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Sample records for differentiate attention deficit

  1. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

  2. Can attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder be differentiated by motor and balance deficits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Ramage, Barbara; Crawford, Susan; Cantell, Marja; Wormsbecker, Shirley; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the diagnostic overlap between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Differential diagnosis is important because of treatment implications. Children aged 7-10years (47 ADHD, 30 FASD, 39 controls) participated.

  3. Differential Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Means of Inhibitory Control and "Theory of Mind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Eva; Bachmann, Christian; Goyert, Hannah; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are both associated with deficits in executive control and with problems in social contexts. This study analyses the variables inhibitory control and theory of mind (ToM), including a developmental aspect in the case of the latter, to differentiate between the…

  4. Differential diagnosis of sensory modulation dysfunction (SMD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD: participation, sensation and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva eYochman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Differential diagnosis between sensory modulation disorder (SMD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often challenging, since these disorders occur at a high rate of co-morbidity and share several clinical characteristics. Preliminary studies providing evidence that these are distinct disorders have focused solely on body functions, using sophisticated laboratory measurements. Moreover, no studies have compared participation profiles of these populations. This study is the first to compare the profiles of these populations regarding both ‘body functions’(attention and sensation and ‘participation,’ using measures applicable for clinical use. The study included 19 children with ADHD without SMD and 19 with SMD without ADHD (diagnosed by both pediatric neurologists and occupational therapists, aged 6 to 9, and matched by age and gender. All children underwent a broad battery of evaluations: The Evaluation of Sensory Processing, Fabric Prickliness Test and Von Frey Test to evaluate sensory processing, and Test of Everyday Attention to evaluate attention components. The Participation in Childhood Occupations Questionnaire was used to evaluate participation. Results support significant group differences in all sensory components, including pain intensity to suprathreshold stimuli and pain 'after sensation', as well as in tactile, vestibular, taste and olfactory processing. No differences were found in attention components and participation. This study has both theoretical and clinical importance, inter alia, providing further evidence of two distinct disorders as well as indications of specific clinical instruments that might enable clinicians to implement differential diagnoses. In addition, results accord with other previous statements, which indicate that the clinical diagnosis of children with disabilities may not be a major factor in determining their participation profile.

  5. Do cognitive measures of response inhibition differentiate between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, F.E. van; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Broek, P.J.A. van den; Kan, C.C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether cognitive measures of response inhibition derived from the AX-CPT are able to differentiate between adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), borderline personality disorder (BPD), and healthy controls (HC). Current DSM-IV-TR symptoms of ADHD and BPD were

  6. Motor function may differentiate attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from early onset bipolar disorder

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    Gjaerum Bente

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating between bipolar spectrum disorder (BD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in childhood and adolescence is difficult because the clinical presentation is influenced by ongoing neural development, causing considerable symptom overlap. Motor problems and neurological soft signs have been associated with ADHD for decades. Little is known about motor skills in BD. Here we assess the diagnostic accuracy of neuromotor deviations in differentiating ADHD from BD in clinical practice. We also investigate if these deviations exist in concurrent ADHD and BD, thus indicating true comorbidity Methods 64 patients 6-18 years (31 girls, 33 boys fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of BD, ADHD combined subtype (ADHD-C or comorbid BD and ADHD-C, were compared using an age-standardized neuromotor test; NUBU. Categorical variables were analyzed using cross table with two-tailed chi square test or Fisher's exact test when appropriate. Continuous variables were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test and, if significant, Mann-Whitney U test and ROC plots. Results The ADHD-C group and the comorbid ADHD-C and BD group both showed significantly more neurological soft signs (p less than 0.01 and lower mean static coordination percentile (p less than 0.01 than the BD group. The positive predictive value of NUBU in the diagnosis of ADHD-C with or without concurrent BD was 89% (80-95 for total soft signs and 87% (79-95 for static coordination below the 7.5 percentile. Conclusion An age-standardized neuromotor test battery may promote diagnostic accuracy in differentiating ADHD from BD in clinical practice, and help evaluating whether symptoms of ADHD in children who have BD reflect symptom overlap or real comorbidity. This may have important implications for everyday diagnostic work.

  7. Differential brain activation patterns in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) associated with task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibbets, P.; Evers, E.A.; Hurks, P.P.; Bakker, K.; Jolles, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the study was to examine blood oxygen level-dependent response during task switching in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Fifteen male adults with ADHD and 14 controls participated and performed a task-switching paradigm. Results:

  8. Attention deficits and divorce.

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    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.

  9. Differential neuropsychological functioning between adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without conduct disorder

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    Yu-Ju Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological functioning of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with and without comorbidities of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and/or conduct disorder (CD and the mediation effects of the neuropsychological functions in the relationship between ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms to increase our understanding about these frequently co-occurring disorders. Methods: Adolescents aged 11–18 years were interviewed by the Kiddie epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to confirm their previous and current ADHD status and other psychiatric diagnoses. The performance of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery was compared among four groups: (1 ADHD with CD (ADHD+CD, regardless of ODD; (2 ADHD with ODD (ADHD+ODD without CD; (3 ADHD without ODD/CD (ADHD-only; and (4 typically developing controls. Mediation effects of neuropsychological functioning were tested. Results: All three ADHD groups had impaired spatial working memory and short-term memory. Deficits in verbal memory and response inhibition were found in ADHD+ODD, but not in ADHD-only. ADHD+CD did not differ from typically developing controls in verbal working memory, signal detectability, and response inhibition. Spatial working memory partially mediated the association between ADHD and CD symptoms and alerting/signal detectability of arousal partially mediated the association between ADHD and ODD symptoms. Conclusion: There were both common and distinct neuropsychological deficits between adolescents with ADHD who developed ODD only and who developed CD. ADHD comorbid with CD may be a different disease entity and needs different treatment strategies in addition to treating ADHD, while ADHD+ODD may be a severe form of ADHD and warrants intensive treatment for ADHD symptoms. Keywords: arousal, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, mediator

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime O. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as among the most common yet serious brain disorders significant number of children are subjected to; the seriousness of which manifests in the ability of the disorder to continue to show up even after the childhood years, during the period of adolescence as well as adulthood. Considering the findings delivered by Brain Imaging Studies conducted on youth, it is revealed that people suffering from ADHD experiences del...

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by ...

  12. Differential neuropsychological functioning between adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological functioning of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbidities of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and/or conduct disorder (CD) and the mediation effects of the neuropsychological functions in the relationship between ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms to increase our understanding about these frequently co-occurring disorders. Adolescents aged 11-18 years were interviewed by the Kiddie epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to confirm their previous and current ADHD status and other psychiatric diagnoses. The performance of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery was compared among four groups: (1) ADHD with CD (ADHD+CD), regardless of ODD; (2) ADHD with ODD (ADHD+ODD) without CD; (3) ADHD without ODD/CD (ADHD-only); and (4) typically developing controls. Mediation effects of neuropsychological functioning were tested. All three ADHD groups had impaired spatial working memory and short-term memory. Deficits in verbal memory and response inhibition were found in ADHD+ODD, but not in ADHD-only. ADHD+CD did not differ from typically developing controls in verbal working memory, signal detectability, and response inhibition. Spatial working memory partially mediated the association between ADHD and CD symptoms and alerting/signal detectability of arousal partially mediated the association between ADHD and ODD symptoms. There were both common and distinct neuropsychological deficits between adolescents with ADHD who developed ODD only and who developed CD. ADHD comorbid with CD may be a different disease entity and needs different treatment strategies in addition to treating ADHD, while ADHD+ODD may be a severe form of ADHD and warrants intensive treatment for ADHD symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Differential motor alterations in children with three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    Adrián Poblano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine frequency of motor alterations in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Method We evaluated 19 children aged 7-12 years with ADHD classified in three sub-types: Combined (ADHD-C, with Inattention (ADHD-I, and with Hyperactivity (ADHD-H. Controls were age- and gender matched healthy children. We utilized Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP for measuring motor skills. Results We observed differences between children with ADHD and controls in BOTMP general score and in static coordination, dynamic general- and hand- coordination, and in synkinetic movements. We also found differences in dynamic hand coordination between controls and children with ADHD-C; in dynamic general coordination between controls and children with ADHD-H; and in frequency of synkinetic movements between controls and children with ADHD-H. Conclusion Children with ADHD with a major degree of hyperactivity showed greater frequency of motor alterations.

  14. Differential impact of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on sustained attention in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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    Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Stein, Mark A; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Krone, Beth; Rajwan, Estrella; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of atomoxetine (ATX) and OROS methylphenidate (MPH) on laboratory measures of inhibitory control and attention in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It was hypothesized that performance would be improved by both treatments, but response profiles would differ because the medications work via different mechanisms. One hundred and two youth (77 male; mean age = 10.5 ± 2.7 years) with ADHD received ATX (1.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg) and MPH (52.4 ± 16.6 mg) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. Medication was titrated in 4-6-week blocks separated by a 2-week placebo washout. Inhibitory control and attention measures were obtained at baseline, following washout, and at the end of each treatment using Conners' Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II), which provided age-adjusted T-scores for reaction time (RT), reaction time variability (RT variability), and errors. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were performed, with Time (premedication, postmedication) and Treatment type (ATX, MPH) entered as within-subject factors. Data from the two treatment blocks were checked for order effects and combined if order effects were not present. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00183391. Main effects for Time on RT (p = .03), RTSD (p = .001), and omission errors (p = .01) were significant. A significant Drug × Time interaction indicated that MPH improved RT, RTSD, and omission errors more than ATX (p attention in youth with ADHD. However, the dissociation of cognitive and behavioral change with treatment indicates that CPT measures cannot be considered proxies for symptomatic improvement. Further research on the dissociation of cognitive and behavioral endpoints for ADHD is indicated. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Differential perinatal risk factors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder by subtype.

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    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Oh, Seung Min; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2014-11-30

    We compared the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) combined subtype (ADHD-C) to the ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) in terms of genetic, perinatal, and developmental risk factors as well as clinical and neuropsychological characteristics. A total of 147 children diagnosed with ADHD between the ages of 6 and 15 years participated in this study. The parents of the children completed the structured diagnostic interview, the ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Children's Behavior Checklist, and structured questionnaires on perinatal risk factors, and the children underwent a neuropsychological test and were genotyped. A total of 502 children without ADHD were recruited from the community as a healthy control group. The ADHD-C children showed more severe externalizing symptoms, showed more deficits in a continuous performance test, and were more likely to have comorbid disorders. Maternal stress during pregnancy, postpartum depression, and changes in the primary caretaker during first 3 years were significantly associated with both ADHD-I and ADHD-C. The ADHD-I group was less likely to have received regular prenatal check-ups and more likely to have had postnatal medical illness than the ADHD-C group. There were no significant differences in the genotype frequencies of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and the serotonin transporter -linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms between ADHD-I and ADHD-C groups. This study shows that the inattentive subtype of ADHD is different from the combined subtype in many parameters including severity of symptoms, comorbidity, neuropsychological characteristics, and environmental risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  17. Differential brain development with low and high IQ in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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    Patrick de Zeeuw

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and intelligence (IQ are both heritable phenotypes. Overlapping genetic effects have been suggested to influence both, with neuroimaging work suggesting similar overlap in terms of morphometric properties of the brain. Together, this evidence suggests that the brain changes characteristic of ADHD may vary as a function of IQ. This study investigated this hypothesis in a sample of 108 children with ADHD and 106 typically developing controls, who participated in a cross-sectional anatomical MRI study. A subgroup of 64 children also participated in a diffusion tensor imaging scan. Brain volumes, local cortical thickness and average cerebral white matter microstructure were analyzed in relation to diagnostic group and IQ. Dimensional analyses investigated possible group differences in the relationship between anatomical measures and IQ. Second, the groups were split into above and below median IQ subgroups to investigate possible differences in the trajectories of cortical development. Dimensionally, cerebral gray matter volume and cerebral white matter microstructure were positively associated with IQ for controls, but not for ADHD. In the analyses of the below and above median IQ subgroups, we found no differences from controls in cerebral gray matter volume in ADHD with below-median IQ, but a delay of cortical development in a number of regions, including prefrontal areas. Conversely, in ADHD with above-median IQ, there were significant reductions from controls in cerebral gray matter volume, but no local differences in the trajectories of cortical development.In conclusion, the basic relationship between IQ and neuroanatomy appears to be altered in ADHD. Our results suggest that there may be multiple brain phenotypes associated with ADHD, where ADHD combined with above median IQ is characterized by small, more global reductions in brain volume that are stable over development, whereas ADHD with

  18. Differential Brain Development with Low and High IQ in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Patrick; Schnack, Hugo G.; van Belle, Janna; Weusten, Juliette; van Dijk, Sarai; Langen, Marieke; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and intelligence (IQ) are both heritable phenotypes. Overlapping genetic effects have been suggested to influence both, with neuroimaging work suggesting similar overlap in terms of morphometric properties of the brain. Together, this evidence suggests that the brain changes characteristic of ADHD may vary as a function of IQ. This study investigated this hypothesis in a sample of 108 children with ADHD and 106 typically developing controls, who participated in a cross-sectional anatomical MRI study. A subgroup of 64 children also participated in a diffusion tensor imaging scan. Brain volumes, local cortical thickness and average cerebral white matter microstructure were analyzed in relation to diagnostic group and IQ. Dimensional analyses investigated possible group differences in the relationship between anatomical measures and IQ. Second, the groups were split into above and below median IQ subgroups to investigate possible differences in the trajectories of cortical development. Dimensionally, cerebral gray matter volume and cerebral white matter microstructure were positively associated with IQ for controls, but not for ADHD. In the analyses of the below and above median IQ subgroups, we found no differences from controls in cerebral gray matter volume in ADHD with below-median IQ, but a delay of cortical development in a number of regions, including prefrontal areas. Conversely, in ADHD with above-median IQ, there were significant reductions from controls in cerebral gray matter volume, but no local differences in the trajectories of cortical development. In conclusion, the basic relationship between IQ and neuroanatomy appears to be altered in ADHD. Our results suggest that there may be multiple brain phenotypes associated with ADHD, where ADHD combined with above median IQ is characterized by small, more global reductions in brain volume that are stable over development, whereas ADHD with below median IQ is

  19. [Differential effects of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtypes in event-related potentials].

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    Tamayo-Orrego, Lukas; Osorio Forero, Alejandro; Quintero Giraldo, Lina Paola; Parra Sánchez, José Hernán; Varela, Vilma; Restrepo, Francia

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the neurophysiological substrates in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a study was performed on of event-related potentials (ERPs) in Colombian patients with inattentive and combined ADHD. A case-control, cross-sectional study was designed. The sample was composed of 180 subjects between 5 and 15 years of age (mean, 9.25±2.6), from local schools in Manizales. The sample was divided equally in ADHD or control groups and the subjects were paired by age and gender. The diagnosis was made using the DSM-IV-TR criteria, the Conners and WISC-III test, a psychiatric interview (MINIKID), and a medical evaluation. ERPs were recorded in a visual and auditory passive oddball paradigm. Latency and amplitude of N100, N200 and P300 components for common and rare stimuli were used for statistical comparisons. ADHD subjects show differences in the N200 amplitude and P300 latency in the auditory task. The N200 amplitude was reduced in response to visual stimuli. ADHD subjects with combined symptoms show a delayed P300 in response to auditory stimuli, whereas inattentive subjects exhibited differences in the amplitude of N100 and N200. Combined ADHD patients showed longer N100 latency and smaller N200-P300 amplitude compared to inattentive ADHD subjects. The results show differences in the event-related potentials between combined and inattentive ADHD subjects. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Differentiating major depressive disorder in youths with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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    Diler, Rasim Somer; Daviss, W Burleson; Lopez, Adriana; Axelson, David; Iyengar, Satish; Birmaher, Boris

    2007-09-01

    Youths with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) frequently have comorbid major depressive disorders (MDD) sharing overlapping symptoms. Our objective was to examine which depressive symptoms best discriminate MDD among youths with ADHD. One-hundred-eleven youths with ADHD (5.2-17.8 years old) and their parents completed interviews with the K-SADS-PL and respective versions of the child or the parent Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ-C, MFQ-P). Controlling for group differences, logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios reflecting the accuracy with which various depressive symptoms on the MFQ-C or MFQ-P discriminated MDD. Stepwise logistic regression then identified depressive symptoms that best discriminated the groups with and without MDD, using cross-validated misclassification rate as the criterion. Symptoms that discriminated youths with MDD (n=18) from those without MDD (n=93) were 4 of 6 mood/anhedonia symptoms, all 14 depressed cognition symptoms, and only 3 of 11 physical/vegetative symptoms. Mild irritability, miserable/unhappy moods, and symptoms related to sleep, appetite, energy levels and concentration did not discriminate MDD. A stepwise logistic regression correctly classified 89% of the comorbid MDD subjects, with only age, anhedonia at school, thoughts about killing self, thoughts that bad things would happen, and talking more slowly remaining in the final model. Results of this study may not generalize to community samples because subjects were drawn largely from a university-based outpatient psychiatric clinic. These findings stress the importance of social withdrawal, anhedonia, depressive cognitions, suicidal thoughts, and psychomotor retardation when trying to identify MDD among ADHD youths.

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and arrest history: Differential association of clinical characteristics by sex.

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    Kolla, Nathan J; van der Maas, Mark; Erickson, Patricia G; Mann, Robert E; Seeley, Jane; Vingilis, Evelyn

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often cited as a risk factor for criminality. However, many studies do not take other criminogenic variables into account when reporting on this relationship. It is even less clear whether models that include ADHD as a potential risk factor for criminality consider the importance of sex differences. To answer this question, we collected data from a telephone population survey sampling adults over the age of 18 years in the province of Ontario, Canada (final sample size = 5196). Respondents were screened for ADHD using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Version 1.1 Screener (ASRS-V1.1) and four extra items. Problematic drinking was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), while cannabis misuse was evaluated using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). The Antisocial Personality Disorder Scale from the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview provided a measure of previous conduct disorder symptoms and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire screening procedure was used to gauge general distress. History of arrest was self-reported. Three separate logistic regression analyses (entire sample, male only, and female only) were applied to estimate the association of the foregoing variables with arrest history. In the combined sample, conduct disorder symptoms, problem alcohol use, and problem cannabis use all predicted history of arrest. With regard to the male sample, conduct disorder symptoms, elevated AUDIT and ASSIST scores, and general distress were associated with an arrest history. For the female subsample, only conduct disorder symptoms and problematic cannabis use showed a relationship with criminality. To summarize, ADHD did not predict history of arrest for either subsample or the combined sample. When comparing males and females, conduct disorder symptoms and cannabis misuse exerted stronger effects on history of arrest for females than males

  2. Differential effects of atomoxetine on executive functioning and lexical decision in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and reading disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Christien G. W.; van de Voorde, Séverine; Roeyers, Herbert; Raymaekers, Ruth; Allen, Albert J.; Knijff, Simone; Verhelst, Helene; Temmink, Alfons H.; Smit, Leo M. E.; Rodriques-Pereira, Rob; Vandenberghe, Dirk; van Welsen, Inge; ter Schuren, Liesbeth; Al-Hakim, Mazim; Amin, Azad; Vlasveld, Laurens; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of a promising pharmacological treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), atomoxetine, were studied on executive functions in both ADHD and reading disorder (RD) because earlier research demonstrated an overlap in executive functioning deficits in both disorders. In

  3. Differentiated Technology-based Interventions for Enhancing Understanding, Flow and Self-efficacy by Learners with Developmental and Attention Deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldborg, Hanne; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of digital technologies for strengthening the participation and inclusion of learners with developmental and attention Deficits (focus learners) into the mainstream classroom. The paper describes the authors’ approach to the challenge of researching the extent...

  4. Context-dependent Dynamic Processes in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : Differentiating Common and Unique Effects of State Regulation Deficits and Delay Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Wiersema, Jan R.; van der Meere, Jacob J.; Roeyers, Herbert

    The ability to specify differential predictions is a mark of a scientific models' value. State regulation deficits (SRD) and delay aversion (DAv) have both been hypothesized as context-dependent dynamic dysfunctions in ADHD. However, to date there has been no systematic comparison of their common

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  6. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, ...

  7. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, D C

    1990-09-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common chronic disorder of childhood. No precise definition or approach to treatment is universally accepted; however, an extensive literature exists on which to base a rational approach to management. Symptomatic treatment with stimulant medication in selected patients is effective and safe, but not curative. Successful outcome depends on multimodality therapy, involving parents, teachers, and other professionals. Associated conditions, including learning disorders and emotional disturbance, must be identified and dealt with.

  8. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us your comments ... might be signs of a developmental disorder called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. ADHD is a common ...

  9. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tube DysfunctionStrep ThroatAnemiaHyperthyroidismOpioid AddictionDiabetesCroup Home Diseases and Conditions Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Condition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ...

  10. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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    Barber, Anita D; Jacobson, Lisa A; Wexler, Joanna L; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other

  11. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)” is used rather than “attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)” in some data sources. More data Tables ...

  12. Association between the attention deficits and delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Opora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the society we can find a lot of prejudices concerning AD/HD. The article contains facts and evidence based on research presenting that the delinquency is very often a distant complication of attention deficits but it doesn’t mean that a child with attention deficits has to be delinquent. The article describes the association between the attention deficits and delinquency. There are presented some risk factors coming from the attention deficits and protective factors which let the child follow the social norms. The research was based on 108 delinquent juveniles staying under the probation supervision. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the frequency of the attention deficits among delinquent juveniles staying under supervision. The research findings concern also the association between the attention deficit and external behavioural disorders. In the summary several conditions are described which are important to protect children with attention deficit from delinquency.

  13. Sleep quality, chronotype and social jetlag differentially associate with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Niall M; Voinescu, Bogdan I; Coogan, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioural disorder which has been associated with sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances. Numerous studies have linked evening circadian typology with traits and behaviours associated with the disorder, although a precise reason for this relationship has not been clarified. The current study examines ADHD symptoms, impulsivity, cognitive failures, sleep quality and chronotype in a cohort of healthy young adults (N = 396). Results show significant, small magnitude associations between mid-point of sleep on free days, social jetlag (SJL) and ADHD symptoms and impulsivity, although not with cognitive failures. Similarly, sleep quality is also associated with ADHD symptoms and impulsivity. Group-wise approaches show that higher SJL is associated with significantly more ADHD symptoms and impulsivity, and later mid-sleep on free days is also associated with more ADHD symptoms. Stepwise multiple linear regression reveals that, when controlling for age and sex, SJL but not mid-sleep on free days is a significant predictor of ADHD symptoms and impulsivity. These results indicate that SJL may be an important factor to consider when exploring circadian rhythm associations with ADHD symptoms.

  14. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  15. Perception in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Hüpen, Philippa; De Vries, Stefanie M.; Müller, Morgana; Kok, Francien M.; Koerts, Janneke; Heutink, Joost; Tucha, Lara; Gerlach, Manfred; Tucha, Oliver

    A large body of research demonstrated that individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from various neuropsychological deficits. In contrast, less is known and only divergent evidence exists on perceptual functions of individuals with ADHD. This is problematic as

  16. Interference control in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: differential Stroop effects for colour-naming versus counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, B.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Tannock, R.; Uebel, H.; Banaschewski, T.

    2008-01-01

    Deficits in interference control are ascribed to patients suffering from ADHD by a number of cognitive theories. However, previous research using the Stroop Colour Word Interference Task has demonstrated mixed results that may be explained by methodological issues (e.g., possible impact of colour

  17. A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed for Comparing Processing Speed to Differentiate Adult Psychiatric Referrals With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wiig, Elisabeth Hemmersam; Nielsen, Niels Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This retrospective study used A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT) to compare processing speed and efficiency measures by adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or non-ADHD psychiatric disorders and healthy controls.

  18. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Nag S; Rao S

    1999-01-01

    Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post conc...

  19. Shared and differentiated motor skill impairments in children with dyslexia and/or attention deficit disorder: From simple to complex sequential coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Marchand-Krynski

    Full Text Available Dyslexia and Attention deficit disorder (AD are prevalent neurodevelopmental conditions in children and adolescents. They have high comorbidity rates and have both been associated with motor difficulties. Little is known, however, about what is shared or differentiated in dyslexia and AD in terms of motor abilities. Even when motor skill problems are identified, few studies have used the same measurement tools, resulting in inconstant findings. The present study assessed increasingly complex gross motor skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia, AD, and with both Dyslexia and AD. Our results suggest normal performance on simple motor-speed tests, whereas all three groups share a common impairment on unimanual and bimanual sequential motor tasks. Children in these groups generally improve with practice to the same level as normal subjects, though they make more errors. In addition, children with AD are the most impaired on complex bimanual out-of-phase movements and with manual dexterity. These latter findings are examined in light of the Multiple Deficit Model.

  20. Prefrontal activation during inhibitory control measured by near-infrared spectroscopy for differentiating between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD based solely on symptomatic and behavioral assessments can be difficult, even for experts. Thus, the development of a neuroimaging marker that differentiates ASDs from ADHD would be an important contribution to this field. We assessed the differences in prefrontal activation between adults with ASDs and ADHD using an entirely non-invasive and portable neuroimaging tool, near-infrared spectroscopy. This study included 21 drug-naïve adults with ASDs, 19 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and IQ. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were assessed during a stop signal task and a verbal fluency task. During the stop signal task, compared to the control group, the ASDs group exhibited lower activation in a broad prefrontal area, whereas the ADHD group showed underactivation of the right premotor area, right presupplementary motor area, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Significant differences were observed in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex between the ASDs and ADHD groups during the stop signal task. The leave-one-out cross-validation method using mean oxygenated hemoglobin changes yielded a classification accuracy of 81.4% during inhibitory control. These results were task specific, as the brain activation pattern observed during the verbal fluency task did not differentiate the ASDs and ADHD groups significantly. This study therefore provides evidence of a difference in left ventrolateral prefrontal activation during inhibitory control between adults with ASDs and ADHD. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful as an auxiliary tool for the differential diagnosis of such developmental disorders.

  1. [Hereditary factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.A.; Franke, B.

    2005-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by concentration problems, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Disturbances in dopamine and/or noradrenalin neurotransmission are probably the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of ADHD. Around 80% of

  2. Further evidence for a deficit in switching attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G L; Large, M M; Kavanagh, D J; Karayanidis, F; Barrett, N A; Michie, P T; O'Sullivan, B T

    1998-08-01

    In this study, sustained, selective, divided, and switching attention, and reloading of working memory were investigated in schizophrenia by using a newly developed Visual Attention Battery (VAB). Twenty-four outpatients with schizophrenia and 24 control participants were studied using the VAB. Performance on VAB components was correlated with performance of standard tests. Patients with schizophrenia were significantly impaired on VAB tasks that required switching of attention and reloading of working memory but had normal performance on tasks involving sustained attention or attention to multiple stimulus features. Switching attention and reloading of working memory were highly correlated with Trails (B-A) score for patients. The decline in performance on the switching-attention task in patients with schizophrenia met criteria for a differential deficit in switching attention. Future research should examine the neurophysiological basis of the switching deficit and its sensitivity and specificity to schizophrenia.

  3. Borderline personality disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and narcissistic personality disorder: Practical differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernberg, Otto F; Yeomans, Frank E

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of accurate diagnosis remains at the heart of good psychiatric treatment. In the current state of psychiatry, a confluence of forces has increased this challenge for the clinician. These include practical pressures-such as limited time for diagnostic evaluation, the question of what is reimbursed by insurance, and the issue of directing patients to acute treatments-and also trends in nosology, such as the descriptive focus on signs and symptoms in the current official diagnostic system. The authors offer observations that we hope will help clinicians who have to make difficult diagnostic differentiations often under pressured circumstances. The paper is motivated both by the high frequency of diagnostic errors observed under such conditions and also by the belief that considering symptoms in the context of the patient's sense of self, quality of interpersonal relations, and level of functioning over time will help guide the diagnostic process.

  4. Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as methylphenidate (Ritalin) or dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), which are stimulants that decrease impulsivity and hyperactivity and increase attention. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the generic versions ...

  5. Primary School Teacher's knowledge towards Attention Deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work of the teacher becomes much more demanding when some learners have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as their problems with attention span, impulse control and activity level frequently interfere with activities in the classroom and socially. This study revealed the teachers good knowledge about ...

  6. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  7. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amador-Campos,Juan A.; Aznar-Casanova,J. Antonio; Bezerra,Izabela; Torro-Alves,Nelson; Sánchez,Manuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Method: Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, p...

  8. [Attentional impairment in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Zeineb; Bouden, Asma; Amado, Isabelle; Chantal Bourdel, Marie; Tabbane, Karim; Béchir Halayem, Mohamed

    2009-10-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder currently defined by clinical history and behavioral report of impairment. The Attention Network test (ANT) gives measures of different aspects of the complex process of attention. We ask if children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will show a characteristic pattern of deficits on this test. The sample included 40 children (M=9 years) who performed the "Attention network test". Children with an ADHD diagnosis (N=20) were compared to a control group (N=20). The group of children with ADHD showed slower reaction times in all conditions (mean RT=866 ms; SD=234,063). Children with ADHD showed a significant impairment in their executive control system compared to healthy subjects, with slower reaction times in incongruent conditions and lower accuracy scores (RT=1064 ms; F(1.38) p=0.02). Our results showed that spatial orienting and alerting in ADHD was no different than controls (p=0,68). ADHD group showed a greater variable response (p=0,0001). The present study showed that impairment in executive control system and variability measures are the characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD.

  9. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90 and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of the origin of this disorder. Its manifestations may be a reason for family conflicts, poor peer relationships, social and school maladjustment, learning problems, lower academic performance, accidents and injuries, smoking, psychoactive substance abuse (toxicomania, narcomania, delinquencies, deviant social behavior, thus having a negative impact on all spheres of a patient’s life. The manifestations of ADHD may continue in adulthood, resulting in work and family life problems, low self-evaluation, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and other unfavorable consequences. The authors describe the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic principles (diagnostic scales and tests, differential diagnosis (by setting out a large group of different diseases, the manifestations of which can mimic ADHD, treatment, and prognosis of the disorder. Within its therapeutic correction framework, the authors present the definition and general principles of Montessori therapy, including recommendations for parents and relatives to deal with children with ADHD. 

  10. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of

  11. Nature, Nurture, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Comments on Joseph's review of the genetics of attention deficit disorder, demonstrating errors of scientific logic and oversight of relevant research in Joseph's argument. Argues for the validity of twin studies in supporting a genetic link for ADHD and for the complementary role of nature and nurture in the etiology of the disorder. (JPB)

  12. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Parent's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anna M.

    1996-01-01

    A parent and educator who has spent the past 10 years struggling to help her own ADHD (attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder) child offers suggestions for managing the challenges facing such children and enhancing the quality of their lives. Since drug regimens have limitations, parents need to read appropriate literature and receive…

  14. Magnesium supplementation in children with attention deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with associated mineral deficiency. Aim: To assess magnesium level in ADHD children and compare it to the normal levels in children. Then, to detect the effect of magnesium supplementation as an add on therapy, ...

  15. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Attention Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit Disorder with or without Hyperactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Zalsman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to differentiate the attention patterns associated with attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity using continuous performance test (CPT. The diagnoses were based on the DSM-III, III-R, and IV criteria and of the 39 children who participated in the study, 14 had attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH and 11 had attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity (ADDWO, while 14 normal children served as a control group. Attention patterns were examined according to the performance of subjects on the CPT and parental scores on the ADHD Rating Scale, the Child Attention Profile, and the Conners Rating Scale. CPT performances were assessed before and after administration of 10 mg methylphenidate. We found as hypothesized that the CPT differentiated between the ADDH and ADDWO groups. However, contrary to our expectations, the ADDH children made more omission errors than the ADDWO children; they also showed more hyperactivity and impulsivity. The performance of both groups improved to an equal degree after the administration of methylphenidate. It is conluded that different subtypes of the attention deficit disorders are characterized by different attention profiles and that methylphenidate improves scores on test of continuous performance.

  17. Methylphenidate-induced improvements of various measures of attention in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, O; Mecklinger, L; Laufkötter, R; Klein, H E; Walitza, S; Lange, K W

    2006-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of the stimulant medication methylphenidate (MPH) on attentional functioning of adults with ADHD. Sixteen adults with a diagnosed ADHD without comorbidity were assessed twice, at baseline off MPH and following MPH treatment. The assessment battery consisted of reaction time tasks of low complexity, including measures of alertness--subdivided into tonic and phasic alertness, vigilance, divided attention, flexibility and such aspects of selective attention as including focused attention, inhibition and integration of sensory information. In addition, 16 healthy participants who were matched to adults with ADHD according to sex, age, education level and intellectual functions were also assessed twice using the same test battery. The results of the present study suggest that adults with ADHD off stimulant medication are seriously impaired in various components of attention including vigilance, divided attention, selective attention and flexibility. These impairments of attention were observed primarily in regard to reaction time and its variability. Treatment of adults with ADHD using individually tailored doses of MPH has a positive effect on measures of alertness, vigilance, selective attention, divided attention and flexibility. However, even on MPH adults with ADHD displayed considerable deficits in vigilance and integration of sensory information. The present findings indicate that adults with ADHD are not differentially impaired in attentional processes but may suffer from a more global deficit of attention. Although MPH treatment has been found to be effective in the treatment of the attention deficit of adults with ADHD, additional treatment appears to be necessary.

  18. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-12-22

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function.

  19. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  20. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Yalug

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is known to accompany subtle physical anomalies, allergic and neurologic disorders, obesity and eating disorders, traumatic injuries, risky sexual behavior, sleep disorders, substance and alcohol use, axis I and II disorders, occupational, legal and academic problems and increased treatment expenditures. Though the effects of this disorder continue throughout life, create burdens to the society along with its treatment as well as disabling the affected patients through their lives, and receive increasing attention in recent years, reviews focusing on problems associated with it are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the results of previous studies conducted about medical comorbidities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  1. Assessing attentional systems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Maria; Martella, Diana; Ruggiero, Maria Cleonice; Maccari, Lisa; Paloscia, Claudio; Rosa, Caterina; Pasini, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and interactions of attentional systems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by considering the effects of reinforcement and auditory warning on each component of attention. Thirty-six drug-naïve children (18 children with ADHD/18 typically developing children) performed two revised versions of the Attentional Network Test, which assess the efficiency of alerting, orienting, and executive systems. In feedback trials, children received feedback about their accuracy, whereas in the no-feedback trials, feedback was not given. In both conditions, children with ADHD performed more slowly than did typically developing children. They also showed impairments in the ability to disengage attention and in executive functioning, which improved when alertness was increased by administering the auditory warning. The performance of the attentional networks appeared to be modulated by the absence or the presence of reinforcement. We suggest that the observed executive system deficit in children with ADHD could depend on their low level of arousal rather than being an independent disorder. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  2. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of

  3. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Kotov; M. N. Borisova; M. V. Panteleeva; Yu. V. Matyuk; A. V. Shatalin

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90) and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of t...

  4. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  5. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... claims to understand diagnosis and treatment patterns for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). On this page you can ...

  6. Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renew CHADD Annual Conference Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD), is a national nonprofit organization ... ADHD community. © 2017 by Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD). All Rights Reserved. Press Privacy ...

  7. Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood: A study conducted on parents of children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. ... 10, No 1 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and TSC What is ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder. It is ...

  9. Stroke caused auditory attention deficits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Ibraim da Freiria Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the auditory selective attention in children with stroke. METHODS: Dichotic tests of binaural separation (non-verbal and consonant-vowel and binaural integration - digits and Staggered Spondaic Words Test (SSW - were applied in 13 children (7 boys, from 7 to 16 years, with unilateral stroke confirmed by neurological examination and neuroimaging. RESULTS: The attention performance showed significant differences in comparison to the control group in both kinds of tests. In the non-verbal test, identifications the ear opposite the lesion in the free recall stage was diminished and, in the following stages, a difficulty in directing attention was detected. In the consonant- vowel test, a modification in perceptual asymmetry and difficulty in focusing in the attended stages was found. In the digits and SSW tests, ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral deficits were detected, depending on the characteristics of the lesions and demand of the task. CONCLUSION: Stroke caused auditory attention deficits when dealing with simultaneous sources of auditory information.

  10. Differentiating children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, learning disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders by means of their motor behavior characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N=22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N=17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N=24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N=20). Physical education teachers used the MBC for children to rate their pupils based on their motor related behaviors. A multivariate analysis revealed significant differences among the groups on different problem scales. The results indicated that the MBC for children may be effective in discriminating children with similar disruptive behaviors (e.g., ADHD, CD) and autistic disorders, based on their motor behavior characteristics, but not children with Learning Disabilities (LD), when used by physical education teachers in school settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...... the criteria more appropriate for children, adolescents and adults. The age of onset will also be changed from 7 to 12 years, the subtyping of the disorder will change, and pervasive developmental disorders will no longer be an exclusion criterion. Although the main concept is unchanged, the suggested changes...

  12. [DMS-5 - attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    Modifications to the DSM-5 criteria for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders are described and discussed. The main modifications concern the onset of the disorder, the reduction on the number of criteria fulfilled for a diagnosis in patients aged 17 years or older, and the elimination of autism spectrum disorders as an exclusion criterion for this diagnosis. These changes are mainly welcomed. However, the demanded increase in the age for the latest onset of the disorder may prove to be problematic.

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, E; Maurs, C

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), although considered a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition, is nevertheless a frequent and disabling condition in adults. A proportion of such patients are not diagnosed during childhood or adolescence, as diagnosis of the syndrome is rather complex, especially when other psychiatric, neurological or other neurodevelopmental conditions are also associated, yet comorbidities and consequences of ADHD are frequently observed in adults and older populations. As ADHD patients present to memory clinics with attentional and executive disorders, neuropsychological examinations of undiagnosed ADHD patients may reveal atypical cognitive profiles that can complicate the usual diagnostic procedure and increase the risk of delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Thus, explorations of cognitive and/or behavioral disorders in adult populations should systematically screen for this neurodevelopmental condition. Accurate diagnosis could lead to non-pharmaceutical and/or pharmaceutical treatments to improve symptoms and quality of life for adult ADHD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Campos, Juan A; Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Bezerra, Izabela; Torro-Alves, Nelson; Sánchez, Manuel M

    2015-01-01

    To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1), whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1) and a probe letter (T2). The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2) at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls. Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  15. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Amador-Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task in which two letters (T1 and T2 were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB].Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1, whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1 and a probe letter (T2.Results:The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2 at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls.Conclusion:Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  16. Differential Behavioral and Biochemical Responses to Caffeine in Male and Female Rats from a Validated Model of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Fernanda; Pochmann, Daniela; Almeida, Amanda Staldoni; Marques, Daniela Melo; Porciúncula, Lisiane de Oliveira

    2018-03-20

    Epidemiological studies suggest sex differences in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. The potential benefits of caffeine have been reported in the management of ADHD, but its effects were not properly addressed with respect to sex differences. The present study examined the effects of caffeine (0.3 g/L) administered since childhood in the behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its related proteins in both sexes of a rat model of ADHD (spontaneously hypertensive rats-SHR). Hyperlocomotion, recognition, and spatial memory disturbances were observed in adolescent SHR rats from both sexes. However, females showed lack of habituation and worsened spatial memory. Although caffeine was effective against recognition memory impairment in both sexes, spatial memory was recovered only in female SHR rats. Besides, female SHR rats showed exacerbated hyperlocomotion after caffeine treatment. SHR rats from both sexes presented increases in the BDNF, truncated and phospho-TrkB receptors and also phospho-CREB levels in the hippocampus. Caffeine normalized BDNF in males and truncated TrkB receptor at both sexes. These findings provide insight into the potential of caffeine against fully cognitive impairment displayed by females in the ADHD model. Besides, our data revealed that caffeine intake since childhood attenuated behavioral alterations in the ADHD model associated with changes in BDNF and TrkB receptors in the hippocampus.

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Executive Function Impairment: An Overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Lindsey.

    2016-01-01

    As with any cognitive ability, attention is vulnerable to dysfunction. The most common attentional problem is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This brief overview will highlight the symptoms and deficits associated with ADHD, its prevalence in today’s society, the association between executive function impairment and ADHD using Barkley’s (1997) work, and the personal and societal effects of the disorder.

  18. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  19. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agati, Elisa; Moavero, Romina; Cerminara, Caterina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2009-10-01

    The neurobiological basis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in tuberous sclerosis complex is still largely unknown. Cortical tubers may disrupt several brain networks that control different types of attention. Frontal lobe dysfunction due to seizures or epileptiform electroencephalographic discharges may perturb the development of brain systems that underpin attentional and hyperactive functions during a critical early stage of brain maturation. Comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders is frequent in children with tuberous sclerosis. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also reflect a direct effect of the abnormal genetic program. Treatment of children with tuberous sclerosis complex with combined symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy may represent a challenge for clinicians, because antiepileptic therapy and drugs used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may aggravate the clinical picture of each other.

  20. Altered salience processing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Bunzeck, Nico; Duzel, Emrah; Bonath, Björn; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2015-06-01

    Attentional problems in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been linked with deficits in cognitive control. Whether these deficits are associated with increased sensitivity to external salient stimuli remains unclear. To address this issue, we acquired functional brain images (fMRI) in 38 boys with and without ADHD (age: 11-16 years). To differentiate the effects of item novelty, contextual rareness and task relevance, participants performed a visual oddball task including four stimulus categories: a frequent standard picture (62.5%), unique novel pictures (12.5%), one repeated rare picture (12.5%), and a target picture (12.5%) that required a specific motor response. As a main finding, we can show considerable overlap in novelty-related BOLD responses between both groups, but only healthy participants showed neural deactivation in temporal as well as frontal regions in response to novel pictures. Furthermore, only ADHD patients, but not healthy controls, engaged wide parts of the novelty network when processing the rare but familiar picture. Our results provide first evidence that ADHD patients show enhanced neural activity in response to novel but behaviorally irrelevant stimuli as well as reduced habituation to familiar items. These findings suggest an inefficient use of neuronal resources in children with ADHD that could be closely linked to increased distractibility. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Differential therapeutic effects of 12-week treatment of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on drug-naïve children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A counting Stroop functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tai-Li; Chia, Seng; Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are effective in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with underlying distinct pharmacological mechanisms. To relate neural mechanisms to clinical response, we conducted a comparative trial to differentiate the changes in brain activation of drug-naïve children with ADHD when performing neuropsychological tasks after 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy. We randomized 50 drug-naïve children with ADHD, aged 7-17, to treatment with methylphenidate (n=25) or atomoxetine (n=25). These children were scanned twice with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the counting Stroop task before and after treatment. Focused attention and impulsivity were assessed twice by using the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT). The final sample for fMRI analysis comprised 20 in the methylphenidate group and 22 in the atomoxetine group. Atomoxetine decreased activations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which correlated with improvement in focused attention assessed by the CCPT. In contrast, methylphenidate increased activations in the inferior frontal gyrus, which correlated with the decreasing severity of impulsivity assessed by the CCPT. The current findings suggest that differential therapeutic effects on neuronal changes induced by 12-week treatment atomoxetine and methylphenidate may contribute to behavioral improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurocognitive pattern analysis reveals classificatory hierarchy of attention deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Christina; Popescu, Florin C; Hahn, Eric; Ta, Tam T M; Dettling, Michael; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2014-07-01

    Attention deficits, among other cognitive deficits, are frequently observed in schizophrenia. Although valid and reliable neurocognitive tasks have been established to assess attention deficits in schizophrenia, the hierarchical value of those tests as diagnostic discriminants on a single-subject level remains unclear. Thus, much research is devoted to attention deficits that are unlikely to be translated into clinical practice. On the other hand, a clear hierarchy of attention deficits in schizophrenia could considerably aid diagnostic decisions and may prove beneficial for longitudinal monitoring of therapeutic advances. To propose a diagnostic hierarchy of attention deficits in schizophrenia, we investigated several facets of attention in 86 schizophrenia patients and 86 healthy controls using a set of established attention tests. We applied state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms to determine attentive test variables that enable an automated differentiation between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. After feature preranking, hypothesis building, and hypothesis validation, the polynomial support vector machine classifier achieved a classification accuracy of 90.70% ± 2.9% using psychomotor speed and 3 different attention parameters derived from sustained and divided attention tasks. Our study proposes, to the best of our knowledge, the first hierarchy of attention deficits in schizophrenia by identifying the most discriminative attention parameters among a variety of attention deficits found in schizophrenia patients. Our results offer a starting point for hierarchy building of schizophrenia-associated attention deficits and contribute to translating these concepts into diagnostic and therapeutic practice on a single-subject level. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... for developmental level: Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, ...

  4. Annual Research Review: Transdiagnostic neuroscience of child and adolescent mental disorders--differentiating decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Cortese, Samuele; Fairchild, Graeme; Stringaris, Argyris

    2016-03-01

    Ineffective decision making is a major source of everyday functional impairment and reduced quality of life for young people with mental disorders. However, very little is known about what distinguishes decision making by individuals with different disorders or the neuropsychological processes or brain systems underlying these. This is the focus of the current review. We first propose a neuroeconomic model of the decision-making process with separate stages for the prechoice evaluation of expected utility of future options; choice execution and postchoice management; the appraisal of outcome against expectation; and the updating of value estimates to guide future decisions. According to the proposed model, decision making is mediated by neuropsychological processes operating within three domains: (a) self-referential processes involved in autobiographical reflection on past, and prospection about future, experiences; (b) executive functions, such as working memory, inhibition, and planning, that regulate the implementation of decisions; and (c) processes involved in value estimation and outcome appraisal and learning. These processes are underpinned by the interplay of multiple brain networks, especially medial and lateralized cortical components of the default mode network, dorsal corticostriatal circuits underpinning higher order cognitive and behavioral control, and ventral frontostriatal circuits, connecting to brain regions implicated in emotion processing, that control valuation and learning processes. Based on clinical insights and considering each of the decision-making stages in turn, we outline disorder-specific hypotheses about impaired decision making in four childhood disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), depression, and anxiety. We hypothesize that decision making in ADHD is deficient (i.e. inefficient, insufficiently reflective, and inconsistent) and impulsive (biased toward immediate over delayed

  5. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  6. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  7. Current pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D S

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder in children and adults characterized by a persistent pattern of impulsiveness, inattention and hyperactivity. It affects about 3-10% of children and 2-5% of adolescents and adults and occurs about four times more commonly in boys than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but it has strong genetic and environment components. The first-line treatment options for ADHD include behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy with stimulants or both. Methylphenidate and amphetamine salts are the stimulant drugs of choice for ADHD treatment. Amphetamines act by increasing presynaptic release of dopamine and other biogenic amines in the brain. Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and therefore its pharmacology is identical to that of amphetamines. Lisdex-amfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine with low feasibility for abuse. Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is an alternative, non-stimulant drug for ADHD but it is less efficacious than stimulants. Stimulants are generally safe but are associated with adverse effects including headache, insomnia, anorexia and weight loss. There is increased awareness about serious cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with ADHD drugs including concern for growth suppression in children. Stimulants have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and should be handled safely to prevent misuse and abuse. Copyright 2013 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  8. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signs Treating ADHD Reprints For More Information Share Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order ... daily life, it could be a sign of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a disorder that makes it ...

  9. Neuropsychological Treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Yulia; Quintanar, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The syndrome of attention deficit disorder is one of the most frequent pictures of disabilities in pre-scholars. The present study analyses the results of fulfillment of tasks for mechanisms of control and spatial functions. 14 pre-scholars with attention deficit disorder took part in the study. The neuropsychological evaluation was applied before…

  10. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D. Barber

    2015-01-01

    While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.

  12. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  13. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Strategies for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Johnny R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses classroom strategies used with students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), methods for controlling the ADHD child's behavior, and the need for consistency and collaboration between the school and home. (Author/JDD)

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. ... checklist to approximate a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) ADHD diagnosis ...

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret ... divided into two parts. ... representatives prior to the start of whole-class activities and.

  17. ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    People who suffer from ADHD are far more likely than normal to drop out of school (32 ... secondary to learning disabilities, partial sensory deficits or even low cognitive ... bad days (Fig. 3), which can lead to frustration for teachers, parents and the child, as there is always the feeling that ... boys who often present very young.

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen L; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lam, Siu M

    2016-04-01

    We examined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents with epilepsy and the association with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. Strengths and Weakness of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behaviors rating scale was administered to 122 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma, aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Twenty-nine (23.7%) adolescents with epilepsy compared with five (10%) with asthma had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P = 0.037). Adolescents with epilepsy had a significantly higher score in the inattention subscale when compared with those with asthma (-0.25 ± 1.2 vs -0.64 ± 1.07, P = 0.049). Combined subtype was most frequent in the epilepsy group. Oppositional defiant disorders were more prevalent in those having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric assistance had only been provided to one third of our patients with epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the time of study. There was a negative correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores and age of seizure onset. A positive correlation was observed between the number of antiepileptic drugs and the inattentive subscale score. The impact of various correlates on individual subtypes was not identical. Independent risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were medical comorbidities (odds ratio = 12.82, 95% confidence interval 4.44, 37.03, P Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is overrepresented in adolescents with epilepsy; screening for its symptoms should be an integral part of management in adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive rehabilitation for attention deficits following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetscher, Tobias; Lincoln, Nadina B

    2013-05-31

    Many survivors of stroke complain about attentional impairments, such as diminished concentration and mental slowness. However, the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for improving these impairments is uncertain. To determine whether (1) people receiving attentional treatment show better outcomes in their attentional functions than those given no treatment or treatment as usual, and (2) people receiving attentional treatment techniques have a better functional recovery, in terms of independence in activities of daily living, mood and quality of life, than those given no treatment or treatment as usual. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (October 2012), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library October 2012), MEDLINE (1948 to October 2012), EMBASE (1947 to October 2012), CINAHL (1981 to October 2012), PsycINFO (1806 to October 2012), PsycBITE and REHABDATA (searched October 2012) and ongoing trials registers. We screened reference lists and tracked citations using Scopus. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive rehabilitation for impairments of attention for people with stroke. The primary outcome was measures of global attentional functions, and secondary outcomes were measures of attention domains, functional abilities, mood and quality of life. Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We included six RCTs with 223 participants. All six RCTs compared cognitive rehabilitation with a usual care control. Meta-analyses demonstrated no statistically significant effect of cognitive rehabilitation for persisting effects on global measures of attention (two studies, 99 participants; standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23 to 0.56; P value = 0.41), standardised attention assessments (two studies, 99 participants; P value ≥ 0.08) or functional outcomes (two studies, 99 participants; P value ≥ 0

  20. Deficient attention is hard to find: applying the perceptual load model of selective attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L; Nigg, Joel T; Carr, Thomas H

    2005-11-01

    Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. We used the perceptual load paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. No evidence emerged for selective attention deficits in either of the subtypes, but sluggish cognitive tempo was associated with abnormal early selection. At least some, and possibly most, children with DSM-IV ADHD have normal selective attention. Results support the move away from theories of attention dysfunction as primary in ADHD-C. In ADHD-I, this was one of the first formal tests of posterior attention network dysfunction, and results did not support that theory. However, ADHD children with sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) warrant more study for possible early selective attention deficits.

  1. An overview of attention deficits after paediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginstfeldt, Tim; Emanuelson, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Attention could be categorized into sustained, selective, shifting, divided and attention span. The primary objective was to evaluate the type of attention deficits that occurs after paediatric traumatic brain injury. Keywords were used such as 'attention', 'child', 'traumatic', 'brain' and 'injury' on MEDLINE articles published in 1991-2009. Articles found through MEDLINE were manually cross-referenced. Out of the examined categorizes, divided and sustained attention seem to be the most vulnerably, frequently displaying deficits in the children with TBI. Attention span seemed to be the most resistant and the shifting and selective categories falling somewhere in between. Most of the recovery is expected within the first year post-injury, even if some individuals continue to improve for years, and deficits often persist into adulthood. The attention domains are not affected to the same extent by TBI and this should be taken into consideration when evaluating a child. The commonly used tests also seem to differ in how sensitive they are in detecting deficits. The definition of attention domains and TBI would benefit to be stricter and agreed upon, to further facilitate research and rehabilitation programmes.

  2. Experimental Training of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscalkiene, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…

  3. [Concordances between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, F; Roca, P

    2018-03-01

    The current literature acknowledges an overlap of genetic, clinical and neuropsychological aspects between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggesting that there may be a common pattern that covers features ranging from the common genetic and structural aetiology to shared patterns of symptoms. To review the current advances in these common aspects. Several studies have pointed out preschool attentional difficulties as the basis of both disorders. From the genetic perspective, it is estimated that 50-72% of the genetic factors overlap between the two disorders. They also share a decrease in the volume of the corpus callosum and left frontal grey matter, as well as functional alterations such as dorsolateral prefrontal, striato-thalamic and superior parietal hypoactivation. Results are also found regarding executive functioning, with differential profiles for the two conditions, and also concerning the relationship between the repetitive and impulsive behaviours in the early stages of ASD and ensuing problems of hyperactivity. This new conception of the ASD-ADHD continuum, with a common neurodevelopmental basis and associated clinical features, could be of great use in clinical practice. It is suggested that this association should be taken into account when it comes to deciding on the treatment.

  4. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention: strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    attention has been given to the pupils who manifest symptoms of this chronic ... The need for teachers' intervention strategies has been ... symptoms and management strategies. ... The “classroom setting” has difficulty for the ADHD pupils because of .... The ADHD pupil's relationship with others is unpredictable, and s/he is.

  5. Magnesium supplementation in children with attention deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El Baza

    2015-07-07

    Jul 7, 2015 ... compared to normal children, in both serum and hair. Then, the effects of .... regards attention, memory loss, fear, restlessness, insomnia, tics, cramps and ..... the effectiveness and safety of magnesium and vitamin B6. Trials ... 143–8. [17] Mousain-Bosc M, Roche M, Polge A, Pradal-Prat D, Rapin J, · Bali JP.

  6. Color perception deficits in co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and chronic tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessner, V.; Banaschewski, T.; Fillmer-Otte, A.; Becker, A.; Albrecht, B.; Uebel, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Tannock, R.; Rothenberger, A.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that color perception, particularly of blue-yellow stimuli, is impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in chronic tic disorders (CTD). However, these findings have been not replicated and it is unclear what these deficits mean for the

  7. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  8. Internalizing/Externalizing Symptomatology in Subtypes of Attention-Deficit Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jose J.; Hynd, George W.

    1995-01-01

    When children with Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) with and without hyperactivity (total n=28) were compared for behavior, results differentiate the two ADD subtypes into a more externalizing dimension (ADD-hyperactivity with and without conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder) at school or home and a more internalizing disorder (ADD…

  9. Brain Volumetric Correlates of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dwyer, Laurence; Tanner, Colby; van Dongen, Eelco V.; Greven, Corina U.; Braten, Janita; Zwiersl, Marcel P.; Franke, Barbara; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Hoekstra, Pieter; Hartman, Catharina A.; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms frequently occur in subjects with attention deficit/hyperactivity disord (ADHD). While there is evidence that both ADHD and ASD have differential structural correlates, no study to date has nvestigated these structural correlates within a framework that

  10. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  12. Effect of Psychostimulants on Distinct Attentional Parameters in Attentional Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    LÓPEZ, JAVIER; LÓPEZ, VLADIMIR; ROJAS, DANIEL; CARRASCO, XIMENA; ROTHHAMMER, PAULA; GARCÍA, RICARDO; ROTHHAMMER, FRANCISCO; ABOITIZ, FRANCISCO

    2004-01-01

    Although there is extensive literature about the effects of stimulants on sustained attention tasks in attentional deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about the effect of these drugs on other attentional tasks involving different neural systems. In this study we measured the effect of stimulants on ADHD children, both in the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sustained attentional tasks and in psychometric performance during selective attentional tasks. These tas...

  13. Attention deficit and attention training in early twentieth-century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ando, Mizuho; Kumagai, Keiko

    2015-06-01

    Yuzero Motora (1856-1912), regarded as the first professional Japanese psychologist, tried to address students' attention difficulties through attention training methods of his own design. His reports contain the first description of ADHD-like symptoms in the history of Japan. Motora viewed "distractibility" as the irregular transition of attention. Students with low scores and attention difficulties who participated in Motora's exercises showed improvement in arithmetic, psychological testing, and certain aspects of daily life. This article describes Motora's theoretical conception of attention and attention training methodology, the history of attention deficit and attention training, and the significance of Motora's experiments.

  14. Visual Attention and Academic Performance in Children with Developmental Disabilities and Behavioural Attention Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Hannah E.; Gray, Kylie; Riby, Deborah M.; Taffe, John; Cornish, Kim M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite well-documented attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), distinctions across types of attention problems and their association with academic attainment has not been fully explored. This study examines visual attention capacities and inattentive/hyperactive behaviours in 77 children aged 4 to…

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Mini; Pergjika, Alba

    2017-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by age-inappropriate deficits in attention or hyperactivity/impulsivity that interfere with functioning or development. It is highly correlated with other disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and mood symptoms. The etiology is multifactorial, and neuroimaging findings are nonspecific. Although assessment tools exist, there is variability among them, and historically, parent-teacher agreement has not been consistent. Treatment algorithm for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschoolers includes behavioral interventions first followed by psychopharmacologic treatment when behavioral therapies fail. Other nonpharmacologic and nonbehavioral interventions are discussed including the role of exercise and nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain differences between persistent and remitted attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Gabrieli, John D E; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Kotte, Amelia; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Assessing Attention Deficit by Binocular Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Campos, Juan Antonio; Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Ortiz-Guerra, Juan Jairo; Moreno-Sánchez, Manuel; Medina-Peña, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether the frequency and duration of the periods of suppression of a percept in a binocular rivalry (BR) task can be used to distinguish between participants with ADHD and controls. A total of 122 participants (6-15 years) were assigned to three groups: ADHD-Combined (ADHD-C), ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I), and controls. They each performed a BR task and two measures were recorded: alternation rate and duration of exclusive dominance periods. ADHD-C group presented fewer alternations and showed greater variability than did the control group; results for the ADHD-I group being intermediate between the two. The duration of dominance periods showed a differential profile: In control group, it remained stable over time, whereas in the clinical groups, it decreased logarithmically as the task progressed. The differences between groups in relation to the BR indicators can be attributed to the activity of involuntary inhibition. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Neuroelectrical signs of selective attention to color in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, O.; van der Molen, M.W.; Gunning, W.B.; Kok, A.

    2001-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the functional and macroanatornical loci of visual selective processing deficits that may be basic to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), multi-channel event related potentials recorded from 24 7-11-yr-old boys clinically diagnosed as having ADHD and 24

  19. Sleep disturbance and deficits of sustained attention following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Samuel C; Stolwyk, Renerus J; New, Peter W; Anderson, Clare

    2016-01-01

    To simultaneously investigate the prevalence of and impact that the poststroke complications of daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, depression, and fatigue may be having upon deficits of sustained attention, as assessed using the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT). Twenty-two patients with stroke (mean age: 68.23 ± 12.17 years) and 20 healthy control participants (mean age: 68.1 ± 9.5 years) completed subjective measures of daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, fatigue, and depression and an objective measure of sustained attention as assessed using the PVT. Patients with stroke compared to controls showed heightened levels of fatigue (p = .001, η(2) = .29) and depression (p = .002, η(2) = .23), plus greater deficits of sustained attention as reflected by poorer performance across all PVT outcome measures including: slower mean reaction times (p = .002, η(2) = .22); increased number of lapses (p = .002, η(2) = .24); and greater variability in reaction time (RT) responses (p = .016, η(2) = .15). Reaction time distribution analysis suggested that daytime sleepiness and sleep quality had little influence across PVT performance; however, depressive symptomology was associated with longer RT responses, indicative of inattention, and fatigue impacted upon the entire distribution of PVT responses. PVT performance illustrated significant deficits across the domain of sustained attention for patients with stroke in comparison to healthy controls, in terms of inattention as well as slower sensory-motor speed. The common poststroke complications of depressive symptomology and fatigue appear to be associated with these deficits in sustained attention, warranting further investigation.

  20. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, ...

  1. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Eleonore

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, i.e., it is by definition present from childhood. The main features characterizing ADHD are the difficulties to regulate attention, activity level, and impulses. The hallmark of bipolar disorder is episodic mood alterations with restitution between episodes. Although debut in childhood may occur, bipolar disorder typically debuts in late adolescence or early adulthood. The overarching aim with this ...

  2. Aeromedical decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, David J P; Navathe, Pooshan D; Drane, A Michael

    2011-05-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a problematic diagnosis in the context of aeromedical certification. Certain characteristics of the disorder such as impaired attention potentially affect the safe conduct of flying. Pharmacological treatment with stimulants also has issues surrounding short half-lives and effects on the recognition of fatigue. This article gives a broad overview of the issues involved and provides certification guidelines as adopted in the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority which may be helpful if adopted by other certification bodies.

  3. Cardiovascular considerations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: a report of the European Network on Hyperactivity Disorders work group, European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug safety meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Robert M; Rosenthal, Eric; Hulpke-Wette, Martin; Graham, John G I; Sergeant, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug licensing and labelling, along with recent statements from professional associations, raise questions of practice regarding the evaluation and treatment of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To address these issues for the European community, the European Network for Hyperkinetic Disorders, through its European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group, organised a meeting between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialists, paediatric cardiovascular specialists, and representatives of the major market authorisation holders for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. This manuscript represents their consensus on cardiovascular aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. Although sudden death has been identified in multiple young individuals on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication causing regulatory concern, when analysed for exposure using currently available data, sudden death does not appear to exceed that of the general population. There is no current evidence to suggest an incremental benefit to electrocardiography assessment of the general attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. Congenital heart disease patients have an increased prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and can benefit from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapies, including medication. The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialist is the appropriate individual to evaluate benefit and risk and recommend therapy in all patients, although discussion with a heart specialist is reasonable for congenital heart disease patients. For attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients with suspected heart disease or risk factor/s for sudden death, assessment by a heart specialist is recommended, as would also be the case for a non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. The

  4. Emotional Intelligence in Learners with Attention Deficit Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Carol Anne; Roets, H. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse and evaluate the nature and quality of emotional intelligence in learners with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), and to investigate whether their emotional intelligence was enhanced, and whether the symptoms and behaviour of these learners improved, after exposure to a programme on emotional intelligence.…

  5. Study of Thyroid Function in Children with Attention Deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of Thyroid Function in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Aggressive Behavior. ... Results: There was a significantly lower IQ (p<0.05) among patients (84.2±16.4%) when compared to controls (100.9±5.4%).

  6. Study Of thyroid Function In Children With Attention Deficit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well recognized psychiatric disorder of childhood. Its cause is ... treatment of ADHD requires expertise in many different treatment modalities. ... should be incorporated in the work up of children in families having ADHD and/or aggression. In children with ADHD ...

  7. Wildland firefighters and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Palmer; Steven Gaskill; Joe Domitrovich; Marcy McNamara; Brian Knutson; Alysha Spear

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders of childhood, affecting 3 to 7 percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association 2000). Research has indicated that the prevalence rate of ADHD in adult populations is approximately 4.4 percent and that the majority of those cases go untreated (Kessler et al. 2006). To date,...

  8. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Functional Defecation Disorders in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Koppen, Ilan J. N.; Vriesman, Mana H.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; van Dijk, Marieke; Beelen, Maureen L. R.; Groeneweg, Michael; Stoffelsen, Reino J.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children presenting with functional defecation disorders (FDDs) and to assess the prevalence of FDDs in children with ADHD. Methods: A cross-sectional cohort study was carried out

  10. Exploring five common assumptions on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Nieweg, Edo H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    The number of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with medication is steadily increasing. The aim of this paper was to critically discuss five debatable assumptions on ADHD that may explain these trends to some extent. These are that ADHD (i) causes

  11. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Madsen, Anders G.; Bikic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the history of the studies of mental health problems and substance use disorder (SUD) and the neurobiology and etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and SUD. Additionally, we review the literature on the associations between ADHD and SUD...

  12. Developmental Dyslexia: The Visual Attention Span Deficit Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Tainturier, Marie Josephe; Valdois, Sylviane

    2007-01-01

    The visual attention (VA) span is defined as the amount of distinct visual elements which can be processed in parallel in a multi-element array. Both recent empirical data and theoretical accounts suggest that a VA span deficit might contribute to developmental dyslexia, independently of a phonological disorder. In this study, this hypothesis was…

  13. Relationship between Learning Problems and Attention Deficit in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…

  14. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  15. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  16. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Participating in Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.; Justice, Michael J.; Rosko, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    The participation of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of children with ADHD and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these children in the recess setting. Initially, the…

  17. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  18. Classroom Discipline with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Edward A.; Kirby, Sandra H.

    1994-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often discipline problems, but their disruptive behavior is usually not willful or intentional. After describing the educational history of one person with ADHD, the article makes suggestions for disciplining children with ADHD in the classroom. (SM)

  19. Emotion Regulation and Heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Erica D.; Galloway-Long, Hilary S.; Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: How best to capture heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using biomarkers has been elusive. This study evaluated whether emotion reactivity and regulation provide a means to achieve this. Method: Participants were classified into three groups: children with ADHD plus low prosocial behavior (hypothesized to be…

  20. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mulligan, Aisling; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, J.S.; Minderaa, R.B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mulligan, A.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have

  2. DSM-5 Further Inflates Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Mediate Early-Onset Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Lier, P.A.C. van; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based,

  6. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  7. Source Discrimination in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity

  8. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  9. Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Benefit from Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany M.; Quintino, Olga; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Koslovsky, Gabrielle

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-eight adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were provided either massage therapy or relaxation therapy for 10 consecutive school days. The massage therapy group, but not the relaxation therapy group, self-rated as happier, and observers rated them as fidgeting less following the sessions. Teachers reported more time on…

  10. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in children and adolescents. L Scribante. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v15i2.205 · AJOL African Journals ...

  12. Counselling for Facilitating Learning for the AttentionDeficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the extent of counsellor's identification of the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the counselling strategies the counsellors use to facilitate learning for such learners. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was survey. The area of the ...

  13. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita Halder; Akash Kumar Mahato

    2009-01-01

    Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  14. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  15. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Why should we pay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, with a chronic, costly and debilitating course if untreated. Limited access to diagnosis and treatment for adults with ADHD contributes to the cost of the disorder and the burden of disease. Aim: This study aims to identify ...

  16. Community survey of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuro-developmental condition with early onset. ADHD affects children worldwide. However, there is a variation in the prevalence across different countries. In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on the prevalence. To provide the ...

  17. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder | du Plessis | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioural disorder that compromises the core symptoms of developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Many patients are still not diagnosed, or do not receive appropriate sustained treatment, in spite of a general greater ...

  18. Self-reported Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among university students in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all students who gave consent to participate in the study. Setting: Moi University's Town Campus, comprising the ...

  19. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A database analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, costly and debilitating disorder. In South Africa (SA), access to funding for care and treatment of ADHD is limited, and research is lacking. Aim: This study aimed to establish the current situation with regard to the psychiatric management of and ...

  20. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among school children in Kinshasa, an African urban setting. Methods: The 18-items of the Disruptive Behaviour Disorder rating scale (DBD), which is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for ...

  1. The medical management of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses specifically on the medical management of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the options currently available in South Africa. References are made to current thinking on the etiology of this disorder and the pharmacological principles involved in its treatment. This review will not try to ...

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: diagnostic imperatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At present, no biological or psychological tests with sufficient sensitivity or specificity can replace the meticulous process of distilling the clinical characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD) in adulthood. The level of diagnostic confidence can be enhanced via a semi-structured interview, confirming the ...

  3. Interference control in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, R.; Papanikolau, A.; van Gelicum-Bijlhout, J.; van Oostenbruggen, J.; Veugelers, D.; Post-Uiterweer, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2009-01-01

    The view that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a diminished ability to control interfference is controversial and based exclusively on results of (verbal)-visual interference tasks, primarily the Stroop Color Word task. The present study compares medication-naïve

  4. Study Of thyroid Function In Children With Attention Deficit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well recognized psychiatric disorder of childhood. Its cause is unknown, but there is evidence of familial predisposition. Symptoms suggestive of the disorder have been reported in patients with generalized resistance to thyroid hormones. (GRTH), a disease ...

  5. Caffeine improves attention deficit in neonatal 6-OHDA lesioned rats, an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Miguel; Núñez, Fabiana; Ahern, Siobhán; Cuffí, Maria L; Carbonell, Lourdes; Sánchez, Silvia; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Ciruela, Francisco

    2011-04-20

    Nowadays the pharmacological treatment of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on amphetamine derivatives (i.e. methylphenidate). However, these drugs induce a large array of adverse side effects, thus less aggressive psychostimulant drugs (i.e. caffeine) are being proposed in the management of ADHD. Following this tendency, we decided to study the possible therapeutic use of caffeine in an animal model of ADHD, namely the neonatal 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat. Therefore, at postnatal day 7 rats were lesioned at the left striatum with 6-OHDA or with saline. Thereafter, at postnatal day 25 their activity and attention were measured with the Olton maze before caffeine was administered ad libitum in the drinking water. Next, after 14 days of caffeine treatment, we repeated these measurements to assess the effect of caffeine on motor activity and attention deficit. Interestingly, while no changes in the motor activity measurements were observed before and after caffeine administration, a significant improvement in the attention deficit of the 6-OHDA lesioned rats was achieved after caffeine treatment. Thus, our results led us to hypothesize that caffeine might be useful to manage the attention deficit during the prepubertal period of ADHD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A chaotic model of sustaining attention problem in attention deficit disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, G.; Jafari, S.; Sprott, J. C.; Towhidkhah, F.; Hashemi Golpayegani, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of keeping an attention level is one of the common symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Dopamine deficiency is introduced as one of the causes of this disorder. Based on some physiological facts about the attention control mechanism and chaos intermittency, a behavioral model is presented in this paper. This model represents the problem of undesired alternation of attention level, and can also suggest different valuable predictions about a possible cause of attention deficit disorder. The proposed model reveals that there is a possible interaction between different neurotransmitters which help the individual to adaptively inhibit the attention switching over time. The result of this study can be used to examine and develop a new practical and more appropriate treatment for the problem of sustaining attention.

  7. Pay Attention!: Sluggish Multisensory Attentional Shifting as a Core Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Margaret B

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a background on the neurocognitive aspects of the reading process and review neuroscientific studies of individuals with developmental dyslexia, which provide evidence for amodal processing deficits. Hari, Renvall, and Tanskanen (2001) propose amodal sluggish attentional shifting (SAS) as a causal factor for temporal processing deficits in dyslexia. Undergirding this theory is the notion that when dyslexics are faced with rapid sequences of stimuli, their automatic attentional systems fail to disengage efficiently, which leads to difficulty when moving from one item to the next (Lallier et al., ). This results in atypical perception of rapid stimulus sequences. Until recently, the SAS theory, particularly the examination of amodal attentional deficits, was studied solely through the use of behavioural measures (Facoetti et al., ; Facoetti, Lorusso, Cattaneo, Galli, & Molteni, ). This paper examines evidence within the literature that provides a basis for further exploration of amodal SAS as an underlying deficit in developmental dyslexia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Sex differences in attentional performance and their modulation by methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Thomas; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2010-06-01

    Still little is known about neuropsychological differences between boys and girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and whether there are sex-specific differences in the modulation of attentional performance by methylphenidate (MPH). In this study, 27 males and 27 females between 8-12 years old and with ADHD were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on five computerized attention tests (0.25 vs. 0.5 mg/kg MPH as a single dose, versus placebo). Boys and girls with ADHD did not differ with respect to age, intelligence quotient (IQ), symptom severity, co-morbidity patterns, and ADHD subtype. However, ADHD boys were more impulsive on a sustained attention task, whereas girls with ADHD had more deficits on tasks measuring selective attention. Attentional performance increased differentially as a function of MPH dose, with some tasks showing linear improvement with higher dosage whereas more complex tasks in particular showed inverse U-shaped patterns of MPH effects. However, these effects were comparable between girls and boys. Our data suggest that there are some gender differences in attentional performance in subjects with ADHD in a clinical sample, even if symptom severity and co-morbidity are controlled; however, modulation of attention by MPH does not seem to differ between sexes.

  9. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention Seeking? Ways of Distinguishing Two Common Childhood Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Nigel Mellor recently retired from his work with the educational psychology service in North Tyneside. In this article, he proposes that attention-seeking behaviour may lead to major difficulties at home and school and indicates the ways in which recent research is beginning to clarify the area. Attention deficit disorders also cause great…

  10. Sustained attention and executive functioning performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Polderman, T.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further refine the cognitive phenotype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with respect to the ability to sustain attention and executive functioning. Participants were 34 boys with ADHD (combined type) and 28 normal controls. The groups were closely

  11. Sustained attention and executive functioning performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Swaab, H.J.T.; Verhulst, F.C.; Polderman, T.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further refine the cognitive phenotype of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with respect to the ability to sustain attention and executive functioning. Participants were 34 boys with ADHD (combined type) and 28 normal controls. The groups were closely

  12. Sustained attention and executive functioning performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.J.T.; Verhulst, F.C.; Polderman, J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further refine the cognitive phenotype of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with respect to the ability to sustain attention and executive functioning. Participants were 34 boys with ADHD (combined type) and 28 normal controls. The groups were closely

  13. Pharmacologic behavior management of pediatric dental patients diagnosed with attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerins, Carolyn A; McWhorter, Alton G; Seale, N Sue

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey of Texas pediatric dentists to determine: (1) the percentage of patients they treat with attention deficit disorder (ADD)/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); (2) the behavior management techniques that are utilized to treat their patients who suffer from ADD/ADHD; and (3) the relative success rates of these techniques in their practices. A 17-question, single-answer, multiple choice survey was mailed to 343 Texas pediatric dentists. The mailing list was obtained from American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry and Texas Academy of Pediatric Dentistry member rosters. One mailing was sent, including a self-addressed stomped envelope, for returned responses. A 54% response rate (186 surveys) revealed that nitrous oxide was the most frequently used pharmacologic behavior management technique; however, demerol/promethazine/nitrous oxide was rated as effective most often for treating ADD/ADHD patients. Practitioners believe the incidence of attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is increasing, and they are familiar with the medications used to treat the conditions. Texas pediatric dentists are using a variety of sedation techniques and are interested in developing guidelines for sedation of these patients.

  14. INCLEN diagnostic tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (INDT-ADHD): development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sharmila; Aneja, Satinder; Russell, Paul S S; Gulati, Sheffali; Deshmukh, Vaishali; Sagar, Rajesh; Silberberg, Donald; Bhutani, Vinod K; Pinto, Jennifer M; Durkin, Maureen; Pandey, Ravindra M; Nair, M K C; Arora, Narendra K

    2014-06-01

    To develop and validate INCLEN Diagnostic Tool for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (INDT-ADHD). Diagnostic test evaluation by cross sectional design. Tertiary care pediatric centers. 156 children aged 65-117 months. After randomization, INDT-ADHD and Connors 3 Parent Rating Scale (C3PS) were administered, followed by an expert evaluation by DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. Psychometric evaluation of diagnostic accuracy, validity (construct, criterion and convergent) and internal consistency. INDT-ADHD had 18 items that quantified symptoms and impairment. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was identified in 57, 87 and 116 children by expert evaluation, INDT-ADHD and C3PS, respectively. Psychometric parameters of INDT-ADHD for differentiating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and normal children were: sensitivity 87.7%, specificity 97.2%, positive predictive value 98.0% and negative predictive value 83.3%, whereas for differentiating from other neuro-developmental disorders were 87.7%, 42.9%, 58.1% and 79.4%, respectively. Internal consistency was 0.91. INDT-ADHD has a 4-factor structure explaining 60.4% of the variance. Convergent validity with Conner's Parents Rating Scale was moderate (r =0.73, P= 0.001). INDT-ADHD is suitable for diagnosing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Indian children between the ages of 6 to 9 years.

  15. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or bipolar disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The attention deficit disorder and the bipolar disorder maintain a complex relation. Indeed, these two syndromes share numerous symptoms that engender numerous diagnostic difficulties. According to several studies, it seems that these two disorders are really different with significant differences at the functional and anatomical level. However, there are common cognitive deficits as well as relatively frequent co-morbidity which is necessary to know in order to adjust the treatment. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  16. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Viviane Freire; Kozasa, Elisa H; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Alves, Tânia Maria; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues; Pompéia, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP), but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL), mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II), before and after intervention. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT) and detectability (CPT II) and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls.

  17. Do neurocognitive deficits in decision making differentiate conduct disorder subtypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A; Kimonis, Eva R; Hadjicharalambous, Maria-Zoe; Steinberg, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to test whether neurocognitive deficits involved in decision making underlie subtypes of conduct-disorder (CD) differentiated on the basis of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Eighty-five participants (M age = 10.94 years) were selected from a sample of 1200 children based on repeated assessment of CD and CU traits. Participants completed a multi-method battery of well-validated measures of risky decision making and associated constructs of selective attention and future orientation (Stroop, Stoplight, and Delay-Discounting Tasks). Findings indicated that impaired decision making, selective attention, and future orientation contribute to the antisocial presentations displayed by children with CD, irrespective of level of CU traits. Youth high on CU traits without CD showed less risky decision making, as indicated by their performance on the Stoplight laboratory task, than those high on both CD and CU traits, suggesting a potential protective factor against the development of antisocial behavior.

  18. Lisdexamfetamine for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Brian J

    2009-04-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of the prodrug lisdexamfetamine for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults and describe its potential place in therapy. Primary literature published between January 1, 1990, and August 1, 2008, was selected from PubMed using the search key words lisdexamfetamine, Vyvanse, and NRP104. References of selected publications were also reviewed. Posters and abstracts of research presented at national meetings were reviewed when available. The product labeling for Vyvanse was also used. Preference was given to published, randomized, and controlled research describing the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of lisdexamfetamine. Noncontrolled studies, postmarketing reports, and poster presentations were considered secondly. All published studies were included. Lisdexamfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine covalently bound to l-lysine, which is activated during first-pass metabolism. The unique pharmacokinetic profile owing to lisdexamfetamine's prodrug design and rate-limited enzymatic biotransformation allows for once-daily dosing with a duration of activity of approximately 12 hours. Lisdexamfetamine has been proven to reduce the symptoms of ADHD both in children aged 6-12 years and adults aged 18-55 years, decreasing ADHD rating scale scores by approximately 27 and 19 points, respectively. Adverse effects with an incidence greater than 10% during preclinical trials included appetite suppression, insomnia, and headache. Lisdexamfetamine's unique pharmacokinetic properties may provide additional safety with regard to reducing abuse potential. As with other central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, concerns regarding sudden cardiac death and adverse effects on growth also apply to lisdexamfetamine. Lisdexamfetamine provides another amphetamine-based CNS stimulant option for treatment of children and adults with ADHD. However, its use may be limited by a

  19. Initial Orientation of Attention towards Emotional Faces in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Ahmadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early recognition of negative emotions is considered to be of vital importance. It seems that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have some difficulties recognizing facial emotional expressions, especially negative ones. This study investigated the preference of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for negative (angry, sad facial expressions compared to normal children.Method: Participants were 35 drug naive boys with ADHD, aged between 6-11 years ,and 31 matched healthy children. Visual orientation data were recorded while participants viewed face pairs (negative-neutral pairs shown for 3000ms. The number of first fixations made to each expression was considered as an index of initial orientation. Results: Group comparisons revealed no difference between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder group and their matched healthy counterparts in initial orientation of attention. A tendency towards negative emotions was found within the normal group, while no difference was observed between initial allocation of attention toward negative and neutral expressions in children with ADHD .Conclusion: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder do not have significant preference for negative facial expressions. In contrast, normal children have a significant preference for negative facial emotions rather than neutral faces.

  20. Disentangling the adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder endophenotype: parametric measurement of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Kathrin; Schwarzkopf, Wolfgang; Müller, Ulrich; Frodl, Thomas; Müller, Hermann J; Schneider, Werner X; Engel, Rolf R; Riedel, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2011-11-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists frequently into adulthood. The decomposition of endophenotypes by means of experimental neuro-cognitive assessment has the potential to improve diagnostic assessment, evaluation of treatment response, and disentanglement of genetic and environmental influences. We assessed four parameters of attentional capacity and selectivity derived from simple psychophysical tasks (verbal report of briefly presented letter displays) and based on a "theory of visual attention." These parameters are mathematically independent, quantitative measures, and previous studies have shown that they are highly sensitive for subtle attention deficits. Potential reductions of attentional capacity, that is, of perceptual processing speed and working memory storage capacity, were assessed with a whole report paradigm. Furthermore, possible pathologies of attentional selectivity, that is, selection of task-relevant information and bias in the spatial distribution of attention, were measured with a partial report paradigm. A group of 30 unmedicated adult ADHD patients and a group of 30 demographically matched healthy controls were tested. ADHD patients showed significant reductions of working memory storage capacity of a moderate to large effect size. Perceptual processing speed, task-based, and spatial selection were unaffected. The results imply a working memory deficit as an important source of behavioral impairments. The theory of visual attention parameter working memory storage capacity might constitute a quantifiable and testable endophenotype of ADHD.

  1. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  2. The origins and consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, and is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This highly prevalent disorder is estimated to affect about 5% of school-age children worldwide, with a substantial degree of persistence over time. Although the specific cause of ADHD is still largely unknown, despite a long history of research, it is believed to involve multip...

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): review for primary care clinicians

    OpenAIRE

    Ougrin, Dennis; Chatterton, Sandie; Banarsee, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Up to 5% of primary school age children have ADHD. Both genes and environment play a role in the aetiology of ADHD. If left untreated, children with ADHD demonstrate a range of poor long-term psychosocial outcomes. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) may be used to screen children for a range of psychiatric disorders, including ADHD.1

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction rehabilitation patients

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ferreira; Dornelles, Tarcísio Fanha; Barszcz, Karin; Martins, Eduardo Antunes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ADHD and drug dependence. Methods The presence and severity of ADHD and substance use were evaluated through questionnaires in 80 adult patients in therapeutic communities. Results No difference in drug use or dependence prevalence between ADHD and non-ADHD patients was found. However, ADHD p...

  5. Motor performance of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    OpenAIRE

    Otipková, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Title: Motor performance of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives: The aim of the work was to determine the level of fine and gross motor skills of upper extremities of the pupils with diagnosis ADHD at schools specialized on these pupils and compare it with the fine and gross motor skills of upper extremities of children without this diagnosis at common elementary school. Further work objective was to determine the level of gross motor skills of lower limbs ...

  6. Cognitive control in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Westerhausen, René; Haavik, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to direct their attention and exert cognitive control in a forced instruction dichotic listening (DL) task. The performance of 29 adults with ADHD was compared with 58......-forced condition), or to focus and report either the right- or left-ear syllable (forced-right and forced-left condition). This procedure is presumed to tap distinct cognitive processes: perception (non-forced condition), orienting of attention (forced-right condition), and cognitive control (forced-left condition......). Adults with ADHD did not show significant impairment in the conditions tapping perception and attention orientation, but were significantly impaired in their ability to report the left-ear syllable during the forced-left instruction condition, whereas the control group showed the expected left...

  7. Divided attention deficits in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S; Fantie, B; Straus, S F; Grafman, J

    2001-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients and controls were compared on a variety of mood state, personality, and neuropsychological measures, including memory, word finding, and attentional tasks that required participants to focus, sustain, or divide their attention, or to perform a combination of these functions. CFS patients demonstrated a selective deficit on 3 measures of divided attention. Their performance on the other neuropsychological tests of intelligence, fluency, and memory was no different than that of normal controls despite their reports of generally diminished cognitive capacity. There was an inverse relation between CFS patient fatigue severity and performance on 1 of the divided attention measures. Given these findings, it is probable that CFS patients will report more cognitive difficulties in real-life situations that cause them to divide their effort or rapidly reallocate cognitive resources between 2 response channels (vision and audition).

  8. Effect of Psychostimulants on Distinct Attentional Parameters in Attentional Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER LÓPEZ

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is extensive literature about the effects of stimulants on sustained attention tasks in attentional deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, little is known about the effect of these drugs on other attentional tasks involving different neural systems. In this study we measured the effect of stimulants on ADHD children, both in the electroencephalographic (EEG activity during sustained attentional tasks and in psychometric performance during selective attentional tasks. These tasks are known to rely on different cortical networks. Our results in children medicated with 10 mg of d-amphetamine administered 60 min before the study indicate (i a significant increase in amplitude but not latency of the P300 component of the event-related potential (ERP during the sustained attentional task and (ii a significant improvement in the reaction times and correct responses in the selective attentional task. In addition to supporting the use of stimulants in children with attentional deficit/hyperactivity disorder, these results show a multifocal activity improvement of cortical structures linked to dopamine, and interestingly, to attention. All these analyses are framed in a wider study of diverse attentional functions in this syndrome.

  9. The effect of methylphenidate on sustained attention among adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufi, Dubi; Bassin-Savion, Shiry; Rubel, Lilach

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-seven adolescents diagnosed as having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were tested twice with a computerized MATH-CPT (mathematics continuous performance test). In one administration, the participants took medication (methylphenidate, MPH) 1.5 hr before being tested. In another administration, the MATH-CPT was administered without the medication. Treatment with MPH improved the "overall attention level" and in measures of "reaction time" and "impulsivity." MPH did not improve the performance in the four measures of sustained attention. Knowing that treatment with MPH does not improve sustained attention can be helpful in reaching a decision of whether or not a child should be treated with MPH.

  10. [Nutritional aspects of attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, J; Rodríguez-Quirós, J; Correas-Lauffer, J; Pérez-Templado, J

    Attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) has received in the past years a lot of attention from the paediatrician's specialties. Even though the studies of its etiopathology have advanced, mainly the ones related with genetics and neuroimaging, the final cause today is still unclear. It has been related to many factors such as diet, like some allergies to additives, toxicity to heavy metals and other toxic substances from the environment, due to low protein diets with a high carbohydrate content, unbalanced minerals, essential fatty acids and phospholipid deficit, amino acid deficits, thyroid disorders, and vitamin B complex disorders and phytochemicals. The way our lifestyle has changed in general and the diet in particular nowadays is being considered as a hypothesis for many disorders and health problems, but what about ADHD? One of the changes that we want to emphasize is related to vegetable fat and oils that dominate human consumption and the reduction income of fatty acids from the omega-3 family, including alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid. The fact is even worse when the amount of omega-6 increases and the ratio between both changes. It is a fact that these kinds of nutrients play an important role in the nervous system development. In this paper the essential fatty acids in neuropsychiatric disorders in general, ADHD in particular, is reviewed.

  11. [Textual pragmatics in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: argument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Paúls, B; Gimeno-Martínez, M; Moreno-Campos, V

    2010-03-03

    Clinical linguistics involves a study of linguistic deficits which focuses on a series of aspects that range from strictly formal, grammatical points to the effective and contextualised use of language. Thus, it is also inevitably concerned with the cognitive, i.e. mental, correlate of such language use, whose basic textual dimensions are narration and argument. To describe the argumentative skills in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine their relationship with academic achievement and sociability. We analysed 79 argumentative texts written by adolescents with ADHD, using a methodology from cognitive linguistics and from theories of argumentation with a dialogical foundation. Adolescents with ADHD provided a greater number of arguments than those in the control group, but with a higher predominance of emotional and negative sanction strategies compared with a greater use of fallacious or circular arguments in those in the control group; the difference between the use of rational arguments in the two groups is not significant.

  12. The Dance of Attention: Toward an Aesthetic Dimension of Attention-Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kasper

    2018-03-01

    What role does the aesthetics of bodily movement play in the understanding of attention among children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? This article animates a phenomenological approach to attention and embodiment with a special focus on the relation between aesthetic or expressive bodily movement and behavioral awareness in children diagnosed with ADHD. However, beyond this it is argued that the aesthetic aspect of movement calls for an expansion of the phenomenological perspective. In this context Gilles Deleuze's notion of aesthetics as a "science of the sensible" is activated and discussed in relation to the phenomenological concept of perception. Empirically the article takes point of departure in a qualitative study conducted with a group of children with attention-deficit practicing the Afro-Brazilian marital art, capoeira. Combining ethnographic and phenomenological methods, it is demonstrated that capoeira can be considered a form of aesthetic movement that offers a transition of attention-deficit into a productive force of expression that changes the notions of sensation and movement in ADHD.

  13. Attention profiles in autism spectrum disorder and subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxhoorn, Sara; Lopez, Eva; Schmidt, Catharina; Schulze, Diana; Hänig, Susann; Freitag, Christine M

    2018-03-06

    Attention problems are observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Most neuropsychological studies that compared both disorders focused on complex executive functions (EF), but missed to contrast basic attention functions, as well as ASD- and ADHD subtypes. The present study compared EF as well as basic attention functioning of children with the combined subtype (ADHD-C), the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-I), and autism spectrum disorder without ADHD (ASD-) with typically developing controls (TD). Basic attention functions and EF profiles were analysed by testing the comprehensive attention function model of van Zomeren and Brouwer using profile analysis. Additionally, neurocognitive impairments in ASD- and ADHD were regressed on dimensional measures of attention- and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms across and within groups. ADHD-C revealed a strong impairment across measures of EF compared to ASD- and TD. The ADHD-C profile furthermore showed disorder specific impairments in interference control, whereas the ASD- profile showed a disorder specific impairment in basic attention component divided attention. Attention- and hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity did not predict neurocognitive impairments across- or within groups. Study findings thus support disorder and subtype specific attention/EF profiles, which refute the idea of a continuum of ADHD-I, ADHD-C, and ASD with increasing neurocognitive impairments.

  14. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  15. QUANTITATIVE EEG COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD AND ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen D. Dimitrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a mental developmental disorder, manifested in the early childhood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is another psychiatric condition of the neurodevelopmental type. Both disorders affect information processing in the nervous system, altering the mechanisms which control how neurons and their synapses are connected and organized. Purpose: To examine if quantitative EEG assessment is sensitive and simple enough to differentiate autism from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and neurologically typical children. Material and methods: Quantitative EEG is a type of electrophysiological assessment that uses computerized mathematical analysis to convert the raw waveform data into different frequency ranges. Each frequency range is averaged across a sample of data and quantified into mean amplitude (voltage in microvolts mV. We performed quantitative EEG analysis and compared 4 cohorts of children (aged from 3 to 7 years: with autism (high [n=27] and low [n=52] functioning, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [n=34], and with typical behavior [n75]. Results: Our preliminary results show that there are significant qEEG differences between the groups of patients and the control cohort. The changes affect the potential levels of delta-, theta-, alpha-, and beta- frequency spectrums. Conclusion: The present study shows some significant quantitative EEG findings in autistic patients. This is a step forward in our efforts, aimed at defining specific neurophysiologic changes, in order to develop and refine strategies for early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders, differentiation from other development conditions in childhood, detection of specific biomarkers and early initiation of treatment.

  16. Predictive Validity of Attentional Functions in Differentiating Children with and without ADHD: A Componential Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Liane; Zieren, Nikola; Zotter, Sibylle; Karall, Daniela; Scholl-Burgi, Sabine; Haberlandt, Edda; Fimm, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate which attentional components are of predictive utility in differentiating children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-C) from their peers without ADHD. Methods: Thirty-four children participated in the study: 17 males with ADHD-C (mean age 10y 4mo, SD 1y 9mo) and…

  17. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Menezes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8 and control (CG, N = 10 groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  18. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Attentional Selection and Suppression in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Encong; Sun, Li; Sun, Meirong; Huang, Jing; Tao, Ye; Zhao, Xixi; Wu, Zhanliang; Ding, Yulong; Newman, Daniel P; Bellgrove, Mark A; Wang, Yufeng; Song, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with prominent impairments in directing and sustaining attention. The aim of this study was to identify the neurophysiologic bases of attention deficits in ADHD, focusing on electroencephalography markers of attentional selection (posterior contralateral N2 [N2pc]) and suppression (distractor positivity [P D ]). The electroencephalography data were collected from 135 children 9-15 years old with and without ADHD while they searched for a shape target in either the absence (experiment 1) or the presence (experiment 2) of a salient but irrelevant color distractor. In experiment 1, the shape target elicited a smaller N2pc in children with ADHD (n = 38) compared with typically developing children (n = 36). The smaller N2pc amplitude predicted higher levels of inattentive symptoms in children with ADHD. Moreover, the target-elicited N2pc was followed by a positivity in typically developing children but not in children with ADHD. In experiment 2, the salient but irrelevant color distractor elicited a smaller P D component in children with ADHD (n = 32) compared with typically developing children (n = 29). The smaller P D predicted higher inattentive symptom severity as well as lower behavioral accuracy in children with ADHD. The correlation between N2pc/P D amplitudes and ADHD symptom severity suggests that these signals of attentional selection and suppression may serve as potential candidates for neurophysiologic markers of ADHD. Our findings provide a neurophysiologic basis for the subjective reports of attention deficits in children with ADHD and highlight the importance of spatial attention impairments in ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective attentional deficit in essential tremor: Evidence from the attention network test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletti, Caterina; Mannarelli, Daniela; De Lucia, Maria Caterina; Locuratolo, Nicoletta; Currà, Antonio; Missori, Paolo; Marinelli, Lucio; Fattapposta, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    The traditional view of essential tremor (ET) as a monosymptomatic and benign disorder has been reconsidered after patients with ET have been shown to experience cognitive deficits that are also related to attention. The Attention Network Test (ANT) is a rapid, widely used test to measure the efficiency of three attentional networks, i.e. alerting, orienting and executive, by evaluating reaction times (RTs) in response to visual stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate attentional functioning in ET patients by means of the ANT. 21 non-demented patients with ET and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls performed the ANT. RT was significantly longer in ET patients than in controls (p attention in ET patients, probably owing to a dysfunction in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical loop. These selective attentional deficits are not related to clinical motor symptoms, contributing to shed further light on the clinical picture of ET. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional imaging of neurocognitive dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, I.; Tost, H.; Ruf, M.; Ende, G.

    2005-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder of early childhood onset. Defining symptoms are chronic impairments of attention, impulse control and motor hyperactivity that frequently persist until adulthood. Miscellaneous causes of the disorder have been discussed. Accumulating evidence from imaging- and molecular genetic studies strengthened the theory of ADHS being a predominantly inherited disorder of neurobiological origin. In the last 15 years, non-invasive brain imaging methods were successfully implemented in pediatric research. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies gave major insight into the neurobiological correlates of executive malfunction, inhibitory deficits and psychomotoric soft signs. These findings are in good accordance with brain morphometric data indicating a significant volumetric decrease of major components of striato-thalamo-cortical feedback loops, primarily influencing prefrontal executive functioning (e.g. basal ganglia). Empirical evidence points to a broad array of associated behavioral disturbances like deficient visuomotor abilities and oculomotor dysfunctions. This paper reviews the current empirical evidence derived from prior imaging studies. Special emphasis is given to the relevance of oculomotor dysfunctions in clinical and research settings, as well as their assessment in the MR environment. (orig.) [de

  2. Socio-emotional intervention in attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Cardoso-Moreno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neuro-behavioural disorder with onset in childhood. These children have impaired emotional self-control, self-regulation of drive and motivation. Numerous studies have reported cognitive disabilities in memory, executive functions, spatial abilities and language skills. The main objective of this work is to determine whether a socio-emotional intervention programme could improve executive functions in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The sample of this study consisted of 25 children (8 female and 17 male aged between 8 and 12 years, diagnosed with ADHD and who were not taking any psychopharmacological treatment at the time of the study, and had not taken medication previously. Executive functioning was assessed through the Zoo Map test and Tower of Hanoi puzzle in pre-/post-test design. A socio-emotional intervention programme was implemented. The training consisted of 8 one-hour weekly sessions, on an individual basis. Results indicate that such a programme does lead to improved performance in the execution of tasks that evaluate executive functions. After the intervention, the children took less time to resolve the Zoo Map test. Results for the Hanoi Tower puzzle were also improved after intervention. The children needed a lower number of movements to complete the task.

  3. Socio-emotional intervention in attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Cardoso-Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neuro-behavioural disorder with onset in childhood. These children have impaired emotional self-control, self-regulation of drive and motivation. Numerous studies have reported cognitive disabilities in memory, executive functions, spatial abilities and language skills. The main objective of this work is to determine whether a socio-emotional intervention programme could improve executive functions in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The sample of this study consisted of 25 children (8 female and 17 male aged between 8 and 12 years, diagnosed with ADHD and who were not taking any psychopharmacological treatment at the time of the study, and had not taken medication previously. Executive functioning was assessed through the Zoo Map test and Tower of Hanoi puzzle in pre-/post-test design. A socio-emotional intervention programme was implemented. The training consisted of 8 one-hour weekly sessions, on an individual basis. Results indicate that such a programme does lead to improved performance in the execution of tasks that evaluate executive functions. After the intervention, the children took less time to resolve the Zoo Map test. Results for the Hanoi Tower puzzle were also improved after intervention. The children needed a lower number of movements to complete the task.

  4. [Executive function training in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Mas, Luis; Ruiz-Andrés, Rosalía; Moreno-Madrid, Francisca; Sirera-Conca, M Angeles; Cornesse, Marcel; Delgado-Mejía, Iván D; Etchepareborda, Máximo C

    2011-03-01

    A number of different treatments have been proposed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet little material has been published in the literature to improve the performance of the mechanisms behind attention, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility and working memory in these children. We think that a working model that is effective in the treatment of persons with ADHD can only be consolidated by means of a thorough understanding of the syndromes involved in this deficit. In addition to reviewing the latest and most significant proposals aimed at improving the cognitive under-standing of the disorder, this work also refers to three neurobiological syndromes that are recognised as forming part of ADHD, i.e. medial cingulate syndrome, dorsolateral syndrome and orbitofrontal syndrome. Advances in neuroscientific research and the design of computerised treatment materials offer extremely valuable data that will undoubtedly help to improve the results of psychopedagogical and neuropsychological interventions in ADHD, since they provide information about the temporal and spatial equation.

  5. Personalized features for attention detection in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Fatemeh; Guan, Cuntai; Wooi Boon Goh; Kai Keng Ang; Choon Guan Lim; Tih Shih Lee

    2017-07-01

    Measuring attention from electroencephalogram (EEG) has found applications in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is of great interest to understand what features in EEG are most representative of attention. Intensive research has been done in the past and it has been proven that frequency band powers and their ratios are effective features in detecting attention. However, there are still unanswered questions, like, what features in EEG are most discriminative between attentive and non-attentive states? Are these features common among all subjects or are they subject-specific and must be optimized for each subject? Using Mutual Information (MI) to perform subject-specific feature selection on a large data set including 120 ADHD children, we found that besides theta beta ratio (TBR) which is commonly used in attention detection and neurofeedback, the relative beta power and theta/(alpha+beta) (TBAR) are also equally significant and informative for attention detection. Interestingly, we found that the relative theta power (which is also commonly used) may not have sufficient discriminative information itself (it is informative only for 3.26% of ADHD children). We have also demonstrated that although these features (relative beta power, TBR and TBAR) are the most important measures to detect attention on average, different subjects have different set of most discriminative features.

  6. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Freire Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP, but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL, mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II, before and after intervention. Results. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT and detectability (CPT II and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. Conclusion. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls.

  7. [Attention characteristics of children with different clinical subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Long; Zhao, Xu; Tan, Jian-Hui; Wang, Juan

    2014-09-01

    To explore the attention characteristics of children with different clinical subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to provide a basis for clinical intervention. A total of 345 children diagnosed with ADHD were selected and the subtypes were identified. Attention assessment was performed by the intermediate visual and auditory continuous performance test at diagnosis, and the visual and auditory attention characteristics were compared between children with different subtypes. A total of 122 normal children were recruited in the control group and their attention characteristics were compared with those of children with ADHD. The scores of full scale attention quotient (AQ) and full scale response control quotient (RCQ) of children with all three subtypes of ADHD were significantly lower than those of normal children (Phyperactive/impulsive subtype (Pattention function of children with ADHD is worse than that of normal children, and the impairment of visual attention function is severer than that of auditory attention function. The degree of functional impairment of visual or auditory attention shows no significant differences between three subtypes of ADHD.

  8. Attentional profiles and white matter correlates in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suzart Ungaretti Rossi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I and 29 matched controls, aged 7 to 15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0 Tesla MRI system. Fractional anisotropy values were obtained for 20 fibre tracts, and brain-behaviour correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability, vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE, processing speed (Hit RT, selective attention (Omissions, sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change, error profile (Response Style and inhibitory control (Perseverations. Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the typically developing participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fibre tracts analysed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average fractional anisotropy values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white-matter structure of the long associative fibres that connect anterior-posterior brain areas.

  9. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, aged 7-15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners' continuous performance test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0-T MRI system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for 20 fiber tracts, and brain-behavior correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing (TD) children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability), vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE), processing speed (Hit RT), selective attention (Omissions), sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change), error profile (Response Style), and inhibitory control (Perseverations). Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the TD participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fiber tracts analyzed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average FA values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white matter structure of the long associative fibers that connect anterior-posterior brain areas.

  10. Training, executive, attention and motor skills (TEAMS) training versus standard treatment for preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibholm, Helle Annette; Pedersen, Jesper; Faltinsen, Erlend

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study compared the effectiveness of manualised training, executive, attention, and motor skills (TEAMS) training versus standard treatment in preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomised parallel group, single...

  11. Attention Contributes to Arithmetic Deficits in New-Onset Childhood Absence Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dazhi; Yan, Xiuxian; Gao, Zhijie; Xu, Keming; Chen, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies indicate that new-onset childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is associated with deficits in attention and executive functioning. However, the contribution of these deficits to impaired academic performance remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether attention and executive functioning deficits account for the academic difficulties prevalent in patients with new-onset CAE. We analyzed cognitive performance in several domains, including language, mathematics, psychomotor speed, spatial ability, memory, general intelligence, attention, and executive functioning, in 35 children with new-onset CAE and 33 control participants. Patients with new-onset CAE exhibited deficits in mathematics, general intelligence, attention, and executive functioning. Furthermore, attention deficits, as measured by a visual tracing task, accounted for impaired arithmetic performance in the new-onset CAE group. Therefore, attention deficits, rather than impaired general intelligence or executive functioning, may be responsible for arithmetic performance deficits in patients with new-onset CAE.

  12. Homeopathy for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or hyperkinetic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, M K; Dean, M E

    2007-10-17

    Homeopathy is one form of complementary/alternative medicine which is promoted as being a safe and effective form of treatment for children and adults. Within the UK homeopathy use is estimated at 1.9% of the adult population (Thomas 2004), and around 11% for children under 16 years (Simpson 2001). There has been increased interest in homeopathy's potential as a non-pharmacological intervention for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as an alternative to the use of stimulant medications such as Ritalin. Homeopathy is a system of medicine based on the principle of treating "like with like" using various dilutions of natural or man-made substances. Homeopathy focuses on the unique characteristics of each patient's experience and symptomatology and uses this information to determine the appropriate prescription for each patient. To assess the safety and effectiveness of homeopathy as a treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We searched a wide set of databases from their inception to March 2006 including: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, AMED, BIOSIS, CISCOM, CINAHL, Dissertation Abstracts, ECH (European Committee for Homeopathy thesis database), EMBASE, ERIC, HomInform (Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital Library), LILACS, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index, SIGLE, GIRI - International congress on ultra-low doses, Liga Medicorum Homeopathica Internationalis. We contacted experts in the field about ongoing or current research. All studies where individualised, clinical or formula homeopathy had been used to treat participants with ADHD or HKD who were randomly or quasi-randomly allocated to either true treatment or a control were selected. Control groups could include wait-list, no treatment, medication, placebo homeopathy, educational or behavioural interventions. Data from four eligible studies (total n = 168) were extracted and entered into RevMan. Results were synthesised and estimates of the effect sizes were calculated and presented as appropriate (using

  13. Psychometric properties of Persian version of the Sustained Auditory Attention Capacity Test in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanparast, Sanaz; Jafari, Zahra; Sameni, Seyed Jalal; Salehi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the Persian version of the Sustained Auditory Attention Capacity Test in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Persian version of the Sustained Auditory Attention Capacity Test was constructed to assess sustained auditory attention using the method provided by Feniman and colleagues (2007). In this test, comments were provided to assess the child's attentional deficit by determining inattention and impulsiveness error, the total scores of the sustained auditory attention capacity test and attention span reduction index. In the present study for determining the validity and reliability of in both Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test and the Persian version of the Sustained Auditory Attention Capacity Test (SAACT), 46 normal children and 41 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD), all right-handed and aged between 7 and 11 of both genders, were evaluated. In determining convergent validity, a negative significant correlation was found between the three parts of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test (first, fifth, and immediate recall) and all indicators of the SAACT except attention span reduction. By comparing the test scores between the normal and ADHD groups, discriminant validity analysis showed significant differences in all indicators of the test except for attention span reduction (pAttention Capacity test has good validity and reliability, that matches other reliable tests, and it can be used for the identification of children with attention deficits and if they suspected to have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

  14. Neuroanatomical and Neuropsychological Correlates of the Cerebellum in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Jesse C.; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Studies of healthy individuals and those with cerebellar damage have implicated the cerebellum in a variety of cognitive and behavioral processes. Decreased cerebellar volume has been found in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and differentially related to behavioral outcomes. The present study investigated…

  15. Gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J

    2010-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is recognized to exist in males and females although the literature supports a higher prevalence in males. However, when girls are diagnosed with ADHD, they are more often diagnosed as predominantly inattentive than boys with ADHD. This article provides a review of gender differences noted across the lifespan. Males and females with ADHD are more similar than different, and generally ADHD profiles are not sex specific. Small gender differences have been found: adolescent girls with ADHD have lower self-efficacy and poorer coping strategies than adolescent boys with ADHD; rates of depression and anxiety may be higher, and physical aggression and other externalizing behaviors lower in girls and women with ADHD. Men with ADHD seem to be incarcerated more often than women with ADHD. However, many studies suffer from small sample sizes, referral biases, differences in diagnostic procedures, and possible rater influences. Treatments are reviewed and discussed with reference to the reported gender differences in functioning and the global deficits noted in all samples. The data available so far suggest that treatments are likely to be equally effective in males and females. However, referral bias is a problem, in that females with ADHD are less likely to be referred for treatment than males with ADHD. Future research should include equal representation of both sexes in samples such that sex by treatment analyses can be routinely conducted. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rosa Neto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with that of typically developing children.Methods:Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls, aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial and temporal organization.Results:Between-group testing revealed statistically significant differences between the ADHD and control groups for all domains. The results also revealed a deficit of nearly two years in the motor development of children with ADHD compared with the normative sample.Conclusion:The current study shows that ADHD is associated with a delay in motor development when compared to typically developing children. The results also suggested difficulties in certain motor areas for those with ADHD. These results may point to plausible mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and motor difficulties.

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: From parents to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-van-Meerbeke, A; Talero-Gutiérrez, C; Zamora-Miramón, I; Guzmán-Ramírez, G M

    2017-04-01

    Multiple studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have recognised a heritability factor in that a higher frequency of the disorder is observed in children with an affected relative. Our aim was to determine the association between ADHD symptoms in young children enrolled in five schools in Bogota and a history of ADHD symptoms in their parents using the Wender-Utah Rating Scale. Case-control study of participants selected according to DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC) completed by parents and teachers; the WISC-IV scale was used to exclude children with cognitive deficit. Parents completed the Wender-Utah Rating Scale to retrospectively identify any ADHD symptoms in childhood. A score of 36 was used as a cutoff point. The study included 202 children: 117 cases and 85 controls. A positive history of ADHD symptoms in childhood was identified for 16% of 175 mothers and 20.6% of 141 fathers. The presence of symptoms in either parent, especially the mother, constitutes a significant risk factor for ADHD in children and this relationship persists after controlling for different variables. If both parents have the disorder, the risk tends to increase. Although ADHD has been linked to a genetic component, other environmental factors may be involved in the disorder. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined by extreme levels of inattention–disorganization and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. In DSM-IV, the diagnostic criteria required impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. With DSM-5 publication imminent in 2013, further evaluation of impairment in ADHD is timely. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on health-related impairments of ADHD, including smoking, drug abuse, accidental injury, sleep, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and suicidal behavior. It concludes by suggesting the need for new avenues of research on mechanisms of association and the potential for ADHD to be an early warning sign for secondary prevention of some poor health outcomes. PMID:23298633

  19. [Clinical and neurophysiological heterogeneity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutko, L S; Yakovenko, E A; Surushkina, S Yu; Anisimova, T I; Kropotov, Yu D

    To determine clinical/neurophysiological characteristics of different forms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the efficacy of treatment with cerebrolysin. Sixty children, aged 9 to 12 years, with ADHD were examined using clinical and electroencephalographic methods. Idiopathic and residual-organic forms were compared. The study shows significantly higher levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity in children with residual-organic form of the disease. There were significant differences in the amplitude component of engaging in action (P3 Go) and the amplitude of the action suppression component (P3 NOGO) in patients with different forms of ADHD. The high clinical efficacy (improvement in 70.0% of patients with idiopathic form of ADHD and 86.7% of patients with residual-organic form of the disease) was found.

  20. Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, H.C.; Henriksen, L.; Bruhn, P.; Borner, H.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that periventricular structures are hypoperfused in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study has expanded the number of patients, who were divided into two groups: six patients with pure ADHD, and 13 patients with ADHD in combination with other neurologic symptoms. By using xenon 133 inhalation and emission tomography, the regional cerebral blood flow distribution was determined and compared with a control group. Striatal regions were found to be hypoperfused and, by inference, hypofunctional in both groups. This hypoperfusion was statistically significant in the right striatum in ADHD, and in both striatal regions in ADHD with other neuropsychologic and neurologic symptoms. The primary sensory and sensorimotor cortical regions were highly perfused. Methylphenidate increased flow to striatal and posterior periventricular regions, and tended to decrease flow to primary sensory regions. Low striatal activity, partially reversible with methylphenidate, appears to be a cardinal feature in ADHD

  1. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...... from rating scales. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The internationally known ADHD rating scale (ADHD-RS) has been translated into Danish and representative norm data from teachers and parents were collected. A total of 1,718 ADHR-RS questionnaires were distributed to 859 anonymous school children, aged 6......-17 years, and a total of 1,477 ADHD-RS questionnaires were returned. Analyses were made on 781 children, 420 boys and 361 girls. RESULTS: The average participation rate was 99.5% for teachers and 72.4% for parents. The factor structure was supported and internal consistency was high. The normative scores...

  2. Associations Between Autoimmune Diseases and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A cohort was formed of all singletons born in Denmark from 1990 to 2007, resulting in a study population of 983,680 individuals followed from 1995 to 2012. Information on autoimmune diseases was obtained from the Danish National Hospital Register......OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that autoimmune diseases and immune activation play a part in the pathogenesis of different neurodevelopmental disorders. This study investigated the association between a personal history and a family history of autoimmune disease and the risk of developing....... Individuals with ADHD were identified through the Danish National Hospital Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. RESULTS: In total, 23,645 children were diagnosed with ADHD during the study period. Autoimmune disease in the individual was associated with an increased risk of ADHD...

  3. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...... of the hippocampus and amygdala in children with ADHD. DESIGN: A cross-sectional case-control study of the hippocampus and amygdala using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. SETTINGS: University research institute. PATIENTS: One hundred fourteen individuals aged 6 to 18 years, 51 with combined-type ADHD and 63...... healthy controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Volumes and measures of surface morphology for the hippocampus and amygdala. RESULTS: The hippocampus was larger bilaterally in the ADHD group than in the control group (t = 3.35; P

  4. Personality assessment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufi, D; Parish-Plass, J

    1995-01-01

    The present research was designed to assess several potentially important factors in the personality structure of a sample of children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) as compared to normal control children. Three questionnaires were administered to a group of 28 ADHD boys and to a control group of 83 boys: (1) The Locus of Control Scale for Children; (2) The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale; and (3) The Persistence Scale for Children. Results showed that the ADHD children had significantly higher external locus of control, were significantly less persistent, and reported an elevated level of "concentration/social worry" (an anxiety subscale). Such findings can help to clarify both the personality structure and the coping styles of the ADHD child.

  5. Internet Addiction and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Yaacov, Yafa; Manning, Michal; Danon, Pinhas; Weizman, Abraham

    2015-12-01

    Use of the internet and videogames by children and adolescents has risen dramatically over the last decade. Increasing evidence of internet and videogame addiction among children is causing concern due to its harmful physical, emotional and social consequences. There is also emerging evidence for an association between computer and videogame addiction and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To investigate the relationship between ADHD and internet addiction. We compared 50 male schoolchildren, mean age 13 years, diagnosed with ADHD to 50 male schoolchildren without ADHD on measures of internet addiction, internet use and sleep patterns. Children with ADHD had higher scores on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), used the internet for longer hours, and went to sleep later than those without ADHD. These findings indicate an association of ADHD, sleep disorders and internet/videogame addiction.

  6. Psychosocial interventions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common reason for referral to child and adolescent psychiatry clinics. Although stimulant medications represent an evidence-based approach to managing ADHD, psychosocial interventions for child/adolescent ADHD target functional impairments as the intervention goal, and rely heavily on behavioral therapy techniques and operant conditioning principles. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for managing pediatric ADHD include behavioral parent training, school-based interventions relying on behavioral modification, teaching skills, and operant conditioning principles, and intensive summer treatment programs. The use of conjoint psychosocial treatments with ADHD medications may enable lower doses of each form of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Salles Neves Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate.

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects children as well as adults and leads to significant impairment in educational, social and occupational functioning and has associated personal and societal costs. Whilst there are effective medications (mostly stimulants) as well as some psychobehavioural treatments that help alleviate symptoms of ADHD, there is still need to improve our understanding of its neurobiology as well as explore other treatment options. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are safe and non-invasive investigative and therapeutic tools respectively. In this short article, I will explore their potential for improving our understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD as well consider its as a possible treatment option.

  9. Ginkgo biloba treating patients with attention-deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Various medications such as clonidine facilitate calming, enhance frustration tolerance and reduce aggression in attention-deficit disorder (ADD) patients. The use of Ginkgo biloba was studied as an herbal alternative. Six psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with ADD were rated at baseline and while taking Ginkgo biloba to determine its efficacy as a treatment for ADD. Comparisons of Wender Utah ratings within subject were used to measure behavioral changes in the subjects. During Ginkgo biloba treatment, the patients' mean scores improved significantly overall and in hyperactivity, inattention, and immaturity factors. This preliminary study indicates that Ginkgo biloba might be a beneficial and useful treatment of ADD, with minimal side effects. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, H.C.; Henriksen, L.; Bruhn, P.; Borner, H.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that periventricular structures are hypoperfused in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study has expanded the number of patients, who were divided into two groups: six patients with pure ADHD, and 13 patients with ADHD in combination with other neurologic symptoms. By using xenon 133 inhalation and emission tomography, the regional cerebral blood flow distribution was determined and compared with a control group. Striatal regions were found to be hypoperfused and, by inference, hypofunctional in both groups. This hypoperfusion was statistically significant in the right striatum in ADHD, and in both striatal regions in ADHD with other neuropsychologic and neurologic symptoms. The primary sensory and sensorimotor cortical regions were highly perfused. Methylphenidate increased flow to striatal and posterior periventricular regions, and tended to decrease flow to primary sensory regions. Low striatal activity, partially reversible with methylphenidate, appears to be a cardinal feature in ADHD.

  11. Attentional Lapses in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Blank Rather Than Wandering Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Driessche, Charlotte; Bastian, Mikaël; Peyre, Hugo; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Éric; Bahadori, Sara; Delorme, Richard; Sackur, Jérôme

    2017-10-01

    People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties sustaining their attention on external tasks. Such attentional lapses have often been characterized as the simple opposite of external sustained attention, but the different types of attentional lapses, and the subjective experiences to which they correspond, remain unspecified. In this study, we showed that unmedicated children (ages 6-12) with ADHD, when probed during a standard go/no-go task, reported more mind blanking (a mental state characterized by the absence of reportable content) than did control participants. This increase in mind blanking happened at the expense of both focused and wandering thoughts. We also found that methylphenidate reverted the level of mind blanking to baseline (i.e., the level of mind blanking reported by control children without ADHD). However, this restoration led to mind wandering more than to focused attention. In a second experiment, we extended these findings to adults who had subclinical ADHD. These results suggest that executive functions impaired in ADHD are required not only to sustain external attention but also to maintain an internal train of thought.

  12. Neurological soft signs are associated with attentional dysfunction in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; D'Agati, Elisa; Casarelli, Livia; Pontis, Marco; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto

    2016-11-01

    Inattention is one of the core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most of patients with ADHD show motor impairment, consisting in the persistence of neurological soft signs (NSS). Our aim was to evaluate attentional and motor functioning in an ADHD sample and healthy children (HC) and possible link between attentional dysfunction and motor impairment in ADHD. Twenty-seven drug-naive patients with ADHD and 23 HC were tested with a test battery, measuring different aspects of attention. Motor evaluation has provided three primary variables: overflow movements (OM), dysrhythmia and total speed of timed activities. Compared to HC, patients were impaired in a considerable number of attentional processes and showed a greater number of NSS. Significant correlations between disturbances of attention and motor abnormalities were observed in ADHD group. Our findings suggest that attentional processes could be involved in the pathophysiology of the NSS and add scientific evidence to the predictive value of NSS as indicators of the severity of functional impairment in ADHD. Given the marked improvement or complete resolution of NSS following treatment with methylphenidate, we suggest that evaluation of NSS is useful to monitor the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment with MPH in ADHD.

  13. ["Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in forensic psychiatry: A review"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, D; Tisserant, I; Notardonato, L

    2017-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and challenging childhood neurobehavioral disorders. ADHD may have behavioral consequences and involvements in minor and serious crimes. Our work aims to establish links between ADHD and forensic psychiatry. A review of international scientific literature concerning the relationship between ADHD and forensic psychiatry was conducted using the PudMed electronic database. We used the Mesh terms: "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" and "forensic psychiatry". We also used the "related articles" function of PubMed, the bibliography of selected articles and the Google Scholar database to identify possible additional papers. The prevalence of ADHD in prison populations may vary but remain higher than those found in the general population. Violence committed by a person with ADHD seems to be against other persons rather than property offences. Reactive-impulsive violence seems to be more prevalent than pro-active instrumental violence. The existence of ADHD does not appear as a risk factor of recidivism. The violence risk may be increased by the occurrence of comorbidities as conduct disorders and mental deficiency. There may exist a preferential association between ADHD and antisocial personality disorder or substance abuse which both increase the risk of violence. To put in perspective forensic psychiatry and ADHD allowed us to identify typology of violence, epidemiological aspect of ADHD in a prison environment and comorbidities involved in the risk of violence. This research permits to precise elements of prevention, diagnosis and assistance in the management of violent behaviour in ADHD and in expert practice. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in children with autistic disorder: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnsil, Chawanun; Sriapai, Payupol

    2011-02-01

    (1) to examine the co-occurrence of attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms in children with autistic disorder, and (2) to study the correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and the severity of autistic disorder. This was a clinical based study. The authors used Childhood Autistic Rating scale (CARs) to evaluate the severity of autistic disorder Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Version IV (SNAP-IV) was used to measure attention deficit and hyperactive symptoms in children with autism. Thirty (n=30) children enrolled in this study. All participants displayed attention deficit symptoms and 18 participants demonstrated hyperactivity as well. Nonparametric correlation showed a high positive correlation (Spa = 0.90, p = 0.00) between the severity of autistic disorder and hyperactivity and not the attention deficit symptoms (Spa = 0.29, p = 0.16). The authors finding shows a high comorbid rate of attention deficit and hyperactive symptoms among the participants.

  16. White matter abnormalities and their impact on attentional performance in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Andreas; Dielentheis, Thomas F; El Masri, Dschamil; Dellani, Paulo R; Stoeter, Peter; Vucurevic, Goran; Winterer, Georg

    2012-06-01

    Inattention is the most important behavioral feature of adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neuroimaging studies in ADHD have demonstrated abnormalities primarily in the frontostriatal circuitry and were mostly conducted in children. We investigated white matter (WM) integrity in adult ADHD patients and the correlation of WM microstructure and neuropsychological parameters in 37 (21 men) never-medicated adult ADHD patients and 34 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent clinical interviews, rating scales, and neuropsychological tests of attentional performance. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was acquired, and 12 WM regions-of-interest (ROIs) within the attentional network were chosen. Group differences of mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated for each ROI, and patients' DTI measures were then correlated with measures of attentional performance. FA values in ADHD patients were significantly reduced in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), while MD values were significantly increased in ADHD patients in the frontal portion of the left frontooccipital fasciculus (IFO). In ADHD patients, MD values were negatively correlated with attentional performance in the left ILF. Our findings provide further support for disturbed frontostriatal structural connectivity and also point to an involvement of the left temporal white matter with an impact on attentional performance.

  17. Sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we advocate the need for better understanding and treatment of children exhibiting inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive behaviors, by in-depth questioning on sleepiness, sleep-disordered breathing or problematic behaviors at bedtime, during the night and upon awakening, as well as night-to-night sleep duration variability. The relationships between sleep and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are complex and are routinely overlooked by practitioners. Motricity and somnolence, the most consistent complaints and objectively measured sleep problems in children with ADHD, may develop as a consequence of multidirectional and multifactorial pathways. Therefore, subjectively perceived or reported restless sleep should be evaluated with specific attention to restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder, and awakenings should be queried with regard to parasomnias, dyssomnias and sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep hygiene logs detailing sleep onset and offset quantitatively, as well as qualitatively, are required. More studies in children with ADHD are needed to reveal the 24-h phenotype, or its sleep comorbidities. PMID:21469929

  18. Decreased Callosal Thickness in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Phillips, Owen R.; Thompson, Paul M.; Valle, Jessica S.; Del'Homme, Melissa; Strickland, Tony; McCracken, James T.; Toga, Arthur W.; Levitt, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed structural abnormalities in the brains of affected individuals. One of the most replicated alterations is a significantly smaller corpus callosum (CC), for which conflicting reports exist with respect to the affected callosal segments. Methods We applied novel surface-based geometrical modeling methods to establish the presence, direction, and exact location of callosal alterations in ADHD at high spatial resolution. For this purpose, we calculated the thickness of the CC at 100 equidistant midsagittal points in an age-matched male sample of 19 individuals with ADHD and 19 typically developing control subjects. Results In close agreement with many prior observations, the CC was shown to be significantly thinner in ADHD subjects in anterior and, particularly, posterior callosal sections. Covarying for intelligence did not significantly alter the observed ADHD effects. However, group differences were no longer present in anterior sections when covarying for brain volume and after excluding ADHD subjects comorbid for oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusions Decreased callosal thickness may be associated with fewer fibers or a decrease in the myelination of fibers connecting the parietal and prefrontal cortices. This might affect interhemispheric communication channels that are necessary to sustain attention or motor control, thus contributing to symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, or inattention, observed in ADHD. Future studies are necessary to determine whether callosal abnormalities reflect maturational delays or persist into adulthood. PMID:18842255

  19. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugent K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kevin Nugent,1 Wallace Smart2,3 1Kinark Child and Family Services, Trent University and Sir Sanford Fleming College, Peterborough, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 3University of Lethbridge Health Centre, Lethbridge, AB, Canada Abstract: A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determine the prevalence and symptomatology of ADHD in postsecondary students, to examine its effects on academic achievement, and discuss appropriate management. The prevalence of ADHD symptoms among postsecondary students ranges from 2% to 12%. Students with ADHD have lower grade point averages and are more likely to withdraw from courses, to indulge in risky behaviors, and to have other psychiatric comorbidities than their non-ADHD peers. Ensuring that students with ADHD receive appropriate support requires documented evidence of impairment to academic and day-to-day functioning. In adults with ADHD, stimulants improve concentration and attention, although improved academic productivity remains to be demonstrated. ADHD negatively impacts academic performance in students and increases the likelihood of drug and alcohol problems. Affected students may therefore benefit from disability support services, academic accommodations, and pharmacological treatment. Keywords: adults, academic performance, stimulants, treatment

  20. Hyperfocusing as a dimension of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel-Kizil, Erguvan Tugba; Kokurcan, Ahmet; Aksoy, Umut Mert; Kanat, Bilgen Bicer; Sakarya, Direnc; Bastug, Gulbahar; Colak, Burcin; Altunoz, Umut; Kirici, Sevinc; Demirbas, Hatice; Oncu, Bedriye

    2016-12-01

    Patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suffer not only from inability to focus but also from inability to shift attention for events that trigger their interests. This phenomenon is called "hyperfocusing". Previous literature about hyperfocusing is scarce and relies mainly on case reports. The study aimed to investigate and compare the severity of hyperfocusing in adult ADHD with and without psycho-stimulant use. ADHD (DSM-IV-TR) patients either psycho-stimulant naive (n=53) or on psycho-stimulants (n=79) from two ADHD clinics were recruited. The control group (n=65) consisted of healthy university students. A socio-demographic form, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Wender-Utah Rating Scale, the Adult ADHD Self- Report Scale and the Hyperfocusing Scale were applied to the participants. There was no difference between total Hyperfocusing Scale and Adult ADHD Self- Report Scale scores of two patient groups, but both have higher scores than controls (pADHD and there was no difference between stimulant-naive patients or patients on stimulants. Hyperfocusing can be defined as a separate dimension of adult ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Driving behaviour in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J; van Loon, Editha; Daley, David; Chapman, Peter; Hollis, Chris

    2015-07-28

    Little is known about the impact of cognitive impairments on driving in adults with ADHD. The present study compared the performance of adults with and without ADHD in a driving simulator on two different routes: an urban route which we hypothesised would exacerbate weak impulse control in ADHD and a motorway route, to challenge deficits in sustained attention. Adults with (n = 22, 16 males) and without (n = 21, 18 males) ADHD completed a simulated driving session while eye movement data were recorded simultaneously. Participants also completed the Manchester Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Measures of driving performance included average speed, proportion distance travelled over speed limit (speeding) and lane deviation. These variables and the eye movement measures (spread of fixations, mean fixation duration) were compared between groups and routes. Also, driving behaviours, including responses to programmed events, were categorised and the frequencies within categories were compared between groups. Finally, speech analysis was performed to compare emotional verbal expressions during driving between groups. ADHD participants reported significantly more Violations and Lapses on the DBQ than control participants and significantly more accidents. Average speed and speeding were also higher but did not interact with route type. ADHD participants showed poorer vehicle control, greater levels of frustration with other road users (including greater frequencies of negative comments) and a trend for less safe driving when changing lanes/overtaking on the motorway. These effects were predicted by hyperactive/impulsive CAARS scores. They were also more likely to cause a crash/near miss when an event occurred on the urban route. The results suggest that difficulty regulating and controlling impulsive behavior, reflected in speeding, frustration with other road users, less safety when changing lanes on the

  2. Review of literature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with comorbid eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar,Bruno Palazzo; Pinna,Camilla Moreira de Sousa; Coutinho,Gabriel; Segenreich,Daniel; Duchesne,Monica; Appolinario,José Carlos; Mattos,Paulo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: According to studies of prevalence, up to 70% of adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder have at least one psychiatric comorbidity, which leads to diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties as well as more severe functional impairment. There is a paucity of data on the comorbidity of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders. The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder/eating disorders...

  3. No objectively measured sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, Catharina E; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to gain more insight into sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, using objective measures of sleep quality and quantity. The evidence for sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder thus far is inconsistent, which might be explained by confounding influences of comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems and low socio-economic status. We therefore investigated the mediating and moderating role of these factors in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep problems. To control for the effects of stimulant medication use, all participants were tested free of medication. Sixty-three children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 61 typically developing children, aged 6-13 years, participated. Sleep was monitored for one to three school nights using actigraphy. Parent and teacher questionnaires assessed symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behaviour, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Results showed no differences between the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing group in any sleep parameter. Within the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was not related to sleep quality or quantity. Moderation analyses in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group showed an interaction effect between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and internalizing and externalizing behaviour on total sleep time, time in bed and average sleep bout duration. The results of our study suggest that having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not a risk factor for sleep problems. Internalizing and externalizing behaviour moderate the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep, indicating a complex interplay between psychiatric symptoms and sleep.

  4. Impulsive behavior in adults with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: characterization of attentional, motor and cognitive impulsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy-Diniz, L; Fuentes, D; Leite, W Borges; Correa, H; Bechara, A

    2007-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Impulsivity persists in adults with ADHD and might be the basis of much of the impairment observed in the daily lives of such individuals. The objective of this study was to address the presence, and more importantly, the three dimensions of impulsivity: attentional, non-planning and motor, in how they may relate to neuropsychological mechanisms of impulse control. We studied a sample of 50 adults with ADHD and 51 healthy comparison controls using the Barratt Impulsivity Scale Version 11 (BIS), and neuropsychological tasks, namely the Continuous Performance Task (CPT-II) and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The ADHD group showed more signs of impulsivity on the three dimensions of BIS, committed more errors of omission and commission on the CPT-II, and made more disadvantageous choices on the IGT. These results support the existence of deficits related to three components of impulsivity: motor, cognitive, and attentional among adults with ADHD. Most importantly, this study also highlights the complementary nature of self-report questionnaires and neuropsychological tasks in the assessment of impulsivity in ADHD adults.

  5. Connectomic disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a whole-brain tractography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Zalesky, Andrew; Fornito, Alex; Park, Subin; Yang, Young-Hui; Park, Min-Hyeon; Song, In-Chan; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Kim, Jae-Won

    2014-10-15

    Few studies have sought to identify, in a regionally unbiased way, the precise cortical and subcortical regions that are affected by white matter abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to derive a comprehensive, whole-brain characterization of connectomic disturbances in ADHD. Using diffusion tensor imaging, whole-brain tractography, and an imaging connectomics approach, we characterized altered white matter connectivity in 71 children and adolescents with ADHD compared with 26 healthy control subjects. White matter differences were further delineated between patients with (n = 40) and without (n = 26) the predominantly hyperactive/impulsive subtype of ADHD. A significant network comprising 25 distinct fiber bundles linking 23 different brain regions spanning frontal, striatal, and cerebellar brain regions showed altered white matter structure in ADHD patients (p attentional disturbances. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtypes were differentiated by a right-lateralized network (p attentional performance underscore the functional importance of these connectomic disturbances for the clinical phenotype of ADHD. A distributed pattern of white matter microstructural integrity separately involving frontal, striatal, and cerebellar brain regions, rather than direct frontostriatal connectivity, appears to be disrupted in children and adolescents with ADHD. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychiatric comorbidities of adults with early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the psychiatric comorbidities in adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a function of recalled symptom onset before and after the age of 7 years and whether the childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were associated with psychiatric comorbidities. In all, 214 adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 174 non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls (aged 17-40 years) received psychiatric interviews to confirm their previous and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder status and other psychiatric diagnoses. Demographics and risks of lifetime psychiatric disorders were compared among three groups: (1) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset between 7 and 12 years (late-onset) and (3) non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls. We also tested the effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms on the risk of later psychiatric comorbidities by Cox regression analyses. Regardless of the age of onset, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. There were similar comorbid patterns between early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, increased severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was associated with higher risks of oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, dysthymia and sleep disorder but not major depression, which was associated with the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Our findings suggest that elevating the threshold of age of onset to 12 years in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition would not

  7. Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…

  8. Attention and memory deficits in breast cancer survivors: implications for nursing practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jennifer Sandson; Vance, David E; Jukkala, Angela; Meneses, Karen M

    2014-10-01

    Breast cancer survivors (BCSs) commonly report deficits in attention and memory, cognitive functions crucial for daily optimal functioning. Perceived deficits are reported before, during, and after adjuvant therapy and affect quality of life throughout survivorship. Deficits of attention and memory are particularly disruptive for BCSs working or attending school who report that subtle impairment diminishes their confidence and their performance at all levels of occupation. Chemotherapy and endocrine therapy contribute to attention and memory deficits, but research findings have not fully established the extent or timing of that influence. Fortunately, potential interventions for attention and memory deficits in BCSs are promising. These include cognitive remediation therapies aimed at training for specific areas of deficit, cognitive behavioral therapies aimed at developing compensatory strategies for areas of deficit, complementary therapies, and pharmacologic therapies.

  9. A brain-computer interface based attention training program for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Guan Lim

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms can be difficult to treat. We previously reported that a 20-session brain-computer interface (BCI attention training programme improved ADHD symptoms. Here, we investigated a new more intensive BCI-based attention training game system on 20 unmedicated ADHD children (16 males, 4 females with significant inattentive symptoms (combined and inattentive ADHD subtypes. This new system monitored attention through a head band with dry EEG sensors, which was used to drive a feed forward game. The system was calibrated for each user by measuring the EEG parameters during a Stroop task. Treatment consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 sessions followed by 3 once-monthly booster training sessions. Following intervention, both parent-rated inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms on the ADHD Rating Scale showed significant improvement. At week 8, the mean improvement was -4.6 (5.9 and -4.7 (5.6 respectively for inattentive symptoms and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms (both p<0.01. Cohen's d effect size for inattentive symptoms was large at 0.78 at week 8 and 0.84 at week 24 (post-boosters. Further analysis showed that the change in the EEG based BCI ADHD severity measure correlated with the change ADHD Rating Scale scores. The BCI-based attention training game system is a potential new treatment for ADHD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01344044.

  10. Motor Performance in Relation with Sustained Attention in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Solouki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present study compares relationship between motor performance, sustained attention and impulse control in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and normal children. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, 21 boys with ADHD and 21 normal boys in the age range of 7- 10 years old were participated. Motor performance by using Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and sustained attention and impulse control by using Continuous Performance Test were evaluated. Results: Analysis by T-Test and Mann-Whitney revealed significant difference between ADHD group and normal group in gross, fine and battery motor performance also sustained attention and impulse control (P<0.0001. Analysis by Z-Fisher test indicated no significant difference between Correlation Coefficient of inattention and gross motor performance in two groups (P=0.276 but significant difference between Correlation Coefficient of inattention and fine (P<0.0001 and battery (P<0.0001 motor performance were shown. Correlation Coefficient impulsivity and gross (P=0.379, fine (P=0.92 and battery (P=0.562 motor performance shown no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: According to study results there was a positive relation between sustained attention and impulse control and most of motor performance in both groups. Therefore these findings help Occupational Therapist to determine rehabilitation priorities and to use exact strategies in order to enhance motor performance in children.

  11. [Autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: similarities and differences in executive functioning and theory of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Casas, Ana; Baixauli-Fortea, Immaculada; Colomer-Diago, Carla; Roselló-Miranda, Belén

    2013-09-06

    Although the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria do not overlap, the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in individuals with a clinical diagnosis of autism is quite high. At the same time, children with ADHD can have autistic traits, the most prevalent being social and communication difficulties. The analysis of the combination of executive functions and theory of mind (ToM) deficits could help to explain the overlap and differentiation between the two disorders. To review the findings of empirical studies in which children with ADHD and autism have been compared on indicators of executive functions and ToM. The literature review suggests the existence of distinct patterns in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and ADHD when the executive functioning is segmented by components. Children with ADHD experience deficits in inhibitory control, while children with ASD have problems with cognitive flexibility and planning. Regarding the domain of the mentalist skills, there are developmental differences, as well as differences in their severity. Younger children with ASD have greater deficiencies in the ToM compared to children with ADHD, and a primary deficit in social orientation. Although important progress has been made, some issues remain to be clarified, among which we can highlight the analysis of how ToM development affects poor executive functions development, using longitudinal studies that analyze the developmental paths of children with ASD and children with ADHD.

  12. Sleep, attention, and executive functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Vincent; Rouleau, Nancie; Morin, Charles M

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential relationships between two measures of sleep impairments (i.e., sleep duration and sleep efficiency [SE]) and attention and executive functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents of 43 children (mean age = 10 ± 1.8 years) with ADHD completed sleep and behavioral questionnaires. Children also wore a wrist actigraph for seven nights and were subsequently assessed with the Conners' continuous performance test (CPT)-2. A significant relationship was found between lower SE and increased variability in reaction time on the CPT. Shorter sleep duration was associated with a range of executive functioning problems as reported by the parents. The relationships between sleep duration and the executive functioning measures held even after controlling for age, gender, and use of medication, but not the relationships with SE. These results suggest that sleep quantity is an important correlate of executive functioning in children with ADHD.

  13. Attentional control activation relates to working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Gregory C; Depue, Brendan E; Ruzic, Luka; Willcutt, Erik G; Du, Yiping P; Banich, Marie T

    2010-04-01

    Attentional control difficulties in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might reflect poor working memory (WM) ability, especially because WM ability and attentional control rely on similar brain regions. The current study examined whether WM ability might explain group differences in brain activation between adults with ADHD and normal control subjects during attentional demand. Participants were 20 adults with ADHD combined subtype with no comorbid psychiatric or learning disorders and 23 control subjects similar in age, IQ, and gender. The WM measures were obtained from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Brain activation was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a Color-Word Stroop task. Group differences in WM ability explained a portion of the activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which has been related to the creation and maintenance of an attentional set for task-relevant information. In addition, greater WM ability predicted increased activation of brain regions related to stimulus-driven attention and response selection processes in the ADHD group but not in the control group. The inability to maintain an appropriate task set in young adults with combined type ADHD, associated with decreased activity in left DLPFC, might in part be due to poor WM ability. Furthermore, in individuals with ADHD, higher WM ability might relate to increased recruitment of stimulus-driven attention and response selection processes, perhaps as a compensatory strategy. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Social skills training for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria; Damm, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children is associated with hyperactivity and impulsitivity, attention problems, and difficulties with social interactions. Pharmacological treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social...

  15. Functional disconnection of frontal cortex and visual cortex in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazaheri, A.; Coffey-Corina, S.; Mangun, G.R.; Bekker, E.M.; Berry, A.S.; Corbett, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current pathophysiologic models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that impaired functional connectivity within brain attention networks may contribute to the disorder. In this electroencephalographic (EEG) study, we analyzed cross-frequency amplitude correlations

  16. Identifying potentially marker symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor B. Arias

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background For the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 proposes that adherence to six symptoms in either group (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity will lead to the diagnosis of one of three presentations of the disorder. Underlying this diagnostic algorithm is the assumption that the 18 symptoms have equal relevance for the diagnosis of ADHD, all are equally severe, and all have the same power to detect the presence of the disorder in all its degrees of severity, without considering the possibility of using marker symptoms. However, several studies have suggested that ADHD symptoms differ in both their power to discriminate the presence of the disorder and the degree of severity they represent. The aim of the present study was to replicate the results of previous research by evaluating the discriminative capacity and relative severity of ADHD symptoms, as well as to extend the investigation of this topic to Spanish-speaking Latin American samples. Methods The properties of ADHD symptoms rated by the parents of 474 Chilean children were analyzed. Symptom parameters were estimated using the graded response model. Results The results suggest that symptoms of ADHD differ substantially in both the accuracy with which they reflect the presence of the disorder, and their relative severity. Symptoms “easily distracted by extraneous stimuli” and “have difficulty sustaining attention in tasks” (inattention and “is on the go, acting as if driven by motor” (hyperactivity/impulsivity were the most informative, and those with relatively lower severity thresholds. Discussion The fact that symptoms differ substantially in the probability of being observed conditionally to the trait level suggests the need to refine the diagnostic process by weighting the severity of the symptom, and even to assess the possibility of defining ADHD marker symptoms, as has

  17. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Tessari, Luca

    2017-01-01

    While psychiatric comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been extensively explored, less attention has been paid to somatic conditions possibly associated with this disorder. However, mounting evidence in the last decade pointed to a possible significant association between ADHD and certain somatic conditions, including obesity. This papers provides an update of a previous systematic review on the relationship between obesity and ADHD (Cortese and Vincenzi, Curr Top Behav Neurosci 9:199-218, 2012), focusing on pertinent peer-reviewed empirical papers published since 2012. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge databases (search dates: from January 1st, 2012, to July 16th, 2016). We retained a total of 41 studies, providing information on the prevalence of obesity in individuals with ADHD, focusing on the rates of ADHD in individuals with obesity, or reporting data useful to gain insight into possible mechanisms underlying the putative association between ADHD and obesity. Overall, over the past 4 years, an increasing number of studies have assessed the prevalence of obesity in individuals with ADHD or the rates of ADHD in patients with obesity. Although findings are mixed across individual studies, meta-analytic evidence shows a significant association between ADHD and obesity, regardless of possible confounding factors such as psychiatric comorbidities. An increasing number of studies have also addressed possible mechanisms underlying the link between ADHD and obesity, highlighting the role, among others, of abnormal eating patterns, sedentary lifestyle, and possible common genetic alterations. Importantly, recent longitudinal studies support a causal role of ADHD in contributing to weight gain. The next generation of studies in the field should explore if and to which extent the treatment of comorbid ADHD in individuals with obesity may lead to long-term weight loss, ultimately improving their

  18. Subjective deficits of attention, cognition and depression in patients with narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarian, Laura; Högl, Birgit; Delazer, Margarete; Hingerl, Katharina; Gabelia, David; Mitterling, Thomas; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Patients with narcolepsy often complain about attention deficits in everyday situations. In comparison with these subjective complaints, deficits in objective testing are subtler. The present study assessed the relationships between subjective complaints, objectively measured cognitive performance, disease-related variables, and mood. A total of 51 patients with narcolepsy and 35 healthy controls responded to questionnaires regarding subjectively perceived attention deficits, sleepiness, anxiety and depression. Moreover, they performed an extensive neuropsychological assessment tapping into attention, executive functions, and memory. Patients rated their level of attention in everyday situations to be relatively poor. In an objective assessment of cognitive functioning, they showed only slight attention and executive function deficits. The subjective ratings of attention deficits significantly correlated with ratings of momentary sleepiness, anxiety, and depression, but not with objectively measured cognitive performance. Momentary sleepiness and depression predicted almost 39% of the variance in the ratings of subjectively perceived attention deficits. The present study showed that sleepiness and depression, more than objective cognitive deficits, might play a role in the subjectively perceived attention deficits of patients with narcolepsy. The results suggested that when counselling and treating patients with narcolepsy, clinicians should pay attention to potential depression because subjective cognitive complaints may not relate to objective cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multisensory Spatial Attention Deficits Are Predictive of Phonological Decoding Skills in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Ruffino, Milena; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cattaneo, Carmen; Galli, Raffaella; Molteni, Massimo; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical…

  20. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well…

  1. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halmøy Anne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is increasingly recognized as a common disorder not only in children, but also in the adult population. Similarly, asthma also has a substantial prevalence among adults. Previous studies concerning a potential relationship between ADHD and asthma have not presented consistent results. Methods A cross-sectional study of 594 adult patients diagnosed with ADHD, compared with 719 persons from the general population. Information was collected between 1997 and 2005 using auto-questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, co-morbid conditions, including asthma, and work status. Results The prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in the ADHD patient group compared to the controls, 24.4% vs. 11.3% respectively (OR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.89-3.44, and controls with asthma scored higher on ratings of both past and present symptoms of ADHD. Female ADHD patients had a significantly higher prevalence of asthma compared to male ADHD patients (30.9% vs. 18.2%, OR = 2.01, CI 1.36-2.95, but in controls a slight female preponderance was not statistically significant. In both ADHD patients and controls, having asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of symptoms of mood- and anxiety disorders. Conclusions The present findings point to a co-morbidity of ADHD and asthma, and these patients may represent a clinical and biological subgroup of adult patients with ADHD.

  2. Functional MRI studies in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Jin Zhen; Zeng Yawei; Wang Yan; Zang Yufeng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the brain activation map during Go-NoGo tasks in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls using functional MRI. Methods: Block designed BOLD functional MRI scan covering the whole brain was performed on 10 boys having ADHD and 11 healthy boys. The 2 groups were matched by age, sex, and handedness. Executing advanced inhibitory Go-NoGo tasks served as stimuli for all subjects. The fMRI data was analyzed by SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping) software with statistic t-test to generate the activation map. Results: (1) The normal children showed significant activations in left thalamus and right cingulate gyrus and fewer activations in right middle frontal gyrus during stimulate controlled Go task, but the children with ADHD showed less activations in left thalamus. (2) In response controlled Go task, the normal children showed activations in right insula, cingulate gyrus and left frontal gyrus, while the ADHD children showed lower power of response in the right middle frontal gyrus.(3) In NoGo task, right middle frontal gyrus was the dominant activated regions, and left anterior cingulate, left middle frontal gyrus and right thalamus also had some activations in normal children, while the activations of right prefrontal decreased and the thalamus increased in ADHD boys. Conclusion: In children with ADHD, some dysfunctional brain areas, mainly the prefrontal lobe and anterior cingulate gyrus were found. Thalamus was also involved according to the brain activation map

  3. Overview of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Yeh, Chia Jung; Verma, Nidhi; Das, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial) throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If preschool teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD. PMID:26973960

  4. Functional MRI studies in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Zhang; Zhen, Jin; Yawei, Zeng; Yan, Wang [fMRI Center, Lab of Cognition Science and Learning, National Education Ministry and Department of Radiology, 306 Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Yufeng, Zang

    2004-06-01

    Objective: To investigate the brain activation map during Go-NoGo tasks in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls using functional MRI. Methods: Block designed BOLD functional MRI scan covering the whole brain was performed on 10 boys having ADHD and 11 healthy boys. The 2 groups were matched by age, sex, and handedness. Executing advanced inhibitory Go-NoGo tasks served as stimuli for all subjects. The fMRI data was analyzed by SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping) software with statistic t-test to generate the activation map. Results: (1) The normal children showed significant activations in left thalamus and right cingulate gyrus and fewer activations in right middle frontal gyrus during stimulate controlled Go task, but the children with ADHD showed less activations in left thalamus. (2) In response controlled Go task, the normal children showed activations in right insula, cingulate gyrus and left frontal gyrus, while the ADHD children showed lower power of response in the right middle frontal gyrus.(3) In NoGo task, right middle frontal gyrus was the dominant activated regions, and left anterior cingulate, left middle frontal gyrus and right thalamus also had some activations in normal children, while the activations of right prefrontal decreased and the thalamus increased in ADHD boys. Conclusion: In children with ADHD, some dysfunctional brain areas, mainly the prefrontal lobe and anterior cingulate gyrus were found. Thalamus was also involved according to the brain activation map.

  5. Maternal Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Mirzaaghas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  According to the previous studies, anxiety along with some other psychiatric disorders is common among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Since maternal anxiety affects mother-child interactions, early treatment plays an important role in the prognosis of ADHD in children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between maternal anxiety and hyperactivity in children. Methods: This study was conducted on 112 mothers of ADHD children (aged 6-12 years, selected via convenience sampling from October to December 2012. The subjects lived in districts 2 and 6 of Tehran and were referred to consultation centers. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42 (DASS-42 and Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV questionnaires were completed by the subjects. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of the relationship between variables. Results: A positive correlation was found between maternal anxiety and children’s hyperactivity (P=0.05. In fact, high levels of maternal anxiety are accounted for various child-rearing problems such as children’s hyperactivity. Conclusion: High levels of maternal anxiety lead to child rearing problems, which in turn cause various disorders such as hyperactivity in children.

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction rehabilitation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ADHD and drug dependence. Methods The presence and severity of ADHD and substance use were evaluated through questionnaires in 80 adult patients in therapeutic communities. Results No difference in drug use or dependence prevalence between ADHD and non-ADHD patients was found. However, ADHD patients had lower ages on admission (p = 0.004 and at first contact with cocaine (p = 0.033. In ADHD patients, there was a negative correlation between the age at first use of cannabis and the subsequent severity of cannabis use (p = 0.017 and cocaine use (p = 0.033. Conclusions Though there was no difference in prevalence of drug use among groups, results show that ADHD in patients in therapeutic communities may cause different addiction patterns, such as earlier use of cocaine and admission, and a more severe use of cocaine correlated to earlier contact with cannabis.

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ferreira; Dornelles, Tarcísio Fanha; Barszcz, Karin; Martins, Eduardo Antunes

    2016-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ADHD and drug dependence. The presence and severity of ADHD and substance use were evaluated through questionnaires in 80 adult patients in therapeutic communities. No difference in drug use or dependence prevalence between ADHD and non-ADHD patients was found. However, ADHD patients had lower ages on admission (p = 0.004) and at first contact with cocaine (p = 0.033). In ADHD patients, there was a negative correlation between the age at first use of cannabis and the subsequent severity of cannabis use (p = 0.017) and cocaine use (p = 0.033). Though there was no difference in prevalence of drug use among groups, results show that ADHD in patients in therapeutic communities may cause different addiction patterns, such as earlier use of cocaine and admission, and a more severe use of cocaine correlated to earlier contact with cannabis.

  8. Cannabis Withdrawal in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauchard, Emeline; Hartwell, Karen J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Sherman, Brian J; Gorelick, David A

    2018-02-22

    Cannabis withdrawal has not been studied in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have high rates of cannabis use. We aimed to describe cannabis withdrawal, motivations to quit, and strategies to quit cannabis use in cannabis-dependent adults with ADHD. Twenty-three adults with ADHD enrolled in a controlled clinical trial of pharmacotherapy (atomoxetine) for cannabis dependence (DSM-IV criteria) completed the Marijuana Quit Questionnaire (MJQQ) to provide information on their "most serious" quit attempt made without formal treatment. The study was conducted between November 2005 and June 2008. Participants were predominantly male (82.6%, n = 19), with a mean (SD) age of 27.4 (8.5) years (range, 18-53) at the start of their index quit attempt. The most common motive for quitting cannabis was "to save money" (87%, n = 20); the most common strategy to maintain abstinence was "stopped associating with people who smoke marijuana" (43%, n = 10). Almost all (96%, n = 22) subjects reported ≥ 1 cannabis withdrawal symptom; 7 (30%) met DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Participants with comorbid ADHD and cannabis dependence reported withdrawal symptoms similar to other samples of non-treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults with no psychiatric comorbidity. These findings suggest that ADHD does not influence cannabis withdrawal in the way that it does tobacco (nicotine) withdrawal. Data used in this secondary analysis came from ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00360269. © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves.

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Vazirian, Shams; Seyedzadeh, Abolhasan; Rafeie, Mohammad; Salehi, Bahman; Amiri, Mohammad; Ebrahimimonfared, Mohsen

    2015-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to compare the results with those of healthy children. This case-control study was conducted for six months (December 22, 2013 to June 21, 2014) on five to 16-year-old children, visiting the Pediatric Dialysis Unit of Amirkabir Hospital, Arak, Iran, and Taleghani Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. A total of 100 children with ESRD who had undergone CAPD for at least six months and 100 healthy children were included in this study as case and control groups, respectively. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV-TR criteria, and was confirmed through consultation by psychologist. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS 18. The ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with CAPD and five controls (5%) (P = 0.01). Moreover, ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was observed in 27 cases (27%) with CAPD and seven controls (9%) (P = 0.002). Despite these significant differences, no children were diagnosed with ADHD combined type among all subjects. Inattentive type and hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD are more prevalent in children with ESRD undergoing CAPD. Therefore screening methods for ADHD is necessary in these patients.

  11. Combined methylphenidate and atomoxetine pharmacotherapy in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Kose, Sezen; Yuzuguldu, Onur; Atar, Burcu; Aydin, Cahide

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) includes stimulant and non-stimulant medications. Our purpose in this study is to investigate efficacy, safety and tolerability of combined methylphenidate and atomoxetine pharmacotherapy. We included 12 patients of the 824 patients with ADHD using methylphenidate and atomoxetine combined therapy between the years 2010 and 2014. Kiddie-SADS, Turgay DSM-IV Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale, Child Behavior Checklist, Clinic Global Impression Scale Severity and Impression (CGIS-S-I) scales were used. Patients were between the ages of 7 and 17 years. Before combined pharmacotherapy the CGIS-S score mean was 5.08. Mean CGIS-S score after the combined pharmacotherapy was 3.08 (P = 0.03; -2,980). The most common side effects were irritability (n = 5, 41.6%), appetite reduction (n = 3, 25%), palpitations (n = 2, 16.7%), headache (n = 1, 8.3%). Nine of these 12 patients showed significant improvement in their symptoms, combined therapy enhanced the effectiveness of monotherapy.

  12. Risk Factors of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Khoushabi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Regarding to ADHD is believed to the most common behavioral disorder in children, the purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children. This study compared ADHD children and normal children. Materials & Methods: In this comparative study, subjects were 192 children with ADHD who referred to pediatric psychiatric clinic in two years therapeutic period. The children were diagnosed as ADHD according to DSM-IV by two pediatric psychiatrists (experimental group and 210 normal children who were chosen from schools and day-care centers in Tehran (control group. Research variables were matched with experimental group. Data were analyzed with descriptive methods such as: Q Square test.  Results: Findings showed that 79.3% of ADHD-positive subjects and 54.3% of their controls were boy. Consanguinity of parents, history of ADHD and psychiatric disorders in parents and their relatives and being the first or second child of family were associated with greater risk of ADHD in children and showed significant difference between two groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Male, Consanguinity marriage, history of ADHD and psychiatric disorders in parents and relatives and the first or second child are risk factors of ADHD.

  13. [Heritability and genetic comorbidity of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddu, Giannina; Rothhammer, Paula; Carrasco, Ximena; Aboitiz, Francisco; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    This review aims to summarize information about the genetic etiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), with particular reference to the contributions of our research group. We also discuss the genetic comorbidity estimated from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) between ADHD and major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (E), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A high genetic comorbidity was found between E and BD (46%), a moderate comorbidity between MDD and E, MDD and BD and MDD and ADHD (18%, 22% and 10% respectively) and a low comorbidity between E and ASD (2.5%). Furthermore, we show evidence concerning the genetic determination of psychiatric diseases, which is significantly lower when it is estimated from genome-wide SNP´s rather than using traditional quantitative genetic methodology (ADHD = E = 23%, BD = 25%, MDD = 21% and ASD = 17%). From an evolutionary perspective, we suggest that behavioral traits such as hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity, which play a role in ADHD and perhaps also other hereditary traits which are part of major psychiatric disorders, could have had a high adaptive value during the early stages of the evolution of Homo sapiens. However, they became progressively less adaptive and definitively disadvantageous, to the extreme that they are involved in frequently diagnosed major psychiatric disorders.

  14. Electroencephalography signatures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Guzmán; Pereda, Ernesto; Mañas, Soledad; Méndez, Leopoldo D; González, Almudena; González, Julián J

    2015-01-01

    The techniques and the most important results on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) to extract different measures are reviewed in this work, which can be clinically useful to study subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). First, we discuss briefly and in simple terms the EEG analysis and processing techniques most used in the context of ADHD. We review techniques that both analyze individual EEG channels (univariate measures) and study the statistical interdependence between different EEG channels (multivariate measures), the so-called functional brain connectivity. Among the former ones, we review the classical indices of absolute and relative spectral power and estimations of the complexity of the channels, such as the approximate entropy and the Lempel-Ziv complexity. Among the latter ones, we focus on the magnitude square coherence and on different measures based on the concept of generalized synchronization and its estimation in the state space. Second, from a historical point of view, we present the most important results achieved with these techniques and their clinical utility (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) to diagnose ADHD. Finally, we propose future research lines based on these results.

  15. Pathway Analysis in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An Ensemble Approach

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    Mooney, Michael A.; McWeeney, Shannon K.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Nigg, Joel T.; Wilmot, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Despite a wealth of evidence for the role of genetics in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), specific and definitive genetic mechanisms have not been identified. Pathway analyses, a subset of gene-set analyses, extend the knowledge gained from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) by providing functional context for genetic associations. However, there are numerous methods for association testing of gene sets and no real consensus regarding the best approach. The present study applied six pathway analysis methods to identify pathways associated with ADHD in two GWAS datasets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Methods that utilize genotypes to model pathway-level effects identified more replicable pathway associations than methods using summary statistics. In addition, pathways implicated by more than one method were significantly more likely to replicate. A number of brain-relevant pathways, such as RhoA signaling, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, fibroblast growth factor receptor activity, and pathways containing potassium channel genes, were nominally significant by multiple methods in both datasets. These results support previous hypotheses about the role of regulation of neurotransmitter release, neurite outgrowth and axon guidance in contributing to the ADHD phenotype and suggest the value of cross-method convergence in evaluating pathway analysis results. PMID:27004716

  16. Sleep Structure in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Gulcin; Oztura, Ibrahim; Hiz, Semra; Akdogan, Ozlem; Karaarslan, Dilay; Ozek, Handan; Akay, Aynur

    2015-10-01

    The authors evaluated basic sleep architecture and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep alterations in drug-naïve attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without psychiatric or other comorbidities. This cross-sectional case-control study included 28 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 15 healthy controls. This subjective studies revealed that children with ADHD had a worse sleep quality and increased daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography data showed that the sleep macrostructure was not significantly different in children with ADHD. Sleep microstructure was altered in ADHD children by means of reduced total cyclic alternating pattern rate and duration of cyclic alternating pattern sequences. This reduction was associated with a selective decrease of A1 index during stage 2 NREM. SpO2 in total sleep was slightly decreased; however, the incidence of sleep disordered breathing showed no significant difference. The authors suggest that cyclic alternating pattern scoring would provide a further insight to obtain a better understanding of the sleep structure in children with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults.

  18. [Update on attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loro-López, M; Quintero, J; García-Campos, N; Jiménez-Gómez, B; Pando, F; Varela-Casal, P; Campos, J A; Correas-Lauffer, J

    Attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and investigated childhood neuropsychiatric disorder witch has an important repercussion in patient's every day life. AIM. To make an update on psychopharmacological and psychological treatment for ADHD and to asses his efficacy as a single drug treatment as well as a combined treatment. As a chronic disorder ADHD needs a carefully designed and complete treatment plan. That takes into account psychoeducation and the most recent medical evidences as well as preferences and worries of their families and patients. Psychostimulants are the most studied drugs and the gold-standard in the ADHD treatment with responses as high as 65 to 85%. Atomoxetine is another alternative for treating this patients with Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency approval seal. The treatment plan for these patients must be chosen, not only by their treating doctor but should include patients and patient's family preferences and should be suited to each patient. Comorbidities are an important issue in the ADHD treatment planning, mainly in non responders' patients.

  19. Color naming deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A retinal dopaminergic hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannock Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD have unexplained difficulties on tasks requiring speeded processing of colored stimuli. Color vision mechanisms, particularly short-wavelength (blue-yellow pathways, are highly sensitive to various diseases, toxins and drugs that alter dopaminergic neurotransmission. Thus, slow color processing might reflect subtle impairments in the perceptual encoding stage of stimulus color, which arise from hypodopaminergic functioning. Presentation of hypotheses 1 Color perception of blue-yellow (but not red-green stimuli is impaired in ADHD as a result of deficient retinal dopamine; 2 Impairments in the blue-yellow color mechanism in ADHD contribute to poor performance on speeded color naming tasks that include a substantial proportion of blue-yellow stimuli; and 3 Methylphenidate increases central dopamine and is also believed to increase retinal dopamine, thereby normalizing blue-yellow color perception, which in turn improves performance on the speeded color naming tasks. Testing the hypothesis Requires three approaches, including:1 direct assessment of color perception in individuals with ADHD to determine whether blue-yellow color perception is selectively impaired; 2 determination of relationship between performance on neuropsychological tasks requiring speeded color processing and color perception; and 3 randomized, controlled pharmacological intervention with stimulant medication to examine the effects of enhancing central dopamine on color perception and task performance Implications of hypothesis If substantiated, the findings of color perception problems would necessitate a re-consideration of current neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, guide psycho-education, academic instruction, and require consideration of stimulus color in many of the widely used neuropsychological tests.

  20. Altered brain structural networks in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children revealed by cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Yanni; Li, Chenxi; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2017-07-04

    This study investigated the cortical thickness and topological features of human brain anatomical networks related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Data were collected from 40 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and 40 normal control children. Interregional correlation matrices were established by calculating the correlations of cortical thickness between all pairs of cortical regions (68 regions) of the whole brain. Further thresholds were applied to create binary matrices to construct a series of undirected and unweighted graphs, and global, local, and nodal efficiencies were computed as a function of the network cost. These experimental results revealed abnormal cortical thickness and correlations in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and showed that the brain structural networks of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects had inefficient small-world topological features. Furthermore, their topological properties were altered abnormally. In particular, decreased global efficiency combined with increased local efficiency in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children led to a disorder-related shift of the network topological structure toward regular networks. In addition, nodal efficiency, cortical thickness, and correlation analyses revealed that several brain regions were altered in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients. These findings are in accordance with a hypothesis of dysfunctional integration and segregation of the brain in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide further evidence of brain dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients by observing cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  2. Attention lapses in children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, Gabriel G; Martin, Alba; Cervantes, Elizabeth; Guil, Rocio; Mestre, Jose M

    2017-08-01

    Attentional lapses are usually defined as temporary and often brief shifts of attention away from some primary task to unrelated internal information processing. This study addressed the incidence of attention lapses and differences in attentional functioning in 30 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 26 healthy children, and 29 children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus (SBH). Assessments were conducted using computerized tonic and phasic attention tests, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Trail Making Test Form B (TMT-B). The group with SBH differed from normal controls on cognitive measures of attention and executive functions. The ADHD group obtained lower scores than the SBH group and healthy children. ANOVA results showed that there was an effect of shunt revisions and shunt-related infections on neuropsychological performance. Lapses of attention together with reaction time may thus represent important factors for the understanding of cognitive deficits in SBH.

  3. Parental happiness and strain among young adult parents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Rhiannon A

    2018-03-01

    This study used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine whether young adult parents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder experience less parental happiness and/or more parental strain than their counterparts not diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Results from logistic regression models indicated that young adult parents ever diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have significantly greater odds of feeling overwhelmed as parents and significantly lower odds of feeling close to their children or happy in their role as parents compared to those never diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Potential implications of these results for scholars as well as health professionals treating adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder patients with children are discussed.

  4. Social and leadership abilities in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: relation with cognitive-attentional capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Martín Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel; López-Arribas, Sonia; Pardos-Véglia, Alexandra; Muñiz-Borrega, Blanca; García-Savaté, Carolina; Prados-Parra, Baldomero; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Muñoz-Jareño, Nuria; Fernández-Perrone, Ana L

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed social and leadership abilities in children with ADHD and their relationship with execution of tasks involving sustained attention and inhibitory control. A retrospective analysis of 170 patients with ADHD was performed. We evaluated leadership and social abilities, measured through the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) and their relations with the results of different neuropsychological tests, including Wechsler scale for children (WISC-IV) and Conners' continuous performance (CPT II). In the differential analysis between the IQ, results of the tests and their relation to BASC scores, a statistically significant relation was observed between attentional capacity expected according to the patient's intelligence and social skills scores (according to BASC filled out by mothers and teachers) and leadership (according to all informants) sections. Attentional difficulties are closely related to social competence in patients with ADHD, either by a direct cause-effect relationship or a shared dysexecutive substrate of this disorder.

  5. Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  6. Neurofeedback and cognitive attention training for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Naomi J; Frenette, Elizabeth C; Rene, Kirsten M; Brennan, Robert T; Perrin, Ellen C

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of 2 computer attention training systems administered in school for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children in second and fourth grade with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 104) were randomly assigned to neurofeedback (NF) (n = 34), cognitive training (CT) (n = 34), or control (n = 36) conditions. A 2-point growth model assessed change from pre-post intervention on parent reports (Conners 3-Parent [Conners 3-P]; Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function [BRIEF] rating scale), teacher reports (Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham scale [SKAMP]; Conners 3-Teacher [Conners 3-T]), and systematic classroom observations (Behavioral Observation of Students in Schools [BOSS]). Paired t tests and an analysis of covariance assessed change in medication. Children who received NF showed significant improvement compared with those in the control condition on the Conners 3-P Attention, Executive Functioning and Global Index, on all BRIEF summary indices, and on BOSS motor/verbal off-task behavior. Children who received CT showed no improvement compared to the control condition. Children in the NF condition showed significant improvements compared to those in the CT condition on Conners 3-P Executive Functioning, all BRIEF summary indices, SKAMP Attention, and Conners 3-T Inattention subscales. Stimulant medication dosage in methylphenidate equivalencies significantly increased for children in the CT (8.54 mg) and control (7.05 mg) conditions but not for those in the NF condition (0.29 mg). Neurofeedback made greater improvements in ADHD symptoms compared to both the control and CT conditions. Thus, NF is a promising attention training treatment intervention for children with ADHD.

  7. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  8. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  9. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, comorbidities, and risk situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Reinhardt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is highly prevalent, and its symptoms often represent a significant public health problem; thus, the aim of this study was to verify emergency situations caused by certain comorbidities, or by exposing the patient to a higher risk of accidents. Data source: A literature search was carried out in the PubMed database between the years 1992 and 2012, using the key words “adhd”, “urgency”, “comorbidity”, “substance disorder”, “alcohol”, “eating disorder”, “suicide”, “trauma”, “abuse”, “crime”, “internet”, “videogame”, “bullying”, and their combinations. The selection considered the most relevant articles according to the scope of the proposed topic, performed in a non-systematic way. Data synthesis: Several situations were observed in which ADHD is the most relevant psychiatric diagnosis in relation to its urgency, such as the risk of accidents, suicide risk and addition, exposure to violence, or risk of internet abuse or sexual abuse; or when ADHD is the most prevalent comorbidity and is also correlated with emergency situations, such as in bipolar and eating disorders. Conclusions: The results show several comorbidities and risk situations involving the diagnosis of ADHD, thus reinforcing the importance of their identification for the adequate treatment of this disorder. Resumo: Objetivo: O transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH apresenta alta prevalência, e seus sintomas apresentam-se frequentemente como um problema de saúde pública considerável. Assim, o objetivo desta revisão é verificar estas situações de urgência provocadas por determinadas comorbidades, ou por expor o paciente a um maior risco de acidentes. Fonte dos dados: Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica na base de dados PubMed entre os anos de 1992 e 2012, utilizando os descritores “adhd”, “urgency”, “comorbidity”,

  10. Pupil Size Tracks Attentional Performance In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstein, G; Rojas-Líbano, D; Crossley, N A; Carrasco, X; Aboitiz, F; Ossandón, T

    2017-08-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is based on reported symptoms, which carries the potential risk of over- or under-diagnosis. A biological marker that helps to objectively define the disorder, providing information about its pathophysiology, is needed. A promising marker of cognitive states in humans is pupil size, which reflects the activity of an 'arousal' network, related to the norepinephrine system. We monitored pupil size from ADHD and control subjects, during a visuo-spatial working memory task. A sub group of ADHD children performed the task twice, with and without methylphenidate, a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Off-medication patients showed a decreased pupil diameter during the task. This difference was no longer present when patients were on-medication. Pupil size correlated with the subjects' performance and reaction time variability, two vastly studied indicators of attention. Furthermore, this effect was modulated by medication. Through pupil size, we provide evidence of an involvement of the noradrenergic system during an attentional task. Our results suggest that pupil size could serve as a biomarker in ADHD.

  11. Progress and Promise of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Pharmacogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Tanya E.; McGough, James J.; Stein, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    One strategy for understanding variability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication response, and therefore redressing the current trial-and-error approach to ADHD medication management, is to identify genetic moderators of treatment. This article summarizes ADHD pharmacogenetic investigative efforts to date, which have primarily focused on short-term response to methylphenidate and largely been limited by modest sample sizes. The most well studied genes include the dopamine transporter and dopamine D4 receptor, with additional genes that have been significantly associated with stimulant medication response including the adrenergic α2A-receptor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, D5 receptor, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) transporter protein 1 and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa. Unfortunately, results of current ADHD pharmacogenetic studies have not been entirely consistent, possibly due to differences in study design, medication dosing regimens and outcome measures. Future directions for ADHD pharmacogenetics investigations may include examination of drug-metabolizing enzymes and a wider range of stimulant and non-stimulant medications. In addition, researchers are increasingly interested in going beyond the individual candidate gene approach to investigate gene-gene interactions or pathways, effect modification by additional environmental exposures and whole genome approaches. Advancements in ADHD pharmacogenetics will be facilitated by multi-site collaborations to obtain larger sample sizes using standardized protocols. Although ADHD pharmacogenetic efforts are still in a relatively early stage, their potential clinical applications may include the development of treatment efficacy and adverse effect prediction algorithms that incorporate the interplay of genetic and environmental factors, as well as the development of novel ADHD treatments. PMID:20088618

  12. Intellectual disability in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Alka; Martin, Joanna; Langley, Kate; Thapar, Anita

    2013-09-01

    To determine whether children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mild intellectual disability (ID) are a clinically distinct ADHD subgroup. This was a cross-sectional study comparing clinical characteristics (ADHD subtypes, total number of symptoms, and rates of common comorbidities) between children with ADHD and mild ID and those with ADHD and IQ test scores >70, and also between children with ADHD and ID and a general population sample of children with ID alone. The sample comprised a clinical sample of children with ADHD with ID (n = 97) and without ID (n = 874) and a general population sample of children with ID and without ADHD (n = 58). After correcting for multiple statistical tests, no differences were found between the 2 ADHD groups on any measure except the presence of conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses. Children with ADHD and ID had higher rates of both (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.71-3.32 and OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.69-4.28, respectively). Furthermore, children with ADHD and ID had significantly higher rates of oppositional defiant disorder (OR, 5.54; 95% CI, 2.86-10.75) and CD (OR, 13.66; 95% CI, 3.25-57.42) symptoms and a higher incidence of oppositional defiant disorder diagnoses (OR, 30.99; 95% CI, 6.38-150.39) compared with children with ID without ADHD. Children with ADHD and mild ID appear to be clinically typical of children with ADHD except for more conduct problems. This finding has implications for clinicians treating these children in terms of acknowledging the presence and impact of ADHD symptoms above and beyond ID and dealing with a comorbid CD. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Breastfeeding may protect from developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva; Kachevanskaya, Anna; Mimouni, Francis Benjamin; Shuper, Avinoam; Raveh, Eyal; Linder, Nehama

    2013-08-01

    Breastfeeding has a positive influence on physical and mental development. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder with major social, familial, and academic influences. The present study aimed to evaluate whether ADHD is associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding. In this retrospective matched study, children 6-12 years old diagnosed at Schneider's Children Medical Center (Petach Tikva, Israel) with ADHD between 2008 and 2009 were compared with two control groups. The first one consisted of healthy (no ADHD) siblings of ADHD children; the second control group consisted of children without ADHD who consulted at the otolaryngology clinic. A constructed questionnaire about demographic, medical, and perinatal findings, feeding history during the first year of life, and a validated adult ADHD screening questionnaire were given to both parents of every child in each group. In children later diagnosed as having ADHD, 43% were breastfed at 3 months of age compared with 69% in the siblings group and 73% in the control non-related group (p=0.002). By 6 months of age 29% of ADHD children were breastfed compared with 50% in the siblings group and 57% in the control non-related group (p=0.011). A stepwise logistic regression that included the variables found to be significant in univariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between ADHD and lack of breastfeeding at 3 months of age, maternal age at birth, male gender, and parental divorce. Children with ADHD were less likely to breastfeed at 3 months and 6 months of age than children in the two control groups. We speculate that breastfeeding may have a protective effect from developing ADHD later in childhood.

  14. Mild head injury and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasle, Veronique; Riffaud, Laurent; Longuet, Romain; Martineau-Curt, Marie; Collet, Yann; Le Fournier, Luc; Pladys, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    Post-concussion syndrome is a well-described complication following moderate and severe head trauma but whether it occurs after mild head injury in children remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure to mild head injury with potential additional risk factors (non-surgical lesion on computed tomographic, high kinetic trauma, or Glasgow Coma Scale <15) is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after the head trauma. This study was performed in an emergency department on children admitted between 2009 and 2013. It compared victims of mild head injury aged 6-16 years with matched children presenting isolated non-surgical forearm fracture (ratio1/2). ADHD was assessed using Conners' Global Index-Parent short version 3-40 months after the trauma. The patients were compared using chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, t test or u-test as appropriate with a p value set at 0.05. During the study period, 676 patients were admitted for mild head injury. Among them, 34 (5 %) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were compared with 64 matched patients admitted for a forearm fracture. The groups were comparable. ADHD was observed in both groups (18 % in the mild head injury group, 11 % in the control group) with no significant differences between groups. The prevalence was high when compared to an expected frequency of 3.5-5.6 % in children aged 6-12 years in the general population. These results suggest that pre-existing ADHD may have contributed to injury proneness in both groups and does not argue for a specific risk of ADHD induced by mild head injury. The diagnosis of ADHD should be evoked at admission of children aged 6-16 years presenting with a trauma.

  15. Electroencephalography signatures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guzmán Alba,1 Ernesto Pereda,2 Soledad Mañas,3 Leopoldo D Méndez,3 Almudena González,1 Julián J González1 1Physiology Unit, Health Sciences Faculty (S Medicine, 2Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering and Technology, University of La Laguna, 3Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, University Hospital La Candelaria, Tenerife, Spain Abstract: The techniques and the most important results on the use of electroencephalography (EEG to extract different measures are reviewed in this work, which can be clinically useful to study subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. First, we discuss briefly and in simple terms the EEG analysis and processing techniques most used in the context of ADHD. We review techniques that both analyze individual EEG channels (univariate measures and study the statistical interdependence between different EEG channels (multivariate measures, the so-called functional brain connectivity. Among the former ones, we review the classical indices of absolute and relative spectral power and estimations of the complexity of the channels, such as the approximate entropy and the Lempel-Ziv complexity. Among the latter ones, we focus on the magnitude square coherence and on different measures based on the concept of generalized synchronization and its estimation in the state space. Second, from a historical point of view, we present the most important results achieved with these techniques and their clinical utility (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy to diagnose ADHD. Finally, we propose future research lines based on these results. Keywords: EEG, ADHD, power spectrum, functional connectivity, clinical assessment

  16. Frequency of celiac disease in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Serdal; Celiloğlu, Ozgü Suna; Ozcan, Ozlem Ozel; Raif, Sabiha Güngör; Selimoğlu, Mukadder Ayşe

    2013-02-01

    Although it is well known that celiac disease (CD) is associated with neurologic disorders, association with psychiatric problems is not well defined. In this report, we aimed to detect CD prevalence in patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 362 patients between the ages 5 and 15 years with the diagnosis of ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria and 390 sex- and age-matched healthy children were included in the present study. Serum levels of tissue transglutaminase (tTg) immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG were studied in both groups. Serum IgA levels were also studied in patients with positive tTG IgG for the exclusion of selective IgA deficiency. Endoscopic duodenal biopsy was provided in seropositive patients, whose parents approved the procedure. Biopsy samples were evaluated according to Marsh-Oberhuber classification. tTg IgA was positive in 4 patients with ADHD (1.1%). Endoscopic duodenal biopsy was suggestive of CD in one of them (0.27%). tTg IgA was positive in 3 of control group patients (0.8%). Duodenal biopsy of the only patient from control group, who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, revealed normal intestinal mucosa. The seropositivity rates for CD were found similar in ADHD and control groups. Thus, neither routine screening for CD nor empirical recommendation of gluten-free diet seems necessary in children with ADHD.

  17. Atomoxetine treatment in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Daniel J; Mason, Oren; Clemow, David B; Day, Kathleen A

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a CNS disorder that has its onset in childhood, but often persists into adulthood. There is growing recognition that adult ADHD can result in multiple negative consequences for individuals. ADHD is also often associated with a number of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant, selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor, was approved in the United States in 2002 for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents, as well as adults. We review here the safety and efficacy of ATX in adults with ADHD, including data in special populations, functional outcomes, as well as provider and patient real-world perceptions. We searched the databases Embase, MEDLINE and PsycINFO using the terms 'ADHD' and 'adult' and 'ATX' capturing publications from January 1, 1998, to March 27, 2014. Only publications in English were considered. ATX demonstrated significantly greater improvement than placebo (PBO) on the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator rated:Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV) in all trials (N = 6; total score difference ranged from -3.5 to -5.5). For long-term trials using the CAARS-Inv:SV, ATX demonstrated significantly greater improvement than PBO in three of four trials (total score differences ranged from -0.1 to -6.0). In short-term studies, ATX showed significantly greater improvement than PBO on the Adult ADHD Quality-of-Life scale total score in three of three studies, but results were mixed on the Sheehan Disability Scale. Three studies of ATX have reported statistically significant improvement (compared with PBO) on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Self Report scale. The most common adverse events (occurring in ≥ 10% of patients taking ATX) were nausea, dry mouth, decreased appetite, insomnia and fatigue. ATX is an important treatment option for the right patient. ATX can provide long-term, consistent symptom relief and functional improvement

  18. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parisa namdari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most prevalent psychiadric disorders starting from Childhood and is considered as an important mental health problem of a society. Behavioral disorders including ADHD may have distractive effects on peoples social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationship in their childhood and adulthood. Therefore, we decided to conduct the present research for ADHD in elementary school students of Khoramabad year 2004. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studing in grades one to five at elementary school in Khorramabad (N=945. Some 16 state and private schools (8 girls and 8 boys schools were selected in a cluster and multi-stage method. The standardized questionnaire Child symptom inventories – 4 (CSI4 has been used to collect data, which was a means for the prevalens of children’s psychiatric disorders. Owing to their scoring. The cases which showed ADHD were undergone clinical examination by psychiatrist. Then, the results were analyzed using descriptive statistic and X2 test. Results: The total sample was 945 children There were 50.7% and 49.3% girls and boys respectively. Some 3.17 per cent of them were reported to suffer from ADHD the most percentages of which were of inattention (40%, overactivens (33.3%, and mixed type (26.6%. ADHD was reported to be more prevalent in boys than girls (4.9% VS. 1.5%. The students in grade 5 showed the lowest, and those in grade 2 and 3 showed the highest prevalence rate of suffering from ADHD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s sex and ADHD (P<0.005. However, there seemed no significant relationship between parents age, education, job, income, grade, and the family psychiatric problems. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of the disorder including ADHD, and lack of enough attention to their consequences in children and

  19. Behavioral and Neural Sustained Attention Deficits in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Adleman, Nancy E; Curhan, Alexa; Zhang, Susan; Towbin, Kenneth E; Brotman, Melissa A; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), characterized by severe irritability, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid. This is the first study to characterize neural and behavioral similarities and differences in attentional functioning across these disorders. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers, 31 patients with DMDD, and 25 patients with ADHD (8 to 18 years old) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging attention task. Group differences in intra-subject variability in reaction time (RT) were examined. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging analytic approach precisely quantified trial-wise associations between RT and brain activity. Group differences manifested in the relation between RT and brain activity (all regions: p  2.54, partial eta-squared [η p 2 ] > 0.06). Patients with DMDD showed specific alterations in the right paracentral lobule, superior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, and cerebellar culmen. In contrast, patients with DMDD and those with ADHD exhibited blunted compensatory increases in activity on long RT trials. In addition, youth with DMDD exhibited increased activity in the postcentral gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, and cerebellar tonsil and declive (all regions: p  2.46, η p 2 > 0.06). Groups in the imaging sample did not differ significantly in intra-subject variability in RT (F 2,79  = 2.664, p = .076, η p 2  = 0.063), although intra-subject variability in RT was significantly increased in youth with DMDD and ADHD when including those not meeting strict motion and accuracy criteria for imaging analysis (F 2,96  = 4.283, p = .017, η p 2  = 0.083). Patients with DMDD exhibited specific alterations in the relation between pre-stimulus brain activity and RT. Patients with DMDD and those with ADHD exhibited similar blunting of compensatory neural activity in frontal, parietal, and other regions. In addition, patients with DMDD showed increased RT variability compared with healthy

  20. The effects of attention on age-related relational memory deficits: Evidence from a novel attentional manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Yeon; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Healthy aging is often accompanied by episodic memory decline. Prior studies have consistently demonstrated that older adults show disproportionate deficits in relational memory (RM) relative to item memory (IM). Despite rich evidence of an age-related RM deficit, the source of this deficit remains unspecified. One of the most widely investigated factors of age-related RM impairment is a reduction in attentional resources. However, no prior studies have demonstrated that reduced attentional resources are the critical source of age-related RM deficits. Here, we utilized qualitatively different attention tasks, and tested whether reduced attention for relational processing underlies the RM deficit observed in aging. In Experiment 1, we imposed either item-detection or relation-detection attention tasks on young adults during episodic memory encoding, and found that only the concurrent attention task involving relational processing disproportionately impaired RM performance in young adults. Moreover, by ruling out the possible confound of task-difficulty on the disproportionate RM impairment, we further demonstrated that reduced relational attention is a key factor for the age-related RM deficit. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results from Experiment 1 using different materials of stimuli and found that the effect of relational attention on RM is material-general. The results of Experiment 2 also showed that reducing attentional resources for relational processing in young adults strikingly equated their RM performance to that of older adults. Thus, the current study documents the first evidence that reduced attentional resources for relational processing are a critical factor for the relational memory impairment observed in aging. PMID:21707178

  1. Neurophysiological Correlates of Attentional Fluctuation in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Celeste H M; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised, in part, by frequent fluctuations in response speed, resulting in high reaction time variability (RTV). RTV captures a large proportion of the genetic risk in ADHD but, importantly, is malleable, improving significantly in a fast-paced, rewarded task condition. Using the temporal precision offered by event-related potentials (ERPs), we aimed to examine the neurophysiological measures of attention allocation (P3 amplitudes) and preparation (contingent negative variation, CNV), and their associations with the fluctuating RT performance and its improvement in ADHD. 93 participants with ADHD and 174 controls completed the baseline and fast-incentive conditions of a four-choice reaction time task, while EEG was simultaneously recorded. Compared to controls, individuals with ADHD showed both increased RTV and reduced P3 amplitudes during performance on the RT task. In the participants with ADHD, attenuated P3 amplitudes were significantly associated with high RTV, and the increase in P3 amplitudes from a slow baseline to a fast-paced, rewarded condition was significantly associated with the RTV decrease. Yet, the individuals with ADHD did not show the same increase in CNV from baseline to fast-incentive condition as observed in controls. ADHD is associated both with a neurophysiological impairment of attention allocation (P3 amplitudes) and an inability to adjust the preparatory state (CNV) in a changed context. Our findings suggest that both neurophysiological and cognitive performance measures of attention are malleable in ADHD, which are potential targets for non-pharmacological interventions.

  2. More attention, less deficit:wearable eeg-based serious game for focus improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Alchalabi, Alaa Eddin; Eddin, Amer Nour; Shirmohammadi, Shervin

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorders (ADD) are two of the most spread mental disorders characterized by the lack of attention and focus. One way to measure focus is through Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that can be read using the new wireless EEG reading devices often used by Brain-computer Interface (BCI) researchers. In parallel, serious games have been recently providing opportunities for the rehabilitation of various cognitive and emotional ...

  3. Attention network functioning in children with anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and non-clinical anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogg, K; Salum, G A; Bradley, B P; Gadelha, A; Pan, P; Alvarenga, P; Rohde, L A; Pine, D S; Manfro, G G

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults suggests that anxiety is associated with poor control of executive attention. However, in children, it is unclear (a) whether anxiety disorders and non-clinical anxiety are associated with deficits in executive attention, (b) whether such deficits are specific to anxiety versus other psychiatric disorders, and (c) whether there is heterogeneity among anxiety disorders (in particular, specific phobia versus other anxiety disorders). We examined executive attention in 860 children classified into three groups: anxiety disorders (n = 67), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 67) and no psychiatric disorder (n = 726). Anxiety disorders were subdivided into: anxiety disorders excluding specific phobia (n = 43) and specific phobia (n = 21). The Attention Network Task was used to assess executive attention, alerting and orienting. Findings indicated heterogeneity among anxiety disorders, as children with anxiety disorders (excluding specific phobia) showed impaired executive attention, compared with disorder-free children, whereas children with specific phobia showed no executive attention deficit. Among disorder-free children, executive attention was less efficient in those with high, relative to low, levels of anxiety. There were no anxiety-related deficits in orienting or alerting. Children with ADHD not only had poorer executive attention than disorder-free children, but also higher orienting scores, less accurate responses and more variable response times. Impaired executive attention in children (reflected by difficulty inhibiting processing of task-irrelevant information) was not fully explained by general psychopathology, but instead showed specific associations with anxiety disorders (other than specific phobia) and ADHD, as well as with high levels of anxiety symptoms in disorder-free children.

  4. Attention Mechanisms in Children with Anxiety Disorders and in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Adam S.; Chu, Brian C.; Reddy, Linda A.; Mohlman, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Inattention is among the most commonly referred problems for school-aged youth. Research suggests distinct mechanisms may contribute to attention problems in youth with anxiety disorders versus youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared children (8-17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8-16…

  5. Attention problems and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in discordant and concordant monozygotic twins: Evidence of environmental mediators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, H.; Derks, E.M.; Hudziak, J.; Heutink, P.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study familial and nonfamilial environmental influences on attention problems and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in monozygotic twins discordant and concordant-high and low for these traits. METHOD: Ninety-five twin pairs from The Netherlands Twin Register were

  6. Executive Function Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Shuai; David Daley; Yu-Feng Wang; Jin-Song Zhang; Yan-Ting Kong; Xin Tan; Ning Ji

    2017-01-01

    Background:Accumulating evidence indicates that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with core deficits in executive function (EF) which predicts poorer academic and occupational functioning.This makes early intervention targeting EF impairments important to prevent long-term negative outcomes.Cognitive training is a potential ADHD treatment target.The present study aimed to explore the efficacy,feasibility,and acceptability of a cognitive training program (targeting child's multiple EF components and involving parent support in daily life),as a nonpharmacological intervention for children with ADHD.Methods:Forty-four school-age children with ADHD and their parents participated in 12 sessions of EF training (last for 12 weeks) and 88 health controls (HC) were also recruited.Training effects were explored using both neuropsychological tests (Stroop color-word test,Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test,trail making test,tower of Hanoi,and false-belief task) and reports of daily life (ADHD rating scale-Ⅳ,Conners' parent rating scale,and behavior rating inventory of executive function [BRIEF]) by analysis of paired sample t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test.The differences on EF performances between children with ADHD after training and HC were explored using multivariate analysis.Results:The results (before vs.after EF training) showed that after intervention,the children with ADHD presented better performances of EF both in neuropsychological tests (word interference of Stroop:36.1 ± 14.6 vs.27.1 ± 11.1,t =4.731,P < 0.001;shift time of TMT:194.9 ± 115.4 vs.124.8 ± 72.4,Z =-4.639,P < 0.001;false-belief task:x2 =6.932,P =0.008) and reports of daily life (global executive composite of BRIEF:148.9 ± 17.5 vs.127.8 ± 17.5,t =6.433,P < 0.001).The performances on EF tasks for children with ADHD after EF training could match with the level of HC children.The ADHD symptoms (ADHD rating scale total score:32.4 ± 8.9 vs.22.9 ± 8.2,t =6.331,P

  7. The Speed of Visual Attention and Motor-Response Decisions in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-Villasana, Fernando; Finke, Kathrin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Kilian, Beate; Wiegand, Iris; Müller, Hermann Joseph; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Töllner, Thomas

    2015-07-15

    Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit slowed reaction times (RTs) in various attention tasks. The exact origins of this slowing, however, have not been established. Potential candidates are early sensory processes mediating the deployment of focal attention, stimulus response translation processes deciding upon the appropriate motor response, and motor processes generating the response. We combined mental chronometry (RT) measures of adult ADHD (n = 15) and healthy control (n = 15) participants with their lateralized event-related potentials during the performance of a visual search task to differentiate potential sources of slowing at separable levels of processing: the posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) was used to index focal-attentional selection times, while the lateralized readiness potentials synchronized to stimulus and response events were used to index the times taken for response selection and production, respectively. To assess the clinical relevance of event-related potentials, a correlation analysis between neural measures and subjective current and retrospective ADHD symptom ratings was performed. ADHD patients exhibited slower RTs than control participants, which were accompanied by prolonged PCN and lateralized readiness potentials synchronized to stimulus, but not lateralized readiness potentials synchronized to response events, latencies. Moreover, the PCN timing was positively correlated with ADHD symptom ratings. The behavioral RT slowing of adult ADHD patients was based on a summation of internal processing delays arising at perceptual and response selection stages; motor response production, by contrast, was not impaired. The correlation between PCN times and ADHD symptom ratings suggests that this brain signal may serve as a potential candidate for a neurocognitive endophenotype of ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Comparative Study on the Visual Perceptions of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman; Butun Ayhan, Aynur

    This study was conducted in order to (a) compare the visual perceptions of seven-year-old children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with those of normally developing children of the same age and development level and (b) determine whether the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vary with respect to gender, having received preschool education and parents` educational level. A total of 60 children, 30 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 30 with normal development, were assigned to the study. Data about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their families was collected by using a General Information Form and the visual perception of children was examined through the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to determine whether there was a difference of between the visual perceptions of children with normal development and those diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and to discover whether the variables of gender, preschool education and parents` educational status affected the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results showed that there was a statistically meaningful difference between the visual perceptions of the two groups and that the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were affected meaningfully by gender, preschool education and parents` educational status.

  9. Visual orienting and attention deficits in 5- and 10-month-old preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Perone, Sammy; Macek, Kelsi L; Eschman, Bret

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive outcomes for children born prematurely are well characterized, including increased risk for deficits in memory, attention, processing speed, and executive function. However, little is known about deficits that appear within the first 12 months, and how these early deficits contribute to later outcomes. To probe for functional deficits in visual attention, preterm and full-term infants were tested at 5 and 10 months with the Infant Orienting With Attention task (IOWA; Ross-Sheehy, Schneegans and Spencer, 2015). 5-month-old preterm infants showed significant deficits in orienting speed and task related error. However, 10-month-old preterm infants showed only selective deficits in spatial attention, particularly reflexive orienting responses, and responses that required some inhibition. These emergent deficits in spatial attention suggest preterm differences may be related to altered postnatal developmental trajectories. Moreover, we found no evidence of a dose-response relation between increased gestational risk and spatial attention. These results highlight the critical role of postnatal visual experience, and suggest that visual orienting may be a sensitive measure of attentional delay. Results reported here both inform current theoretical models of early perceptual/cognitive development, and future intervention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating reading and metacognitive deficits in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Jesús Ma; Puente, Aníbal; Jiménez, Virginia; Arrebillaga, Lorena

    2011-05-01

    The reading achievement of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has scarcely been explored in research conducted in the Spanish language and when it has, the results have been contradictory. The focus of the present research is to analyze participants' reading competency and metacognitive strategies as they carry out reading comprehension tasks. The sample was comprised of 187 Argentine schoolchildren aged 9 to 13 years old. 94 constituted the control group and the clinical group consisted of 93 schoolchildren diagnosed with ADHD. The metacognitive assessment was made up of two metacognitive tests, the Reading Awareness Scale (ESCOLA; acronym in Spanish) and a Spanish adaptation of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), and one test of reading comprehension, the Evaluation of Reading Processes for Secondary Education Students (PROLEC-SE; acronym in Spanish). Students with ADHD had lower achievement on tests o reading comprehension compared to the control group. Nevertheless, our results suggest their difficulties did not stem from readin comprehension problems, but rather from alterations in their Executive Functions, because when subjects' reading comprehensio was equalized, students with ADHD still exhibited a lower level of Metacognition, particularly when it came to planning.

  11. Relationship between attention deficit hyperactive disorder symptoms and perceived parenting practices of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Yoo, Il Young

    2013-04-01

    To examine the relationship between the perception on parenting practices and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in school-age children. Psychosocial attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention approaches emphasise environmental risk factors at the individual, family and community level. Parenting variables are strongly related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The participants were 747 children and their parents in two elementary schools. The instruments used were Korean Conners Abbreviated Parent Questionnaire and Korean version Maternal Behavior Research Instrument (measuring four dimensions of parenting practices: affection, autonomy, rejection, control). Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. The rejective parenting practice was statistically significant in logistic regression controlling gender and age of children, family structure, maternal education level and socio-economic status. The rejection parenting is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children (OR=1.356). These results suggest the importance of specific parenting educational programmes for parents to prevent and decrease attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. It would be more effective rather than focusing only on the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, developing educational programmes for parents to prevent rejection parenting practice and improve parenting skills in the family system. When developing a treatment programme for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, healthcare providers should consider not only the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, but also the parenting practices. Comprehensive interventions designed to prevent rejection and improve parenting skills may be helpful in mitigating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. © 2012 Blackwell

  12. Integral intervention in a child with epilepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Ernesto Martínez González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For several years, studies have investigated the appearance and prevalence of symptoms typical of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder in children with epilepsy. Traditional intervention methods to treat Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms include pharmacology and psychological therapy in children and parents. The present study assessed cognitive processes in a child with epilepsy and Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms after one year of neuropsychological rehabilitation and cognitive-behavioural family therapy. The results show an improvement in cognitive processes such as attention, short-term and long-term verbal and non-verbal memory, and executive function. There was also a slight improvement among parents in their perception of hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms. This study suggests that comprehensive intervention is a promising approach in children with epilepsy and Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms. Future studies should include a larger sample of patients with cognitive impairment and similar brain lesions.

  13. Altered white matter tract property related to impaired focused attention, sustained attention, cognitive impulsivity and vigilance in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Huey-Ling; Chen, Yu-Jen; Lo, Yu-Chun; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Gau, Susan S

    2015-09-01

    The neural substrate for clinical symptoms and neuropsychological performance in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has rarely been studied and has yielded inconsistent results. We sought to compare the microstructural property of fibre tracts associated with the prefrontal cortex and its association with ADHD symptoms and a wide range of attention performance in youth with ADHD and healthy controls. We assessed youths with ADHD and age-, sex-, handedness-, coil- and intelligence-matched controls using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT) for attention performance and MRI. The 10 target tracts, including the bilateral frontostriatal tracts (caudate to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle were reconstructed using diffusion spectrum imaging tractography. We computed generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) values to indicate tract-specific microstructural property. We included 50 youths with ADHD and 50 healthy controls in our study. Youths with ADHD had lower GFA in the left frontostriatal tracts, bilateral SLF and right cingulum bundle and performed worse in the CCPT than controls. Furthermore, alteration of the right SLF GFA was most significantly associated with the clinical symptom of inattention in youths with ADHD. Finally, youths with ADHD had differential association patterns of the 10 fibre tract GFA values with attention performance compared with controls. Ten of the youths with ADHD were treated with methylphenidate, which may have long-term effects on microstructural property. Our study highlights the importance of the SLF, cingulum bundle and frontostriatal tracts for clinical symptoms and attention performance in youths with ADHD and demonstrates the involvement of different fibre tracts in attention performance in these individuals.

  14. Social skills deficits and their association with Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Min; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The aims of this study were to examine the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the moderators for this association. Methods A total of 300 adolescents, aged between 11 and 18 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their Internet addiction levels, social skills deficits, ADHD, parental characteristics, and comorbidities were assessed. The various Internet activities that the participants engaged in were also examined. Results The associations between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities and the moderators of these associations were examined using logistic regression analyses. Social skills deficits were significantly associated with an increased risk of Internet addiction after adjustment for the effects of other factors [odds ratio (OR) = 1.049, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.030-1.070]. Social skills deficits were also significantly associated with Internet gaming and watching movies. The maternal occupational socioeconomic levels of the participants moderated the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction. Conclusions Social skills deficits should be considered targets in prevention and intervention programs for treating Internet addiction among adolescents with ADHD.

  15. Do attention deficits influence IQ assessment in children and adolescents with ADHD?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt M; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationship between IQ and attention deficits in children with ADHD and to estimate the inattention-related mean influence on IQ when children are tested before stimulant drug treatment has been initiated. METHOD: Studies of various methodologies are reviewed....... RESULTS: Correlation studies show mostly weak associations between IQ scores and attention deficits. Meta-analyses report the average short-term stimulant treatment effect on IQ in children with ADHD to be 2 to 7 IQ points. CONCLUSION: The associations between IQ and attention deficits in ADHD...

  16. Family-genetic study of executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence for an endophenotype?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.J.; Sonneville, L.M. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined familiality of attentional control and mental flexibility in multiplex attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) families. The authors hypothesized that siblings of ADHD probands, although not behaviorally expressing ADHD, have deficits in these executive functions and that

  17. Attentional functions in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without comorbid tic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimel, E; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Günther, T; Vitt, C; Konrad, K

    2008-01-01

    Although the coexistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) is common, the nature of association is yet not fully understood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to explore attentional dysfunction in children with pure ADHD compared to children with comorbid ADHD + TD. Three groups of 20 children each, aged 8-15 years with either ADHD, ADHD + chronic tic disorder or Tourette syndrome (ADHD + TD) and a healthy control group were compared in their performance on three computerized attention tasks. Tasks of sustained attention, selective attention and interference control were employed. In addition, parental ratings of ADHD symptom severity and behaviour problems were obtained. Both clinical groups were rated as equally inattentive, however, externalising symptoms were more severe in the ADHD group. Objective measures of attentional performance revealed differences between the groups: whereas the ADHD group was markedly impaired in sustaining attention and selective attention/inhibitory control, the ADHD + TD group only showed marginal deficits in selective attention/inhibitory control. Possible explanations for the superior performance of the comorbid group are discussed: In particular, the results may indicate that in some patients, the tic disorder produces behavioural symptoms of ADHD, but not the broad neurocognitive deficits that usually are associated with ADHD. Alternatively, compensatory neural mechanisms of TD patients may result in a better neuropsychological performance of comorbid patients relative to patients suffering from pure ADHD.

  18. Selective Attention and Inhibitory Deficits in ADHD: Does Subtype or Comorbidity Modulate Negative Priming Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Verena E.; Neumann, Ewald; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2008-01-01

    Selective attention has durable consequences for behavior and neural activation. Negative priming (NP) effects are assumed to reflect a critical inhibitory component of selective attention. The performance of adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was assessed across two conceptually based NP tasks within a selective…

  19. Attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities: evaluating the potential of computerised cognitive training

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Attention skills are strongly associated with academic attainment, social inclusion, peer relationships and mental health. Attention difficulties are commonly reported in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), consequently increasing the already heightened risk of cognitive difficulties, behavioural problems and learning impairments. Despite acknowledgement of the core deficits in attention that characterise children with IDD, limited research has attempted to stre...

  20. Understanding and Working with Attention Deficit Disorder Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    From a holistic perspective the term attention refers to a student's capacity to focus, direct and sustain their attention on a particular stimulus within their environment for a significant period of time. The development of students' attention spans develops progressively from the time they enter school. From the beginning some students have…

  1. Deficits in Interval Timing Measured by the Dual-Task Paradigm among Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shoou-Lian; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Background: The underlying mechanism of time perception deficit in long time intervals in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still unclear. This study used the time reproduction dual task to explore the role of the attentional resource in time perception deficits among children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Participants…

  2. The Association Between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Williams, Rebecca; Russell, Ginny

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review examines associations between parental socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by parental income, education, occupation and marital status. Results were mixed by measure of SES with no one aspect being differentially related to ADHD. 42 studies were included in the review, of which 35 found a significant univariate association between socioeconomic disadvantage and ADHD. Meta-analyses of dimensions of SES and their association with ADHD indicate that children in families of low SES are on average 1.85-2.21 more likely to have ADHD than their peers in high SES families. In spite of substantial between-study heterogeneity, there is evidence for an association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risk of ADHD measured in different ways. This is likely mediated by factors linked to low SES such as parental mental health and maternal smoking during pregnancy.

  3. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency: infertility and neurodevelopmental diseases (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    The process of development depends on a number of signaling systems that regulates the progressive sequence of developmental events. Infertility and neurodevelopmental diseases, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia, are caused by specific alterations in these signaling processes. Calcium signaling plays a prominent role throughout development beginning at fertilization and continuing through early development, implantation, and organ differentiation such as heart and brain development. Vitamin D plays a major role in regulating these signaling processes that control development. There is an increase in infertility and an onset of neurodevelopmental diseases when vitamin D is deficient. The way in which vitamin D deficiency acts to alter development is a major feature of this review. One of the primary functions of vitamin D is to maintain the phenotypic stability of both the Ca 2+ and redox signaling pathways that play such a key role throughout development.

  5. Social isolation induces deficit of latent learning performance in mice: a putative animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Hirofumi; Ono, Kazuya; Murakami, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2013-02-01

    Social isolation of rodents (SI) elicits a variety of stress responses such as increased aggressiveness, hyper-locomotion, and reduced susceptibility to pentobarbital. To obtain a better understanding of the relevance of SI-induced behavioral abnormalities to psychiatric disorders, we examined the effect of SI on latent learning as an index of spatial attention, and discussed the availability of SI as an epigenetic model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Except in specially stated cases, 4-week-old male mice were housed in a group or socially isolated for 3-70 days before experiments. The animals socially isolated for 1 week or more exhibited spatial attention deficit in the water-finding test. Re-socialized rearing for 5 weeks after 1-week SI failed to attenuate the spatial attention deficit. The effect of SI on spatial attention showed no gender difference or correlation with increased aggressive behavior. Moreover, SI had no effect on cognitive performance elucidated in a modified Y-maze or an object recognition test, but it significantly impaired contextual and conditional fear memory elucidated in the fear-conditioning test. Drugs used for ADHD therapy, methylphenidate (1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) and caffeine (0.5-1 mg/kg, i.p.), improved SI-induced latent learning deficit in a manner reversible with cholinergic but not dopaminergic antagonists. Considering the behavioral features of SI mice together with their susceptibility to ADHD drugs, the present findings suggest that SI provides an epigenetic animal model of ADHD and that central cholinergic systems play a role in the effect of methylphenidate on SI-induced spatial attention deficit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Hayden, Jill; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the empirical evidence for deficits in working memory (WM) processes in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Exploratory meta-analytic procedures were used to investigate whether children with ADHD exhibit WM impairments. Twenty-six empirical research studies published from…

  8. The executive control network and symptomatic improvement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francx, Winke; Oldehinkel, Marianne; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Beckmann, Christian F.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mennes, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Background: One neurodevelopmental theory hypothesizes remission of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to result from improved prefrontal top-down control, while ADHD, independent of the current diagnosis, is characterized by stable non-cortical deficits (Halperin & Schulz, 2006). We

  9. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dramsdahl, Margaretha; Ersland, Lars; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex in adults...

  10. Neural correlates of visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, Hanneke; Weeda, Wouter D.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Luman, Marjolein; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Impaired visuospatial working memory (VSWM) is suggested to be a core neurocognitive deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the underlying neural activation patterns are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent age and gender effects may play a role in

  11. Neural Mechanisms of Interference Control and Time Discrimination in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vloet, Timo D.; Gilsbach, Susanne; Neufang, Susanne; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Both executive functions and time perception are typically impaired in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the exact neural mechanisms underlying these deficits remain to be investigated. Method: Fourteen subjects with ADHD and 14 age- and IQ-matched controls (aged 9 through 15 years) were assessed…

  12. Structural Brain Abnormalities of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, Siri D. S.; Luman, Marjolein; Greven, Corina U.; Veroude, Kim; Faraone, Stephen V.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of

  13. Narrative Intervention: A School-Based Counseling Strategy for Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Khosrow; Yoosefi Looyeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a group narrative intervention for improving the behavior of 8- to 11-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at home and school. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  14. Living with symptoms of Attention DeficitHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauge Berring, Lene; Bjerrum, Merete Bender; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD, people...

  15. Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Oppositional Defiant Problems as Antecedents of School Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Jansen, Pauline W.; Veenstra, Rene; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Shaw, Philip; Tiemeier, Henning

    Objective: To examine whether early manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) increase children's later risk of bullying or victimization. Method: Using a population-based, prospective cohort, our multi-informant approach comprised

  16. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Krogh, Helle B; Ramstad, Erica

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate...

  17. Circadian rhythm disruption as a link between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and obesity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S.W.; Bijlenga, D.; Tanke, M.; Bron, T.I.; van der Heijden, K.B.; Swaab, H.; Beekman, A.T.; Kooij, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have a high prevalence of obesity. This is the first study to investigate whether circadian rhythmdisruption is a mechanismlinking ADHD symptoms to obesity. Methods: ADHD symptoms and two manifestations of circadian

  18. Baroreflex sensitivity during rest and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A.; Althaus, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; van den Hoofdakker, B.J.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show executive function (EF) problems and neurophysiological hypoarousal. Baroreceptor activation, as part of the baroreflex short-term blood pressure regulatory mechanism, has been linked to cortical inhibition and attenuated

  19. Baroreflex sensitivity during rest and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The TRAILS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A.; Althaus, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mindera, R.B.; Hoofdakker, B.J. van den; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show executive function (EF) problems and neurophysiological hypoarousal. Baroreceptor activation, as part of the baroreflex short-term blood pressure regulatory mechanism, has been linked to cortical inhibition and attenuated

  20. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Back, Odeya; Keren, Amit; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2011-03-01

    This prospective study explores the prevalence and characteristics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy, compared with its prevalence in their siblings. Among 40 patients with benign epilepsy, 28 (70%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: 19 with the inattentive type, one with the hyperactive type, and eight with the combined type. In the control group of 12 siblings, only two (16.7%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Pattentional difficulties was evident in children whose seizures were more resistant and required more than one antiepileptic drug for seizure control. Children with more epileptiform features in their electroencephalograms were also more subject to signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Larger scale studies are required to validate our findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Subclinical symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with specific creative processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, N.; Nevicka, B.; Baas, M.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. Although ADHD generally associates with a range of cognitive impairments, evidence suggests that people with ADHD may be more creative than people

  2. Methylphenidate for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole J; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    CLINICAL QUESTION: Is treatment with methylphenidate associated with benefits or harms for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? BOTTOM LINE: Methylphenidate is associated with improvement in ADHD symptoms, general behavior, and quality of life; however, due...

  3. Gendering attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a discursive analysis of UK newspaper stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton-Salway, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Discursive psychology is used to study the gendering of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK national newspapers in the period of 2009-2011. The analysis examines how gendering is embedded in causal attributions and identity constructions. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is portrayed as a predominantly male phenomenon with representations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder being gendered through extreme stories about victims, villains or heroes that depict boys and men as marginalised, exceptional or dangerous. There is also a focus on mothers as the spokespersons and caretakers for parenting and family health while fathers are rendered more invisible. This contributes to our understanding of how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is constructed in the media using a range of gendered representations that draw on cultural stereotypes familiar in Western societies.

  4. Borderline personality traits and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A genetic analysis of comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, M.A.; Carlier, A.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Derom, C.A.; Lubke, G.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has established the comorbidity of adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with different personality disorders including Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The association between adult ADHD and BPD has primarily been investigated at the phenotypic level and not

  5. Borderline personality traits and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a genetic analysis of comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, Marijn A.; Carlier, Angela; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Derom, Catherine A.; Lubke, Gitta H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has established the comorbidity of adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with different personality disorders including Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The association between adult ADHD and BPD has primarily been investigated at the phenotypic level and not

  6. Deficits in motor control processes involved in the production of graphomotor movements in children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, MM; Ketelaars, Cornelis; van Zonneveld, M; Minderaa, RB; Mulder, T

    This study aimed to investigate whether two distinct motor control processes, i.e. motor planning and parameter setting, were impaired in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An experiment was designed in which children copied figures of increasing complexity under

  7. Attention Demand and Postural Control in Children with Hearing Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlich, Malgorzata; Krecisz, Krzysztof; Kuczynski, Michal

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for deteriorated postural control in children with hearing deficit (CwHD), we measured center-of-pressure (COP) variability, mean velocity and entropy in bipedal quiet stance (feet together) with or without the concurrent cognitive task (reaction to visual stimulus) on hard or foam surface in 29 CwHD and a…

  8. Attentional Bias towards Emotional Scenes in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishyareh, Ebrahim; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Mahmoodi-Gharaie, Javad; Khorrami, Anahita; Joudi, Mitra; Ahmadi, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) react explosively and inappropriately to emotional stimuli. It could be hypothesized that these children have some impairment in attending to emotional cues. Based on this hypothesis, we conducted this study to evaluate visual directions of children with ADHD towards paired emotional scenes. Thirty boys between the ages of 6 and 11 years diagnosed with ADHD were compared with 30 age-matched normal boys. All participants were presented paired emotional and neutral scenes in the four following categories: pleasant-neutral; pleasant-unpleasant; unpleasant-neutral; and neutral - neutral. Meanwhile, their visual orientations towards these pictures were evaluated using the eye tracking system. The number and duration of first fixation and duration of first gaze were compared between the two groups using the MANOVA analysis. The performance of each group in different categories was also analyzed using the Friedman test. With regards to duration of first gaze, which is the time taken to fixate on a picture before moving to another picture, ADHD children spent less time on pleasant pictures compared to normal group, while they were looking at pleasant - neutral and unpleasant - pleasant pairs. The duration of first gaze on unpleasant pictures was higher while children with ADHD were looking at unpleasant - neutral pairs (P<0.01). Based on the findings of this study it could be concluded that children with ADHD attend to unpleasant conditions more than normal children which leads to their emotional reactivity.

  9. A neurocomputational account of reward and novelty processing and effects of psychostimulants in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Arjun; Voon, Valerie; Critchley, Hugo D; Cercignani, Mara; Harrison, Neil A

    2018-05-01

    Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain. Here we used an established reinforcement-learning task to model effects of novelty on reward-related behaviour during functional MRI in 30 adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 30 age-, sex- and IQ-matched control subjects. Each participant was tested on two separate occasions, once ON and once OFF stimulant medication. OFF medication, patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder showed significantly impaired task performance (P = 0.027), and greater selection of novel options (P = 0.004). Moreover, persistence in selecting novel options predicted impaired task performance (P = 0.025). These behavioural deficits were accompanied by a significantly lower learning rate (P = 0.011) and heightened novelty signalling within the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (family-wise error corrected P attention deficit hyperactivity disorder participants' overall task performance (P = 0.011), increased reward-learning rates (P = 0.046) and enhanced their ability to differentiate optimal from non-optimal novel choices (P = 0.032). It also reduced substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area responses to novelty. Preliminary cross-sectional evidence additionally suggested an association between long-term stimulant treatment and a reduction in the rewarding value of novelty. These data suggest that aberrant substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area novelty processing plays an

  10. An iPad-Based Tool for Improving the Skills of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wrońska, Natalia; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya; Mendez-Zorrilla, Amaia

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), with a worldwide prevalence of 5.29%–7.1%, is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders among children and adolescents. Apart from typical symptoms like inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness, patients also evidence attention deficit problems with reading comprehension. This in turn causes poor school performance and widens the gap with peers without ADHD. This paper presents a novel and interactive tool based on Serious Games...

  11. Comparing Attentional Networks in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and the inattentive and combined subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Fan, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The Attention Network Test (ANT) was used to examine alerting, orienting, and executive control in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) versus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 113 children aged 7 to 10 years (31 ADHD-Combined, 16 ADHD-Primarily Inattentive, 28 FASD, 38 controls). Incongruent flanker trials triggered slower responses in both the ADHD-Combined and the FASD groups. Abnormal conflict scores in these same two groups provided additional evidence for the presence of executive function deficits. The ADHD-Primarily Inattentive group was indistinguishable from the controls on all three ANT indices, which highlights the possibility that this group constitutes a pathologically distinct entity.

  12. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  13. Severity of the aggression/anxiety-depression/attention child behavior checklist profile discriminates between different levels of deficits in emotional regulation in youth with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter R; Day, Helen; Goldin, Rachel L; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V; Surman, Craig B H; Wozniak, Janet

    2012-04-01

    We examined whether severity scores (1 SD vs 2 SDs) of a unique profile of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) consisting of the Anxiety/Depression, Aggression, and Attention (AAA) scales would help differentiate levels of deficits in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Subjects were 197 children with ADHD and 224 without ADHD. We defined deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) as an aggregate cutoff score of >180 but siblings. In contrast, the CBCL-DESR was associated with higher rates of comorbid disruptive behavior, anxiety disorders, and impaired interpersonal functioning compared with other ADHD children. Severity scores of the AAA CBCL profiles can help distinguish 2 groups of emotional regulation problems in children with ADHD.

  14. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in ancient Greece: The Obtuse Man of Theophrastus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Marcelo M; S da Silva, Bruna; Kappel, Djenifer B; Bau, Claiton Hd; Grevet, Eugenio H

    2018-06-01

    We present an ancient Greek description written by the philosopher Theophrastus in his classic book ' Characters' comparable with modern attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The arguments are based in one chapter of this book-The Obtuse Man-presenting features of a character closely resembling the modern description of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In a free comparative exercise, we compared Theophrastus descriptions with modern Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The sentences describing The Obtuse Man written by Theophrastus are similar to several symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and he would probably be currently diagnosed with this disorder as an adult. To our knowledge, this is the oldest description compatible with the current conception of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults in the Western literature. Differently than the moralistic view of ancient Greece regarding those symptoms, the medical attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder conception may be advantageous to patients since it might reduce prejudice and allow individuals to seek treatment.

  15. Vitamin D Status at Birth and Future Risk of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Peik; Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Ode, Amanda; Olofsson, Per; Ivarsson, Sten A; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Haglund, Nils; Källén, Karin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have lower levels of Vitamin D3 at birth than matched controls. Umbilical cord blood samples collected at birth from 202 children later diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were analysed for vitamin D content and compared with 202 matched controls. 25-OH vitamin D3 was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. No differences in cord blood vitamin D concentration were found between children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (median 13.0 ng/ml) and controls (median 13.5 ng/ml) (p = 0.43). In a logistic regression analysis, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder showed a significant association with maternal age (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.99) but not with vitamin D levels (odds ratio: 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.02). We found no difference in intrauterine vitamin D levels between children later developing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and matched control children. However, the statistical power of the study was too weak to detect an eventual small to medium size association between vitamin D levels and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

  16. Inverse associations between cord vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossin, Mats H; Aaby, Jens B; Dalgård, Christine; Lykkedegn, Sine; Christesen, Henrik T; Bilenberg, Niels

    2017-07-01

    To examine the association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2+3 (25(OH)D) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers, using Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5. In a population-based birth cohort, a Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5 questionnaire was returned from parents of 1233 infants with mean age 2.7 (standard deviation 0.6) years. Adjusted associations between cord 25(OH)D and Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problems were analysed by multiple regression. Results The median cord 25(OH)D was 44.1 (range: 1.5-127.1) nmol/L. Mean attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem score was 2.7 (standard deviation 2.1). In adjusted analyses, cord 25(OH)D levels >25 nmol/L and >30 nmol/L were associated with lower attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores compared to levels ⩽25 nmol/L ( p = 0.035) and ⩽30 nmol/L ( p = 0.043), respectively. The adjusted odds of scoring above the 90th percentile on the Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem scale decreased by 11% per 10 nmol/L increase in cord 25(OH)D. An inverse association between cord 25(OH)D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers was found, suggesting a protective effect of prenatal vitamin D.

  17. Co-morbidity in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, P; Srinath, S; Girimaji, S; Seshadri, S; Sagar, J V

    2016-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at a tertiary care child and adolescent psychiatry centre. A total of 63 children and adolescents who were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were comprehensively assessed for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities. The tools used included the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS), Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale, Vineland Social Maturity Scale, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. All except 1 subject had neurodevelopmental and / or psychiatric disorder co-morbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; 66.7% had both neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Specific learning disability was the most common co-existing neurodevelopmental disorder and oppositional defiant disorder was the most common psychiatric co-morbidity. The mean baseline ADHD-RS scores were significantly higher in the group with psychiatric co-morbidities, especially in the group with oppositional defiant disorder. Co-morbidity is present at a very high frequency in clinic-referred children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric co-morbidity, specifically oppositional defiant disorder, has an impact on the severity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Co-morbidity needs to be explicitly looked for during evaluation and managed appropriately.

  18. Motor dysfunction in NF1: Mediated by attention deficit or inherent to the disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas-Lude, Karin; Heimgärtner, Magdalena; Winter, Sarah; Mautner, Victor-Felix; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Attention deficit and compromised motor skills are both prevalent in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), but the relationship is unclear. We investigated motor function in children with NF1 and in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and explored if, in patients with NF1, attention deficit influences motor performance. Motor performance was measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in 71 children (26 with NF1 plus ADHD, 14 with NF1 without ADHD, and 31 with ADHD without NF1) aged 6-12 years. There was a significant effect of group on motor performance. Both NF1 groups scored below children with ADHD without NF1. Attention performance mediated motor performance in children with ADHD without NF1, but not in children with NF1. Motor function is not mediated by attention performance in children with NF1. While in ADHD, attention deficit influences motor performance, motor problems in NF1 seem to be independent from attention deficit. This argues for different pathomechanisms in these two groups of developmental disorders. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bupropion for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeeck, Wim; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Kramers, Cornelis

    2017-10-02

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurobiological condition, characterised by behavioral and cognitive symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity and/or excessive activity. The syndrome is commonly accompanied by psychiatric comorbidities and is associated with educational and occupational underachievement.Although psychostimulant medications are the mainstay of treatment for ADHD, not all adults respond optimally to, or can tolerate, these medicines. Thus, alternative non-stimulant treatment approaches for ADHD have been explored. One of these alternatives is bupropion, an aminoketone antidepressant and non-competitive antagonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Bupropion is registered for the treatment of depression and smoking cessation, but is also used off-label to treat ADHD. To assess the effects and safety of bupropion for the treatment of adults with ADHD. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and seven other databases in February 2017. We also searched three trials registers and three online theses portals. In addition, we checked references of included studies and contacted study authors to identify potentially relevant studies that were missed by our search. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects (including adverse effects) of bupropion compared to placebo in adults with ADHD. Two review authors (WV, GB) independently screened records and extracted data using a data extraction sheet that we tested in a pilot study. We extracted all relevant data on study characteristics and results. We assessed risks of bias using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and assessed the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. We used a fixed-effect model to pool the results across studies. We included six studies with a total of 438 participants. Five studies were conducted in the USA, and one in Iran. All studies evaluated a long

  20. Language impairment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safaa Refaat El Sady

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... in language skills as sequencing difficulties, poor problem- solving skills ... help in managing the motor and language difficulties [7]. Despite the ..... attention, thinking, learning process, and social interaction of the child, which ...

  1. Dissociable attentional and affective circuits in medication-naïve children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Jonathan; Rauh, Virginia; Gruber, Allison; Gat, Inbal; Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-07-30

    Current neurocognitive models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that neural circuits involving both attentional and affective processing make independent contributions to the phenomenology of the disorder. However, a clear dissociation of attentional and affective circuits and their behavioral correlates has yet to be shown in medication-naïve children with ADHD. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in a cohort of medication naïve children with (N=22) and without (N=20) ADHD, we demonstrate that children with ADHD have reduced connectivity in two neural circuits: one underlying executive attention (EA) and the other emotional regulation (ER). We also demonstrate a double dissociation between these two neural circuits and their behavioral correlates such that reduced connectivity in the EA circuit correlates with executive attention deficits but not with emotional lability, while on the other hand, reduced connectivity in the ER circuit correlates with emotional lability but not with executive attention deficits. These findings suggest potential avenues for future research such as examining treatment effects on these two neural circuits as well as the potential prognostic and developmental significance of disturbances in one circuit vs the other. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attentional Bias towards Emotional Scenes in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Pishyareh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Children with attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD react explosively and inappropriately to emotional stimuli. It could be hypothesized that these children have some impairment in attending to emotional cues. Based on this hypothesis, we conducted this study to evaluate visual directions of children with ADHD towards paired emotional scenes.Method: thirty boys between the ages of 6 and 11 years diagnosed with ADHD were compared with 30 age-matched normal boys. All participants were presented paired emotional and neutral scenes in the four following categories: pleasant-neutral; pleasant-unpleasant; unpleasant-neutral; and neutral – neutral. Meanwhile, their visual orientations towards these pictures were evaluated using the eye tracking system. The number and duration of first fixation and duration of first gaze were compared between the two groups using the MANOVA analysis. The performance of each group in different categories was also analyzed using the Friedman test.Results: With regards to duration of first gaze, which is the time taken to fixate on a picture before moving to another picture, ADHD children spent less time on pleasant pictures compared to normal group ,while they were looking at pleasant – neutral and unpleasant – pleasant pairs. The duration of first gaze on unpleasant pictures was higher while children with ADHD were looking at unpleasant – neutral pairs (P<0.01.Conclusion: based on the findings of this study it could be concluded that children with ADHD attend to unpleasant conditions more than normal children which leads to their emotional reactivity.

  3. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  4. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Polygenic Risk Scores Predict Attention Problems in a Population-Based Sample of Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, M.M.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Kan, K.J.; Abdellaoui, A.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Ehli, E.A.; Davies, G.E.; Scheet, P.; Xiao, X.; Hudziak, J.J.; Hottenga, J.J.; Neale, B.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Clinically, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention and is among the most common childhood disorders. These same traits that define ADHD are variable in the general population, and the clinical diagnosis may represent

  5. Long-term prognosis in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannuzza, S; Klein, R G

    2000-07-01

    The authors have traced the developmental course of ADHD from childhood to adulthood, showing that it is a bumpy road for many. In early and middle adolescence, relative deficits are seen in academic and social functioning, ADHD symptoms remain problematic in two thirds to three quarters of these children, and antisocial behaviors, in some cases amounting to CD, are common. Many of these same difficulties persist into the late teenage years. Deficits continue to be observed in academic and social domains (compared with controls, probands exhibit lower grades, more courses failed, worse performance on standardized tests, have fewer friends, and are rated less adequate in psychosocial adjustment). About two fifths continue to experience ADHD symptoms to a clinically significant degree. One quarter to one third have a diagnosed antisocial disorder, and two thirds of these individuals are arrested. Also, drug abuse is observed in a significant minority of these youths. Importantly, the greatest risk factor for the development of antisocial behavior and substance abuse by the late teenage years is the maintenance of ADD symptoms. When evaluated in their mid-twenties, dysfunctions are apparent in these same areas. Compared with controls, probands complete less schooling, hold lower-ranking occupations, and continue to suffer from poor self-esteem and social skills deficits. In addition, significantly more probands than controls exhibit an antisocial personality and, perhaps, a substance use disorder in adulthood. Furthermore, many do not outgrow all facets of their childhood syndrome. These relative deficits, however, do not tell the whole story of the ADHD child's adult fate. Indeed, nearly all probands were gainfully employed. Furthermore, some had achieved a higher-level education (e.g., completed Master's degree, enrolled in medical school) and occupation (e.g., accountant, stock broker). In addition, a full two thirds of these children showed no evidence of any

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: diagnostic imperatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-07

    May 7, 2003 ... to carry out monotonous tasks and error-proneness. Premature dis- ... times display can also be interpreted as a coping strategy to com- bat inner chaos ... exception. To differentiate these co-morbid conditions from ADHD.

  7. Imaging functional and structural brain connectomics in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Miao; Shu, Ni; Cao, Qingjiu; Wang, Yufeng; He, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopment disorders in childhood. Clinically, the core symptoms of this disorder include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Previous studies have documented that these behavior deficits in ADHD children are associated with not only regional brain abnormalities but also changes in functional and structural connectivity among regions. In the past several years, our understanding of how ADHD affects the brain's connectivity has been greatly advanced by mapping topological alterations of large-scale brain networks (i.e., connectomes) using noninvasive neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques (e.g., electroencephalograph, functional MRI, and diffusion MRI) in combination with graph theoretical approaches. In this review, we summarize the recent progresses of functional and structural brain connectomics in ADHD, focusing on graphic analysis of large-scale brain systems. Convergent evidence suggests that children with ADHD had abnormal small-world properties in both functional and structural brain networks characterized by higher local clustering and lower global integrity, suggesting a disorder-related shift of network topology toward regular configurations. Moreover, ADHD children showed the redistribution of regional nodes and connectivity involving the default-mode, attention, and sensorimotor systems. Importantly, these ADHD-associated alterations significantly correlated with behavior disturbances (e.g., inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms) and exhibited differential patterns between clinical subtypes. Together, these connectome-based studies highlight brain network dysfunction in ADHD, thus opening up a new window into our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder. These works might also have important implications on the development of imaging-based biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and treatment evaluation in ADHD.

  8. Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Ramstad, Erica; Krogh, Helle B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorders in childhood. Typically, children with ADHD find it difficult to pay attention, they are hyperactive and impulsive.Methylphenidate is the drug most often prescribed...

  9. NEUROMYOPATHIES IN THE CORRECTION OF ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER AND HYPERACTIVITY IN SCHOOLCHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Jafarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed correction procedure in educational technology for children suffering from attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. The analysis of the correlation of the results of psychological testing of the properties of attention and the dynamics of EEG with the efficiency of the educational process.

  10. Girls with Social and/or Attention Deficits: A Descriptive Study of 100 Clinic Attenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Svenny; Kelly, Kristina Berg; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine clinical correlates and distinguishing features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), ADHD, and tic disorders in girls referred for social impairment, attention/academic deficits, and/or tics. Method: One hundred 3- to 18-year-old girls referred for social impairment and attention symptoms were assessed in detail. Sixty of these…

  11. Written Composition Performance of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Ferrer, Manuel Soriano; Fortea, Inmaculada Baixauli

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with learning disabilities. The present study examined the written composition of children with ADHD, which depends to a large degree on continuous self-regulation and attentional control skills for organizing information and maintaining the level of effort. Fifty children…

  12. Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William; Evans, Lynsay; Birrel, Laura; Sontag, Thomas A.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of attention are cardinal features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and can seriously affect the daily life of children with ADHD. Despite effective treatment strategies, there is a need of further treatment options that can be added to available and well established

  13. Sensation-to-cognition cortical streams in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, Susana; Hoekzema, E; Castellanos, Francisco X; García-García, David; Lage-Castellanos, Agustín; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Martínez, Kenia; Desco, Manuel; Sepulcre, Jorge

    We sought to determine whether functional connectivity streams that link sensory, attentional, and higher-order cognitive circuits are atypical in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We applied a graph-theory method to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 120

  14. Does Response Variability Predict Distractibility among Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary W.; Roberts, Walter M.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Increased intraindividual variability in response time (RTSD) has been observed reliably in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has often been used as a measure of inattention. RTSD is assumed to reflect attentional lapses and distractibility, though evidence for the validity of this connection is lacking. We assessed whether RTSD…

  15. Use of Digital Console Game for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tsung-Yen; Lee, I-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chih

    2010-01-01

    ADHD or ADD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) is one of the most frequently diagnosed mental and behavioral disorders of children. Children with ADHD are characterized by poor attention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Although there is no "cure" for ADHD, there are accepted treatments that…

  16. Use of Peer-Mediated Intervention in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogel-MacAleese, Alicia N.; Wallace, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment extended and replicated the use of functional analysis and a peer-mediated intervention to decrease disruptive behavior displayed by children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in an afterschool program. After determining that the participants displayed off-task behavior maintained by peer attention via…

  17. Sustained and selective attention deficits as vulnerability markers to psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulet, B; Valero, J; Gutiérrez-Zotes, A; Montserrat, C; Cortés, M J; Jariod, M; Martorell, L; Vilella, E; Labad, A

    2007-04-01

    The first descriptions of schizophrenia emphasized attention problems patients with schizophrenia have but recent results evidence that other psychotic disorders share them. We compared the performance in sustained and selective attention between psychotic patients (P), their healthy first degree relatives (R) and healthy volunteers (C) to prove whether these alterations could be an endophenotype of vulnerability to psychosis. We also compared the performance of schizophrenic patients (SZP) and that of patients with other functional psychoses (OP) in order to prove whether these alterations are specific of any psychotic disorder. Seventy-six P, 70 R and 39 C were included in the study. A selective attention index, comprising TMT A and B and Stroop Test, and a sustained attention index comprising the Continuous Performance Test were calculated. We conducted an univariant general linear model to compare three group performances in these indexes, with age, sex and years of education as a covariables. We found significant differences between the indexes when we compared P, R and C. No differences in performance were found between SZP and OP. Our data showed that sustained and selective attention alterations could be a vulnerability factor to psychotic disorders in general, but they were not specific of schizophrenia.

  18. Study of Attention Deficit in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Kafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Attention deficit has significant effect on the life of patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the attention deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: In the present post-hoc study, 132 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected via non-randomized sampling at Shafa Hospital (Rasht, Iran and then divided into four equal groups: chronic schizophrenia patients, first-episode patients, chronic bipolar patients, and first-episode bipolar patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Subjects were evaluated by Stroop color-word test. The gathered Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Attention deficit among chronic schizophrenics and patients suffering from bipolar disease was higher than the control group (p <1. Chronic schizophrenic patients compared with schizophrenia bipolar disease and first round schizophrenia showed more attention deficit. There was no significant difference among the first bipolar disease and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as the first round schizophrenia (p<0.05. Conclusion: Attention deficit is more severe in schizophrenic patients than bipolar disorder, and chronicity is more effective in schizophrenic patients. Key words: Attention, Schizophrenia, Chronicity

  19. Assessment of Attention Deficits in Adolescent Offspring Exposed to Maternal Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine; Vlachova, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the potential association between intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes and attention deficits in the offspring. Research design and methods: Adolescent offspring of a prospectively followed cohort of women with type 1 diabetes (n = 269......, vigilance, hyperactivity/impulsivity, sustained attention and response style. Results: A higher frequency of the exposed offspring had a parent/self-reported use of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medication compared to the control group (2.2% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.01). Clinical significant...... deficits in the adolescent offspring. However, a higher self-reported use of ADHD medication in the exposed group could suggest a difference in attention not revealed by the applied test....

  20. Disorders of the Attention Deficit with Hypertability (ADHD: challenges and possibilities in front of the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayane da Silva Abrahão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, a disorder characterized by its direct influence on the behavior of students and, consequently, on the teaching-learning process, which can generate personal, family and school conflicts. This research had as justification the search for knowledge about ADHD. The general objective of this study was to know and characterize ADHD, comprehending the main challenges and possibilities of pedagogical performance. The methodology used was the bibliographic review. We discuss in this study disorder is becoming more frequent in students in the initial grades, who initially present characteristics such as lack of attention and concentration, restlessness, behaviors, these, which reflect in the school and social life of the student. We have seen that the work of the teacher, with the family, other professionals, and in some cases associated with medication prescribed by a specialized professional is essential to student learning, so that it can perform better in academic activities and in Your personal life. We conclude that the specialized pedagogical approach to children with ADHD becomes essential, but for this it is necessary that the teacher acquainted with this disorder and know the importance of their mediation in the teaching and learning process of this student, providing a service Educational and differentiated education and a work aimed at attending to their specificities, in order to minimize their difficulties.

  1. Caffeine improves spatial learning deficits in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) -- the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Rui D S; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Fernandes, Daniel; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2005-12-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is generally considered to be a suitable genetic model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), since it displays hyperactivity, impulsivity, poorly sustained attention, and deficits in learning and memory processes. Converging evidence suggests a primary role of disturbance in the dopaminergic neurotransmission in ADHD patients and in SHR, and in addition, some studies have also demonstrated alterations in adenosinergic neurotransmission in SHR. In the present study, adult female Wistar (WIS) and SHR rats received caffeine (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) 30 min before training, immediately after training, or 30 min before a test session in the spatial version of the Morris water maze. The effect of caffeine administration on WIS and SHR blood pressure was also measured. SHR needed significantly more trials in the training session to acquire the spatial information, but they displayed a similar profile to that of WIS rats in the test session (48 h later), demonstrating a selective deficit in spatial learning. Pre-training administration of caffeine (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) improved this spatial learning deficit in SHR, but did not alter the WIS performance. In contrast, post-training administration of caffeine (3 mg/kg i.p.) did not alter the SHR test performance, but increased memory retention in WIS rats. No dose of caffeine tested altered the mean blood pressure of WIS or SHR. These results demonstrate a selective spatial learning deficit in SHR which can be attenuated by pre-training administration of caffeine. In addition, the present findings indicate that the spatial learning deficit in SHR is not directly related to hypertension.

  2. Does collateral retrospective information about childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms assist in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults? Findings from a large clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Vitor; Rovaris, Diego Luiz; Vitola, Eduardo Schneider; Mota, Nina Roth; Blaya-Rocha, Paula; Salgado, Carlos Alberto Iglesias; Victor, Marcelo Moraes; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Karam, Rafael Gomes; Silva, Katiane Lilian; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Bau, Claiton Henrique Dotto; Grevet, Eugenio Horacio

    2016-06-01

    In accordance with consolidated clinical practice, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition suggests a key role of collateral information in the evaluation of retrospective childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adults despite poor evidence supporting its use. This study aims to assess the incremental value of collateral information on the presence of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms when evaluating adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n = 449) and non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects (n = 143) underwent an extensive clinical assessment based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria. For patients, retrospective collateral information regarding childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was obtained and used to sort them into two groups: agreement (n = 277) and disagreement (n = 172) between self- and collateral reports. We compared demographic, clinical and response to treatment profiles among groups to test the relevance of collateral information on the specific issue of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder groups had higher rates of several comorbidities (oppositional defiant, conduct, substance use and bipolar disorders; all p attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms occurred in 38% of patients. Overall, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder disagreement and agreement groups had similar profiles in response to treatment and comorbidity, and the few differences detected in impairment measures were of small magnitude (Eta(2) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, it has no incremental value in the evaluation of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adults with a self-reported history of attention-deficit

  3. Training of attention functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Tucha, Oliver; Tucha, Lara; Kaumann, Gesa; König, Sebastian; Lange, Katharina M.; Stasik, Dorota; Streather, Zoe; Engelschalk, Tobias; Lange, Klaus W.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment of children with ADHD has been shown to be successful; however, medication may not normalize attention functions. The present study was based on a neuropsychological model of attention and assessed the effect of an attention training program on attentional functioning of children with ADHD. Thirty-two children with ADHD and 16 healthy children participated in the study. Children with ADHD were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions, i.e., an attention trainin...

  4. Multiple Intelligences Profiles of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Comparison with Nonattention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi, Mostafa; Akouchekian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Alireza; Mahaki, Behzad; Rezaei, Mariam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological problem during childhood. This study aimed to evaluate multiple intelligences profiles of children with ADHD in comparison with non-ADHD. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was done on 50 children of 6–13 years old in two groups of with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD were referred to Clinics of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Isfahan University of Medical Scie...

  5. Working Memory Deficits Affect Risky Decision-Making in Methamphetamine Users with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Nichole A.; Woods, Steven Paul; Rooney, Alexandra; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) use and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occur and are independently associated with dysregulation of frontostriatal loops and risky decision-making; however, whether their comorbidity exacerbates risky decision-making is not known. This study evaluated 23 participants with histories of MA dependence and ADHD (MA+ADHD+), 25 subjects with MA dependence alone (MA+ADHD−), and 22 healthy adults (MA−ADHD−), who completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) ...

  6. Managing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults using illicit psychostimulants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jon; Lloyd-Jones, Martyn; Arunogiri, Shalini; Ogden, Edward; Bonomo, Yvonne

    2017-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and stimulant use disorder commonly co-exist, and appropriate treatments have not been well established. To provide guidance for treatment of co-existing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and stimulant use disorder. A systematic review of published English articles using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane, utilising consistent search terms. Randomised controlled trials, comparing any treatment arm with a control group, for participants meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or equivalent criteria for both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and stimulant use disorder. Eight trials were identified for inclusion in this review. Four of eight studies showed improvement in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder outcome measures compared with placebo. Two of six studies that reported substance use outcomes showed improvement in treatment arms compared with placebo. Studies to show effect tended to be those with the highest treatment dosage. Evidence for the efficacy of treatment of patients with comorbid stimulant use disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is limited. Promising outcomes need replication in further studies utilising higher treatment dosage.

  7. Prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, K W; Lai, Kelly Y C; Lee, Marshall M C; Shea, Caroline K S; Tong, Luke C T

    2016-04-01

    Local data on the occurrence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are not available but an understanding of this important issue may enable better planning of medical services. We aimed to determine the prevalence of motor problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a local population. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, children aged 6 to 9 years diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder over a period of 6 months from 1 July to 31 December 2011 were recruited from the Joint Paediatric and Child Psychiatric ADHD Program in New Territories East Cluster in Hong Kong. Movement Assessment Battery for Children and Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire-Chinese version were used to determine the presence of motor problems. Data from 95 participants were included in the final analysis. The number of children who had no, borderline, or definite motor problems was 63, 15, and 17, respectively. It is estimated that up to one third of local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder might have developmental coordination disorder. Motor problems are common in local children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and figures are comparable with those from other parts of the world. Despite the various limitations of this study, the magnitude of the problem should not be overlooked.

  8. [Attention deficits and schizophrenia. Multidisciplinary approaches and the Stroop's test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, J; Laplante, L

    1991-01-01

    Since McGhie & Chapman's (1961) pioneering work, there have been continual attempts to clarify the link between attentional disturbances observable in schizophrenics and their schizophrenic symptoms. Venables (1964, 1977) claims that this diminution is a consequence of a badly controlled arousal, resulting in an inadequate filtering at the level of sensory input. Although the notion of a faulty sensory filter is simple and intellectually satisfying, this idea rapidly met with articulate opposition. Broadbent himself, in 1971, revised his model to take into account the way in which semantic aspects influence selective attention, and proposed the existence of a second stage of information processing, coming after the sensory filter. It became increasingly clear that progress in understanding selective attention would depend upon more centrally-directed approaches. In 1935, Stroop developed an ingenious way of studying selective attention. In his task, an "automatic", overlearned task (reading short words aloud) is put into conflict with a slightly more difficult task (colour-naming): the subject has to name the colour of the ink in which a word is printed, but the word itself is the name of a different colour. For instance, when the word "blue" is written in red ink, the correct response is "red". Typically, subjects find it difficult to inhibit the reading response, and take significantly more time to name a colour that forms an incompatible word than take to name the colour of a row of letters "x". This increased reaction time for the incompatible condition is attributed to an "interference" caused by the verbal information contained in the double stimulus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Training of attention functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Oliver; Tucha, Lara; Kaumann, Gesa; König, Sebastian; Lange, Katharina M; Stasik, Dorota; Streather, Zoe; Engelschalk, Tobias; Lange, Klaus W

    2011-09-01

    Pharmacological treatment of children with ADHD has been shown to be successful; however, medication may not normalize attention functions. The present study was based on a neuropsychological model of attention and assessed the effect of an attention training program on attentional functioning of children with ADHD. Thirty-two children with ADHD and 16 healthy children participated in the study. Children with ADHD were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions, i.e., an attention training program which trained aspects of vigilance, selective attention and divided attention, or a visual perception training which trained perceptual skills, such as perception of figure and ground, form constancy and position in space. The training programs were applied in individual sessions, twice a week, for a period of four consecutive weeks. Healthy children did not receive any training. Alertness, vigilance, selective attention, divided attention, and flexibility were examined prior to and following the interventions. Children with ADHD were assessed and trained while on ADHD medications. Data analysis revealed that the attention training used in the present study led to significant improvements of various aspects of attention, including vigilance, divided attention, and flexibility, while the visual perception training had no specific effects. The findings indicate that attention training programs have the potential to facilitate attentional functioning in children with ADHD treated with ADHD drugs.

  10. Associations Between Core Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Both Binge and Restrictive Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiota Kaisari; Colin T. Dourish; Pia Rotshtein; Suzanne Higgs

    2018-01-01

    IntroductionIt is unclear whether core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relate to specific types of disordered eating and little is known about the mediating mechanisms. We investigated associations between core symptoms of ADHD and binge/disinhibited eating and restrictive eating behavior and assessed whether negative mood and/or deficits in awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety cues mediate these relationships.MethodsIn two independent studies, we used...

  11. Effects of methylphenidate on attentional set-shifting in a genetic model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ai-hua; Yu, Lin; Wang, Yu-wei; Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Le-jin; Lei, Ge-Fei

    2012-02-28

    Although deficits of attentional set-shifting have been reported in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it is rarely examined in animal models. This study compared spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs; a genetic animal model of ADHD) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (normoactive control strains), on attentional set-shifting task (ASST) performance. Furthermore, the dose-effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on attentional set-shifting of SHR were investigated. In experiment 1, ASST procedures were conducted in SHR, WKY and SD rats of 8 each at the age of 5 weeks. Mean latencies at the initial phase, error types and numbers, and trials to criteria at each stage were recorded. In experiment 2, 24 SHR rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 8 each-- MPH-L (lower dose), MPH-H (higher dose), and SHR-vehicle groups. From 3 weeks, they were administered 2.5 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg MPH or saline respectively for 14 consecutive days. All rats were tested in the ASST at the age of 5 weeks. The SHRs generally exhibited poorer performance on ASST than the control WKY and SD rats. Significant strain effects on mean latency [F (2, 21) = 639.636, p attentional set-shifting. Our study provides evidence that MPH may improve the SHR's performance on attentional set-shifting and lower dose is more effective than higher dose.

  12. Predicting Substance Abuse from Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Alizadeh G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed to predict substance abuse from child and adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Method: To this purpose 361 students were selected via stratified random sampling from different faculties of Tabriz University and completed Canners Adult ADHD Rating scale-self report Form & Subscale Questionnaire, Wender Utah Rating Scale, Addiction Acknowledgment Scale & Mac Andrew Alcoholism-Revised Scale. Findings: To analyze the data Pearson correlation and multiple regressions (step by step were used. Results indicated that there is significant relation between addiction acknowledgment and alcoholism via child and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Also, results indicated that child and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms predicted addiction acknowledgment and alcoholism. Conclusion: According to this results these can be explained that behavioral disorders, especially ADHD have effect in tendency to drug and therefore primary treatments of behavioral disorders can prevent drug abuse.

  13. The impact of a model-based clinical regional registry for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Michele; Cartabia, Massimo; Didoni, Anna; Fortinguerra, Filomena; Reale, Laura; Mondini, Matteo; Bonati, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    This article describes the development and clinical impact of the Italian Regional ADHD Registry, aimed at collecting and monitoring diagnostic and therapeutic pathways of care for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder children and adolescents, launched by the Italian Lombardy Region in June 2011. In particular, the model-based software used to run the registry and manage clinical care data acquisition and monitoring, is described. This software was developed using the PROSAFE programme, which is already used for data collection in many Italian intensive care units, as a stand-alone interface case report form. The use of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder regional registry led to an increase in the appropriateness of the clinical management of all patients included in the registry, proving to be an important instrument in ensuring an appropriate healthcare strategy for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  14. Neurofeedback as an Intervention to Improve Reading Achievement in Students with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Jeffry P.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates that attention deficits have a deleterious effect on academic achievement. Impairments in attention, and not hyperactivity/impulsivity, are associated with learning difficulties and academic problems in students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, most studies have focused on symptoms…

  15. Research Review: Executive function deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Danielle; Cardoso, Christopher; McGrath, Jennifer J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms are common in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD and ADHD groups both display executive function impairments; however, there is ongoing debate whether the pattern and magnitude of executive function deficits differs between these two types of disorders. Methods An electronic literature search was conducted (PubMed, PsychInfo; 1972–2013) to identify studies comparing the executive functioning of children with FASD with ADHD or control groups. FASD groups included those with and without dysmorphy (i.e., FAS, pFAS, ARND, and other FASD diagnoses). Effect sizes (Hedges’ g, standardized mean difference) were calculated. Random effects meta-analytic models were performed using the metafor package for R. Results Fifty-one studies met inclusion criteria (FASD N = 2,115; ADHD N = 453; controls N = 1,990). Children with FASD showed the strongest and most consistent deficits in planning, fluency, and set-shifting compared to controls (Hedges’ g = −0.94, −0.78) and children with ADHD (Hedges’ g = −0.72, −0.32). FASD was associated with moderate to large impairments in working memory, compared to controls (Hedges’ g = −.84, −.58) and small impairments relative to groups with ADHD (Hedges’ g = −.26). Smaller and less consistent deficits were found on measures of inhibition and vigilance relative to controls (Hedges’ g = −0.52, −0.31); FASD and ADHD were not differentiated on these measures. Moderator analyses indicated executive dysfunction was associated with older age, dysmorphy, and larger group differences in IQ. Sex and diagnostic system were not consistently related to effect size. Conclusions While FASD is associated with global executive impairments, executive function weaknesses are most consistent for measures of planning, fluency, and set-shifting. Neuropsychological measures assessing these executive function domains may improve differential diagnosis

  16. The effect of different stimulus attributes on the attentional performance of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chih; Tsai, Huang-Ju; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2013-11-01

    While teachers have traditionally used the interesting objects to increase student attention in the classroom, evidence supporting the effectiveness of this method is lacking. The present study investigated the influence of different stimulus attributes for typical developing students and for students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia. Thirty children with ADHD, 30 children with dyslexia, and 30 typical developing students were tested using a measuring tool that was constructed by the authors to assess their sustained attention and selective attention on the geometric-figure assessment and the interesting-figure assessment. The geometric-figure assessment included a square, circle, trapezium, and triangle; and the interesting-figure assessment included a house, cat, hand, and tree. While the typical developing group showed better selective attention on the geometric-figure assessment, there was no difference between the dyslexic group and the ADHD group with respect to selective attention. Furthermore, the typical developing and dyslexic groups did not differ in the geometric-figure assessment in sustained attention and were both better in this area than the ADHD group. In the interesting-figure assessment, the typical developing and dyslexic groups performed similarly in sustained attention, but selective attention of the dyslexic group improved more than the ADHD group, similar to the typical developing group. Both selective attention of the dyslexic group and sustained attention of the ADHD group showed positive significant differences in the interesting-figure assessment, but sustained attention of the dyslexic group and selective attention of the ADHD group showed little difference in the interesting-figure assessment. Surprisingly, the typical developing group did not show any significant difference in the interesting-figure assessment, possibly because they had previously demonstrated a ceiling effect in the geometric

  17. Gastrointestinal adverse events during methylphenidate treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmskov, Mathilde; Storebø, Ole Jakob; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study in more depth the relationship between type, dose, or duration of methylphenidate offered to children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their risks of gastrointestinal adverse events based on our Cochrane systematic review. METHODS AND FINDINGS...... differences in the risk according to type, dose, or duration of administration. The required information size was achieved in three out of four outcomes. CONCLUSION: Methylphenidate increases the risks of decreased appetite, weight loss, and abdominal pain in children and adolescents with attention deficit...... hyperactivity disorder. No differences in the risks of gastrointestinal adverse events according to type, dose, or duration of administration were found....

  18. Late-diagnosed phenylketonuria in an eight-year-old boy with dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Yılmaz; Dursun, Ali; Tokatlı, Ayşegül; Coşkun, Turgay; Sivri, Hatice Serap

    2016-01-01

    Phenylketonuria, previously a common cause of severe intellectual disability, is a metabolic disorder now promptly diagnosed and effectively treated thanks to newborn screening programs. Here, we report a male patient presenting with dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, who was diagnosed with mild phenylketonuria at eight years of age. Earlier recognition and treatment before the establishment of irreversible brain damage would have resulted in better neurobehavioural outcomes. Classical phenylketonuria and milder phenotypes of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of all cognitive and behavioural problems of unknown cause.

  19. Effect of Treating Anxiety Disorders on Cognitive Deficits and Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Isabelle; Guay, Marie-Claude; Foldes-Busque, Guillaume; BenAmor, Leila

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-five percent of children with ADHD also have an anxiety disorder (AD). As per Quay and in light of Barkley's model, anxiety may have a protective effect on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of treating AD on cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in children with both disorders. Twenty-four children with ADHD and AD were divided into two groups: treatment for AD, and wait list. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up with the ADIS-C, the CBCL, and neuropsychological measures. The results revealed a significant improvement in automatic response inhibition and flexibility, and a decrease in inattention/hyperactivity behaviors following the treatment for AD. No significant differences were observed in motor response inhibition, working memory, or attention deficits. The results do not seem to support Quay's hypothesis: treating AD did not exacerbate cognitive deficits and behaviors associated with ADHD in our sample.

  20. Cortisol responses in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a possible marker of inhibition deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, M; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Ferrer, M; Sáez-Francàs, N; Palomar, G; Bosch, R; Casas, M

    2012-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disease whose neurobiological background is not completely understood. It has been proposed that deficits of the inhibitory function with an underactive behavioral inhibition system (BIS) may be in the core of ADHD. In this regard, this review summarizes all studies that examine the involvement of cortisol in ADHD. Differences in cortisol responses from different ADHD subtypes, hyperactive/impulsive, inattentive, and combined, are analyzed. In addition, we examine the role of comorbidities as confounding factors in the study of cortisol in ADHD, including comorbid disruptive behavioral disorder (DBD), as well as anxiety and depressive disorders. Because ADHD is a neurodevelopmental condition and approximately half of the children enter adulthood with the disorder, we review cortisol studies in adults and children separately. Two diverse patterns of cortisol have been reported both in children and adults with ADHD. Blunted cortisol responses to stress are associated with comorbid DBD, whereas high cortisol responses are associated to comorbid anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, the inhibitory deficits in ADHD do not appear to be related directly to cortisol deficits in either children or adults. This review increases our understanding of the heterogeneity of ADHD and could help in determining new strategies for the treatment of these patients. Future studies including gender and a more systematic methodology to study the cortisol response are needed.

  1. Mothers' experiences of parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kathleen; Jackson, Debra

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore the perceptions and experiences of mothers parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Previous quantitative studies have focussed on parenting styles and treatments, and highlight that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has a negative impact on family functioning. However, fewer researchers have explored maternal experiences of parenting a child with this disorder. A narrative-based feminist approach can provide greater insights into complex issues related to mothering a child with this disorder. Data were collected in 2007 with a volunteer sample of 11 mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder via in-depth interviews. Analysis was completed by listening for self-evaluative statements, paying attention to meta-statements and by identifying both consistencies and incongruities within participant's narratives. Dominant issues identified were: It's been 10 years of being on edge: The caring responsibility as overwhelming; If I had my time over again, I wouldn't tell the truth: Stigmatized, scrutinized and criticized; What have I done? What did I do? How come I've got this child: Guilt and self-blame and He doesn't stand a chance: Mother as advocate. Mothering a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is stressful and demanding, and mothers felt marginalized. Media portrayal of this disorder contributes to confusion related to causes, diagnosis and treatment choices. More education for healthcare professionals is needed to enable them to give appropriate guidance and support to enhance outcomes for children and their parents.

  2. Impact of executive function deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on academic outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C; Doyle, Alysa E; Seidman, Larry J; Wilens, Timothy E; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L; Faraone, Stephen V

    2004-10-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as at least 2 executive function measures impaired. Significantly more children and adolescents with ADHD had EFDs than did control participants. ADHD with EFDs was associated with an increased risk for grade retention and a decrease in academic achievement relative to (a) ADHD alone, (b) controlled socioeconomic status, (c) learning disabilities, and (d) IQ. No differences were noted in social functioning or psychiatric comorbidity. Children and adolescents with ADHD and EFDs were found to be at high risk for significant impairments in academic functioning. These results support screening children with ADHD for EFDs to prevent academic failure.

  3. Hyperresponsiveness to social rewards in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann Beate

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research suggests that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is associated with larger behavioral sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies. However, most studies have focused thus far on the enhancing effects of tangible rewards such as money, neglecting that social-emotional stimuli may also impact task performance in ADHD patients. Methods To determine whether non-social (monetary and social (positive facial expressions rewards differentially improve response inhibition accuracy in children and adolescents with ADHD, we applied an incentive go/no-go task with reward contingencies for successful inhibition and compared ADHD subjects with typically developing individuals. Results Both social and monetary contingencies improved inhibition accuracy in all participants. However, individuals with ADHD displayed a particularly higher profit from social reward than healthy controls, suggesting that cognitive control in ADHD patients can be specifically improved by social reinforcement. By contrast, self-rated motivation associated with task performance was significantly lower in ADHD patients. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence for hyperresponsiveness to social rewards in ADHD patients, which is accompanied by limited self-awareness. These data suggest that social reward procedures may be particularly useful in behavioral interventions in children with ADHD.

  4. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), inhibition processes and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegl, Thomas; Bender, Stephan; Buchmann, Johannes; Kratz, Oliver; Moll, Gunther H; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2014-11-01

    Motor system excitability can be tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation CFMS). In this article, an overview of recent methodological developments and research findings related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is provided. Different TMS parameters that reflect the function of interneurons in the motor cortex may represent neurophysiological markers of inhibition in ADHD, particularly the so-called intracortical inhibition. In children with a high level of hyperactivity and impulsivity, intracortical inhibition was comparably low at rest as shortly before the execution of a movement. TMS-evoked potentials can also be measured in the EEG so that investigating processes of excitability is not restricted to motor areas in future studies. The effects of methylphenidate on motor system excitability may be interpreted in the sense of a 'fine-tuning' with these mainly dopaminergic effects also depending on genetic parameters (DAT1 transporter). A differentiated view on the organization of motor control can be achieved by a combined analysis of TMS parameters and event-related potentials. Applying this bimodal approach, strong evidence for a deviant implementation of motor control in children with ADHD and probably compensatory mechanisms (with involvement of the prefrontal cortex) was obtained. These findings, which contribute to a better understanding of hyperactivity/impulsivity, inhibitory processes and motor control in ADHD as well as the mechanisms of medication, underline the relevance of TMS as a neurophysiological method in ADHD research.

  5. Functional consequences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahide

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with core symptoms that include hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and inattention, and it is the most common psychiatric disorder among children and adolescents. These core symptoms are continuously recognized throughout the day from childhood to adulthood. Furthermore, children with ADHD from childhood to adulthood might also have various comorbid psychiatric disorders. Recently, bipolar disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, a new clinical issue, have been discussed as comorbid disorders or differential disorders associated with ADHD. Furthermore, comorbid disorders of ADHD are related to quality of life and family burden. Children with ADHD have poorer long-term outcomes than controls with respect to: academic achievement and attainment, occupational rank and job performance, risky sexual practices and early unwanted pregnancies, substance use, relationship difficulties, marital problems, traffic violations, and car accidents. Irritability of children with ADHD has been a key symptom that clinicians and researchers have used to evaluate the developmental condition of children with ADHD. ADHD is sometimes a chronic disorder that occurs over a long period, increasing the family burden of these children (including health-care costs), which will increase with aging for unremitted children with ADHD. Therefore, clinicians should evaluate not only the mental condition of the child but also the family burden. Children with ADHD should be treated during childhood to reduce their clinical symptoms and family burden. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Moving towards causality in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: overview of neural and genetic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Eduardo F; Posner, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and hyperactivity or impulsivity. The heterogeneity of its clinical manifestations and the differential responses to treatment and varied prognoses have long suggested myriad underlying causes. Over the past decade, clinical and basic research efforts have uncovered many behavioural and neurobiological alterations associated with ADHD, from genes to higher order neural networks. Here, we review the neurobiology of ADHD by focusing on neural circuits implicated in the disorder and discuss how abnormalities in circuitry relate to symptom presentation and treatment. We summarise the literature on genetic variants that are potentially related to the development of ADHD, and how these, in turn, might affect circuit function and relevant behaviours. Whether these underlying neurobiological factors are causally related to symptom presentation remains unresolved. Therefore, we assess efforts aimed at disentangling issues of causality, and showcase the shifting research landscape towards endophenotype refinement in clinical and preclinical settings. Furthermore, we review approaches being developed to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of this complex disorder including the use of animal models, neuromodulation, and pharmaco-imaging studies. PMID:27183902

  7. Neural response during anticipation of monetary loss is elevated in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbertz, Gregor; Delgado, Mauricio R; Tebartz Van Elst, Ludger; Maier, Simon; Philipsen, Alexandra; Blechert, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Risky behaviour seriously impacts the life of adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such behaviours have often been attributed to their exaggerated reward seeking, but dysfunctional anticipation of negative outcomes might also play a role. The present study compared adult patients with ADHD (n = 28) with matched healthy controls (n = 28) during anticipation of monetary losses versus gains while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and skin conductance recording. Skin conductance was higher during anticipation of losses compared to gains in both groups. Affective ratings of predictive cues did not differ between groups. ADHD patients showed increased activity in bilateral amygdalae, left anterior insula (region of interest analysis) and left temporal pole (whole brain analysis) compared to healthy controls during loss versus gain anticipation. In the ADHD group higher insula and temporal pole activations went along with more negative affective ratings. Neural correlates of loss anticipation are not blunted but rather increased in ADHD, possibly due to a life history of repeated failures and the respective environmental sanctions. Behavioural adaptations to such losses, however, might differentiate them from controls: future research should study whether negative affect might drive more risk seeking than risk avoidance.

  8. The implications of having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in male adolescents with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Eli; Klein, Neomy; Sohn, Mordechai

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a correlation between social skills and ADHD among adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID). The study concerns the specific cognitive and adaptive skills of adolescents dually diagnosed with mild intellectual disabilities and comorbid pathology as ADHD. Three age-and IQ-match groups (males, n = 12 in each group) were investigated. Group I--composed of adolescent diagnosed with mild ID, group II--adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, and group III--adolescents diagnosed with ID and ADHD. The instruments used in the study were Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC, according to the chronological age of the subjects) and the short version of the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC). Results confirm that comorbidity is a factor differentiating. ADHD strongly increased the impairment of social skills, while behavioral disorders were less damaging in ID performance. The WISC and DBC instruments should be used with confidence in clinical and service settings, to allow a better assessment of co-occurrence morbidity in adolescents with ID. The interactions between intellectual disability and psychopathology behavior highlight the need to plan a more accurate diagnosis and appropriate rehabilitative intervention program, essential for improving the quality of life of the ID population.

  9. Factor structure of symptom dimensions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Elyse M; Mayfield, Abigail R; Barchard, Kimberly A; Thaler, Nicholas S; Etcoff, Lewis M; Allen, Daniel N

    2015-12-01

    There is disagreement on whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are best characterized along two dimensions consisting of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity or three dimensions where hyperactivity and impulsivity are separate. To address this, the current study investigated the underlying symptom dimensions of ADHD by examining two- and three-factor models of ADHD symptom ratings in 400 children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD symptom ratings for each of the 18 DSM-IV Criteria A symptoms were obtained from mothers using a standardized symptom rating scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine whether the 18 symptoms were best explained by two or three latent constructs. Results of the CFA demonstrated that a three-factor model was superior to a two-factor model. Findings support three distinct symptom dimensions that are consistent with previous research demonstrating unique clinical presentations of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Differentiating between these three domains may aid in predicting behavioral outcomes in children with ADHD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Biases in Understanding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Miyasaka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown high rates of comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD and difficulties regarding differential diagnosis. Unlike those in Western countries, the Japanese ADHD prevalence rate is lower relative to that of ASD. This inconsistency could have occurred because of cultural diversities among professionals such as physicians. However, little is known about attitudes toward ADHD and ASD in non-Western cultural contexts. We conducted two experiments to identify biases in ASD and ADHD assessment. In Study 1, we examined attitudes toward these disorders in medical doctors and mental health professionals, using a web-based questionnaire. In Study 2, medical doctors and clinical psychologists assessed four fictional cases based on criteria for ADHD, ASD, oppositional defiant disorder, and disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED. Diagnosis of ASD was considered more difficult relative to that of ADHD. Most participants assessed the fictional DSED case as ASD, rather than DSED or ADHD. The results provide evidence that Japanese professionals are more likely to attribute children’s behavioral problems to ASD, relative to other disorders. Therefore, Japanese therapists could be more sensitive to and likely to diagnose ASD, relative to therapists in other countries. These findings suggest that cultural biases could influence clinicians’ diagnosis of ADHD and ASD.

  11. Cognitive computer training in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus no intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikic, Aida; Leckman, J. F.; Lindschou, Jane

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and impulsivity and/or hyperactivity and a range of cognitive dysfunctions. Pharmacological treatment may be beneficial; however, many affected individuals...... of cognition, mostly on the working memory or attention but with poor generalization of training on other cognitive functions and functional outcome. Children with ADHD have a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is important that cognitive training target multiple cognitive functions. METHODS...

  12. Visual Search for Feature and Conjunction Targets with an Attention Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Arguin, Martin; Joanette, Yves; Cavanagh, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    Brain-damaged subjects who had previously been identified as suffering from a visual attention deficit for contralesional stimulation were tested on a series of visual search tasks. The experiments examined the hypothesis that the processing of single features is preattentive but that feature integration, necessary for the correct perception of conjunctions of features, requires attention (Treisman & Gelade, 1980 Treisman & Sato, 1990). Subjects searched for a feature target (orientation or c...

  13. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder at work: Does it impact job performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Nikos Bozionelos; Giorgos Bozionelos

    2013-01-01

    Avaible online: http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amp.2013.0107; International audience; The article focuses on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which affects a substantial proportion of the adult population and it often remains undiagnosed. Because of its symptoms, which include inability to focus and maintain attention, problems in time management and procrastination, ADHD is suspected as a cause of poor performance in the workplace. A recent contemplation suggests a mechanism for t...

  14. Interval Timing Deficits Assessed by Time Reproduction Dual Tasks as Cognitive Endophenotypes for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang-Gu, Shoou-Lian; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-01-01

    The literature has suggested timing processing as a potential endophenotype for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, whether the subjective internal clock speed presented by verbal estimation and limited attention capacity presented by time reproduction could be endophenotypes for ADHD is still unknown. We assessed 223 youths with DSM-IV ADHD (age range: 10-17 years), 105 unaffected siblings, and 84 typically developing (TD) youths using psychiatric interviews, intelligence tests, verbal estimation and time reproduction tasks (single task and simple and difficult dual tasks) at 5-second, 12-second, and 17-second intervals. We found that youths with ADHD tended to overestimate time in verbal estimation more than their unaffected siblings and TD youths, implying that fast subjective internal clock speed might be a characteristic of ADHD, rather than an endophenotype for ADHD. Youths with ADHD and their unaffected siblings were less precise in time reproduction dual tasks than TD youths. The magnitude of estimated errors in time reproduction was greater in youths with ADHD and their unaffected siblings than in TD youths, with an increased time interval at the 17-second interval and with increased task demands on both simple and difficult dual tasks versus the single task. Increased impaired time reproduction in dual tasks with increased intervals and task demands were shown in youths with ADHD and their unaffected siblings, suggesting that time reproduction deficits explained by limited attention capacity might be a useful endophenotype of ADHD. PMID:25992899

  15. Differentiating emotional processing and attention in psychopathy with functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nathaniel E; Steele, Vaughn R; Maurer, J Michael; Rao, Vikram; Koenigs, Michael R; Decety, Jean; Kosson, David S; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with psychopathy are often characterized by emotional processing deficits, and recent research has examined the specific contexts and cognitive mechanisms that underlie these abnormalities. Some evidence suggests that abnormal features of attention are fundamental to emotional deficits in persons with psychopathy, but few studies have demonstrated the neural underpinnings responsible for such effects. Here, we use functional neuroimaging to examine attention-emotion interactions among incarcerated individuals (n = 120) evaluated for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Using a task designed to manipulate attention to emotional features of visual stimuli, we demonstrate effects representing implicit emotional processing, explicit emotional processing, attention-facilitated emotional processing, and vigilance for emotional content. Results confirm the importance of considering mechanisms of attention when evaluating emotional processing differences related to psychopathic traits. The affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy (PCL-R Factor 1) were associated with relatively lower emotion-dependent augmentation of activity in visual processing areas during implicit emotional processing, while antisocial-lifestyle features (PCL-R Factor 2) were associated with elevated activity in the amygdala and related salience network regions. During explicit emotional processing, psychopathic traits were associated with upregulation in the medial prefrontal cortex, insula, and superior frontal regions. Isolating the impact of explicit attention to emotional content, only Factor 1 was related to upregulation of activity in the visual processing stream, which was accompanied by increased activity in the angular gyrus. These effects highlight some important mechanisms underlying abnormal features of attention and emotional processing that accompany psychopathic traits.

  16. The visual attention span deficit in dyslexia is visual and not verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobier, Muriel; Zoubrinetzky, Rachel; Valdois, Sylviane

    2012-06-01

    The visual attention (VA) span deficit hypothesis of dyslexia posits that letter string deficits are a consequence of impaired visual processing. Alternatively, some have interpreted this deficit as resulting from a visual-to-phonology code mapping impairment. This study aims to disambiguate between the two interpretations by investigating performance in a non-verbal character string visual categorization task with verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Results show that VA span ability predicts performance for the non-verbal visual processing task in normal reading children. Furthermore, VA span impaired dyslexic children are also impaired for the categorization task independently of stimuli type. This supports the hypothesis that the underlying impairment responsible for the VA span deficit is visual, not verbal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  17. PSYCHO-PEDAGOGICAL INTERVENTION IN THE CASE OF THE ATTENTION DEFICIT AND HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Doina GREC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficits, the hyperactivity / impulsiveness as well as the deficits in the executive functioning expose students to the risk of poor school performance, social isolation and antisocial behaviors. For them, it is more difficult to assimilate organizational, planning and time management skills, in comparison with their peers enrolled in the mainstream education. School environment requires planning, control, coordination and evaluation of the interactions and ways of active participation in the educational process. Therefore, the case study concerning a student diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder associated with reading and writing difficulties demonstrates the necessity and effectiveness of the psycho-pedagogical intervention in school, an environment that represents a propitious context to exercise self-control.

  18. Free and Cued Recall Memory Performance in Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Lisa D.

    This study investigated the effects of organization at input and cued retrieval on the free- and cued-recall memory performance of children (all male and between the ages of 8 and 12) with and without attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD (N=20) recalled significantly fewer words/pictures than children without ADHD…

  19. Stimulant treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and risk of developing substance use disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman, A.P.; Oosterlaan, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Franke, B.; Greven, C.U.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Hartman, C.A.; Luman, M.; Roeyers, H.; Oades, R.D.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Faraone, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to increased risk for substance use disorders and nicotine dependence. AIMS: To examine the effects of stimulant treatment on subsequent risk for substance use disorder and nicotine dependence in a prospective longitudinal ADHD

  20. Stimulant treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and risk of developing substance use disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman, Annabeth P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Franke, Barbara; Greven, Corina U.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Luman, Marjolein; Roeyers, Herbert; Oades, Robert D.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to increased risk for substance use disorders and nicotine dependence. Aims To examine the effects of stimulant treatment on subsequent risk for substance use disorder and nicotine dependence in a prospective longitudinal ADHD

  1. Stimulant treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and risk of developing substance use disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenman, A.P.; Oosterlaan, J.; Rommelse, N.; Franke, B.; Greven, C.U.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Hartman, C.A.; Luman, M.; Roeyers, H.; Oades, R.D.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Faraone, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to increased risk for substance use disorders and nicotine dependence. Aims: To examine the effects of stimulant treatment on subsequent risk for substance use disorder and nicotine dependence in a prospective longitudinal ADHD

  2. Sleep Patterns in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen; Kinkelbur, Joerg; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    Background: In children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder (TD), and their coexistence (ADHD + TD comorbidity) are very common and clinically important. Associated sleep patterns and their clinical role are still insufficiently investigated. This study aimed at characterizing these sleep patterns in children with ADHD,…

  3. Stroop interference and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a review and meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansbergen, M.M.; Kenemans, J.L.; Engeland, H.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Previous reviews and meta-analyses that addressed abnormal Stroop interference in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) yielded mixed results. The authors of the present study argue that the inconsistencies may reflect the problematic nature of 2 frequently used methods to quantify Stroop

  4. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niermann, H.C.M.; Scheres, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom.

  5. Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, N.N.J.; Franke, B.; Geurts, H.M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence indicates both disorders co-occur with a high frequency, in 20-50% of children with ADHD meeting criteria for ASD and in 30-80% of ASD children meeting

  6. Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, N.N.J.; Franke, B.; Geurts, H.M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence indicates both disorders co-occur with a high frequency, in 20-50% of children with ADHD meeting criteria for ASD and in 30-80% of ASD children meeting

  7. Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Franke, Barbara; Geurts, Hilde M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders. Evidence indicates both disorders co-occur with a high frequency, in 20-50% of children with ADHD meeting criteria for ASD and in 30-80% of ASD children meeting

  8. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio, Belen; Boes, Aaron D; Laganiere, Simon; Rotenberg, Alexander; Jeurissen, Danique; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in the pediatric population. The clinical management of ADHD is currently limited by a lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers and inadequate therapy for a minority of patients who do not respond

  9. Essential Fatty Acids and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Raanan; Gabis, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Essential fatty acids (EFAs), also known as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, have been claimed to have beneficial effects as a treatment for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Animal experiments have provided information about the role of EFA in the brain, and several mechanisms of EFA activity are well known. The current review…

  10. A Cueing Procedure To Control Impulsivity in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavac, Heidi D.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Posavac, Steven S.

    1999-01-01

    Tests the efficacy of a cueing procedure for improving the impulse regulation of four boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during social skills training. Behavioral data suggested that all subjects demonstrated positive changes in impulse regulation. Likewise, the treatment effects appeared to have produced positive effects on…

  11. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Chi-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Yen-Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and epilepsy in clinical settings. We assessed 64 children with ASD, 64 with ADHD, 64 with epilepsy, and 64 typically developing children without any neuropsychiatric disorders by using a sex-and age-matched…

  12. Early discontinuation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug treatment: a danish nationwide drug utilization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Bjerregaard, B. K.; Kortegaard, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of patterns of treatment discontinuation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug treatment is of importance, for both the clinical practice and the study of long-term treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe early discontinuation of ADHD drug treatme...

  13. Countering the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Epidemic: A Question of Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently in Australia, another media skirmish erupted over the problem currently called "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder". This particular event was precipitated by the comments of a respected District Court judge. His claim that doctors are creating a generation of violent juvenile offenders by prescribing Ritalin to young…

  14. A Coaching Intervention for College Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Stacy L.; Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we describe coaching as an intervention for college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Coaching college students with ADHD empowers individuals to organize and execute their responsibilities, both in academia and in everyday life. With the assistance of a coach, individuals with ADHD can create structure…

  15. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  16. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Widely regarded as the standard clinical reference, this volume provides the best current knowledge about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. The field's leading authorities address all aspects of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment, including psychological therapies and pharmacotherapy. Core…

  17. Study of Level of Stress in the Parents of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sujata; Gandhi, Raghu; Anand, Vidhu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents who have children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience high level of stress related to caring for their children. But not much research has been conducted in this area in India. This study aimed to assess the stress of parenting children with ADHD. Methods: This is a clinic based comparative…

  18. Assessing Self-Control Training in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloh, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the use of a progressive delay procedure with and without a concurrent activity to teach self-control to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Three participants were initially required to wait progressively longer periods of time for access to preferred edible reinforcers. After demonstrating this…

  19. Implicit and Explicit Memory Performance in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Bruno A.; McKone, Elinor; Heubeck, Bernd G.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation examined implicit and explicit memory in 20 children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and 20 matched controls. Consistent with previous research, children with AD/HD performed more poorly than controls on an explicit test of long-term memory for pictures. New results were that (a) there was…

  20. Informant Discrepancies in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerley, Stephanie; Jaquiery, Ben; Hatch, Burt; Healey, Matthew; Wheeler, Benjamin J.; Healey, Dione

    2018-01-01

    An attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis requires symptoms to be present across two or more settings, thus requiring information from multiple informants. Research consistently shows low to moderate agreement between parents and teachers; however, the mechanisms underlying these discrepancies remain unclear. This study examined…

  1. Nutritional interventions to reduce symptoms in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben; Bjerrum, Merete; Larsen, Palle

    2017-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this scoping review is to examine and map reported nutritional interventions and their outcomes in relieving symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the daily lives of children and adults. A further objective is to determine...

  2. Fundamental Movement Skills in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chu, Chia-Hua

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the movement skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and those without disabilities. Ninety-one children (ASD, n = 28; ADHD, n = 29; control, n = 34), ages 6-10 years, were of average IQ participated. After controlling for age, both ASD and…

  3. Elimination diets' efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ly, Verena; Bottelier, Marco; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N.

    Nutrition plays an important role in neurodevelopment. This insight has led to increasing research into the efficacy of nutrition-related interventions for treating neurodevelopmental disorders. This review discusses an elimination diet as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and

  4. Inverse associations between cord vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Mats H; Aaby, Jens B; Dalgård, Christine

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D2+3 (25(OH)D) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in toddlers, using Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5. METHOD: In a population-based birth cohort, a Child Behaviour Checklist for ages 1.5-5 questionnaire...... was returned from parents of 1233 infants with mean age 2.7 (standard deviation 0.6) years. Adjusted associations between cord 25(OH)D and Child Behaviour Checklist-based attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problems were analysed by multiple regression. RESULTS: The median cord 25(OH)D was 44.1 (range: 1.......5-127.1) nmol/L. Mean attention deficit hyperactivity disorder problem score was 2.7 (standard deviation 2.1). In adjusted analyses, cord 25(OH)D levels >25 nmol/L and >30 nmol/L were associated with lower attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores compared to levels ⩽25 nmol/L (p = 0.035) and ⩽30 nmol...

  5. White Matter Microstructure Predicts Autistic Traits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Miriam; Thapar, Anita; Jones, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to index clinical severity. This study examined the association of ASD traits with diffusion parameters in adolescent males with ADHD (n = 17), and also compared WM microstructure relative to controls (n = 17).…

  6. Disturbed sleep and activity in toddlers with early signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anne Katrine F.; Asmussen, Jette; Pedersen, Nadia S.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated whether early signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in toddlers aged 2-3 years are associated with disturbed sleep and activity levels. Participants were recruited from the Odense Child Cohort, and children scoring above the 93rd percentile on the ADHD...

  7. [Analysis of Applying Chinese Medical Clinical Pathway for Treating Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu-qing; Han, Xin-min; Zhu, Xian-kang; Zhou, Zheng; Ma, Bing-xiang; Zhang, Bao-qing; Li, Yan-ning; Feng, Yu-lin; Xue, Zheng; Wang, Yong-hong; Li, Yi-min; Jiang, Zhi-mei; Xu, Jin-xing; Yue, Wei-zhen; Xiang, Xi-xiong

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the application effect of Chinese medical clinical pathway for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to provide evidence for further improving clinical pathways. Totally 270 ADHD children patients were recruited and treated at pediatrics clinics of 9 cooperative hospitals from December 2011 to December 2012. The treatment course for all was 3 months. Scores of attention deficit and hyperactivity rating scale, scores of behavior, Conners index of hyperactivity (CIH), and Chinese medical syndrome scores were compared between before and after treatment. The efficacy difference in various sexes, ages, and disease courses were evaluated by judging standards for Chinese medical syndrome and ADHD. Fifteen children patients who entered clinical pathway dropped out, and the rest 255 completed this trial. Compared with before treatment, total scores of attention deficit and hyperactivity rating scale, scores of attention deficit and hyperactivity rating scale, CIH, and Chinese medical syndrome scores obviously decreased (all P < 0.01). The total effective rate in disease efficacy was 87.8% (224/255 cases), and the total effective rate in Chinese medical syndrome curative effect was 87.5% (223/255 cases). The clinical curative effect was not influenced by age, gender, or course of disease when statistically analyzed from judging standards for Chinese medical syndrome or for disease efficacy. Intervention by Chinese medical clinical pathway could improve ADHD patients' symptoms, and its efficacy was not influenced by sex, age, or course of disease.

  8. Basal ganglia structure in Tourette's disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forde, N.J.; Zwiers, M.P.; Naaijen, J.; Akkermans, S.E.A.; Openneer, T.J.; Visscher, F.; Dietrich, A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tourette's disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder often co-occur and have both been associated with structural variation of the basal ganglia. However, findings are inconsistent and comorbidity is often neglected. METHODS: T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from

  9. The use of medication against attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Bjerregaard, Bine Kjøller; Glintborg, D.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Our aim was to characterize utilization patterns for drugs used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the level of the individual patient among Danish users, focusing on treatment duration, doses used, and concurrent use of ADHD and non-ADHD drugs. METHODS: Using...

  10. Fever and infections in pregnancy and risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hvolby, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fever and infections are common events during pregnancy, and have been shown to be associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in the offspring. The evidence in relation to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is, however, nonexistent for fever and limited for infections...

  11. Assessing Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinklenberg, Julie; Patel, Bina; Gelman, Kathryn; Albucher, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To address the increasing demand for assessments of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the primary author developed a protocol for Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) at Stanford University's Vaden Student Health Center to improve the efficiency of such evaluations. Participants: As part of quality…

  12. The Cochrane Collaboration withdraws a review on methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Kim; Saiz, Luis Carlos; Erviti, Juan

    2017-01-01

    A Cochrane systematic review on immediate-release methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was withdrawn from the Cochrane Library on 26 May 2016 after substantial criticism of its methods and flawed conclusions. Retraction of scientific papers on this basis...

  13. Individuals with a Gifted/Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelly M.; Olenchak, F. Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on twice-exceptional students who are dual diagnosed as having giftedness and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This area of research is warranted because giftedness and ADHD present similarly but have different ramifications for performance and outcomes. In addition, research inquiry and…

  14. Emotional Face Identification in Youths with Primary Bipolar Disorder or Primary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Young, Matthew; Dickstein, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid or confounded; therefore, we evaluated emotional face identification to better understand brain/behavior interactions in children and adolescents with either primary BD, primary ADHD, or typically developing controls (TDC). Method: Participants…

  15. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, K.; Dempfle, A.; Arcos-Burgos, M.; Bakker, S.C.; Banaschewski, T.; Biederman, J; Buitelaar, J.K.; Castellanos, F.X.; Doyle, A.; Ebstein, R.; Ekholm, J.; Forabosco, P.; Franke, F.; Freitag, C.; Friedel, S.; Gill, M.; Hebebrand, J.; Hinney, A.; Jacob, C.; Lesch, K.P.; Loo, S.K.; Lopera, F.; McCracken, J.T.; McGough, J.J.; Meyer, J.; Mick, E.; Miranda, A.; Muenkel, M.; Mulas, F.; Nelson, S.F.; Nguyen, T.T.; Oades, R.D.; Ogdie, M.N.; Palacio, J.D.; Pineda, D.; Reif, A.; Renner, T.J.; Roeyers, H.; Romanos, M.; Rothenberger, A.; Schäfer, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Sinke, R.J.; Smalley, S.L.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Steinhausen, H.C.; van der Meulen, E.; Walitza, S.; Warnke, A.; Lewis, C.M.; Faraone, S.V.; Asherson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic contribution to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. Seven independent genome-wide linkage scans have been performed to map loci that increase the risk for ADHD. Although significant linkage signals were identified in some of the studies,

  16. Case-control genome-wide association study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neale, B.M.; Medland, S.; Ripke, S.; Anney, R.J.; Asherson, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.; Gill, M.; Kent, L.; Holmans, P.; Middleton, F.; Thapar, A.; Lesch, K.P.; Faraone, S.V.; Daly, M.; Nguyen, T.T.; Schafer, H.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Reif, A.; Renner, T.J.; Romanos, M.; Romanos, J.; Warnke, A.; Walitza, S.; Freitag, C.; Meyer, J.; Palmason, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Hawi, Z.; Sergeant, J.A.; Roeyers, H.; Mick, E.; Biederman, J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genomewide association studies (GWAS) are needed.

  17. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, K.; Dempfle, A.; Arcos-Burgos, M.; Bakker, S.C.; Banaschewski, T.; Biederman, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Castellanos, F.X.; Doyle, A.; Ebstein, R.P.; Ekholm, J.; Forabosco, P.; Franke, B.; Freitag, C.; Friedel, S.; Gill, M.; Hebebrand, J.; Hinney, A.; Jacob, C.; Lesch, K.P.; Loo, S.K.; Lopera, F.; McCracken, J.T.; McGough, J.J.; Meyer, J.; Mick, E.; Miranda, A.; Muenke, M.; Mulas, F.; Nelson, S.F.; Nguyen, T.T.; Oades, R.D.; Ogdie, M.N.; Palacio, J.D.; Pineda, D.; Reif, A.; Renner, T.J.; Roeyers, H.; Romanos, M.; Rothenberger, A.; Schafer, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Sinke, R.J.; Smalley, S.L.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Meulen, E. van der; Walitza, S.; Warnke, A.; Lewis, C.M.; Faraone, S.V.; Asherson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic contribution to the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. Seven independent genome-wide linkage scans have been performed to map loci that increase the risk for ADHD. Although significant linkage signals were identified in some of the studies,

  18. Learning and Memory Impairments in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per N.; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2013-01-01

    There are relatively few studies on learning and delayed memory with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of the present study was to examine acquisition, free delayed memory, and recognition skills in medication naive children and adolescents aged 8-16 years with ADHD combined subtype (36 participants) and inattentive…

  19. The Relationship between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Aggressive Behaviour in Preschool Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakouros, Efthymios; Maniadaki, Katerina; Karaba, Rania

    2005-01-01

    Research regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) among preschoolers is limited. This study explored prevalence rates of AD/HD on a community-based sample of preschoolers in Athens. Moreover, it examined the relationship between AD/HD and aggressive behaviour and explored sex differences in this relationship. Nursery teachers…

  20. Do Attention Deficits Influence IQ Assessment in Children and Adolescents with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt M.; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the relationship between IQ and attention deficits in children with ADHD and to estimate the inattention-related mean influence on IQ when children are tested before stimulant drug treatment has been initiated. Method: Studies of various methodologies are reviewed. Results: Correlation studies show mostly weak…

  1. Having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorder: A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eich, D.; Figner, B.

    2005-01-01

    The co-occurence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) is a relatively new topic in the field of psychiatric comorbidity. Accordingly, the ADHD syndrome is a relatively new diagnostic category: the category was first introduced in ICD-8 (1968) [1] as

  2. Ambivalent Attitudes about Teaching Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Sue E.; Shanley, Dianne C.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on attitude theories from social psychology, we conducted a survey of Australian pre-service (n = 327) and in-service (n = 127) teachers' attitudes about teaching children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This paper reports a content analysis of beliefs, affect and behaviours towards teaching children with ADHD and…

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Klaus W.; Hauser, Joachim; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Lange, Katharina M.; Makulska-Gertruda, Ewelina; Nakamura, Yukiko; Sontag, Thomas A.; Tucha, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) has been suggested to have an impact on the development of symptoms of ADHD in children.

  4. Knowledge and Misperceptions about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among School Teachers in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Hemal P.; Hardikar-Sawant, Samindara; Prabhudesai, Anuradha D.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers play an important role in the diagnosis and management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There are no published studies on Indian teachers' knowledge of ADHD. In the present study, the aim was to assess knowledge and misperceptions about ADHD among schoolteachers in Mumbai. A total of 106 teachers from 12 English-medium…

  5. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Motohisa; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study with 30 children showing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found a normal diurnal saliva cortisol rhythm in only 43.3 percent of the subjects and a dexamethasone suppression in 46.7 percent, with both these abnormalities more frequent in the severely than the mildly hyperactive group. Results suggest abnormalities in…

  6. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Bathula, Deepti; Herting, Megan; Schmitt, Colleen; Kroenke, Christopher D.; Fair, Damien; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identification of biomarkers is a priority for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies have documented macrostructural brain alterations in ADHD, but few have examined white matter microstructure, particularly in preadolescent children. Given dramatic white matter maturation across childhood, microstructural differences…

  7. White Matter Microstructure in Subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Katherine E.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Loo, Sandra K.; Ly, Ronald; Yee, Victor; O'Neill, Joseph; Alger, Jeffry; Narr, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous voxel-based and regions-of-interest (ROI)-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have found above-normal mean diffusivity (MD) and below-normal fractional anisotropy (FA) in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, findings remain mixed, and few studies have examined the contribution of ADHD…

  8. Cardiovascular Risk of Stimulant Treatment in Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Update and Clinical Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerness, Paul G.; Perrin, James M.; Shelley-Abrahamson, Rachel; Wilens, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This review provides an update on the cardiovascular impact of therapeutic stimulant-class medication for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Relevant clinical literature was ascertained using PubMed searches limited to human studies and the English language as of May 2011. Current…

  9. Efficiency of the Prefrontal Cortex during Working Memory in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; Hinshaw, Stephen; D'Esposito, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has demonstrated that during task conditions requiring an increase in inhibitory function or working memory, children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit greater and more varied prefrontal cortical(PFC) activation compared to age-matched control participants. This pattern may reflect…

  10. Special Education for Children with Attention Deficit Disorder: Current Issues. CRS Report for Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This paper examines issues concerning the eligibility of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) for special education and related services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). A policy memorandum was issued by the Department of Education in September 1991, identifying those circumstances under which such children…

  11. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Future Substance Use Disorders: Comparative Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charach, Alice; Yeung, Emanuela; Climans, Troy; Lillie, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In recent years cohort studies have examined childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term risk is estimated for development of alcohol, cannabis, combined alcohol and psychoactive SUDs, combined SUDs (nonalcohol), and…

  12. The genetic overlap of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, A.J.; Schothorst, P.F.; Vorstman, J.A.; Staal, W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are classified as distinct disorders within the DSM-IV-TR (1994). The manual excludes simultaneous use of both diagnoses in case of overlap on a symptomatic level. However this does not always represent clinical

  13. Persistence of Sleep Problems in Children with Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Skirbekk, Benedicte; Oerbeck, Beate; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Kristensen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the persistence of sleep problems over 18 months in 76 referred children with anxiety disorders and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and 31 nonreferred controls, and explores predictors of sleep problems at follow-up (T2) in the referred children. Diagnoses were assessed at initial assessment (T1) using the…

  14. What Knowledge and Conceptions Do Irish Primary Schoolteachers Hold on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Victoria Ann

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis rates have increased significantly in recent times. A teacher's role is crucial in determining if a child will be referred for an ADHD assessment. Teachers' opinions and observations are also required for and play a huge role in the actual assessment process. For this reason, their…

  15. Using Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Written Expression with Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Graham, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This review assessed the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) for teaching written composition strategies to students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. We examined the participants and the settings in which SRSD has been used, the writing strategies tested, genres addressed, and the effects of SRSD on outcome measures.…

  16. Consequences of Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Children's Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.; Ash, Andrea C.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and communication disorders represent a frequently encountered challenge for school-based practitioners. The purpose of the present study was to examine in more detail the clinical phenomenology of co-occurring ADHD and language impairments (LIs). Method: Measures of nonword…

  17. Attention-Deficit, Fear and Aggression in Iranian Preschool Students with Regard to Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzade, Mostafa; Assemi, Arezoo

    2013-01-01

    The cause of most adult psychopathologies or behavioural disorders can be traced back to childhood. In this study, we examine the attention-deficit, fear and aggression in Iran's preschool students in Oshnaviye city. In this analytical-descriptive study, 50 students were selected through stratified sampling method from 249 students. Data were…

  18. Interventions for High School Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Considerations for Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is now widely conceptualized as a life course-persistent disorder, present from early childhood, and it results in pronounced impairment in functioning within educational settings, including high school. Current intervention approaches are briefly reviewed, and an approach to framing interventions within a…

  19. Recognizing and Treating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevatt, Frances; Young, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally diagnosed in children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is now regarded as a life span condition. The academic difficulties experienced by children and adolescents with ADHD have been observed to continue into young adulthood. Treatment outcome studies demonstrate that behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions…

  20. Attention-Deficit/Hperactivity Disorder Symptom Levels and Romantic Relationship Quality in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Michael R.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Whitton, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association.…

  1. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  2. Knowledge of and Attitude towards Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Teachers in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…

  3. Swimming and Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: A Winning Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dail, Teresa; Smith, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of swimming for children with disabilities include improved motor skills, physical fitness, executive brain function and improved social skills. Swimming can also be an activity that provides a positive environment for children suffering from attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). This article provides an overview of ADHD and…

  4. Teacher Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Middle School Students in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Fred R., Jr.; Brown, Michelle S.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the knowledge levels middle school teachers in South Texas have in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study specifically compared teacher knowledge levels among three specific ADHD knowledge areas: (a) general knowledge of ADHD, (b) knowledge of symptoms/diagnosis of ADHD, and (c)…

  5. African-American Teenagers' Stories of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Bussing, Regina; Williamson, Pamela; Wilder, JeffriAnne; Mills, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Cultural differences in illness perceptions and treatment access of teens with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are evident yet under studied. The purpose of this qualitative paper is to explore how African-American teenagers describe and narrate stories about their lives with ADHD. Data were gathered from four African-American…

  6. Timing of the diagnosis of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Michelle M.; Millichap, J. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Investigators from the Division of Developmental Medicine and Clinical Research Center, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, studied the relationship between the timing of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the age at ASD diagnosis.

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Erroneously Diagnosed and Treated as Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Ozler, Sinan; Topuz, Mehtap; Goldstein, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of literature on patients erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder. Method: The authors report a case of an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder for 6 years. At that point, methylphenidate was initiated. The patient was judged to be a…

  8. Interaction of Parenting Styles and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Iranian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Andries, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships between parenting styles and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), utilizing a sample of Iranian parents of children with and without ADHD. Results indicate significant relationships between ADHD and parenting styles. There is a negative relationship between having an ADHD child and applying authoritative…

  9. Markers, Models, and Measurement Error: Exploring the Links between Attention Deficits and Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The empirical record regarding the expected co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific language impairment is confusing and contradictory. A research plan is presented that has the potential to untangle links between these 2 common neurodevelopmental disorders. Method: Data from completed and ongoing…

  10. Standardized Observational Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes. II. Classroom Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Antshel, Kevin; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Dumenci, Levent

    2009-01-01

    Trained classroom observers used the Direct Observation Form (DOF; McConaughy & Achenbach, 2009) to rate observations of 163 6- to 11-year-old children in their school classrooms. Participants were assigned to four groups based on a parent diagnostic interview and parent and teacher rating scales: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder…

  11. Anxiety and disruptive behavior mediate pathways from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Arunima; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan; Hartman, Catharina A

    Objective: The progression to depression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clearly understood. To clarify this relationship, we tested the following hypotheses in a population-based study: (1) children with ADHD have a higher risk of developing depression than

  12. Nonmedical Use of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Among Secondary School Students in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ellen S; de Haan, Lydia; Bouvy, Marcel L; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: No studies in Europe have assessed the extent of nonmedical attention-deficit/hyperactivitiy disorder (ADHD) medication use among adolescents, while also, in Europe, prescribing of these medicines has increased. Our objective was to study the prevalence and motives for nonmedical ADHD

  13. Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Collaborative Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford-Butler, M. Ann; Theodore, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The school setting can be a difficult place for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The core symptoms of ADHD, which include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, make meeting the curriculum demands of the classroom challenging. That ADHD negatively impacts not only academic performance but also social and…

  14. Current Medications for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Brigette S.; Roberts, Holly J.; Needelman, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is common among children. Fortunately, ADHD is highly treatable with medication. The purpose of this article is to serve as a primer on medication treatment for ADHD for school psychologists. The article discusses the available stimulant and nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD.…

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Rasch Analysis of the SWAN Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deidra J.; Levy, Florence; Martin, Neilson C.; Hay, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been estimated at 3-7% in the population. Children with this disorder are often characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or impulsivity and hyperactivity, which can significantly impact on many aspects of their behaviour and performance. This study investigated the…

  16. Time Perception: Modality and Duration Effects in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Time perception performance was systematically investigated in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, the effects of manipulating modality (auditory and visual) and length of duration (200 and 1000 ms) were examined. Forty-six adolescents with ADHD and 44 controls were administered four duration…

  17. Methylphenidate Improves Visual-Spatial Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit- hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Anne-Claude; Martinussen, Rhonda; Ickowicz, Abel; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on visual-spatial memory, as measured by subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB), in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Visual-spatial memory is a core component of working memory that has been shown to be impaired in…

  18. Study of Anxiety in Parents and Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jose Juan Castro; Bermúdez, M. Olga Escandell; Sevilla, M. del Sol Fortea; Hernán-Pérez, Alejandra Sanjuán

    2015-01-01

    The identification of factors that influence attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will help to develop intervention strategies for the personal and social adjustment of these individuals. The goal of the study is to assess the perception of anxiety in a group of children and adolescents with ADHD and the anxiety that their parents…

  19. Test of Alternative Hypotheses Explaining the Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Willcutt, Erik G.; Hartman, Christie A.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2008-01-01

    There is significant comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The conclusions of studies that examined the causes of comorbidity between ADHD and CD conflict, with some researchers finding support for the three independent disorders model and others finding support for the correlated risk…

  20. Depression and Anxiety as Possible Mediators of the Association between Smoking and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Gilat L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Hossain, Shahadut; Johnson, Joy L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between depression and anxiety and adolescents' smoking status, and to determine whether depression or anxiety mediate the association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and smoking. A cross-sectional survey of tobacco use was conducted in regional school districts…