applications of the technique which the advantage of the unique properties of thermal neutrons have been selected from recent materials studies undertaken at ANSTO

  11. Relation between ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic order in RMn2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Yukio; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kamada, Youichi; Osawa, Toshihiro; Fukuda, Yosikazu; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Satoru; Wakabayashi, Yusuke; Sawa, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Naoshi; Kohn, Kay

    2006-01-01

    RMn 2 O 5 (R=Y and rare earth) shows successive magnetic and ferroelectric phase transitions at about 45, 40, 39, 20 and 10K. We have reinvestigated the magnetic structure of YMn 2 O 5 at the commensurate phase (T=25K) using a single crystal four-circle diffractometer in order to discuss the mechanism of magnetoelectric interaction and the origin of ferroelectricity. We also observed the lattice modulation vectors (q L ) to compare the magnetic propagation vectors (q M ) by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Improved magnetic structure data are compared with the theory recently proposed

  12. The analysis of powder diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.I.F.; Harrison, W.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews neutron powder diffraction data analysis, with emphasis on the structural aspects of powder diffraction and the future possibilities afforded by the latest generation of very high resolution neutron and x-ray powder diffractometers. Traditional x-ray powder diffraction techniques are outlined. Structural studies by powder diffraction are discussed with respect to the Rietveld method, and a case study in the Rietveld refinement method and developments of the Rietveld method are described. Finally studies using high resolution powder diffraction at the Spallation Neutron Source, ISIS at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are summarized. (U.K.)

  13. Information content of X-ray analyses characterizing the structural state of cocoa butter and their manufacturing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foersterling, G.; Kleinstueck, K.; Loeser, U.; Tscheuschner, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    Direct X-ray analyses performed on the model substance cocoa butter revealed a direct relation between the easily measurable quantities of the diffraction pattern (site, intensity and sharpness of the reflexes) and the characteristic parameters of the sample (lattice constants, 'perfection' and crystalline fraction), which can be derived from these measured quantities, on the one side, and the technological parameters of the manufacturing process (tempering regimen and storage conditions) on the other side. An automated X-ray diffractometer was used and an optimal measuring strategy was developed the measuring effects being sufficiently great as compared to the measuring errors and the characterization of one sample requiring only 30 - 60 minutes. (author)

  14. Strength and structure during hot deformation of nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, N.D.; Sellars, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of deformational variables on the flow stress and microstructure developed by plane strain compression testing and experimental rolling of three otherwise well characterized nickel-base super alloys, Nimonic 80A, Nimonic 90 and Waspaloy are presented. Rolled or tested samples were sectioned longitudinally at mid-width and were prepared for optical metallography. X-ray analysis of particles observed in several samples was carried out on polished and lightly etehed surfaces using a diffractometer with CoKα radiation. For other samples, energy dispersive x-ray analysis was also carried out in a scanning microscope. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Phases quantification in titanium oxides by means of X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Garcia C, R.M.; Ita T, A. de; Chavez R, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work two phases of titanium oxides are quantified which belong to the same crystalline system and by means of a computer program named Quanto created by the first author, contains the information for calculating the absorption coefficients, it can be quantified phases having one of the pure phases and the problem samples. In order to perform this work different mixtures of different titanium oxides were prepared measuring by means of the X-ray diffraction technique in the Siemens X-ray diffractometer of ININ which were processed with the Peakfit package and also they were evaluated by means of the computer program with the necessary information finding acceptable results. (Author)

  16. Electrochemical deposition of Mg(OH)2/GO composite films for corrosion protection of magnesium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Wu; Jun Liang; Weixue Li

    2015-01-01

    Mg(OH)2/graphene oxide (GO) composite film was electrochemical deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloys at constant potential. The characteristics of the Mg(OH)2/GO composite film were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the flaky GO randomly distributed in the composite film. Compared with the Mg(OH)2 film, the Mg(OH)2/GO composite film exhibited more uniform and compac...

  17. Facile Oxidative Desulfurisation of Benzothiophene Using Polyoxometalate H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Aldes Lesbani; A. Agnes; Randi O. Saragih; Mariska Verawaty; Risfidian Mohadi; Hilda Zulkifli

    2015-01-01

    A highly active catalyst H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr based polyoxometalete Keggin type was prepared by wet impregnation method and was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, surface textural property by SEM, and analysis of porosity by BET method. H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr was successfully synthesized and showed uniform properties with block solid structure which was applied as heterogeneous stable catalyst for oxidative desulfurization of benzothiophene under simple and mild condition using...

  18. X-ray fluorescence control of chemical composition of cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prekina, I.M.; Rozova, O.F.; Loran, A.V.; Teplitskaya, G.A.; Smagunova, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    A method of x-ray fluorescence analysis developed for analytical set (KRF-18 diffractometer/DVK-3 computer) is used to control cast iron composition. A quantitative evaluation of errors attributed to the violation of conditions of cast iron sampling from the flow and to the quality of preparing samples for XFA is obtained. It is shown that the main component of the integral experimental error is attributed to nonuniformity of chemical composition of cast iron. Metrological studies show that reproductibility, convergence, accuracy, and sensitivity of the method match the requirements characteristic of the control process. 4 refs.; 2 tabs

  19. Use of neutron diffraction in determining strains in high-temperaure superconducting composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitterman, R.L.; Faber, J. Jr.; Kupperman, D.S.; Singh, J.P.; Majumdar, S.

    1990-01-01

    The Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source and General Purpose Powder Diffractometer have been used to study high T c metal oxide composites composed of yttrium barium copper oxide and silver. Neutron diffraction techniques were applied to composites with 15, 20 and 30% silver content by volume. The authors have observed that after hot pressing, the 30% Ag specimens contained both orthorhombic high T c and tetragonal, non-superconducting phases near the center of the specimens but only tetragonal near the surface. The relationship of shifts in Bragg peaks to strains of the constituents is discussed

  20. Data reduction for neutron scattering from plutonium samples. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment performed in August, 1993, on the Low-Q Diffractometer (LQD) at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (MLNSC) was designed to study the formation and annealing of He bubbles in aged 239 Pu metal. Significant complications arise in the reduction of the data because of the very high total neutron cross section of 239 Pu, and also because the sample are difficult to make uniform and to characterize. This report gives the details of the data and the data reduction procedures, presents the resulting scattering patterns in terms of macroscopic cross section as a function of momentum transfer, and suggests improvements for future experiments

  1. Ba3NbAs3O: synthesis, crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy and bonding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monconduit, L.; Tillard, M.; Favier, F.; Belin, C.

    1999-01-01

    The crystal structure of Ba 3 NbAs 3 O has been solved by crystal X-ray analysis (CAD-4 automatic diffractometer, Mo Kα radiation). The compound crystallizes in space group Pnma, a=6.724(2), b=11.100(2), c=13.462(3) A, V=1004.7(4) A 3 , Z=4. The structure has been refined to R1=0.0343 for 964 independent reflections, it can be described as packing of nearly tetrahedral NbAs 3 O 6- anions, their coordination by Ba 2+ cations forming interconnected trigonal prisms. The chemical bonding has been analyzed by MO calculations and Raman spectroscopy. (orig.)

  2. Current status of some neutron instruments in Serpong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikram, A; Hardi, T; Maulana, A [Neutron Scattering Lab., Materials Science Research Center, BATAN-Serpong, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    Performances of the Small Angle Neutron Scattering Spectrometer, the High Resolution Small Angle Neutron Scattering Spectrometer and the High Resolution Neutron Powder Diffractometer in the last full one year are presented as well as problems, difficulties and limitations faced by each instrument. Efforts that have been done to overcome those shortcomings are also mentioned. Proposed collaboration in order to bring those instruments back to a state that can perform scientifically acceptable is described to a level that can be agreed in this workshop. (author)

  3. Dissolution Rates of Allophane, FE-Containing Allophane, and Hisingerite and Implications for Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, S. J.; Hausrath, E. M.; Tschauner, O.; Rampe, E. B.; Christoffersen, R.

    2018-01-01

    Investigations with the CheMin Xray Diffractometer (XRD) onboard the Curiosity rover in Gale Crater demonstrate that all rock and soil samples measured to date contain approximately 15-70 weight percentage X-ray amorphous materials. The diffuse scattering hump from the X-ray amorphous materials in CheMin XRD patterns can be fit with a combination of allophane, ferrihydrite, and rhyolitic and basaltic glass. Because of the iron-rich nature of Mars' surface, Fe-rich poorly-crystalline phases, such as hisingerite, may be present in addition to allophane.

  4. X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation on the G.I.L.D.A. beam line at the E.S.R.F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balerna, A [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Meneghini, C [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); [INFM, Genoa (Italy); Bordoni, S [Rome Univ. ` Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica; Mobilio, S [Rome Univ. III (Italy). Dip. di Fisica ` E. Amaldi`

    1996-09-01

    The aim of this lecture is to make a short introduction on Synchrotron radiation, its history and main properties. The main components of a synchrotron radiation beam line will be described. The Italian beam line, General purpose Italian beam line Line for Diffraction and Absorption (G.I.L.D.A.) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (E.S.R.F.) in Grenoble will be used as an example. The G.I.L.D.A. diffractometer will be described in detail reporting also some experimental results.

  5. Jc enhancement by La-Al-O doping in Y-Ba-Cu-O films both in self-field and under magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yan; Suo, Hong-Li; Yue, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    a good epitaxial growth relationship with LAO. Compared with a pure YBCO film, the Jc value of a 5.0% LAO-doped sample is enhanced more than three times in self-field 77 K and seven times at 77 K and 1.5 T, respectively. These results indicate that LAO doping can effectively enhance the Jc of YBCO films...... toward YBCO. A series of YBCO films with different LAO doping contents was fabricated on LAO single-crystal substrates by metal organic deposition. We observed by X-ray diffractometer measurements and scanning electron microscopy observations that although a large amount of LAO is added, YBCO still keeps...

  6. Investigation on thermo physical characteristics of ethylene glycol based Al:ZnO nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiruba, R.; George, Ritty; Gopalakrishnan, M.; Kingson Solomon Jeevaraj, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes the experimental aspects of viscosity and thermal conductivity characteristics of nanofluids. Aluminium doped zinc oxide nanostructures were synthesized by chemical precipitation method. Ultrasonic technique is used to disperse the nanostructures in ethylene glycol. Structural and morphological properties of Al doped ZnO nanostructures are characterized using X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopic technique. The effect of concentration and temperature on thermo-physical properties of Al/ZnO nanofluids is also investigated. The experimental results showed there is enhancement in thermal conductivity with rise in temperature which can be utilized for coolant application

  7. On the use of one-dimensional position sensitive detector for x-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping: Data quality and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, Olivier; Boulle, Alexandre; Guinebretiere, Rene; Lecomte, Andre; Dauger, Alain

    2005-01-01

    A homemade x-ray diffractometer using one-dimensional position sensitive detector (PSD) and well suited to the study of thin epitaxial layer systems is presented. It is shown how PSDs can be advantageously used to allow fast reciprocal space mapping, which is especially interesting when analyzing poor crystalline and defective layers as usually observed with oxides and ceramics films. The quality of the data collected with such a setup and the limitations of PSDs in comparison with the use of analyzer crystals are discussed. In particular, the effects of PSD on angular precision, instrument resolution and corrections that must be applied to raw data are presented

  8. Structure of the displacement field of substitutionally dissolved Bi in Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, E.

    1975-03-01

    In order to describe measurements of the coherent diffuse scattering of neutrons from Pb-Bi within the single defect approximation, Schumacher (1969) introduced a model in which the displacement field of the host lattice caused by a given Bismuth atom has trigonal symmetry. In an attempt to decide which model for the displacement field is correct, new measurements over an extended range were carried out with an improved resolution, using the D7 diffractometer at the High Flux Reactor in Grenoble. Taking the different resolutions into account, agreement between the present and previous data is good, both as to absolute intensity and scattering pattern. (orig./HPoe) [de

  9. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  10. Non-invasive neutron diffraction analysis of marbles from the 'Edificio con Tre Esedre' in Villa Adriana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filabozzi, A.; Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; De Pascale, M.P.; Gorini, G.; Kockelmann, W.; Chapon, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    Roman marble fragments from the Villa Adriana at Tivoli (Rome) have been characterised by neutron diffraction. This study aimed at distinguishing between different marble types on the basis of the mineral phase compositions and the crystallographic textures. It is demonstrated that on a multi-detector time-offlight neutron diffractometer a quantitative bulk texture analysis can be performed on a stationary marble sample in a matter of minutes. This potentially allows investigating large sample series or bulky, intact marble objects in a completely nondestructive manner. The texture information, along with other structure details, can be used as characterising feature to address questions of attribution and restoration of archaeological marble objects

  11. Magnetic properties of soft layer/FePt-MgO exchange coupled composite Perpendicular recording media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jin-Hua; Takao Suzuki; Pan Li-Qing

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic properties of exchange coupled composite(ECC)media that are composed of perpendicular magnetic recording media FePt-MgO and two kinds of soft layers have been studied by using an x-ray diffractometer,a polar Kerr magneto-optical system(PMOKE)and a vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM).The results show that ECC media can reduce the coercivities of perpendicular magnetic recording media FePt-MgO.The ECC media with granular-type soft layers have weaker exchange couplings between magnetic grains and the magnetization process,for ECC media of this kind mainly follow the Stoner-Wohlfarth model.

  12. The development of neutron detectors for the GEM instrument at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, N.J.; Johnson, M.W.; Schooneveld, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    GEM is a new General Materials diffractometer now being commissioned at ISIS. To meet its broad based scientific programme GEM requires a large area position sensitive detector which covers a wide range of scattering angles and exhibits a high neutron count rate stability. This paper discusses the design of a ZnS/ 6 Li fibre coupled detector array that meets the GEM requirements. Typical detector characteristics are documented together with the current status of the project. Two thirds of the detector array are operational and from the results obtained to date it is already obvious that the impact of this instrument on neutron scattering studies will be profound. (author)

  13. Neutron powder diffraction at a pulsed neutron source: a study of resolution effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, J. Jr.; Hitterman, R.L.

    1985-11-01

    The General Purpose Powder Diffractometer (GPPD), a high resolution (Δd/d = 0.002) time-of-flight instrument, exhibits a resolution function that is almost independent of d-spacing. Some of the special properties of time-of-flight scattering data obtained at a pulsed neutron source will be discussed. A method is described that transforms wavelength dependent data, obtained at a pulsed neutron source, so that standard structural least-squares analyses can be applied. Several criteria are given to show when these techniques are useful in time-of-flight data analysis. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. Amorphous phase formation in intermetallic Mg2Ni alloy synthesized by ethanol wet milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.-W.; Chyou, S.-D.; Wang, S.-H.; Yang, M.-W.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Tien, H.-C.; Huang, N.-N.

    2009-01-01

    The hydriding/dehydriding properties of an intermetallic Mg 2 Ni alloy synthesized by wet ball milling in ethanol have been investigated. The appearance of the particle surface after different milling methods is one obvious difference. The alloyed powders prepared by either dry milling or wet milling under ethanol were characterized for phase content by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The results show that two broad diffuse peaks, which are an ionic-organic-Mg amorphous material, appear in addition to the nickel element peaks. This unexpected amorphous phase has the special hydrogen absorbing/desorbing features.

  15. Preliminary study of determination of UO2 grain size using X-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyana, T.; Sambodo, G. D.; Juanda, D.; Fatchatul, B.

    1998-01-01

    The determination of UO 2 grain size has accomplished using x-ray diffraction method. The UO 2 powder is obtained from sol-gel process. A copper target as radiation source in the x-ray diffractometer was used in this experiment with CμKα characteristic wavelength 1.54433 Angstrom. The result indicate that the UO 2 mean grain size on presintered (temperature 800 o C) has the value 456.8500 Angstrom and the UO 2 mean grain size on sintered (temperature 1700 o C) has value 651.4934 Angstrom

  16. Structural studies of disordered materials using high-energy x-ray diffraction from ambient to extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Itou, Masayoshi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Suzuya, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (J-PARC/JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Inamura, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (J-PARC/JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Sakurai, Yoshiharu [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ohishi, Yasuo [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takata, Masaki [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (SPring-8/JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2007-12-19

    High-energy x-rays from a synchrotron radiation source allow us to obtain high-quality diffraction data for disordered materials from ambient to extreme conditions, which is necessary for revealing the detailed structures of glass, liquid and amorphous materials. We introduced high-energy x-ray diffraction beamlines and a dedicated diffractometer for glass, liquid and amorphous materials at SPring-8 and report the recent developments of ancillary equipment. Furthermore, the structures of liquid and amorphous materials determined from the high-energy x-ray diffraction data obtained at SPring-8 are discussed.

  17. High-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies on disordered materials. From ambient condition to an extreme condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Shinji; Ohishi, Yasuo; Suzuya, Kentaro; Takata, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    High-energy x-rays from synchrotron radiation source allow us to measure high-quality diffraction data of the disordered materials from under ambient condition to an extreme condition, which is necessary to reveal the detailed structure of glass, liquid, and amorphous materials. We introduce the high-energy x-ray diffraction beamline and dedicated diffractometer for glass, liquid, and amorphous materials with the recent developments of ancillary equipments. Furthermore our recent studies on the structures of disordered materials reviewed. (author)

  18. Progress report on JAERI-ORNL cooperative neutron scattering research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizumi, Masashi

    1985-08-01

    One year activities done under the JAERI-DOE(ORNL) cooperative neutron scattering program are summarized. This period just followed the completion of the wide-angle neutron diffractometer dedicated to the cooperative research. The report contains results of the performance test of the instrument and early research activities. The latter part includes the time-resolved measurements of the transition kinetics in tin and Ni-Mn alloy as well as the single-crystal diffraction by the flat-cone method. (author)

  19. Intercalation of small hydrophobic molecules in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worcester, D.L.; Hamacher, K.; Kaiser, H.; Kulasekere, R.; Torbet, J.

    1994-01-01

    Partitioning of small hydrophobic molecules into lipid bilayers containing cholesterol has been studied using the 2XC diffractometer at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. Locations of the compounds were determined by Fourier difference methods with data from both deuterated and undeuterated compounds introduced into the bilayers from the vapor phase. Data fitting procedures were developed for determining how well the compounds were localized. The compounds were found to be localized in a narrow region at the center of the hydrophobic layer, between the two halves of the bilayer. The structures are therefore intercalated structures with the long axis of the molecules in the plane of the bilayer

  20. Time-of-flight neutron diffraction investigation of temperature factors in the Zn blende semiconductor InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, C.; Bocchi, C.; Fornari, R.; Moze, O.; Wilson, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    A structural investigation of the Zn blende structure semiconductor InP has been carried out using the single crystal diffractometer SXD at the pulsed neutron facility ISIS. The ability to measure structure factors accurately at large Q values even with highly absorbing materials such as InP is demonstrated. Measurements were performed on a single crystal of InP at 293, 100 and 50 K with the crystallographic axis mounted perpendicular to the scattering plane. This enabled collection of (hhl) reflections up to a maximum with Miller indices (10, 10, 8). (orig.)

  1. A hard X-ray laboratory for monochromator characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, B [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Since their installation at ILL during the 1970`s the ILL {gamma}-ray diffractometers have been intensively used in the development of neutron monochromators. However, the ageing of the sources and new developments in hard X-ray diffractometry lead to a decision at the end of 1995 to replace the existing {gamma}-ray laboratory with a hard X-ray laboratory, based on a 420 keV generator, making available in the long term several beam-lines for rapid characterisation of monochromator crystals. The facility is now installed and its characteristics and advantages are outlined. (author). 2 refs.

  2. The study of membrane-protein /detergent interactions by neutron crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmins, P A; Penel, S [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Pebay-Peyroula, E [IBS- UJF Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Proteins which are found embedded in membranes can usually only be purified and studied from the point of view of structure by dissolving them in detergents. The structure of the resulting mixed protein-detergent complexes are poorly understood. An important method for studying them is through neutron diffraction of the crystalline complexes. This allows us to understand better how the proteins behave in the natural membrane as well as allowing us to visualize and hopefully improve the crystallisation process. Studies on the pore-forming protein porin using data collected on the diffractometer DB21 are described. (author). 4 refs.

  3. The performance of prototype position-sensitive neutron detectors on SXD at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.C.

    1989-02-01

    The performance of two position-sensitive neutron detector designed for use on the single crystal diffractometer (SXD) at ISIS is assessed. The two detectors examined were the Anger camera 6 Li-glass scintillator PSD and a prototype fibre-optic encoded PSD based on 6 Li-doped ZnS plastic scintillator. The latter detector is found to be both simpler to fabricate and to produce better results on the evidence to date. A summary of some of the expected science from SXD and the performance of the detectors with respect to this is also given. (author)

  4. Time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering data reduction and analysis at LANSCE with program SMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P. Jr.; Seeger, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    A user-friendly integrated system, SMR, for the display, reduction and analysis of data from time-of-flight small-angle neutron diffractometers is described. Its purpose is to provide facilities for data display and assessment, and to provide these facilities in near real time. This allows the results of each scattering measurement to be available almost immediately, and enables the user to use the results of a measurement as a basis for other measurements in the same time allocation of the instrument. 8 refs., 10 figs

  5. Crystal structure of a Ce2Fe2Mg15 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opainich, I.M.; Pavlyuk, V.V.; Bodak, O.I.

    1996-01-01

    A structure of a new Ce2Fe2Mg15 ternary compound (P63/mmc sp.gr., a=1.0324(5) nm, c=1.02080(4) nm) was determined by powder methods on a DRON-4.07 automatic diffractometer. The structure of a Ce2Fe2Mg15 crystal is a new variant of the ordered Th2Ni17 type superstructure, in which cerium atoms occupy the thorium positions; magnesium atoms occupy the nickel position 6g, 12k, and 12j; and iron atoms occupy the 4f position

  6. X-ray shadow projection microscopy of microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasatkin, Yu.I.; Kasyuga, L.Z.; Kasyuga, P.I.; Kozyrev, A.S.; Khanonkin, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The X-ray shadow projection microscopy as a method for testing geometrical parameters of microwires is considered. Two X-ray-optical circuits for measuring geometrical parameters of wires are described. It is shown that the coefficient of increase of the circuits does not depend on geometrical parameters of the wire under testing, and it is determined solely by the construction peculiarities of the circuits. The testability of geometric parameters of a wire, using DRON-2.0 X-ray diffractometer or its like, is discussed [ru

  7. X-ray investigation of intermetallides and their hydrides under hydrogen pressure in H2-LaNi5 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karonik, V.V.; Tsypin, M.I.; Prokof'ev, M.V.; Kazakov, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray phase analysis has been used to investigate phase composition of LaNi 5 -H 2 system; comparison of X-ray diffraction data with the results of plotting absorption and desorption isotherms is conducted. Technique of the X-ray diffraction study of intermetallide-hydrogen system using special X-ray chamber to diffractometer DRON-1.5 (GUR-5) is worked out. The parameters of elementary cell of the LaNisub(5)Hsub(6.2) hydride are determined: a=0.541(2) pm, c=0.430(2) nm, c/a=0.795, V=0.109 nm 3 (hexagonal syngony)

  8. Sizes of X-ray radiation coherent domains in thin SmS films and their visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharenkova, N. V.; Kaminskii, V. V.; Petrov, S. N.

    2011-09-01

    The size of X-ray radiation coherent domains (250 ± 20 Å) is determined in a thin polycrystalline SmS film using X-ray diffraction patterns (θ-2θ scanning, DRON-2 diffractometer, Cu K α radiation) and the Selyakov-Scherrer formula with allowance for the effect of microstrains. An image of this film is taken with a transmission electron microscope, and regions with a characteristic size of 240 Å are clearly visible in it. It is concluded that X-ray radiation coherent domains are visualized.

  9. Study of interaction in the Pb(NO3)2-Cs3[Fe(CN)6]-H2O at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slivko, T.A.; Stepina, S.B.; Poletaev, I.F.; Golikova, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    The method of ''residual concentrations'' has been used to study the interaction in the lead nitrate-cesium hexacyanoferrate (3)-water system at 25 deg C. It is shown, that only one compound CsPb[Fe(CN) 6 ]x4H 2 O is formed in the studied range of the concentrations. Chemical and thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy have been used at the determination of the compound composition. Thermolysis of the compound in the air is studied. Identification of the hydrated and waterless compound is accomplished with the help of the diffractometer DRON-1. The rate of the formation of mixed cesium hexacyanoferrates (3) with lead, zinc and nickel is compared

  10. Derivation of Inter-Atomic Force Constants of Cu2O from Diffuse Neutron Scattering Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Makhsun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutron scattering intensity from Cu2O compound has been measured at 10 K and 295 K with High Resolution Powder Diffractometer at JRR-3 JAEA. The oscillatory diffuse scattering related to correlations among thermal displacements of atoms was observed at 295 K. The correlation parameters were determined from the observed diffuse scattering intensity at 10 and 295 K. The force constants between the neighboring atoms in Cu2O were estimated from the correlation parameters and compared to those of Ag2O

  11. Litochlebite, Ag2PbBi4Se8, a new selenide mineral species from Zalesi, Czech Republic: description and crystal structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Topa, Dan; Sejkora, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Moravia, Czech Republic. It occurs as irregular grains up to 200 mm, which form aggregates up to 1–2 mm in size in a quartz gangue. These aggregates are replaced along the margins and fractures by a heterogeneous supergene Bi–Se–O phase. Other associated minerals included uraninite, hematite...... [Fo > 4s(Fo)] collected on a Bruker AXS diffractometer with a CCD detector and MoKa radiation. The crystal structure contains one lead site, four independent Bi sites, four silver sites and eight independent Se sites. One Ag site is an octahedrally coordinated (2 + 4) site in the pseudotetragonal...

  12. Scaffolds of polycaprolactone with hydroxyapatite fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Guinea B.C.; Zavaglia, Cecilia A.C.; Arruda, Antonio Celso F.

    2009-01-01

    Scaffolds of poly (ε-caprolactone) has been studied in many researches in tissue engineering. The used of hydroxyapatite fibers, allowed increase its resistance mechanical, beside the character bioactive and osteoconductive. Improving, its role in tissue engineering. The aim in this study was developed polycaprolactone matrix with dispersed hydroxyapatite fibers. The characterizations were by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X- Ray Diffractometer (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Energy dispersive X-Ray Detector (EDX). Was able reviewed its composition, morphology and possible contaminations. The results were scaffolds with porosity and distribution of the fibers in all its area. (author)

  13. Time-of-flight small-angle-neutron-scattering data reduction and analysis at LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center) with program SMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P. Jr.; Seegar, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    A user-friendly, integrated system, SMR, for the display, reduction and analysis of data from time-of-flight small-angle neutron diffractometers is described. Its purpose is to provide facilities for data display and assessment and to provide these facilities in near real time. This allows the results of each scattering measurement to be available almost immediately, and enables the experimenter to use the results of a measurement as a basis for other measurements in the same instrument allocation. 8 refs., 11 figs

  14. Low temperature anomalies in the lattice parameters of rare earth compounds and UPd3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluemacher, D.

    1980-01-01

    Using a low temperature diffractometer, intermediate valence effects and crystal defects can be identified from the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters and the Debye-Waller factor. For polycrystalline powder samples the measuring error are too large. For intermediate valence systems the relative change in the 4f-level population probability can be calculated together with the anisotropic effects on the lattice parameters and on the unit cell colume. Pronounced effects on the lattice parameters can be observed in the case of RE Cu 2 Si 2 compounds with crystal fields. (DG) [de

  15. Preparation and photocatalytic property of potassium niobate K6Nb10.8O30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gaoke; Zou Xi; Gong Jie; He Fangsheng; Zhang Hao; Zhang Qiang; Liu Ying; Yang Xia; Hu Bo

    2006-01-01

    The TB-type potassium niobate K 6 Nb 10.8 O 30 was synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction method. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to characterize the structure of the photocatalyst. The photocatalyst K 6 Nb 10.8 O 30 shows high photocatalytic activity to photodegrade acid red G under UV irradiation. The influences of catalyst dosage, initial concentration of acid red G on the photocatalytic reaction were investigated. The kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of acid red G follows the first order kinetics

  16. The APS optics topography station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnicki, S.

    1996-01-01

    An in-house station for topographic testing of x-ray optical elements for the Advanced Photon Source experimental beamlines was set up by the Experimental Facilities Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A new double-crystal x-ray diffractometer was designed and built keeping in mind the need for testing large crystals possibly attached to cooling manifolds and lines. A short description of the new facility is given. The instrument performance fully satisfies imposed requirements, and the machine was successfully used for testing several silicon and diamond crystals

  17. Selection method and characterization of neutron monochromator natural crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiulevicius, R.; Kastner, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal neutrons are important analytical tools for microscopic material probe. These neutrons can be selected by diffraction technique using monocrystal, usually artificial. A crystal selection process was implemented and the characteristics of natural specimens were studied by activation analysis-k 0 method. The representative 120 samples, of which 21 best types, were irradiated in IPR-R1 and measured with a neutron diffractometer at IEA-R1m Brazilian reactors. These results are useful for database build up and ease the choice of appropriate natural crystal, with some advantage options: highest intensity diffracted, enlarging the energy operational interval and optimal performance in special applications. (author)

  18. High-temperature elastic properties of in situ-reinforced Si3N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, Geoffrey A.; Uestuendag, Ersan; Clausen, Bjoern; Bourke, Mark A.M.; Lin, H.-T.

    2003-01-01

    A high-temperature tensile stress study of a monolithic silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) was performed with time-of-flight neutron diffraction. A dedicated engineering diffractometer was employed at temperatures reaching 1375 deg. C. Rietveld refinements of diffraction spectra allowed the determination of (1) the coefficient of thermal expansion tensor during heating and (2) lattice strains during loading. The stress-strain response of individual lattice reflections was used to calculate the single-crystal elastic stiffness tensor of Si 3 N 4 at 1375 deg. C via a self-consistent model

  19. The Two Fundamental H-Bond Types in Acid Salts Displayed in the Dimorphs of Potassium Hydrogen Tartronate

    OpenAIRE

    Kroon, Jan; Kanters, Jan A.

    1982-01-01

    At ambient temperature the acid potassium salt of tartronic acid crystallizes in two forms. The a. form is monoclinic, space group P21/n with a= 7.356, b = 8.116, c = 9.197 A, fJ = 94.81° and Z = 4. The fJ form is also monclinic, space group P21/c with. a= 6.532, b = 9.248, c = 9.505, fJ = 99.74° and Z = 4. The a. and ~ structures were solved by Patterson and Fourier methods and refined to R = 0.047 with 1129 and 1204 observed diffractometer data respectively. The fundame...

  20. Powder X-ray study of natural phyllipsites and their ionexchange forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirov, G.N.; Ivanov, Pl.; Chan Chong Hue

    1990-01-01

    Vein samples with 1.3-1.9 Si/Al ratio and prevalence of Ca over Na and phyllipsites from volcanic tuffs in saline alkaline lakes with 3.0-3.5 Si/Al ratio and very low calcium content have been studied as well as their exchange forms enriched by cations typical of the phyllipsite group. The X-ray study has been carried out with DRON-2.0 diffractometer with cobalt filtered radiation. Calculation of the lattice parameters has been performed. 3 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  1. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  2. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-AY-102 Annulus Space Particulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Special Analytical Studies Group at the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) examined the particulate recovered from a series of samples from the annular space of tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) using solid phase characterization (SPC) methods. These include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX(R)1 scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku(R)2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon(R)3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information

  3. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-AY-102 Annulus Space Particulate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, G. A.

    2013-01-30

    The Special Analytical Studies Group at the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) examined the particulate recovered from a series of samples from the annular space of tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) using solid phase characterization (SPC) methods. These include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX®1 scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku®2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon®3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information.

  4. Electric properties of a liquid crystalline methacrylic polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Henriquez, C.M.; Soto Bustamante, E.A.; Haase, W.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of a liquid crystalline polymer called PM6R8 is reported. The polymers were obtained with different concentration of AIBN as initiator (0.25, 0.50, 1 and 2mg in 5ml solution) and time of reaction (24, 36 and 48 hours). The compounds were characterized by 1 H-NMR, differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffractometer and pyroelectric measurements. For the polymer a smectic C 2 phase occurs over broad temperature range, which is a possible explanation for the electric signal. The arrangement of the molecules within of the crystalline lattice is related with the kinetic of precipitation. (author)

  5. Reduction method for residual stress of welded joint using random vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tadashi; Hiroi, Tetsumaro

    2005-01-01

    Welded joints are used for construction of many structures. Residual stress is induced near the bead caused by locally given heat. Tensile residual stress on the surface may reduce fatigue strength. In this paper, a new method for reduction of residual stress using vibration during welding is proposed. As vibrational load, random vibration, white noise and filtered white noise are used. Two thin plates are butt-welded. Residual stress is measured with a paralleled beam X-ray diffractometer with scintillation counter after removing quenched scale chemically. It is concluded that tensile residual stress near the bead is reduced by using random vibration during welding

  6. Investigation of the X-ray diffraction properties of a synthetic multilayer. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Student research reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostromogolsky, P.

    1999-03-01

    In this investigation spectroscopy was used to evaluate the x-ray diffraction properties of a synthetic WB 4 C multilayer for possible use in the OMEGA gated monochromatic x-ray imager (GMXI). The multilayer was placed on a diffractometer, and measurements were made with a lithium-drifted silicon [Si(Li)] x-ray detector, connected to a multi-channel analyzer. The properties of the multilayer were inferred from gaussian fits to the measured diffraction curves. A multilayer with a 2d spacing of 25 angstrom was tested at energies from 1.7 to 4.5 keV

  7. Improved structural integrity through advances in reliable residual stress measurement: the impact of ENGIN-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.; Santisteban, J. R.

    The determination of accurate reliable residual stresses is critical to many fields of structural integrity. Neutron stress measurement is a non-destructive technique that uniquely provides insights into stress fields deep within engineering components and structures. As such, it has become an increasingly important tool within engineering, leading to improved manufacturing processes to reduce stress and distortion as well as to the definition of more precise lifing procedures. This paper describes the likely impact of the next generation of dedicated engineering stress diffractometers currently being constructed and the utility of the technique using examples of residual stresses both beneficial and detrimental to structural integrity.

  8. Real-time observation of epitaxial crystal growth in gaseous environment using x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Tomoaki; Bhunia, Satyaban; Watanabe, Yoshio; Fujikawa, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    We made the x-ray diffractometer combined with the MOCVD growth system for the real-time observation of epitaxial growth in gaseous environment, and investigated the growth mechanism of InP crystals. Changes of the (-5/2 O) Bragg diffraction during the growth revealed that the growth starts immediately after the In source has been supplied and gradually stopped, owing to the migrating In atoms on the surface. Additionally, one can easily determine the growth modes, including 3-dimensional mode, layer-by-layer mode, and step-flow mode, by observing the change of x-ray reflectivity with various growth conditions. (author)

  9. The use of a position sensitive detector or of a multidetector for the measurement of pole figures by neutron time-of-flight technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, K.

    1990-01-01

    The neutron flux of even high flux reactors is weak in comparison with the quantum flux of X-ray tubes and therefore in order to decrease the expense on measuring time more and more neutron diffractometers are equipped with position sensitive detectors or multidetectors. In this paper the peculiarities of the use of such detecting devices are discussed for the measurement of pole figures. A special arrangement of a multidetector is proposed which will allow one to scan the whole pole figure by rotating the sample about only one axis and considerably will save measuring time. 4 refs.; 5 figs

  10. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Susana C. M. [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Blakeley, Matthew P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Leal, Ricardo M. F. [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Mitchell, Edward P. [EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Forsyth, V. Trevor, E-mail: tforsyth@ill.fr [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary neutron crystallographic data from the sweet protein thaumatin have been recorded using the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results illustrate the feasibility of a full neutron structural analysis aimed at further understanding the molecular basis of the perception of sweet taste. Such an analysis will exploit the use of perdeuterated thaumatin. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  11. Diamond beamline I07: a beamline for surface and interface diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklin, Chris; Arnold, Tom; Rawle, Jonathan; Warne, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Beamline I07 at Diamond Light Source is dedicated to the study of the structure of surfaces and interfaces for a wide range of sample types, from soft matter to ultrahigh vacuum. The beamline operates in the energy range 8-30 keV and has two endstations. The first houses a 2+3 diffractometer, which acts as a versatile platform for grazing-incidence techniques including surface X-ray diffraction, grazing-incidence small- (and wide-) angle X-ray scattering, X-ray reflectivity and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. A method for deflecting the X-rays (a double-crystal deflector) has been designed and incorporated into this endstation, extending the surfaces that can be studied to include structures formed on liquid surfaces or at liquid-liquid interfaces. The second experimental hutch contains a similar diffractometer with a large environmental chamber mounted on it, dedicated to in situ ultrahigh-vacuum studies. It houses a range of complementary surface science equipment including a scanning tunnelling microscope, low-energy electron diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ensuring that correlations between the different techniques can be performed on the same sample, in the same chamber. This endstation allows accurate determination of well ordered structures, measurement of growth behaviour during molecular beam epitaxy and has also been used to measure coherent X-ray diffraction from nanoparticles during alloying.

  12. Implementation of a beam deflection system for studies of liquid interfaces on beamline I07 at Diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas; Nicklin, Chris; Rawle, Jonathan; Sutter, John; Bates, Trevor; Nutter, Brian; McIntyre, Gary; Burt, Martin

    2012-05-01

    X-ray optics, based on a double-crystal deflection scheme, that enable reflectivity measurements from liquid surfaces/interfaces have been designed, built and commissioned on beamline I07 at Diamond Light Source. This system is able to deflect the beam onto a fixed sample position located at the centre of a five-circle diffractometer. Thus the incident angle can be easily varied without moving the sample, and the reflected beam is tracked either by a moving Pilatus 100K detector mounted on the diffractometer arm or by a stationary Pilatus 2M detector positioned appropriately for small-angle scattering. Thus the system can easily combine measurements of the reflectivity from liquid interfaces (Q(z) > 1 Å(-1)) with off-specular data collection, both in the form of grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) or wider-angle grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD). The device allows operation over the energy range 10-28 keV.

  13. Overview and perspective of materials characterization by using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsubo, Hiromichi

    2009-01-01

    A peculiarity of techniques and the methods of synchrotron radiation are explained. It consists of five sections such as introduction, synchrotron radiation, interaction between X-ray and materials, analytical methods of materials using synchrotron radiation and perspective and problems. The second section described the principles of synchrotron orbit radiation, synchrotron light source, the main formulae and schematic drawing of undulator, and the synchrotron radiation facilities in Japan. The third section explained behavior of X-ray in materials, absorption, reflection, refraction and scattering of X-ray. The fourth section stated many analytical methods of materials; the surface diffractometer, powder diffractometer, high-energy X-ray diffraction, core-electron absorption spectroscopy, micro-beam diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and photoemission spectroscopy (PES). A characteristic feature of synchrotron radiation contains the large wave length ranges from infrared to X-ray, high directivity and brightness, linear (circular) polarization, pulsed light, good control and stability. The brightness spectra of Spring-8 and SAGA-LS, concept of synchrotron light source, undulator and wiggler, nine synchrotron radiation facilities in Japan, mass absorption coefficients of Cu and Au, and analysis of materials using synchrotron radiation are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  14. DNA hydration studied by neutron fiber diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, W.; Forsyth, V.T.; Mahendrasingam, A.; Langan, P.; Pigram, W.J. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The development of neutron high angle fiber diffraction to investigate the location of water around the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-helix is described. The power of the technique is illustrated by its application to the D and A conformations of DNA using the single crystal diffractometer, D19, at the Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble and the time of flight diffractometer, SXD, at the Rutherford Appleton ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. These studies show the existence of bound water closely associated with the DNA. The patterns of hydration in these two DNA conformations are quite distinct and are compared to those observed in X-ray single crystal studies of two-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides. Information on the location of water around the DNA double-helix from the neutron fiber diffraction studies is combined with that on the location of alkali metal cations from complementary X-ray high angle fiber diffraction studies at the Daresbury Laboratory SRS using synchrotron radiation. These analyses emphasize the importance of viewing DNA, water and ions as a single system with specific interactions between the three components and provide a basis for understanding the effect of changes in the concentration of water and ions in inducing conformations] transitions in the DNA double-helix.

  15. Single-crystal neutron diffraction at the Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klooster, W.T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to: identify the future needs and opportunities for single-crystal neutron diffraction, and specify instrument requirements. important number of experiments. The conclusion of the workshop deliberation was that Australia has a diverse community of users of single-crystal neutron diffraction. A (quasi)-Laue image-plate diffractometer allows the fastest throughput by far, but would exclude an important number of experiments. Most of these could be covered by the additional possibility to locate the image-plate detector on a monochromatic beam. Therefore it was recommend both a white thermal beam and a monochromatic beam (λ= 1 to 2.4 Angstroms) for an image-plate detector. At little additional cost the existing 2TanA instrument could be located semi-permanently on the same monochromatic beam, thus offering three quite different types of single-crystal instruments. Small improvements could be made to the 2TanA instrument to cater for the remaining experiments not suited to an image-plate diffractometer: exchange of the Eulerian cradle for an automated tilt goniometer for extremely bulky sample environment (cryomagnets, large pressure cells), optional larger area detector, analyser crystal. It was recommended that an Instrument Advisory Team will be assembled, and will help in specifying, designing and commissioning the instrument

  16. Powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.

    1995-12-31

    the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

  17. An automatic counting and recording system (1963); Ensemble de comptage a enregistrement automatique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-09-15

    An automatic control, counting and programing system for the collection of single crystal diffractometry data was designed by the author for a neutron diffractometer in 1958 at C.E.N - Grenoble. A part of the whole instrument, 'The Automatic Counting and Recording System', is described in this paper. Its applications are numerous and extensive, e.g.: the system has been designed for neutron diffractometer, but it can easily be adapted either for use with X-rays or measurement of mean life in {beta} decay analysis. (author) [French] Un ensemble automatique de telecommande, comptage et programmation pour la diffractometrie a cristal unique a ete etudie et realise par l'auteur pour la diffraction des neutrons en 1958 au C.E.N - Grenoble. Le present rapport decrit a ''l'Ensemble de Comptage a Enregistrement Automatique'' qui est une partie de l'appareillage complet. Ses applications sont nombreuses et peuvent s'etendre a de nouveaux domaines. En effet cet ensemble qui a ete etudie pour fonctionner avec un diffractometre a neutron, peut facilement s'adapter a la technique de diffraction des rayons X ou par exemple a celle de decroisasnce d'activite {beta}. (auteur)

  18. Present status of neutron beam facilities at the research reactor, HANARO, and its future prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang-Hee; Kang, Young-Hwan; Kuk, Il-Hiun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Korea has been operating its new research reactor, HANARO, since its first criticality in 1995. It is an open-tank-in-pool type reactor using LEU fuel with thermal neutron flux of 2 x 10{sup 14} nominally at the nose in the D{sub 2}O reflector having 7 horizontal beam ports and a provision of vertical hole for cold neutron source installation. KAERI has pursued an extensive instrument development program since 1992 by the support of the nuclear long-term development program of the government and there are now 4 working instruments. A high resolution powder diffractometer and a neutron radiography facility has been operational since late 1997 and 1996, respectively. A four-circle diffractometer has been fully working since mid 1999 and a small angle neutron spectrometer is just under commissioning phase. With the development of linear position sensitive detector with delay-line readout electronics, we have developed a residual stress instrument as an optional machine to the HRPD for last two years. Around early 1998 informal users program started with friendly users and it became a formal users support program by the ministry of science and technology. Short description for peer group formation and users activities is given. (author)

  19. Present status of neutron beam facilities at the research reactor, HANARO, and its future prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang-Hee; Kang, Young-Hwan; Kuk, Il-Hiun

    2001-01-01

    Korea has been operating its new research reactor, HANARO, since its first criticality in 1995. It is an open-tank-in-pool type reactor using LEU fuel with thermal neutron flux of 2 x 10 14 nominally at the nose in the D 2 O reflector having 7 horizontal beam ports and a provision of vertical hole for cold neutron source installation. KAERI has pursued an extensive instrument development program since 1992 by the support of the nuclear long-term development program of the government and there are now 4 working instruments. A high resolution powder diffractometer and a neutron radiography facility has been operational since late 1997 and 1996, respectively. A four-circle diffractometer has been fully working since mid 1999 and a small angle neutron spectrometer is just under commissioning phase. With the development of linear position sensitive detector with delay-line readout electronics, we have developed a residual stress instrument as an optional machine to the HRPD for last two years. Around early 1998 informal users program started with friendly users and it became a formal users support program by the ministry of science and technology. Short description for peer group formation and users activities is given. (author)

  20. Structural, optical and gas sensing properties of screen-printed nanostructured Sr-doped SnO2 thick film sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, F.I.; Chikhale, L.P.; Patil, J.Y.; Rajgure, A.V.; Suryavanshi, S.S.; Mulla, I.S.

    2013-01-01

    The nanocrystalline materials of strontium doped tin oxide powders were synthesized by conventional co-precipitation method. Synthesized nanophase SnO 2 powders were used to fabricate thick films of pure and Sr-doped SnO 2 using screen-printing technology and investigated for their gas sensing properties towards LPG, ethanol, ammonia and acetone vapor. The crystal structure and phase of the sintered powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and microstructure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the doped and undoped SnO 2 compositions revealed single phase and solid solution formation. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) results indicated that well crystallized Sr-doped SnO 2 particles of size about 10 nm were obtained at sintering temperature 700℃. The optical properties viz. UV-Vis, FTIR and Raman were used to characterize various physico-chemical properties of samples. The reduction of grain size in metal oxide is a key factor to enhance the gas sensing properties. The doping of Sr in SnO 2 has reduced the grain size and improved the gas response. The results of gas sensing measurements showed that the thick films deposited on alumina substrates using screen-printing technique exhibited high gas response, quick response time and fast recovery time to acetone gas at a working temperature of 250℃. Further, the selectivity of sensor towards acetone with respect to other reducing gases (LPG, ethanol, ammonia) was studied. (author)

  1. Compact structure of ribosomal protein S4 in solution as revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdyuk, I.N.; Sarkisyan, M.A.; Gogia, Z.V.

    1981-01-01

    The authors report the results of a small-angle X-ray scattering study of ribosomal protein preparations obtained by neutron scattering method. The theoretical resolution of the diffractometer (Kratky camera, the entrance slit 80 μm, the receiving slit 190 μm, the sample-detector distance 20.4 cm) was the same as the resolution of X-ray diffractometers, on which high rsub(g) values for ribosomal proteins were obtained. They used protein S4 adjusted to 20 mg/ml without any essential loss of solubility. The scattering indicatrix obtained in a wide range of angles has demonstrated that the X-ray rsub(g) obtained here coincides with the earlier obtained neutron rsub(g) and the outer part of the scattering curve is similar to that of slightly elongated compact bodies. They conclude that all discrepancies between their data on the study of ribosomal protein structure in solution and other data are not connected with the characteristics of the instruments used but only with the quality of the protein preparations. (Auth.)

  2. Rietveld refinement of magnetic structures from pulsed-neutron-source powder-diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.; Lawson, A.C.; Larson, A.C.; Von Dreele, R.B.; Goldstone, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The General Structure Analysis System, GSAS, has recently been modified to include magnetic neutron- scattering cross-sections. Low-temperature diffraction data have been taken on the hexagonal noncollinear antiferromagnet UPdSn on both the HIPD and the NPD powder diffractometers ail LANSCE. The low-resolution data reveal that the magnetic structure has orthorhombic symmetry (magnetic space group P c m'c2 1 ) between 25K and 40K, and monoclinic symmetry (magnetic space group PC 1121 ) below 25K. The high-resolution data reveal that there are structural distortions with corresponding symmetry changes in each of these phases, to give chemical space groups Cmc2 1 and P2 1 , respectively, while the paramagnetic phase above 40K has space group P6 3 mc. Using GSAS, we have refined data sets from both diffractometers simultaneously, including both magnetic and structural cross-sections. Magnetoelastic coefficients for the distortions have been extracted and we have determined the sign of the coupling between the structural monoclinicity and the magnetic monoclinicity. The magnetic results from Rietveld refinement are in good agreement with model fitting to the integrated intensities of seven independent magnetic reflections and these, in turn, agree with measurements made on the same sample using the constant-wavelength reactor technique. Our results therefore validate, to some level, both the technique of using spallation sources for complicated magnetic structures and the specifics of the GSAS Rietveld code

  3. Characterisation of the incident beam and current diffraction capabilities on the VESUVIO spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, G.; Krzystyniak, M.; Senesi, R.; Raspino, D.; Boxall, J.; Pooley, D.; Moorby, S.; Schooneveld, E.; Rhodes, N. J.; Andreani, C.; Fernandez-Alonso, F.

    2017-09-01

    The VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source is a unique instrument amongst those available at neutron facilities. This is the only inverted-geometry neutron spectrometer accessing values of energy and wavevector transfer above tens of eV and {\\mathringA}-1 , respectively, and where deep inelastic neutron scattering experiments are routinely performed. As such, the procedure at the base of the technique has been previously described in an article published by this journal (Mayers and Reiter 2012 Meas. Sci. Technol. 23 045902). The instrument has recently witnessed an upsurge of interest due to a new trend to accommodate, within a single experiment, neutron diffraction and transmission measurements in addition to deep inelastic neutron scattering. This work presents a broader description of the instrument following these recent developments. In particular, we assess the absolute intensity and two-dimensional profile of the incident neutron beam and the capabilities of the backscattering diffraction banks. All results are discussed in the light of recent changes to the moderator viewed by the instrument. We find that VESUVIO has to be considered a high-resolution diffractometer as much as other diffractometers at ISIS, with a resolution as high as 2× 10-3 in backscattering. Also, we describe the extension of the wavelength range of the instrument to include lower neutron energies for diffraction measurements, an upgrade that could be readily applied to other neutron instruments as well.

  4. An ultrahigh-vacuum apparatus for resonant diffraction experiments using soft x rays (hν=300-2000 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, T.; Chainani, A.; Takata, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Oura, M.; Tsubota, M.; Senba, Y.; Ohashi, H.; Mochiku, T.; Hirata, K.; Shin, S.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed an ultrahigh-vacuum instrument for resonant diffraction experiments using polarized soft x rays in the energy range of hν=300-2000 eV at beamline BL17SU of SPring-8. The diffractometer consists of modified differentially pumped rotary feedthroughs for θ-2θ stages, a sample manipulator with motor-controlled x-y-z-, tilt (χ)-, and azimuth (φ)-axes, and a liquid helium flow-type cryostat for temperature dependent measurements between 30 and 300 K. Test results indicate that the diffractometer exhibits high reproducibility (better than 0.001 deg.) for a Bragg reflection of α-quartz 100 at a photon energy of hν=1950 eV. Typical off- and on-resonance Bragg reflections in the energy range of 530-1950 eV could be measured using the apparatus. The results show that x-ray diffraction experiments with energy-, azimuth-, and incident photon polarization-dependence can be reliably measured using soft x rays in the energy range of ∼300-2000 eV. The facility can be used for resonant diffraction experiments across the L-edge of transition metals, M-edge of lanthanides, and up to the Si K-edge of materials.

  5. Residual stress analysis of drive shafts after induction hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Guilherme Vieira Braga; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva; Nunes, Rafael Menezes, E-mail: lemos_gl@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Algre, RS (Brazil); Hirsch, Thomas Karl [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik (IWT), Bremen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Typically, for automotive shafts, shape distortion manifests itself in most cases after the induction hardening by an effect known as bending. The distortion results in a boost of costs, especially due to machining parts in the hardened state to fabricate its final tolerances. In the present study, residual stress measurements were carried out on automotive drive shafts made of DIN 38B3 steel. The samples were selected in consequence of their different distortion properties by an industrial manufacturing line. One tested shaft was straightened, because of the considerable dimensional variation and the other one not. Firstly, the residual stress measurements were carried out by using a portable diffractometer, in order to avoid cutting the shafts and evaluate the original state of the stresses, and afterwards a more detailed analysis was realized by a conventional stationary diffractometer. The obtained results presented an overview of the surface residual stress profiles after induction hardening and displayed the influence of the straightening process on the redistribution of residual stresses. They also indicated that the effects of the straightening in the residual stresses cannot be neglected. (author)

  6. XRD and neutron diffraction analyses of heat treated U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Min; Kim, Woo Jeong; Ryu, Ho Jin; Lee, Kyu Hong; Park, Jong Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    High density U Mo alloys are regarded as promising candidates for advanced research reactor fuel because they have shown stable irradiation performance when compared to other uranium alloys and compounds. However, interaction layer formation between the U Mo alloys and Al matrix degrades the irradiation performance of U Mo dispersion fuel. Therefore, addition of Ti in U Mo alloys, addition of Si in Al matrix and silicide or nitride coating on the surface of U Mo particles have been proposed in order to inhibit the interaction layer growth. In order to analyze the mechanisms of interaction layer growth inhibition by adding Ti in U Mo alloys or Si in Al matrix, accurate phase characterization of the interaction layers is required. While previous studies using X ray diffraction have been reported, laboratory X ray diffraction method has limitations such as low resolution and small measurement volume. Neutron diffraction method can be a more accurate analysis when compared with X ray diffraction method due to the large penetration depth of neutron. In this study, X ray diffraction and neutron diffraction experiments have been performed by using the laboratory X ray diffractometer and high resolution powder diffractometer (HRPD) of the HANARO research reactor in KAERI.

  7. Ca-doped LTO using waste eggshells as Ca source to improve the discharge capacity of anode material for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, D.; Subhan, A.; Saptari, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    The necessity of high charge-discharge capacity lithium-ion battery becomes very urgent due to its applications demand. Several researches have been done to meet the demand including Ca doping on Li4Ti5O12 for anode material of lithium-ion batteries. Ca-doped Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) in the form of Li4-xCaxTi5O12 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1) have been synthesized using simple solid state reaction. The materials preparation involved waste eggshells in the form of CaCO3 as Ca source. The structure and capacity of as-prepared samples were characterized using X-Ray Diffractometer and Cyclic Voltametry. X-Ray Diffractometer characterization revealed that all amount of dopant had entered the lattice structure of LTO successfully. The crystalline sizes were obtained by using Scherrer equation. No significant differences are detected in lattice parameters (˜8.35 Å) and crystalline sizes (˜27 nm) between all samples. Cyclic Voltametry characterization shows that Li4-xCaxTi5O12 (x = 0.05) has highest charge-discharge capacity of 177.14 mAh/g and 181.92 mAh/g, respectively. Redox-potentials of samples show no significant differences with the average of 1.589 V.

  8. Development of a large area, curved two-dimensional detector for single-crystal neutron diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Myung-Kook; Lee, Chang-Hee; Kim, Shin-Ae; Noda, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    A new type of two-dimensional curved position-sensitive neutron detector has been developed for a high-throughput single-crystal neutron diffractometer, which was designed to cover 110° horizontally and 56° vertically. The prototype curved detector covering 70° horizontally and 45° vertically was first developed to test the technical feasibility of the detector parameters, the internal anode and cathode structures for the curved shape, technical difficulties in the assembly procedure, and so on. Then, based on this experience, a full-scale curved detector with twice the active area of the prototype was fabricated with newly modified anode and cathode planes and optimized design parameters in terms of mechanical and electric properties. The detector was installed in a dedicated diffractometer at the ST3 beam port of the research reactor HANARO. In this paper, the fabrication and application of the prototype and a new larger-area curved position-sensitive neutron detector for single crystal diffraction is presented

  9. Measurement of the single 100 diffraction line and evaluation of the average crystallite sizes along the fiber axis for mesophase-pitch-based carbon fiber P100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Akira; Kaburagi, Yutaka; Hishiyama, Yoshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Mesophase-pitch-based carbon fiber P100 is known as a well-oriented carbon fiber in which the partially graphitized crystallites align along the fiber axis. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern for P100 measured by the X-ray diffractometer reveals the 100 diffraction line as a composite peak with the 101 diffraction line. The composite peak is usually not easy to separate into the component peaks of 100 and 101 lines. In the present article, a method to measure the single 100 diffraction line with the X-ray diffractometer using fiber samples of P100 has been developed. It has been found that there exist two types of crystallites oriented to their basal planes along the fiber axis in each of the P100 fibers; the Z-type crystallite with the zigzag boundary planes and the A-type crystallite with the armchair boundary planes, both of the boundary planes are perpendicular to the fiber axis. The average crystallite sizes along the fiber axis evaluated are 53 nm for the Z-type crystallites and 800 nm for the armchair crystallites. The average crystallite thickness for both types is about 120 nm. (author)

  10. Neutron beam applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee, J. S.; Seong, B. S.

    2000-05-01

    For the materials science by neutron technique, the development of the various complementary neutron beam facilities at horizontal beam port of HANARO and the techniques for measurement and analysis has been performed. High resolution powder diffractometer, after the installation and performance test, has been opened and used actively for crystal structure analysis, magnetic structure analysis, phase transition study, etc., since January 1998. The main components for four circle diffractometer were developed and, after performance test, it has been opened for crystal structure analysis and texture measurement since the end of 1999. For the small angle neutron spectrometer, the main component development and test, beam characterization, and the preliminary experiment for the structure study of polymer have been carried out. Neutron radiography facility, after the precise performance test, has been used for the non-destructive test of industrial component. Addition to the development of main instruments, for the effective utilization of those facilities, the scattering techniques relating to quantitative phase analysis, magnetic structure analysis, texture measurement, residual stress measurement, polymer study, etc, were developed. For the neutron radiography, photographing and printing technique on direct and indirect method was stabilized and the development for the real time image processing technique by neutron TV was carried out. The sample environment facilities for low and high temperature, magnetic field were also developed

  11. An automatic counting and recording system (1963); Ensemble de comptage a enregistrement automatique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-09-15

    An automatic control, counting and programing system for the collection of single crystal diffractometry data was designed by the author for a neutron diffractometer in 1958 at C.E.N - Grenoble. A part of the whole instrument, 'The Automatic Counting and Recording System', is described in this paper. Its applications are numerous and extensive, e.g.: the system has been designed for neutron diffractometer, but it can easily be adapted either for use with X-rays or measurement of mean life in {beta} decay analysis. (author) [French] Un ensemble automatique de telecommande, comptage et programmation pour la diffractometrie a cristal unique a ete etudie et realise par l'auteur pour la diffraction des neutrons en 1958 au C.E.N - Grenoble. Le present rapport decrit a ''l'Ensemble de Comptage a Enregistrement Automatique'' qui est une partie de l'appareillage complet. Ses applications sont nombreuses et peuvent s'etendre a de nouveaux domaines. En effet cet ensemble qui a ete etudie pour fonctionner avec un diffractometre a neutron, peut facilement s'adapter a la technique de diffraction des rayons X ou par exemple a celle de decroisasnce d'activite {beta}. (auteur)

  12. Precession technique and electron diffractometry as new tools for crystal structure analysis and chemical bonding determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avilov, A.; Kuligin, K.; Nicolopoulos, S.; Nickolskiy, M.; Boulahya, K.; Portillo, J.; Lepeshov, G.; Sobolev, B.; Collette, J.P.; Martin, N.; Robins, A.C.; Fischione, P.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a new fast electron diffractometer working with high dynamic range and linearity for crystal structure determinations. Electron diffraction (ED) patterns can be scanned serially in front of a Faraday cage detector; the total measurement time for several hundred ED reflections can be tens of seconds having high statistical accuracy for all measured intensities (1-2%). This new tool can be installed to any type of TEM without any column modification and is linked to a specially developed electron beam precession 'Spinning Star' system. Precession of the electron beam (Vincent-Midgley technique) reduces dynamical effects allowing also use of accurate intensities for crystal structure analysis. We describe the technical characteristics of this new tool together with the first experimental results. Accurate measurement of electron diffraction intensities by electron diffractometer opens new possibilities not only for revealing unknown structures, but also for electrostatic potential determination and chemical bonding investigation. As an example, we present detailed atomic bonding information of CaF 2 as revealed for the first time by precise electron diffractometry

  13. Top measurements of pulsed neutrons for texture analysis of low symmetry materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, A.C.; Vergamini, P.J.; Wenk, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    The single crystal diffractometer at LANSCE, SCD, provides an ideal capability for the study of preferred orientation in geological samples by time-of flight (TOF) measurement of pulsed neutrons. The 2-d position sensitive neutron detector with the large wave length range allows one to measure the complete distribution of intensities for several poles very quickly. Each histogram covers about π 2 /16 radians of reciprocal space and contains information from all possible poles visible with the wave length range used, usually about 0.5 to 5.0 Angstrom. With this method complete pole figures of many lattice planes can be constructed from only 12 to 20 sample orientations as compared to over 1000 sample settings per lattice plane using conventional diffractometers. Pole figures from measurements of experimentally deformed standard samples of calcite and quartzite with a known history of deformation provide information about deformation mechanisms and their temperature/strain history. This information can be applied to interpret preferred orientation of naturally deformed rocks

  14. Low angle X-ray scattering in biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Carla; Braz, Delson; Pinto, Nivia G.V.; Lima, Joao C.; Castro, Carlos R.F.; Filgueiras, R.A.; Mendonca, Leonardo; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Barroso, Regina C.

    2007-01-01

    Low-angle x-ray scatter (LAXS) for tissue characterization is based on the differences which result from the interference of photons coherently scattered from molecules of each sample. Biological samples (bone, blood and blood components) have been studied in recent years in our laboratory using powder diffractometer. The scattering information was obtained using a Shimadzu DRX 6000 diffractometer at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Unpolarized monoenergetic Kα radiation from Cu provided 8.04 keV photons. The measurements were made in reflection mode (θ-2θ geometry), with the sample stationary on a goniometer which rotates the sample and detector about an axis lying in the plane of the top of the sample holder. LAXS profiles from whole blood, plasma and formed elements were measured to investigate the nature of scattering from such lyophilized samples. The statistical analysis shows that the variation found for the characterization parameters is significant for whole blood considering the age. Gender was positively associated with the variation of the second peak position for the profiles obtained for formed elements. The correlation of the measured relative coherent intensity with the mineral content in the bone samples was investigated. These results suggest that the measurement of bone mineral content within trabecular bone can be performed by using quantitative coherent scattering information. (author)

  15. Powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, M.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940's, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments

  16. DNA hydration studied by neutron fiber diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, W.; Forsyth, V.T.; Mahendrasingam, A.; Langan, P.; Pigram, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    The development of neutron high angle fiber diffraction to investigate the location of water around the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-helix is described. The power of the technique is illustrated by its application to the D and A conformations of DNA using the single crystal diffractometer, D19, at the Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble and the time of flight diffractometer, SXD, at the Rutherford Appleton ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. These studies show the existence of bound water closely associated with the DNA. The patterns of hydration in these two DNA conformations are quite distinct and are compared to those observed in X-ray single crystal studies of two-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides. Information on the location of water around the DNA double-helix from the neutron fiber diffraction studies is combined with that on the location of alkali metal cations from complementary X-ray high angle fiber diffraction studies at the Daresbury Laboratory SRS using synchrotron radiation. These analyses emphasize the importance of viewing DNA, water and ions as a single system with specific interactions between the three components and provide a basis for understanding the effect of changes in the concentration of water and ions in inducing conformations] transitions in the DNA double-helix

  17. Low dose radiation damage effects in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation damage effects in silicon segmented detectors caused by X-rays have become recently an important research topic driven mainly by development of new detectors for applications at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL). However, radiation damage in silicon strip is observed not only after extreme doses up to 1 GGy expected at E-XFEL, but also at doses in the range of tens of Gy, to which the detectors in laboratory instruments like X-ray diffractometers or X-ray spectrometers can be exposed. In this paper we report on investigation of radiation damage effects in a custom developed silicon strip detector used in laboratory diffractometers equipped with X-ray tubes. Our results show that significant degradation of detector performance occurs at low doses, well below 200 Gy, which can be reached during normal operation of laboratory instruments. Degradation of the detector energy resolution can be explained by increasing leakage current and increasing interstrip capacitance of the sensor. Another observed effect caused by accumulation of charge trapped in the surface oxide layer is change of charge division between adjacent strips. In addition, we have observed unexpected anomalies in the annealing process.

  18. Low dose radiation damage effects in silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2016-11-01

    The radiation damage effects in silicon segmented detectors caused by X-rays have become recently an important research topic driven mainly by development of new detectors for applications at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL). However, radiation damage in silicon strip is observed not only after extreme doses up to 1 GGy expected at E-XFEL, but also at doses in the range of tens of Gy, to which the detectors in laboratory instruments like X-ray diffractometers or X-ray spectrometers can be exposed. In this paper we report on investigation of radiation damage effects in a custom developed silicon strip detector used in laboratory diffractometers equipped with X-ray tubes. Our results show that significant degradation of detector performance occurs at low doses, well below 200 Gy, which can be reached during normal operation of laboratory instruments. Degradation of the detector energy resolution can be explained by increasing leakage current and increasing interstrip capacitance of the sensor. Another observed effect caused by accumulation of charge trapped in the surface oxide layer is change of charge division between adjacent strips. In addition, we have observed unexpected anomalies in the annealing process.

  19. Convolution based profile fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.; Coelho, A.A.; Cheary, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In convolution based profile fitting, profiles are generated by convoluting functions together to form the observed profile shape. For a convolution of 'n' functions this process can be written as, Y(2θ)=F 1 (2θ)x F 2 (2θ)x... x F i (2θ)x....xF n (2θ). In powder diffractometry the functions F i (2θ) can be interpreted as the aberration functions of the diffractometer, but in general any combination of appropriate functions for F i (2θ) may be used in this context. Most direct convolution fitting methods are restricted to combinations of F i (2θ) that can be convoluted analytically (e.g. GSAS) such as Lorentzians, Gaussians, the hat (impulse) function and the exponential function. However, software such as TOPAS is now available that can accurately convolute and refine a wide variety of profile shapes numerically, including user defined profiles, without the need to convolute analytically. Some of the most important advantages of modern convolution based profile fitting are: 1) virtually any peak shape and angle dependence can normally be described using minimal profile parameters in laboratory and synchrotron X-ray data as well as in CW and TOF neutron data. This is possible because numerical convolution and numerical differentiation is used within the refinement procedure so that a wide range of functions can easily be incorporated into the convolution equation; 2) it can use physically based diffractometer models by convoluting the instrument aberration functions. This can be done for most laboratory based X-ray powder diffractometer configurations including conventional divergent beam instruments, parallel beam instruments, and diffractometers used for asymmetric diffraction. It can also accommodate various optical elements (e.g. multilayers and monochromators) and detector systems (e.g. point and position sensitive detectors) and has already been applied to neutron powder diffraction systems (e.g. ANSTO) as well as synchrotron based

  20. A beam intensity monitor for the evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imazono, Takashi; Moriya, Naoji; Harada, Yoshihisa; Sano, Kazuo; Koike, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation Beamline for Soft X-Ray Optical Elements (BL-11) at the SR Center of Ritsumeikan University has been operated to measure the wavelength and angular characteristics of soft x-ray optical components in a wavelength range of 0.65-25 nm using a reflecto-diffractometer (RD). The beam intensity monitor that has been equipped in BL-11 has observed the signal of the zero-th order light. For the purpose of more accurate evaluation of the performance of optical components, a new beam intensity monitor to measure the intensity of the first order light from the monochromator in BL-11 has been developed and installed in just front of RD. The strong positive correlation between the signal of the beam monitor and a detector equipped in the RD is shown. It is successful that the beam intensity of the first order light can be monitored in real time.

  1. Structural phase diagram and equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of YBa2Cu3O6+x

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.H.; Lebech, B.; Poulsen, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    of the ordering of oxygen. Oxygen equilibrium partial pressure shows significant variations with temperature and concentration which indicate that x = 0.15 and x = 0.92 are minimum and maximum oxygen concentrations. Measurements of oxygen in-diffusion flow show relaxation type behaviour: View the MathML source......An experimental technique by which in-situ gas volumetric measurements are carried out on a neutron powder diffractometer, is presented and used for simultaneous studies of oxygen equilibrium partial pressure and the structural phase diagram of YBa2Cu3O6 + x. Experimental data was collected under...... near equilibrium conditions at 350 points in (x,T)-space with 0.15 gas law in connection with iodiometric titration and structural analyses. The temperature...

  2. The pin pixel detector--neutron imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    The development and testing of a neutron gas pixel detector intended for application in neutron diffraction studies is reported. Using standard electrical connector pins as point anodes, the detector is based on a commercial 100 pin connector block. A prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mmx25.4 mm has been fabricated, giving a pixel size of 2.54 mm which matches well to the spatial resolution typically required in a neutron diffractometer. A 2-Dimensional resistive divide readout system has been adapted to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics. The timing properties of the device match well to the requirements of the ISIS-pulsed neutron source.

  3. Effect of using the double layer technique on the microstructure, microhardness and residual stress of welded ASTM A516 GR70 structural steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, George Luiz Gomes de; Miranda, Helio Cordeiro de

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of using the double layer technique on the microstructure, microhardness and residual stresses of welded ASTM A516 Gr70 structural steel. Samples were welded with the same welding parameters and two types of chamfers, while the samples welded using the double layer technique underwent a buttering process on their chamfer face. Residual stress measurement was accomplished through x-ray diffraction, using a mini diffractometer for measurement in field. Metallographic analysis was accomplished in the transverse section of the welded joint, using optic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The double layer technique showed that can be used in the welding of ASTM A516 Gr70 steel, because, besides promote a refinement and a drawing back of the CG-HAZ, it increased compressive residual stress in the whole surface of the analyzed samples.(author)

  4. Experience in determination of the composition and texture of Y-Ba high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamraj, V.F.; Efimov, Yu.V.; Babarehko, A.A.; Myasnikova, E.A.; Bolokhova, T.A.; Shul'gin, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    A method for the determination of phase composition and texture of powder and strip samples of Y-Ba HTSC has been developed. Phase analysis was conducted by comparing X-ray patterns of analyzed and model patterns of various phases in the system Y-Ba-Cu-O using literature data on crystal structures of the phases. The texture of rolled strips was studied by the method of plotting direct polar figures using an automate diffractometer. It is shown that combination of standard method of micro X-ray diffraction analysis with the study of oxygen content in HTSC, usign ultralong wave spectroprobe, provides for the determination of the important component and permits to reveal microheterogeneity of the samples

  5. Microstructure Characterization of WCCo-Mo Based Coatings Produced Using High Velocity Oxygen Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Islak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been carried out in order to investigate the microstructural properties of WCCo-Mo composite coatings deposited onto a SAE 4140 steel substrate by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF thermal spray. For this purpose, the Mo quantity added to the WCCo was changed as 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt. % percents. The coatings are compared in terms of their phase composition, microstructure and hardness. Phase compound and microstructure of coating layers were examined using X-ray diffractometer (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. XRD results showed that WCCo-Mo composite coatings were mainly composed of WC, W2C, Co3W3C, Mo2C, MoO2, Mo and Co phases. The average hardness of the coatings increased with increasing Mo content.

  6. New X-Ray Technique to Characterize Nanoscale Precipitates in Aged Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitdikov, V. D.; Murashkin, M. Yu.; Valiev, R. Z.

    2017-10-01

    This paper puts forward a new technique for measurement of x-ray patterns, which enables to solve the problem of identification and determination of precipitates (nanoscale phases) in metallic alloys of the matrix type. The minimum detection limit of precipitates in the matrix of the base material provided by this technique constitutes as little as 1%. The identification of precipitates in x-ray patterns and their analysis are implemented through a transmission mode with a larger radiation area, longer holding time and higher diffractometer resolution as compared to the conventional reflection mode. The presented technique has been successfully employed to identify and quantitatively describe precipitates formed in the Al alloy of the Al-Mg-Si system as a result of artificial aging. For the first time, the x-ray phase analysis has been used to identify and measure precipitates formed during the alloy artificial aging.

  7. Structural and optical properties of ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Deepannita; Kaleemulla, S.; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Subbaravamma, K.; Rao, G. Venugopal

    2018-04-01

    (In0.95Sn0.05)2O3 and (In0.90Cu0.05Sn0.05)2O3 thin films were coated onto glass substrate by electron beam evaporation technique. The structural and optical properties of ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The crystallite size obtained for ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films was in the range of 24 nm to 22 nm. The optical band gap of 4 eV for ITO thin film sample has been observed. The optical band gap decreases to 3.85 eV by doping Cu in ITO.

  8. High temperature neutron diffraction study of LaPO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.K.; Mittal, R.; Ningthoujam, R.S.; Vatsa, R.K.; Hansen, T.

    2016-01-01

    We report high temperature powder neutron diffractions study in LaPO 4 using high-flux D20 neutron diffractometer in the Institut Laue-Langevin, France. The measurements were carried out in high resolution mode (incident neutron wavelength 1.36 A) at various temperature upto 900°C. CarefuI inspection of temperature dependence of diffraction data showed appearance and disappearance of certain Bragg's reflections above 1273 K. It is a signature of structural phase transition. Rietveld refinement of the powder diffraction data revealed that diffraction patterns at and above 800°C could be indexed using the monoclinic structure with P21/n space group. Detail analysis for identify the water molecules is under investigation. (author)

  9. Rare earth effect on microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of CoCrW coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenyu; Lu Xinchun; Han Baolei; Luo Jianbin

    2007-01-01

    Eight different CoCrW coatings doped with rare earth oxide were deposited by supersonic plasma spraying (SPS). Environmental scanning electron microscopy, microhardness tester, X-ray diffractometer, and self-developed tribometer for high temperature were employed to investigate the properties of sprayed coatings. The results show that rare earth can refine the microstructure effectively, and make the element distribution uniform, which leads to the increase of average microhardness and the corresponding decrease of fluctuation range of sectioned surface of SPS coatings. Furthermore, the rare earth can reduce the friction coefficient between the SPS coating and glass during the sliding process at about 973 K largely, and the mechanism of anti-friction is also discussed

  10. Designing new guides and instruments using McStas

    CERN Document Server

    Farhi, E; Wildes, A R; Ghosh, R; Lefmann, K

    2002-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of modern neutron-scattering instruments, the need for powerful tools to optimize their geometry and physical performances (flux, resolution, divergence, etc.) has become essential. As the usual analytical methods reach their limit of validity in the description of fine effects, the use of Monte Carlo simulations, which can handle these latter, has become widespread. The McStas program was developed at Riso National Laboratory in order to provide neutron scattering instrument scientists with an efficient and flexible tool for building Monte Carlo simulations of guides, neutron optics and instruments. To date, the McStas package has been extensively used at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France, for various studies including cold and thermal guides with ballistic geometry, diffractometers, triple-axis, backscattering and time-of-flight spectrometers. In this paper, we present some simulation results concerning different guide geometries that may be used in the future at th...

  11. Structural and optical studies of CuO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chand, Prakash, E-mail: KK-PC2006@yahoo.com; Gaur, Anurag, E-mail: KK-PC2006@yahoo.com; Kumar, Ashavani, E-mail: KK-PC2006@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra-136119 (India)

    2014-04-24

    In the present study, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been synthesized at 140 °C for different aging periods, 1, 24, 48 and 96 hrs by hydrothermal method to investigate their effects on structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern indicates the pure phase formation of CuO and the particle size, calculated from XRD data, has been found to be increasing from 21 to 36 nm for the samples synthesized at different aging periods. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis also shows that the average diameter and length of these rectangular nano flakes increases with increasing the aging periods. Moreover Raman spectrums also confirm the phase formation of CuO. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 2.92 to 2.69 eV with increase in aging periods, 1 to 96 hrs, respectively.

  12. Structural and optical studies of CuO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, Prakash; Gaur, Anurag; Kumar, Ashavani

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been synthesized at 140 °C for different aging periods, 1, 24, 48 and 96 hrs by hydrothermal method to investigate their effects on structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern indicates the pure phase formation of CuO and the particle size, calculated from XRD data, has been found to be increasing from 21 to 36 nm for the samples synthesized at different aging periods. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis also shows that the average diameter and length of these rectangular nano flakes increases with increasing the aging periods. Moreover Raman spectrums also confirm the phase formation of CuO. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 2.92 to 2.69 eV with increase in aging periods, 1 to 96 hrs, respectively

  13. Structural and optical studies of CuO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Prakash; Gaur, Anurag; Kumar, Ashavani

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been synthesized at 140 °C for different aging periods, 1, 24, 48 and 96 hrs by hydrothermal method to investigate their effects on structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern indicates the pure phase formation of CuO and the particle size, calculated from XRD data, has been found to be increasing from 21 to 36 nm for the samples synthesized at different aging periods. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis also shows that the average diameter and length of these rectangular nano flakes increases with increasing the aging periods. Moreover Raman spectrums also confirm the phase formation of CuO. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 2.92 to 2.69 eV with increase in aging periods, 1 to 96 hrs, respectively.

  14. In situ synthesis of hydroxyapatite coating by laser cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D G; Chen, C Z; Ma, J; Zhang, G

    2008-10-15

    HA bioceramic coatings were synthesized on titanium substrate by laser cladding using cheap calcium carbonate and calcium hydrogen phosphate. The thermodynamic condition for synthesizing HA was calculated by software Matlab 5.0, the microstructure and phase analysis of laser clad HA bioceramic coatings were studied by electron probe microanalyser (EPMA), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The theoretical results show that the Gibbs free enthalpy for the synthesis of HA phase is satisfied, and the presence of HA phase in the clad coatings was then further verified by XRD and the selected area diffraction patterns. When the laser power is 600W and the scanning speed is 3.5mm/s, the compact HA bioceramic coatings were obtained, which have cellular dendritic structure and consist of the phases of HA, alpha-Ca(2)P(2)O(7), CaO and CaTiO(3).

  15. Synthesis of K2O/Zeolite catalysts by KOH impregnation for biodiesel production from waste frying oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, N.; Husin, H.; Yanti, D.; Pontas, K.; Alam, P. N.; Ridho, M.; Iskandar

    2018-03-01

    K2O/Zeolite compounds were successfully synthesized using KOH as starting material and natural zeolite as support. The catalysts were calcined at 500°C for 3 h and then characterized by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The SEM images reveal that the zeolite and K2O/zeolite particles are irregular in shape (100 to 400 nm). The independent variables were impregnated amounts of KOH (15 - 25%), catalyst to oil ratios of 1.0 - 6.0 wt.%, and reaction time of 2 h. The highest biodiesel yield of 95% was produced from the reaction with 2.1 wt.% catalyst of 25% KOH impregnated. The properties of produced biodiesel complied with SNI. The catalytic stability test showed that the 25% KOH impregnated catalyst was stable.

  16. Structural relaxations in the bulk amorphous alloy Fe{sub 61}Co{sub 10}Ti{sub 3}Y{sub 6}B{sub 20}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Błoch, K., E-mail: 23kasia1@wp.pl; Nabiałek, M.; Gondro, J.

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents studies of annealing effect on the disaccommodation phenomenon in bulk amorphous alloy Fe{sub 61}Co{sub 10}Ti{sub 3}Y{sub 6}B{sub 20}. The investigated sample was prepared by suction-casting method in the form of rod. The annealing process has been performed at temperature well below the crystallisation temperature. The amorphous structure has been confirmed using X-ray diffractometer. The susceptibility and its disaccommodation were determined using completely automated set up. The disaccommodation curve was decomposed into three elementary processes, each of them was described by Gaussian distribution of relaxation times. The obtained results indicate that the disaccommodation phenomenon in studied alloy is related with directional ordering of atom pairs near the free volumes; this is in agreement with H. Kronmüller's theorem.

  17. Stress measurements using the CFDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Latif, I.A.; Khalil, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The present work deals with neutron diffraction measurements performed using the Cairo Fourier Diffractometer Facility (CFDF) for stress analysis.The CFDF has 0.45% resolution and a value l.lxl0 6 neutrons . cm -2 , s -1 of integral neutron flux at the sample position. While one of the two samples used for the present measurements was made from two steel cylindrical rods ( 5.5 mm in diameter) electrically welded together, the second one was a stress free steel rod of the same material. The stress distribution after welding was studied from the measured, by the CFDF, diffraction patterns . It has been found from the present measurements that the strain at the welding point is higher than any point far from it; verifying that the CFDF can be successfully used for stress measurement

  18. Electrical conductivity characteristic of TiO2 nanowires from hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Amat, Noor Faridah; Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Rajan, Jose

    2014-01-01

    One dimensional nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) were synthesized via hydrothermal method by mixing TiO 2 as precursor in aqueous solution of NaOH as solvent. Then, heat and washing treatment was applied. Thus obtained wires had diameter ∼15 nm. TiO 2 nanowires will be used as a network in solar cell such dye-sensitized solar cell in order to improve the performance of electron movement in the device. To improve the performance of electron movement, the characteristics of TiO 2 nanowires have been analyses using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis, x-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis and brunauer emmett teller (BET) analysis. Finally, electrical conductivity of TiO 2 nanowires was determined by measuring the resistance of the TiO 2 nanowires paste on microscope glass.

  19. In situ characterization of ancient plaster and pigments on tomb walls in Egypt using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.

    2004-01-01

    A portable type of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and fluorescence (ED-XRDF) spectrometer was developed, whose operation mode is completely different from that of an X-ray diffractometer commercially available. The former is operated in energy dispersive mode but the latter in angle dispersive mode. The performance of the ED-XRDF spectrometer was tested in the field, i.e. in the tomb of Amenhotep III, built in 1364 B.C. or earlier in Egypt. The crystal structure and chemical composition of ancient plaster and pigments were successfully determined in the field using the spectrometer. The same areas investigated by the ED-XRDF spectrometer were also examined with an optical microscope. The plaster is found to be composed of anhydrite, calcite and quartz. White and yellow pigments were identified as huntite and orpiment, respectively. Egyptian blue and goethite were found in the green colored parts

  20. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID COMPONENT OF WELDING AEROSOL. I. PHASE COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Rakitskaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phase composition of the solid component of welding aerosol (SCWA obtained as a result of metal welding with electrodes of ANO-4 and TsL-11 types manufactured according to ISO 2560 E432R 21 and ISO E19.9NbB20 standards, respectively, and differing in com-position of their wires and coatings was determined with the help of a Siemens D500 diffrac- a Siemens D500 diffrac-tometer supplied with the manufacturer’s software. Four and thirteen phases were identified in SCWA-ANO-4 and SCWA-TsL-11, respectively. Evaluation of crystallite sizes by the use of the Scherer equation showed that the crystallites formed in the course of welding with a TsL-11 type electrode are larger than those in the case of an ANO-4 type one: 65-89 nm and 30-49 nm, respectively.

  1. Study of structural relaxation in amorphous alloys prepared by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, S.; Banaee, N.; Majidy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We have prepared amorphous alloy of Al x Cu 1-x (with X= 93, 90, 80, 70, 30) using sputtering system. The rate of growth was 0.7 nm/sec. X-ray diffractometer was used to conform the amorphous nature of the prepared specimens. High temperature annealing can change amorphous to crystalline structure, while low temperature annealing may transform amorphous state to a more stable amorphous state via structural relaxation of the specimen and enhancing the properties of the alloys, such as mechanical ductility etc. Here we have annealed the alloys at temperatures 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 C for 1 hour. We observed that microhardness of the specimen increases with annealing and gets maximum value at 300 C. Our XRD experiments and also earlier Moessbauer studies show that while the average interatomic distances reduces due to annealing, structure remains amorphous

  2. ALADIN - Advanced Laue Diffraction Instruments using Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemee-Cailleau, M.H.; Ouladdiaf, B.; McIntyre, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Laue diffraction techniques have proven to be very attractive to a broad user community interested in obtaining detailed structural information on very small single-crystal samples or needing data collection speeds comparable to those available with the powder diffraction technique. However our experience has clearly demonstrated the negative effect of up-stream monochromatic instruments on the quality of Laue data. In order to obtain Laue diffraction data with a statistical accuracy similar to that achieved on a monochromatic instrument (neutron or X-rays), the project ALADIN (for Advanced Laue Diffraction Instruments using Neutrons) aims to: -) construct a Laue-dedicated thermal neutron guide, with m=2 super-mirror coating, providing access to the desirable wavelength bandwidth; -) installation of one of the ILL Laue diffractometers (VIVALDI or CYCLOPS) on this new guide. (authors)

  3. Pengaruh bahan pengisi serat kaca terhadap sifat fisik dan kristalinitas polipaduan PC/ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Wahini Nurhajati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the effects of the addition of glass fibers on the physical and crystallinity properties of PC/ABS polyblends. The ratio of PC/ABS used in this research was 75/25, while the addition of glass fibers ranged from 0; 5; 10; to 15 phr (based on the weight of PC/ABS. Polyblends of PC/ABS/glass fibers were prepared in a twin screw extruder. The test results showed that density and tensile strength of PC/ABS polyblends increased with an increase in the glass fiber content. The presence of glass fibers decreased MFI and impact strength of these PC/ABS polyblends. The functional groups were determined by the fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrophotometer while crystallinity was examined using X-ray diffractometer (XRD.

  4. Analysis of residual stress in subsurface layers after precision hard machining of forging tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czan Andrej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on analysis of residual stress of functional surfaces and subsurface layers created by precision technologies of hard machining for progressive constructional materials of forging tools. Methods of experiments are oriented on monitoring of residual stress in surface which is created by hard turning (roughing and finishing operations. Subsequently these surfaces were etched in thin layers by electro-chemical polishing. The residual stress was monitored in each etched layer. The measuring was executed by portable X-ray diffractometer for detection of residual stress and structural phases. The results significantly indicate rise and distribution of residual stress in surface and subsurface layers and their impact on functional properties of surface integrity.

  5. A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, K. J. S.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Tiwari, M. K.; Alianelli, L.; Scott, S. M.; Preece, G. M.; Pedersen, U. K.; Walton, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    A Test beamline B16 has been built on the 3 GeV Diamond synchrotron radiation source. The beamline covers a wide photon energy range from 2 to 25 keV. The beamline is highly flexible and versatile in terms of the available beam size (a micron to 100 mm) and the range of energy resolution and photon flux; by virtue of its several operational modes, and the different inter-changeable instruments available in the experiments hutch. Diverse experimental configurations can be flexibly configured using a five-circle diffractometer, a versatile optics test bench, and a suite of detectors. Several experimental techniques including reflectivity, diffraction and imaging are routinely available. Details of the beamline and its measured performance are presented.

  6. Redetermination of Na(3)TaF(8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Vratislav; Smrcok, Lubomír; Boca, Miroslav

    2010-09-01

    The crystal structure of trisodium octafluoridotantalate, Na(3)TaF(8), has been redetermined using diffractometer data collected at 153 K, resulting in more accurate bond distances and angles than obtained from a previous structure determination based on film data. The structure is built from layers running along [101], which are formed by distorted [TaF(8)] antiprisms and [NaF(6)] rectangular bipyramids sharing edges and corners. The individual layers are separated by eight-coordinated Na ions. Two atoms in the asymmetric unit are in special positions: the Ta atom is on a twofold axis in Wyckoff position 4e and one of the Na ions lies on an inversion centre in Wyckoff site 4d.

  7. Silver micro- and nano-particles obtained using different glycols as reducing agents and measurement of their conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moudir Naïma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver micro- and nano-particles for the preparation of conductive pastes for the metallization of solar cells was realized by chemical reduction in the presence and absence of poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP. Silver nitrate was used as a precursor in the presence of three polyols (ethylene glycol, di-ethylene glycol and propylene glycol tested at experimental temperatures near their boiling points. Six samples were obtained by this protocol. Three silver powders obtained without the use of PVP have a metallic luster appearance; however, the samples produced using an excess of PVP are in the form of stable colloidal dispersions of silver nano-particles. Structural characterizations of samples using a scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer show a good crystallinity and spherical morphology. From DSC and TGA analyses, it was noticed that all the nano-silvers present in the colloidal suspension have the same thermal behavior.

  8. Effect of annealing temperature on physical properties of solution processed nickel oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Pooja; Thangavel, R.

    2018-05-01

    In this report, NiO thin films were prepared at different annealing temperatures from nickel acetate precursor by sol-gel spin coating method. These films were characterized by different analytical techniques to obtain their structural, optical morphological and electrical properties using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-Vis NIR double beam spectrophotometer and Keithley 2450 source meter respectively. FESEM images clearly indicates the formation of a homogenous and porous films. Due to their porosity, they can be used in sensing applications. The optical absorption spectra elucidated that the films are highly transparent and have a suitable band gap which are in similar agreement with earlier reports. The current enhancement under illumination shows the suitability of nanostructured NiO thin films in its application in photovoltaics.

  9. Development of a polarized neutron beam line at Algerian research reactors using McStas software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhloufi, M.; Salah, H.

    2017-02-01

    Unpolarized instrumentation has long been studied and designed using McStas simulation tool. But, only recently new models were developed for McStas to simulate polarized neutron scattering instruments. In the present contribution, we used McStas software to design a polarized neutron beam line, taking advantage of the available spectrometers reflectometer and diffractometer in Algeria. Both thermal and cold neutron was considered. The polarization was made by two types of supermirrors polarizers FeSi and CoCu provided by the HZB institute. For sake of performance and comparison, the polarizers were characterized and their characteristics reproduced. The simulated instruments are reported. Flipper and electromagnets for guide field are developed. Further developments including analyzers and upgrading of the existing spectrometers are underway.

  10. Neutron diffraction potentialities at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor for nondestructive testing of structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurov, A.M.; Bokuchava, G.D.; Papushkin, I.V.; Sumin, V.V.; Venter, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is widely used for investigations of residual and applied stresses in bulk materials and components. The most important factor in these investigations is the high penetration depth of neutrons (up to 2 cm for steel). At the IBR-2 pulsed reactor in Dubna the Fourier stress diffractometer (FSD) has been constructed to optimize the internal stress measurements. The FSD design satisfies the requirements of high luminosity, high resolution and specific sample environment. The collimator system guarantees a minimum gauge volume of 2x2x2 mm. A mechanical testing machine allows in-situ tension or compression measurements up to a load of 20 kN and sample temperatures up to 800 deg C. In the paper the current status of FSD is reported and potentialities are demonstrated with several examples of investigations performed

  11. Topological characterization of nanocrystalline cellulose reinforced Poly (lactic acid) and Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bionanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A. H.; Dasan, Y. K.; Khan, Ihsan Ullah; Ahmad, Faiz; Ayoub, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the morphological and barrier properties of nanocrystalline cellulose reinforced Poly (lactic acid) and Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bionanocomposites. Nanocrystalline cellulose was isolated from waste oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber using Sulphuric acid hydrolysis. Chemical modifications of nanocrystalline cellulose was performed to allow good compatibilization between fiber and the polymer matrices and also to improve dispersion of fillers. Bionanocomposite materials were produced from these nanocrystalline cellulose reinforced Poly (lactic acid) and Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) using solvent casting and evaporation techniques. The properties of extracted nanocrystalline cellulose were examined using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, TEM and AFM. Besides that, the properties of bionanocomposites were examined through FESEM and oxygen permeability properties analysis. Better barrier and morphological properties were obtained for nanocrystalline cellulose reinforced bionanocomposites than for neat polymer blend.

  12. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasan, Y. K., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my; Bhat, A. H., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Faiz, A., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC’s were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC’s are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  13. Corrosion Resistance of the Superhydrophobic Mg(OH2/Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Coatings on Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of the Mg(OH2/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH composite were formed by a combined co-precipitation method and hydrothermal process on the AZ31 alloy substrate in alkaline condition. Subsequently, a superhydrophobic surface was successfully constructed to modify the composite coatings on the AZ31 alloy substrate using stearic acid. The characteristics of the composite coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electronic microscope (SEM and contact angle (CA. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization, the electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS, the test of hydrogen evolution and the immersion test. The results showed that the superhydrophobic coatings considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of the LDH coatings on the AZ31 alloy substrate.

  14. Estimation of irradiation temperature within the irradiation program Rheinsberg

    CERN Document Server

    Stephan, I; Prokert, F; Scholz, A

    2003-01-01

    The temperature monitoring within the irradiation programme Rheinsberg II was performed by diamond powder monitors. The method bases on the effect of temperature on the irradiation-induced increase of the diamond lattice constant. The method is described by a Russian code. In order to determine the irradiation temperature, the lattice constant is measured by means of a X-ray diffractometer after irradiation and subsequent isochronic annealing. The kink of the linearized temperature-lattice constant curves provides a value for the irradiation temperature. It has to be corrected according to the local neutron flux. The results of the lattice constant measurements show strong scatter. Furthermore there is a systematic error. The results of temperature monitoring by diamond powder are not satisfying. The most probable value lays within 255 C and 265 C and is near the value estimated from the thermal condition of the irradiation experiments.

  15. Kappa-casein micelles: structure, interaction and gelling studied by small-angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruif, C G; May, R P

    1991-09-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on dilute and concentrated dispersions of kappa-casein micelles in a buffer at pH = 6.7 were made using the D11 diffractometer in Grenoble. Results indicate that the micelles have a dense core with a fluffy outer layer. This outer layer appears to give rise to a steeply repulsive interaction on contact. In fact, the hard-sphere model best fits the measured scattering intensities. Adding chymosin to the dispersion initiated a fractal flocculation of the micelles and consecutively a coalescence of the micelles. This unexpected second process resembled that of spinodal demixing. The dispersion phase thus separates into a water and a protein phase on a time scale of hours. The observed phenomona contribute to the understanding of the cheese-making process.

  16. A new approach to the analysis of radiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report, January 15, 1987--June 30, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Costello, C.E.

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate analytical techniques that could be used in the study of both the basic chemistry and the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of 99m Tc. First funded in 1981, the work focused initially upon the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and various forms of mass spectrometry for the identification of technetium species. This funding allowed the authors to combine HPLC and mass spectrometry to identify radiopharmaceuticals which, although in clinical use, had not previously been characterized. Other techniques that have been examined include resonance Raman spectroscopy and, more significantly, 99 Tc nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), with the latter not only being used in purely chemical experiments but also in biologic studies. In 1985 a grant to the Department of Chemistry at MIT from DOE allowed the purchase of an X-ray diffractometer and access to this instrument has enabled them to broaden the analytical base with routine structural determinations

  17. Elastic scattering of gamma radiation in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, O.D.

    1987-01-01

    The elastic scattering of gamma rays in solids is studied: Rayleigh scattering as well as Bragg scattering in Laue geometries. We measured Rayleigh cross sections for U, Pb, Pt, W, Sn, Ag, Mo, Cd, Zn, and Cu with gamma energies ranging from 60 to 660 KeV and angles between 5 0 and 140 0 . The experimental data are compared with form factor theories and second order perturbation theories and the limits of validity of both are established. In the 60 KeV experiment, a competition between Rayleigh and Bragg effects is found in the region of low momentum transfer. The Bragg experiments were performed using the gamma ray diffractometer from the Hahn-Meitner Institut (Berlin) with gammas of 317 KeV and angles up to 2 0 . In particular, we studied the effect of annealing in nearly perfect Czochralski Silicon crystals with high perfection in the crystallographic structure. The results are compared with Kinematical and Dynamical theories. (author)

  18. A summary of available Rietveld and related software resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranswick, L.M.D

    1999-01-01

    Full text: There is a wide variety of Rietveld software available from both commercial and academic institutions. These resources will be reviewed along with the importance of validating Rietveld quantitative analysis results and gaining skills in complementary areas. This part of the workshop will mention a number of relevant programs and their main functionality: Rietveld software, Rietveld utilities, Rietveld friendly software and other powder diffraction utilities. Some of the main benefits of appreciating the availability of a wide range of software include: cross validation of results, data quality and diffractometer alignment, exploring new areas of research and analysis, solving new problems, nuances that occur as part of Rietveld analysis. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  19. Direct method of deconvolution. Application to the interpretation of X ray diffraction line profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louer, Daniel

    1969-01-01

    In the first parts of this research thesis, the author reports the development of an original method of correction of X ray profiles, and the comparison of the different correction schemes within the frame of the analysis of a specific aberration of the diffractometer: the receiver slot. Based on corrected profiles, the author applied the different methods leading to the calculation of the dimensions and shape of particles which form a hydroxide nickel powder. He reports the physical-chemical analysis of nickel and zinc basic nitrates. Although some basic salts lead to widened X diffraction profiles the interpretation of which remains to be made, this work remained limited to the application of the described methods to the nickel hydroxide sample resulting from an extended hydrolysis of nickel basic nitrates

  20. Uranium soft x-ray total attenuation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Grande, N.K.; Oliver, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium total attenuation coefficients were measured continuously from 0.84 to 6.0 keV and at selected higher energies using a vacuum single crystal diffractometer and flow-proportional counter. Statistical fluctuations ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The overall accuracy was 3%. Prominent structure was measured within 20 eV of the M 5 (3.552 keV) and M 4 (3.728 keV) edges. Jump ratios were determined from log-log polynomial fits to data at energies apart from the near-edge regions. These data were compared with calculations based on a relativistic HFS central potential model and with previously tabulated data