WorldWideScience

Sample records for diffraction production

  1. Diffractive production and hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussinov, S.; Szwed, J.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of diffractive production on nuclei implied cross sections of the diffractively produced system on nucleons which are smaller than the corresponding projectile nucleon cross sections. A natural explanation for this feature is provided in the Good-Walker coherent production formalism. A specific realization of the Good-Walker formalism stated in terms of quarks and connecting electric flux tubes and some ensuing consequences are also discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  2. Diffractive dijet and W production in CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1998-01-01

    Results on diffractive dijet and W-boson production from CDF are reviewed and compared with predictions based on factorization of the diffractive structure function of the proton measured in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

  3. Diffractive charm and jet production at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, Alexander A.

    2003-01-01

    A new high precision inclusive measurement of the diffractive production of D* ± (2010) mesons in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in the kinematic region Q 2 >1.5 GeV 2 , 0.02 IP 2 2 , 165 2 , χ IP < 0.03 are presented. Diffractive parton densities extracted using a NLO DGLAP QCD fit are used for comparisons with diffractive DIS and PHP dijet and open charm cross sections at HERA and the Tevatron, thus testing the factorization properties of hard diffraction

  4. Diffractive beauty production at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, K.; Morsch, A.

    1994-01-01

    Using the framework of Pomeron exchange to describe diffractive pp collisions at the LHC we discuss beauty production in those events. The cross sections for beauty production at different diffractive masses and the topology for the beauty particles and the underlying event are given. When triggering on large diffractive masses, the beauty system is boosted into the Pomeron hemisphere opposite the underlying event, which tends to follow the excited proton direction. This may offer some advantages for the acceptance of beauty and its reconstruction in forward spectrometers. For the identification of diffractive events at the LHC collider, we present a scheme to measure the momentum loss of forward protons in the range 2x10 -3 < Δp/p <0.1. This momentum loss can be determined with a precision of about 10%. ((orig.))

  5. Diffractive production off nuclei-shadow of hadronic bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.; Czyz, W.

    1974-01-01

    Diffractive production on nuclei is calculated using as an input a specific model for diffractive production on nucleons. In this model diffractive production is described as a shadow of non-diffractive multiple production of particles. The mechanism for non-diffractive production is taken to be hadronic bremsstrahlung of independently produced clusters. It is shown that such a model naturally explains the strikingly simple pattern of absorption observed in coherent production on nuclei. Possible generalizations of these results are indicated. (author)

  6. ATLAS results on diffraction and exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224260; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Various aspects of forward physics have been studied by the ATLAS collaboration using data from Run I at the LHC. In this text, main results of three published analyses are summarized, based on data from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ or 8 TeV collected between 2010 and 2012. One analysis deals with diffractive signature with at least two jets in the final state, the other two study exclusive production of a pair of leptons or W bosons.

  7. Remarks on diffractive production of the Higgs boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peschanski, R. [CEA Saclay, Service de Physique Theorique, URA 2306, Unite de Recherche Associee au CNRS, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    Central diffractive production of the Higgs boson has recently received much attention as a potentially interesting production mode at the LHC (large hadron collider). While the standard production of Higgs boson via gluon-gluon fusion can reach high cross-sections, the study of the Higgs boson will be uneasy due to accompanying particles and background. The original guiding line for central diffractive production is to compensate the weak cross-sections by a cleaner signal, and precise production kinematics thanks to the tagging of diffracted protons. We shall review some of the wishes and realities encountered in this field. Theoretical open problems of diffractive dynamics are involved in making accurate predictions for the LHC, among which the most crucial is understanding factorization breaking in hard diffraction.

  8. Probing diffractive production of gauge bosons at forward rapidities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Eduardo; Rangel, Murilo S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Victor P. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    Gauge boson production at forward rapidities in single diffractive events at the LHC is investigated considering pp collisions at √(s) = 8 and 13 TeV. The impact of gap survival effects is analysed using two different models for the soft rescattering contributions. We demonstrate that using the forward shower counter Project at LHCb-HERSCHEL, together with the Vertex Locator-VELO, it is possible to discriminate diffractive production of the gauge bosons W and Z from the non-diffractive processes and studies of the Pomeron structure and diffraction phenomenology are feasible. Moreover, we show that the analysis of this process can be useful to constrain the modelling of the gap survival effects. (orig.)

  9. Quark-antiquark production in DIS diffractive dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Lotter, H.; Wuesthoff, M.

    1996-02-01

    We calculate the cross section for the production of two jets with large transverse momenta k 2 in DIS diffractive dissociation for both transverse and longitudinally polarized photons. The scale which defines the hardness of the Pomeron is found to be k 2 (Q 2 +M 2 )/M 2 . We present analytic expressions and discuss numerical results relevant for the diffractive dissociation at HERA. (orig.)

  10. Exclusive Double Diffractive Higgs Boson Production at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, V; 10.1140/epjc/s2004-01972-4

    2004-01-01

    Exclusive double diffractive (EDD) Higgs boson production is analyzed in the framework of the Regge-eikonal approach. Total and differential cross-sections for the process $p+p\\to p+H+p$ are calculated. Experimental possibilities to find Higgs boson at LHC are discussed.

  11. Double Regge model for non diffractive A1 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, J.C.; Endler, A.; Santoro, A.; Simao, F.R.A.

    1977-07-01

    A Reggeized double-nucleon-exchange model is shown to be able to to reproduce qualitatively the non-diffractive A 1 production recently observed in the reaction K - p → Σ - π + π - π + at 4.15 GeV/c

  12. Diffractive production of charmed strange mesons by neutrinos and antineutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asratyan, A. E.; Aderholz, M.; Ammosov, V. V.; Burkot, W.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Erriquez, O.; Gapienko, G. S.; Gapienko, V. A.; Guy, J.; Hantke, D.; Jones, G. T.; Kaftanov, V. S.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Korotkov, V. A.; Krutchinin, S. P.; Kubantsev, M. A.; Marage, P.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; Sacton, J.; Schmitz, N.; Varvell, K.; Venus, W.; Wittek, W.; Zaetz, V. G.

    1993-03-01

    The diffractive production of charmed strange D {s/*} and possibly D s mesons by neutrinos and antineutrinos on nucleons in hydrogen, deuterium and neon targets is observed. The slope parameter of the t distribution is 3.3±0.8 (GeV)-2. The production rate per charged current neutrino interaction with an isoscalar target times the D{s/+}→φτ+ branching fraction is (1.03±0.27)×10-4.

  13. Diffractive production of charmed strange mesons by neutrinos and antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asratyan, A.E.; Kaftanov, V.S.; Krutchinin, S.P.; Kubantsev, M.A.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U.F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Ammosov, V.V.; Gapienko, G.S.; Gapienko, V.A.; Korotkov, V.A.; Zaetz, V.G.; Burkot, W.; Coghen, T.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Erriquez, O.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Jones, G.T.; Varvell, K.; Marage, P.; Sacton, J.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Neveu, M.

    1993-01-01

    The diffractive production of charmed strange D s * and possibly D s mesons by neutrinos and antineutrinos on nucleons in hydrogen, deuterium and neon targets is observed. The slope parameter of the t distribution is 3.3±0.8 (GeV) -2 . The production rate per charged current neutrino interaction with an isoscalar target times the D s + →φπ + branching fraction is (1.03±0.27)x10 -4 . (orig.)

  14. Dijet production in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2007-08-01

    The production of dijets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 61 pb -1 . The dijet cross section has been measured for virtualities of the exchanged virtual photon, 5 2 2 , and γ * p centre-of-mass energies, 100 T algorithm in the γ * p frame, were required to have a transverse energy E * T,jet >4 GeV and the jet with the highest transverse energy was required to have E * T,jet >5 GeV. All jets were required to be in the pseudorapidity range -3.5 * jet <0. The differential cross sections are compared to leading-order predictions and next-to-leading- order QCD calculations based on recent diffractive parton densities extracted from inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering data. (orig.)

  15. Diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering at ZEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonato, A.

    2008-03-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of dijet production of diffractive deep inelastic scattering ep collisions. This type of process is specially relevant for the experimental validity of the perturbative QCD approach to diffractive physics. The measurement was based on an integrated luminosity of 61 pb -1 collected at the HERA collider with the ZEUS experiment. The events were selected for virtualities of the photon, γ*, 5 2 2 , and energies of the γ*p centre-of-mass, 100 T algorithm in the γ*p frame. The jets were required to have a transverse energy in the γ*p frame E T jet *>4 GeV. The jet with the highest transverse energy was required to have E T jet *>5 GeV. All jets were required to be in the pseudorapidity range -3.5 jet * P , was required to be x P TOT D (ep→ep jet 1 jet 2 X')=9.15±1.2 (stat.) 5.4 3.3 (syst.) -5.3 +6.4 (corr.)pb. Single and double differential cross sections were extracted and compared to leading-order predictions and next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The latter used several diffractive parton densities extracted from inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering data. The agreement with the leading and next-to-leading order predictions is good and no hints of factorisation breaking are observed. The double differential measurement can be a previous input for the extraction of more accurate diffractive parton densities. (orig.)

  16. Diffractive production in deep inelastic scattering and hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidalow, A.

    1996-01-01

    Diffractive processes in hadronic interactions are considered and important role of multi-Pomeron exchanges is emphasized. It is argued that in deep inelastic scattering these contributions are much less important and energy behavior of structure functions at Q 2 ≥ 1 GeV 2 is determined mostly by bare Pomeron intercept. It is shown that the model based on these ideas is in a perfect agreement with recent results from HERA. Diffractive production in DIS is discussed and theoretical predictions for the structure function of the Pomeron are compared with experimental observations. It is emphasized that both quarks and gluons in the Pomeron have hard distributions. Shadowing corrections to structure function of a nucleon are calculated and found to small in the region of x > 10 -4 . A good agreement with experimental data on the shadowing of structure functions of nuclei is obtained. Energy dependence for the cross sections of the diffractive production of vector mesons by real and virtual photons is calculated in the same approach and is found to be in an excellent agreement with experiment. (author)

  17. Diffractive D{sup *}-mesons production in DIS at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinokurova, Svetlana

    2010-05-15

    This thesis presents a measurement of the cross sections for the production of the charmed mesons in diffractive deep inelastic positron-proton scattering (DIS) interactions of the type ep{yields}eXY, where the system X is separated from a low-mass system Y, by a large rapidity gap where no particles are observed. These diffractive processes can be explained as a result of the exchange of a strongly interacting colour singlet object between the final state particles. In this measurement data taken with the H1 detector in the years 1999-2000, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of L{sub int}=46.7 pb{sup -1} are used. Inclusive DIS events are selected in the kinematic range with the momentum transfer Q{sup 2} element of [2;100] GeV and inelasticity y{sub bj} element of [0.05;07]. The charm quark is tagged by requiring a D{sup *} meson decaying into the channel D{sup *}{yields}D{sup 0}{pi}{sub slow}{yields}K{pi}{pi}{sub slow} inside the central tracking system with transverse momenta p{sub t}(D{sup *})>2 GeV. The forward components of the H1 detector are used to select genuine diffractive events on the basis of the forward sub-detectors activity and of the presence a large rapidity gap in the final state hadrons. The visible charm production cross sections are measured in the diffractive kinematic range M{sub Y} < 1.6 GeV, vertical stroke t vertical stroke < 1 GeV{sup 2} and x{sub P} < 0.04 to be {sigma}(ep{yields}e{sup '}(D{sup *}X)Y)=249{+-}31(stat.){+-}30(sys) pb, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The shape of the differential distributions for diffractive D{sup *} production are well described by the collinear factorisation model which is implemented in the Monte Carlo simulation RAPGAP. (orig.)

  18. Diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering at ZEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonato, A.

    2008-03-15

    This thesis presents a measurement of dijet production of diffractive deep inelastic scattering ep collisions. This type of process is specially relevant for the experimental validity of the perturbative QCD approach to diffractive physics. The measurement was based on an integrated luminosity of 61 pb{sup -1} collected at the HERA collider with the ZEUS experiment. The events were selected for virtualities of the photon, {gamma}*, 54 GeV. The jet with the highest transverse energy was required to have E{sub T} {sub jet}*>5 GeV. All jets were required to be in the pseudorapidity range -3.5<{eta}{sub jet}*<0 as measured in the {gamma}*p frame. The selection of diffractive events was carried out by requiring a large rapidity gap in the direction of the scattered proton. The value of the fraction of initial proton momentum entering in the hard process, x{sub P}, was required to be x{sub P}<0.03. The total cross section for the process was measured to be {sigma}{sub TOT}{sup D}(ep{yields}ep jet{sub 1}jet{sub 2} X')=9.15{+-}1.2 (stat.){sub 5.4}{sup 3.3} (syst.){sub -5.3}{sup +6.4} (corr.)pb. Single and double differential cross sections were extracted and compared to leading-order predictions and next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The latter used several diffractive parton densities extracted from inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering data. The agreement with the leading and next-to-leading order predictions is good and no hints of factorisation breaking are observed. The double differential measurement can be a previous input for the extraction of more accurate diffractive parton densities. (orig.)

  19. Dijet production in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2007-08-15

    The production of dijets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 61 pb{sup -1}. The dijet cross section has been measured for virtualities of the exchanged virtual photon, 54 GeV and the jet with the highest transverse energy was required to have E{sup *}{sub T,jet}>5 GeV. All jets were required to be in the pseudorapidity range -3.5<{eta}{sup *}{sub jet}<0. The differential cross sections are compared to leading-order predictions and next-to-leading- order QCD calculations based on recent diffractive parton densities extracted from inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering data. (orig.)

  20. Hard single diffractive jet production at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.

    1996-08-01

    Preliminary results from the D null experiment on jet production with forward rapidity gaps in p anti p collisions are presented. A class of dijet events with a forward rapidity gap is observed at center-of-mass energies √s = 1800 GeV and 630 GeV. The number of events with rapidity gaps at both center-of-mass energies is significantly greater than the expectation from multiplicity fluctuations and is consistent with a hard single diffractive process. A small class of events with two forward gaps and central dijets is also observed at 1800 GeV. This topology is consistent with hard double pomeron exchange

  1. Exclusive central diffractive production of scalar, pseudoscalar and vector mesons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebiedowicz P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss exclusive central diffractive production of scalar (ƒ0(980, ƒ0(1370, ƒ0(1500, pseudoscalar (η, η′(958, and vector (ρ0 mesons in proton-proton collisions. The amplitudes are formulated in terms of effective vertices required to respect standard rules of Quantum Field Theory and propagators for the exchanged pomeron and reggeons. Different pomeron-pomeron-meson tensorial (vectorial coupling structures are possible in general. In most cases two lowest orbital angular momentum - spin couplings are necessary to describe experimental differential distributions. For the ƒ0(980 and η production the reggeon-pomeron, pomeron-reggeon, and reggeon-reggeon exchanges are included in addition, which seems to be necessary at relatively low energies. The theoretical results are compared with the WA102 experimental data, in order to determine the model parameters. For the ρ0 production the photon-pomeron and pomeron-photon exchanges are considered. The coupling parameters of tensor pomeron and/or reggeon are fixed from the H1 and ZEUS experimental data of the γp → ρ0 p reaction. We present first predictions of this mechanism for pp → ppπ+π− reaction being studied at COMPASS, RHIC, Tevatron, and LHC. Correlation in azimuthal angle between outgoing protons and distribution in pion rapidities at √s = 7 TeV are presented. We show that high-energy central production of mesons could provide crucial information on the spin structure of the soft pomeron.

  2. Diffractive production of charm quark/antiquark pairs at RHIC and LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszczak, Marta; Szczurek, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    We have discussed single and central diffractive production of c(bar sign)c pairs in the Ingelman-Schlein model. In these calculations we have included diffractive parton distributions obtained by the H1 collaboration at HERA and absorption effects neglected in some early calculations in the literature. The absorption effects which are responsible for the naive Regge factorization breaking cause that the cross section for diffractive processes is much smaller than that for the fully inclusive case, but could be measured at RHIC and LHC by imposing special condition on rapidity gaps. We discuss also different approaches to diffractive production of heavy quark/antiquark [1, 2, 3]. The particular mechanism is similar to the diffractive dissociation of virtual photons into quarks, which drives diffractive deep inelastic production of charm in the low-mass diffraction, or large β-region.

  3. Diffractive production of charm quark/antiquark pairs at RHIC and LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luszczak, Marta [University of Rzeszow, PL-35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Szczurek, Antoni [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, PL-31-342 Cracow and University of Rzeszow, PL-35-959 Rzeszow (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    We have discussed single and central diffractive production of c(bar sign)c pairs in the Ingelman-Schlein model. In these calculations we have included diffractive parton distributions obtained by the H1 collaboration at HERA and absorption effects neglected in some early calculations in the literature. The absorption effects which are responsible for the naive Regge factorization breaking cause that the cross section for diffractive processes is much smaller than that for the fully inclusive case, but could be measured at RHIC and LHC by imposing special condition on rapidity gaps. We discuss also different approaches to diffractive production of heavy quark/antiquark [1, 2, 3]. The particular mechanism is similar to the diffractive dissociation of virtual photons into quarks, which drives diffractive deep inelastic production of charm in the low-mass diffraction, or large {beta}-region.

  4. Diffractive heavy quark production in AA collisions at the LHC at NLO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M. M.; Ducati, M. B. Gay; Machado, M. V. T.

    2011-07-01

    The single and double diffractive cross sections for heavy quarks production are evaluated at NLO accuracy for hadronic and heavy ion collisions at the LHC. Diffractive charm and bottom production is the main subject of this work, providing predictions for CaCa, PbPb and pPb collisions. The hard diffraction formalism is considered using the Ingelman-Schlein model where a recent parametrization for the Pomeron structure function (DPDF) is applied. Absorptive corrections are taken into account as well. The diffractive ratios are estimated and theoretical uncertainties are discussed. Comparison with competing production channels is also presented.

  5. Diffractive heavy flavor production-including W/sup +-/ and Z/sup 0/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that when the Pomeron has the semiperturbative origin in QCD, diffractive heavy quark production is independent from, and not suppressed relative to, the perturbative gluon fusion process. It is emphasized that anomalously large diffractive heavy flavor cross-sections could anticipate correspondingly large cross-sections for the diffractive production of W/sup +-/ and Z 0 -providing distinctive evidence for the dynamical nature of the electroweak Higgs sector

  6. Statistical description of multipion production in diffractive hadronic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, R.

    1980-01-01

    A statistical model in which higher-multiplicity enhancements are generated from lower ones in a completely determined fashion is presented. Full account is taken of isospin and G-parity conservation as well as the finite width of the produced resonances. It is applied to diffractive dissociation on nucleon and deuteron targets, for which multipion mass distributions and relative cross sections are calculated. Agreement with available experimental data is seen to be excellent

  7. Diffractive vector meson production in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamps, M. de.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis seeks to bring comfort to those who are appalled by the usual high level of violence in high energy physics. Although also here we engage in the customary vandalistic smashing together of two particles, the reaction we will study has a happy end in store for both of them. The subject of this thesis will be the reaction: e + p→e + pV where V is one of the vector mesons ρ, ω, φ, J/ψ. We will investigate the situation where the final state positron enters the ZEUS main detector, which indicates that a violent reaction has taken place between the initial state particles, but nevertheless the proton does not break up. The violence with which the positron is scattered characterises the reaction as a Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS), the fact that the proton does not break up characterises the reaction as diffractive which explains the title of the thesis. Both DIS and diffractive physics will be defined and discussed in the context of this thesis. (orig./WL)

  8. Diffractive open charm production at DESY HERA. Experiment versus two-gluon exchange model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Inst. of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-03-15

    Diffractive production of D{sup *} mesons at HERA conditions is considered in the framework of collinear two-gluon exchange model. Theoretical results are compared with recent experimental data. (orig.)

  9. Diffractive jet production in a simple model with applications to DESY HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berera, A.; Soper, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    In diffractive jet production, two high energy hardons A and B collide and produce high transverse momentum jets, while hadron A is diffractively scattered. Ingelman and Schlein predicted this phenomenon. In their model, part of the longitudinal momentum transferred from hadron A is delivered to the jet system, part is lost. Lossless diffractive jet production, in which all of this longitudinal momentum is delivered to the jet system, has been discussed by Collins, Frankfurt, and Strikman. We study the structure of lossless diffractive jet production in a simple model. The model suggests that the phenomenon can be probed experimentally at DESY HERA, with A being a proton and B being a bremsstrahlung photon with virtuality Q 2 . Lossless events should be present for small Q 2 , but not for Q 2 larger than 1/R P 2 , where R P is a characteristic size of the Pomeron

  10. Production application of injection-molded diffractive elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter P.; Chao, Yvonne Y.; Hines, Kevin P.

    1995-12-01

    We demonstrate that transmission kinoforms for visible light applications can be injection molded in acrylic in production volumes. A camera is described that employs molded Fresnel lenses to change the convergence of a projection ranging system. Kinoform surfaces are used in the projection system to achromatize the Fresnel lenses.

  11. Evidence for factorization breaking in diffractive low-Q2 dijet production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, Michael; Kramer, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    We calculate diffractive dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering at next-to-leading order of perturbative QCD, including contributions from direct and resolved photons, and compare our predictions to preliminary data from the H1 Collaboration at DESY HERA. In contrast to recent experimental claims, evidence for factorization breaking is found only for resolved, and not direct, photon contributions. No evidence is found for large normalization uncertainties in diffractive parton densities. The results confirm theoretical expectations for the (non)cancellation of soft singularities in diffractive scattering as well as previous results for (almost) real photoproduction

  12. Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC)

  13. Single-diffractive Drell-Yan pair production at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccopieri, Federico Alberto [Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Perugia (Italy); Universite de Liege, IFPA, Liege (Belgium); INFN, Sezione di Perugia (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    We present predictions for single-diffractive low-mass Drell-Yan pair production in pp collisions at the LHC at √(s) = 13 TeV. Predictions are obtained adopting a factorised form for the relevant cross sections and are based on a new set of diffractive parton distributions resulting from the QCD analysis of combined HERA leading proton data. We discuss a number of observables useful to characterise the expected factorisation breaking effects. (orig.)

  14. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A.V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the γ (∗) →qq-barg transition within Balitsky’s high energy operator expansion. We also rederive the impact factor for the γ (∗) →qq-bar transition within the same framework. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering, as well as, for two and three jets diffractive production, which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  15. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussarie, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Bât. 210, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS,91405 Orsay (France); Grabovsky, A.V. [Physics Department, Novosibirsk State University,2 Pirogova street, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Theory division, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics,11 Lavrenteva avenue, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Szymanowski, L. [Theoretical Physics Division, National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ),Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Bât. 210, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS,91405 Orsay (France); UPMC Université Paris 06, Faculté de Physique,4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2014-09-02

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the γ{sup (∗)}→qq-barg transition within Balitsky’s high energy operator expansion. We also rederive the impact factor for the γ{sup (∗)}→qq-bar transition within the same framework. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering, as well as, for two and three jets diffractive production, which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  16. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A.V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2015-01-01

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the photon to quark, antiquark and gluon transition within Balitsky’s shock-wave formalism. We also rederive the impact factor for photon to quark and antiquark transition. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering as well as for two and three jets diffractive production which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature

  17. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussarie, R. [LPT, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405, Orsay (France); Grabovsky, A.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Szymanowski, L. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Faculté de Physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); LPT, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405, Orsay (France)

    2015-04-10

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the photon to quark, antiquark and gluon transition within Balitsky’s shock-wave formalism. We also rederive the impact factor for photon to quark and antiquark transition. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering as well as for two and three jets diffractive production which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  18. Diffractive production of ρ-mesons and of ρπ-systems by neutrinos and antineutrinos on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1993-09-01

    Evidence is presented for diffractive production of ρ-mesons and of ρπ-systems in vp andbar ν p chargedcurrent interactions. In the (anti-)neutrino energy range 10 GeV< E v <60 GeV the cross sections for diffractive ρ and diffractive ρπ production are found to be (0.64±0.14 (stat.)±0.08 (syst.))% and (0.28±0.08 (stat.)±0.04 (syst.))% of the charged-current cross section. The diffractive ρπ signal is consistent with being entirely due to diffractive a 1 production. However, the data cannot distinguish between diffractive a 1 and diffractive nonresonant ρπ production. The experimental distributions of W, Q 2, x Bj and y Bj for diffractive ρ and ρπ events are consistent with model predictions.

  19. Single- and central-diffractive production of open charm and bottom mesons at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Łuszczak, Marta; Szczurek, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    We discuss diffractive production of open charm and bottom mesons at the LHC. The differential cross sections for single- and central-diffractive mechanisms for $c\\bar c$ and $b\\bar b$ pair production are calculated in the framework of the Ingelman-Schlein model corrected for absorption effects. The LO gluon-gluon fusion and quark-antiquark anihilation partonic subprocesses are taken into consideration, which are calculated within standard collinear approximation. The extra corrections from reggeon exchanges are taken into account. The hadronization of charm and bottom quarks is taken into account by means of fragmentation functions. Predictions for single- and central-diffractive production in the case of $D$ and $B$ mesons, as well as $D\\bar D$ pairs are presented, including detector acceptance of the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb Collaborations.

  20. Diffractive Production of Jets and Weak Bosons, and Tests of Hard-Scattering Factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Alvero, L; Terrón, J; Whitmore, J; Alvero, Lyndon; Collins, John C.; Terron, Juan; Whitmore, Jim

    1999-01-01

    We extract diffractive parton densities from diffractive, deep inelastic (DIS) ep data from the ZEUS experiment. Then we use these fits to predict the diffractive production of jets and of W's and Z's in p\\bar p collisions at the Tevatron. Although the DIS data require a hard quark density in the pomeron, we find fairly low rates for the Tevatron processes (a few percent of the inclusive cross section). This results from the combined effects of Q^{2} evolution and of a normalization of the parton densities to the data. The calculated rates for W production are generally consistent with the preliminary data from the Tevatron. However, the jet data from CDF with a ``Roman pot'' trigger are substantially lower than the results of our calculations; if confirmed, this would signal a breakdown of hard-scattering factorization.

  1. Diffractive open charm production in deep-inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Anthonis, T. [Inter-Univ. Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Brussels (Belgium)]|[Antwerp Univ. (BE)] (and others)

    2006-10-15

    Measurements are presented of diffractive open charm production at HERA. The event topology is given by ep{yields}eXY where the system X contains at least one charmed hadron and is well separated by a large rapidity gap from a leading low-mass proton remnant system Y. Two analysis techniques are used for the cross section measurements. In the first, the charm quark is tagged by the reconstruction of a D{sup *{+-}}(2010) meson. This technique is used in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) and photoproduction ({gamma}p). In the second, a method based on the displacement of tracks from the primary vertex is used to measure the open charm contribution to the inclusive diffractive cross section in DIS. The measurements are compared with next-to-leading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton density functions previously obtained from a QCD analysis of the inclusive diffractive cross section at H1. A good agreement is observed in the full kinematic regime, which supports the validity of QCD factorization for open charm production in diffractive DIS and {gamma}p. (orig.)

  2. Diffractive open charm production in deep-inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Marti, L.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, T.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Stoilov, A.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, C.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-03-01

    Measurements are presented of diffractive open charm production at HERA. The event topology is given by ep→eXY where the system X contains at least one charmed hadron and is well separated by a large rapidity gap from a leading low-mass proton remnant system Y. Two analysis techniques are used for the cross section measurements. In the first, the charm quark is tagged by the reconstruction of a D*±(2010) meson. This technique is used in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) and photoproduction (γp). In the second, a method based on the displacement of tracks from the primary vertex is used to measure the open charm contribution to the inclusive diffractive cross section in DIS. The measurements are compared with next-to-leading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton density functions previously obtained from a QCD analysis of the inclusive diffractive cross section at H1. A good agreement is observed in the full kinematic regime, which supports the validity of QCD factorization for open charm production in diffractive DIS and γp.

  3. Study of the diffractive production of baryon states and search for cryptoexotic baryons with hidden strangeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatz, M.Ya.; Belyaev, I.M.; Dorofeev, V.A.; Dzyubenko, G.B.; Filimonov, I.M.; Frolov, S.V.; Golovkin, S.V.; Grishkin, Yu.L.; Gritzuk, M.V.; Jilin, A.V.; Kamenskii, A.D.; Kliger, G.K.; Kolganov, V.Z.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Korchagin, Yu.V.; Kozhevnikov, A.P.; Kubarovskii, V.P.; Kulman, N.Yu.; Kulyavtsev, A.I.; Kurshetsov, V.F.; Kushnirenko, A.E.; Lakaev, V.S.; Landsberg, L.G.; Lebedev, A.A.; Lomkatzi, G.S.; Molchanov, V.V.; Mukhin, V.A.; Nilov, A.F.; Novoghilov, Yu.B.; Prutskoi, V.A.; Sitnikov, A.I.; Smolyankin, V.T.; Solyanik, V.I.; Vavilov, D.V.; Victorov, V.A.; Vishnyakov, V.E. (Inst. for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation) Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation) Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); SPHINX Collaboration

    1994-02-01

    The reactions of baryon diffractive production p + N [yields] (pK[sup +] K[sup -]) + N, p + N [yields] (p[Phi]) + N, p + N [yields] [Lambda](1520) K[sup +] + N and p + N [yields] [Sigma](1385) K[sup +] + N in the 70 GeV proton beam were studied. Very sensitive upper limits for the production cross sections of heavy narrow cryptoexotic baryon resonances with hidden strangeness were obtained. (orig.)

  4. Study of the diffractive production of baryon states and search for cryptoexotic baryons with hidden strangeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balatz, M.Ya.; Belyaev, I.M.; Dorofeev, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    The reactions of baryon diffractive production p + N → (pK + K - ) + N, p + N → (pφ) + N, p + N → [Λ(1520)K + ] + N and p + N → [Σ(1385) 0 K + ] + N in the 70 GeV proton beam were studied. Very sensitive upper limits for the production cross sections of heavy narrow cryptoexotic baryon resonances with hidden strangeness were obtained

  5. Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.

    2015-05-01

    Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic e ± p scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 372 pb -1 . The measurement was performed for γ * -p centre-of-mass energies in the range 9025 GeV 2 . Energy and transverse-energy flows around the jet axis are presented. The cross section is presented as a function of β and φ, where β=x/x P , x is the Bjorken variable and x P is the proton fractional longitudinal momentum loss. The angle φ is defined by the γ * -dijet plane and the γ * -e ± plane in the rest frame of the diffractive final state. The φ cross section is measured in bins of β. The results are compared to predictions from models based on different assumptions about the nature of the diffractive exchange.

  6. Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Gueta, O.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A.; Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Schmidke, W.B.; Verbytskyi, A.; Adamczyk, L.; Gach, G.; Guzik, M.; Kisielewska, D.; Przybycien, M.; Adamus, M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Antonelli, S.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Iudin, A.; Kadenko, I.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Trofymov, A.; Viazlo, O.; Zakharchuk, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Dolinska, G.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Hain, W.; Januschek, F.; Klein, U.; Korol, I.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Libov, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loehr, B.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Myronenko, V.; Notz, D.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Stefaniuk, N.; Szuba, J.; Turkot, O.; Wichmann, K.; Wolf, G.; Zenaiev, O.; Bertolin, A.; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Bloch, I.; Boos, E.G.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Brock, I.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Paul, E.; Brook, N.H.; Wing, M.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Bruni, A.; Corradi, M.; Bussey, P.J.; Saxon, D.H.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Capua, M.; Schioppa, M.; Tassi, E.; Catterall, C.D.; Chwastowski, J.; Figiel, J.; Krupa, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Nowak, R.J.; Perlanski, W.; Tomaszewska, J.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Walczak, R.; Corriveau, F.; Dementiev, R.K.; Gladilin, L.K.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Levchenko, B.B.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Zotkin, D.S.; Foster, B.; Gallo, E.; Klanner, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lohrmann, E.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Turcato, M.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Hori, R.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Jomhari, N.Z.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Mohammad Nasir, N.; Wan Abdullah, W.A.T.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Kuze, M.; Nobe, T.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Ruspa, M.; Shyrma, Yu.; Zhmak, N.; Solano, A.; Tsurugai, T.

    2016-01-01

    Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic e ± p scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector atHERAusing an integrated luminosity of 372 pb -1 . The measurement was performed for γ* - p centre-of-mass energies in the range 90 < W < 250 GeV and for photon virtualities Q 2 > 25 GeV 2 . Energy flows around the jet axis are presented. The cross section is presented as a function of β and φ, where β = x/x P , x is the Bjorken variable and x P is the proton fractional longitudinal momentum loss. The angle φ is defined by the γ*-dijet plane and the γ*-e ± plane in the rest frame of the diffractive final state. The φ cross section is measured in bins of β. The results are compared to predictions from models based on different assumptions about the nature of the diffractive exchange. (orig.)

  7. Double Diffractive Process Factorization from ηc and γ Associated Production at Tevatron and LHC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANZhan-Yuan; LIZhi-Wen; DUANChun-Gui

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of associated ηc and γ double diffractive production in pp- collision based on Ingelman-Schlein model, and the framework of non-relativistic QOD factorization formalism for quarkonia production. The prediction of ηc and γ is more reliable than J/ψ production, because the associated ηc and γ production is a pure color-octet process, and the dominant contribution comes from color octet 1S0(8) subprocess, which is related to the color octet matrix element of 1S0(8) of J/ψ by the heavy quark spin symmetry and the large PT J/ψ production data. We find that the ratio of diffractive to inclusive cross sections is independent of the values of color octet matrix elements, but is sensitive to the gluon factor of the Pomeron and renormalized Pomeron flux factors. So experimental measurement of this ratio can give us more information of the nature of Pomeron and test the assumption of hard diffractive factorization in hadron-hadron collisions.

  8. Double Diffractive Process Factorization from ηc and γ Associated Production at Tevatron and LHC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhan-Yuan; LI Zhi-Wen; DUAN Chun-Gui

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of associated ηc and γ double diffractive production in p-p collision based on Ingelman-Schlein model, and the framework of non-relativistic QCD factorization formalism for quarkonia production. The predic-tion of ηc and γ is more reliable than J/ψ production, because the associated ηc and γ production is a pure color-octetprocess, and the dominant contribution comes from color octet 1So(8) subprocess, which is related to the color octet matrixelement of 1So(8) of J/ψ by the heavy quark spin symmetry and the large PT J/ψ production data. We find that the ratioof diffractive to inclusive cross sections is independent of the values of color octet matrix elements, but is sensitive to thegluon factor of the Pomeron and renormalized Pomeron flux factors. So experimental measurement of this ratio can giveus more information of the nature of Pomeron and test the assumption of hard diffractive factorization in hadron-hadron collisions.

  9. Diffractive production of p-mesons and of pπ-systems by neutrinos and antineutrinos on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence is presented for diffractive production of ρ-mesons and of ρπ-systems in νp and anti νp charged-current interactions. In the (anti-)neutrino energy range 10 GeV ν 1 production. However, the data cannot distinguish between diffractive a 1 and diffractive nonresonant ρπ production. The experimental distributions of W, Q 2 , x Bj and y Bj for diffractive ρ and ρπ events are consistent with model predictions. (orig.)

  10. Measurement of D* production in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baghdasaryan, A.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T. [Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bolz, A.; Huber, F.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Boudry, V.; Specka, A. [LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Brandt, G. [Universitaet Goettingen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany); Brisson, V.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Dodonov, V.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Haidt, D.; Jung, A.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Kruecker, D.; Krueger, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Olsson, J.E.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Buniatyan, A.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bylinkin, A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Avila, K.B.C.; Contreras, J.G. [CINVESTAV, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Cerny, K.; Jansova, M.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Zlebcik, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Chekelian, V.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Lobodzinski, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Cvach, J.; Hladky, J.; Reimer, P. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kostka, P.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Daum, K.; Meyer, H. [Fachbereich C, Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Vallee, C. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille (France); Dobre, M.; Rotaru, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for R and D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest (Romania); Egli, S.; Horisberger, R.; Ozerov, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Mechelen, P. van [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (Belgium); Feltesse, J.; Schoeffel, L. [Irfu/SPP, CE Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ferencei, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS, Rez (Czech Republic); Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Gouzevitch, M.; Petrukhin, A. [IPNL, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbanne (France); Grab, C. [Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland); Henderson, R.C.W. [University of Lancaster, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Spaskov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kogler, R. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D. [University of London, School of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Lange, W.; Naumann, T. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Martyn, H.U. [I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P. [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Perez, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [University of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (Montenegro); Polifka, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); University of Toronto, Department of Physics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Radescu, V. [Oxford University, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Rostovtsev, A. [Institute for Information Transmission Problems RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sankey, D.P.C. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Sauvan, E. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille (France); Universite de Savoie, CNRS/IN2P3, LAPP, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Shushkevich, S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stella, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Roma Tre (Italy); INFN Roma 3, Rome (Italy); Sykora, T. [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (Belgium); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Tsakov, I. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Tseepeldorj, B. [Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Ulaanbaatar University, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Wegener, D. [Institut fuer Physik, TU Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Measurements of D*(2010) meson production in diffractive deep inelastic scattering (5 < Q{sup 2} < 100 GeV{sup 2}) are presented which are based on HERA data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy √(s) = 319 GeV with an integrated luminosity of 287 pb{sup -1}. The reaction ep → eXY is studied, where the system X, containing at least one D*(2010) meson, is separated from a leading low-mass proton dissociative system Y by a large rapidity gap. The kinematics of D* candidates are reconstructed in the D* → Kππ decay channel. The measured cross sections compare favourably with next-to-leading order QCD predictions, where charm quarks are produced via boson-gluon fusion. The charm quarks are then independently fragmented to the D* mesons. The calculations rely on the collinear factorisation theorem and are based on diffractive parton densities previously obtained by H1 from fits to inclusive diffractive cross sections. The data are further used to determine the diffractive to inclusive D* production ratio in deep inelastic scattering. (orig.)

  11. Diffractive Open Charm Production in Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Lueders, H.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Marti, L.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, T.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Stoilov, A.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truoel, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, C.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements are presented of diffractive open charm production at HERA. The event topology is given by ep -> eX Y where the system X contains at least one charmed hadron and is well separated by a large rapidity gap from a leading low-mass proton remnant system Y. Two analysis techniques are used for the cross section measurements. In the first, the charm quark is tagged by the reconstruction of a D*(2010) meson. This technique is used in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) and photoproduction. In the second, a method based on the displacement of tracks from the primary vertex is used to measure the open charm contribution to the inclusive diffractive cross section in DIS. The measurements are compared with next-to-leading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton density functions previously obtained from a QCD analysis of the inclusive diffractive cross section at H1. A good agreement is observed in the full kinematic regime, which supports the validity of QCD factorization for open charm production in...

  12. X-ray diffraction study of slags forming during corrosion resistant steel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, V.I.; Zadorozhnaya, V.N.; Shurygina, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    Using X-ray diffraction analysis slags, forming during corrosion-resistant 12Kh18N10T grade steel production by two flowsheets, are studied. Standard two-slag technology of steel production does not provide efficient disintegration of chromospinelides in slags, gives high steel contamination with respect to nonmetallic impurities, coarse structure and, as a consequence, presence of macrodefects on rolled products surface. One-slag steel melting technology with titanium alloying of the steel at vacuum causes fast removal of chromospinelides at the beginning of reduction period, promotes titanium absorption by the steel, refines nonmetallic inclusions, provides more fine structure and steel plasticity, removes surface defects

  13. Diffraction production of tagged Bdo Beams to search for mixing and rare decay modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    The expected large cross section for (Σ b antiB d o ) diffractive production can be used to obtain an intense beam of pure B d o mesons. We review the search for mixing in the B s o system from the UA1 experiment and comment on the need for B d o beams to search for mixing in this system as well. 6 refs

  14. Measurement of D* production in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andreev, V.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Begzsuren, K.; Cvach, Jaroslav; Ferencei, Jozef; Hladký, Jan; Reimer, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 5 (2017), s. 1-14, č. článku 340. ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14033 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : diffractive deep inelastic scattering * charm meson production * boson-gluon fusion * next-to- leading order QCD Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 5.331, year: 2016

  15. Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H.; Gueta, O.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A. [Tel Aviv University, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics, Tel Aviv (Israel); Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Schmidke, W.B.; Verbytskyi, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L.; Gach, G.; Guzik, M.; Kisielewska, D.; Przybycien, M. [AGH-University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Adamus, M.; Tymieniecka, T. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Antonelli, S. [University, Bologna (Italy); INFN Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Aushev, V. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (Ukraine); National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Department of Nuclear Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Aushev, Y.; Iudin, A.; Kadenko, I.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Trofymov, A.; Viazlo, O.; Zakharchuk, N. [National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Department of Nuclear Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Dolinska, G.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Hain, W.; Januschek, F.; Klein, U.; Korol, I.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Libov, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loehr, B.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Myronenko, V.; Notz, D.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Stefaniuk, N.; Szuba, J.; Turkot, O.; Wichmann, K.; Wolf, G.; Zenaiev, O. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Bertolin, A.; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Bloch, I. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Boos, E.G.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Zhautykov, B.O. [Institute of Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Brock, I.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Paul, E. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Brook, N.H.; Wing, M. [University College London, Physics and Astronomy Department, London (United Kingdom); Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Univ., Padua (Italy); INFN, Padua (Italy); Bruni, A.; Corradi, M. [INFN Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Bussey, P.J.; Saxon, D.H.; Skillicorn, I.O. [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Capua, M.; Schioppa, M.; Tassi, E. [Calabria University, Physics Department, Cosenza (Italy); INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Catterall, C.D. [York University, Department of Physics, Ontario (Canada); Chwastowski, J.; Figiel, J.; Krupa, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L. [Polish Academy of Sciences, The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Nowak, R.J.; Perlanski, W.; Tomaszewska, J.; Zarnecki, A.F. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Walczak, R. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Corriveau, F. [McGill University, Department of Physics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dementiev, R.K.; Gladilin, L.K.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Levchenko, B.B.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Zotkin, D.S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Foster, B.; Gallo, E.; Klanner, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lohrmann, E.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Turcato, M. [Hamburg University, Institute of Experimental Physics, Hamburg (Germany); Hochman, D.; Karshon, U. [Weizmann Institute, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Hori, R.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Ibrahim, Z.A.; Jomhari, N.Z.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Mohammad Nasir, N.; Wan Abdullah, W.A.T. [Universiti Malaya, National Centre for Particle Physics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Iga, Y. [Polytechnic University, Tokyo (Japan); Ishitsuka, M.; Kuze, M.; Nobe, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Tokyo (JP); Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I. [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (IN); Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W. [Jagellonian University, Department of Physics, Krakow (PL); Ruspa, M. [Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Novara (IT); INFN, Turin (IT); Shyrma, Yu.; Zhmak, N. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (UA); Solano, A. [Universita di Torino (IT); INFN, Turin (IT); Tsurugai, T. [Meiji Gakuin University, Faculty of General Education, Yokohama (JP); Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration

    2016-01-15

    Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic e{sup ±}p scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector atHERAusing an integrated luminosity of 372 pb{sup -1}. The measurement was performed for γ* - p centre-of-mass energies in the range 90 < W < 250 GeV and for photon virtualities Q{sup 2} > 25 GeV{sup 2}. Energy flows around the jet axis are presented. The cross section is presented as a function of β and φ, where β = x/x{sub P}, x is the Bjorken variable and x{sub P} is the proton fractional longitudinal momentum loss. The angle φ is defined by the γ*-dijet plane and the γ*-e{sup ±} plane in the rest frame of the diffractive final state. The φ cross section is measured in bins of β. The results are compared to predictions from models based on different assumptions about the nature of the diffractive exchange. (orig.)

  16. D* Meson Production in Deep-Inelastic Diffractive Interactions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Becker, J.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boehme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement is presented of the cross section for D* meson production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering for the first time at HERA. The cross section is given for the process ep -> eXY, where the system X contains at least one D* meson and is separated by a large rapidity gap from a low mass proton remnant system Y. The cross section is presented in the diffractive deep-inelastic region defined by 2 2 GeV and |\\eta_D* | < 1.5. The cross section is found to be 246+-54+-56 pb and forms about 6% of the corresponding inclusive D* cross section. The cross section is presented as a function of various kinematic variables, including z_pom^obs which is an estimate of the fraction of the momentum of the diffractive exchange carried by the parton entering the hard-subprocess. The data show a large component of the cross section at low z_pom^obs where the contribution of the Boson-Gluon-Fusion process is expected to dominate. The data are compared with several QCD--based calculations.

  17. Scattering, diffraction and multiparticle production on hadron and nuclei at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter-Martirosyan, K.A.; Zoller, V.R.

    1988-01-01

    The cross sections for different types of interactions of hadronic with hadrons and nuclei at high energy are obtained in the simple form in the supercritical pomeron theory. Diffraction desintegration (DD) of hadrons both in the intermediate states, between rescatterings on pomerons, and in the final states is taken into account. With the same accuracy the cross sections δ n for production of n pomeron jets on hadrons and nuclei are also obtained. They determine the whole dynamics of the multiple particle productions, i.e. the spectra and multiplicities of produced particles, the cross sections for DD of colliding hadrons and nucleons inside the target nuclei. The numerical results for δ tot , δ el and for dδ el /dp tr 2 with the set of the pomeron and f, ω-reggeons pole parameters obtained early are presented. 19 refs.; 6 figs

  18. An X-ray diffraction study of corrosion products from low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, A. L.

    2003-01-01

    It was found in earlier work a decrease in the corrosion rate from low carbon steel when it was subjected to the action of a combined pollutant concentration (SO 4 ''2-=10''-4 M+Cl=1.5x 10''-3 M). It was also found that large magnetic content of the rust was related to higher corrosion rates. In the present study corrosion products are further analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction to account for composition changes during the corrosion process. it is found that lepidocrocite and goethite are the dominant components for the short-term corrosion in all batches considered while for log-term corrosion lepidocrite and goethite dominates if the corrosion rates is low and magnetite dominates if the corrosion rate is high. The mechanism for decreasing the corrosion rate is related to the inhibition of magnetite production at this particular concentration. (Author) 15 refs

  19. Diffraction based overlay and image based overlay on production flow for advanced technology node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancquaert, Yoann; Dezauzier, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    One of the main challenges for lithography step is the overlay control. For the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, the overlay budget becomes very tight. Two overlay techniques compete in our advanced semiconductor manufacturing: the Diffraction based Overlay (DBO) with the YieldStar S200 (ASML) and the Image Based Overlay (IBO) with ARCHER (KLA). In this paper we will compare these two methods through 3 critical production layers: Poly Gate, Contact and first metal layer. We will show the overlay results of the 2 techniques, explore the accuracy and compare the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) for the standard overlay targets of both techniques. We will see also the response and impact for the Image Based Overlay and Diffraction Based Overlay techniques through a process change like an additional Hardmask TEOS layer on the front-end stack. The importance of the target design is approached; we will propose more adapted design for image based targets. Finally we will present embedded targets in the 14 FDSOI with first results.

  20. Diffractive baryon production and the relation between reggeon and photon couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, P.D.B.; Gault, F.D.

    1976-01-01

    The authors illustrate how one can employ the γ-analogy hypothesis, introduced in a previous paper, which relates the couplings of the leading natural-parity reggeon exchanges, P, f and ω, to those of the isoscalar part of the photon. It enables the prediction of the differential cross sections for the diffractive processes pp→pN*(5/2 + ,1688), N*(3/2 - ,1520), and N*(7/2 - ,2190) starting from Regge fits to pp elastic scattering, with just a single free parameter in each case. This success stems from an intimate relation between electromagnetic and hadronic couplings demanded by duality, scaling and vector dominance. Dips due to pole-cut interference in the N* production differential cross sections are not expected because of their more complicated helicity structure. (Auth.)

  1. Tests of QCD factorisation in the diffractive production of dijets in deep-inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, L.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, T.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Stoilov, A.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, C.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-08-01

    Measurements are presented of differential dijet cross sections in diffractive photoproduction (Q2<0.01 GeV2) and deep-inelastic scattering processes (DIS, 4diffractive parton densities previously obtained from a QCD analysis of inclusive diffractive DIS cross sections by H1. In DIS, the dijet data are well described, supporting the validity of QCD factorisation. The diffractive DIS dijet data are more sensitive to the diffractive gluon density at high fractional parton momentum than the measurements of inclusive diffractive DIS. In photoproduction, the predicted dijet cross section has to be multiplied by a factor of approximately 0.5 for both direct and resolved photon interactions to describe the measurements. The ratio of measured dijet cross section to NLO prediction in photoproduction is a factor 0.5±0.1 smaller than the same ratio in DIS. This suppression is the first clear observation of QCD hard scattering factorisation breaking at HERA. The measurements are also compared to the two soft colour neutralisation models SCI and GAL. The SCI model describes diffractive dijet production in DIS but not in photoproduction. The GAL model fails in both kinematic regions.

  2. Single-diffractive production of charmed mesons at the LHC within the k{sub t}-factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Łuszczak, Marta [University of Rzeszów,PL-35-959 Rzeszów (Poland); Maciuła, Rafał; Szczurek, Antoni; Trzebiński, Maciej [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN,PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2017-02-16

    We discuss the single-diffractive production of cc̄ pairs and charmed mesons at the LHC. For a first time we propose a k{sub t}-factorization approach to the diffractive processes. The transverse momentum dependent diffractive parton distributions are obtained from standard (collinear) diffractive parton distributions used in the literature. In this calculation the transverse momentum of the pomeron is neglected with respect to transverse momentum of partons entering the hard process. We also perform a first evaluation of the cross sections at the LHC using the diffractive transverse momentum dependent parton distributions. The results of the new approach are compared with those of the standard collinear one. Significantly larger cross sections are obtained in the k{sub t}-factorization approach in which some parts of higher-order effects is effectively included. The differences between corresponding differential distributions are discussed. Finally, we present a feasibility study of the process at the LHC using proton tagging technique. The analysis suggests that the measurement of single-diffractive charm production is possible using ATLAS and CMS/TOTEM detectors.

  3. Dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering in next-to-next-to-leading order QCD arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Britzger, D.; Gehrmann, T.; Huss, A.; Niehues, J.; Žlebčík, R.

    Hard processes in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering can be described by a factorisation into parton-level subprocesses and diffractive parton distributions. In this framework, cross sections for inclusive dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering (DIS) are computed to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) QCD accuracy and compared to a comprehensive selection of data. Predictions for the total cross sections, 39 single-differential and four double-differential distributions for six measurements at HERA by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations are calculated. In the studied kinematical range, the NNLO corrections are found to be sizeable and positive. The NNLO predictions typically exceed the data, while the kinematical shape of the data is described better at NNLO than at next-to-leading order (NLO). A significant reduction of the scale uncertainty is achieved in comparison to NLO predictions. Our results use the currently available NLO diffractive parton distributions, and the dis...

  4. X-rays diffraction characterization of corrosion products transported by secondary side of a CANDU NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, A.; Tunaru, M.; Velciu, L.

    2016-01-01

    To verify the chemistry of secondary side of CANDU steam generators, Millipore filters are used to sampling from condensing extraction pump, from feed water header and blow down of steam generator. These filters retain the corrosion products as very fine particles and are used as samples in chemistry water control. X-Ray diffraction technique is the able to distinguish the different crystallographic compounds present in oxide films deposited on the Millipore filters and gives information referring to the nature of corrosion products transported in secondary side. The XRD analysis has identified the following substance in deposited layer: magnetite (Fe_3O_4), hematite (Fe_2O_3), and iron oxide hydroxide (FeOOH). By optical microscopy it was observed a brown-reddish background specific to hematite and iron oxide hydroxide, especially for filters extracted from condensing extraction pump. The black colour of crud present on filters extracted from feed water header and blow down of steam generator shows the presence of magnetite. (authors)

  5. Possibility of gravitational wave detector production on the base of light diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segizboev, T.I.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitational wave detector based on the light diffraction is proposed. Under the gravitation wave incidence on an elastic rod standing acoustic oscillations are excited in it, which are then used as a diffraction grating for the light scattering. A detailed mathematical analysis of this detector is given. 1 ref

  6. Crystallography of waxes - an electron diffraction study of refined and natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorset, Douglas L.

    1997-02-01

    The crystal structure of four waxes has been investigated by electron crystallography. Two of these waxes, including a refined petroleum product (Gulfwax) and a material from lignite (montan wax), form well ordered crystals and their structure could be solved quantitatively from the observed 0022-3727/30/3/018/img1 diffraction patterns. As also found previously for simpler binary n-paraffin solid solutions, the average structure resembles that of a pure paraffin (e.g. n-0022-3727/30/3/018/img2) but with a Gaussian distribution of atomic occupancies near the chain ends to account for the statistical distribution of chain lengths within a lamella. Two other waxes from living organisms, South African bee honeycomb and the leaves of the Brazilian carnauba palm, are much less ordered, even though they share the same methylene subcell packing of the most crystalline parts of the previous materials. It appears that these waxes cannot fully separate into distinct lamellae, perhaps due to the presence of very long `tie' molecules, and are therefore `frustrated' crystal structures.

  7. Diffraction dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abarbanel, H.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt is made to analyse the present theoretical situation in the field of diffraction scattering. Two not yet fully answered questions related with a typical diffraction process AB→CD, namely: what is the structure of the transition matrix elements, and what is the structure of the exchange mechanism responsible for the scattering, are formulated and various proposals for answers are reviewed. Interesting general statement that the products (-1)sup(J)P, where J and P are respectively spin and parity, is conserved at each vertex has been discussed. The exchange mechanism in diffractive scattering has been considered using the language of the complex J-plane as the most appropriate. The known facts about the exchange mechanism are recalled and several routs to way out are proposed. The idea to consider the moving pole and associated branch points as like a particle and the associated two and many particle unitarity cuts is described in more details. (S.B.)

  8. Survival probability for diffractive dijet production in p anti p collisions from next-to-leading order calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, M.; Kramer, G.

    2009-08-01

    We perform next-to-leading order calculations of the single-diffractive and non-diffractive cross sections for dijet production in proton-antiproton collisions at the Tevatron. By comparing their ratio to the data published by the CDF collaboration for two different center-of-mass energies, we deduce the rapidity-gap survival probability as a function of the momentum fraction of the parton in the antiproton. Assuming Regge factorization, this probability can be interpreted as a suppression factor for the diffractive structure function measured in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. In contrast to the observations for photoproduction, the suppression factor in protonantiproton collisions depends on the momentum fraction of the parton in the Pomeron even at next-to-leading order. (orig.)

  9. Diffractive Dijet Production with a Leading Proton in ep Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Boudry, V.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Buniatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Haidt, D.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Herbst, M.; Hladky, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Malinovski, E.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Morozov, A.; Müller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rusakov, S.; Šálek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wünsch, E.; Žáček, J.; Zhang, Z.; Žlebčík, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2015-05-11

    The cross section of the diffractive process e^+p -> e^+Xp is measured at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton p is detected in the H1 Very Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed in photoproduction with photon virtualities Q^2 <2 GeV^2 and in deep-inelastic scattering with 4 GeV^2diffractive parton distribution functions as extracted from measurements of inclusive cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering.

  10. Measurement of Dijet Production in Diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering with a Leading Proton at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.

    2012-04-18

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep \\rightarrow eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss xIP < 0.1 and covers the range 0.1 < |t| < 0.7 GeV2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4 < Q2 < 110 GeV2 in photon virtuality. The differential cross sections extrapolated to |t| < 1 GeV2 are in agreement with next-toleading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models.

  11. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Ceccopieri, F.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Roosen, R.; Staykova, Z.; Mechelen, P. van; Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C.; Dobre, M.; Placakyte, R.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Grab, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Huber, F.; Pirumov, H.; Radescu, V.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; Joensson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Stella, B.; Sykora, T.; Tsakov, I.; Wegener, D.

    2012-01-01

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep→eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x P 2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4 2 2 in photon virtuality. The differential cross sections extrapolated to vertical stroke t vertical stroke 2 are in agreement with next-to-leading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  12. Diffractive dijet production with a leading proton in ep collisions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Begzsuren, K.

    2014-12-01

    The cross section of the diffractive process e + p→e + Xp is measured at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton p is detected in the H1 Very Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed in photoproduction with photon virtualities Q 2 <2 GeV 2 and in deep-inelastic scattering with 4 GeV 2 diffractive parton distribution functions as extracted from measurements of inclusive cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering.

  13. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [Univ. of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (ME); Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Inst., Yerevan (Armenia); Barrelet, E. [CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ. Denis Diderot Paris 7, Paris (France); Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Inst. of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A. [CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I. [Univ. of Belgrade, Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (RS); Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia)] [and others

    2012-04-15

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep{yields}eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x{sub P}<0.1 and covers the range 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  14. Diffractive dijet production with a leading proton in ep collisions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlebcik, Radek

    2016-03-01

    The cross section of the diffractive process e + p → e + Xp is measured at a centre-of mass energies of 319 GeV, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton p is detected in the H1 Very Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed in photoproduction defined by photon virtualities Q 2 < 2 GeV 2 and in deep-inelastic scattering with 4 GeV 2 < Q 2 < 80 GeV 2 . The results are compared to next-to-leading order QCD calculations based on diffractive parton distribution functions as extracted from measurements of inclusive cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. A collinear QCD factorization theorem is tested against the measured cross sections and their ratios.

  15. Measurement of Dijet Production in Diffractive Deep-Inelastic ep Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Boudry, V.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Buniatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Haidt, D.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Herbst, M.; Hladky, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Malinovski, E.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Morozov, A.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zlebcik, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2015-03-18

    A measurement is presented of single- and double-differential dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic $ep$ scattering at HERA using data collected by the H1 experiment corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 290 pb^{-1}. The investigated phase space is spanned by the photon virtuality in the range of 4diffractive parton distribution functions and the value of the strong coupling constant is extracted.

  16. Diffractive Jet Production in Deep-Inelastic $e^{+}p$ Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Chabert, E.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.I.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sievers, P.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Solovev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement is presented of dijet and 3-jet cross sections in low-|t| diffractive deep-inelastic scattering interactions of the type ep -> eXY, where the system X is separated by a large rapidity gap from a low-mass baryonic system Y. Data taken with the H1 detector at HERA, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.0 pb^(-1), are used to measure hadron level single and double differential cross sections for 44 GeV. The energy flow not attributed to jets is also investigated. The measurements are consistent with a factorising diffractive exchange with trajectory intercept close to 1.2 and tightly constrain the dominating diffractive gluon distribution. Viewed in terms of the diffractive scattering of partonic fluctuations of the photon, the data require the dominance of qqbarg over qqbar states. Soft colour neutralisation models in their present form cannot simultaneously reproduce the shapes and the normalisations of the differential cross sections. Models based on 2-gluon exchange are able to reprod...

  17. Diffractive jet production in deep-inelastic e+p collisions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, C.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement is presented of dijet and 3-jet cross sections in low- vertical stroke t vertical stroke diffractive deep-inelastic scattering interactions of the type ep →eXY, where the system X is separated by a large rapidity gap from a low-mass baryonic system Y. Data taken with the H1 detector at HERA, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.0 pb -1 , are used to measure hadron level single and double differential cross sections for 4 2 2 , x P T,jet >4 GeV. The energy flow not attributed to jets is also investigated. The measurements are consistent with a factorising diffractive exchange with trajectory intercept close to 1.2 and tightly constrain the dominating diffractive gluon distribution. Viewed in terms of the diffractive scattering of partonic fluctuations of the photon, the data require the dominance of qqg over qq states. Soft colour neutralisation models in their present form cannot simultaneously reproduce the shapes and the normalisations of the differential cross sections. Models based on 2-gluon exchange are able to reproduce the shapes of the cross sections at low x P values. (orig.)

  18. Diffractive {rho} production with an AdS/QCD holographic wavefunction for the {rho} meson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forshaw, Jeff [University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sandapen, Ruben [Universite de Moncton, Moncton, N-B, E1A 3E9 (Canada) and Mount Allison University, Sackville, N-B, E46 1E6 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    We report on the results of our recent research published in [1] that shows that AdS/QCD generates predictions for the rate of diffractive {rho}-meson electroproduction that are in agreement with data collected at the HERA electron-proton collider [2, 3]. Preliminary results of this research were presented in [4].

  19. Diffractive ρ production with an AdS/QCD holographic wavefunction for the ρ meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forshaw, Jeff; Sandapen, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    We report on the results of our recent research published in [1] that shows that AdS/QCD generates predictions for the rate of diffractive ρ-meson electroproduction that are in agreement with data collected at the HERA electron-proton collider [2, 3]. Preliminary results of this research were presented in [4].

  20. Production, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the allergen Can f 2 from Canis familiaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhurantakam, Chaithanya; Nilsson, Ola B.; Jönsson, Klas; Grönlund, Hans; Achour, Adnane

    2009-01-01

    The recombinant form of the allergen Can f 2 from C. familiaris was produced, isolated and crystallized in two different forms. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analyses are reported for the two crystal forms of Can f 2. The allergen Can f 2 from dog (Canis familiaris) present in saliva, dander and fur is an important cause of allergic sensitization worldwide. Here, the production, isolation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of two crystal forms of recombinant Can f 2 are reported. The first crystal form belonged to space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.7, b = 77.3, c = 65.1 Å, and diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution, while the second crystal form belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 75.7, b = 48.3, c = 68.7 Å, β = 126.5°, and diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. Preliminary data analysis indicated the presence of a single molecule in the asymmetric unit for both crystal forms

  1. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2011-09-15

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep{yields}eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x{sub P}<0.1 and covers the range 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  2. Diffractive Dijet Production in $\\bar{p}p$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Albrow, M.; /Fermilab; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U. /Fermilab; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.A.; /Fermilab; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2012-06-01

    We report on a study of diffractive dijet production in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron {bar p}p collider. A data sample from 310 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by triggering on a high transverse energy jet, E{sub T}{sup jet}, in coincidence with a recoil antiproton detected in a Roman pot spectrometer is used to measure the ratio of single-diffractive to inclusive-dijet event rates as a function of x{sup {bar p}} of the interacting parton in the antiproton, the Bjorken-x, x{sub Bj}{sup {bar p}}, and a Q{sup 2} {approx} (E{sub T}{sup jet}){sup 2} in the ranges 10{sup -3} < x{sub Bj}{sup {bar p}} < 10{sup -1} and 10{sup 2} < Q{sup 2} < 10{sup 4} GeV{sup 2}, respectively. Results are presented for the region of {bar p}-momentum-loss fraction 0.03 < {zeta}{sub {bar p}} < 0.09 and a four-momentum transfer squared t{sub {bar p}} > -4 GeV{sup 2}. The t{sub {bar p}} dependence is measured as a function of Q{sup 2} and x{sub Bj}{sup {bar p}} and compared with that of inclusive single diffraction dissociation. We find weak x{sub Bj}{sup bar p}} and Q{sup 2} dependencies in the ratio of single diffractive to inclusive event rates, and no significant Q{sup 2} dependence in the diffractive t{sub {bar p}} distributions.

  3. Coherent and noncoherent double diffractive production of QQ-bar pairs in heavy-ion collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agababyan, N.M.; Chatrchyan, S.A.; Galoyan, A.S.; Malakhov, A.I.; Melkumov, G.L.; Zarubin, P.I.; Jenkovszky, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    The coherent and noncoherent double diffractive production of heavy quark-antiquark pairs in ion scattering at the LHC energies has been considered. The total and differential cross sections for such processes featuring the production of cc-bar and bb-bar quark pairs in pp, CaCa, and PbPb collisions have been estimated. It has been shown that the fraction of heavy quark-antiquark pairs produced in double diffractive scattering amounts to a few percent of the number of QQ-bar pairs produced in hard QCD scattering; therefore, it is necessary to take into account such processes in detecting heavy quarks, in seeking Higgs bosons of intermediate mass, in investigating the suppression of heavy quarkonia in quark-gluon plasma, and so on. It has been demonstrated that the cross section for coherent scattering is so large that this process can be used to study collective effects in nuclei at high energies. Large values of the quark-antiquark invariant mass, M QQ-bar > or approx. 100 GeV, in association with a large rapidity gap between diffractive jets, Δη>5, exemplify manifestations of such nuclear interactions

  4. Search for exotic baryons with hidden strangeness in proton diffractive production at the energy of 70 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, Yu.M.; Artamonov, A.V.; Batarin, V.A.; Golovkin, S.V.; Gorin, Yu.P.; Kolganov, V.Z.; Lomkatsi, G.S.; Nilov, A.F.

    2001-01-01

    Using data obtained by upgraded SPHINX spectrometer at IHEP accelerator the preliminary results on the reaction p + N → (Σ 0 K + ) + N at the energy of 70 GeV are presented. The existence of state X(2000) observed in our previous data is confirmed with the increased statistic for this state by a factor of approx 5. We also observed radiative decay of Λ (1520) → Λ + γ. The significant increase of statistics for many diffractive production reactions will allow to study them in great detail

  5. Search for exotic baryons with hidden strangeness in proton diffractive production at the energy of 70 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Antipov, Y M; Batarin, V A

    2002-01-01

    First preliminary results from upgraded SPHINX spectrometer, working in the proton beam with the energy of 70 GeV of IHEP accelerator, are presented. The data for the reaction p + N -> [SIGMA sup 0 K sup +] + N based on a new statistics are in a good agreement with our previous data and strongly support the existence of X(2000) state (with the increase of statistics for this state by a factor of approx 5). Radiative decay of LAMBDA(1520) -> LAMBDA subgamma was also observed. The significant increase of statistics for many diffractive-production reactions will allow to study them in great detail

  6. Production of muscovite-feldspathic glass composite: scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, F.P.F.; Ogasawara, T.; Santos, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to find the sintering conditions for the feldspathic glass + muscovite mixture to produce a dense composite block for manufacturing dental prosthesis by using CAD-CAM. Each 20g of the glass-frit had : 15.55g of Armil-feldspar; 0.53g of Al 2 O 3 ; 1.56g of Na 2 CO 3 ; 0.5g of borax; 1.74g of K 2 CO 3 ; 0.13g of CeO 2 . Frit's powder finer than 350 Tyler mesh was mixed with 0 wt%, 10 wt%, 20 wt% and 100 wt% of muscovite pressed cylinders (5600 pounds force) 16mm in diameter and sintered under vacuum Vacumat (VITA) furnace at 850 deg C, 900 deg C, 950 deg C, 1000 deg C, 1050 deg C, 1100 deg C and 1150 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy were carried out. The necessary temperature for high densification depended on the composition of the mixture: 850 deg C (for pure frit); 1050 deg C (for 10 wt% mica) and 1150 deg C (for 20 wt% mica); pure mica degraded during sintering. (author)

  7. Diffractive interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.; Marage, P.

    1996-08-01

    The general framework of diffractive deep inelastic scattering is introduced and reports given in the session on diffractive interactions at the international workshop on deep-inelastic scattering and related phenomena, Rome, April 1996, are presented. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of an industrial production suspension of Bacillus lentus subtilisin crystals by powder diffraction: a powerful quality-control tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankaer, Christian G; Moroz, Olga V; Turkenburg, Johan P; Aspmo, Stein I; Thymark, Majbritt; Friis, Esben P; Stahl, Kenny; Nielsen, Jens E; Wilson, Keith S; Harris, Pernille

    2014-04-01

    A microcrystalline suspension of Bacillus lentus subtilisin (Savinase) produced during industrial large-scale production was analysed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and X-ray single-crystal diffraction (MX). XRPD established that the bulk microcrystal sample representative of the entire production suspension corresponded to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.65, b = 62.43, c = 75.74 Å, equivalent to those for a known orthorhombic crystal form (PDB entry 1ndq). MX using synchrotron beamlines at the Diamond Light Source with beam dimensions of 20 × 20 µm was subsequently used to study the largest crystals present in the suspension, with diffraction data being collected from two single crystals (∼20 × 20 × 60 µm) to resolutions of 1.40 and 1.57 Å, respectively. Both structures also belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), but were quite distinct from the dominant form identified by XRPD, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.04, b = 57.55, c = 71.37 Å and a = 52.72, b = 57.13, c = 65.86 Å, respectively, and refined to R = 10.8% and Rfree = 15.5% and to R = 14.1% and Rfree = 18.0%, respectively. They are also different from any of the forms previously reported in the PDB. A controlled crystallization experiment with a highly purified Savinase sample allowed the growth of single crystals of the form identified by XRPD; their structure was solved and refined to a resolution of 1.17 Å with an R of 9.2% and an Rfree of 11.8%. Thus, there are at least three polymorphs present in the production suspension, albeit with the 1ndq-like microcrystals predominating. It is shown how the two techniques can provide invaluable and complementary information for such a production suspension and it is proposed that XRPD provides an excellent quality-control tool for such suspensions.

  9. Diffraction theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwkamp, C.J.

    1954-01-01

    A critical review is presented of recent progress in classical diffraction theory. Both scalar and electromagnetic problems are discussed. The report may serve as an introduction to general diffraction theory although the main emphasis is on diffraction by plane obstacles. Various modifications of

  10. Effect of resonance production and diffraction on the inclusive spectra of pions and protons in 19 GeV/c pn interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baken, V.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Fysisk Inst.)

    1984-01-01

    Bubble chamber data on pn interactions at 19 GeV/c are used to investigate the effects of nucleon diffraction and resonance production on the inclusive x- and psub(T)/sup 2/-distributions of protons and pions. We determine the differential distributions of p, ..pi../sup -/ and ..pi../sup +/ due to neutron and proton diffraction and similarly the distributions from the decay of the strong resonances ..delta../sup + +/(1232) and ..delta../sup -/(1232) and from rho/sup 0/(770). The x-distributions of the protons in the two c.m. hemispheres become quite similar when the effect of diffraction and ..delta../sup + +/ is subtracted. The psub(T)/sup 2/-distributions can then be described by a single exponential in the whole kinematic region. The net effect on the shapes of the x-distributions of the pions due to diffraction, ..delta../sup + +//..delta../sup -/ and rho/sup 0/ production is rather small. The separate effects of these processes on the particle ratio ..pi../sup -//..pi../sup +/ is investigated. By excluding the diffraction and ..delta../sup + +//..delta../sup -/ production, the strength of the low-psub(T)/sup 2/ component of the psub(T)/sup 2/-distributions of the pions is reduced, but it seems that diffraction and resonance production cannot account for all of this low-psub(T)/sup 2/ enhancement.

  11. Observation of a diffractive contribution to dijet production in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Scheurer, Armin; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Monika; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; 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Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Khein, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Proskuryakov, Alexander; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Brownson, Eric; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Johnston, Cody; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2013-01-08

    The cross section for dijet production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV is presented as a function of xi, a variable that approximates the fractional momentum loss of the scattered proton in single-diffractive events. The analysis is based on an integrated luminosity of 2.7 inverse nanobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at low instantaneous luminosities, and uses events with jet transverse momentum of at least 20 GeV. The dijet cross section results are compared to the predictions of diffractive and non-diffractive models. The low-xi data show a significant contribution from diffractive dijet production, observed for the first time at the LHC. The associated rapidity gap survival probability is estimated.

  12. Diffractive J/Psi Production; Produção Difrativa de $J/psi$ no Experimento DØ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    dos Santos Assis Jesus, Ana Carolina [Federal Univ., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This work presents measurements of two diffractive production ratio for heavy flavour physics with the use of a reconstructed J/Ψ → μ+μ- sample in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using the D0 detector at Fermilab Tevatron. These events were selected using the Luminosity Monitor detectors, the calorimeter system and the muon system in a pseudo-rapidity region with range 2.7 ≤ |η| ≤ 4.4. The measured ratio were estimated to be N$J/Ψ\\atop{diff}$/N$J/Ψ\\atop{total}$ = (1.74 ± 0.16(stat) {+-} 0.13(syst))% e N$b\\atop{diff}$/N$b\\atop{total}$ = (0.79 ± 0.11(stat) ± 0.23(syst))%.

  13. Semiquantitative analysis of corrosion products in iron channel by the X-ray diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, C.R.E.; Varela, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The corrosion in the us very important in the slag line region, but in others regions over and above this line there is a corrosion process still important. We have made a detailed mapping of phases present in seven different regions in the iron channel in three distinct positions. After the phases identifications, it was made a deconvolution of the diffractograms using Gaussian functions. The analysis of the relative intensity of each phase gave an idea for a semi-quantitative analysis and we have proposed a mechanism of the refractory corrosion. It was observed that the calcium oxide migrates by diffusion to different regions originating low melting point products like pseudo-wolastonite, anorthite and guelenite. (author)

  14. X-ray diffraction phase analysis of crystalline copper corrosion products after treatment in different chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielova, M.; Seidlerova, J.; Weiss, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion products Cu 2 (OH) 3 Cl, Cu 2 O, and CuCl 2 were identified on the surface of copper plates after their four days treating in three different sodium chloride, sodium/magnesium, and sodium/calcium chloride solutions using X-ray diffraction powder analysis. However, the quantitative proportions of individual corrosion products differ and depend on the type of chloride solution used. Treating of copper plates only in the sodium chloride solution produced the mixture of corrosion products where Cu 2 O is prevailing over the Cu 2 (OH) 3 Cl and CuCl 2 was not identified. The sample developed after treating of the cooper surface in the sodium/magnesium chloride solution contains Cu 2 (OH) 3 Cl and CuCl 2 prevailing over the Cu 2 O, while the sample developed after treatment of copper in sodium/calcium chloride solution contains Cu 2 (OH) 3 Cl prevailing over CuCl 2 and Cu 2 O was not identified

  15. Single meson production in proton diffraction at 190 GeV/c at COMPASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisrock, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The quark model successfully describes all ground state baryons as members of SU(N) flavour multiplets. For excited baryon states the situation is totally different. There are much less states found in the experiment than predicted in most theoretical calculations. This fact has been known for a long time as the 'missing resonance problem'. In addition, many states found in experiments are only poorly measured up to now. Therefore, further experimental efforts are needed to clarify the situation. At COMPASS, reactions of a 190 GeV/c hadron beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target are investigated. The hadron beam contains different species of particles (π,K,p). To distinguish these particles, two Cherenkov detectors are used. In this thesis, a new method for the identification of particles from the detector information is developed. This method is based on statistical approaches and allows a better kaon identification efficiency with a similar purity compared to the method, which was used before. The reaction pp→ppX with X=(π 0 ,η,ω,φ) is used to study different production mechanisms. A previous analysis of ω and φ mesons is extended to pseudoscalar mesons. As the resonance contributions in pη are smaller than in pπ 0 a different behaviour of these two final states is expected as a function of kinematic variables. The investigation of these differences allows to study different production mechanisms and to estimate the size of the resonant contribution in the different channels. In addition, the channel pp→ppX allows to study baryon resonances in the pX system. In the COMPASS energy regime, the reaction is dominated by Pomeron exchange. As a Pomeron carries vacuum quantum numbers, no isospin is transferred between the target proton and the beam proton. Therefore, the pX final state has isospin (1)/(2) and all baryon resonances in this channel are N* baryons. This offers the opportunity to do spectroscopy without taking Δ resonances into

  16. Diffractive production of two ρ0L mesons in e+e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segond, M.; Wallon, S.; Szymanowski, L.

    2007-01-01

    We present an estimate of the cross-section for the exclusive production of a ρ L 0 -meson pair in e + e - scattering, which will be studied in the future high-energy International Linear Collider. For this aim, we complete calculations of the Born order approximation of the amplitudes γ * L,T (Q 1 2 )γ * L,T (Q 2 2 )→ρ L 0 ρ L 0 , for arbitrary polarization of virtual photons and longitudinally polarized mesons, in the kinematical region s>>-t,Q 1 2 ,Q 2 2 . These processes are completely calculable in the hard region Q 1 2 ,Q 2 2 >>Λ 2 QCD , and we perform most of the calculations in an analytical way. The resulting cross-section turns out to be large enough for this process to be measurable with foreseen luminosity and energy, for Q 1 2 and Q 2 2 in the range of a few GeV 2 . (orig.)

  17. The effect of resonance production and diffraction on the inclusive spectra of pions and protons in 19 GeV/c pn interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, V.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.

    1984-01-01

    Bubble chamber data on pn interactions at 19 GeV/c are used to investigate the effects of nucleon diffraction and resonance production on the inclusive x- and psub(T)sup(2)-distributions of protons and pions. The differential distributions of p, π - and distributions from the decay of the strong resonances Δsup(++)(1232) and Δ - (1232) and from rho 0 (770) are determined. The x-distributions of the protons in the two c.m. hemispheres become quite similar when the effect of diffraction and Δsup(++) is subtracted. The psub(T)sup(2)-distributions can then be described by a single exponential in the whole kinematic region. The net effect on the shape of the x-distributions of the pions due to diffraction, effect of these processes on the particle ratio π - /π + is investigated. By excluding the diffraction and Δsup(++)/Δ - production, the strength of the low-psub(T)sup(2) component of the psub(T)sup(2)-distributions of the pions is reduced, but it seems that diffraction and resonance production cannot account for all oft his low-psub(T)sup(2) enhancement

  18. Thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy data related with the production of 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íris Duarte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the production of 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystals as part of the research article entitled “Green production of cocrystals using a new solvent-free approach by spray congealing” (Duarte et al., 2016 [1]. More specifically, here we present the thermal analysis and the X-ray powder diffraction data for pure Glutaric Acid, used as a raw material in [1]. We also include the X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy data obtained for the 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystal (form II produced using the cooling crystallization method reported in “Operating Regions in Cooling Cocrystallization of Caffeine and Glutaric Acid in Acetonitrile” (Yu et al., 2010 [2]. Lastly, we show the X-ray powder diffraction data obtained for assessing the purity of the 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric cocrystals produced in [1].

  19. Study of diffractive production processes in proton-nucleon and proton-nucleus interactions and search for exotic baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Coherent diffractive production reactions p+C→[Σ(1385)0K+]+C and p+C→[Σ0K+]+C on carbon nuclei were investigated in experiments at the SPHINX facility in a 70-GeV proton beam from the IHEP accelerator. A large body of evidence for new baryon states was obtained in the study of hyperon-kaon effective-mass spectra in these two reactions: X(2050) with mass M=2052±6 MeV and width Γ=35+22-35 MeV in M[Σ(1385)0K+] and X(2000) with M=1999±6 MeV and Γ=91±17 MeV in M[Σ0K+]. The unusual features of these massive states (comparatively small decay widths and anomalously large branching ratios for decays with strange-particle emission) make them very serious candidates for cryptoexotic pentaquark baryons with hidden strangeness. Preliminary data on the reactions p+N→[pη]+N and p+N→[pη']+N, as well as first results for M[Σ0K+], M(pη'), and M(pη') effective mass spectra in nonperipheral region (with p2T(greater-or-similar sign)0.3 GeV2), are presented

  20. Diffractive production of {pi}{sup -}f{sub 1} in {pi}{sup -}p interactions at COMPASS(CERN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao

    2012-11-06

    Diffractive dissociation of a {pi}{sup -} beam(190 GeV/c) on a proton target was measured at the COMPASS spectrometer. During a run in 2008, a large number of events with {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{eta} in the final state was recorded. Partial wave analyses(PWA) of these data are being performed, concentrating on the kinematic domain of momentum transfer t' from 0.1 to 1.0 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}. Subject of this thesis is the diffractive production of X from {pi}{sup -}p{yields}Xp with the subsequent decays X{yields}{pi}{sup -}f{sub 1} and f{sub 1}{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{eta}. Two different decays of the {eta} were selected: {eta}{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}({gamma}{gamma}) and {eta}{yields}{gamma}{gamma}. A kinematic fitting routine was used to improve the data selection. In order to do the PWA, a Monte Carlo(MC) simulation is needed to account for the detector acceptance. In the mass-independent PWA the angular distributions of the real events are compared with the event distributions imposed on Monte Carlo(MC) events in order to determine the production amplitudes of different assumed partial waves in mass bins of 50 MeV/c{sup 2} of the invariant mass m{sub X} of X in the range 1.3 < m{sub X} < 3.0 GeV/c{sup 2}, by means of a maximum-likelihood-fit. Then a simplified mass-dependent fit of Breit-Wigner amplitudes has been applied to the distributions of production intensities as a function of m{sub X} in order to determine the contributions of known or presumed resonances. In the {pi}{sup -}f{sub 1} channel, we focus on the S, P and D wave i.e. orbital angular momentum L=0, 1, 2 between {pi}{sup -} and f{sub 1}. Significant intensity and phase motion are observed for the following J{sup PC}M{sup {epsilon}} combinations, where J, P, C, M and {epsilon} stand for the total angular momentum, parity and charge conjugation, total spin projection and reflectivity: 1{sup -+}1{sup +} (S wave), 1{sup ++}0{sup +} (P wave), 2{sup -+}0{sup +} (D

  1. CMS results on hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00107098

    2013-01-01

    In these proceedings we present CMS results on hard diffraction. Diffractive dijet production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV is discussed. The cross section for dijet production is presented as a function of $\\tilde{\\xi}$, representing the fractional momentum loss of the scattered proton in single-diffractive events. The observation of W and Z boson production in events with a large pseudo-rapidity gap is also presented.

  2. Diffractive DIS: Where are we?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, N.N.

    2001-01-01

    A brief review of the modern QCD theory of diffractive DIS is given. The recent progress has been remarkably rapid, all the principal predictions from the color dipole approach to diffraction - the (Q 2 + m V 2 ) scaling, the pattern of SCHNC, shrinkage of the diffraction cone in hard diffractive DIS, the strong impact of longitudinal gluons in inclusive J/Ψ production at Tevatron - have been confirmed experimentally

  3. Tests of QCD Factorisation in the Diffractive Production of Dijets in Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Stoilov, A.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmerman, J.; Zimmerman, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements are presented of differential dijet cross sections in diffractive photoproduction (Q^2 e X Y, in which the system X, containing at least two jets, is separated from a leading low-mass proton remnant system Y by a large rapidity gap. The dijet cross sections are compared with NLO QCD predictions based on diffractive parton densities previously obtained from a QCD analysis of inclusive diffractive DIS cross sections by H1. In DIS, the dijet data are well described, supporting the validity of QCD factorisation. The diffractive DIS dijet data are more sensitive to the diffractive gluon density at high fractional parton momentum than the measurements of inclusive diffractive DIS. In photoproduction, the predicted dijet cross section has to be multiplied by a factor of approximately 0.5 for both direct and resolved photon interactions to describe the measurements. The ratio of measured dijet cross section to NLO prediction in photoproduction is a factor 0.5+-0.1 smaller than the same ratio in DIS. This...

  4. Semiexclusive production of J/ψ mesons in proton–proton collisions with electromagnetic and diffractive dissociation of one of the protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cisek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the cross sections for both electromagnetic and diffractive dissociation of protons for the semiexclusive production of J/ψ mesons in proton–proton collisions at the LHC. Several differential distributions in missing mass (MX, or single-particle variables related exclusively to the J/ψ meson are calculated for s=7and13 TeV. The cross sections and distributions are compared to the cross section of the purely exclusive reaction pp→ppJ/ψ. We show the corresponding ratio as a function of J/ψ meson rapidity. We compare the distributions for purely electromagnetic and purely diffractive proton excitations/dissociation. We predict cross sections for electromagnetic and diffractive excitations of similar order of magnitude.

  5. Diffraction attraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Elastic scattering – when colliding particles 'bounce' off each other like billiard balls – has always had a special interest for high energy physicists. While its simplicity makes for deep analogies with classical ideas like diffraction, its jbtle details also test our understanding of the intricate inner mechanisms which drive particle interactions. With a new stock of elastic scattering data now available thanks to experiments at the CERN proton-antiproton Collider, and with studies at higher energies imminent or planned, some seventy physicists gathered in the magnificent chateau at Blois, France, for a 'Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering at the Collider and Beyond'

  6. Diffractive scattering

    CERN Document Server

    De Wolf, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken-x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed.

  7. Diffractive Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, E.A. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss basic concepts and properties of diffractive phenomena in soft hadron collisions and in deep-inelastic scattering at low Bjorken - x. The paper is not a review of the rapidly developing field but presents an attempt to show in simple terms the close inter-relationship between the dynamics of high-energy hadronic and deep-inelastic diffraction. Using the saturation model of Golec-Biernat and Wuesthoff as an example, a simple explanation of geometrical scaling is presented. The relation between the QCD anomalous multiplicity dimension and the Pomeron intercept is discussed. (author)

  8. Diffraction attraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-03-15

    Elastic scattering – when colliding particles 'bounce' off each other like billiard balls – has always had a special interest for high energy physicists. While its simplicity makes for deep analogies with classical ideas like diffraction, its jbtle details also test our understanding of the intricate inner mechanisms which drive particle interactions. With a new stock of elastic scattering data now available thanks to experiments at the CERN proton-antiproton Collider, and with studies at higher energies imminent or planned, some seventy physicists gathered in the magnificent chateau at Blois, France, for a 'Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering at the Collider and Beyond'.

  9. Cloning, recombinant production, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of SDF2-like protein from Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzimanowski, Jens; Ravaud, Stephanie; Schott, Andrea; Strahl, Sabine; Sinning, Irmgard

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the stromal-cell-derived factor 2-like protein of Arabidopsis thaliana are reported. The crystals belonged to the space group P6 1 and diffracted to 1.95 Å resolution. The stromal-cell-derived factor 2-like protein of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSDL) has been shown to be highly up-regulated in response to unfolded protein response (UPR) inducing reagents, suggesting that it plays a crucial role in the plant UPR pathway. AtSDL has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. Two crystal forms have been obtained under very similar conditions. The needle-shaped crystals did not diffract X-rays, while the other form diffracted to 1.95 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source and belonged to the hexagonal space group P6 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.1, c = 69.3 Å

  10. High mass exclusive diffractive dijet production in ppˉ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 705, č. 3 (2011), s. 193-199 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : pair production * diffraction * Batavia TEVATRON Coll * anti-p p: exclusive reaction * mass spectrum: (2jet) * DZERO * experimental results Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.955, year: 2011 http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1009.2444

  11. Powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.

    1995-12-31

    the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

  12. Powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, M.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940's, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments

  13. Monte Carlo study of particle production in diffractive proton-proton collisions at √(s) = 13 TeV with the very forward detector combined with central information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qi-Dong [Nagoya University, Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya (Japan); Itow, Yoshitaka; Sako, Takashi [Nagoya University, Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya (Japan); Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya (Japan); Menjo, Hiroaki [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Very forward (VF) detectors in hadron colliders, having unique sensitivity to diffractive processes, can be a powerful tool for studying diffractive dissociation by combining them with central detectors. Several Monte Carlo simulation samples in p-p collisions at √(s) = 13 TeV were analyzed, and different nondiffractive and diffractive contributions were clarified through differential cross sections of forward neutral particles. Diffraction selection criteria in the VF-triggered-event samples were determined by using the central track information. The corresponding selection applicable in real experiments has ∼ 100% purity and 30-70% efficiency. Consequently, the central information enables classification of the forward productions into diffraction and nondiffraction categories; in particular, most of the surviving events from the selection belong to low-mass diffraction events at log{sub 10}(ξ{sub x}) < -5.5. Therefore, the combined method can uniquely access the low-mass diffraction regime experimentally. (orig.)

  14. Diffractive dijet production in p-bar p collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aaltonen, T.; Albrow, M.; Gonzalez, B.A.; Lysák, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2012), "032009-1"-"032009-21" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Batavia TEVATRON * diffraction * jet * high transverse energy * CDF * dijet hadronproduction Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.691, year: 2012 http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1206.3955

  15. New results from HERA on photoproduction and diffraction, the proton structure function, deep inelastic scattering at low x, heavy flavour production, jets and searches for leptoquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, F.; Bhadra, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lim, J.N.; Soeldner-Rembold, S.; Straub, B.

    1994-11-01

    This report contains some of the papers presented by the ZEUS Collaboration at the 27th international conference on high energy physics in Glasgow (20-27 July 1994). These concern deep inelastic ep scattering at low x, photoproduction and diffraction in ep scattering, a measurement of the proton structure function and determination of the low-x gluon distribution, D * and J/Ψ production in ep scattering, multi-jet production and determination of α s in ep scattering, and the search for leptoquarks in ep collisions. (HSI)

  16. Production, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase b from Leishmania major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonoli, Celisa Caldana Costa; Vieira, Plinio Salmazo; Ward, Richard John; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy; Oliveira, Arthur Henrique Cavalcante de; Murakami, Mario Tyago

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase b from Leishmania major are reported. The crystals belonged to the trigonal space group P3 2 21 and diffracted to 2.18 Å resolution. Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs; EC 2.7.4.6) play an essential role in the synthesis of nucleotides from intermediates in the salvage pathway in all parasitic trypanosomatids and their structural studies will be instrumental in shedding light on the biochemical machinery involved in the parasite life cycle and host–parasite interactions. In this work, NDKb from Leishmania major was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The NDK crystal diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution and belonged to the trigonal crystal system, with unit-cell parameters a = 114.2, c = 93.9 Å. Translation-function calculations yielded an unambiguous solution in the enantiomorphic space group P3 2 21

  17. A QCD analysis of ZEUS diffractive data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-11-15

    ZEUS inclusive diffractive cross-section measurements have been used in a DGLAP next-to-leading-order QCD analysis to extract the diffractive parton distribution functions. Data on diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering have also been included to constrain the gluon density. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive charm and dijet photoproduction data. (orig.)

  18. A QCD analysis of ZEUS diffractive data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2009-11-01

    ZEUS inclusive diffractive cross-section measurements have been used in a DGLAP next-to-leading-order QCD analysis to extract the diffractive parton distribution functions. Data on diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering have also been included to constrain the gluon density. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive charm and dijet photoproduction data. (orig.)

  19. Inclusive distributions of diffractively produced neutral kaons, lambdas, and antilambdas, and upper limits on Λ/sub c/+ production in high energy γ p interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadra, S.

    1985-01-01

    The author has used a large acceptance spectrometer in a tagged photon beam to study the interactions of real photons with protons in a hydrogen target. In particular, this thesis presents distributions of neutral kaons, lambdas, and antilambdas from diffractive dissociation where the kinematic regions of the target and projectile fragments are clearly distinguished by using events with clean recoiling protons. This data extends the neutral strange particle production rate measurements to higher overall centre-of-mass energies than previous photoproduction experiments. Comparison to pion-induced reactions supports the hypothesis that the photon behaves primarily as a hardon. Finally, upper limits have been set on the Λ/sub c/ + cross section times the branching ratio for decay modes leading to neutral strange particles for a diffractive dissociation process

  20. Diffraction gauging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    This system of gauging is now being designed to fit on an Excello NC lathe to measure the form, accuracy, and size of external contoured surfaces as they approach the finish machined size. A template profile of the finished workpiece, but 0.003 in. bigger on radius, will be aligned with the workpiece using a reference diameter and face on the machining fixture to leave a gap between the profile of the template and workpiece. A helium--neon laser beam will be projected through this gap using a rotating retroreflector and a fixed laser. The resulting diffraction pattern produced by the laser beam passing through the template to workpiece gap will be reflected and focused on a fixed diode array via a second retroreflector which moves and remains in optical alignment with the first. These retroreflectors will be rotated about a center that will enable the laser beam, which is shaped in a long slit, to scan the template workpiece gap from the pole to the equator of the workpiece. The characteristic diffraction pattern will be detected by the fixed diode array, and the signal levels from this array will be processed in a mini-computer programmed to produce a best fit through the two minima of the diode signals. The separation of the two minima will yield the size of the workpiece to template gap and this information will be presented to the machine tool operator

  1. Proton diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.; Allen, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Lindhard theory on ion channeling in crystals has been widely accepted throughout ion beam analysis for use in simulating such experiments. The simulations use a Monte Carlo method developed by Barret, which utilises the classical 'billiard ball' theory of ions 'bouncing' between planes or tubes of atoms in the crystal. This theory is not valid for 'thin' crystals where the planes or strings of atoms can no longer be assumed to be of infinite proportions. We propose that a theory similar to that used for high energy electron diffraction can be applied to MeV ions, especially protons, in thin crystals to simulate the intensities of transmission channeling and of RBS spectra. The diffraction theory is based on a Bloch wave solution of the Schroedinger equation for an ion passing through the periodic crystal potential. The widely used universal potential for proton-nucleus scattering is used to construct the crystal potential. Absorption due to thermal diffuse scattering is included. Experimental parameters such as convergence angle, beam tilt and scanning directions are considered in our calculations. Comparison between theory and experiment is encouraging and suggests that further work is justified. (authors)

  2. Domain sizing diffraction and deformation degree of Zr-2.5%Nb pressure pipes of national production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchik, A D; Buoli, D C; Flores, A; Vizcaino, P

    2012-01-01

    The Life Extension Program for the PHWR Embalse power reactor requires the replacement of the original Zr-2, 5% Nb pressure tubes by a new set of Zr-2,5%Nb pressure tubes. It was also decided to make the new set de pressure tubes locally from imported extruded tubes. As the mechanical properties of pressure tubes in operation depends on the microstructural deformation it is necessary to add to the normal macroscopic quality control same microstructural studies, specially .during the development stage. In the present work x-ray diffraction techniques are applied to determine the magnitude of the micro-structural deformation of three pressure tubes obtained Zr-2,5% Nb extruded tubes that were processes following designer specifications. The pressure tubes were obtained by two step of plastic deformation in a HPTR 60-120 tube rolling machine without intermediate annealing and a final thermal treatment. The line width at half height (FWHM) diffraction lines diagrams are drawn in a Williamson - Hall plot to determine the size of the coherent diffraction domains and estimate the degree of micro-structural deformation. To evaluate the possible effects of texture and/or anisotropy the X-ray measurement were made at the three principal directions of the processed tubes. In summary, the three pressure tubes obtained follow the same average Williamson-Hall line and similar dispersion with respect to that line. That result implies an acceptable homogeneity between the micro-deformation of these pressure tubes. As then have been chosen at random from a lot of preceded pressure tubes, it is possible to predict similar conclusions for the entire batch (author)

  3. Study of coherent diffractive production reactions of p + C --> [Y$^{0}$K$^{+}$] + C type and observation of the new baryonic states X(2050) --> $\\Sigma$(1385)$^{0}$K$^{+}$ and X(2000) --> $\\Sigma^{0}$K$^{+}$

    CERN Document Server

    Golovkin, S V; Kozhevnikov, A A; Kubarovskii, V P; Kulyavtsev, A I; Kurshetsov, V F; Kushnirenko, A Yu; Landsberg, G L; Molchanov, V V; Mukkin, V A; Solyanik, V I; Vavilov, D V; Victorov, V A; Balats, M Ya; Dzubenko, G B; Kamenskii, A D; Kliger, G K; Kolganov, V Z; Lakaev, V S; Lomkatsi, G S; Nilov, A P; Smolyankin, V T; Vishniakov, V V

    1994-01-01

    Study of coherent diffractive production reactions of p + C --> [Y$^{0}$K$^{+}$] + C type and observation of the new baryonic states X(2050) --> $\\Sigma$(1385)$^{0}$K$^{+}$ and X(2000) --> $\\Sigma^{0}$K$^{+}$

  4. Cloning, recombinant production, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a family 84 glycoside hydrolase from Clostridium perfringens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficko-Blean, Elizabeth; Boraston, Alisdair B.

    2005-01-01

    Crystallization of a family 84 glycoside hydrolase, a putative virulence factor, secreted by C. perfringens is reported. Clostridium perfringens is a ubiquitous environmental organism that is capable of causing a variety of diseases in mammals, including gas gangrene and necrotic enteritis in humans. The activity of a secreted hyaluronidase, attributed to the NagH protein, contributes to the pathogenicity of this organism. The family 84 catalytic module of one of the three homologues of NagH found in C. perfringens (ATCC 13124) has been cloned. The 69 kDa catalytic module of NagJ, here called GH84C, was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified by immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC). Crystals belonging to space group I222 or I2 1 2 1 2 1 with unit-cell parameters a = 130.39, b = 150.05, c = 155.43 Å were obtained that diffracted to 2.1 Å. Selenomethionyl crystals have also been produced, leading to the possibility of solving the phase problem by MAD using synchrotron radiation

  5. Precision Meson Spectroscopy: Diffractive Production at COMPASS and Development of a GEM-based TPC for PANDA

    CERN Document Server

    Weitzel, Q

    Meson spectroscopy is a unique way to access Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and learn about its properties. Due to the non-Abelian structure, QCD predicts new states of matter with gluonic degrees of freedom. In particular q ¯ qg hybrids, which can have spin-exotic quantum numbers forbidden for conventional q ¯ q mesons, are expected to exist. Such states were searched for in the past, mostly in the light-quark sector. However, the experimental situation is still ambiguous and needs to be clarified. Further insights will certainly also come from the heavy-quark spectroscopy. Several new charmonium-like resonances were for example discovered during the last years, which have to be studied in more detail by future experiments to reveal their nature. Diffractive dissociation reactions at COMPASS provide clean access to meson resonances with masses below 2.5 GeV/c2. During a pilot run in 2004 using pion beams on lead targets, a competitive number of −−+ final state events were recorded within a few days of d...

  6. Cloning, recombinant production, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a family 101 glycoside hydrolase from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, Katie J.; Boraston, Alisdair B.

    2009-01-01

    The catalytic module of a family 101 glycoside hydrolase from S. pneumoniae was cloned, recombinantly produced and crystallized. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious human pathogen that is responsible for a wide range of diseases including pneumonia, meningitis, septicaemia and otitis media. The full virulence of this bacterium is reliant on carbohydrate processing and metabolism, as revealed by biochemical and genetic studies. One carbohydrate-processing enzyme is a family 101 glycoside hydrolase (SpGH101) that is responsible for catalyzing the liberation of galactosyl β1,3-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (Galβ1,3GalNAc) α-linked to serine or threonine residues of mucin-type glycoproteins. The 124 kDa catalytic module of this enzyme (SpGH101CM) was cloned and overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals were obtained in space group P2 1 and diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = 81.86, b = 88.91, c = 88.77 Å, β = 112.46°. SpGH101CM also qualitatively displayed good activity towards the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(β-d-galactopyranosyl) -α-d-galactopyranoside, which is consistent with the classification of this enzyme as an endo-α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase

  7. Analysis of an industrial production suspension of Bacillus lentus subtilisin crystals by powder diffraction: a powerful quality-control tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Moroz, Olga V.; Turkenburg, Johan P.

    2014-01-01

    . A controlled crystallization experiment with a highly purified Savinase sample allowed the growth of single crystals of the form identified by XRPD; their structure was solved and refined to a resolution of 1.17 Å with an R of 9.2% and an Rfree of 11.8%. Thus, there are at least three polymorphs present...... in the production suspension, albeit with the 1ndq -like microcrystals predominating. It is shown how the two techniques can provide invaluable and complementary information for such a production suspension and it is proposed that XRPD provides an excellent quality-control tool for such suspensions....

  8. Coherent and non-coherent double diffractive production of QQ-bar-pairs in collisions of heavy ions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agababyan, N.M.; Galoyan, A.S.; Enkovskij, L.L.; Zarubin, P.I.; Malakhov, A.I.; Melkumov, G.L.; Chatrchyan, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The double coherent and non-coherent diffractive production of heavy quark-antiquark pairs (QQ-bar) in heavy ion scattering at high energies (LHC) is considered. The total and differential cross sections of these processes with the formation of cc-bar and bb-bar pairs in pp, CaCa and PbPb collisions are evaluated. The contribution of the considered mechanisms is a few per cent of the number of heavy quark-antiquark pairs obtained in the processes of hard (QCD) scattering, and it will be taken into account in the registration of c, b quarks or, for instance, in the study of the heavy quarkonia suppression effect in Quark-Gluon Plasma, in the search got intermediate mass Higgs bosons and so on. It is shown that the cross section of the coherently scattering process is great enough. This makes it suitable for studying collective effects in nuclear interactions at high energies. An example of such effects is given: large values of the invariant mass of a QQ-bar pair, M QQ-bar ≥ 100 GeV, in association with a large rapidity gap between diffractive jets Δη >5 [ru

  9. Coherent and non-coherent double diffractive production of QQ-bar - pairs in collisions of heavy ions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agababyan, N.M.; Chatrchyan, S.A.; Galoyan, A.S.; Malakhov, A.I.; Melkumov, G.L.; Zarubin, P.I.; Jenkovszky, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    The double coherent and non-coherent diffractive production of heavy quark-antiquark pair (QQ-bar) in heavy ion scattering at high energies (LHC) is considered. The total and differential cross sections of these processes with the formation of cc bar and bb bar pairs in pp, CaCa and PbPb collisions are evaluated. The contribution of the considered mechanisms is a few per cent of the number of heavy quark-antiquark pairs obtained in the processes of hard (QCD) scattering, and it will be taken into account in the registration of c, b quarks or, for instance, in the study of the heavy quarkonia suppression effects in quark-gluon plasma, in the search for intermediate mass Higgs bosons and so on. It is shown that the cross section of the coherent scattering process is great enough. This makes it suitable for studying collective effects in nuclear interactions at high energies. An example of such effects is given: large values of the invariant mass of a QQ- bar pair, M QQb ar ≥ 100 GeV, in association with a large rapidity gap between diffractive jets Δη>5

  10. Study of correlation of production and decay planes in π → 3π diffractive dissociation process on nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.; Ivan'shin, Yu.I.; Tkachev, L.G.; Zul'karneev, R.Ya.

    1998-01-01

    A large correlation of production and decay planes of (π - π + π - )-system in dissociation of π - -beam 40 GeV/c on nuclear targets was observed. The dependences of the correlation on atomic number, Feynman variable and transverse momentum as well as on invariant mass of the pion triple and neutral pion pair were investigated. It was shown that the phenomenon has a clear dynamic origin and resembles the single spin asymmetry behaviour

  11. Precision meson spectroscopy. Diffractive production at COMPASS and development of a GEM-based TPC for PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzel, Quirin

    2008-01-01

    Meson spectroscopy is a unique way to access Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and learn about its properties. Due to the non-Abelian structure, QCD predicts new states of matter with gluonic degrees of freedom. In particular q anti qg hybrids, which can have spin-exotic quantum numbers forbidden for conventional q anti q mesons, are expected to exist. Such states were searched for in the past, mostly in the light-quark sector. However, the experimental situation is still ambiguous and needs to be clarified. Further insights will certainly also come from the heavy-quark spectroscopy. Several new charmonium-like resonances were for example discovered during the last years, which have to be studied in more detail by future experiments to reveal their nature. Diffractive dissociation reactions at COMPASS provide clean access to meson resonances with masses below 2.5 GeV/c 2 . During a pilot run in 2004 using pion beams on lead targets, a competitive number of π - π - π + final state events were recorded within a few days of data taking. A full partial wave analysis (PWA) of these data has been performed for this dissertation, concentrating on the kinematic domain of large momentum transfer (t' element of [0.1, 1.0] GeV 2 /c 2 ). While well-known mesons are resolved with high quality, also a strong signal consistent with the much disputed hybrid candidate π 1 (1600) is observed in the spin-exotic J PC = 1 -+ partial wave. A Breit-Wigner parameterization yields a mass and width of 1.660 +0.010 -0.074 and 0.269 +0.063 -0.085 GeV/c 2 , respectively. In addition, a first PWA of events with small momentum transfer (t' element of [10 -3 ,10 -2 ] GeV 2 /c 2 ) has been carried out, yielding several high-mass radial-excitation states. In the future, the PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility will perform highprecision spectroscopy in the charm-sector employing anti pp annihilations. Due to its excellent tracking capabilities for charged particles, a time projection chamber (TPC

  12. Precision meson spectroscopy. Diffractive production at COMPASS and development of a GEM-based TPC for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Quirin

    2008-09-24

    Meson spectroscopy is a unique way to access Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and learn about its properties. Due to the non-Abelian structure, QCD predicts new states of matter with gluonic degrees of freedom. In particular q anti qg hybrids, which can have spin-exotic quantum numbers forbidden for conventional q anti q mesons, are expected to exist. Such states were searched for in the past, mostly in the light-quark sector. However, the experimental situation is still ambiguous and needs to be clarified. Further insights will certainly also come from the heavy-quark spectroscopy. Several new charmonium-like resonances were for example discovered during the last years, which have to be studied in more detail by future experiments to reveal their nature. Diffractive dissociation reactions at COMPASS provide clean access to meson resonances with masses below 2.5 GeV/c{sup 2}. During a pilot run in 2004 using pion beams on lead targets, a competitive number of {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} final state events were recorded within a few days of data taking. A full partial wave analysis (PWA) of these data has been performed for this dissertation, concentrating on the kinematic domain of large momentum transfer (t' element of [0.1, 1.0] GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}). While well-known mesons are resolved with high quality, also a strong signal consistent with the much disputed hybrid candidate {pi}{sub 1}(1600) is observed in the spin-exotic J{sup PC} = 1{sup -+} partial wave. A Breit-Wigner parameterization yields a mass and width of 1.660{sup +0.010}{sub -0.074} and 0.269{sup +0.063}{sub -0.085} GeV/c{sup 2}, respectively. In addition, a first PWA of events with small momentum transfer (t' element of [10{sup -3},10{sup -2}] GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}) has been carried out, yielding several high-mass radial-excitation states. In the future, the PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility will perform highprecision spectroscopy in the charm-sector employing anti pp annihilations

  13. On the one loop γ{sup (∗)}→qq̄ impact factor and the exclusive diffractive cross sections for the production of two or three jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussarie, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, UMR 8627, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, CNRS,Université Paris-Saclay,91405, Orsay (France); Grabovsky, A.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics,11, Lavrenteva avenue, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University,630090, 2, Pirogova street, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, University of Minnesota,Duluth, Minnesota, 55812 (United States); Szymanowski, L. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ),Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, UMR 8627, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, CNRS,Université Paris-Saclay,91405, Orsay (France); UPMC University Paris 06, faculté de physique,4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-11-24

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the γ{sup (∗)}→qq̄ transition with one loop accuracy in arbitrary kinematics. The calculation was done within Balitsky’s high energy operator expansion. Together with our previous result for the γ{sup (∗)}→qq̄g Born impact factor it allows one to derive cross sections for 2- (one loop) and 3-jet (Born) difractive electroproduction. We write such cross sections for the 2 and 3 jet exclusive diffractive electroproduction off a proton in terms of hadronic matrix elements of Wilson lines. For the 2-jet cross section we demonstrate the cancellation of infrared, collinear and rapidity singularities. Our result can be directly exploited to describe the recently analyzed data on exclusive dijet production at HERA and used for the study of jet photoproduction in ultraperipheral proton or nuclear scattering.

  14. On the one loop γ(∗)→qq̄ impact factor and the exclusive diffractive cross sections for the production of two or three jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A.V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the γ (∗) →qq̄ transition with one loop accuracy in arbitrary kinematics. The calculation was done within Balitsky’s high energy operator expansion. Together with our previous result for the γ (∗) →qq̄g Born impact factor it allows one to derive cross sections for 2- (one loop) and 3-jet (Born) difractive electroproduction. We write such cross sections for the 2 and 3 jet exclusive diffractive electroproduction off a proton in terms of hadronic matrix elements of Wilson lines. For the 2-jet cross section we demonstrate the cancellation of infrared, collinear and rapidity singularities. Our result can be directly exploited to describe the recently analyzed data on exclusive dijet production at HERA and used for the study of jet photoproduction in ultraperipheral proton or nuclear scattering.

  15. Hard scattering and a diffractive trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-02-01

    Conclusions concerning the properties of hard scattering in diffractively produced systems are summarized. One motivation for studying diffractive hard scattering is to investigate the interface between Regge theory and perturbative QCD. Another is to see whether diffractive triggering can result in an improvement in the signal-to-background ratio of measurements of production of very heavy quarks. 5 refs

  16. Diffractive production of two {rho}{sup 0} {sub L} mesons in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segond, M.; Wallon, S. [Universite Paris-Sud - CNRS, LPT, Orsay (France); Szymanowski, L. [Universite Paris-Sud - CNRS, LPT, Orsay (France); Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium); Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS, CPHT, Palaiseau (France)

    2007-09-15

    We present an estimate of the cross-section for the exclusive production of a {rho}{sub L}{sup 0}-meson pair in e{sup +}e{sup -} scattering, which will be studied in the future high-energy International Linear Collider. For this aim, we complete calculations of the Born order approximation of the amplitudes {gamma}{sup *}{sub L,T}(Q{sub 1}{sup 2}){gamma}{sup *}{sub L,T}(Q{sub 2}{sup 2}){yields}{rho}{sub L}{sup 0}{rho}{sub L}{sup 0}, for arbitrary polarization of virtual photons and longitudinally polarized mesons, in the kinematical region s>>-t,Q{sub 1} {sup 2},Q{sub 2} {sup 2}. These processes are completely calculable in the hard region Q{sub 1}{sup 2},Q{sub 2}{sup 2}>>{lambda}{sup 2}{sub QCD}, and we perform most of the calculations in an analytical way. The resulting cross-section turns out to be large enough for this process to be measurable with foreseen luminosity and energy, for Q{sub 1}{sup 2} and Q{sub 2}{sup 2} in the range of a few GeV{sup 2}. (orig.)

  17. Copper Vapor Laser with One-Beam Radiation of Diffraction Quality and Its Capabilities for Microprocessing of Materials for Electronic Engineering Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Lyabin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, spatial, time and energy characteristics of copper vapor laser radiation (CVL with optical resonators possessing high spatial selectivity have been investigated: with an unstable resonator (UR with two convex mirrors and telescopic UR, and the conditions to form one-beam radiation with diffraction divergence and high stability of directivity pattern axis have been defined.The most weighty and prospective application of CVL with UR with two convex mirrors is to use it as a driving oscillator (DO in a copper vapor laser system (CVLS of the type: driving oscillator – power amplifier (DO – PA when diffraction beam radiating power and power density in a focused spot of 10-20 µm in diameter increases by 1-2 orders. Using industrial sealed-off active elements (AE of “Kulon” series with an average radiation power of 15-25 W as PAs the peak power density increases up to 1011 W/cm 2 while an application of AE “Crystal” with 30- 50 W power gives up to 1012 W/cm 2 , which is sufficient for efficient and qualitative microprocessing of materials up to 1…2 mm thick. Such a CVLS has become the basis for creating up-to-date automated laser technological installations (ALTI of “Karavella-1” and “Karavella-1M” types to manufacture precision parts of electronic engineering products (EEP of metal up to 0.5 mm thick and of non-metal up to 1.5…1.8 mm thick.CVL with a telescopic UR with an average power of 5-6 W diffraction radiation beam has become the basis for creating industrial ALTI “Karavella-2” and “Karavella-2M” to manufacture precision parts of electronic engineering products (EEP of metal up to 0.3 mm thick and of non-metal up to 0.5 – 0.7 mm thick.Practical work on all types of ALTI “Karavella” has shown a set of significant advantages of a laser way of pulsed microprocessing over the traditional ones, including electro-erosion machining: a wide range of structural metal and non-metal materials to be

  18. Diffraction coherence in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Françon, M; Green, L L

    2013-01-01

    Diffraction: Coherence in Optics presents a detailed account of the course on Fraunhofer diffraction phenomena, studied at the Faculty of Science in Paris. The publication first elaborates on Huygens' principle and diffraction phenomena for a monochromatic point source and diffraction by an aperture of simple form. Discussions focus on diffraction at infinity and at a finite distance, simplified expressions for the field, calculation of the path difference, diffraction by a rectangular aperture, narrow slit, and circular aperture, and distribution of luminous flux in the airy spot. The book th

  19. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  20. Study of quark line selection rule (OZI rule) in the hadron processes. 3. Study of the OZI rule in production of φ and ω mesons in diffractive p N interactions at the energy of 70 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balats, M.Ya.; Vavilov, D.V.; Viktorov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ratio of cross sections for pφ- and pω-production in diffractive p N-interactions was measured with the Sphinx facility at the energy of E p = 70 GeV. Results of this work demonstrate significant OZI rule violation in proton-induced reactions. 12 refs., 8 figs

  1. Investigation of the OZI selection rule for connected quark diagrams in hadronic processes: 3. Diffractive φ and ω production in pN collisions at 70 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The ratio between the cross sections for the diffractive production of pφ and pω systems in pN collisions at Ep=70 GeV is determined by using data from the SPHINX detector. A significant violation of the OZI rule in proton-induced transitions is observed

  2. Phase behavior in diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Checon, A.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical formulation of a straight edge diffraction shows a phase difference of π/2 between the incoming and diffracted waves. Experiments using two straight edges do not confirm the π/2 difference but suggest that the incoming wave is in phase with the wave diffracted into the shadowed region of the edge and out of phase by a factor of π with the wave diffracted into the illuminated region. (Author) [pt

  3. New diffractive results from the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2005-05-01

    Experimental results in diffractive processes are summarized and a few notable characteristics described in terms of Quantum Chromodynamics. Exclusive dijet production is used to establish a benchmark for future experiments in the quest for diffractive Higgs production at the Large Hadron Collider. Using new data from the Tevatron and dedicated diffractive triggers, no excess over a smooth falling distribution for exclusive dijet events could be found. Stringent upper limits on the exclusive dijet production cross section are presented. The quark/gluon composition of dijet final states is used to provide additional hints on exclusive dijet production.

  4. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1995-06-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). (orig.)

  5. Theory of hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1996-01-01

    In this talk we review the models describing the hard diffractive production of jets or more generally high-mass states in presence of rapidity gaps in hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. By rapidity gaps we mean regions on the lego plot in (pseudo)-rapidity and azimuthal angle where no hadrons are produced, between the jet(s) and an elastically scattered hadron (single hard diffraction) or between two jets (double hard diffraction). copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  6. High-energy particle diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, V.; Predazzi, E.

    2002-01-01

    This monograph gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of soft and hard diffraction processes in strong interaction physics. The first part covers the general formalism (the optical analogy, the eikonal picture, high-energy kinematics, S-matrix theory) and soft hadron-hadron scattering (including the Regge theory) in a complete and mature presentation. It can be used as a textbook in particle physics classes. The remainder of the book is devoted to the 'new diffraction': the pomeron in QCD, low-x physics, diffractive deep inelastic scattering and related processes, jet production etc. It presents recent results and experimental findings and their phenomenological interpretations. This part addresses graduate students as well as researchers. (orig.)

  7. Diffraction at TOTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Giani, S; Niewiadomski, H; Antchev, G; Aspell, P; Avati, V; Bagliesi, M G; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Besta, M; Bozzo, M; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of the TOTEM experiment at the LHC is the measurement of the total proton-proton cross section with the luminosity-independent method and the study of elastic proton-proton cross-section over a wide |t|-range. In addition TOTEM also performs a comprehensive study of diffraction, spanning from cross-section measurements of individual diffractive processes to the analysis of their event topologies. Hard diffraction will be studied in collaboration with CMS taking advantage...

  8. Diffraction at TOTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Avati, V.; Bagliesi, M.G.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Brucken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M.G.; Catastini, P.L.; Cecchi, R.

    2008-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC measures the total proton-proton cross section with the luminosity-independent method and the elastic proton-proton cross-section over a wide |t|-range. It also performs a comprehensive study of diffraction, spanning from cross-section measurements of individual diffractive processes to the analysis of their event topologies. Hard diffraction will be studied in collaboration with CMS taking advantage of the large common rapidity coverage for charged and neutral...

  9. Observables of QCD diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieskolainen, Mikael; Orava, Risto

    2017-03-01

    A new combinatorial vector space measurement model is introduced for soft QCD diffraction. The model independent mathematical construction resolves experimental complications; the theoretical framework of the approach includes the Good-Walker view of diffraction, Regge phenomenology together with AGK cutting rules and random fluctuations.

  10. Digital diffractive optics: Have diffractive optics entered mainstream industry yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Bernard; Hejmadi, Vic

    2010-05-01

    When a new technology is integrated into industry commodity products and consumer electronic devices, and sold worldwide in retail stores, it is usually understood that this technology has then entered the realm of mainstream technology and therefore mainstream industry. Such a leap however does not come cheap, as it has a double edge sword effect: first it becomes democratized and thus massively developed by numerous companies for various applications, but also it becomes a commodity, and thus gets under tremendous pressure to cut down its production and integration costs while not sacrificing to performance. We will show, based on numerous examples extracted from recent industry history, that the field of Diffractive Optics is about to undergo such a major transformation. Such a move has many impacts on all facets of digital diffractive optics technology, from the optical design houses to the micro-optics foundries (for both mastering and volume replication), to the final product integrators or contract manufacturers. The main causes of such a transformation are, as they have been for many other technologies in industry, successive technological bubbles which have carried and lifted up diffractive optics technology within the last decades. These various technological bubbles have been triggered either by real industry needs or by virtual investment hype. Both of these causes will be discussed in the paper. The adjective ""digital"" in "digital diffractive optics" does not refer only, as it is done in digital electronics, to the digital functionality of the element (digital signal processing), but rather to the digital way they are designed (by a digital computer) and fabricated (as wafer level optics using digital masking techniques). However, we can still trace a very strong similarity between the emergence of micro-electronics from analog electronics half a century ago, and the emergence of digital optics from conventional optics today.

  11. Borehole radar diffraction tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seong Jun; Kim, Jung Ho; Yi, Myeong Jong; Chung, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hee Il [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Tomography is widely used as imaging method for determining subsurface structure. Among the reconstruction algorithms for tomographic imaging, travel time tomography is almost applied to imaging subsurface. But isolated small body comparable with the wavelength could not be well recognized by travel time tomography. Other tomographic method are need to improve the imaging process. In the study of this year, diffraction tomography was investigated. The theory for diffraction tomography is based on the 1st-order Born approximation. Multisource holography, which is similar to Kirchihoff migration, is compared with diffraction tomography. To improve 1st-order Born diffraction tomography, two kinds of filter designed from multisource holography and 2-D green function, respectively, applied on the reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested for the numerical modeling data of which algorithm consists of the analytic computation of radar signal in transmitter and receiver regions and 2-D FDM scheme for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in media. The air-filled cavity model to show a typical diffraction pattern was applied to diffraction tomography imaging, and the result shows accurate location and area of cavity. But the calculated object function is not well matched the real object function, because the air-filled cavity model is not satisfied week scattered inhomogeneity for 1st born approximation, and the error term is included in estimating source wavelet from received signals. In spite of the object function error, the diffraction tomography assist for interpretation of subsurface as if conducted with travel time tomography. And the fracture model was tested, 1st born diffraction tomographic image is poor because of limited view angle coverage and violation of week scatter assumption, but the filtered image resolve the fracture somewhat better. The tested diffraction tomography image confirms effectiveness of filter for enhancing resolution. (author). 14

  12. Diffraction. Powder, amorphous, liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowska, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction is a unique tool to observe all possible diffraction effects appearing in crystal. High-resolution neutron diffractometers have to be used in this study. Analysis of the magnetic structure of polycrystalline materials requires the use of high-resolution neutron diffraction in the range of large interplanar distances. As distinguished from the double axis diffractometers (DAS), which show high resolution only at small interplanar distances, TOF (time-of-flight) diffractometry offers the best resolution at large interplanar distances. (K.A.)

  13. Non-diffractive waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Figueroa, Hugo E; Recami, Erasmo

    2013-01-01

    This continuation and extension of the successful book ""Localized Waves"" by the same editors brings together leading researchers in non-diffractive waves to cover the most important results in their field and as such is the first to present the current state.The well-balanced presentation of theory and experiments guides readers through the background of different types of non-diffractive waves, their generation, propagation, and possible applications. The authors include a historical account of the development of the field, and cover different types of non-diffractive waves, including Airy

  14. High energy diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.

    1995-11-01

    Recent experiments on total hadronic cross sections are reviewed together with results on photo- and electroproduction of vector mesons. New data on diffractive deep inelastic scattering shed light on the nature of the pomeron. (orig.)

  15. Diffraction at TOTEM

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G.; Avati, V.; Bagliesi, M.G.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Brucken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M.G.; Catastini, P.L.; Cecchi, R.; Ciocci, M.A.; Deile, M.; Dimovasili, E.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajicek, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Macri, M.; Magazzu, G.; Meucci, M.; Minutoli, S.; Niewiadomski, H.; Noschis, E.; Notarnicola, G.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Osterberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Pedreschi, E.; Petajajarvi, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Rella, G.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Rummel, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sanguinetti, G.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Sette, G.; Snoeys, W.; Spinella, F.; Squillacioti, P.; Ster, A.; Taylor, C.; Trummal, A.; Turini, N.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, J.

    2009-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC measures the total proton-proton cross section with the luminosity-independent method and the elastic proton-proton cross-section over a wide |t|-range. It also performs a comprehensive study of diffraction, spanning from cross-section measurements of individual diffractive processes to the analysis of their event topologies. Hard diffraction will be studied in collaboration with CMS taking advantage of the large common rapidity coverage for charged and neutral particle detection and the large variety of trigger possibilities even at large luminosities. TOTEM will take data under all LHC beam conditions including standard high luminosity runs to maximize its physics reach. This contribution describes the main features of the TOTEM physics programme including measurements to be made in the early LHC runs. In addition, a novel scheme to extend the diffractive proton acceptance for high luminosity runs by installing proton detectors at IP3 is described.

  16. Diffraction at TOTEM

    CERN Document Server

    Giani, S; Antchev, G; Aspell, P; Avati, V; Bagliesi, M G; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Besta, M; Bozzo, M; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G; Cecchi, R; Ciocci, M A; Dadel, P; Deile, M; Dimovasili, E; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; García, F; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hildén, T; Kaspar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, R; Lippmaa, E; Lokajícek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodriguez, F; Macrí, M; Magazzù, G; Meucci, M; Minutoli, S; Notarnicola, G; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Pedreschi, E; Petäjäjärvi, J; Prochazka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Rella, G; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Rostkowski, M; Ruggiero, G; Rummel, A; Saarikko, H; Sanguinetti, G; Santroni, A; Scribano, A; Sette, G; Snoeys, W; Spinella, F; Ster, A; Taylor, C; Trummal, A; Turini, N; Whitmore, J; Wu, J; Zalewski, M

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of the TOTEM experiment at the LHC is the measurement of the total proton-proton cross section with the luminosity-independent method and the study of elastic proton-proton cross-section over a wide |t|-range. In addition TOTEM also performs a comprehensive study of diffraction, spanning from cross-section measurements of individual diffractive processes to the analysis of their event topologies. Hard diffraction will be studied in collaboration with CMS taking advantage of the large common rapidity coverage for charged and neutral particle detection and the large variety of trigger possibilities even at large luminosities. TOTEM will take data under all LHC beam conditions including standard high luminosity runs to maximise its physics reach. This contribution describes the main features of the TOTEM diffractive physics programme including measurements to be made in the early LHC runs.

  17. Duality in diffraction dissociations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Alberto.

    1977-01-01

    Diffractive dissociations (aN→a*πN) are naturally explained and a model that accounts for the three-variable correlation (mass-transfer-Jackson angle correlation) is presented. This model takes into account the three possible exchanges: t (pion), u(a*) and s(a) channel exchanger. The physical consequences of the model are: a strong mass-slope correlation due to the zeros of the amplitude, a factorization of diffractive dissociations (factorization of the Pomeron), the possibility of extending this model to double diffractive dissociation and diffraction by nuclei. This model was applied to the NN→NπN reaction. Using the usual parameters of the Deck model, a comparison is made with experiments for all available distributions. the strong slope of the peak at 1400 MeV is naturally explained [fr

  18. DIFFRACTION SYNCHRONIZATION OF LASERS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    semiconductor lasers while suppressing parasitic generation in the plane of the mirror. The diffraction coupling coefficient of open resonators is calculated, and the stability conditions of the synchronized system is determined.

  19. X-ray diffraction 2 - diffraction principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The computation of powder diffraction intensities is based on the principle that the powder pattern comprises the summation of the intensity contributions from each of the crystallites (or single crystals) in the material. Therefore, it is of value for powder diffractionists to appreciate the form of the expression for calculating single crystal diffraction pattern intensities. This knowledge is especially important for Rietveld analysis practitioners in terms of the (i) mathematics of the method and (ii) retrieving single crystal structure data from the literature. We consider the integrated intensity from a small single crystal being rotated at velocity ω through the Bragg angle θ for reflection (hkl).... I(hkl) = [l o /ω]. [e 4 /m 2 c 4 ]. [λ 3 δV F(hkl) 2 /υ 2 ].[(1+cos 2 2θ)/2sin2θ] where e, m and c are the usual fundamental constants; λ is the x-ray wavelength, δV is the crystallite volume; F(hkl) is the structure factor; υ is the unit cell volume; and (1+cos 2 θ)/2sin2θ] is the Lorentz-polarisation factor for an unpolarised incident beam. The expression does not include a contribution for extinction. The influence of factors λ, δV, F(hkl) and υ on the intensities should be appreciated by powder diffractionists, especially the structure factor, F(hkl), which is responsible for the fingerprint nature of diffraction patterns, such as the rise and fall of intensity from peak to peak. The structure factor expression represents the summation of the scattered waves from each of the j scattering centres (i e atoms) in the unit cell: F(hkl) Σ f j exp[2πi (h.x j +k.y i +l. z i )] T j . Symbol f is the scattering factor (representing the atom-type scattering efficiency); (x, y, z) are the fractional position coordinates of atom j within the unit cell; and T is the thermal vibration factor for the atom given by: T j = 8π 2 2 > sin 2 θ/λ 2 with 2 > being the mean-square vibration amplitude of the atom (assumed to be isotropic). The

  20. Production, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the HIV-2-neutralizing V3 loop-specific Fab fragment 7C8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchtenhagen, Hannes; Sourial, Samer; Friemann, Rosmarie; Ehnlund, Mariethe; Spetz, Anna-Lena; Harris, Robert A.; Madhurantakam, Chaithanya; Achour, Adnane

    2009-01-01

    Neutralizing Fab fragments of the HIV-2-binding murine antibody 7C8 were generated after purification from hybridoma cell-culture supernatant. Crystallization conditions were determined and diffraction data were collected to 2.7 Å resolution. 7C8 is a mouse monoclonal antibody that is specific for the third hypervariable loop (V3 loop) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) associated protein gp125. Fab fragments of 7C8 effectively neutralize HIV-2. 7C8 was expressed and purified from a hybridoma cell line in order to establish the molecular basis underlying the specificity of the 7C8 antibody for the V3 loop as well as the specific role of the elongated third complementarity-determining region of the heavy chain (CDRH3). The antibody was digested with papain and Fab fragments were purified using size-exclusion chromatography. Hanging-drop vapour-diffusion crystallization techniques were employed and the protein was crystallized in 50 mM ammonium sulfate, 100 mM Tris–HCl pH 8.5, 25%(w/v) PEG 8000 and 2.5%(w/v) PEG 400 at 275 K. The analysed crystals belonged to the rhombohedral space group P3 2 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 100.1, c = 196.8 Å, and diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution

  1. Hard diffraction at HERA and Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidalov, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A relation between hard diffraction at HERA and Tevatron is discussed. A model, which takes into account unitarity effects is developed for interaction of high-energy virtual photons with nucleons. It is shown that this model gives a good description of HERA data on both total γ* p total cross section and diffractive dissociation of virtual photons in a broad region of Q 2 . It is shown how to describe the CDF data on diffractive jet production at Tevatron using an information on distribution of partons in the Pomeron from HERA experiments

  2. Diffraction. Single crystal, magnetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, G.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of crystal structure and magnetic ordering is usually based on diffraction phenomena caused by the interaction of matter with X-rays, neutrons, or electrons. Complementary information is achieved due to the different character of X-rays, neutrons and electrons, and hence their different interactions with matter and further practical aspects. X-ray diffraction using conventional laboratory equipment and/or synchrotron installations is the most important method for structure analyses. The purpose of this paper is to discuss special cases, for which, in addition to this indispensable part, neutrons are required to solve structural problems. Even though the huge intensity of modern synchrotron sources allows in principle the study of magnetic X-ray scattering the investigation of magnetic structures is still one of the most important applications of neutron diffraction. (K.A.)

  3. Diffraction in nuclear scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, H.

    1986-01-01

    The elastic scattering amplitudes for charged and neutral particles have been decomposed into diffractive and refractive parts by splitting the nuclear elastic scattering matrix elements into components responsible for these effects. It has been shown that the pure geometrical diffractive effect which carries no information about the nuclear interaction is always predominant at forward angle of elastic angular distributions. This fact suggests that for strongly absorbed particles only elastic cross section at backward angles, i.e. the refractive cross section, can give us basic information about the central nuclear potential. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  4. Dynamics from diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, Andrew L.; Tucker, Matthew G.; Cope, Elizabeth R.; Dove, Martin T.; Keen, David A.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the possibility that detailed dynamical information might be extracted from powder diffraction data. Our focus is a recently reported technique that employs statistical analysis of atomistic configurations to calculate dynamical properties from neutron total scattering data. We show that it is possible to access the phonon dispersion of low-frequency modes using such an approach, without constraining the results in terms of some pre-defined dynamical model. The high-frequency regions of the phonon spectrum are found to be less well preserved in the diffraction data

  5. Diffraction at collider energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankfurt, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    Lessons with ''soft'' hadron physics to explain (a) feasibility to observe and to investigate color transparency, color opacity effects at colliders; (b) significant probability and specific features of hard diffractive processes; (c) feasibility to investigate components of parton wave functions of hadrons with minimal number of constituents. This new physics would be more important with increase of collision energy

  6. Diffraction through partial identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.

    1981-06-01

    A model of diffraction dissociation is proposed in which the quantum-mechanical interference between the incoming and the outgoing wave determines the cross-section. This interference occurs due to the finite life-time of the excited state. (orig.)

  7. Diffractive optics for industrial and commercial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turunen, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland); Wyrowski, F. [eds.] [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The following topics were dealt with: diffractive optics, diffraction gratings, optical system design with diffractive optics, continuous-relief diffractive lenses and microlens arrays, diffractive bifocal intraocular lenses, diffractive laser resonators, diffractive optics for semiconductor lasers, diffractive elements for optical image processing, photorefractive crystals in optical measurement systems, subwavelenth-structured elements, security applications, diffractive optics for solar cells, holographic microlithography. 999 refs.

  8. Production, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the Gαs α-helical domain in complex with a nanobody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, Sarah; Wohlkönig, Alexandre; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan

    2014-11-01

    GPCR-G-protein complexes are one of the most important components of cell-signalling cascades. Extracellular signals are sensed by membrane-associated G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and transduced via G proteins towards intracellular effector molecules. Structural studies of these transient complexes are crucial to understand the molecular details of these interactions. Although a nucleotide-free GPCR-G-protein complex is stable, it is not an ideal sample for crystallization owing to the intrinsic mobility of the Gαs α-helical domain (AHD). To stabilize GPCR-G-protein complexes in a nucleotide-free form, nanobodies were selected that target the flexible GαsAHD. One of these nanobodies, CA9177, was co-crystallized with the GαsAHD. Initial crystals were obtained using the sitting-drop method in a sparse-matrix screen and further optimized. The crystals diffracted to 1.59 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2₁, with unit-cell parameters a=44.07, b=52.55, c=52.66 Å, α=90.00, β=107.89, γ=90.00°. The structure of this specific nanobody reveals its binding epitope on GαsAHD and will help to determine whether this nanobody could be used as crystallization chaperone for GPCR-G-protein complexes.

  9. Diffraction analysis of customized illumination technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chang-Moon; Kim, Seo-Min; Eom, Tae-Seung; Moon, Seung Chan; Shin, Ki S.

    2004-05-01

    Various enhancement techniques such as alternating PSM, chrome-less phase lithography, double exposure, etc. have been considered as driving forces to lead the production k1 factor towards below 0.35. Among them, a layer specific optimization of illumination mode, so-called customized illumination technique receives deep attentions from lithographers recently. A new approach for illumination customization based on diffraction spectrum analysis is suggested in this paper. Illumination pupil is divided into various diffraction domains by comparing the similarity of the confined diffraction spectrum. Singular imaging property of individual diffraction domain makes it easier to build and understand the customized illumination shape. By comparing the goodness of image in each domain, it was possible to achieve the customized shape of illumination. With the help from this technique, it was found that the layout change would not gives the change in the shape of customized illumination mode.

  10. Contribution to diffraction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chako, N.

    1966-11-01

    In a first part, we have given a general and detailed treatment of the modern theory of diffraction. The rigorous theory is formulated as a boundary value problem of the wave equation or Maxwell equations. However, up to the present time, such a program of treating diffraction by optical systems, even for simple optical instruments, has not been realized due to the complicated character of the boundary conditions. The recent developments show clearly the nature of the approximation of the classical theories originally due to Fresnel and Young, later formulated in a rigorous manner by Kirchhoff and Rubinowicz, respectively and, at the same time the insufficiency of these theories in explaining a number of diffraction phenomena. Furthermore, we have made a study of the limitations of the approximate theories and the recent attempts to improve these. The second part is devoted to a general mathematical treatment of the theory of diffraction of optical systems including aberrations. After a general and specific analysis of geometrical and wave aberrations along classical and modern (Nijboer) lines, we have been able to evaluate the diffraction integrals representing the image field at any point in image space explicitly, when the aberrations are small. Our formulas are the generalisations of all anterior results obtained by previous investigators. Moreover, we have discussed the Zernike-Nijboer theory of aberration and generalised it not only for rotational systems, but also for non-symmetric systems as well, including the case of non circular apertures. The extension to non-circular apertures is done by introducing orthogonal functions or polynomials over such aperture shapes. So far the results are valid for small aberrations, that is to say, where the deformation of the real wave front emerging from the optical system is less than a wave length of light or of the electromagnetic wave from the ideal wave front. If the aberrations are large, then one must employ the

  11. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  12. Study of coherent diffractive production reactions of p+C→[Y0Κ+]+C type and observation of narrow structures in Σ(1385)0Κ+ and Σ0Κ+ effective mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovkin, S.V.; Kozhevnikov, A.P.; Kubarovsky, V.P.

    1995-01-01

    In the experiments at the SPHINX facility in 70 GeV proton beam of the IHEP accelerator the coherent diffractive production reactions on carbon nuclei p + C → [Σ(1385) 0 K + ] + C and p + C → [Σ 0 K + ] + C were investigated. The evidences for new baryon states were obtained in the study of hyperon-kaon effective mass spectra in these two reactions: X(2050) with mass M = (2052 ± 6) MeV and width Γ = (35 +22 -35 ) MeV in M[Σ(1385) 0 K + ] and X(2000) with M = 1999 ± 6 MeV and Γ = 91 ± 17 MeV in M[Σ 0 K + ]. The unusual features of these massive states (small enough decay widths, anomalously large branching ratios for decays with strange particles emission) make them very serious candidates for cryptoexotic pentaquark baryons with hidden strangeness. (orig.)

  13. Study of coherent diffractive production reactions of ρ + C → [Y0 K+] + C type and observation of the new baryonic states X(2050) → Σ(1385)0 K+ and X(2000) → Σ0 K+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovkin, S.V.; Konychev, A.P.; Kozhevnikov, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    In the experiments at the SPHINX facility in 70 GeV proton beam of the IHEP accelerator the coherent diffractive production reactions on carbon nuclei ρ + C → [Σ(1385) 0 K + ] + C and ρ + C → [Σ 0 K + ] + C were studied. In the effective mass spectrum M(Y K) of the first reaction X(2050) peak with mass M = (2052 ± 6) MeV and width Γ = (35 -35 +22 ) was observed (with C.L. > 6/8 standard deviations) and in the second reaction X(2000) state with M = 1999 ± 7 MeV and Γ = 91 ± 17 MeV (C.L. > 10 s.d.) was clearly seen. The unusual features of these massive states (small enough decay widths, anomalously large branching ratios for decays with strange particles emission) make them very serious candidates for cryptoexotic pentaquark baryons with hidden strangeness. 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  14. Diffraction by disordered polycrystalline fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, W.J.; Millane, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns from some polycrystalline fibers show that the constituent microcrystallites are disordered. The relationship between the crystal structure and the diffracted intensities is then quite complicated and depends on the precise kind and degree of disorder present. The effects of disorder on diffracted intensities must be included in structure determinations using diffraction data from such specimens. Theory and algorithms are developed here that allow the full diffraction pattern to be calculated for a disordered polycrystalline fiber made up of helical molecules. The model accommodates various kinds of disorder and includes the effects of finite crystallite size and cylindrical averaging of the diffracted intensities from a fiber. Simulations using these methods show how different kinds, or components, of disorder produce particular diffraction effects. General properties of disordered arrays of helical molecules and their effects on diffraction patterns are described. Implications for structure determination are discussed. (orig.)

  15. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  16. Developments in diffraction databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: There are a number of databases available to the diffraction community. Two of the more important of these are the Powder Diffraction File (PDF) maintained by the International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) maintained by Fachsinformationzentrum (FIZ, Karlsruhe). In application, the PDF has been used as an indispensable tool in phase identification and identification of unknowns. The ICSD database has extensive and explicit reference to the structures of compounds: atomic coordinates, space group and even thermal vibration parameters. A similar database, but for organic compounds, is maintained by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre. These databases are often used as independent sources of information. However, little thought has been given on how to exploit the combined properties of structural database tools. A recently completed agreement between ICDD and FIZ, plus ICDD and Cambridge, provides a first step in complementary use of the PDF and the ICSD databases. The focus of this paper (as indicated below) is to examine ways of exploiting the combined properties of both databases. In 1996, there were approximately 76,000 entries in the PDF and approximately 43,000 entries in the ICSD database. The ICSD database has now been used to calculate entries in the PDF. Thus, to derive d-spacing and peak intensity data requires the synthesis of full diffraction patterns, i.e., we use the structural data in the ICSD database and then add instrumental resolution information. The combined data from PDF and ICSD can be effectively used in many ways. For example, we can calculate PDF data for an ideally random crystal distribution and also in the absence of preferred orientation. Again, we can use systematic studies of intermediate members in solid solutions series to help produce reliable quantitative phase analyses. In some cases, we can study how solid solution properties vary with composition and

  17. Factorization and non-factorization in diffractive hard scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berera, Arjun

    1997-01-01

    Factorization, in the sense defined for inclusive hard scattering, is discussed for diffractive hard scattering. A factorization theorem similar to its inclusive counterpart is presented for diffractive DIS. For hadron-hadron diffractive hard scattering, in contrast to its inclusive counterpart, the expected breakdown of factorization is discussed. Cross section estimates are given from a simple field theory model for non-factorizing double-pomeron-exchange (DPE) dijet production with and without account for Sudakov suppression

  18. Birefringent coherent diffraction imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Dmitry; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Rich, Hannah; Kryuchkov, Yuriy; Kiefer, Boris; Fohtung, E.

    2016-10-01

    Directional dependence of the index of refraction contains a wealth of information about anisotropic optical properties in semiconducting and insulating materials. Here we present a novel high-resolution lens-less technique that uses birefringence as a contrast mechanism to map the index of refraction and dielectric permittivity in optically anisotropic materials. We applied this approach successfully to a liquid crystal polymer film using polarized light from helium neon laser. This approach is scalable to imaging with diffraction-limited resolution, a prospect rapidly becoming a reality in view of emergent brilliant X-ray sources. Applications of this novel imaging technique are in disruptive technologies, including novel electronic devices, in which both charge and spin carry information as in multiferroic materials and photonic materials such as light modulators and optical storage.

  19. Diffraction and Unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, I. M.

    I begin with a tribute to V.N. Gribov and then come to a particular problem which would be of interest for him. His first paper on reggeology was devoted to elastic scatterings of hadrons. Here, using the unitarity relation in combination with experimental data about the elastic scattering in the diffraction cone, I show how the shape and the darkness of the interaction region of colliding protons change with the increase of their energies. In particular, the collisions become fully absorptive at small impact parameters at LHC energies that results in some special features of inelastic processes as well. The possible evolution with increasing energy of the shape from the dark core at the LHC to the fully transparent one at higher energies is discussed. It implies that the terminology of the black disk would be replaced by the black torus.

  20. Boundary diffraction wave integrals for diffraction modeling of external occulters

    OpenAIRE

    Cady, E.

    2012-01-01

    An occulter is a large diffracting screen which may be flown in conjunction with a telescope to image extrasolar planets. The edge is shaped to minimize the diffracted light in a region beyond the occulter, and a telescope may be placed in this dark shadow to view an extrasolar system with the starlight removed. Errors in position, orientation, and shape of the occulter will diffract additional light into this region, and a challenge of modeling an occulter system is to accurately and quickly...

  1. Prospects for Diffractive and Forward Physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M; Arneodo, M; Avati, V; Bartalini, P; Berardi, V; Bottigli, U; Bozzo, M; Brucken, E; Burtovoy, V; Buzzo, A; Calicchio, M; Capurro, F; Catanesi, M G; Catastini, P; Ciocci, M A; Croft, R; Datsko, K; Deile, M; De Favereau De Jeneret, J; De Jesus Damiao, D; Robutti, E; de Roeck, A; D'Enterria, D G; De Wolf, E A; Eggert, K; Engel, R; Erhan, S; Ferro, F; García-Fuertes, W; Geist, W; Grothe, M; Guillaud, J P; Heino, J; Hees, A; Hilden, T; Kalliopuska, J; Kaspar, J; Katsas, P; Kim, V; Klyukhin, V; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Kuznetsov, A; Lami, S; Lamsa, J; Latino, G; Lauhakanga, R; Lippmaa, E; Lippmaa, J; Liu, Y; Loginov, A; Lokajícek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodriguez, F; Macri, M; Mäki, T; Meucci, M; Minutoli, S; Mnich, J; Moussienko, I; Murray, M; Niewiadomski, H; Noschis, E; Notarnicola, G; Ochesanu, S; Österberg, K; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Ottela, M; Ovyn, S; Palazzi, P; Panagiotou, A D; Paoletti, R; Popov, V; Petrov, V; Pierzchala, T; Piotrzkowski, K; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Rella, G; Reucroft, S; Ropelewski, Leszek; Rouby, X; Ruggiero, G; Rummel, A; Ruspa, M; Ryutin, R; Saarikko, H; Sanguinetti, G; Santoro, A F S; Santroni, A; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sarycheva, L; Schilling, F P; Schlein, P E; Scribano Memoria, A; Sette, G; Snoeys, W; Snow, G R; Sobol, A; Solano, A; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Swain, J; Sznajder, A; Tasevsky, M; Taylor, C C; Torp, F; Trummal, A; Turini, N; Van Der Donckt, M; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Vilela-Pereira, A; Whitmore, J; Zaborov, D

    2006-01-01

    The CMS and TOTEM experiments intend to carry out a joint diffractive/forward physics program with an unprecedented rapidity coverage. The present document outlines some aspects of such a physics program, which spans from the investigation of the low-x structure of the proton to the diffractive production of a SM or MSSM Higgs boson.

  2. Inclusive measurements on diffractive processes in ep collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Measurements from the H1 and ZEUS collaborations of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process, ep → eXY, where Y is a proton or a low mass proton excitation, are presented for photon virtualities in the range 2.2 2 2 and squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex satisfying | t | 2 . Diffractive parton distribution functions and their uncertainties are determined from a next-to-leading order DGLAP QCD analysis. Combining measurements of the inclusive diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process with an analysis of diffractive di jet production allows a very sensitive determination of both quark and gluon distributions. (author)

  3. Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results.

  4. Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Ryazanov, Mikhail Ivanovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results. (orig.)

  5. Causal aspects of diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis is directed at a causal description of photon diffraction, which is explained in terms of a wave exerting real forces and providing actual guidance to each quantum of energy. An undulatory PSI wave is associated with each photon, and this wave is assumed to imply more than an informative probability function, so that it actually carries real energy, in much the same way as does an electro-magnetic wave. Whether or not it may be in some way related to the electromagnetic wave is left as a matter of on-going concern. A novel application of the concept of a minimum energy configuration is utilized; that is, a system of energy quanta seeks out relative positions and orientations of least mutual energy, much as an electron seeks its Bohr radius as a position of least mutual energy. Thus the concept implies more a guiding interaction of the PSI waves than an interfering cancellation of these waves. Similar concepts have been suggested by L. de Broglie and D. Bohm

  6. Study of optical Laue diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarthy, Giridhar; Allam, Srinivasa Rao; Satyanarayana, S. V. M.; Sharan, Alok

    2014-01-01

    We present the study of the optical diffraction pattern of one and two-dimensional gratings with defects, designed using desktop pc and printed on OHP sheet using laser printer. Gratings so prepared, using novel low cost technique provides good visual aid in teaching. Diffraction pattern of the monochromatic light (632.8nm) from the grating so designed is similar to that of x-ray diffraction pattern of crystal lattice with point defects in one and two-dimensions. Here both optical and x-ray diffractions are Fraunhofer. The information about the crystalline lattice structure and the defect size can be known

  7. Gluon radiation in diffractive electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.; McDermott, M.F.; Hebecker, A.

    1996-07-01

    Order α s -correlations to the diffractive structure functions F L D and F 2 D at large Q 2 and small x are evaluated in the semiclassical approach, where the initial proton is treated as a classical colour field. The diffractive final state contains a fast gluon in addition to a quark-antiquark pair. Two of these partons may have large transverse momentum. Our calculations lead to an intuitive picture of deep-inelastic diffractive processes which is very similar to Bjorken's aligned-jet model. Both diffractive structure functions contain leading twist contributions from high-p perpendicular to jets. (orig.)

  8. Study of optical Laue diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarthy, Giridhar, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Allam, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Satyanarayana, S. V. M., E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Sharan, Alok, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2014-10-15

    We present the study of the optical diffraction pattern of one and two-dimensional gratings with defects, designed using desktop pc and printed on OHP sheet using laser printer. Gratings so prepared, using novel low cost technique provides good visual aid in teaching. Diffraction pattern of the monochromatic light (632.8nm) from the grating so designed is similar to that of x-ray diffraction pattern of crystal lattice with point defects in one and two-dimensions. Here both optical and x-ray diffractions are Fraunhofer. The information about the crystalline lattice structure and the defect size can be known.

  9. Diffractive optics and nanophotonics resolution below the diffraction limit

    CERN Document Server

    Minin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    In this book the authors present several examples of techniques used to overcome the Abby diffraction limit using flat and 3D diffractive optical elements, photonic crystal lenses, photonic jets, and surface plasmon diffractive optics. The structures discussed can be used in the microwave and THz range and also as scaled models for optical frequencies. Such nano-optical microlenses can be integrated, for example, into existing semiconductor heterostructure platforms for next-generation optoelectronic applications. Chapter 1 considers flat diffractive lenses and innovative 3D radiating structures including a conical millimeter-wave Fresnel zone plate (FZP) lens proposed for subwavelength focusing. In chapter 2 the subwavelength focusing properties of diffractive photonic crystal lenses are considered and it is shown that at least three different types of photonic crystal lens are possible.  With the aim of achieving subwavelength focusing, in chapter 3 an alternative mechanism to produce photonic jets at Tera...

  10. Electron diffraction from carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, L-C

    2006-01-01

    The properties of a carbon nanotube are dependent on its atomic structure. The atomic structure of a carbon nanotube can be defined by specifying its chiral indices (u, v), that specify its perimeter vector (chiral vector), with which the diameter and helicity are also determined. The fine electron beam available in a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM) offers a unique probe to reveal the atomic structure of individual nanotubes. This review covers two aspects related to the use of the electron probe in the TEM for the study of carbon nanotubes: (a) to understand the electron diffraction phenomena for inter-pretation of the electron diffraction patterns of carbon nanotubes and (b) to obtain the chiral indices (u, v), of the carbon nanotubes from the electron diffraction patterns. For a nanotube of a given structure, the electron scattering amplitude from the carbon nanotube is first described analytically in closed form using the helical diffraction theory. From a known structure as given by the chiral indices (u, v), its electron diffraction pattern can be calculated and understood. The reverse problem, i.e. assignment of the chiral indices from an electron diffraction pattern of a carbon nanotube, is approached from the relationship between the electron scattering intensity distribution and the chiral indices (u, v). We show that electron diffraction patterns can provide an accurate and unambiguous assignment of the chiral indices of carbon nanotubes. The chiral indices (u, v) can be read indiscriminately with a high accuracy from the intensity distribution on the principal layer lines in an electron diffraction pattern. The symmetry properties of electron diffraction from carbon nanotubes and the electron diffraction from deformed carbon nanotubes are also discussed in detail. It is shown that 2mm symmetry is always preserved for single-walled carbon nanotubes, but it can break down for multiwalled carbon nanotubes under some special circumstances

  11. Tolerance analysis on diffraction efficiency and polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency for harmonic diffractive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Mao

    2016-10-01

    In this dissertation, the mathematical model of effect of manufacturing errors including microstructure relative height error and relative width error on diffraction efficiency for the harmonic diffractive optical elements (HDEs) is set up. According to the expression of the phase delay and diffraction efficiency of the HDEs, the expression of diffraction efficiency of refraction and diffractive optical element with the microstructure height and periodic width errors in fabrication process is presented in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of manufacturing errors on diffraction efficiency for the harmonic diffractive optical elements is studied, and diffraction efficiency change is analyzed as the relative microstructure height-error in the same and in the opposite sign as well as relative width-error in the same and in the opposite sign. Example including infrared wavelength with materials GE has been discussed in this paper. Two kinds of manufacturing errors applied in 3.7 4.3um middle infrared and 8.7-11.5um far infrared optical system which results in diffraction efficiency and PIDE of HDEs are studied. The analysis results can be used for manufacturing error control in micro-structure height and periodic width. Results can be used for HDEs processing.

  12. Computer Simulation of Diffraction Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an Apple computer program (listing available from author) which simulates Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction using vector addition techniques (vector chaining) and allows user to experiment with different shaped multiple apertures. Graphics output include vector resultants, phase difference, diffraction patterns, and the Cornu spiral…

  13. QCD and hard diffraction at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrow, Michael G.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    As an introduction to QCD at the LHC I given an overview of QCD at the Tevatron, emphasizing the high Q 2 frontier which will be taken over by the LHC. After describing briefly the LHC detectors I discuss high mass diffraction, in particular central exclusive production of Higgs and vector boson pairs. I introduce the FP420 project to measure the scattered protons 420 m downstream of ATLAS and CMS

  14. Central Diffraction in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Schicker, R

    2012-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of a central barrel, a muon spectrometer and of additional detectors for trigger and event classification purposes. The low transverse momentum threshold of the central barrel gives ALICE a unique opportunity to study the low mass sector of central production at the LHC. I will report on first analysis results of meson production in double gap events in minimum-bias proton-proton collisions at sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, and will describe a dedicated double gap trigger for future data taking.

  15. Hard diffraction and small-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, phrases such as ''small-x evolution'', ''the BFKL Pomeron'', ''deep-inelastic rapiditygap events'' and ''hard-diffraction'' do not generate the same intensity of discussion amongst high-energy physicists that they do in Europe. However, for three days in the fall such discussion filled the air at Fermilab. The ''2nd Workshop on Small-x and Diffractive Physics at the Tevatron'' was a review of the rapid theoretical and experimental progress taking place in this field. Although Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD) has been established as the theory of strong interactions for twenty years, as yet neither perturbative high-energy calculations nor low-energy non-perturbative techniques have been successfully extended to the mixture of high energy and low transverse momenta which characterize traditional ''soft'' diffractive processes. The simplest soft diffractive process is elastic scattering. In this case it is easiest to accept that there is an exchanged ''pomeron'', which can be pictured as a virtual entity with no electric charge or strong charge (colour), perhaps like an excitation of the vacuum. The same pomeron is expected to appear in all diffractive processes. Understanding the pomeron in QCD is a fundamental theoretical and experimental challenge. In the last two or three years the ''frontier'' in this challenging area of QCD has been pushed back significantly in both theory and experiment. Progress has been achieved by studying the evolution of hard collisions to relatively smaller constituent momenta (small x) and by studying ''hard'' diffractive collisions containing simultaneous signatures of diffraction and hard perturbative processes. The hard processes have included high transverse momentum jet production, deep inelastic lepton scattering, and (most recently) W-production

  16. Grazing incidence diffraction : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, B [LTPCM, ENSEEG. St. Martin d` Heres. (France)

    1996-09-01

    Different Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) methods for the analysis of thin films and multilayer structures are reviewed in three sections: the reflectivity is developed in the first one, which includes the non-specular diffuse scattering. The second one is devoted to the extremely asymmetric Bragg diffraction and the third one to the in-plane Bragg diffraction. Analytical formulations of the scattered intensities are developed for each geometry, in the framework of the kinetical analysis as well as the dynamical theory. Experimental examples are given to illustrate the quantitative possibility of the GID techniques.

  17. Diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkovszky, Laszlo [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP), Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences 14-b, Metrolohichna str., Kiev, 03680, Ukraine and Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences 1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary); Orava, Risto [Institute of Physics, Division of Elementary Particle Physics, P.O. Box 64 (Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2a), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland and CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Salii, Andrii [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP), Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences 14-b, Metrolohichna str., Kiev, 03680 (Ukraine)

    2013-04-15

    We report on recent calculations of low missing mass single (SD) and double (DD) diffractive dissociation at LHC energies. The calculations are based on a dual-Regge model, dominated by a single Pomeron exchange. The diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory N*, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single-and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  18. Diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkovszky, László; Orava, Risto; Salii, Andrii

    2013-01-01

    We report on recent calculations of low missing mass single (SD) and double (DD) diffractive dissociation at LHC energies. The calculations are based on a dual-Regge model, dominated by a single Pomeron exchange. The diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory N*, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single-and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  19. The diffractive achromat full spectrum computational imaging with diffractive optics

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan

    2016-07-11

    Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) have recently drawn great attention in computational imaging because they can drastically reduce the size and weight of imaging devices compared to their refractive counterparts. However, the inherent strong dispersion is a tremendous obstacle that limits the use of DOEs in full spectrum imaging, causing unacceptable loss of color fidelity in the images. In particular, metamerism introduces a data dependency in the image blur, which has been neglected in computational imaging methods so far. We introduce both a diffractive achromat based on computational optimization, as well as a corresponding algorithm for correction of residual aberrations. Using this approach, we demonstrate high fidelity color diffractive-only imaging over the full visible spectrum. In the optical design, the height profile of a diffractive lens is optimized to balance the focusing contributions of different wavelengths for a specific focal length. The spectral point spread functions (PSFs) become nearly identical to each other, creating approximately spectrally invariant blur kernels. This property guarantees good color preservation in the captured image and facilitates the correction of residual aberrations in our fast two-step deconvolution without additional color priors. We demonstrate our design of diffractive achromat on a 0.5mm ultrathin substrate by photolithography techniques. Experimental results show that our achromatic diffractive lens produces high color fidelity and better image quality in the full visible spectrum. © 2016 ACM.

  20. Diffractive interference optical analyzer (DiOPTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Harish; Prasad, Vishnu; Pal, Parama; Varma, Manoj M.

    2016-03-01

    This report demonstrates a method for high-resolution refractometric measurements using, what we have termed as, a Diffractive Interference Optical Analyzer (DiOpter). The setup consists of a laser, polarizer, a transparent diffraction grating and Si-photodetectors. The sensor is based on the differential response of diffracted orders to bulk refractive index changes. In these setups, the differential read-out of the diffracted orders suppresses signal drifts and enables time-resolved determination of refractive index changes in the sample cell. A remarkable feature of this device is that under appropriate conditions, the measurement sensitivity of the sensor can be enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to interference between multiply reflected diffracted orders. A noise-equivalent limit of detection (LoD) of 6x10-7 RIU was achieved in glass. This work focuses on devices with integrated sample well, made on low-cost PDMS. As the detection methodology is experimentally straightforward, it can be used across a wide array of applications, ranging from detecting changes in surface adsorbates via binding reactions to estimating refractive index (and hence concentration) variations in bulk samples. An exciting prospect of this technique is the potential integration of this device to smartphones using a simple interface based on transmission mode configuration. In a transmission configuration, we were able to achieve an LoD of 4x10-4 RIU which is sufficient to explore several applications in food quality testing and related fields. We are envisioning the future of this platform as a personal handheld optical analyzer for applications ranging from environmental sensing to healthcare and quality testing of food products.

  1. Neutron diffraction studies of glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    A survey is given of the application of neutron diffraction to structural studies of oxide and halide glasses. As with crystalline materials, neutron and X-ray diffraction are the major structural probes for glasses and other amorphous solids, particularly in respect of intermediate range order. The glasses discussed mostly have structures which are dominated by a network in which the bonding is predominantly covalent. The examples discussed demonstrate the power of the neutron diffraction technique in the investigation of the structures of inorganic glasses. The best modern diffraction experiments are capable of providing accurate data with high real space resolution, which if used correctly, are an extremely fine filter for the various structural models proposed in the literature. 42 refs

  2. Diffraction at a Straight Edge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 5. Diffraction at a Straight Edge: A Gem from Sommerfeld's Work in Classical Physics. Rajaram Nityananda. General Article Volume 20 Issue 5 May 2015 pp 389-400 ...

  3. Neutron Powder Diffraction in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellgren, R.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction in Sweden has developed around the research reactor R2 in Studsvik. The article describes this facility and presents a historical review of research results obtained. It also gives some ideas of plans for future development

  4. Tomography with energy dispersive diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, S. R.; Okasinski, J. S.; Woods, R.; Baldwin, J.; Madden, T.; Quaranta, O.; Rumaiz, A.; Kuczewski, T.; Mead, J.; Krings, T.; Siddons, P.; Miceli, A.; Almer, J. D.

    2017-09-01

    X-ray diffraction can be used as the signal for tomographic reconstruction and provides a cross-sectional map of the crystallographic phases and related quantities. Diffraction tomography has been developed over the last decade using monochromatic x-radiation and an area detector. This paper reports tomographic reconstruction with polychromatic radiation and an energy sensitive detector array. The energy dispersive diffraction (EDD) geometry, the instrumentation and the reconstruction process are described and related to the expected resolution. Results of EDD tomography are presented for two samples containing hydroxyapatite (hAp). The first is a 3D-printed sample with an elliptical crosssection and contains synthetic hAp. The second is a human second metacarpal bone from the Roman-era cemetery at Ancaster, UK and contains bio-hAp which may have been altered by diagenesis. Reconstructions with different diffraction peaks are compared. Prospects for future EDD tomography are also discussed.

  5. Diffraction at a Straight Edge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    teaching and understanding physics. ... and mathematical footing, using electromagnetic theory and the proper ... this article, we will use the word diffraction to cover all experiments ..... PES Institute of Technology. Campus ... communication!)

  6. Experimental studies of diffractive phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The coherent inelastic scattering process, usually called inclusive diffraction dissociation, is discussed. Topics include: t and M/sub x/ dependence, factorization, finite mass sum rule and charged particle multiplicities. 6 references, 14 figures

  7. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alan

    1989-09-15

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago.

  8. Theoretical review of diffractive phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golec-Biernat, K.

    2005-01-01

    We review QCD based descriptions of diffractive deep inelastic scattering emphasising the role of models with parton saturation. These models provide natural explanation of such experimentally observed facts as the constant ratio of σ diff /σ tot as a function of the Bjorken variable x, and Regge factorization of diffractive parton distributions. The Ingelman-Schlein model and the soft color interaction model are also presented

  9. The Diffraction Response Interpolation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Pedersen, Peder C.

    1998-01-01

    Computer modeling of the output voltage in a pulse-echo system is computationally very demanding, particularly whenconsidering reflector surfaces of arbitrary geometry. A new, efficient computational tool, the diffraction response interpolationmethod (DRIM), for modeling of reflectors in a fluid...... medium, is presented. The DRIM is based on the velocity potential impulseresponse method, adapted to pulse-echo applications by the use of acoustical reciprocity. Specifically, the DRIM operates bydividing the reflector surface into planar elements, finding the diffraction response at the corners...

  10. Studies of diffraction with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzebinski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is devoted to the study of diffractive physics with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. After a short introduction to diffractive physics including soft and hard diffraction, we discuss Jet-Gap-Jet production at the LHC which is particularly interesting for testing the Balitski Fadin Kuraev Lipatov QCD evolution equation. Using the signal selection requirements and a gap definition based on tracks reconstructed in the ATLAS Inner Detector, we observe a clear signal of Jet-Gap-Jet events in the data. Starting from the half-gap size of 0.8 the data cannot be properly described using only the Jet Monte Carlo sample without gaps. Furthermore, we demonstrated that DPE JGJ production, with both protons tagged in the AFP stations, should provide a significant test of the BFKL theory, once the 300 pb -1 of integrated luminosity is collected. In the last part of the thesis, we discussed the processes of Central Exclusive Jet and Exclusive π + π - production. After the data selection, the signal to background ratio is found to be of about 5/9 (1/13) for μ= 23 (46). For a collected integrated luminosity of 40(300) fb -1 (for pile-up of 23(46)) this measurement will deliver ten times better constraints on the theoretical models than the most recent ones. The additional measurement of exclusive pion production, relying on the use of the ALFA stations, allows to constrain further the exclusive models. We demonstrated that a data sample collected by the ALFA detectors should be sufficient to measure the cross section and to study various distributions, especially the invariant mass of the pion-pion system. (author) [fr

  11. A theoretical approach to low multiplicity diffractive dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishari, M.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamics of low mass inelastic diffractive production in the framework of the ''1/N dual unitarization'' scheme are investigated. The smallness of inelastic diffractive dissociation is explicitly demonstrated by incorporating a Deck type mechanism with the crucial planar bootstrap equation. Although both inelastic and elastic pomeron couplings are of the same order in 1/N, the origin for their smallness is not identical. The work further confirms the validity of the iterative procedure, where the elastic amplitude is first generated from only non-diffractive intermediate states (except possibly for central collisions). Using a previous study of the ''Cylinder'' strength, a semi-quantitative results for the integrated cross-section for low multiplicity diffractive production is also presented, and is compared with the elastic cross-section at very high energies. (author)

  12. Diffractive hard scattering at ep and p antip colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruni, P.; Ingelman, G.; Uppsala Univ.

    1993-12-01

    Models for diffractive scattering based on the exchange of a pomeron with a parton structure are analysed in terms of hard scattering processes and the resulting characteristics of the final state. Diffractive deep inelastic ep scattering is considered in connection with the recently observed rapidity gap events at HERA. Heavy flavour and W, Z production in p anti p interactions are interesting measures of the gluon and quark component, respectively, in the pomeron. (orig.)

  13. Neutron diffraction and oxide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, B.; Howard, C.J.; Kennedy, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Oxide compounds form a large class of interesting materials that have a diverse range of mechanical and electronic properties. This diversity and its commercial implications has had a significant impact on physics research. This is particularly evident in the fields of superconductivity magnetoresistivity and ferroelectricity, where discoveries in the last 15 years have given rise to significant shifts in research activities. Historically, oxides have been studied for many years, but it is only recently that significant effort has been diverted to the study of oxide materials for their application to mechanical and electronic devices. An important property of such materials is the atomic structure, for the determination of which diffraction techniques are ideally suited. Recent examples of structure determinations using neutron diffraction in oxide based systems are high temperature superconductors, where oxygen defects are a key factor. Here, neutron diffraction played a major role in determining the effect of oxygen on the superconducting properties. Similarly, neutron diffraction has enjoyed much success in the determination of the structures of the manganate based colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) materials. In both these cases the structure plays a pivotal role in determining theoretical models of the electronic properties. The neutron scattering group at ANSTO has investigated several oxide systems using neutron powder diffraction. Two such systems are presented in this paper; the zirconia-based materials that are used as engineering materials, and the perovskite-based oxides that include the well known cuprate superconductors and the manganate CMR materials

  14. TOF neutron diffraction study of archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kockelmann, W.; Kirfel, A.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The time-of flight (TOF) neutron diffractometer ROTAX [1] at ISIS has been used for identification and quantitative phase analysis of archaeological pottery. Neutron diffraction yields mineral phase fractions which, in parallel with information obtained from other archaeometric examination techniques, can provide a fingerprint that can be used to identify provenance and reconstruct methods of manufacturing of an archaeological ceramic product. Phase fractions obtained from a 13th century Rhenish stoneware jar compare well with those obtained from a powder sample prepared from the same fragment. This indicates that reliable results can be obtained by illuminating a large piece or even an intact ceramic object making TOF neutron diffraction a truly non-destructive examination technique. In comparison to X-ray diffraction, information from the bulk sample rather than from surface regions is obtained. ROTAX allows for a simple experimental set-up, free of sample movements. Programmes of archaeological study on ROTAX involve Russian samples (Upper-Volga culture, 5000-2000 BC), Greek pottery, (Agora/Athens, 500-300 BC), and medieval German earthenware and stoneware ceramics (Siegburg waster heap, 13-15th century). (author)

  15. Diffraction of high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, A.

    1981-10-01

    The diffraction of electrons by a crystal is examined to study its structure. As the electron-substance interaction is strong, it must be treated in a dynamic manner. Using the N waves theory and physical optics the base equations giving the wave at the outlet are deduced for a perfect crystal and their equivalence is shown. The more complex case of an imperfect crystal is then envisaged in these two approaches. In both cases, only the diffraction of high energy electrons ( > 50 KeV) are considered since in the diffraction of slow electrons back scattering cannot be ignored. Taking into account an increasingly greater number of beams, through fast calculations computer techniques, enables images to be simulated in very varied conditions. The general use of the Fast Fourier Transform has given a clear cut practical advantage to the multi-layer method [fr

  16. Workshop on industrial application of neutron diffraction. Stress measurement by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Minakawa, N; Morii, Y; Oyama, Y

    2002-01-01

    This workshop was planned to make use of the neutron from the reactor and the pulse neutron source JSNS for the industrial world. Especially, this workshop focused on the stress measurement by the neutron diffraction and it was held on the Tokai JAERI from October 15 to 16, 2001. The participant total was 93 and 40 participated from the industrial world. The introduction of the residual stress development of measurement technique by the neutron diffraction method and a research of the measurement of the residual stress such as the nuclear reactor material, the ordinary structure material, the composite material, the quenching steel, the high strength material were presented and discussed in this workshop. Moreover, it was introduced for the industrial world that an internal stress measurement is important for development of new product or an improvement of a manufacturing process. The question from the industrial world about which can be measured the product form, the size, the measurement precision, the reso...

  17. Light diffraction through a feather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez García, Hugo;

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used a feather to study light diffraction, in a qualitative as well as in a quantitative manner. Experimental measurement of the separation between the bright spots obtained with a laser pointer allowed the determination of the space between feather's barbs and barbules. The results we have obtained agree satisfactorily with those corresponding to a typical feather. Due to the kind of materials, the related concepts and the experimental results, this activity becomes an excellent didactic resource suitable for studying diffraction, both in introductory undergraduate as well as in secondary school physics courses.

  18. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago

  19. Dynamical theory of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1978-01-01

    We present a review of the dynamical theory of neutron diffraction by macroscopic bodies which provides the theoretical basis for the study of neutron optics. We consider both the theory of dispersion, in which it is shown that the coherent wave in the medium satisfies a macroscopic one-body Schroedinger equation, and the theory of reflection, refraction, and diffraction in which the above equation is solved for a number of special cases of interest. The theory is illustrated with the help of experimental results obtained over the past 10 years by a number of new techniques such as neutron gravity refractometry. Pendelloesung interference, and neutron interferometry. (author)

  20. Diffractive dissociation and new quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1983-04-01

    We argue that the chiral limit of QCD can be identified with the strong (diffractive dissociation) coupling limit of reggeon field theory. Critical Pomeron scaling at high energy must then be directly related to an infra-red fixed-point of massless QCD and so requires a large number of flavors. This gives a direct argument that the emergence of diffraction-peak scaling, KNO scaling etc. at anti p-p colliders are evidence of a substantial quark structure still to be discovered

  1. Fast, inexpensive, diffraction limited cylindrical microlenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synder, J.J.; Reichert, P.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a technique for fabricating fast, well corrected cylindrical microlenses. With this technique we have made a number of different microlenses with dimensions and focal lengths in the range of few hundred μm, and diffraction limited numerical apertures as high as 0.9. The microlenses are specifically designed for applications where they can increase the radiance or otherwise enhance the optical characteristics of laser diode light. The fabrication method we use is very versatile, and the microlenses produced this way would be very inexpensive in production quantities. 6 refs., 4 figs

  2. The influence of texture on the strain measured by diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penning, P.; Brakman, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Strain, as determined by diffraction techniques, is calculated from its constituents. First, the fraction of the crystals that have the proper orientation for diffraction. One degree of freedom is present: the angle of rotation φ 2 '' about the scattering vector that the diffracting crystals have in common. The proper orientations, expressed in Euler angles, lie on a line ('trace') in orientation space. The density along the trace is asserted to be known as a Fourier series in φ 2 ''. Second, the strain in the diffracting crystals. The simplest possible models are discussed: the Voigt and Reuss approximations. The symmetries of the crystal (m3 or m3m) and of the orientation distribution function (o.d.f.) are taken into account. The dilatation in spacing of the reflecting planes is found as a Fourier series in φ 2 '' also. Only the zeroth, first and second harmonic (including phase angles: five parameters) play a part. The diffraction strain is the average over the angle φ 2 '' of the dilatation, weighted with the product of the orientation density and the square of the structure factor. For each contributing trace, the corresponding Fourier coefficients have to be multiplied and added to obtain the diffraction strain. The symmetry of the diffraction pole figure is derived. (orig.)

  3. CMS results on soft diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00086121

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of soft single- and double-diffractive cross sections, as well as of forward rapidity gap cross sections at 7 TeV at the LHC, and compare the results to other measurements and to theoretical predictions implemented in various Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. LEED (Low Energy Electron Diffraction)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberdam, M.

    1973-01-01

    The various types of systems studied by LEED, and for which the geometry of diffraction patterns is exploited, are reviewed, intensity profiles being another source of information. Two representative approaches of the scattering phenomenon are examined; the band structure theory and the T matrix approach [fr

  5. Electro-optic diffraction grating tuned laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    An electro-optic diffraction grating tuned laser comprising a laser medium, output mirror, retro-reflective grating and an electro-optic diffraction grating beam deflector positioned between the laser medium and the reflective diffraction grating is described. An optional angle multiplier may be used between the electro-optic diffraction grating and the reflective grating. (auth)

  6. Influence of diffractive interactions on cosmic ray air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.; Zepeda, A.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Sciutto, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of commonly used hadronic collision simulation packages is presented. The characteristics of the products of hadron-nucleus collisions are analyzed from a general perspective, but focusing on their correlation with diffractive processes. One of the purposes of our work is to give quantitative estimations of the impact that different characteristics of the hadronic models have on air shower observables. Several sets of shower simulations using different settings for the parameters controlling the diffractive processes are used to analyze the correlations between diffractivity and shower observables. We find that the relative probability of diffractive processes during the shower development have a non-negligible influence over the longitudinal profile as well as the distribution of muons at ground level. The implications on experimental data analysis are discussed

  7. Diffraction efficiency calculations of polarization diffraction gratings with surface relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, D.; Sharlandjiev, P.; Berberova, N.; Blagoeva, B.; Stoykova, E.; Nedelchev, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the optical response of a stack of two diffraction gratings of equal one-dimensional periodicity. The first one is a surface-relief grating structure; the second, a volume polarization grating. This model is based on our experimental results from polarization holographic recordings in azopolymer films. We used films of commercially available azopolymer (poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo) benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt]), shortly denoted as PAZO. During the recording process, a polarization grating in the volume of the material and a relief grating on the film surface are formed simultaneously. In order to evaluate numerically the optical response of this “hybrid” diffraction structure, we used the rigorous coupled-wave approach (RCWA). It yields stable numerical solutions of Maxwell’s vector equations using the algebraic eigenvalue method.

  8. Neutron diffraction on pulsed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Balagurov, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The possibilities currently offered and major scientific problems solved by time-of-flight neutron diffraction are reviewed. The reasons for the rapid development of the method over the last two decades has been mainly the emergence of third generation pulsed sources with a MW time-averaged power and advances in neutron-optical devices and detector systems. The paper discusses some historical aspects of time-of-flight neutron diffraction and examines the contribution to this method by F.L.Shapiro whose 100th birth anniversary was celebrated in 2015. The state of the art with respect to neutron sources for studies on output beams is reviewed in a special section. [ru

  9. Industrial applications of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron diffraction (or, to be more general, neutron scattering) is a most versatile and universal tool, which has been widely employed to probe the structure, the dynamics and the magnetism of condensed matter. Traditionally used for fundamental research in solid state physics, this technique more recently has been applied to problems of immediate industrial interest, as illustrated in examples covering the main fields of endeavour. 14 refs., 14 figs

  10. Neutron diffraction and Vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harroun, T A; Marquardt, D; Katsaras, J; Atkinson, J, E-mail: tharroun@brocku.ca

    2010-11-01

    It is generally accepted that neutron diffraction from model membrane systems is an effective biophysical technique for determining membrane structure. Here we describe an example of how deuterium labelling can elucidate the location of specific membrane soluble molecules, including a brief discussion of the technique itself. We show that deuterium labelled {alpha}-tocopherol sits upright in the bilayer, as might be expected, but at very different locations within the bilayer, depending on the degree of lipid chain unsaturation.

  11. Diffraction dissociation and elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verebryusov, V.S.; Ponomarev, L.A.; Smorodinskaya, N.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    In the framework of Regge scheme with supercritical pomeron a model is suggested for the NN-scattering amplitude which takes into account the contribution introduced to the intermediate state by diffraction dissociation (DD) processes. The DD amplitude is written in terms of the Deck model which has been previously applied to describing the main DD features. The calculated NN cross sections are compared with those obtained experimentally. Theoretical predictions for higher energy are presented

  12. Submicron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, Alastair; Celestre, Richard; Tamura, Nobumichi; Spolenak, Ralph; Valek, Bryan; Brown, Walter; Bravman, John; Padmore, Howard; Batterman, Boris; Patel, Jamshed

    2000-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The instrument is for instance, capable of probing a sub-micron size volume inside micron sized aluminum metal grains buried under a silicon dioxide insulating layer. The resulting Laue pattern is collected on a large area CCD detector and automatically indexed to yield the grain orientation and deviatoric (distortional) strain tensor of this sub-micron volume. A four-crystal monochromator is then inserted into the beam, which allows monochromatic light to illuminate the same part of the sample. Measurement of diffracted photon energy allows for the determination of d spacings. The combination of white and monochromatic beam measurements allow for the determination of the total strain/stress tensor (6 components) inside each sub-micron sized illuminated volume of the sample

  13. Diffraction Techniques in Structural Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A detailed understanding of chemical and biological function and the mechanisms underlying the molecular activities ultimately requires atomic-resolution structural data. Diffraction-based techniques such as single-crystal X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, and neutron diffraction are well established and they have paved the road to the stunning successes of modern-day structural biology. The major advances achieved in the last 20 years in all aspects of structural research, including sample preparation, crystallization, the construction of synchrotron and spallation sources, phasing approaches, and high-speed computing and visualization, now provide specialists and nonspecialists alike with a steady flow of molecular images of unprecedented detail. The present unit combines a general overview of diffraction methods with a detailed description of the process of a single-crystal X-ray structure determination experiment, from chemical synthesis or expression to phasing and refinement, analysis, and quality control. For novices it may serve as a stepping-stone to more in-depth treatises of the individual topics. Readers relying on structural information for interpreting functional data may find it a useful consumer guide. PMID:27248784

  14. Neutron diffraction and lattice defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    1974-01-01

    Study on lattice defects by neutron diffraction technique is described. Wave length of neutron wave is longer than that of X-ray, and absorption cross-section is small. Number of defects observed by ESR is up to several defects, and the number studied with electron microscopes is more than 100. Information obtained by neutron diffraction concerns the number of defects between these two ranges. For practical analysis, several probable models are selected from the data of ESR or electron microscopes, and most probable one is determined by calculation. Then, defect concentration is obtained from scattering cross section. It is possible to measure elastic scattering exclusively by neutron diffraction. Minimum detectable concentration estimated is about 0.5% and 10 20 - 10 21 defects per unit volume. A chopper and a time of flight system are used as a measuring system. Cold neutrons are obtained from the neutron sources inserted into reactors. Examples of measurements by using similar equipments to PTNS-I system of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute are presented. Interstitial concentration in the graphite irradiated by fast neutrons is shown. Defects in irradiated MgO were also investigated by measuring scattering cross section. Study of defects in Ge was made by measuring total cross section, and model analysis was performed in comparison with various models. (Kato, T.)

  15. Production, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of two nanobodies against the Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain DBL6∊-FCR3 of the Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuchelen, Anneleen; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Gamain, Benoît; Loris, Remy; Nuland, Nico A. J. van; Ramboarina, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Two nanobodies generated against the VAR2CSA DBL6∊-FCR3 domain involved in pregnancy-associated malaria were selected, expressed, purified and crystallized. The VAR2CSA protein has been closely associated with pregnancy-associated malaria and is recognized as the main adhesin exposed on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Chondroitin sulfate A was identified as the main host receptor in the placenta. Single-domain heavy-chain camelid antibodies, more commonly called nanobodies, were selected and produced against the DBL6∊-FCR3 domain of VAR2CSA. Crystals of two specific nanobodies, Nb2907 and Nb2919, identified as strong binders to DBL6∊-FCR3 and the full-length VAR2CSA exposed on the surface of FCR3 P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes, were obtained. Crystals of Nb2907 diffract to 2.45 Å resolution and belong to space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 136.1, b = 78.5, c = 103.4 Å, β = 118.8°, whereas Nb2919 crystals diffract to 2.15 Å resolution and belong to space group P4 3 2 1 2 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 62.7, c = 167.2 Å

  16. International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.R.; O'Connor, B.H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The ICDD is a not-for-profit organisation comprising approximately 300 of the world's leading x-ray scientists. It is dedicated to collecting, editing, publishing and distributing powder diffraction data for the identification of crystalline materials. The membership of the ICDD consists of worldwide representation from academe, government and industry. It is our mission to continue as the world centre for quality x-ray powder diffraction data to meet the needs of the technical community. Through the combined efforts of the members and its staff of 40 at ICDD Headquarters, the organisation serves the x-ray analysis community (i) by producing the ICDD Powder Diffraction File (PDF) and other data base products for materials characterisation; (ii) through x-ray analysis education programs and conference management (including the Denver X-ray Conference); and (iii) through philanthropic initiatives such as scholarship support for postgraduate students working in the field. The current Release 2001 of the PDF (PDF-2) contains 87,500 measured patterns and 49,000 patterns calculated from the ICSD database. The number of PDF patterns in this latest release has increased by approximately 3,000, including some 2,500 measured patterns. The quality of the database is being continuously improved through the organisation's Grant-in-Aid program whereby diffractionists around the world contribute to the measurement of patterns for new materials and to the improvement of existing PDF data. The organisation is devoting much attention to the needs of the bioscience community. The database will soon feature a much-expanded set of patterns for organic, polymer, pharmaceutical and biomaterials. The ICDD is about to release a relational database (RDB) version of the PDF (PDF-4) which will give users a very sophisticated tool for data mining. The PDF-4 will provide a quantum leap in data mining techniques, and will soon lead to the PDF being cross-linked to other diffraction

  17. A theoretical overview on single hard diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuesthoff, M.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of the Pomeron structure function and its application in Single Hard Diffraction at hadron colliders and in diffractive Deep Inelastic Scattering is critically reviewed. Some alternative approaches are briefly surveyed with a focus on QCD inspired models

  18. Coherent Diffractive Imaging at LCLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Joachim

    2010-03-01

    Soft x-ray FEL light sources produce ultrafast x-ray pulses with outstanding high peak brilliance. This might enable the structure determination of proteins that cannot be crystallized. The deposited energy would destroy the molecules completely, but owing to the short pulses the destruction will ideally only happen after the termination of the pulse. In order to address the many challenges that we face in attempting molecular diffraction, we have carried out experiments in coherent diffraction from protein nanocrystals at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. The periodicity of these objects gives us much higher scattering signals than uncrystallized proteins would. The crystals are filtered to sizes less than 2 micron, and delivered to the pulsed X-ray beam in a liquid jet. The effects of pulse duration and fluence on the high-resolution structure of the crystals have been studied. Diffraction patterns are recorded at a repetition rate of 30 Hz with pnCCD detectors. This allows us to take 108,000 images per hour. With 2-mega-pixel-detectors this gives a data-rate of more than 400 GB per hour. The automated sorting and evaluation of hundreds of thousands images is another challenge of this kind of experiments. Preliminary results will be presented on our first LCLS experiments. This work was carried out as part of a collaboration, for which Henry Chapman is the spokesperson. The collaboration consists of CFEL DESY, Arizona State University, SLAC, Uppsala University, LLNL, The University of Melbourne, LBNL, the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, and the Max Planck Advanced Study Group (ASG) at the CFEL. The experiments were carried out using the CAMP apparatus, which was designed and built by the Max Planck ASG at CFEL. The LCLS is operated by Stanford University on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  19. An experiment in diffractive physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Alberto

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this talk is to show one of the next future experiment in diffractive Physics which will be installed at the DO experiment at Tevatron/Fermilab for run II, and the importance for Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) as the theory of the strong interactions. The apparatus that we have developed is the Forward Proton Detector (FPD) to be introduced on the beam line of the Tevatron at both sides of the DO detector. The FPD is composed by a set of Roman Pots as we will see in the text below

  20. Magnetic structures: neutron diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouree-Vigneron, F.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is often an unequivocal method for determining magnetic structures. Here we present some typical examples, stressing the sequence through experiments, data analysis, interpretation and modelisation. Two series of compounds are chosen: Tb Ni 2 Ge 2 and RBe 13 (R = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er). Depending on the nature of the elements, the magnetic structures produced can be commensurate, incommensurate or even show a transition between two such phases as a function of temperature. A model, taking magnetic exchange and anisotropy into account, will be presented in the case of commensurate-incommensurate magnetic transitions in RBe 13

  1. Weight factors in diffraction transformation of seismic recordings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, M.G.; Lyevyy, N.V.; Telegin, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    In diffraction transformation of seismic recordings made using amplitude regulators, there is a distortion of the dynamics of the result-producing depth log. To eliminate distortions, it is suggested that weight factors be used. A formula is given for computing the factors, and the effectiveness of their use is confirmed using test and production seismic materials.

  2. Diffractive optical elements for space communication terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Hans-Peter; Ehbets, Peter; Teijido, Juan M.; Weible, Kenneth J.; Heimbeck, Hans-Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The potential of diffractive optical elements for advanced laser communication terminals has been investigated. Applications include beam shaping of high- power laser diode arrays, optical filter elements for position detection and hybrid (refractive/diffractive) elements. In addition, we present a design example of a miniaturized terminal including diffractive optics.

  3. Undergraduate Experiment with Fractal Diffraction Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsoriu, Juan A.; Furlan, Walter D.; Pons, Amparo; Barreiro, Juan C.; Gimenez, Marcos H.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple diffraction experiment with fractal gratings based on the triadic Cantor set. Diffraction by fractals is proposed as a motivating strategy for students of optics in the potential applications of optical processing. Fraunhofer diffraction patterns are obtained using standard equipment present in most undergraduate physics…

  4. 2010 Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ana Gonzalez

    2011-03-10

    Advances in basic methodologies have played a major role in the dramatic progress in macromolecular crystallography over the past decade, both in terms of overall productivity and in the increasing complexity of the systems being successfully tackled. The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology will, as in the past, focus on the most recent developments in methodology, covering all aspects of the process from crystallization to model building and refinement, complemented by examples of structural highlights and complementary methods. Extensive discussion will be encouraged and it is hoped that all attendees will participate by giving oral or poster presentations, the latter using the excellent poster display area available at Bates College. The relatively small size and informal atmosphere of the meeting provides an excellent opportunity for all participants, especially younger scientists, to meet and exchange ideas with leading methods developers.

  5. Dynamical diffraction in periodic multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, V F

    1997-01-01

    Exact reflectivity curves are calculated numerically for various periodic multilayers using the optical matrix method in order to test the dynamical theory of diffraction. The theory is generally valid for values of the bilayer thickness d up to about 100 A. For somewhat larger values of d, where the theory begins to break down, the initial discrepancy is in the phase of the oscillations in the wings of the peaks. For very large values of d, where the first-order Bragg peak approaches the edge of the mirror reflection, two general types of multilayers can be distinguished. In the first (typified in the present work by Ni/Ti), there is a large (30% or more) reduction in the actual value of the critical wave vector for total reflection while, in the second (typified here by Fe/Ge), there is very little reduction (3 % or so). The origin of these two very different types of behavior is explained. It is also shown that, within the dynamical theory of diffraction, the change in the position of the center of the Dar...

  6. The analysis of powder diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.I.F.; Harrison, W.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews neutron powder diffraction data analysis, with emphasis on the structural aspects of powder diffraction and the future possibilities afforded by the latest generation of very high resolution neutron and x-ray powder diffractometers. Traditional x-ray powder diffraction techniques are outlined. Structural studies by powder diffraction are discussed with respect to the Rietveld method, and a case study in the Rietveld refinement method and developments of the Rietveld method are described. Finally studies using high resolution powder diffraction at the Spallation Neutron Source, ISIS at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are summarized. (U.K.)

  7. Looking for the diffractive exclusive signal in the dijet mass fraction measurement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kepka, Oldřich; Royon, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 9 (2008), s. 2533-2538 ISSN 0587-4254. [ School on QCD, Low-x Physics, Saturation and Diffraction. Copanello, Calabria, 01.07.2007-14.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : exclusive diffractive production * diffraction Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.767, year: 2008

  8. Electron back scattered diffraction study of SmCo magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonamine, T.; Fukuhara, M.; Machado, R.; Missell, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    The remanence and energy product of permanent magnets is a strong function of their crystallographic texture. Electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) is a tool for texture analysis providing information about the atomic layers up to 50 nm below the surface of the material. This paper discusses experimental requirements for performing EBSD measurements on rare-earth permanent magnets and presents results on commercial SmCo magnet material. EBSD measurements proved to be very sensitive to misaligned grains and were sensitive to texture in good agreement with information provided by X-ray diffraction scans. Results for nanostructured Sm(CoFeCuZr) z magnets are also discussed

  9. Drell-Yan diffraction: breakdown of QCD factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasechnik, R.S.; Kopeliovich, B.Z.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffractive Drell-Yan process in proton-(anti)proton collisions at high energies in the color dipole approach. The calculations are performed at forward rapidities of the leptonic pair. The effect of eikonalization of the universal ''bare'' dipole-target elastic amplitude in the saturation regime takes into account the principal part of the gap survival probability. We present predictions for the total and differential cross sections of the single-diffractive lepton-pair production at RHIC and LHC energies. We analyze implications of the QCD factorization breakdown in the diffractive Drell-Yan process, which is caused by a specific interplay of the soft and hard interactions, resulting in rather unusual properties of the corresponding observables. (orig.)

  10. Axial channeling in electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, A.; Lehmpfuhl, G.

    1978-01-01

    Kossel patterns from Silicon and Niobium were obtained with a convergent electron beam. An intensity maximum in the direction of the zone axes [001] and [111] of Nb was interpreted as axial channeling. The intensity distribution in Kossel patterns was calculated by means of the Bloch wave picture of the dynamical theory of electron diffraction. Particularly zone axis patterns were calculated for different substance-energy combinations and they were compared with experimental observations. The intensity distribution in the calculated Kossel patterns was very sensitive to the model of absorption and it was found that a treatment of the absorption close to the model of Humphreys and Hirsch [Phil. Mag. 18, 115 (1968)] gave the best agreement with the experimental observations. Furthermore it is shown which Bloch waves are important for the intensity distribution in the Kossel patterns, how they are absorbed and how they change with energy. (orig.) [de

  11. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, G.K.; Skinner, G.K

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro arc seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive black holes in the center of active galaxies What then is precluding their immediate adoption Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed atmospheric absorption

  12. Encapsulation process for diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzsch, Stephan; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2015-07-13

    Encapsulation of grating structures facilitates an improvement of the optical functionality and/or adds mechanical stability to the fragile structure. Here, we introduce novel encapsulation process of nanoscale patterns based on atomic layer deposition and micro structuring. The overall size of the encapsulated structured surface area is only restricted by the size of the available microstructuring and coating devices; thus, overcoming inherent limitations of existing bonding processes concerning cleanliness, roughness, and curvature of the components. Finally, the process is demonstrated for a transmission grating. The encapsulated grating has 97.5% transmission efficiency in the -1st diffraction order for TM-polarized light, and is being limited by the experimental grating parameters as confirmed by rigorous coupled wave analysis.

  13. Production of muscovite-feldspathic glass composite: scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis; Producao de composito moscovita-vidro feldspatico: microscopia eletronica de varredura e analise de difracao de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F.P.F.; Ogasawara, T.; Santos, S.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Franca, S.C.A.; Barbato, C.N [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral(CETEM/MCT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to find the sintering conditions for the feldspathic glass + muscovite mixture to produce a dense composite block for manufacturing dental prosthesis by using CAD-CAM. Each 20g of the glass-frit had : 15.55g of Armil-feldspar; 0.53g of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; 1.56g of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}; 0.5g of borax; 1.74g of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}; 0.13g of CeO{sub 2}. Frit's powder finer than 350 Tyler mesh was mixed with 0 wt%, 10 wt%, 20 wt% and 100 wt% of muscovite pressed cylinders (5600 pounds force) 16mm in diameter and sintered under vacuum Vacumat (VITA) furnace at 850 deg C, 900 deg C, 950 deg C, 1000 deg C, 1050 deg C, 1100 deg C and 1150 deg C. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy were carried out. The necessary temperature for high densification depended on the composition of the mixture: 850 deg C (for pure frit); 1050 deg C (for 10 wt% mica) and 1150 deg C (for 20 wt% mica); pure mica degraded during sintering. (author)

  14. Bragg's Law diffraction simulations for electron backscatter diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacher, Josh; Landon, Colin; Adams, Brent L.; Fullwood, David

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, Angus Wilkinson introduced a cross-correlation-based electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) texture analysis system capable of measuring lattice rotations and elastic strains to high resolution. A variation of the cross-correlation method is introduced using Bragg's Law-based simulated EBSD patterns as strain free reference patterns that facilitates the use of the cross-correlation method with polycrystalline materials. The lattice state is found by comparing simulated patterns to collected patterns at a number of regions on the pattern using the cross-correlation function and calculating the deformation from the measured shifts of each region. A new pattern can be simulated at the deformed state, and the process can be iterated a number of times to converge on the absolute lattice state. By analyzing an iteratively rotated single crystal silicon sample and recovering the rotation, this method is shown to have an angular resolution of ∼0.04 o and an elastic strain resolution of ∼7e-4. As an example of applications, elastic strain and curvature measurements are used to estimate the dislocation density in a single grain of a compressed polycrystalline Mg-based AZ91 alloy.

  15. Measurement of diffractive and exclusive processes with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gach Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS Collaboration has carried out a study of diffractive dijet production in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 7 TeV at the LHC. The data distributions are compared with Monte Carlo models and the rapidity gap survival probability has been estimated in the kinematic region with high diffractive contribution. Prospects for exclusive jet production studies with the forward proton tagging capability of the AFP sub-detector of ATLAS are also discussed. First results based on data taken jointly with the ATLAS and the LHCf detectors in a p+Pb run will also be shown. In addition, the measurement of the cross-section for the exclusive production of di-lepton pairs in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV is discussed.

  16. Photon diffractive dissociation in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuesthoff, M.

    1995-09-01

    The cross section of the Photon Diffractive Dissociation in Deep Inelastic Scattering is calculated in the frame work of perturbative QCD. In the triple Regge region the BFKL-approximation is used to evaluate the leading contributions of the corresponding Feynman diagrams with a subsequent resummation in terms of integral equations. These equations are partly solved leading to an effective two to four gluons transition vertex. This exhibits remarkable properties like the total symmetry under the interchange of gluons, the conformal invariance and a simple colour structure. The presence of four interacting gluons in the t-channel does not support the simple triple Pomeron picture with solely a local vertex. A dimensional conservation law is found for zero momentum transfer with the consequence that a direct coupling of the three BFKL-singularities is absent. Another consequence is the dominance of small transverse momenta at the triple Pomeron vertex. Beyond the triple Regge limit a slightly different approach is used in which the diagrams are calculated with leading log(Q 2 ) accuracy. Higher twist contributions are neglected except for the longitudinal part of the cross section which dominates at small invariant masses M in accordance with QCD-predictions and measurements for the exclusive production of vector mesons. For the comparison with the recently measured Photon Diffractive Dissociation-data from H1 and ZEUS a model for the Pomeron is introduced based on the F 2 -data. In the spirit of the k t -factorization theorem this model is inserted in place of the BFKL-Pomeron. Considering the fact that this approach does not contain free parameters the agreement between the theoretical prediction and the data is found to be good. (orig.)

  17. Diffraction efficiency enhancement of femtosecond laser-engraved diffraction gratings due to CO2 laser polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hun-Kook; Jung, Deok; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Noh, Young-Chul; Lee, Yong-Tak; Kim, Jin-Tae; Ahsan, Shamim

    2014-01-01

    This research demonstrates laser-assisted fabrication of high-efficiency diffraction gratings in fused-silica glass samples. Initially, femtosecond laser pulses are used to engrave diffraction gratings on the glass surfaces. Then, these micro-patterned glass samples undergo CO 2 laser polishing process. unpolished diffraction gratings encoded in the glass samples show an overall diffraction efficiency of 18.1%. diffraction gratings imprinted on the glass samples and then polished four times by using a CO 2 laser beam attain a diffraction efficiency of 32.7%. We also investigate the diffraction patterns of the diffraction gratings encoded on fused-silica glass surfaces. The proposed CO 2 laser polishing technique shows great potential in patterning high-efficiency diffraction gratings on the surfaces of various transparent materials.

  18. Inelastic nucleon diffraction at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goggi, G.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments carried out at ISR and at FNAL which have yielded a substantial amount of data on double diffraction processes, which were unambiguously indentified and measured and which provide new tools to study the dynamical properties shared by different classes of diffractive reactions are identified. In this review interest is focused on the experimental aspects of inclusive and exclusive results both on single and double diffraction and on the problems arising from their comparison. Problems covered include; inclusive and semi-inclusive diffraction, multiparticle inclusive studies, single-particle inclusive studies, resonance region, high mass region, exclusive single diffractive reactions, mass spectra, cross sections, t-dependence, decay angular properties, and double diffraction. (U.K.)

  19. Diffraction of polarized light on periodic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukanina, V; Divakov, D; Tyutyunnik, A; Hohlov, A

    2012-01-01

    Periodic structures as photonic crystals are widely used in modern laser devices, communication technologies and for creating various beam splitters and filters. Diffraction gratings are applied for creating 3D television sets, DVD and Blu-ray drives and reflective structures (Berkley mirror). It is important to simulate diffraction on such structures to design optical systems with predetermined properties based on photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Methods of simulating diffraction on periodic structures uses theory of Floquet-Bloch and rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). Current work is dedicated to analysis of photonic band gaps and simulating diffraction on one-dimensional binary diffraction grating using RCWA. The Maxwell's equations for isotropic media and constitutive relations based on the cgs system were used as a model.

  20. Soft color interactions and diffractive hard scattering at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enberg, R.; Timneanu, N.; Ingelman, G.; Uppsala Univ.

    2001-06-01

    An improved understanding of nonperturbative QCD can be obtained by the recently developed soft color interaction models. Their essence is the variation of color string-field topologies, giving a unified description of final states in high energy interactions, e.g., diffractive and nondiffractive events in ep and pp. Here we present a detailed study of such models (the soft color interaction model and the generalized area law model) applied to pp, considering also the general problem of the underlying event including beam particle remnants. With models turned to HERA ep data, we find a good description also of Tevatron data on production of W, bottom and jets in diffractive events defined either by leading antiprotons or by one or two rapidity gaps in the forward or backward regions. We also give predictions for diffractive J/ψ production where the soft exchange mechanism produces both a gap and a color singlet cc state in the same event. This soft color interaction approach is also compared with Pomeron-based models for diffraction, and some possibilities to experimentally discriminate between these different approaches are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Diffraction based overlay re-assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; D'havé, Koen; Cheng, Shaunee

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, numerous authors have reported the advantages of Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) over Image Based Overlay (IBO), mainly by comparison of metrology figures of merit such as TIS and TMU. Some have even gone as far as to say that DBO is the only viable overlay metrology technique for advanced technology nodes; 22nm and beyond. Typically the only reported drawback of DBO is the size of the required targets. This severely limits its effective use, when all critical layers of a product, including double patterned layers need to be measured, and in-die overlay measurements are required. In this paper we ask whether target size is the only limitation to the adoption of DBO for overlay characterization and control, or are there other metrics, which need to be considered. For example, overlay accuracy with respect to scanner baseline or on-product process overlay control? In this work, we critically re-assess the strengths and weaknesses of DBO for the applications of scanner baseline and on-product process layer overlay control. A comprehensive comparison is made to IBO. For on product process layer control we compare the performance on critical process layers; Gate, Contact and Metal. In particularly we focus on the response of the scanner to the corrections determined by each metrology technique for each process layer, as a measure of the accuracy. Our results show that to characterize an overlay metrology technique that is suitable for use in advanced technology nodes requires much more than just evaluating the conventional metrology metrics of TIS and TMU.

  2. Theory of edge diffraction in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Ufimtsev, Pyotr

    2009-01-01

    This book is an essential resource for researchers involved in designing antennas and RCS calculations. It is also useful for students studying high frequency diffraction techniques. It contains basic original ideas of the Physical Theory of Diffraction (PTD), examples of its practical application, and its validation by the mathematical theory of diffraction. The derived analytic expressions are convenient for numerical calculations and clearly illustrate the physical structure of the scattered field.

  3. Nonlinear diffraction from a virtual beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltiel, Solomon M.; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2010-01-01

    We observe experimentally a novel type of nonlinear diffraction in the process of two-wave mixing on a nonlinear quadratic grating.We demonstrate that when the nonlinear grating is illuminated simultaneously by two noncollinear beams, a second-harmonic diffraction pattern is generated by a virtual...... beam propagating along the bisector of the two pump beams. The observed iffraction phenomena is a purely nonlinear effect that has no analogue in linear diffraction...

  4. Diffraction limit of refractive compound lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A compound X-ray and neutron lenses is an array of lenses with a common axis. The resolution limited by aberration and by diffraction. Diffraction limit comes from theory based on absorption aperture of the compound refractive lenses. Beam passing through transparent lenses form Airy pattern. Results of calculation of diffraction resolution limit for non-transparent X-ray and neutron lenses are discussed. (authors)

  5. Diffractive variable beam splitter: optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, R; Cincotti, G; Santarsiero, M

    2000-01-01

    The analytical expression of the phase profile of the optimum diffractive beam splitter with an arbitrary power ratio between the two output beams is derived. The phase function is obtained by an analytical optimization procedure such that the diffraction efficiency of the resulting optical element is the highest for an actual device. Comparisons are presented with the efficiency of a diffractive beam splitter specified by a sawtooth phase function and with the pertinent theoretical upper bound for this type of element.

  6. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  7. Twenty years of diffraction at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.; Rockefeller U.

    2005-01-01

    Results on diffractive particle interactions from the Fermilab Tevatron (bar p)p collider are placed in perspective through a QCD inspired phenomenological approach, which exploits scaling and factorization properties observed in data. The results discussed are those obtained by the CDF Collaboration from a comprehensive set of single, double, and multigap soft and hard diffraction processes studied during the twenty year period since 1985, when the CDF diffractive program was proposed and the first Blois Workshop was held

  8. Undergraduate experiment with fractal diffraction gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsoriu, Juan A; Furlan, Walter D; Pons, Amparo; Barreiro, Juan C; Gimenez, Marcos H

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple diffraction experiment with fractal gratings based on the triadic Cantor set. Diffraction by fractals is proposed as a motivating strategy for students of optics in the potential applications of optical processing. Fraunhofer diffraction patterns are obtained using standard equipment present in most undergraduate physics laboratories and compared with those obtained with conventional periodic gratings. It is shown that fractal gratings produce self-similar diffraction patterns which can be evaluated analytically. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and numerical results.

  9. Diffractive interactions of hadrons at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1982-01-01

    Elastic scattering, inclusive single diffraction dissociation and total cross section results are reviewed, with emphasis on the inter-relationship among the parameters that characterize these processes

  10. Evaluating diffraction-based overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Tan, Asher; Jung, JinWoo; Goelzer, Gary; Smith, Nigel; Hu, Jiangtao; Ham, Boo-Hyun; Kwak, Min-Cheol; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Nam, Suk-Woo

    2012-03-01

    We evaluate diffraction-based overlay (DBO) metrology using two test wafers. The test wafers have different film stacks designed to test the quality of DBO data under a range of film conditions. We present DBO results using traditional empirical approach (eDBO). eDBO relies on linear response of the reflectance with respect to the overlay displacement within a small range. It requires specially designed targets that consist of multiple pads with programmed shifts. It offers convenience of quick recipe setup since there is no need to establish a model. We measure five DBO targets designed with different pitches and programmed shifts. The correlations of five eDBO targets and the correlation of eDBO to image-based overlay are excellent. The targets of 800nm and 600nm pitches have better dynamic precision than targets of 400nm pitch, which agrees with simulated results on signal/noise ratio. 3σ of less than 0.1nm is achieved for both wafers using the best configured targets. We further investigate the linearity assumption of eDBO algorithm. Simulation results indicate that as the pitch of DBO targets gets smaller, the nonlinearity error, i.e., the error in the overlay measurement results caused by deviation from ideal linear response, becomes bigger. We propose a nonlinearity correction (NLC) by including higher order terms in the optical response. The new algorithm with NLC improves measurement consistency for DBO targets of same pitch but different programmed shift, due to improved accuracy. The results from targets with different pitches, however, are improved marginally, indicating the presence of other error sources.

  11. Structure determination of modulated structures by powder X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhou, Z.Y.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Sun, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 11 (2016), s. 1351-1362 ISSN 2052-1553 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electron diffraction * incommensurate structure * powder diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.036, year: 2016

  12. X-ray topography and multiple diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.-L.

    1983-01-01

    A short summary on X-ray topography, which is based on the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, is made. The applications and properties related to the use of the multiple diffraction technique are analized and discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  13. Diffraction of radiation from channelled charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshevskij, V.G.; Grubich, A.O.; Dubovskaya, I.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    An explicit expression for cross-section and radiation spectrum at diffraction is calculated. It is shown that photons emitted by channelled particles form a typical diffraction pattern which contains information about the crystal structure. It is also shown that the change of the longitudinal energy of the particle caused by the radiation braking becomes important when the particle energy is increased. (author)

  14. Classical system underlying a diffracting quantum billiard

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manan Jain

    2018-01-05

    Jan 5, 2018 ... Wave equation; rays; quantum chaos. PACS Nos 03.65.Ge; 05.45.Mt; 42.25.Fx. 1. Introduction. Diffraction [1] is a complex wave phenomenon which manifests classically and quantum mechanically. Among a wide range of systems where diffraction becomes important, there is an interesting situation of.

  15. Non-diffractive optically variable security devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renesse, R.L. van

    1991-01-01

    At the past optical security conferences attention was focused on diffractive structures, e.g. holograms, embossed gratings and thin—film devices, as security elements on valuable documents. The main reasons for this emphasis are, that the iridescent effect of such diffractive optically variable

  16. Correlations in the hadronic double diffractive dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldegol, Alexandre.

    1991-05-01

    A given reaction of double diffractive dissociation is studied based on the three-component Deck Model. The correlations among the diffractive slope, the effective mass of the dissociated particle sub-system and the dissociation angle in the Gottfried-Jackson are studied based in this model. 9 refs, 19 figs

  17. Uniform asymptotic theory of edge diffraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, R.M.; Boersma, J.; Oughstun, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    Geometrical optics fails to account for the phenomenon of diffraction, i.e., the existence of nonzero fields in the geometrical shadow. Keller's geometrical theory of diffraction accounts for this phenomenon by providing correction terms to the geometrical optics field, in the form of a

  18. Uniform asymptotic theory of edge diffraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, R.M.; Boersma, J.

    1969-01-01

    Geometrical optics fails to account for the phenomenon of diffraction, i.e., the existence of nonzero fields in the geometrical shadow. Keller's geometrical theory of diffraction accounts for this phenomenon by providing correction terms to the geometrical optics field, in the form of a

  19. Restoration of diffracted far field at the output of circular diffraction waveplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovhannisyan, D; Margaryan, H; Abrahamyan, V; Hakobyan, N; Tabiryan, N

    2014-01-01

    The light propagation in an anisotropic periodic media, such us circular diffraction waveplate (CDW) by a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique is studied. The FDTD numerical simulation and the subsequent Fourier transform of the diffracted electric near field was been used for study of ability of CDW to diffract a laser beam and simultaneously convert polarization state. The FDTD simulation results used to restore the diffracted electric far field at the CDW output. an abstract

  20. Uniting Electron Crystallography and Powder Diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Shankland, Kenneth; Meshi, Louisa; Avilov, Anatoly; David, William

    2012-01-01

    The polycrystalline and nanocrystalline states play an increasingly important role in exploiting the properties of materials, encompassing applications as diverse as pharmaceuticals, catalysts, solar cells and energy storage. A knowledge of the three-dimensional atomic and molecular structure of materials is essential for understanding and controlling their properties, yet traditional single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods lose their power when only polycrystalline and nanocrystalline samples are available. It is here that powder diffraction and single-crystal electron diffraction techniques take over, substantially extending the range of applicability of the crystallographic principles of structure determination.  This volume, a collection of teaching contributions presented at the Crystallographic Course in Erice in 2011, clearly describes the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of powder diffraction and electron diffraction methods in materials characterisation, encompassing a diverse range of discipl...

  1. Soft and diffractive scattering with the cluster model in Herwig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieseke, Stefan; Loshaj, Frasher; Kirchgaesser, Patrick [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We present a new model for soft interactions in the event-generator Herwig. The model consists of two components. One to model diffractive final states on the basis of the cluster hadronization model and a second component that addresses soft multiple interactions as multiple particle production in multiperipheral kinematics. We present much improved results for minimum-bias measurements at various LHC energies. (orig.)

  2. Status and prospects of measurements of exclusive and diffractive processes with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Fiducial and differential cross-sections are presented for the exclusive production of pairs of leptons and W bosons, measured across a range of centre-of-mass energies by the ATLAS Collaboration at the LHC. All measurements are compatible with Standard Model predictions. A measurement of the dijet production cross-section is presented differentially in variables which distinguish between diffractive and non-diffractive scattering. The first analysis utilising the new AFP detectors at ATLAS is detailed.

  3. Recent diffractive and exclusive results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bylinkin, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the exclusive and semi-exclusive production of charged pion pairs in proton-proton collisions, $pp\\rightarrow p(p^{*})+ \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}+ p (p^{*})$, where the $ \\pi^+\\pi^-$ pair is emitted at central rapidities,and the scattered protons stay intact (p) or diffractively dissociate ($p^*$) without detection is presented in these proceedings.The measurement is performed with the CMS detector at the LHC, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 450$\\mu b^{-1}$ collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The dipion cross section, measured for single-pion transverse momentum $p_T > 0.2$ GeV and rapidity $\\mid y\\mid < 2$, is $26.5\\pm0.3(stat.)\\pm5.0(syst.)\\pm1.1\\mu b$. The differential cross sections measured as a function of the invariant mass and $p_T$ of the pion pair are compared to phenomenological predictions.

  4. Diffraction contrast imaging using virtual apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammer, Christoph; Burak Ozdol, V.; Liebscher, Christian H.; Minor, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods on how to obtain the full diffraction information from a sample region and the associated reconstruction of images or diffraction patterns using virtual apertures are demonstrated. In a STEM-based approach, diffraction patterns are recorded for each beam position using a small probe convergence angle. Similarly, a tilt series of TEM dark-field images is acquired. The resulting datasets allow the reconstruction of either electron diffraction patterns, or bright-, dark- or annular dark-field images using virtual apertures. The experimental procedures of both methods are presented in the paper and are applied to a precipitation strengthened and creep deformed ferritic alloy with a complex microstructure. The reconstructed virtual images are compared with conventional TEM images. The major advantage is that arbitrarily shaped virtual apertures generated with image processing software can be designed without facing any physical limitations. In addition, any virtual detector that is specifically designed according to the underlying crystal structure can be created to optimize image contrast. - Highlights: • A dataset containing all structural information of a given position is recorded. • The dataset allows reconstruction of virtual diffraction patterns or images. • Specific virtual apertures are designed to image precipitates in a complex alloy. • Virtual diffraction patterns from arbitrarily small regions can be established. • Using STEM diffraction to record the dataset is more efficient than TEM dark-field

  5. Study of contributions of diffractive processes to forward neutral particle production in p-p collisions at \\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV with the ATLAS-LHCf detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2092922

    Knowing the properties of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) is extremely important to solving the puzzle of their origin. Determination of the mass composition and reconstruction of the energy of UHECRs, based on the interpretation of large scale ground-based experimental data depends strongly on the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of air showers. Limitations in the modelling of hadronic interactions, which are widely used in the MC simulations, and the unknown model uncertainties lead to large uncertainties when interpreting the measurement data. So an adequate understanding of hadronic interactions occurring between cosmic-ray and the atmosphere is the key to solving the puzzling origin of UHECRs. The Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf) experiment is a unique experiment dedicated to measuring the neutral particle production in the very forward region of the LHC to understand the hadronic interactions. According to the published LHCf results, no hadronic interaction model can predict the various data...

  6. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  7. A scattering approach to sea wave diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, M. L., E-mail: letizia.corradini@unicam.it; Garbuglia, M., E-mail: milena.garbuglia@unicam.it; Maponi, P., E-mail: pierluigi.maponi@unicam.it [University of Camerino, via Madonna delle Carceri, 9, 62032, Camerino (Italy); Ruggeri, M., E-mail: ru.marco@faggiolatipumps.it [Faggiolati Pumps S.p.A., Z.Ind Sforzacosta, 62100, Macerata (Italy)

    2016-06-08

    This paper intends to show a model for the diffraction of sea waves approaching an OWC device, which converts the sea waves motion into mechanical energy and then electrical energy. This is a preliminary study to the optimisation of the device, in fact the computation of sea waves diffraction around the device allows the estimation of the sea waves energy which enters into the device. The computation of the diffraction phenomenon is the result of a sea waves scattering problem, solved with an integral equation method.

  8. Ultrafast electron diffraction using an ultracold source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. van Mourik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of structural dynamics of complex macromolecular crystals using electrons requires bunches of sufficient coherence and charge. We present diffraction patterns from graphite, obtained with bunches from an ultracold electron source, based on femtosecond near-threshold photoionization of a laser-cooled atomic gas. By varying the photoionization wavelength, we change the effective source temperature from 300 K to 10 K, resulting in a concomitant change in the width of the diffraction peaks, which is consistent with independently measured source parameters. This constitutes a direct measurement of the beam coherence of this ultracold source and confirms its suitability for protein crystal diffraction.

  9. Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.; Zhong, Z.; Johnston, R.E.; Sayers, D.

    1997-09-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is a new x-ray radiographic imaging modality using synchrotron x-rays which produces images of thick absorbing objects that are almost completely free of scatter. They show dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging applied to the same phantoms. The contrast is based not only on attenuation but also the refraction and diffraction properties of the sample. The diffraction component and the apparent absorption component (absorption plus extinction contrast) can each be determined independently. This imaging method may improve the image quality for medical applications such as mammography

  10. Accurate Charge Densities from Powder Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindzus, Niels; Wahlberg, Nanna; Becker, Jacob

    Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction has in recent years advanced to a level, where it has become realistic to probe extremely subtle electronic features. Compared to single-crystal diffraction, it may be superior for simple, high-symmetry crystals owing to negligible extinction effects and minimal...... peak overlap. Additionally, it offers the opportunity for collecting data on a single scale. For charge densities studies, the critical task is to recover accurate and bias-free structure factors from the diffraction pattern. This is the focal point of the present study, scrutinizing the performance...

  11. Diffraction and diffusion in room acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Rasmussen, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    Diffraction and diffusion are two phenomena that are both related to the wave nature of sound. Diffraction due to the finite size of reflecting surfaces and the design of single reflectors and reflector arrays are discussed. Diffusion is the result of scattering of sound reflected from surfaces...... that are not plane but curved or irregular. The importance of diffusion has been demonstrated in concert halls. Methods for the design of diffusing surfaces and the development of new types of diffusers are reviewed. Finally, the importance of diffraction and diffusion in room acoustic computer models is discussed....

  12. Novel Aspects of Hard Diffraction in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2005-01-01

    Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, and nuclear shadowing and antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency

  13. Diffraction tomography for plasma refractive index measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.; Nazikian, R.; Sharp, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Measurement of the properties of probing beams of coherent electromagnetic radiation yields essential information about the line of sight integrated plasma refractive index. Presented is a scalar diffraction treatment of forward angle scattering plasma diagnostics based on the diffraction projection theorem first presented by E. Wolf in 1969. New results are obtained for near field scattering from probing Gaussian beams and it is demonstrated that the effects of diffraction need to be addressed for tomographic inversion of near field scattering and interferometry data. 33 refs., 10 figs

  14. X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of crystallinity in hydroxyapatite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, E; Millet, P; Lodini, A

    2000-02-01

    To standardize industrial implant production and make comparisons between different experimental results, we have to be able to quantify the crystallinity of hydroxyapatite. Methods of measuring crystallinity ratio were developed for various HA samples before and after plasma spraying. The first series of methods uses X-ray diffraction. The advantage of these methods is that X-ray diffraction equipment is used widely in science and industry. In the second series, a neutron diffraction method is developed and the results recorded are similar to those obtained by the modified X-ray diffraction methods. The advantage of neutron diffraction is the ability to obtain measurements deep inside a component. It is a nondestructive method, owing to the very low absorption of neutrons in most materials. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Measuring Spray Droplet Size from Agricultural Nozzles Using Laser Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Bradley K.; Hoffmann, W. Clint

    2016-01-01

    When making an application of any crop protection material such as an herbicide or pesticide, the applicator uses a variety of skills and information to make an application so that the material reaches the target site (i.e., plant). Information critical in this process is the droplet size that a particular spray nozzle, spray pressure, and spray solution combination generates, as droplet size greatly influences product efficacy and how the spray moves through the environment. Researchers and product manufacturers commonly use laser diffraction equipment to measure the spray droplet size in laboratory wind tunnels. The work presented here describes methods used in making spray droplet size measurements with laser diffraction equipment for both ground and aerial application scenarios that can be used to ensure inter- and intra-laboratory precision while minimizing sampling bias associated with laser diffraction systems. Maintaining critical measurement distances and concurrent airflow throughout the testing process is key to this precision. Real time data quality analysis is also critical to preventing excess variation in the data or extraneous inclusion of erroneous data. Some limitations of this method include atypical spray nozzles, spray solutions or application conditions that result in spray streams that do not fully atomize within the measurement distances discussed. Successful adaption of this method can provide a highly efficient method for evaluation of the performance of agrochemical spray application nozzles under a variety of operational settings. Also discussed are potential experimental design considerations that can be included to enhance functionality of the data collected. PMID:27684589

  16. Neutron Larmor diffraction measurements for materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repper, J.; Keller, T.; Hofmann, M.; Krempaszky, C.; Petry, W.; Werner, E.

    2010-01-01

    Neutron Larmor diffraction (LD) is a high-resolution diffraction technique based on the Larmor precession of polarized neutrons. In contrast to conventional diffraction, LD does not depend on the accurate measurement of Bragg angles, and thus the resolution is independent of the beam collimation and monochromaticity. At present, a relative resolution for the determination of the crystal lattice spacing d of Δd/d∼10 -6 is achieved, i.e. at least one order of magnitude superior to conventional neutron or X-ray techniques. This work is a first step to explore the application of LD to high-resolution problems in the analysis of residual stresses, where both the accurate measurement of absolute d values and the possibility of measuring type II and III stresses may provide additional information beyond those accessible by conventional diffraction techniques. Data obtained from Inconel 718 samples are presented.

  17. ALADIN - Advanced Laue Diffraction Instruments using Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemee-Cailleau, M.H.; Ouladdiaf, B.; McIntyre, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Laue diffraction techniques have proven to be very attractive to a broad user community interested in obtaining detailed structural information on very small single-crystal samples or needing data collection speeds comparable to those available with the powder diffraction technique. However our experience has clearly demonstrated the negative effect of up-stream monochromatic instruments on the quality of Laue data. In order to obtain Laue diffraction data with a statistical accuracy similar to that achieved on a monochromatic instrument (neutron or X-rays), the project ALADIN (for Advanced Laue Diffraction Instruments using Neutrons) aims to: -) construct a Laue-dedicated thermal neutron guide, with m=2 super-mirror coating, providing access to the desirable wavelength bandwidth; -) installation of one of the ILL Laue diffractometers (VIVALDI or CYCLOPS) on this new guide. (authors)

  18. Diffraction analysis of the microstructure of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Scardi, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction Analysis of the Microstructure of Materials provides an overview of diffraction methods applied to the analysis of the microstructure of materials. Since crystallite size and the presence of lattice defects have a decisive influence on the properties of many engineering materials, information about this microstructure is of vital importance in developing and assessing materials for practical applications. The most powerful and usually non-destructive evaluation techniques available are X-ray and neutron diffraction. The book details, among other things, diffraction-line broadening methods for determining crystallite size and atomic-scale strain due, e.g. to dislocations, and methods for the analysis of residual (macroscale) stress. The book assumes only a basic knowledge of solid-state physics and supplies readers sufficient information to apply the methods themselves.

  19. Nonlinearity management and diffraction management for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variational equations and partial differential equation have been simulated numerically. Analytical and numerical studies have shown that nonlinearity management and diffraction management stabilize the pulse against decay or collapse providing undisturbed propagation even for larger energies of the incident beam.

  20. Diffractive optics: design, fabrication, and test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Shea, Donald C

    2004-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the broad range of materials that were discussed in a series of short courses presented at Georgia Tech on the design, fabrication, and testing of diffractive optical elements (DOEs...

  1. The logarithmic slope in diffractive DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay Ducati, M.B.; Goncalves, V.P.; Machado, M.V.T.

    2002-01-01

    The logarithmic slope of diffractive structure function is a potential observable to separate the hard and soft contributions in diffraction, allowing to disentangle the QCD dynamics at small-x region. In this paper we extend our previous analyzes and calculate the diffractive logarithmic slope for three current approaches in the literature: (i) the Bartels-Wusthoff model, based on perturbative QCD, (ii) the CKMT model, based on Regge theory and (iii) the Golec-Biernat-Wusthoff model which assumes that the saturation phenomena is present in the HERA kinematic region. We analyze the transition region of small to large momentum transfer and verify that future experimental results on the diffractive logarithmic slope could discriminate between these approaches

  2. Neutron Larmor diffraction measurements for materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repper, J., E-mail: julia_repper@web.de [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Keller, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Hofmann, M. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Krempaszky, C. [Christian-Doppler-Labor fuer Werkstoffmechanik von Hochleistungslegierungen, TU Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Petry, W. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Werner, E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, TU Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Neutron Larmor diffraction (LD) is a high-resolution diffraction technique based on the Larmor precession of polarized neutrons. In contrast to conventional diffraction, LD does not depend on the accurate measurement of Bragg angles, and thus the resolution is independent of the beam collimation and monochromaticity. At present, a relative resolution for the determination of the crystal lattice spacing d of {Delta}d/d{approx}10{sup -6} is achieved, i.e. at least one order of magnitude superior to conventional neutron or X-ray techniques. This work is a first step to explore the application of LD to high-resolution problems in the analysis of residual stresses, where both the accurate measurement of absolute d values and the possibility of measuring type II and III stresses may provide additional information beyond those accessible by conventional diffraction techniques. Data obtained from Inconel 718 samples are presented.

  3. Jets and diffraction results from HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, A.

    2014-01-01

    The latest results on precision measurements of jet and diffractive cross sections obtained by the H1 and ZEUS experiments at HERA are reported. The inclusive jet and multi-jet cross-sections are used in QCD calculations at next-to-leading order (NLO) to determine the strong coupling α s . The cross-section measurements for diffractive inclusive DIS processes with a leading proton in the final state are combined for the H1 and ZEUS experiments in order to improve the precision and extend the kinematic range. The di-jet cross sections are measured in diffractive DIS with a leading proton and compared with QCD predictions based on diffractive parton densities in the proton. The cross sections for exclusive heavy vector meson photoproduction are studied in terms of the momentum transfer at the proton vertex and of the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy. (author)

  4. Diffraction by m-bonacci gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsoriu, Juan A; Giménez, Marcos H; Furlan, Walter D; Barreiro, Juan C; Saavedra, Genaro

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple diffraction experiment with m-bonacci gratings as a new interesting generalization of the Fibonacci ones. Diffraction by these non-conventional structures is proposed as a motivational strategy to introduce students to basic research activities. The Fraunhofer diffraction patterns are obtained with the standard equipment present in most undergraduate physics labs and are compared with those obtained with regular periodic gratings. We show that m-bonacci gratings produce discrete Fraunhofer patterns characterized by a set of diffraction peaks which positions are related to the concept of a generalized golden mean. A very good agreement is obtained between experimental and numerical results and the students’ feedback is discussed. (paper)

  5. Diffraction enhanced imaging: a simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Peiping; Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Wang Junyue; Shu Hang; Chen Bo; Liu Yijin; Li Enrong; Wu Ziyu

    2006-01-01

    Based on pinhole imaging and conventional x-ray projection imaging, a more general DEI (diffraction enhanced imaging) equation is derived using simple concepts in this paper. Not only can the new DEI equation explain all the same problems as with the DEI equation proposed by Chapman, but also some problems that cannot be explained with the old DEI equation, such as the noise background caused by small angle scattering diffracted by the analyser

  6. Diffraction enhanced imaging: a simple model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Peiping; Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Wang Junyue; Shu Hang; Chen Bo; Liu Yijin; Li Enrong; Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2006-10-07

    Based on pinhole imaging and conventional x-ray projection imaging, a more general DEI (diffraction enhanced imaging) equation is derived using simple concepts in this paper. Not only can the new DEI equation explain all the same problems as with the DEI equation proposed by Chapman, but also some problems that cannot be explained with the old DEI equation, such as the noise background caused by small angle scattering diffracted by the analyser.

  7. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites.......We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  8. Transverse Imaging of the Proton in Exclusive Diffractive pp Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian Weiss; Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman

    2006-01-01

    In a forthcoming paper we describe a new approach to rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, Higgs, etc.) in exclusive double-gap diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions are approximately independent (QCD factorization), and allows us to calculate the RGS probability in a model-independent way in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the colliding protons and the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Here we focus on the transverse momentum dependence of the cross section. By measuring the ''diffraction pattern'', one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton from the data

  9. Bragg diffraction of fermions at optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deh, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the Bragg diffraction of ultracold fermions at an optical potential. A moving optical lattice was created, by overlaying two slightly detuned lasers. Atoms can be diffracted at this lattice if the detuning fulfills the Bragg condition for resting atoms. This Bragg diffraction is analyzed systematically in this thesis. To this end Rabi oscillations between the diffraction states were driven, as well in the weakly interacting Bragg regime, as in the strongly interacting Kapitza-Dirac regime. Simulations, based on a driven two-, respectively multilevel-system describe the observed effects rather well. Furthermore, the temporal evolution of the diffracted states in the magnetic trapping potential was studied. The anharmonicity of the trap in use and the scattering cross section for p-wave collisions in a 6 Li system was determined from the movement of these states. Moreover the momentum distribution of the fermions was measured with Bragg spectroscopy and first signs of Fermi degeneracy were found. Finally an interferometer with fermions was build, exhibiting a coherence time of more than 100 μs. With this, the possibility for measurement and manipulation of ultracold fermions with Bragg diffraction could bee shown. (orig.)

  10. When fast atom diffraction turns 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zugarramurdi, Asier; Borisov, Andrei G.

    2013-01-01

    Fast atom diffraction at surfaces (FAD) in grazing incidence geometry is characterized by the slow motion in the direction perpendicular to the surface and fast motion parallel to the surface plane along a low index direction. It is established experimentally that for the typical surfaces the FAD reveals the 2D diffraction patterns associated with exchange of the reciprocal lattice vector perpendicular to the direction of fast motion. The reciprocal lattice vector exchange along the direction of fast motion is negligible. The usual approximation made in the description of the experimental data is then to assume that the effective potential leading to the diffraction results from the averaging of the 3D surface potential along the atomic strings forming the axial channel. In this work we use full quantum wave packet propagation calculations to study theoretically the possibility to observe the 3D diffraction in FAD experiments. We show that for the surfaces with large unit cell, such as can be the case for reconstructed or vicinal surfaces, the 3D diffraction can be observed. The reciprocal lattice vector exchange along the direction of fast motion leads to several Laue circles in the diffraction pattern

  11. Report from the neutron diffraction work group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This progress report of the neutron diffraction group at the Hahn Meitner Institute in Berlin comprises the following contributions: Three-dimensional critical properties of CsNiF 3 around the Neel point; Spin waves in CsNiF 3 with an applied magnetic field; Solitons in CsNiF 3 : Their experimental evidence and their thermodynamics; Neutron diffraction study of DAG at very low temperatures and in external magnetic field; Neutron diffraction investigation of tricritical behaviour in DyPO 4 ; Crystalline modifications and structural phase transitions of NaOH; Gitterdynamik von Cerhydrid; Investigation of the ferroelectric-ferroelastic phase transition in KH 2 PO 4 and RbH 2 PO 4 by means of γ-ray diffractometry; A γ-ray diffractometer for systematic measurements of absolute structure factors; Electron density in pyrite by combined γ-ray and neutron diffraction measurements: Thermal parameters from short wavelength neutron data; Accurate determination of temperature parameters from neutron diffraction data: Direct observation of the thermal diffuse scattering from silicon using perfect crystals; A Compton spectrometer for momentum density studies using 412 keV γ-radiation; Investigation of the electronic structure of Niobiumhydrides by means of gamma-ray Compton scattering; Interpretation of Compton profile data in position space; High resolution neutron scattering measurements on single crystals using a horizontally bent monochromator and a multidetecter; Statistical analysis of neutron diffraction studies of proteins. (orig.) [de

  12. The dynamics of diffracted rays in foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2015-12-18

    We have studied some aspects of the optics of the light scattering in foams. This paper describes the difference between rays and diffracted rays from the point of view of geometrical theory of diffraction. We have represented some bifurcations of light rays using dynamical systems. Based on our observations of foams, we created a solid optical device. The interference patterns of light scattering in foams forming Airy fringes were explored observing the pattern named as the eye of Horus. In the cases we examine, these Airy fringes are associated with light scattering in curved surfaces, while the halo formation is related to the law of edge diffraction. We are proposing a Pohl interferometer using a three-sided bubble/Plateau border system. - Highlights: • We obtained halos scattering light in foams. • We model the light scattering in foams using the geometrical theory of diffraction. • We examine the difference between rays and the diffracted rays. • We developed optical devices for diffracted rays.

  13. Study of diffractive dissociation especially into strange and charmed particles with EHS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The diffractive production of heavy quark-antiquark pairs leading to strangeness-antistrangeness and charm-anticharm systems is intended to be measured in this experiment. The use of the rapid cycling bubble chamber (RCBC) with a volume of 100 x 40 x 40 cm$^{3}$ and a picture taking rate of 15 Hz as vertex detector and EHS as forward spectrometer is suitable for the first step of this physics programme. Inclusive cross-sections for diffraction dissociation into $s\\bar{s}$ are lacking whereas diffractive $c\\bar{c}$ production is already better known. The gain of more insight into the mechanism of heavy quark-antiquark production, exclusive diffractive reactions with $\\pi^{0}$'s, diffractive resonance production and also the extraction of data for the double Pomeron exchange mechanism are envisaged. \\\\\\\\ This experiment will be run in two parts, the first one recording the entire unbiased sample of $pp$ and $\\pi^{-}p$ interactions, the second however using triggering for beam and high mass target diffraction di...

  14. Blazed Grating Resonance Conditions and Diffraction Efficiency Optical Transfer Function

    KAUST Repository

    Stegenburgs, Edgars

    2017-01-08

    We introduce a general approach to study diffraction harmonics or resonances and resonance conditions for blazed reflecting gratings providing knowledge of fundamental diffraction pattern and qualitative understanding of predicting parameters for the most efficient diffraction.

  15. Blazed Grating Resonance Conditions and Diffraction Efficiency Optical Transfer Function

    KAUST Repository

    Stegenburgs, Edgars; Alias, Mohd Sharizal B.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a general approach to study diffraction harmonics or resonances and resonance conditions for blazed reflecting gratings providing knowledge of fundamental diffraction pattern and qualitative understanding of predicting parameters for the most efficient diffraction.

  16. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  17. Crystallite Size and Microstrain Measurement of Cathode Material after Mechanical Milling using Neutron Diffraction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fajar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurements of neutron diffraction patterns of commercially product and 10 hour mechanically milled cathode material lithium cobaltites (LiCoO2 have been performed. Rietveld analysis using FullProf does not show the change of crystal structure due to milling process, but the diffraction pattern has a lower intensity and the diffraction-line was broadening. The results of line-broadening study on milled sample using Rietveld methods detected that the microstrain was occurred in the sample with value 0.127080(35 % and the average crystallite size was 424.78(20 Å.

  18. Quantitative phase analysis by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Song, Su Ho; Lee, Jin Ho; Shim, Hae Seop [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    This study is to apply quantitative phase analysis (QPA) by neutron diffraction to the round robin samples provided by the International Union of Crystallography(IUCr). We measured neutron diffraction patterns for mixed samples which have several different weight percentages and their unique characteristic features. Neutron diffraction method has been known to be superior to its complementary methods such as X-ray or Synchrotron, but it is still accepted as highly reliable under limited conditions or samples. Neutron diffraction has strong capability especially on oxides due to its scattering cross-section of the oxygen and it can become a more strong tool for analysis on the industrial materials with this quantitative phase analysis techniques. By doing this study, we hope not only to do one of instrument performance tests on our HRPD but also to improve our ability on the analysis of neutron diffraction data by comparing our QPA results with others from any advanced reactor facilities. 14 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  19. Hard Diffraction - from Blois 1985 to 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnar, Ingelman [Uppsala Univ., High Energy Physics (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    The idea of diffractive processes with a hard scale involved, to resolve the underlying parton dynamics, was presented at the first Blois conference in 1985 and experimentally verified a few years later. Today hard diffraction is an attractive research field with high-quality data and new theoretical models. The trend from Regge-based pomeron models to QCD-based parton level models has given insights on QCD dynamics involving perturbative gluon exchange mechanisms. In the new QCD-based models, the pomeron is not part of the proton wave function, but diffraction is an effect of the scattering process. Models based on interactions with a colour background field provide an interesting approach which avoids conceptual problems of pomeron-based models, such as the pomeron flux, and provide a basis for common theoretical framework for all final states, diffractive gap events as well as non-diffractive events. Finally, the new process of gaps between jets provides strong evidence for the BFKL dynamics as predicted since long by QCD, but so far hard to establish experimentally.

  20. Surface diffusion studies by optical diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, X.D.

    1992-11-01

    The newly developed optical techniques have been combined with either second harmonic (SH) diffraction or linear diffraction off a monolayer adsorbate grating for surface diffusion measurement. Anisotropy of surface diffusion of CO on Ni(l10) was used as a demonstration for the second harmonic dim reaction method. The linear diffraction method, which possesses a much higher sensitivity than the SH diffraction method, was employed to study the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on CO diffusion on Ni(l10) surface. Results showed that only the short range direct CO-CO orbital overlapping interaction influences CO diffusion but not the long range dipole-dipole and CO-NI-CO interactions. Effects of impurities and defects on surface diffusion were further explored by using linear diffraction method on CO/Ni(110) system. It was found that a few percent S impurity can alter the CO diffusion barrier height to a much higher value through changing the Ni(110) surface. The point defects of Ni(l10) surface seem to speed up CO diffusion significantly. A mechanism with long jumps over multiple lattice distance initiated by CO filled vacancy is proposed to explain the observed defect effect

  1. Deep-inelastic electron-proton diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainton, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    Recent measurements by the H1 collaboration at HERA of the cross section for deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering in which the proton interacts with minimal energy transfer and limited 4-momentum transfer squared are presented in the form of the contribution F 2 D(3) to the proton structure function F 2 . By parametrising the cross section phenomenologically in terms of a leading effective Regge pole exchange and comparing the result with a similar parametrisation of hadronic pp physics, the proton interaction is demonstrated to be dominantly of a diffractive nature. The quantitative interpretation of the parametrisation in terms of the properties of an effective leading Regge pole exchange, the pomeron (IP), shows that there is no evidence for a 'harder' BFKL-motivated IP in such deep-inelastic proton diffraction. The total contribution of proton diffraction to deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering is measured to be ∝10% and to be rather insensitive to Bjorken-x and Q 2 . A first measurement of the partonic structure of diffractive exchange is presented. It is shown to be readily interpreted in terms of the exchange of gluons, and to suggest that the bulk of diffractive momentum transfer is carried by a leading gluon. (orig.)

  2. Hard diffraction and deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    Since the advent of hard-collision physics, the study of diffractive processes - shadow physics - has been less prominent than before. However, there is now a renewed interest in the subject, especially in that aspect which synthesizes the short-distance, hard-collision phenomena with the classical physics of large rapidity-gaps. This is especially stimulated by the recent data on deep-inelastic scattering from HERA, as well as the theoretical work which relates to it. The word diffraction is sometimes used by high-energy physicists in a loose way. The author defines this term to mean: A diffractive process occurs if and only if there is a large rapidity gap in the produced-particle phase space which is not exponentially suppressed. Here a rapidity gap means essentially no hadrons produced into the rapidity gap (which operates in the open-quotes legoclose quotes phase-space of pseudo-rapidity and azimuthal angle). And non-exponential suppression implies that the cross-section for creating a gap with width Δη does not have a power-law decrease with increasing subenergy s=e Δη , but behaves at most like some power of pseudorapidity Δη∼log(s). The term hard diffraction shall simply refer to those diffractive process which have jets in the final-state phase-space

  3. Neutron-diffraction measurements of stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments on bent steam-generator tubing have shown that different diffraction peaks, (1 1 1) or (0 0 2), give different results for the sign and magnitude of the stress and strain. From an engineering standpoint, the macroscopic stress field cannot be both positive and negative in the same volume, so this difference must be due to intergranular effects superposed on the macroscopic stress field. Uniaxial tensile test experiments with applied stresses beyond the 0.2% offset yield stress, help to understand this anomaly, by demonstrating the different strain response to applied stress along different crystallographic axes.When Zr-alloys are cooled from elevated temperatures, thermal stresses always develop, so that it is difficult to obtain a stress-free lattice spacing from which residual strains may be derived. From measurements of the temperature dependence of lattice spacing, the temperature at which the thermal stresses vanish may be found. From the lattice spacing at this temperature the stress-free lattice spacings at room temperature can be obtained readily.To interpret the measured strains in terms of macroscopic stress fields it is necessary to know the diffraction elastic constants. Neutron diffraction measurements of the diffraction elastic constants in a ferritic steel for the [1 1 0], [0 0 2] and [2 2 2] crystallographic axes, in directions parallel and perpendicular to the applied stress are compared with theoretical diffraction elastic constants. (orig.)

  4. Diffractive corrections to the muon Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kel'ner, S.R.; Fedotov, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The corrections to the muon Bremsstrahlung cross section due to diffraction of hard photons on nuclei are obtained. In this process the momentum is transmitted to a nucleus not by a charged particle but by the photon the interaction of which with the nucleus can be considered as diffraction on weakly absorbing ball. The amplitude of the process interferes with the usual Bremsstrahlung amplitude, therefore in the cross section together with the diffraction correction the interference term also appears, possessing different sings for μ + and μ - . The photon emission cross section also depends on the sing of muon charge and for muon energy about 10 TeV the difference between the cross section may reach 10%. The corrections to the radiation energy loss are also calculated [ru

  5. Adaptable Diffraction Gratings With Wavefront Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iazikov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W.; Greiner, Christoph M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are optical components with regular patterns of grooves, which angularly disperse incoming light by wavelength. Traditional diffraction gratings have static planar, concave, or convex surfaces. However, if they could be made so that they can change the surface curvature at will, then they would be able to focus on particular segments, self-calibrate, or perform fine adjustments. This innovation creates a diffraction grating on a deformable surface. This surface could be bent at will, resulting in a dynamic wavefront transformation. This allows for self-calibration, compensation for aberrations, enhancing image resolution in a particular area, or performing multiple scans using different wavelengths. A dynamic grating gives scientists a new ability to explore wavefronts from a variety of viewpoints.

  6. Diffractive elements performance in chromatic confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, J; Duque, D; Alean, A; Toledo, M; Meneses, J; Gharbi, T

    2011-01-01

    The Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) has been widely used in the semiconductor industry and biomedicine because of its depth discrimination capability. Subsequent to this technique has been developed in recent years Chromatic Confocal Microscopy. This method retains the same principle of confocal and offers the added advantage of removing the axial movement of the moving system. This advantage is usually accomplished with an optical element that generates a longitudinal chromatic aberration and a coding system that relates the axial position of each point of the sample with the wavelength that is focused on each. The present paper shows the performance of compact chromatic confocal microscope when some different diffractive elements are used for generation of longitudinal chromatic aberration. Diffractive elements, according to the process and manufacturing parameters, may have different diffraction efficiency and focus a specific wavelength in a specific focal position. The performance assessment is carried out with various light sources which exhibit an incoherent behaviour and a broad spectral width.

  7. The design of macromolecular crystallography diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Gwyndaf; Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    Thoughts about the decisions made in designing macromolecular X-ray crystallography experiments at synchrotron beamlines are presented. The measurement of X-ray diffraction data from macromolecular crystals for the purpose of structure determination is the convergence of two processes: the preparation of diffraction-quality crystal samples on the one hand and the construction and optimization of an X-ray beamline and end station on the other. Like sample preparation, a macromolecular crystallography beamline is geared to obtaining the best possible diffraction measurements from crystals provided by the synchrotron user. This paper describes the thoughts behind an experiment that fully exploits both the sample and the beamline and how these map into everyday decisions that users can and should make when visiting a beamline with their most precious crystals

  8. Double diffractive ρ -production in γ*γ* collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We present a first estimate of the cross-section for the exclusive process γ * L (Q 1 2 )γ * L (Q 2 2 )→ρ L 0 ρ L 0 , which will be studied in the future high energy e + e - -linear collider. As a first step, we calculate the Born order approximation of the amplitude for longitudinally polarized virtual photons and mesons, in the kinematical region s >>-t, Q 1 2 , Q 2 2 . This process is completely calculable in the hard region Q 1 2 , Q 2 2 >>Λ 2 QCD . We perform most of the steps in an analytical way. The resulting cross-section turns out to be large enough for this process to be measurable with foreseen luminosity and energy, for Q 1 2 and Q 2 2 in the range of a few GeV 2 . (orig.)

  9. Quantification of rutile in anatase by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez R, A.

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays the discovering of new and better materials required in all areas of the industry has been lead to the human being to introduce him to this small and great world. The crystalline materials, have properties markedly directional. When it is necessary to realize a quantitative analysis to these materials the task is not easy. The main objective of this work is the research of a real problem, its solution and perfecting of a technique involving the theoretical and experimental principles which allow the quantification of crystalline phases. The chapter 1 treats about the study of crystalline state during the last century, by means of the X-ray diffraction technique. The chapter 2 studies the nature and production of X-rays, the chapter 3 expounds the principles of the diffraction technique which to carry out when it is satisfied the Bragg law studying the powder diffraction method and its applications. In the chapter 4 it is explained how the intensities of the beams diffracted are determined by the atoms positions inside of the elemental cell of the crystal. The properties of the crystalline samples of anatase and rutile are described in the chapter 5. The results of this last analysis are the information which will be processed by means of the auxiliary software: Diffrac AT, Axum and Peakfit as well as the TAFOR and CUANTI software describing this part with more detail in the chapters 6 and 7 where it is mentioned step by step the function of each software until to reach the quantification of crystalline phases, objective of this work. Finally, in the chapter 8 there are a results analysis and conclusions. The contribution of this work is for those learned institutions of limited resources which can tackle in this way the characterization of materials. (Author)

  10. Rietveld analysis, powder diffraction and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Phase quantification of cement is essential in its industrial use, however many methods are inaccurate and/or time consuming. Powder diffraction is one of the more accurate techniques used for quantitative phase analysis of cement. There has been an increase in the use of Rietveld refinement and powder diffraction for the analysis and phase quantification of cement and its components in recent years. The complex nature of cement components, existence of solid solutions, polymorphic variation of phases and overlapping phase peaks in diffraction patterns makes phase quantification of cements by powder diffraction difficult. The main phase in cement is alite, a solid solution of tricalcium silicate. Tricalcium silicate has been found to exist in seven modifications in three crystal systems, including triclinic, monoclinic, and rhombohedral structures. Hence, phase quantification of cements using Rietveld methods usually involves the simultaneous modelling of several tricalcium silicate structures to fit the complex alite phase. An industry ordinary Portland cement, industry and standard clinker, and a synthetic tricalcium silicate were characterised using neutron, laboratory x-ray and synchrotron powder diffraction. Diffraction patterns were analysed using full-profile Rietveld refinement. This enabled comparison of x-ray, neutron and synchrotron data for phase quantification of the cement and examination of the tricalcium silicate. Excellent Rietveld fits were achieved, however the results showed that the quantitative phase analysis results differed for some phases in the same clinker sample between various data sources. This presentation will give a short introduction about cement components including polymorphism, followed by the presentation of some problems in phase quantification of cements and the role of Rietveld refinement in solving these problems. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  11. Explanation and observability of diffraction in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrontegui, E.; Muga, J. G.; Munoz, J.; Ban, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction in time (DIT) is a fundamental phenomenon in quantum dynamics due to time-dependent obstacles and slits. It is formally analogous to diffraction of light, and is expected to play an increasing role in the design of coherent matter wave sources, as in the atom laser, to analyze time-of-flight information and emission from ultrafast pulsed excitations, and in applications of coherent matter waves in integrated atom-optical circuits. We demonstrate that DIT emerges robustly in quantum waves emitted by an exponentially decaying source and provide a simple explanation of the phenomenon, as an interference of two characteristic velocities. This allows for its controllability and optimization.

  12. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernik, R J [Daresbury Lab., Warrington, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school.

  13. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiston, G A; Gerbasi, R [CNR, Padua (Italy). Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologie Inorganiche e dei Materiali Avanzati

    1996-09-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive.

  14. Fundamentals of the physical theory of diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Ufimtsev, Pyotr Ya

    2014-01-01

    A complete presentation of the modern physical theory of diffraction and its applications, by the world's leading authority on the topicExtensive revisions and additions to the first edition yield a second edition that is 492 pages in length, with 122 figuresNew sections examine the nature of polarization coupling, and extend the theory of shadow radiation and reflection to opaque objectsThis book features end-of-chapter problems and a solutions manual for university professors and graduate studentsMATLAB codes presented in appendices allow for quick numeric calculations of diffracted waves

  15. X-ray diffraction and chemical bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bats, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    Chemical bonds are investigated in sulfamic acid (H 3 N-SO 3 ), sodium sulfonlate dihydrate (H 2 NC 6 H 4 SO 3 Na.2H 2 O), 2,5-dimercaptothiadiazole (HS-C 2 N 2 S-SH), sodium cyanide dihydrate (NaCN.2H 2 O), sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) and ammonium thiocyanate (NH 4 SCN) by X-ray diffraction, and if necessary completed with neutron diffraction. Crystal structures and electron densities are determined together with bond length and angles. Also the effects of thermal motion are discussed

  16. Multiorder nonlinear diffraction in frequency doubling processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltiel, Solomon M.; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2009-01-01

    We analyze experimentally light scattering from 2 nonlinear gratings and observe two types of second-harmonic frequency-scattering processes. The first process is identified as Raman–Nath type nonlinear diffraction that is explained by applying only transverse phase-matching conditions. The angular...... position of this type of diffraction is defined by the ratio of the second-harmonic wavelength and the grating period. In contrast, the second type of nonlinear scattering process is explained by the longitudinal phase matching only, being insensitive to the nonlinear grating...

  17. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernik, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school

  18. Light-scattering theory of diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei

    2010-03-01

    Since diffraction is a scattering process in principle, light propagation through one aperture in a screen is discussed in the light-scattering theory. Through specific calculation, the expression of the electric field observed at an observation point is obtained and is used not only to explain why Kirchhoff's diffraction theory is a good approximation when the screen is both opaque and sufficiently thin but also to demonstrate that the mathematical and physical problems faced by Kirchhoff's theory are avoided in the light-scattering theory.

  19. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiston, G. A.; Gerbasi, R.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive

  20. Solving crystal structures from neutron diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.C.

    1987-07-01

    In order to pursue crystal structure determination using neutron diffraction data, and given the wide experience available of solving structures using X-ray data, the codes used in X-ray structural analysis should be adapted to the different requirements of a neutron experiment. Modifications have been made to a direct methods program MITHRIL and to a Patterson methods program PATMET to incorporate into these the features of neutron rather than X-ray diffraction. While to date these modifications have been fairly straightforward and many sophistications remain to be exploited, results obtained from the neutron versions of both programs are promising. (author)

  1. X-ray Laue diffraction with allowance for second derivatives of amplitudes in dynamical diffraction equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balyan, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetrical Laue diffraction in a perfect crystal with a plane entrance surface is considered. The second derivatives of amplitudes in the direction, perpendicular to diffraction plane in the dynamical diffraction equations are taken into account. Using the corresponding Green function a general form for the amplitude of diffracted wave in the crystal is derived. The sizes of the source in both directions as well as the source of crystal distance and non-monochromaticity of the radiation incident on the crystal are taken into account. On the basis of obtained expression the coherent properties of the field depending on the sizes of the source and on the width of the spectrum of the incident radiation are analyzed. Taking into account the second derivatives of amplitudes with respect to the direction, perpendicular to the diffraction plane, the time dependent propagation equations for an X-ray pulse in a perfect crystal are given

  2. Diffraction analysis of materials under strong plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzalla, A.

    2001-01-01

    The applicability of X-ray diffraction in analyses of the microstructure texture and intrinsic stresses of materials under strong plastic deformation is illustrated by examples and discussed. The experimental methods and findings are supplemented by numeric calculations. It is shown how the microstructure, texture and intrinsic stresses can thus be optimized already in the production process. Analyses of changes in materials during operation of a component provide information on loads and material response to loads which can then be used for optimization of the component, e.g. by constructional modifications or selective heat treatment [de

  3. Exclusive diffractive processes at HERA within the dipole picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, H.; Motkyka, L.; Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Krakow; Watt, G.; Univ. College London

    2006-08-01

    We present a simultaneous analysis, within an impact parameter dependent saturated dipole model, of exclusive diffractive vector meson (J/ψ, φ and ρ) production, deeply virtual Compton scattering and the total γ * p cross section data measured at HERA. Various cross sections measured as a function of the kinematic variables Q 2 , W and t are well described, with little sensitivity to the details of the vector meson wave functions. We determine the properties of the gluon density in the proton in both longitudinal and transverse dimensions, including the impact parameter dependent saturation scale. The overall success of the description indicates universality of the emerging gluon distribution and proton shape. (orig.)

  4. Design of structurally colored surfaces based on scalar diffraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of controlling the color and appearance of surfaces simply by modifying the height profile of the surface on a nanoscale level. The applications for such methods are numerous: new design possibilities for high-end products, color engraving on any highly...... reflective surface, paint-free text and coloration, UV-resistant coloring, etc. In this initial study, the main focus is on finding a systematic way to obtain these results. For now the simulation and optimization is based on a simple scalar diffraction theory model. From the results, several design issues...

  5. Study of coherent diffractive production reactions of p+C{yields}[Y{sup 0}{Kappa}{sup +}]+C type and observation of narrow structures in {Sigma}(1385){sup 0}{Kappa}{sup +} and {Sigma}{sup 0}{Kappa}{sup +} effective mass spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovkin, S.V.; Kozhevnikov, A.P.; Kubarovsky, V.P. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation)] [and others; SPHINX Collaboration (IHEP-ITEP)

    1995-11-01

    In the experiments at the SPHINX facility in 70 GeV proton beam of the IHEP accelerator the coherent diffractive production reactions on carbon nuclei p + C {yields} [{Sigma}(1385){sup 0}K{sup +}] + C and p + C {yields} [{Sigma}{sup 0}K{sup +}] + C were investigated. The evidences for new baryon states were obtained in the study of hyperon-kaon effective mass spectra in these two reactions: X(2050) with mass M = (2052 {+-} 6) MeV and width {Gamma} = (35{sup +22}{sub -35}) MeV in M[{Sigma}(1385){sup 0}K{sup +}] and X(2000) with M = 1999 {+-} 6 MeV and {Gamma} = 91 {+-} 17 MeV in M[{Sigma}{sup 0}K{sup +}]. The unusual features of these massive states (small enough decay widths, anomalously large branching ratios for decays with strange particles emission) make them very serious candidates for cryptoexotic pentaquark baryons with hidden strangeness. (orig.)

  6. Measurement and QCD analysis of diffractive jet cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozer, M.U.

    2006-07-24

    Differential cross sections for the production of two jets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) at HERA are presented. The process studied is of the type ep{yields}eXY, where the central hadronic system X contains at least two jets and is separated from the system Y by a gap in rapidity. The forward system Y consists of an elastically scattered proton or a low mass dissociation system. The data were taken with the H1 detector during the years of 1999 and 2000 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 51.5 pb{sup -1}. The measured cross sections are compared to fixed order NLO QCD predictions, that use diffractive parton densities which have previously been determined by a NLO QCD analysis of inclusive diffractive DIS at H1. The prediction and the data show significant differences. However, the dijet cross section is dominated by the diffractive gluon density, which can be extracted by the above mentioned analysis only with considerable uncertainty. Hence a combined QCD analysis of the previously published inclusive diffractive data and the dijet data is performed. This combined fit analysis allows the determination of diffractive quark and gluon densities with comparable precision. The common description of inclusive diffractive data and the dijet data confirms QCD factorization. (orig.)

  7. Quasi-Bragg diffraction of atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domen, K.F.E.M.; Jansen, M.A.H.M.; Leeuwen, van K.A.H.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a novel atomic beamsplitter. It combines the advantages of Bragg scattering (transfer possible into a single, very high diffraction order due to adiabatic conservation of ‘transverse kinetic energy’) with the convenience of tuning the splitting angle simply by adjusting a magnetic

  8. Polarity of wurtzite crystals by photoelectron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Igor; Romanyuk, Olexandr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 315, OCT (2014), s. 506-509 ISSN 0169-4332 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101201 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : wurtzite semiconductors * surface polarity * X-ray photoelectron diffraction * XPD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016943321400066X

  9. Phase Transitions, Diffraction Studies and Marginal Dimensionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    Continuous phase transitions and the associated critical phenomena have been one of the most active areas of research in condensed matter physics for several decades. This short review is only one cut through this huge subject and the author has chosen to emphasize diffraction studies as a basic ...

  10. Crystallographic structures of absorbates and neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, C.; Thorel, P.

    1975-01-01

    The advantage of neutron diffraction is that it is possible to work at any pressure and therefore to study an adsorbant-adsorbate couple within a wide pressure and temperature range and at thermodynamic equilibrium. Nitrogen adsorbed on graphite and CF 4 adsorbed on graphite were measured [fr

  11. Modern techniques of structural neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; )

    1997-01-01

    Modern techniques of neutron diffraction for structural investigations are analyzed. The time-of-flight method and the reverse time-of-flight method are considered briefly. Characteristics of two-crystal and time-of-flight neutron diffractometers are compared. It is pointed that in the future, the great importance will be possessed the development of high-resolution Fourier neutron diffractometers [ru

  12. Diffraction in ALICE and trigger efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    Navin, Sparsh; Lietava, Roman

    ALICE is built to measure the properties of strongly interacting matter created in heavy-ion collisions. In addition, taking advantage of the low pT acceptance in the central barrel, ALICE is playing an important role in understanding pp collisions with minimum bias triggers at LHC energies. The work presented in this thesis is based on pp data simulated by the ALICE collaboration and early data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. A procedure to calculate trigger efficiencies and an estimate of the systematic uncertainty due to the limited acceptance of the detector are shown. A kinematic comparison between Monte Carlo event generators, PYTHIA 6, PYTHIA 8 and PHOJET is also presented. To improve the description of diffraction in PYTHIA, a hard diffractive component was added to PYTHIA 8 in 2009, which is described. Finally a trigger with a high efficiency for picking diffractive events is used to select a sample with an enhanced diffractive component from pp data. These data are compared to Monte ...

  13. Applications of the fresnel diffraction of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.G.; Opat, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    The place of Fresnel diffraction in the overall scheme of neutron interference experiments is outlined and possible applications are discussed in the areas of: magnetic domain visualisation; measurement of nuclear scattering lengths with very small specimens; focussing of long wavelength neutron beams using zone plates

  14. Applications of the Fresnel diffraction of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.G.; Opat, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    The place of Fresnel diffraction in the overall scheme of neutron interference experiments is outlined and possible applications are discussed in the areas of: magnetic domain visualisation; measurement of nuclear scattering lengths with very small specimens; focussing of long wavelength neutron beams using zone plates

  15. Neutron diffraction in a frustrated ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirebeau, I.; Iancu, G.; Gavoille, G.; Hubsch, J.

    1994-01-01

    The competition between a long range ordered ferrimagnetic lattice and small fluctuating clusters have been probed by neutron diffraction in a titanium magnesium frustrated ferrite. The description of the system is then compared to the predictions of several theoretical models for frustrated systems. 3 figs., 8 refs

  16. Reactor applications of quantitative diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feguson, I.F.

    1976-09-01

    Current work in quantitative diffraction analysis was presented under the main headings of: thermal systems, fast reactor systems, SGHWR applications and irradiation damage. Preliminary results are included on a comparison of various new instrumental methods of boron analysis as well as preliminary new results on Zircaloy corrosion, and materials transfer in liquid sodium. (author)

  17. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Three different models for calculating edge diffraction are examined. The methods of Vanderkooy, Terai and Biot & Tolstoy are compared with measurements. Although a good agreement is obtained, the measurements also show that none of the methods work completely satisfactorily. The desired properties...

  18. A Study of Simple Diffraction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    In this paper two simple methods for cabinet edge diffraction are examined. Calculations with both models are compared with more sophisticated theoretical models and with measured data. The parameters involved are studied and their importance for normal loudspeaker box designs is examined....

  19. Corner diffraction coefficients for the quarter plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thorkild B.

    1991-01-01

    that the corner current for the right-angled corner, illuminated from a forward direction, consists mainly of two edge waves propagating along the edges forming the corner. Analytical expressions for these edge wave currents are constructed from the numerical results. A corner diffracted field is calculated...

  20. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater sensitivity to ...

  1. Nuclear Bragg diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueffer, R.; Gerdau, E.; Grote, M.; Hollatz, R.; Roehlsberger, R.; Rueter, H.D.; Sturhahn, W.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Bragg diffraction with synchrotron radiation as source will become a powerful new X-ray source in the A-region. This source exceeds by now the brilliance of conventional Moessbauer sources giving hyperfine spectroscopy further momentum. As examples applications to yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and iron borate will be discussed. (author)

  2. Neutron diffraction of γ-aluminium oxynitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, H.X.; With, de G.; Metselaar, R.; Helmholdt, R.B.; Petersen, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron diffraction expts. were performed on Al oxynitride (Alon) powders with compns. corresponding to 67.5, 73 and 77.5 mol.% Al2O3. The 73 mol.% powder was produced by reacting Al2O3 and AlN powders for 3 h at 1750 Deg. After reaction the resultant powder was ground with a mortar and pestle to

  3. Single Hit Energy-resolved Laue Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Shamim; Suggit, Matthew J.; Stubley, Paul G.; Ciricosta, Orlando; Wark, Justin S.; Higginbotham, Andrew [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Eggert, Jon H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Comley, Andrew J.; Foster, John M. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    In situ white light Laue diffraction has been successfully used to interrogate the structure of single crystal materials undergoing rapid (nanosecond) dynamic compression up to megabar pressures. However, information on strain state accessible via this technique is limited, reducing its applicability for a range of applications. We present an extension to the existing Laue diffraction platform in which we record the photon energy of a subset of diffraction peaks. This allows for a measurement of the longitudinal and transverse strains in situ during compression. Consequently, we demonstrate measurement of volumetric compression of the unit cell, in addition to the limited aspect ratio information accessible in conventional white light Laue. We present preliminary results for silicon, where only an elastic strain is observed. VISAR measurements show the presence of a two wave structure and measurements show that material downstream of the second wave does not contribute to the observed diffraction peaks, supporting the idea that this material may be highly disordered, or has undergone large scale rotation.

  4. Single Hit Energy-resolved Laue Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shamim; Suggit, Matthew J.; Stubley, Paul G.; Ciricosta, Orlando; Wark, Justin S.; Higginbotham, Andrew; Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Eggert, Jon H.; Comley, Andrew J.; Foster, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In situ white light Laue diffraction has been successfully used to interrogate the structure of single crystal materials undergoing rapid (nanosecond) dynamic compression up to megabar pressures. However, information on strain state accessible via this technique is limited, reducing its applicability for a range of applications. We present an extension to the existing Laue diffraction platform in which we record the photon energy of a subset of diffraction peaks. This allows for a measurement of the longitudinal and transverse strains in situ during compression. Consequently, we demonstrate measurement of volumetric compression of the unit cell, in addition to the limited aspect ratio information accessible in conventional white light Laue. We present preliminary results for silicon, where only an elastic strain is observed. VISAR measurements show the presence of a two wave structure and measurements show that material downstream of the second wave does not contribute to the observed diffraction peaks, supporting the idea that this material may be highly disordered, or has undergone large scale rotation

  5. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Constrained Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Dietrich, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    The first use of a new program, EDINP, is reported. This program allows the constrained refinement of molecules in a crystal structure with neutron diffraction powder data. The structures of p-C6F4Br2 and p-C6F4I2 are determined by packing considerations and then refined with EDINP. Refinement is...

  6. Accessing the diffracted wavefield by coherent subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Benjamin; Gajewski, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    Diffractions have unique properties which are still rarely exploited in common practice. Aside from containing subwavelength information on the scattering geometry or indicating small-scale structural complexity, they provide superior illumination compared to reflections. While diffraction occurs arguably on all scales and in most realistic media, the respective signatures typically have low amplitudes and are likely to be masked by more prominent wavefield components. It has been widely observed that automated stacking acts as a directional filter favouring the most coherent arrivals. In contrast to other works, which commonly aim at steering the summation operator towards fainter contributions, we utilize this directional selection to coherently approximate the most dominant arrivals and subtract them from the data. Supported by additional filter functions which can be derived from wave front attributes gained during the stacking procedure, this strategy allows for a fully data-driven recovery of faint diffractions and makes them accessible for further processing. A complex single-channel field data example recorded in the Aegean sea near Santorini illustrates that the diffracted background wavefield is surprisingly rich and despite the absence of a high channel count can still be detected and characterized, suggesting a variety of applications in industry and academia.

  7. SPADE - software package to aid diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farren, J.; Giltrap, J.W.

    1978-10-01

    A software package is described which enables the DEC PDP-11/03 microcomputer to execute several different X-ray diffraction experiments and other similar experiments where stepper motors are driven and data is gathered and processed in real time. (author)

  8. Geometrical optics and the diffraction phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, Aleksandr V

    2005-01-01

    This note outlines the principles of the geometrical optics of inhomogeneous waves whose description necessitates the use of complex values of the wave vector. Generalizing geometrical optics to inhomogeneous waves permits including in its scope the analysis of the diffraction phenomenon. (methodological notes)

  9. Diffractive hard scattering and the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-01-01

    Events in high energy hadron collisions are discussed that contain a hard scattering, in the sense that very heavy quarks or high P/sub T/ jets are produced, yet are diffractive, in the sense that one of the incident hadrons is scattered with only a small energy loss. 12 refs., 6 figs

  10. Diffraction and signal processing experiments with a liquid crystal microdisplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez, Jose Luis; Moreno, Ignacio; Ahouzi, Esmail

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we show some diffraction experiments performed with a liquid crystal display (LCD) that shows how useful this device can be to teach and experience diffraction optics and signal processing experiments. The LCD acts as a programmable pixelated diffractive mask. The Fourier spectrum of the image displayed in the LCD is visualized through a simple free propagation diffraction experiment. This optical system allows easy testing of different diffractive elements. As a demonstration we include experimental results with well-known diffractive elements like diffraction gratings or Fresnel lenses, and with more complicated elements like computer-generated holograms

  11. Diffraction and signal processing experiments with a liquid crystal microdisplay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez, Jose Luis [Departamento de Ciencia y TecnologIa de Materiales, Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Alicante (Spain); Moreno, Ignacio [Departamento de Ciencia y TecnologIa de Materiales, Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Alicante (Spain); Ahouzi, Esmail [Institut National des Postes et Telecomunications (INTP), Madinat Al Irfane, Rabat (Morocco)

    2006-09-01

    In this work, we show some diffraction experiments performed with a liquid crystal display (LCD) that shows how useful this device can be to teach and experience diffraction optics and signal processing experiments. The LCD acts as a programmable pixelated diffractive mask. The Fourier spectrum of the image displayed in the LCD is visualized through a simple free propagation diffraction experiment. This optical system allows easy testing of different diffractive elements. As a demonstration we include experimental results with well-known diffractive elements like diffraction gratings or Fresnel lenses, and with more complicated elements like computer-generated holograms.

  12. Diffraction patterns from 7-Angstroms tubular halloysite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The diffraction patterns from 7-Angstroms tubular halloysite are superficially like those from kaolinite. Diffraction from a tubular aggregate of atoms, however, differs from that from a crystal because there is no linear repetition in two of the three conventional crystallographic directions. In tubular halloysite, the tube axis is [010] or [110] and in this direction the unit cell repeats in the normal linear fashion. The x-axis, by contrast, changes direction tangentially around the tube circumference, and there can be no true z-axis, because unit cells in the radial direction do not superimpose, since each successive tubular layer has a larger radius than its predecessor and therefore must contain more unit cells than its predecessor. Because tubular 'crystals' do not have a lattice repeat, use of Bragg 'hkl' indices is not appropriate. In the xy plane, a small area of the structure approximates a flat layer silicate, and hk indices may been used to label diffraction maxima. Similarly, successive 1:1 layers tangential to the tube walls yield a series of apparent 001 diffraction maxima. Measurement of these shows that the d-spacings do not form an exact integral series. The reason for this lies in the curvature of the structure. Calculated electron and powder X-ray diffraction patterns, based on a model of concentric 1:1 layers with no regular relation between them other than the 7.2 Angstroms spacing, closely simulate the observed data. Evidence for the 2-layer structure that is generally accepted may need to be reassessed in the light of these results

  13. Unitarized model of inclusive and diffractive DIS with Q2 evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armesto, Nestor; Salgado, Carlos A.; Tywoniuk, Konrad; Kaidalov, Alexei B.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the interplay of low-x physics and QCD scaling violations by extending the unified approach describing inclusive structure functions and diffractive production in γ*p interactions proposed in previous papers to large values of Q 2 . We describe the procedure of extracting, from the nonperturbative model, initial conditions for the QCD evolution that respect unitarity. Assuming Regge factorization of the diffractive structure function, a similar procedure is proposed for the calculation of hard diffraction. The results are in good agreement with experimental data on the proton structure function F 2 and the most recent data on the reduced diffractive cross section, x P σ r D(3) . Predictions for both F 2 and F L are presented in a wide kinematical range and compared to calculations within high-energy QCD.

  14. Time-of-flight diffraction at pulsed neutron sources: An introduction to the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    In the 25 years since the first low-power demonstration experiments, pulsed neutron sources have become as productive as reactor sources for many types of diffraction experiments. The pulsed neutron sources presently operating in the United States, England, and Japan offer state of the art instruments for powder and single crystal diffraction, small angle scattering, and such specialized techniques as grazing-incidence neutron reflection, as well as quasielastic and inelastic scattering. In this symposium, speakers review the latest advances in diffraction instrumentation for pulsed neutron sources and give examples of some of the important science presently being done. In this introduction to the symposium, I briefly define the basic principles of pulsed neutron sources, review their development, comment in general terms on the development of time-of-flight diffraction instrumentation for these sources, and project how this field will develop in the next ten years

  15. Nanocrystallite characterization of milled simulated dry process fuel powders by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Kang, Kwon Ho; Moon, Je Sun; Song, Kee Chan; Choi, Yong Nam

    2003-01-01

    The nano-scale crystallite sizes of simulated spent fuel powders were measured by the neutron diffraction line broadening method in order to analyze the sintering behavior of the dry process fuel. The mixed U0 2 and fission product oxide powders were dry-milled in an attritor for 30, 60, and 120 min. The diffraction patterns of the powders were obtained by using the high resolution powder diffractometer in the HANARO research reactor. Diffraction line broadening due to crystallite size was measured using various techniques such as the Stokes' deconvolution, profile fitting methods using Cauchy function, Gaussian function, and Voigt function, and the Warren-Averbach method. The r.m.s. strain, stacking fault, twin and dislocation density were measured using the information from the diffraction pattern. The realistic crystallite size can be obtained after separation of the contribution from the non-uniform strain, stacking fault and twin

  16. Measurement of the open-charm contribution to the diffractive proton structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Loizides, J.H.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M.C.K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Pesci, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Aghuzumtsyan, G.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Goers, S.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Irrgang, P.; Jakob, H.-P.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Kind, O.; Meyer, U.; Paul, E.; Rautenberg, J.; Renner, R.; Stifutkin, A.; Tandler, J.; Voss, K.C.; Wang, M.; Weber, A.; Bailey, D.S.; Brook, N.H.; Cole, J.E.; Foster, B.; Heath, G.P.; Heath, H.F.; Robins, S.; Rodrigues, E.; Scott, J.; Tapper, R.J.; Wing, M.; Capua, M.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, Y.K.; Lee, J.H.; Lim, I.T.; Pac, M.Y.; Caldwell, A.; Helbich, M.; Liu, X.; Mellado, B.; Ning, Y.; Paganis, S.; Ren, Z.; Schmidke, W.B.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Olkiewicz, K.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowal, A.M.; Kowal, M.; Kowalski, T.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Adler, V.; Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Behrens, U.; Bloch, I.; Borras, K.; Chiochia, V.; Dannheim, D.; Drews, G.; Fourletova, J.; Fricke, U.; Geiser, A.; Goebel, F.; Goettlicher, P.; Gutsche, O.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G.F.; Hillert, S.; Kahle, B.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kramberger, G.; Labes, H.; Lelas, D.; Loehr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Moritz, M.; Nguyen, C.N.; Notz, D.; Petrucci, M.C.; Polini, A.; Raval, A.; Schneekloth, U.; Selonke, F.; Stoesslein, U.; Wessoleck, H.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Genta, C.; Pelfer, P.G.; Bamberger, A.; Benen, A.; Coppola, N.; Bell, M.; Bussey, P.J.; Doyle, A.T.; Glasman, C.; Hamilton, J.; Hanlon, S.; Lee, S.W.; Lupi, A.; Saxon, D.H.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Gialas, I.; Bodmann, B.; Carli, T.; Holm, U.; Klimek, K.; Krumnack, N.; Lohrmann, E.; Milite, M.; Salehi, H.; Stonjek, S.; Wick, K.; Ziegler, A.; Ziegler, Ar.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Foudas, C.; Goncalo, R.; Long, K.R.; Tapper, A.D.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A.N.; Boos, E.G.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Lim, H.; Son, D.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Gonzalez, O.; Labarga, L.; Del Peso, J.; Tassi, E.; Terron, J.; Vazquez, M.; Barbi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Gliga, S.; Lainesse, J.; Padhi, S.; Stairs, D.G.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Danilov, P.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R.K.; Ermolov, P.F.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Katkov, I.I.; Khein, L.A.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Kuzmin, V.A.; Levchenko, B.B.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Vlasov, N.N.; Zotkin, S.A.; Coppola, N.; Grijpink, S.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Maddox, E.; Pellegrino, A.; Schagen, S.; Tiecke, H.; Velthuis, J.J.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; Bruemmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L.S.; Ling, T.Y.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cottrell, A.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Ferrando, J.; Grzelak, G.; Patel, S.; Sutton, M.R.; Walczak, R.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Parenti, A.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Heaphy, E.A.; Metlica, F.; Oh, B.Y.; Whitmore, J.J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cormack, C.; Hart, J.C.; McCubbin, N.A.; Heusch, C.; Park, I.H.; Pavel, N.; Abramowicz, H.; Gabareen, A.; Kananov, S.; Kreisel, A.; Levy, A.; Kuze, M.; Abe, T.; Fusayasu, T.; Kagawa, S.; Kohno, T.; Tawara, T.; Yamashita, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Inuzuka, M.; Kitamura, S.; Matsuzawa, K.; Nishimura, T.; Arneodo, M.; Ferrero, M.I.; Monaco, V.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Koop, T.; Levman, G.M.; Martin, J.F.; Mirea, A.; Butterworth, J.M.; Gwenlan, C.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Jones, T.W.; Lightwood, M.S.; West, B.J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Sztuk, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Ukleja, A.; Ukleja, J.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Gladilin, L.K.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Riveline, M.; Kcira, D.; Lammers, S.; Li, L.; Reeder, D.D.; Savin, A.A.; Smith, W.H.; Deshpande, A.; Dhawan, S.; Straub, P.B.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C.D.; Fourletov, S.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Soares, M.; Standage, J.

    2003-01-01

    Production of D* ± (2010) mesons in diffractive deep inelastic scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 82 pb -1 . Diffractive events were identified by the presence of a large rapidity gap in the final state. Differential cross sections have been measured in the kinematic region 1.5 2 2 , 0.02 P T (D* ± )>1.5 GeV and |η(D* ± )|<1.5. The measured cross sections are compared to theoretical predictions. The results are presented in terms of the open-charm contribution to the diffractive proton structure function. The data demonstrate a strong sensitivity to the diffractive parton densities

  17. A method of combining STEM image with parallel beam diffraction and electron-optical conditions for diffractive imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Haifeng; Nelson, Chris

    2007-01-01

    We describe a method of combining STEM imaging functionalities with nanoarea parallel beam electron diffraction on a modern TEM. This facilitates the search for individual particles whose diffraction patterns are needed for diffractive imaging or structural studies of nanoparticles. This also lays out a base for 3D diffraction data collection

  18. When holography meets coherent diffraction imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Longchamp, Jean-Nicolas; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2012-12-17

    The phase problem is inherent to crystallographic, astronomical and optical imaging where only the intensity of the scattered signal is detected and the phase information is lost and must somehow be recovered to reconstruct the object's structure. Modern imaging techniques at the molecular scale rely on utilizing novel coherent light sources like X-ray free electron lasers for the ultimate goal of visualizing such objects as individual biomolecules rather than crystals. Here, unlike in the case of crystals where structures can be solved by model building and phase refinement, the phase distribution of the wave scattered by an individual molecule must directly be recovered. There are two well-known solutions to the phase problem: holography and coherent diffraction imaging (CDI). Both techniques have their pros and cons. In holography, the reconstruction of the scattered complex-valued object wave is directly provided by a well-defined reference wave that must cover the entire detector area which often is an experimental challenge. CDI provides the highest possible, only wavelength limited, resolution, but the phase recovery is an iterative process which requires some pre-defined information about the object and whose outcome is not always uniquely-defined. Moreover, the diffraction patterns must be recorded under oversampling conditions, a pre-requisite to be able to solve the phase problem. Here, we report how holography and CDI can be merged into one superior technique: holographic coherent diffraction imaging (HCDI). An inline hologram can be recorded by employing a modified CDI experimental scheme. We demonstrate that the amplitude of the Fourier transform of an inline hologram is related to the complex-valued visibility, thus providing information on both, the amplitude and the phase of the scattered wave in the plane of the diffraction pattern. With the phase information available, the condition of oversampling the diffraction patterns can be relaxed, and the

  19. Quantitative measurement of phase variation amplitude of ultrasonic diffraction grating based on diffraction spectral analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Meiyan, E-mail: yphantomohive@gmail.com; Zeng, Yingzhi; Huang, Zuohua, E-mail: zuohuah@163.com [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    A new method based on diffraction spectral analysis is proposed for the quantitative measurement of the phase variation amplitude of an ultrasonic diffraction grating. For a traveling wave, the phase variation amplitude of the grating depends on the intensity of the zeroth- and first-order diffraction waves. By contrast, for a standing wave, this amplitude depends on the intensity of the zeroth-, first-, and second-order diffraction waves. The proposed method is verified experimentally. The measured phase variation amplitude ranges from 0 to 2π, with a relative error of approximately 5%. A nearly linear relation exists between the phase variation amplitude and driving voltage. Our proposed method can also be applied to ordinary sinusoidal phase grating.

  20. Inclusive transverse momentum distributions of charged particles in diffractive and non-diffractive photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1995-03-01

    Inclusive transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in photoproduction events in the laboratory pseudorapidity range -1.2 T =8 GeV using the ZEUS detector. Diffractive and non-diffractive reactions have been selected with an average γp centre of mass (c.m.) energy of =180 GeV. For diffractive reactions, the p T spectra of the photon dissociation events have been measured in two intervals of the dissociated photon mass with mean values X >=5 GeV and 10 GeV. The inclusive transverse momentum spectra fall exponentially in the low p T region. The non-diffractive data show a pronounced high p T tail departing from the exponential shape. The p T distributions are compared to lower energy photoproduction data and to hadron-hadron collisions at a similar c.m. energy. The data are also compared to the results of a next-to-leading order QCD calculation. (orig.)

  1. Measurements of the Total, Elastic, Inelastic and Diffractive Cross Sections with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237700; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The main results of the total, elastic and inelastic cross sections measurements performed by the ATLAS ALFA detectors are presented. The independent inelastic cross section measurement done using Minimum Bias Trigger Scintillators is also shown. Next, the single diffractive di-jet production and gap survival probability are briefly described. After the event selection, it was found that the diffractive component is needed for a more complete description of data. Finally, the exclusive lepton pair production analysis in electron and muon channels is also described. The measured cross sections were found to be consistent with the theory prediction.

  2. Neutron diffraction on polymorphic phases of phospholipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tomohiro; Furusaka, Michihiro; Otomo, Toshiya; Hatta, Ichiro

    2001-01-01

    Small angle neutron diffraction experiments were performed in DPPC and DPPC/cholesterol systems. We investigated the DPPC-d62 bilayers without cholesterol and the DPPC-d75 bilayers with 5 and 15 mol% cholesterol. For DPPC-d62 systems, in the gel and fluid phase, the reflections up to third order from lamellar structure were observed. Scattering length density profiles of these systems were generated. They show that the packing density of hydrocarbon chain in gel phase is higher than in fluid phase. We show that the neutron diffraction experiment is effective on observing the packing and the scattering length density of the hydrocarbon chain. On the other hand, for DPPC-d75/cholesterol systems, only the reflection from the ripple structure was observed. It shows that cholesterol is periodically localized in accordance with ripple structure forming a periodic bandlike structure parallel to a ridge of the ripple structure. (author)

  3. Neutron Diffraction and Inorganic Materials Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosseinsky, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The discovery of complex inorganic materials is an important academic and technological challenge because of the opportunities these systems offer for observation of new phenomena, and the questions they pose for fundamental understanding. This presentation will illustrate the key role of neutron powder diffraction in enabling the discovery of new classes of materials, and in evaluating their properties and the conditions under which they need to be processed to optimise their behaviour in devices for applications. New chemistry is illustrated by the transition metal oxide hydrides, where both structure and ionic mobility required neutron scattering characterisation. The relationship between chemistry, structure and properties will be addressed by considering the difficulties in inducing superconductivity in analogues of magnesium diboride. The role of both neutron and X-ray diffraction in evaluating the processing of microwave dielectric ceramics will be highlighted, with the discovery of new phases shown to be a useful bonus in this type of in-situ study. (author)

  4. Time-resolved Neutron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannetier, J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of a high-flux neutron source together with a large position sensitive detector (PSD) allows a powder diffraction pattern to be recorded at a time-scale of a few minutes so that crystalline systems under non-equilibrium conditions may now conveniently be investigated. This introduces a new dimension into powder diffraction (the time and transient phenomena like heterogeneous chemical reactions can now be easily studied. The instrumental parameters relevant for the design of such time-dependent experiments are briefly surveyed and the current limits of the method are discussed. The applications are illustrated by two kinds of experiment in the field of inorganic solid state chemistry: true kinetic studies of heterogeneous chemical reactions and thermodiffractometry experiments

  5. Laser diffraction analysis of colloidal crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogami, Ikuo S.; Shinohara, Tadatomi; Yoshiyama, Tsuyoshi [Kyoto Sangyo Univ., Department of Physics, Kyoto (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    Laser diffraction analysis is made on crystallization in salt-free aqueous suspensions of highly-charged colloidal particles for semi-dilute specimens of concentration 0.1-10.0 vol%. Kossel diffraction patterns which represent faithfully accurate information on lattice symmetries in the suspensions enable us to investigate the time evolution of colloidal crystals. The results show that the crystallization proceeds by way of the following intermediate phase transitions: two-dimensional hcp structure {yields} random layer structure {yields} layer structure with one sliding degree of freedom {yields} stacking disorder structure {yields} stacking structure with multivariant periodicity {yields} fcc twin structure with twin plane (111) {yields} normal fcc structure {yields} bcc twin structure with twin plane (11-bar2) or (1-bar12) {yields} normal bcc structure. For concentrated suspensions (>2 vol %), the phase transition ceases to proceed at the normal fcc structure. (author)

  6. Diffraction by an immersed elastic wedge

    CERN Document Server

    Croisille, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    This monograph presents the mathematical description and numerical computation of the high-frequency diffracted wave by an immersed elastic wave with normal incidence. The mathematical analysis is based on the explicit description of the principal symbol of the pseudo-differential operator connected with the coupled linear problem elasticity/fluid by the wedge interface. This description is subsequently used to derive an accurate numerical computation of diffraction diagrams for different incoming waves in the fluid, and for different wedge angles. The method can be applied to any problem of coupled waves by a wedge interface. This work is of interest for any researcher concerned with high frequency wave scattering, especially mathematicians, acousticians, engineers.

  7. Laser diffraction analysis of colloidal crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogami, Ikuo S.; Shinohara, Tadatomi; Yoshiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2001-01-01

    Laser diffraction analysis is made on crystallization in salt-free aqueous suspensions of highly-charged colloidal particles for semi-dilute specimens of concentration 0.1-10.0 vol%. Kossel diffraction patterns which represent faithfully accurate information on lattice symmetries in the suspensions enable us to investigate the time evolution of colloidal crystals. The results show that the crystallization proceeds by way of the following intermediate phase transitions: two-dimensional hcp structure → random layer structure → layer structure with one sliding degree of freedom → stacking disorder structure → stacking structure with multivariant periodicity → fcc twin structure with twin plane (111) → normal fcc structure → bcc twin structure with twin plane (11-bar2) or (1-bar12) → normal bcc structure. For concentrated suspensions (>2 vol %), the phase transition ceases to proceed at the normal fcc structure. (author)

  8. Periodically distributed objects with quasicrystalline diffraction pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny, Janusz, E-mail: wolny@fis.agh.edu.pl; Strzalka, Radoslaw [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kuczera, Pawel [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Laboratory of Crystallography, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-03-30

    It is possible to construct fully periodically distributed objects with a diffraction pattern identical to the one obtained for quasicrystals. These objects are probability distributions of distances obtained in the statistical approach to aperiodic structures distributed periodically. The diffraction patterns have been derived by using a two-mode Fourier transform—a very powerful method not used in classical crystallography. It is shown that if scaling is present in the structure, this two-mode Fourier transform can be reduced to a regular Fourier transform with appropriately rescaled scattering vectors and added phases. Detailed case studies for model sets 1D Fibonacci chain and 2D Penrose tiling are discussed. Finally, it is shown that crystalline, quasicrystalline, and approximant structures can be treated in the same way.

  9. Polarisation resonance in X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.; Paterson, D.; Matheson, S.

    1994-01-01

    The study of crystal structures by means of dynamic X-ray diffraction has placed a challenge to theoreticians to revise the X-ray diffraction theory based on Maxwell's equation. In this paper the feasibility of using 'polarisation resonance' as a tool in the determination of absolute configuration for asymmetric structures is investigated. Two (left- and right-handed), σ + and σ- , circular polarization states for 3-beam conditions are considered. Moreover, extending interaction into the 3 rd. dimension (normal to the beam) opens the possibility of absolute configuration determination of asymmetric structures in 3 dimensions. The computational scheme used is shown in terms of scattering diagrams. 7 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  10. Diffractive Hyperbola of a Skin Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubov, V. P.; Vaiman, E. V.; Shipilov, S. È.; Prasath, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Based on an analysis of physics of the phase transition from the quasistatic state field to the running wave field of elementary electric and magnetic dipoles located in absorbing media, it is concluded that the skin layer is formed at the boundary of this phase transition. The possibility is considered of obtaining the diffractive hyperbola of the skin layer and its subsequent application for sensing of objects in strongly absorbing media.

  11. Basic of X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacovazzo, C [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dip. Geomineralogico

    1996-09-01

    The basic concepts of X-ray diffraction may be more easily understood if it is made preliminary use of a mathematical background. In these pages the authors will first define the delta function and its use for the representation of a lattice. Then the concepts of Fourier transform and convolution are given. At the end of this talk one should realize that a crystal is the convolution of the lattice with a function representing the content of the unit cell.

  12. Determination of textures by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervin, P.; Penelle, R.

    1989-01-01

    In virtue of the low absorption coefficient of most materials in regard to neutrons, neutron diffraction is particularly well adapted for high-precision characterizing of the gross texture of massive fine-grained or coarse-grained specimens of the order of the cubic centimeter. The firt part of this paper is devoted to a description of the distribution of crystalline orientations, and the second part to experimental identification of textures [fr

  13. Basic of X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacovazzo, C.

    1996-01-01

    The basic concepts of X-ray diffraction may be more easily understood if it is made preliminary use of a mathematical background. In these pages the authors will first define the delta function and its use for the representation of a lattice. Then the concepts of Fourier transform and convolution are given. At the end of this talk one should realize that a crystal is the convolution of the lattice with a function representing the content of the unit cell

  14. Exact and approximate multiple diffraction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Y.; Wallace, S.J.; Sparrow, D.A.

    1976-08-01

    A three-body potential scattering problem is solved in the fixed scatterer model exactly and approximately to test the validity of commonly used assumptions of multiple scattering calculations. The model problem involves two-body amplitudes that show diffraction-like differential scattering similar to high energy hadron-nucleon amplitudes. The exact fixed scatterer calculations are compared to Glauber approximation, eikonal-expansion results and a noneikonal approximation

  15. Powder Neutron Diffraction and Magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneron, F.

    1986-01-01

    The determination of the magnetic structures of materials (ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, helimagnetic, .) can be achieved only by neutron diffraction. A general survey of the powder technique is given: 2-axis spectrometer and analysis of the magnetic data. For the REBe/sb13/ intermetallic compounds (RE = Rare Earth), commensurate and/or incommensurate magnetic structures are observed and discussed as a function of RE (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er)

  16. A public database of macromolecular diffraction experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Marek; Langner, Karol M; Cymborowski, Marcin; Porebski, Przemyslaw J; Sroka, Piotr; Zheng, Heping; Cooper, David R; Zimmerman, Matthew D; Elsliger, Marc André; Burley, Stephen K; Minor, Wladek

    2016-11-01

    The low reproducibility of published experimental results in many scientific disciplines has recently garnered negative attention in scientific journals and the general media. Public transparency, including the availability of `raw' experimental data, will help to address growing concerns regarding scientific integrity. Macromolecular X-ray crystallography has led the way in requiring the public dissemination of atomic coordinates and a wealth of experimental data, making the field one of the most reproducible in the biological sciences. However, there remains no mandate for public disclosure of the original diffraction data. The Integrated Resource for Reproducibility in Macromolecular Crystallography (IRRMC) has been developed to archive raw data from diffraction experiments and, equally importantly, to provide related metadata. Currently, the database of our resource contains data from 2920 macromolecular diffraction experiments (5767 data sets), accounting for around 3% of all depositions in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), with their corresponding partially curated metadata. IRRMC utilizes distributed storage implemented using a federated architecture of many independent storage servers, which provides both scalability and sustainability. The resource, which is accessible via the web portal at http://www.proteindiffraction.org, can be searched using various criteria. All data are available for unrestricted access and download. The resource serves as a proof of concept and demonstrates the feasibility of archiving raw diffraction data and associated metadata from X-ray crystallographic studies of biological macromolecules. The goal is to expand this resource and include data sets that failed to yield X-ray structures in order to facilitate collaborative efforts that will improve protein structure-determination methods and to ensure the availability of `orphan' data left behind for various reasons by individual investigators and/or extinct structural genomics

  17. Diffractive Optics for Gravitational Wave Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunkowski, A; Burmeister, O; Clausnitzer, T; Kley, E-B; Tuennermann, A; Danzmann, K; Schnabel, R

    2006-01-01

    All-reflective interferometry based on nano-structured diffraction gratings offers new possibilities for gravitational wave detection. We investigate an all-reflective Fabry-Perot interferometer concept in 2nd order Littrow mount. The input-output relations for such a resonator are derived treating the grating coupler by means of a scattering matrix formalism. A low loss dielectric reflection grating has been designed and manufactured to test the properties of such a grating cavity

  18. New Forward and Diffractive Physics at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.santoro@cern.ch [Departamento de Fisica Nuclear e Altas Energias Instituto de Fisica Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524 - Maracana 20559-900 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2011-04-01

    Forward and Diffractive Physics (FWP) in LHC is a new open window to understand this type of strong interactions. We will present a didactic description of the topics being developed at CMS. As we know there still is no new results to present for FWP. We are accumulating data to have soon new results. We will show a number of topics and the detectors properties to do the observation of several topologies. We expect to give an optimistic view of the area.

  19. Holographic analysis of diffraction structure factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesini, S.; Bucher, J.J.; Shuh, D.K.; Fabris, L.; Press, M.J.; West, M.W.; Hussain, Z.; Mannella, N.; Fadley, C.S.; Van Hove, M.A.; Stolte, W.C.

    2002-01-01

    We combine the theory of inside-source/inside-detector x-ray fluorescence holography and Kossel lines/ x ray standing waves in kinematic approximation to directly obtain the phases of the diffraction structure factors. The influence of Kossel lines and standing waves on holography is also discussed. We obtain partial phase determination from experimental data obtaining the sign of the real part of the structure factor for several reciprocal lattice vectors of a vanadium crystal

  20. Elastic wave diffraction by infinite wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, Larissa; Zernov, Victor [Sound Mathematics Ltd., Cambridge CB4 2AS (United Kingdom); Gautesen, Arthur [Mathematics Department, Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory (United States); Darmon, Michel, E-mail: l.fradkin@soundmathematics.com [CEA-LIST, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-01-01

    We compare two recently developed semi-analytical approaches to the classical problem of diffraction by an elastic two dimensional wedge, one based on the reciprocity principle and Fourier Transform and another, on the representations of the elastodynamic potentials in the form of Sommerfeld Integrals. At present, in their common region of validity, the approaches are complementary, one working better than the other at some isolated angles of incidence.

  1. Identifying diffraction effects in measured reflectances

    OpenAIRE

    Holzschuch , Nicolas; Pacanowski , Romain

    2015-01-01

    International audience; There are two different physical models connecting the micro-geometry of a surface and its physical reflectance properties (BRDF). The first, Cook-Torrance, assumes geometrical optics: light is reflected and masked by the micro-facets. In this model, the BRDF depends on the probability distribution of micro-facets normals. The second, Church-Takacs, assumes diffraction by the micro-geometry. In this model, the BRDF depends on the power spectral distribution of the surf...

  2. Colour-singlet exchange and tests of models of diffractive DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.C.

    2000-03-01

    Diffractive deep-inelastic scattering events observed at the HERA electron-proton collider are interpreted as an interaction involving a virtual photon scattering off a colour-singlet state within the proton. Models which attempt to describe the colour-singlet exchanged in diffractive interactions range from the purely phenomenological Donnachie-Landshoff form factor approach to the QCD-motivated gluon-exchange models and the scalar-pomeron model. It is important to find ways to test these models. In this thesis colour-singlet exchange models of diffractive DIS are compared with cross section and structure function data from the H1 detector. H1 select diffractive data by requiring there to be a large angle between the forward proton direction and any other significant detector activity. This pseudo-rapidity gap cut extracts colour-singlet exchange events from the standard DIS data sample. For a wide range of the parameter space covered by the HERA experiments, however, the pseudo-rapidity gap cuts restrict the final-state phase space available for diffractive scattering. One consequence is that pseudo-rapidity gap cuts can be used to select diffractive events in which the colour-singlet only couples to off-shell partons. To leading order in the strong coupling constant, the diffractive final state consists of a quark-antiquark pair. Higher-order events include diffractive production of quark-antiquark-gluon states. In the region where pseudo-rapidity gap cuts restrict the accessible phase space, the cuts reject low transverse momentum quark-antiquark diffractive events. Pseudo-rapidity gap data selection cuts also allow selection of an enhanced 3-jet data sample. The structure function and transverse momentum distribution data can be described by either a two-gluon model or by the Donnachie-Landshoff model, both models requiring a significant contribution from quark-antiquark-gluon diffractive final states to fit the full kinematic range of the diffractive data

  3. Systematics of 2-body diffractive dissociations and search of double diffractive dissociation in K-p interactions at 14.3 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Yvette.

    1977-12-01

    The diffractive dissociation mechanism is shown to be general when looking at 22 mesonic or baryonic threshold enhancements. The dissociation systems are all produced peripherally and present the property of slope-mass correlation. The production slopes and cross-sections mainly depend on the diffractive excitation mass. The comparison of the results with those from the I.S.R. shows that dissociation systems are very similar in their effective mass shape, momentum transfer structure and angular distributions at center-of-mass energies differing by a factor of ten. Evidence for double diffractive dissociation mechanism is found in 2 exclusive reactions at a cross section level of 5-10+-2 μb. The factorisation hypothesis seems well verified [fr

  4. Zeolite function studied by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsam, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Some recent figures relating to industrial uses of zeolites are summarized. Recent advances in the application of neutron diffraction to zeolite science are overviewed, with particular emphasis on powder diffraction (PND) results. Single crystal neutron diffraction studies of some 17 hydrated natural and synthetic zeolites have now appeared and they provide a consistent picture of zeolite-water interactions. Complete PND studies of hydrated synthetic ABW- and SOD-framework zeolites have also been reported. Other PND studies have explored the structural consequences of non-framework cation exchange, of framework modification by dealumination, and of framework cation substitution. Relatively simple zeolite-hydrocarbon sorbate complexes that have been studied include benzene in zeolite Y, and benzene and pyridine in zeolite L. Areas that are well poised for further development include further extensions to lower symmetry systems, the use of PND data for zeolite structure solution, studies at elevated temperatures and pressures, and further studies of zeolite sorbate complexes. (author) 68 refs., 7 figs

  5. DNA hydration studied by neutron fiber diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, W.; Forsyth, V.T.; Mahendrasingam, A.; Langan, P.; Pigram, W.J. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The development of neutron high angle fiber diffraction to investigate the location of water around the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-helix is described. The power of the technique is illustrated by its application to the D and A conformations of DNA using the single crystal diffractometer, D19, at the Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble and the time of flight diffractometer, SXD, at the Rutherford Appleton ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. These studies show the existence of bound water closely associated with the DNA. The patterns of hydration in these two DNA conformations are quite distinct and are compared to those observed in X-ray single crystal studies of two-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides. Information on the location of water around the DNA double-helix from the neutron fiber diffraction studies is combined with that on the location of alkali metal cations from complementary X-ray high angle fiber diffraction studies at the Daresbury Laboratory SRS using synchrotron radiation. These analyses emphasize the importance of viewing DNA, water and ions as a single system with specific interactions between the three components and provide a basis for understanding the effect of changes in the concentration of water and ions in inducing conformations] transitions in the DNA double-helix.

  6. Suspended DNA structural characterization by TEM diffraction

    KAUST Repository

    Marini, Monica

    2017-12-01

    In this work, micro-fabrication, super-hydrophobic properties and a physiologically compatible preparation step are combined and tailored to obtain background free biological samples to be investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) diffraction technique. The validation was performed evaluating a well-known parameter such as the DNA interbases value. The diffraction spacing measured is in good agreement with those obtained by HRTEM direct metrology and by traditional X-Ray diffraction. This approach addresses single molecule studies in a simplified and reproducible straightforward way with respect to more conventional and widely used techniques. In addition, it overcomes the need of long and elaborated samples preparations: the sample is in its physiological environment and the HRTEM data acquisition occurs without any background interference, coating, staining or additional manipulation. The congruence in the results reported in this paper makes the application of this approach extremely promising towards those molecules for which crystallization remains a hurdle, such as cell membrane proteins and fibrillar proteins.

  7. Miniaturized diffraction based interferometric distance measurement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungki

    In this thesis, new metrology hardware is designed, fabricated, and tested to provide improvements over current MEMS metrology. The metrology system is a micromachined scanning interferometer (muSI) having a sub-nm resolution in a compact design. The proposed microinterferometer forms a phase sensitive diffraction grating with interferomeric sensitivity, while adding the capability of better lateral resolution by focusing the laser to a smaller spot size. A detailed diffraction model of the microinterferometer was developed to simulate the device performance and to suggest the location of photo detectors for integrated optoelectronics. A particular device is fabricated on a fused silica substrate using aluminum to form the deformable diffraction grating fingers and AZ P4620 photo resist (PR) for the microlens. The details of the fabrication processes are presented. The structure also enables optoelectronics to be integrated so that the interferometer with photo detectors can fit in an area that is 1 mm x 1 mm. The scanning results using a fixed grating muSI demonstrated that it could measure vibration profile as well as static vertical (less than a half wave length) and lateral dimension of MEMS. The muSI, which is integrated with photo diodes, demonstrated its operation by scanning a cMUT. The PID control has been tested and resulted in improvement in scanned images. The integrated muSI demonstrated that the deformable grating could be used to tune the measurement keep the interferometer in quadrature for highest sensitivity.

  8. Diffraction, chopping, and background subtraction for LDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edward L.

    1988-01-01

    The Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) will be an extremely sensitive infrared telescope if the noise due to the photons in the large thermal background is the only limiting factor. For observations with a 3 arcsec aperture in a broadband at 100 micrometers, a 20-meter LDR will emit 10(exp 12) per second, while the photon noise limited sensitivity in a deep survey observation will be 3,000 photons per second. Thus the background subtraction has to work at the 1 part per billion level. Very small amounts of scattered or diffracted energy can be significant if they are modulated by the chopper. The results are presented for 1-D and 2-D diffraction calculations for the lightweight, low-cost LDR concept that uses an active chopping quaternary to correct the wavefront errors introduced by the primary. Fourier transforms were used to evaluate the diffraction of 1 mm waves through this system. Unbalanced signals due to dust and thermal gradients were also studied.

  9. Neutron diffraction from holographic gratings in PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havermeyer, F.; Kraetzig, E.; Rupp, R.A.; Schubert, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. By definition photorefractive materials change the refractive index for light under the action of light. Using the spatially modulated light intensity pattern from the interference of two plane waves, volume phase gratings with accurately defined spacings can be produced. Depending on the material there are many physical origins for these gratings, but in most cases they are linked to a density modulation and, consequently, to a refractive index grating for neutrons. By diffraction of light or neutrons from such gratings even small refractive index changes down to Δn ∼ 10 -7 - 10 -9 can be measured. In our photopolymer system PMMA/MMA (poly(methyl methacrylate) with a content of 10-20% of the residual monomer methyl methacrylate) inhomogeneous illumination leads to local post-polymerisation processes of the residual monomer. The resulting light-optical refractive index grating is caused by the modulation of the monomer/polymer ratio as well as by the modulation of the total density. Only by the unique combination of methods for light and neutron diffraction, available at HOLONS (Holography and Neutron Scattering, instrument at the GKSS research centre), both contributions can be separated. We discuss the angular dependence of the neutron diffraction efficiency for weakly and strongly (efficiencies up to 60% have been achieved) modulated gratings and propose a simple model for the evaluation of the gratings. (author)

  10. Shock Wave Diffraction Phenomena around Slotted Splitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of aerospace engineering, the study of the characteristics of vortical flows and their unsteady phenomena finds numerous engineering applications related to improvements in the design of tip devices, enhancement of combustor performance, and control of noise generation. A large amount of work has been carried out in the analysis of the shock wave diffraction around conventional geometries such as sharp and rounded corners, but the employment of splitters with lateral variation has hardly attracted the attention of researchers. The investigation of this phenomenon around two-dimensional wedges has allowed the understanding of the basic physical principles of the flow features. On the other hand, important aspects that appear in the third dimension due to the turbulent nature of the vortices are omitted. The lack of studies that use three-dimensional geometries has motivated the current work to experimentally investigate the evolution of the shock wave diffraction around two splitters with spike-shaped structures for Mach numbers of 1.31 and 1.59. Schlieren photography was used to obtain an insight into the sequential diffraction processes that take place in different planes. Interacting among them, these phenomena generate a complicated turbulent cloud with a vortical arrangement.

  11. Suspended DNA structural characterization by TEM diffraction

    KAUST Repository

    Marini, Monica; Allione, Marco; Lopatin, Sergei; Moretti, Manola; Giugni, Andrea; Torre, Bruno; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, micro-fabrication, super-hydrophobic properties and a physiologically compatible preparation step are combined and tailored to obtain background free biological samples to be investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) diffraction technique. The validation was performed evaluating a well-known parameter such as the DNA interbases value. The diffraction spacing measured is in good agreement with those obtained by HRTEM direct metrology and by traditional X-Ray diffraction. This approach addresses single molecule studies in a simplified and reproducible straightforward way with respect to more conventional and widely used techniques. In addition, it overcomes the need of long and elaborated samples preparations: the sample is in its physiological environment and the HRTEM data acquisition occurs without any background interference, coating, staining or additional manipulation. The congruence in the results reported in this paper makes the application of this approach extremely promising towards those molecules for which crystallization remains a hurdle, such as cell membrane proteins and fibrillar proteins.

  12. Revisit to diffraction anomalous fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, T.; Fukuda, K.; Tokuda, K.; Shimada, K.; Ichitsubo, T.; Oishi, M.; Mizuki, J.; Matsubara, E.

    2014-01-01

    The diffraction anomalous fine structure method has been revisited by applying this measurement technique to polycrystalline samples and using an analytical method with the logarithmic dispersion relation. The diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) method that is a spectroscopic analysis combined with resonant X-ray diffraction enables the determination of the valence state and local structure of a selected element at a specific crystalline site and/or phase. This method has been improved by using a polycrystalline sample, channel-cut monochromator optics with an undulator synchrotron radiation source, an area detector and direct determination of resonant terms with a logarithmic dispersion relation. This study makes the DAFS method more convenient and saves a large amount of measurement time in comparison with the conventional DAFS method with a single crystal. The improved DAFS method has been applied to some model samples, Ni foil and Fe 3 O 4 powder, to demonstrate the validity of the measurement and the analysis of the present DAFS method

  13. DNA hydration studied by neutron fiber diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, W.; Forsyth, V.T.; Mahendrasingam, A.; Langan, P.; Pigram, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    The development of neutron high angle fiber diffraction to investigate the location of water around the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-helix is described. The power of the technique is illustrated by its application to the D and A conformations of DNA using the single crystal diffractometer, D19, at the Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble and the time of flight diffractometer, SXD, at the Rutherford Appleton ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. These studies show the existence of bound water closely associated with the DNA. The patterns of hydration in these two DNA conformations are quite distinct and are compared to those observed in X-ray single crystal studies of two-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides. Information on the location of water around the DNA double-helix from the neutron fiber diffraction studies is combined with that on the location of alkali metal cations from complementary X-ray high angle fiber diffraction studies at the Daresbury Laboratory SRS using synchrotron radiation. These analyses emphasize the importance of viewing DNA, water and ions as a single system with specific interactions between the three components and provide a basis for understanding the effect of changes in the concentration of water and ions in inducing conformations] transitions in the DNA double-helix

  14. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 (micro)m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  15. Diffraction efficiency enhancement of femtosecond laser-engraved diffraction gratings due to CO{sub 2} laser polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hun-Kook [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Deok; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Noh, Young-Chul; Lee, Yong-Tak [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Tae [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ahsan, Shamim [Khulna University, Khulna (Bangladesh)

    2014-11-15

    This research demonstrates laser-assisted fabrication of high-efficiency diffraction gratings in fused-silica glass samples. Initially, femtosecond laser pulses are used to engrave diffraction gratings on the glass surfaces. Then, these micro-patterned glass samples undergo CO{sub 2} laser polishing process. unpolished diffraction gratings encoded in the glass samples show an overall diffraction efficiency of 18.1%. diffraction gratings imprinted on the glass samples and then polished four times by using a CO{sub 2} laser beam attain a diffraction efficiency of 32.7%. We also investigate the diffraction patterns of the diffraction gratings encoded on fused-silica glass surfaces. The proposed CO{sub 2} laser polishing technique shows great potential in patterning high-efficiency diffraction gratings on the surfaces of various transparent materials.

  16. Double-diffractive processes in high-resolution missing-mass experiments at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoze, V.A.; Martin, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluate, in a model-independent way, the signal-to-background ratio for Higgs→b anti b detection in exclusive double-diffractive events at the Tevatron and the LHC. For the missing-mass approach to be able to identify the Higgs boson, it will be necessary to use a central jet detector and to tag b quark jets. The signal is predicted to be very small at the Tevatron, but observable at the LHC. However we note that the background, that is double-diffractive dijet production, may serve as a unique gluon factory. We also give estimates for the double-diffractive production of χ c and χ b mesons at the Tevatron. We emphasize that a high-resolution missing-mass measurement, on its own, is insufficient to identify rare processes. (orig.)

  17. Comparative study of macrotexture analysis using X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serna, Marilene Morelli

    2002-01-01

    The macrotexture is one of the main characteristics in metallic materials, which the physical properties depend on the crystallographic direction. The analysis of the macrotexture to middles of the decade of 80 was just accomplished by the techniques of Xray diffraction and neutrons diffraction. The possibility of the analysis of the macrotexture using, the technique of electron backscattering diffraction in the scanning electronic microscope, that allowed to correlate the measure of the orientation with its location in the micro structure, was a very welcome tool in the area of engineering of materials. In this work it was studied the theoretical aspects of the two techniques and it was used of both techniques for the analysis of the macrotexture of aluminum sheets 1050 and 3003 with intensity, measured through the texture index 'J', from 2.00 to 5.00. The results obtained by the two techniques were shown reasonably similar, being considered that the statistics of the data obtained by the technique of electron backscatter diffraction is much inferior to the obtained by the X-ray diffraction. (author)

  18. Coherent diffractive imaging methods for semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Patrick; Mochi, Iacopo; Rajeev, Rajendran; Fernandez, Sara; Ekinci, Yasin

    2017-12-01

    The paradigm shift of the semiconductor industry moving from deep ultraviolet to extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) brought about new challenges in the fabrication of illumination and projection optics, which constitute one of the core sources of cost of ownership for many of the metrology tools needed in the lithography process. For this reason, lensless imaging techniques based on coherent diffractive imaging started to raise interest in the EUVL community. This paper presents an overview of currently on-going research endeavors that use a number of methods based on lensless imaging with coherent light.

  19. The basics of crystallography and diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, C

    2015-01-01

    This title provides a clear and very broadly based introduction to crystallography, light, X-ray, and electron diffraction; a knowledge of which is essential to students in a wide range of scientific disciplines but which is otherwise generally covered in subject-specific and more mathematically detailed texts. The book is also designed to appeal to the more general reader since it shows, by historical and biographical references, how the subject has developed from the work and insights of successive generations of crystallographers and scientists.

  20. Accidental exposition with xray diffraction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanez, O.; Blanco, D.

    1991-01-01

    The plug fault Xray diffraction equipment promoted searcher irradiation.The film dosemeter who he carried was over exposed (D.O.>4.5). The reconstruction of the accident for value the operator dose received and future effects of him. The troubled received the following dose: 350-700 rad in 1 to 2 minutes in thorax and probably face level,this one measured with X ray chamber as low energy. The involved tissue were: skin, thyroids and crystalline of the eye. As conclusion a partial dose received for the worker had not threshold value for produce deterministic effects

  1. Observation of diffraction effects in positron channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palathingal, J.C.; Peng, J.P.; Lynn, K.G.; Wu, X.Y.; Schultz, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental investigation of positron channeling was made with a high-angular resolution apparatus, employing positrons of kinetic energy 1 MeV, derived from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Dynamitron. The pattern of transmission through a Si (100) single crystal of thickness 0.245 μm was investigated for a number of major planes. The authors have observed for the first time, in excellent detail, the fine structure of the channeling pattern expected to arise from the particle diffraction effects, theoretically explainable in terms of the quantum-mechanical many-beam calculations

  2. Neutron diffraction from lead germanate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umesaki, Norimasa; Brunier, T.M.; Wright, A.C.; Hannon, A.C.; Scinclair, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    High resolution neutron diffraction data have been collected on the PbO-GeO 2 glasses and on GeO 2 for comparison. These neutron data have revealed the existence of 6-fold coordinated germanium (GeO 6 octahedra) by virtue of the shift in the first peak in the obtained total correlation function T(r) and increase in the coordination. The neutron results also indicate that PbO exits as PbO 4 pyramids, as found in the orthorhombic form of PbO crystal, in the studied PbO-GeO 2 glasses. (author)

  3. Results of Soft-Diffraction at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Meissner, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb detector with its unique pseudorapidity coverage allows to perform soft-QCD measurements in the kinematic forward region where QCD models have large uncertainties. Selected analyses related to soft-Diffraction will be summarised in these proceedings. Energy flow and charged particle multiplicity have been measured separately in different event classes. They give input for modelling the underlying event in $pp$ collisions. Prompt hadron ratios are important for hadronisation models, while the $p/p$ ratio is a good observable to test models of baryon number transport.

  4. Sensitive visual test for concave diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A simple visual test for the evaluation of concave diffraction gratings is described. It is twice as sensitive as the Foucault knife edge test, from which it is derived, and has the advantage that the images are straight and free of astigmatism. It is particularly useful for grating with high ruling frequency where the above image faults limit the utility of the Foucault test. The test can be interpreted quantitatively and can detect zonal grating space errors of as little as 0.1 A.

  5. Mineralogical applications of electron diffraction. 1. Theory and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Malcolm; Christ, C.L.

    1958-01-01

    The small wavelengths used in electron-diffraction experiments and the thinness of the crystals necessary for the transmission of the electron beam combine to require a somewhat different diffraction geometry for the interpretation of electron-diffraction patterns than is used in the interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns. This geometry, based on the reciprocal lattice concept and geometrical construction of Ewald, needed for the interpretation.

  6. On Babinet's principle and diffraction associated with an arbitrary particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingqiang; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W; Mishchenko, Michael I

    2017-12-01

    Babinet's principle is widely used to compute the diffraction by a particle. However, the diffraction by a 3-D object is not totally the same as that simulated with Babinet's principle. This Letter uses a surface integral equation to exactly formulate the diffraction by an arbitrary particle and illustrate the condition for the applicability of Babinet's principle. The present results may serve to close the debate on the diffraction formalism.

  7. Development of positron diffraction and holography at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, A.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Stoeffl, W.; Howell, R.; Miller, D.; Denison, A.

    2003-01-01

    A low-energy positron diffraction and holography spectrometer is currently being constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study surfaces and adsorbed structures. This instrument will operate in conjunction with the LLNL intense positron beam produced by the 100 MeV LINAC allowing data to be acquired in minutes rather than days. Positron diffraction possesses certain advantages over electron diffraction which are discussed. Details of the instrument based on that of low-energy electron diffraction are described

  8. Diffraction scattering and disintegration of 3He nuclei by atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval'chuk, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    Within diffraction model framework a method of cross sections calculation for scattering and disintegration of weakly-bounded two-clustered nuclei by nuclei when both of its clusters are changed has been proposed. The experimental elastic scattering cross sections of 3 He by 40 Ca, 90 Zr and coincidence spectra of disintegration products from 28 Si( 3 He,dp) have been described

  9. Double diffractive cross-section measurement in the forward region at LHC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Kašpar, Jan; Kopal, Josef; Kundrát, Jan; Lokajíček, Miloš V.; Procházka, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 26 (2013), "262001-1"-"262001-6" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : LHC * TOTEM * diffractive production Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013

  10. In Situ X-ray Diffraction Studies of (De)lithiation Mechanism in Silicon Nanowire Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Misra, Sumohan; Liu, Nian; Nelson, Johanna; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Yi; Toney, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    -Si product has been observed. In this work, we use an X-ray transparent battery cell to perform in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction on SiNWs in real time during electrochemical cycling. At deep lithiation voltages the known metastable Li 15Si 4 phase forms

  11. Axial and focal-plane diffraction catastrophe integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M V; Howls, C J

    2010-01-01

    Exact expressions in terms of Bessel functions are found for some of the diffraction catastrophe integrals that decorate caustics in optics and mechanics. These are the axial and focal-plane sections of the elliptic and hyperbolic umbilic diffraction catastrophes, and symmetric elliptic and hyperbolic unfoldings of the X 9 diffraction catastrophes. These representations reveal unexpected relations between the integrals.

  12. Light distribution in diffractive multifocal optics and its optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portney, Valdemar

    2011-11-01

    To expand a geometrical model of diffraction efficiency and its interpretation to the multifocal optic and to introduce formulas for analysis of far and near light distribution and their application to multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) and to diffraction efficiency optimization. Medical device consulting firm, Newport Coast, California, USA. Experimental study. Application of a geometrical model to the kinoform (single focus diffractive optical element) was expanded to a multifocal optic to produce analytical definitions of light split between far and near images and light loss to other diffraction orders. The geometrical model gave a simple interpretation of light split in a diffractive multifocal IOL. An analytical definition of light split between far, near, and light loss was introduced as curve fitting formulas. Several examples of application to common multifocal diffractive IOLs were developed; for example, to light-split change with wavelength. The analytical definition of diffraction efficiency may assist in optimization of multifocal diffractive optics that minimize light loss. Formulas for analysis of light split between different foci of multifocal diffractive IOLs are useful in interpreting diffraction efficiency dependence on physical characteristics, such as blaze heights of the diffractive grooves and wavelength of light, as well as for optimizing multifocal diffractive optics. Disclosure is found in the footnotes. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spider diffraction: a comparison of curved and straight legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    It has been known for some time that, if curved legs rather than the usual straight ones are used in the spider that supports the secondary optics in certain telescopes, the visible diffraction effect is reduced. Fraunhofer theory is used to calculate the diffraction effects due to the curved leg spider. Calculated and photographic diffraction patterns are compared for straight and curved leg spiders

  14. Background removal in X-ray fiber diffraction patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millane, R.P.; Arnott, S.

    1985-01-01

    Background can be a major source of error in measurement of diffracted intensities in fiber diffraction patterns. Errors can be large when poorly oriented less-crystalline specimens give diffraction patterns with little uncontaminated background. A method for estimating and removing a general global background in such cases is described and illustrated with an example. (orig.)

  15. Diffractive pion dissociation into 5 pion final states at COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubert, Sebastian; Friedrich, Jan; Grabmueller, Stefanie; Haas, Florian; Ketzer, Bernhard; Paul, Stephan; Weitzel, Quirin [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, 85748 Garching (Germany); Chung, Suh-Urk [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, 85748 Garching (Germany); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ryabchikov, Dimitry [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institute for High Ernergy Physics, 142284 Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS, which investigates the structure and spectroscopy of hadrons. In 2004, a first run with a 190 GeV/c {pi}{sup -} beam took place using nuclear targets. Diffractive dissociation reactions observed in this run provide clean access to meson resonances with masses up to 3 GeV/c{sup 2}. Exclusive final states with 5 charged pions have been extracted. The covered range in momentum transfer extends from threshold to a few GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} allowing to study resonance production in different regimes. We report on the status of the analysis of this unique data set.

  16. Applications of TOF neutron diffraction in archaeometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kockelmann, W. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, ISIS Facility, Chilton (United Kingdom); Siano, S.; Bartoli, L. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata - CNR, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Visser, D. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, ISIS Facility, Chilton (United Kingdom); Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), Den Haag (Netherlands); Hallebeek, P. [Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage (ICN), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Traum, R. [Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Muenzkabinett, Vienna (Austria); Linke, R.; Schreiner, M. [Akademie der Bildenden Kuenste, Institut fuer Wissenschaften und Technologien in der Kunst, Vienna (Austria); Kirfel, A. [Universitaet Bonn, Mineralogisch-Petrologisches Institut, Bonn (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Neutron radiation meets the demand for a versatile diagnostic probe for collecting information from the interior of large, undisturbed museum objects or archaeological findings. Neutrons penetrate through coatings and corrosion layers deep into centimetre-thick materials, a property that makes them ideal for non-destructive examination of objects for which sampling is impractical or unacceptable. A particular attraction of neutron techniques for archaeologists and conservation scientists is the prospect of locating hidden materials and structures inside objects. Time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction allows for the examination of mineral and metal phase contents, crystal structures, grain orientations, and microstructures as well as micro- and macro strains. A promising application is texture analysis which may provide clues to the deformation history of the material, and hence to specific working processes. Here we report on instructive examples of TOF neutron diffraction, including phase analyses of medieval Dutch tin-lead spoons, texture analyses of bronze specimens as well as of 16th-century silver coins. (orig.)

  17. High resolution Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of high-resolution powder diffraction has grown rapidly in the past years, with the development of Rietveld (1967) methods of data analysis and new high-resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. The number of publications in this area has increased from a handful per year until 1973 to 150 per year in 1984, with a ten-year total of over 1000. These papers cover a wide area of solid state-chemistry, physics and materials science, and have been grouped under 20 subject headings, ranging from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrode materials to pre-stressed superconducting wires. In 1985 two new high-resolution diffractometers are being commissioned, one at the SNS laboratory near Oxford, and one at the ILL in Grenoble. In different ways these machines represent perhaps the ultimate that can be achieved with neutrons and will permit refinement of complex structures with about 250 parameters and unit cell volumes of about 2500 Angstrom/sp3/. The new European Synchotron Facility will complement the Grenoble neutron diffractometers, and extend the role of high-resolution powder diffraction to the direct solution of crystal structures, pioneered in Sweden

  18. Crystal diffraction lens for medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R. K.; Roa, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    A crystal diffraction lens for focusing energetic gamma rays has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory for use in medical imaging of radioactivity in the human body. A common method for locating possible cancerous growths in the body is to inject radioactivity into the blood stream of the patient and then look for any concentration of radioactivity that could be associated with the fast growing cancer cells. Often there are borderline indications of possible cancers that could be due to statistical functions in the measured counting rates. In order to determine if these indications are false or real, one must resort to surgical means and take tissue samples in the suspect area. They are developing a system of crystal diffraction lenses that will be incorporated into a 3-D imaging system with better sensitivity (factors of 10 to 100) and better spatial resolution (a few mm in both vertical and horizontal directions) than most systems presently in use. The use of this new imaging system will allow one to eliminate 90% of the false indications and both locate and determine the size of the cancer with mm precision. The lens consists of 900 single crystals of copper, 4 mm x 4 mm on a side and 2--4 mm thick, mounted in 13 concentric rings

  19. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  20. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  1. Diffraction from the perspective of the spatial coherence wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, R.; Carrasquilla-Alvarez, J.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

    2005-10-01

    The diffraction of spatially partially coherent optical fields is analysed by using two concepts recently introduced by the authors: the spatial coherence wavelets and the effective diffracting aperture. Within this framework, the intimate link between the spatial properties of the optical field and the aperture's edges in the diffraction phenomena is studied. New insight is proposed in regard to the diffraction in the Fresnel - Fraunhofer approximation. Our ideas are supported by numerical calculations and analysis of the diffraction patterns obtained when an optical field with adjustable spatial coherence impinges upon a circular aperture (author)

  2. A new bridge technique for neutron tomography and diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burca, G.; James, J.A.; Kockelmann, W.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Zhang, S.Y.; Hovind, J.; Langh, R. van

    2011-01-01

    An attractive feature of neutron techniques is the ability to identify hidden materials and structures inside engineering components and objects of art and archaeology. Bearing this in mind we are investigating a new technique, 'Tomography Driven Diffraction' (TDD), that exploits tomography data to guide diffraction experiments on samples with complex structures and shapes. The technique can be used utilising combinations of individual tomography and diffraction instruments, such as NEUTRA (PSI, CH) and ENGIN-X (ISIS, UK), but is also suitable for new combined imaging and diffraction instruments such as the JEEP synchrotron engineering instrument (DIAMOND, UK) and the proposed IMAT neutron imaging and diffraction instrument (ISIS, UK).

  3. Multibreather solitons in the diffraction managed NLS equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotaros, Panayotis

    2006-01-01

    We study analytically and numerically localized breather solutions in the averaged discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLS) with diffraction management, a system that models coupled waveguide arrays with periodic diffraction management geometries. Localized breathers can be characterized as constrained critical points of the Hamiltonian of the averaged diffraction managed NLS. In addition to local extrema, we find numerically more general solutions that are saddle points of the constrained Hamiltonian. An interesting class of saddle points are 'multi-bump' solutions that are close to superpositions of translates of simpler breathers. In the case of zero residual diffraction and small diffraction management, the existence of multibumps can be shown rigorously by a continuation argument

  4. An investigation of single diffractive p-Be, p-Al, and p-W interactions within the Dual Parton Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.

    1994-01-01

    Single diffractive proton-beryllium, -aluminium, and -tungsten interactions are studied within the framework of the Dual Parton Model. Their implementation into the Monte-Carlo event generator DTUNUC is described, and the main features of single diffractive particle production are discussed, comparing them to recent experimental results. Furthermore, single diffractive hadron-nucleus cross sections are calculated using the Glauber theory and the influence of hadronic cross section fluctuations is investigated. (author). 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Beamline I11 at Diamond: a new instrument for high resolution powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S P; Parker, J E; Potter, J; Hill, T P; Birt, A; Cobb, T M; Yuan, F; Tang, C C

    2009-07-01

    The performance characteristics of a new synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction beamline (I11) at the Diamond Light Source are presented. Using an in-vacuum undulator for photon production and deploying simple x-ray optics centered around a double-crystal monochromator and a pair of harmonic rejection mirrors, a high brightness and low bandpass x-ray beam is delivered at the sample. To provide fast data collection, 45 Si(111) analyzing crystals and detectors are installed onto a large and high precision diffractometer. High resolution powder diffraction data from standard reference materials of Si, alpha-quartz, and LaB6 are used to characterize instrumental performance.

  6. X-ray diffraction studies of chitosan acetate-based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Z.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Abdul Kariem Arof

    2002-01-01

    Chitosan is the product when partially deacetylated chitin dissolves in dilute acetic acid. This paper presents the x-ray diffraction patterns of chitosan acetate, plasticised chitosan acetate and plasticised-salted chitosan acetate films. The results show that the chitosan acetate based polymer electrolyte films are not completely amorphous but it is partially crystalline. X-ray diffraction study also confirms the occurrence of the complexation between chitosan and the salt and the interaction between salt and plasticizer. The salt-chitosan interaction is clearly justified by infrared spectroscopy. (Author)

  7. Diffractive J/ψ photoproduction as a probe of the gluon density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskin, M.G.; Roberts, R.G.; Martin, A.D.; Levin, E.M.

    1995-11-01

    We use perturbative QCD beyond the leading Ln Q 2 approximation, to show how measurements of diffractive J/ψ production at HERA can provide a sensitive probe of the gluon density of the proton at small values of Bjorken x. We estimate both the effect of the relativistic motion of the c and c within the J/ψ and of the rescattering of the cc quark pair on the proton. We find that the available data for diffractive J/ψ photoproduction can discriminate between the gluon distributions of the most recent sets of partons. (author). 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  8. Extinction correction in white X-ray and neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyoshi, S.; Yamada, M.; Watanabe, H.

    1980-01-01

    Extinction effects in white-beam X-ray and neutron diffraction are considered. In white-beam diffraction, a small deviation of the wavelength from the Bragg condition Δlambda is a variable which represents the line profile of the diffraction peaks, so that by using the new parameter Δlambda the theory is converted to one in white-beam diffraction. It is shown that for a convex crystal, primary extinction agrees with the results calculated already for monochromatic diffraction. The same relation is shown to hold in secondary extinction. It is concluded that extinction theory derived for monochromatic diffraction is applicable without any modification in white-beam diffraction. (Auth.)

  9. Astrophysical targets of the Fresnel diffractive imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koechlin, L.; Deba, P.; Raksasataya, T.

    2017-11-01

    The Fresnel Diffractive imager is an innovative concept of distributed space telescope, for high resolution (milli arc-seconds) spectro-imaging in the IR, visible and UV domains. This paper presents its optical principle and the science that can be done on potential astrophysical targets. The novelty lies in the primary optics: a binary Fresnel array, akin to a binary Fresnel zone plate. The main interest of this approach is the relaxed manufacturing and positioning constraints. While having the resolution and imaging capabilities of lens or mirrors of equivalent size, no optical material is involved in the focusing process: just vacuum. A Fresnel array consists of millions void subapertures punched into a large and thin opaque membrane, that focus light by diffraction into a compact and highly contrasted image. The positioning law of the aperture edges drives the image quality and contrast. This optical concept allows larger and lighter apertures than solid state optics, aiming to high angular resolution and high dynamic range imaging, in particular for UV applications. Diffraction focusing implies very long focal distances, up to dozens of kilometers, which requires at least a two-vessel formation flying in space. The first spacecraft, "the Fresnel Array spacecraft", holds the large punched foil: the Fresnel Array. The second, the "Receiver spacecraft" holds the field optics and focal instrumentation. A chromatism correction feature enables moderately large (20%) relative wavebands, and fields of a few to a dozen arc seconds. This Fresnel imager is adapted to high contrast stellar environments: dust disks, close companions and (we hope) exoplanets. Specific to the particular grid-like pattern of the primary focusing zone plate, is the very high dynamic range achieved in the images, in the case of compact objects. Large stellar photospheres may also be mapped with Fresnel arrays of a few meters opertaing in the UV. Larger and more complex fields can be imaged with

  10. Imaging spectroscopy using embedded diffractive optical arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford

    2017-09-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera based on diffractive optic arrays. This approach to hyperspectral imaging has been demonstrated in all three infrared bands SWIR, MWIR and LWIR. The hyperspectral optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of this infrared hyperspectral sensor. This new and innovative approach to an infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics that are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a small satellite, mini-UAV, commercial quadcopter or man portable. Also, an application of how this spectral imaging technology can easily be used to quantify the mass and volume flow rates of hydrocarbon gases. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. The detector array is divided into sub-images covered by each lenslet. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the number of simultaneous different spectral images collected each frame of the camera. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image

  11. Study of QCD and Diffraction with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Trzebinski, M; Royon, Christophe

    The thesis is devoted to the study of diffractive physics with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. After a short introduction to diffractive physics including soft and hard diffraction, the Jet-Gap-Jet production at the LHC, which is particularly interesting for testing the BFKL theory, is discussed. Using the signal selection cuts and a gap definition based on tracks reconstructed in the ATLAS Inner Detector, a clear signal of Jet-Gap-Jet events in the data was observed. Starting from the half-gap size of 0.8 the data cannot be properly described using only the Non-Diffractive Jet sample. Furthermore, the DPE JGJ production, with both protons tagged in the AFP stations, was demonstrated to provide a significant test of the BFKL theory, once the 300~pb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity is collected. In the last part of the thesis, the processes of Central Exclusive Jet and Exclusive $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ production was discussed. After the postulated data selection, the signal to background ratio was found to be of about 5/9...

  12. NIST/Sandia/ICDD Electron Diffraction Database: A Database for Phase Identification by Electron Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M J; Chambers, W F; Melgaard, D; Himes, V L; Stalick, J K; Mighell, A D

    1989-01-01

    A new database containing crystallographic and chemical information designed especially for application to electron diffraction search/match and related problems has been developed. The new database was derived from two well-established x-ray diffraction databases, the JCPDS Powder Diffraction File and NBS CRYSTAL DATA, and incorporates 2 years of experience with an earlier version. It contains 71,142 entries, with space group and unit cell data for 59,612 of those. Unit cell and space group information were used, where available, to calculate patterns consisting of all allowed reflections with d -spacings greater than 0.8 A for ~ 59,000 of the entries. Calculated patterns are used in the database in preference to experimental x-ray data when both are available, since experimental x-ray data sometimes omits high d -spacing data which falls at low diffraction angles. Intensity data are not given when calculated spacings are used. A search scheme using chemistry and r -spacing (reciprocal d -spacing) has been developed. Other potentially searchable data in this new database include space group, Pearson symbol, unit cell edge lengths, reduced cell edge length, and reduced cell volume. Compound and/or mineral names, formulas, and journal references are included in the output, as well as pointers to corresponding entries in NBS CRYSTAL DATA and the Powder Diffraction File where more complete information may be obtained. Atom positions are not given. Rudimentary search software has been written to implement a chemistry and r -spacing bit map search. With typical data, a full search through ~ 71,000 compounds takes 10~20 seconds on a PDP 11/23-RL02 system.

  13. Contained x-ray diffraction goniometer for examination of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.K.; Osgood, B.C.; Blaser, D.E.; Howell, R.E.; Stuhler, H.; Stauver, J.

    1987-11-01

    Radioactive materials are being characterized for chemical form and certain physical properties with an x-ray diffraction goniometer customized for containment in a shielded alpha glovebox. A Siemens D500 goniometer was customized by Siemens to locate the associated electronics and x-ray generator outside the glovebox to minimize corrosion and facilitate maintenance. A graphite monochromator is used with a shielded scintillation detector to separate diffracted x-radiation from nuclear radiation. The diffraction system is computer automated for data acquisition and reduction. The facility is designed to handle primarily alpha- and beta-emitting samples with moderate neutron and gamma radiation. Samples containing plutonium, enriched uranium, and other transuranic elements are analyzed in support of site nuclear operations and development programs on nuclear waste, chemical separations, reactor fuels, and product forms

  14. Review of high energy diffraction in real and virtual photon proton scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, G.

    2009-07-15

    The electron-proton collider HERA at DESY opened the door for the study of diffraction in real and virtual photon-proton scattering at center-of-mass energies W up to 250 GeV and for large negative mass squared -Q{sup 2} of the virtual photon up to Q{sup 2}=1600 GeV{sup 2}. At W = 220 GeV and Q{sup 2}=4 GeV{sup 2}, diffraction accounts for about 15% of the total virtual photon proton cross section decreasing to {approx}5% at Q{sup 2}=200 GeV{sup 2}. An overview of the results obtained by the experiments H1 and ZEUS on the production of neutral vector mesons and on inclusive diffraction up to the year 2008 is presented. (orig.)

  15. Studies of deformation-induced texture development in sheet materials using diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banovic, S.W.; Vaudin, M.D.; Gnaeupel-Herold, T.H.; Saylor, D.M.; Rodbell, K.P

    2004-01-01

    Crystallographic texture measurements were made on a series of rolled aluminum sheet specimens deformed in equi-biaxial tension up to a strain level of 0.11. The measurement techniques used were neutron diffraction with a 4-circle goniometer, electron backscatter diffraction, conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and XRD using an area detector. Results indicated a complex texture orientation distribution function which altered in response to the applied plastic deformation. Increased deformation caused the {1 1 0} planes, to align parallel to the plane of the sheet. The different techniques produced results that were very consistent with each other. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed, with particular consideration of the time taken for each method, the range of orientation space accessible, the density of data that can be obtained, and the statistical significance of each data set with respect to rolled sheet product

  16. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part I - progress in the patent landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2013-12-01

    In the last 20 years, diffractive optics experienced a strong research interest and was in the center of many development projects in applied optics. To offer a side view for optical engineers, here, we discuss selected, business-related aspects of the current status of the transfer process to bring diffractive optics into commercial products. The contribution is divided into two parts. Here, in part I, we focus on the patent landscape of diffractive optics with a closer look on the temporal development and the distribution over main players. As an important result, currently, new strong patent activities are observed especially in the context of imaging systems. In the second part, the business volumes of selected market segments are discussed.

  17. Neutron diffraction studies of magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of neutron diffraction in determining the nature and extent of magnetic ordering is illustrated for the intermetallic compounds, Y/sub 6/(Fe,Mn)/sub 23/ and ErFe/sub 3/. Substitution with other 3d transition metals influences the Fe-Fe exchange forces such as to alter, sometimes considerably, the magnetic properties, e.g., local site magnetic anisotropies in Er)Fe,Ni)/sub 3/ and thermal expansion anomalies in the R/sub 2/)Fe,Co)/sub 14/B compounds. When the 3d atoms are near neighbors in the periodic chart, their nuclear scattering lengths for neutrons are sufficiently different to permit the detection of preferential occupation of the several nonequivalent crystallographic 3d metal sites, i.e., atomic ordering, present in the R/sub 6/M/sub 23/, and R/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B structures

  18. Suppression factors in diffractive photoproduction of dijets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, Michael; Kramer, Gustav

    2010-06-01

    After new publications of H1 data for the diffractive photoproduction of dijets, which overlap with the earlier published H1 data and the recently published data of the ZEUS collaboration, have appeared, we have recalculated the cross sections for this process in next-to-leading order (NLO) of perturbative QCD to see whether they can be interpreted consistently. The results of these calculations are compared to the data of both collaborations. We find that the NLO cross sections disagree with the data, showing that factorization breaking occurs at that order. If direct and resolved contributions are both suppressed by the same amount, the global suppression factor depends on the transverse-energy cut. However, by suppressing only the resolved contribution, also reasonably good agreement with all the data is found with a suppression factor independent of the transverse-energy cut. (orig.)

  19. Diffractive optical elements written by photodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baal-Zedaka, I.; Hava, S.; Mirchin, N.; Margolin, R.; Zagon, M.; Lapsker, I.; Azoulay, J.; Peled, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this work direct laser writing of diffractive optical elements (DOE) by photodeposition (PD) of amorphous selenium (a-Se) from colloid solutions has been investigated. We used a computer controlled laser scanner for patterning thin film micro-profiles creating thus planar optical elements by direct beam writing on surfaces immersed in a liquid phase PD cell. The laser employed was an argon ion laser at 488 nm wavelength, with powers up to 55 mW, for writing typically 25-250 μm wide lines of 200 nm thickness at rates of about 150 μm/s. Various elements made of photodeposited thin films on polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) substrates were produced for prototyping microlenses, linear grating arrays, cylindrical and circular profiled DOE patterns

  20. Acoustic non-diffracting Airy beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhou; Guo, Xiasheng; Tu, Juan; Ma, Qingyu; Wu, Junru; Zhang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic non-diffracting Airy beam as its optical counterpart has unique features of self-bending and self-healing. The complexity of most current designs handicaps its applications. A simple design of an acoustic source capable of generating multi-frequency and broad-band acoustic Airy beam has been theoretically demonstrated by numerical simulations. In the design, a piston transducer is corrugated to induce spatial phase variation for transducing the Airy function. The piston's surface is grooved in a pattern that the width of each groove corresponds to the half wavelength of Airy function. The resulted frequency characteristics and its dependence on the size of the piston source are also discussed. This simple design may promote the wide applications of acoustic Airy beam particularly in the field of medical ultrasound

  1. Precession electron diffraction – a topical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Midgley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 20 years since precession electron diffraction (PED was introduced, it has grown from a little-known niche technique to one that is seen as a cornerstone of electron crystallography. It is now used primarily in two ways. The first is to determine crystal structures, to identify lattice parameters and symmetry, and ultimately to solve the atomic structure ab initio. The second is, through connection with the microscope scanning system, to map the local orientation of the specimen to investigate crystal texture, rotation and strain at the nanometre scale. This topical review brings the reader up to date, highlighting recent successes using PED and providing some pointers to the future in terms of method development and how the technique can meet some of the needs of the X-ray crystallography community. Complementary electron techniques are also discussed, together with how a synergy of methods may provide the best approach to electron-based structure analysis.

  2. Propagation and diffraction of optical vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Pascal; Skelton, Susan E.; Leburn, Christopher G.; Streuber, Casey T.; Wright, Ewan M.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2008-01-01

    We explore the propagation and diffraction of optical vortices (Laguerre-Gaussian beams) of varying azimuthal index past a circular obstacle and Young's double slits. When the beam and obstacle centers are aligned the famous spot of Arago, which arises for zero azimuthal index, is replaced for non-zero azimuthal indices by a dark spot of Arago, a simple consequence of the conserved phase singularity at the beam center. We explore how for larger azimuthal indices, as the beam and obstacle centers are progressively misaligned, the central dark spot breaks up into several dark spots of Arago. Using Young's double slits we can easily measure the azimuthal index of the vortex beam, even for polychromatic vortices generated by broadband supercontinuum radiation

  3. Diffraction dissociation: thirty five years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotov, N.P.; Tsarev, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Review of the basic results and stages of studying one of the most interesting phenomena in high energy physics-diffraction dissociation (DD) of hadrons is presented. The review contains complete information concerning the basic experimental results and the most ''set'' DD theoretical models. Though the discussion focuses primarily on considering a single nucleon DD, this still allows one to fully describe the basic features of the phenomenon under investigation. The last part of the review is devoted to the most notable results obtained during DD experimental investigation in the last five years, which have not been reflected in the earlier published reviews. Signs of excited system parton structure and pomeron are clearly found in the new experimental data. It is underlined that DD mechanism understanding is closely connected with the solution of the confinement problem in the strong interaction theory and requires further experimental and theoretical investigations

  4. Graphics of diffraction spectra for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-09-01

    The materials can be studied by means of diffraction if these are crystalline; of the type of study will depend the technique to apply, the first step is the obtaining of a digital register that allows to build the corresponding spectra. The digital register should have well-known the initial and final angular data. The main objective of this work, is starting of a digital register of data or an arrangement CPSi type (counts per second measured by the detection system) generated by means of the diffractometer, to create the graph of the corresponding spectra in visual form in the screen of a microcomputer and if is required, to obtain the graph in printed form by means of the same computer program for microcomputer. (Author)

  5. Investigation of diffractive pion dissociation at COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Quirin; Austregesilo, Alexander; Dinkelbach, Anna-Maria; Friedrich, Jan; Gerassimov, Sergei; Grabmueller, Stefanie; Haas, Florian; Hoeppner, Christian; Ketzer, Bernhard; Konorov, Igor; Kraemer, Markus; Kuhn, Roland; Mann, Alexander; Nagel, Thiemo; Neubert, Sebastian; Paul, Stephan [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E18, 85748 Garching (Germany); Chung, Suh-Urk [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E18, 85748 Garching (Germany)]|[Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ryabchikov, Dmitri [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142284 Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS, which investigates the structure and spectroscopy of hadrons. In 2004, a first run with a 190 GeV/c {pi}{sup -} beam took place, using nuclear targets. Diffractive reactions in COMPASS provide clean access to meson resonances with masses below 2.5 GeV/c{sup 2}, where candidates for spin-exotic states (e. g. 1{sup -+}) have been reported in the past. Within a few days of data taking, a competitive number of events on lead with {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} final states were recorded. In this talk we report on the results of a first partial wave analysis of this data set.

  6. Photon diffractive dissociation in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskin, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The new ep-collider HERA gives us the possibility to study the diffractive dissociation of virtual photon in deep inelastic ep-collision. The process of photon dissociation in deep inelastic scattering is the most direct way to measure the value of triple-pomeron vertex G 3P . It was shown that the value of the correct bare vertex G 3P may more than 4 times exceeds its effective value measuring in the triple-reggeon region and reaches the value of about 40-50% of the elastic pp-pomeron vertex. On the contrary in deep inelastic processes the perpendicular momenta q t of the secondary particles are large enough. Thus in deep inelastic reactions one can measure the absolute value of G 3P vertex in the most direct way and compare its value and q t dependence with the leading log QCD predictions

  7. Coherent diffractive imaging using randomly coded masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaberg, Matthew H., E-mail: seaberg@slac.stanford.edu [CNRS and D.I., UMR 8548, École Normale Supérieure, 45 Rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); D' Aspremont, Alexandre [CNRS and D.I., UMR 8548, École Normale Supérieure, 45 Rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); Turner, Joshua J. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    We experimentally demonstrate an extension to coherent diffractive imaging that encodes additional information through the use of a series of randomly coded masks, removing the need for typical object-domain constraints while guaranteeing a unique solution to the phase retrieval problem. Phase retrieval is performed using a numerical convex relaxation routine known as “PhaseCut,” an iterative algorithm known for its stability and for its ability to find the global solution, which can be found efficiently and which is robust to noise. The experiment is performed using a laser diode at 532.2 nm, enabling rapid prototyping for future X-ray synchrotron and even free electron laser experiments.

  8. The peak in neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laar, B. van; Yelon, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    For the application of Rietveld profile analysis to neutron powder diffraction data a precise knowledge of the peak profile, in both shape and position, is required. The method now in use employs a Gaussian shaped profile with a semi-empirical asymmetry correction for low-angle peaks. The integrated intensity is taken to be proportional to the classical Lorentz factor calculated for the X-ray case. In this paper an exact expression is given for the peak profile based upon the geometrical dimensions of the diffractometer. It is shown that the asymmetry of observed peaks is well reproduced by this expression. The angular displacement of the experimental profile with respect to the nominal Bragg angle value is larger than expected. Values for the correction to the classical Lorentz factor for the integrated intensity are given. The exact peak profile expression has been incorporated into a Rietveld profile analysis refinement program. (Auth.)

  9. Edge separation using diffraction anomalous fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravel, B.; Bouldin, C.E.; Renevier, H.; Hodeau, J.L.; Berar, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    We exploit the crystallographic sensitivity of the Diffraction Anomalous Fine-Structure (DAFS) measurement to separate the fine structure contributions of different atomic species with closely spaced resonant energies. In BaTiO 3 the Ti K edge and Ba Lm edges are separated by 281 eV, or about 8.2 Angstrom -1 ), thus severely limiting the information content of the Ti K edge signal. Using the site selectivity of DAFS we can separate the two fine structure spectra using an iterative Kramers-Kronig method, thus extending the range of the Ti K edge spectrum. This technique has application to many rare earth/transition metal compounds, including many magnetic materials of technological significance for which K and L edges overlap in energy. (au)

  10. Inelastic diffractive scattering at the CERN ISR

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Benz, P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Chang, C Y; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Kooijman, P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; McCubbin, N A; Murphy, P G; Radojicic, D; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Sessoms, A L; Singh, J; Stork, D; Timmer, J

    1976-01-01

    The properties of the diffractive peak observed in the mass spectra of systems recoiling against observed high-momentum protons emerging from pp collisions at the CERN ISR have been investigated. The cross sections in this peak have been found to have a steep t dependence which flattens out as mod t mod increases. The high mass side of the peak varies approximately as 1/M/sup 2/ (where M is the missing mass of the recoiling system) and scales well in terms of the variable M /sup 2//s. The position of the maximum has been observed to move to lower values of M/sup 2//s as the kinematic boundary of this variable decreases with increasing s. The measured cross sections, integrated up to M/sup 2//s=0.05, rise by (15+or-5)% over the s range 549 to 1464 GeV/sup 2/. (24 refs).

  11. Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Dennis Eugene [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of 57Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2±0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 11/2 natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei.

  12. Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.E.

    1993-05-01

    The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of 57 Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2±0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 1 1/2 natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei

  13. Flat liquid crystal diffractive lenses with variable focus and magnification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Pouria

    Non-mechanical variable lenses are important for creating compact imaging devices. Various methods employing dielectrically actuated lenses, membrane lenses, and liquid crystal lenses were previously proposed [1-4]. In This dissertation the design, fabrication, and characterization of innovative flat tunable-focus liquid crystal diffractive lenses (LCDL) are presented. LCDL employ binary Fresnel zone electrodes fabricated on Indium-Tin-Oxide using conventional micro-photolithography. The light phase can be adjusted by varying the effective refractive index of a nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between the electrodes and a reference substrate. Using a proper voltage distribution across various electrodes the focal length can be changed between several discrete values. Electrodes are shunted such that the correct phase retardation step sequence is achieved. If the number of 2pi zone boundaries is increased by a factor of m the focal length is changed from f to f/m based on the digitized Fresnel zone equation: f = rm2/2mlambda, where r m is mth zone radius, and lambda is the wavelength. The chromatic aberration of the diffractive lens is addressed and corrected by adding a variable fluidic lens. These LCDL operate at very low voltage levels (+/-2.5V ac input), exhibit fast switching times (20-150 ms), can have large apertures (>10 mm), and small form factor, and are robust and insensitive to vibrations, gravity, and capillary effects that limit membrane and dielectrically actuated lenses. Several tests were performed on the LCDL including diffraction efficiency measurement, switching dynamics, and hybrid imaging with a refractive lens. Negative focal lengths are achieved by adjusting the voltages across electrodes. Using these lenses in combination, magnification can be changed and zoom lenses can be formed. These characteristics make LCDL a good candidate for a variety of applications including auto-focus and zoom lenses in compact imaging devices such as camera

  14. X-ray diffraction imaging of material microstructures

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Laszlo

    2016-10-20

    Various examples are provided for x-ray imaging of the microstructure of materials. In one example, a system for non-destructive material testing includes an x-ray source configured to generate a beam spot on a test item; a grid detector configured to receive x- rays diffracted from the test object; and a computing device configured to determine a microstructure image based at least in part upon a diffraction pattern of the x-rays diffracted from the test object. In another example, a method for determining a microstructure of a material includes illuminating a beam spot on the material with a beam of incident x-rays; detecting, with a grid detector, x-rays diffracted from the material; and determining, by a computing device, a microstructure image based at least in part upon a diffraction pattern of the x-rays diffracted from the material.

  15. Appearance of maxima of combined type in Moessbauer diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakov, A.V.; Ovchinnikova, E.N.; Kuz'min, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    An appearance of Bragg maxima in the Moessbauer diffraction pattern due to a combined hyperfine interaction on nuclei in a crystal is discussed. By a combined interaction one means presence on the nuclei of a magnetic field and tensor of electric field gradient. The structure RFe 2 R=Pu, Np, V, Zr, Tm) is considered. It has been shown that when a scattering system is in fields of several actions with various symmetries, the diffraction pattern is not an additive superposition of diffraction patterns of magnetic and electric quadrupole scatterings. In this case the diffraction patterns of magnetic and electric quadrupole scatterings. In this case the diffraction spectra have maxima forbidden by the extinction laws in diffraction in the presence of only a magnetic field or only electric quadrupole interaction

  16. Experimental method for testing diffraction properties of reflection waveguide holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Kang, Ming-Wu; Wang, Bao-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Waveguide holograms' diffraction properties include peak wavelength and diffraction efficiency, which play an important role in determining their display performance. Based on the record and reconstruction theory of reflection waveguide holograms, a novel experimental method for testing diffraction properties is introduced and analyzed in this paper, which uses a plano-convex lens optically contacted to the surface of the substrate plate of the waveguide hologram, so that the diffracted light beam can be easily detected. Then an experiment is implemented. The designed reconstruction wavelength of the test sample is 530 nm, and its diffraction efficiency is 100%. The experimental results are a peak wavelength of 527.7 nm and a diffraction efficiency of 94.1%. It is shown that the tested value corresponds well with the designed value.

  17. New focus for elastic and diffractive scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1995-01-01

    A regular feature of the international physics calendar is the International Conference on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, known also as the Blois Workshops, after their 1985 birthplace in France. The content of this year's meeting embraced a broad spectrum of problems ranging from the classical analysis of elastic scattering and total cross-sections to the ''hard'' or deep inelastic phenomena which test the underlying quark-gluon structure of hadrons. These meetings have traditionally concentrated on broad questions of elastic and diffractive scattering, however the shift of emphasis in physics is now reflected at Blois by interest in the wide range of 'soft' hadronic processes which dominate reaction cross-sections. On the traditional side, a substantial part of the conference was devoted to analysis of forward scattering parameters like total cross-sections, real parts etc, using dispersion relations and fundamental asymptotic theorems which bound the possible growth of those parameters with energy. The present experimental situation in this field was summarized by S. Pruss, followed by theoretical presentations by B. Nicolescu, A. Donnachie, T.T. Wu, A. Martin and others. The data for proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering seem to support dominance of the 'crossing-even' part of the scattering amplitude (which contributes equally to both proton-proton and protonantiproton scattering), with little evidence for a substantial 'odderon' term which contributes with opposite sign in the two cases. The 'pomeron' physics of high energy behaviour was a central feature of the conference. The experimental data seem to suggest that behaviour with increasing energy depends on the magnitude of the scale which characterizes the process - i.e. whether the process is ''soft'' or ''hard''. Hard processes, in general, show a much more rapid increase with increasing

  18. Single-pulse x-ray diffraction using polycapillary optics for in situ dynamic diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, B. R., E-mail: maddox3@llnl.gov; Akin, M. C., E-mail: akin1@llnl.gov; Teruya, A.; Hunt, D.; Hahn, D.; Cradick, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Morgan, D. V. [National Security Technologies LLC, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Diagnostic use of single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) at pulsed power facilities can be challenging due to factors such as the high flux and brightness requirements for diffraction and the geometric constraints of experimental platforms. By necessity, the x-ray source is usually positioned very close, within a few inches of the sample. On dynamic compression platforms, this puts the x-ray source in the debris field. We coupled x-ray polycapillary optics to a single-shot needle-and-washer x-ray diode source using a laser-based alignment scheme to obtain high-quality x-ray diffraction using a single 16 ns x-ray pulse with the source >1 m from the sample. The system was tested on a Mo sample in reflection geometry using 17 keV x-rays from a Mo anode. We also identified an anode conditioning effect that increased the x-ray intensity by 180%. Quantitative measurements of the x-ray focal spot produced by the polycapillary yielded a total x-ray flux on the sample of 3.3 ± 0.5 × 10{sup 7} molybdenum Kα photons.

  19. Serial single molecule electron diffraction imaging: diffraction background of superfluid helium droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; He, Yunteng; Lei, Lei; Alghamdi, Maha; Oswalt, Andrew; Kong, Wei

    2017-08-01

    In an effort to solve the crystallization problem in crystallography, we have been engaged in developing a method termed "serial single molecule electron diffraction imaging" (SS-EDI). The unique features of SS-EDI are superfluid helium droplet cooling and field-induced orientation: together the two features constitute a molecular goniometer. Unfortunately, the helium atoms surrounding the sample molecule also contribute to a diffraction background. In this report, we analyze the properties of a superfluid helium droplet beam and its doping statistics, and demonstrate the feasibility of overcoming the background issue by using the velocity slip phenomenon of a pulsed droplet beam. Electron diffraction profiles and pair correlation functions of ferrocene-monomer-doped droplets and iodine-nanocluster-doped droplets are presented. The timing of the pulsed electron gun and the effective doping efficiency under different dopant pressures can both be controlled for size selection. This work clears any doubt of the effectiveness of superfluid helium droplets in SS-EDI, thereby advancing the effort in demonstrating the "proof-of-concept" one step further.

  20. Study of Jet Structure in High Mass Diffraction at the SPS Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to study the class of events which have a quasi-elastic recoil proton or antiproton (with x^F~$>$~0.9) and also large transverse energy (hadronic and/or electromagnetic). The trigger is a minimum transverse energy in the UA2 calorimeter system and a diffractive recoil proton signature in a system of ``Mini-Drift'' wire chambers installed symmetrically in Roman-pots on both sides of LSS4. \\\\ \\\\ In single diffractive events of the type: .ce @*p @A @* + X + c.c. the system X is believed to result from a Pomeron-proton collision Pp~@A~X. We will study the energy flow in the UA2 detector and search for jet structure in high mass diffraction at @Rs~=~630~GeV in order to elucidate the nature of the Pomeron and its possible parton structure. Observation of electrons with high transverse momentum in coincidence with leading protons will signal the production of heavy flavour in high mass diffraction. Evidence for heavy vector boson production will be the signature for a q$\\bar{q}$ componen...

  1. Design and fabrication of advanced EUV diffractive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Salmassi, Farhad; Anderson, Erik H.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2003-11-16

    As extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography approaches commercial reality, the development of EUV-compatible diffractive structures becomes increasingly important. Such devices are relevant to many aspects of EUV technology including interferometry, illumination, and spectral filtering. Moreover, the current scarcity of high power EUV sources makes the optical efficiency of these diffractive structures a paramount concern. This fact has led to a strong interest in phase-enhanced diffractive structures. Here we describe recent advancements made in the fabrication of such devices.

  2. Some comments on pinwheel tilings and their diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Uwe [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Deng Xinghua, E-mail: u.g.grimm@open.ac.uk [University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    The pinwheel tiling is the paradigm for a substitution tiling with circular symmetry, in the sense that the corresponding autocorrelation is circularly symmetric. As a consequence, its diffraction measure is also circularly symmetric, so the pinwheel diffraction consists of sharp rings and, possibly, a continuous component with circular symmetry. We consider some combinatorial properties of the tiles and their orientations, and a numerical approach to the diffraction of weighted pinwheel point sets.

  3. Neutron diffraction studies of thin film multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkrzak, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    The application of neutron diffraction methods to the study of the microscopic chemical and magnetic structures of thin film multilayers is reviewed. Multilayer diffraction phenomena are described in general and in particular for the case in which one of the materials of a bilayer is ferromagnetic and the neutron beam polarized. Recent neutron diffraction measurements performed on some interesting multilayer systems are discussed. 70 refs., 5 figs

  4. Primordial black hole detection through diffractive microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, T.; Mehrabi, A.; Rahvar, S.

    2018-05-01

    Recent observations of gravitational waves motivate investigations for the existence of primordial black holes (PBHs). We propose the observation of gravitational microlensing of distant quasars for the range of infrared to the submillimeter wavelengths by sublunar PBHs as lenses. The advantage of observations in the longer wavelengths, comparable to the Schwarzschild radius of the lens (i.e., Rsch≃λ ) is the detection of the wave optics features of the gravitational microlensing. The observation of diffraction pattern in the microlensing light curve of a quasar can break the degeneracy between the lens parameters and determine directly the lens mass as well as the distance of the lens from the observer. We estimate the wave optics optical-depth, also calculate the rate of ˜0.1 to ˜0.3 event per year per a quasar, assuming that hundred percent of dark matter is made of sublunar PBHs. Also, we propose a long-term survey of quasars with the cadence of almost one hour to few days to resolve the wave optics features of the light curves to discover PBHs and determine the fraction of dark matter made of sublunar PBHs as well as their mass function.

  5. Future of Electron Scattering and Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Ernest [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Stemmer, Susanne [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Zheng, Haimei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maracas, George [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2014-02-25

    The ability to correlate the atomic- and nanoscale-structure of condensed matter with physical properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, catalytic, and optical) and functionality forms the core of many disciplines. Directing and controlling materials at the quantum-, atomic-, and molecular-levels creates enormous challenges and opportunities across a wide spectrum of critical technologies, including those involving the generation and use of energy. The workshop identified next generation electron scattering and diffraction instruments that are uniquely positioned to address these grand challenges. The workshop participants identified four key areas where the next generation of such instrumentation would have major impact: A – Multidimensional Visualization of Real Materials B – Atomic-scale Molecular Processes C – Photonic Control of Emergence in Quantum Materials D – Evolving Interfaces, Nucleation, and Mass Transport Real materials are comprised of complex three-dimensional arrangements of atoms and defects that directly determine their potential for energy applications. Understanding real materials requires new capabilities for three-dimensional atomic scale tomography and spectroscopy of atomic and electronic structures with unprecedented sensitivity, and with simultaneous spatial and energy resolution. Many molecules are able to selectively and efficiently convert sunlight into other forms of energy, like heat and electric current, or store it in altered chemical bonds. Understanding and controlling such process at the atomic scale require unprecedented time resolution. One of the grand challenges in condensed matter physics is to understand, and ultimately control, emergent phenomena in novel quantum materials that necessitate developing a new generation of instruments that probe the interplay among spin, charge, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom with intrinsic time- and length-scale resolutions. Molecules and soft matter require imaging and

  6. Achieving optimum diffraction based overlay performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee; Coogans, Martyn; Fuchs, Andreas; Ponomarenko, Mariya; van der Schaar, Maurits; Vanoppen, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) metrology has been shown to have significantly reduced Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) compared to Image Based Overlay (IBO), primarily due to having no measurable Tool Induced Shift (TIS). However, the advantages of having no measurable TIS can be outweighed by increased susceptibility to WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) caused by target damage, process non-uniformities and variations. The path to optimum DBO performance lies in having well characterized metrology targets, which are insensitive to process non-uniformities and variations, in combination with optimized recipes which take advantage of advanced DBO designs. In this work we examine the impact of different degrees of process non-uniformity and target damage on DBO measurement gratings and study their impact on overlay measurement accuracy and precision. Multiple wavelength and dual polarization scatterometry are used to characterize the DBO design performance over the range of process variation. In conclusion, we describe the robustness of DBO metrology to target damage and show how to exploit the measurement capability of a multiple wavelength, dual polarization scatterometry tool to ensure the required measurement accuracy for current and future technology nodes.

  7. Zeno dynamics in wave-packet diffraction spreading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, Miguel A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, ES-28003 Madrid (Spain); Luis, Alfredo; Gonzalo, Isabel [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, ES-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Angel S. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental-CSIC, Serrano 123, ES-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    We analyze a simple and feasible practical scheme displaying Zeno, anti-Zeno, and inverse-Zeno effects in the observation of wave-packet spreading caused by free evolution. The scheme is valid both in spatial diffraction of classical optical waves and in time diffraction of a quantum wave packet. In the optical realization, diffraction spreading is observed by placing slits between a light source and a light-power detector. We show that the occurrence of Zeno or anti-Zeno effects depends just on the frequency of observations between the source and detector. These effects are seen to be related to the diffraction mode theory in Fabry-Perot resonators.

  8. Atomic resolution three-dimensional electron diffraction microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jianwei; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Terasaki, Osamu; Hodgson, Keith O.; O'Keefe, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    We report the development of a novel form of diffraction-based 3D microscopy to overcome resolution barriers inherent in high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography. By combining coherent electron diffraction with the oversampling phasing method, we show that the 3D structure of a nanocrystal can be determined ab initio at a resolution of 1 Angstrom from 29 simulated noisy diffraction patterns. This new form of microscopy can be used to image the 3D structures of nanocrystals and noncrystalline samples, with resolution limited only by the quality of sample diffraction

  9. An amplitude and phase hybrid modulation Fresnel diffractive optical element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Cheng, Jiangao; Wang, Mengyu; Jin, Xueying; Wang, Keyi

    2018-04-01

    An Amplitude and Phase Hybrid Modulation Fresnel Diffractive Optical Element (APHMFDOE) is proposed here. We have studied the theory of APHMFDOE and simulated the focusing properties of it along the optical axis, which show that the focus can be blazed to other positions with changing the quadratic phase factor. Moreover, we design a Composite Fresnel Diffraction Optical Element (CFDOE) based on the characteristics of APHMFDOE. It greatly increases the outermost zone width without changing the F-number, which brings a lot of benefits to the design and processing of diffraction device. More importantly, the diffraction efficiency of the CFDOE is almost unchanged compared with AFZP at the same focus.

  10. Dynamical neutron diffraction by curved crystals in the Laue geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, G.; Melone, S.; Lagomarsino, S.; Mazkedian, S.; Puliti, P.; Rustichelli, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Taupin dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction by deformed crystals which was previously extended to the neutron diffraction by curved crystals in the Bragg geometry, is applied to calculate neutron diffraction patterns in the Laue geometry. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data on curved silicon crystals. The agreement is quite satisfactory. In the second part a simple model recently presented to describe neutron diffraction properties in the Bragg case is extended to the Laue case. The predictions of such a model are in satisfactory agreement with the rigorous theory and the experimental results. (author)

  11. Visible diffraction from quasi-crystalline arrays of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Timothy P.; Butt, Haider; Wilkinson, Timothy D.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.

    2015-08-01

    Large area arrays of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are patterned in a quasi-crystalline Penrose tile arrangement through electron beam lithography definition of Ni catalyst dots and subsequent nanotube growth by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. When illuminated with a 532 nm laser beam high-quality and remarkable diffraction patterns are seen. The diffraction is well matched to theoretical calculations which assume apertures to be present at the location of the VACNTs for transmitted light. The results show that VACNTs act as diffractive elements in reflection and can be used as spatially phased arrays for producing tailored diffraction patterns.

  12. Thin film characterisation by advanced X-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappuccio, G.; Terranova, M.L.

    1996-09-01

    The Fifth School on X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline materials was devoted to thin film characterization by advanced X-ray diffraction techniques. Twenty contributions are contained in this volume; all twenty are recorded in the INIS Database. X-ray diffraction is known to be a powerful analytical tool for characterizing materials and understanding their structural features. The aim of these articles is to illustrate the fundamental contribution of modern diffraction techniques (grazing incidence, surface analysis, standing waves, etc.) to the characterization of thin and ultra-thin films, which have become important in many advanced technologies

  13. Status of the Neutron Imaging and Diffraction Instrument IMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelmann, Winfried; Burca, Genoveva; Kelleher, Joe F.; Kabra, Saurabh; Zhang, Shu-Yan; Rhodes, Nigel J.; Schooneveld, Erik M.; Sykora, Jeff; Pooley, Daniel E.; Nightingale, Jim B.; Aliotta, Francesco; Ponterio, Rosa C.; Salvato, Gabriele; Tresoldi, Dario; Vasi, Cirino; McPhate, Jason B.; Tremsin, Anton S.

    A cold neutron imaging and diffraction instrument, IMAT, is currently being constructed at the ISIS second target station. IMAT will capitalize on time-of-flight transmission and diffraction techniques available at a pulsed neutron source. Analytical techniques will include neutron radiography, neutron tomography, energy-selective neutron imaging, and spatially resolved diffraction scans for residual strain and texture determination. Commissioning of the instrument will start in 2015, with time-resolving imaging detectors and two diffraction detector prototype modules. IMAT will be operated as a user facility for material science applications and will be open for developments of time-of-flight imaging methods.

  14. Contribution to diffraction theory; Contribution a la theorie de la diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chako, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-01

    In a first part, we have given a general and detailed treatment of the modern theory of diffraction. The rigorous theory is formulated as a boundary value problem of the wave equation or Maxwell equations. However, up to the present time, such a program of treating diffraction by optical systems, even for simple optical instruments, has not been realized due to the complicated character of the boundary conditions. The recent developments show clearly the nature of the approximation of the classical theories originally due to Fresnel and Young, later formulated in a rigorous manner by Kirchhoff and Rubinowicz, respectively and, at the same time the insufficiency of these theories in explaining a number of diffraction phenomena. Furthermore, we have made a study of the limitations of the approximate theories and the recent attempts to improve these. The second part is devoted to a general mathematical treatment of the theory of diffraction of optical systems including aberrations. After a general and specific analysis of geometrical and wave aberrations along classical and modern (Nijboer) lines, we have been able to evaluate the diffraction integrals representing the image field at any point in image space explicitly, when the aberrations are small. Our formulas are the generalisations of all anterior results obtained by previous investigators. Moreover, we have discussed the Zernike-Nijboer theory of aberration and generalised it not only for rotational systems, but also for non-symmetric systems as well, including the case of non circular apertures. The extension to non-circular apertures is done by introducing orthogonal functions or polynomials over such aperture shapes. So far the results are valid for small aberrations, that is to say, where the deformation of the real wave front emerging from the optical system is less than a wave length of light or of the electromagnetic wave from the ideal wave front. If the aberrations are large, then one must employ the

  15. Contribution to diffraction theory; Contribution a la theorie de la diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chako, N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-01

    In a first part, we have given a general and detailed treatment of the modern theory of diffraction. The rigorous theory is formulated as a boundary value problem of the wave equation or Maxwell equations. However, up to the present time, such a program of treating diffraction by optical systems, even for simple optical instruments, has not been realized due to the complicated character of the boundary conditions. The recent developments show clearly the nature of the approximation of the classical theories originally due to Fresnel and Young, later formulated in a rigorous manner by Kirchhoff and Rubinowicz, respectively and, at the same time the insufficiency of these theories in explaining a number of diffraction phenomena. Furthermore, we have made a study of the limitations of the approximate theories and the recent attempts to improve these. The second part is devoted to a general mathematical treatment of the theory of diffraction of optical systems including aberrations. After a general and specific analysis of geometrical and wave aberrations along classical and modern (Nijboer) lines, we have been able to evaluate the diffraction integrals representing the image field at any point in image space explicitly, when the aberrations are small. Our formulas are the generalisations of all anterior results obtained by previous investigators. Moreover, we have discussed the Zernike-Nijboer theory of aberration and generalised it not only for rotational systems, but also for non-symmetric systems as well, including the case of non circular apertures. The extension to non-circular apertures is done by introducing orthogonal functions or polynomials over such aperture shapes. So far the results are valid for small aberrations, that is to say, where the deformation of the real wave front emerging from the optical system is less than a wave length of light or of the electromagnetic wave from the ideal wave front. If the aberrations are large, then one must employ the

  16. IL 12: Femtosecond x-ray powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerner, M.; Zamponi, F.; Rothhardt, P.; Ansari, Z.; Dreyer, J.; Freyer, B.; Premont-Schwarz, M.; Elsaesser, T.

    2010-01-01

    A chemical reaction generates new compounds out of one or more initial species. On a molecular level, the spatial arrangement of electrons and nuclei changes. While the structure of the initial and the product molecules can be measured routinely, the transient structures and molecular motions during a reaction have remained unknown in most cases. This knowledge, however, is a key element for the exact understanding of the reaction. The ultimate dream is a 'reaction microscope' which allows for an in situ imaging of the molecules during a reaction. We report on the first femtosecond x-ray powder diffraction experiment in which we directly map the transient electronic charge density in the unit cell of a crystalline solid with 30 pico-meter spatial and 100 femtosecond temporal resolution. X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline powder samples, the Debye Scherrer diffraction technique, is a standard method for determining equilibrium structures. The intensity of the Debye Scherrer rings is determined by the respective x-ray structure factor which represents the Fourier transform of the spatial electron density. In our experiments, the transient intensity and angular positions of up to 20 Debye Scherrer reactions from a polycrystalline powder are measured and unravel for the first time a concerted electron and proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded ionic (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 crystals. Photoexcitation of ammonium sulfate induces a sub-100 fs electron transfer from the sulfate groups into a highly conned electron channel along the z-axis of the unit cell. The latter geometry is stabilized by transferring protons from the adjacent ammonium groups into the channel. Time-dependent charge density maps derived from the diffraction data display a periodic modulation of the channels charge density by low-frequency lattice motions with a concerted electron and proton motion between the channel and the initial proton binding site. A deeper insight into the underlying microscopic

  17. Status and Prospects of measurements of exclusive and diffractive processes with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of forward proton tagging, exclusive processes can be distinguished in the central part of the ATLAS detector exploiting the large rapidity gap in the central region and the absence of charged particles reconstructed in the inner tracking detector. This strategy has been exploited to study the exclusive production of dilepton pairs in the data taken at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and the exclusive production of W pairs in the 8 TeV data. We also present the latest results on exclusive dimuon production at 13 TeV. Moreover, the ATLAS collaboration has carried out a study of diffractive dijet production. The data distributions are compared with Monte Carlo models and the rapidity gap survival probability has been estimated in the kinematic region with high diffractive contribution. The talk will conclude with prospects of the upcoming physics program with the Atlas Forward Proton detector. Recent results demonstrate its capabilities to distinguish single diffractive events via forward proton...

  18. Pulsed Neutron Powder Diffraction for Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, T.

    2008-03-01

    The accelerator-based neutron diffraction began in the end of 60's at Tohoku University which was succeeded by the four spallation neutron facilities with proton accelerators at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (Japan), Argonne National Laboratory and Los Alamos Laboratory (USA), and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). Since then, the next generation source has been pursued for 20 years, and 1MW-class spallation neutron sources will be appeared in about three years at the three parts of the world: Japan, UK and USA. The joint proton accelerator project (J-PARC), a collaborative project between KEK and JAEA, is one of them. The aim of the talk is to describe about J-PARC and the neutron diffractometers being installed at the materials and life science facility of J-PARC. The materials and life science facility of J-PARC has 23 neutron beam ports and will start delivering the first neutron beam of 25 Hz from 2008 May. Until now, more than 20 proposals have been reviewed by the review committee, and accepted proposal groups have started to get fund. Those proposals include five polycrystalline diffractometers: a super high resolution powder diffractometer (SHRPD), a 0.2%-resolution powder diffractometer of Ibaraki prefecture (IPD), an engineering diffractometers (Takumi), a high intensity S(Q) diffractometer (VSD), and a high-pressure dedicated diffractometer. SHRPD, Takumi and IPD are being designed and constructed by the joint team of KEK, JAEA and Ibaraki University, whose member are originally from the KEK powder group. These three instruments are expected to start in 2008. VSD is a super high intensity diffractometer with the highest resolution of Δd/d = 0.3%. VSD can measure rapid time-dependent phenomena of crystalline materials as well as glass, liquid and amorphous materials. The pair distribution function will be routinely obtained by the Fourier transiformation of S(Q) data. Q range of VSD will be as wide as 0.01 Å-1stress mapping inside

  19. Remote Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2001-03-01

    In support of a radioactive slurry sampling and physical characterization task, an “off-the-shelf” laser diffraction (classical light scattering) particle size analyzer was utilized for remote particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Spent nuclear fuel was previously reprocessed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC—formerly recognized as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) which is on DOE’s INEEL site. The acidic, radioactive aqueous raffinate streams from these processes were transferred to 300,000 gallon stainless steel storage vessels located in the INTEC Tank Farm area. Due to the transfer piping configuration in these vessels, complete removal of the liquid can not be achieved. Consequently, a “heel” slurry remains at the bottom of an “emptied” vessel. Particle size distribution characterization of the settled solids in this remaining heel slurry, as well as suspended solids in the tank liquid, is the goal of this remote PSD analyzer task. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model LA-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a “hot cell” (gamma radiation) environment. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not previously achievable—making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  20. Recent developments in the area of SoftQCD and Diffractive Physics at the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Astalos, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration released several new measurements in the area of SoftQCD and diffractive physics, ranging from the exclusive production of dimuons, over the total pp cross section measurement to studies of correlated hadron production. An overview of these most recent developments will be given in this talk: The total inelastic proton-proton cross section and the diffractive part of the inelastic cross section has been measured at 8 and 13 TeV in special data sets taken with low beam currents and using forward scintillators. More precise measurements of the total pp cross section and the elastic and inelastic contributions have been extracted from measurements of the differential elastic cross section using the optical theorem. In the absence of forward proton tagging, exclusive processes can be distinguished in the central part of the ATLAS detector exploiting the large rapidity gap in the central region and the absence of charged particles reconstructed in the inner tracking detector. This strategy ...