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Sample records for differential effects comparing

  1. Creating Tic Suppression: Comparing the Effects of Verbal Instruction to Differential Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Douglas W.; Himle, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two methods designed to produce tic reduction in 4 children with Tourette's syndrome. Specifically, a verbal instruction not to engage in tics was compared to a verbal instruction plus differential reinforcement of zero-rate behavior (DRO). Results showed that the DRO-enhanced procedure yielded greater…

  2. Comparative Circadian Metabolomics Reveal Differential Effects of Nutritional Challenge in the Serum and Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondante, Serena; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Ceglia, Nicholas J; Baldi, Pierre; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2016-02-05

    Diagnosis and therapeutic interventions in pathological conditions rely upon clinical monitoring of key metabolites in the serum. Recent studies show that a wide range of metabolic pathways are controlled by circadian rhythms whose oscillation is affected by nutritional challenges, underscoring the importance of assessing a temporal window for clinical testing and thereby questioning the accuracy of the reading of critical pathological markers in circulation. We have been interested in studying the communication between peripheral tissues under metabolic homeostasis perturbation. Here we present a comparative circadian metabolomic analysis on serum and liver in mice under high fat diet. Our data reveal that the nutritional challenge induces a loss of serum metabolite rhythmicity compared with liver, indicating a circadian misalignment between the tissues analyzed. Importantly, our results show that the levels of serum metabolites do not reflect the circadian liver metabolic signature or the effect of nutritional challenge. This notion reveals the possibility that misleading reads of metabolites in circulation may result in misdiagnosis and improper treatments. Our findings also demonstrate a tissue-specific and time-dependent disruption of metabolic homeostasis in response to altered nutrition. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Examining Differential Resilience Mechanisms by Comparing 'Tipping Points' of the Effects of Neighborhood Conditions on Anxiety by Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Emil Nicolae; Wu, Helen Zhao

    2018-02-20

    Exposure to adverse environmental and social conditions affects physical and mental health through complex mechanisms. Different racial/ethnic (R/E) groups may be more or less vulnerable to the same conditions, and the resilience mechanisms that can protect them likely operate differently in each population. We investigate how adverse neighborhood conditions (neighborhood disorder, NDis) differentially impact mental health (anxiety, Anx) in a sample of white and Black (African American) young women from Southeast Texas, USA. We illustrate a simple yet underutilized segmented regression model where linearity is relaxed to allow for a shift in the strength of the effect with the levels of the predictor. We compare how these effects change within R/E groups with the level of the predictor, but also how the "tipping points," where the effects change in strength, may differ by R/E. We find with classic linear regression that neighborhood disorder adversely affects Black women's anxiety, while in white women the effect seems negligible. Segmented regressions show that the Ndis → Anx effects in both groups of women appear to shift at similar levels, about one-fifth of a standard deviation below the mean of NDis, but the effect for Black women appears to start out as negative, then shifts in sign, i.e., to increase anxiety, while for white women, the opposite pattern emerges. Our findings can aid in devising better strategies for reducing health disparities that take into account different coping or resilience mechanisms operating differentially at distinct levels of adversity. We recommend that researchers investigate when adversity becomes exceedingly harmful and whether this happens differentially in distinct populations, so that intervention policies can be planned to reverse conditions that are more amenable to change, in effect pushing back the overall social risk factors below such tipping points.

  4. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  5. Differential effects comparing exercise and pharmacologic stress on left ventricular function using gated Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Yuka; Chikamori, Taishiro; Igarashi, Yuko; Hida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Hatano, Tsuguhisa; Usui, Yasuhiro; Miyagi, Manabu; Yamashina, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Although post-ischemic stunning has emerged as an important marker for severe coronary artery disease (CAD), differences in stress methods may have different effects on left ventricular (LV) volumes and function. To assess differential effects comparing exercise and pharmacologic stress on the LV measurements, 99m Tc-sestamibi gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) acquired more than 30 min after stress and at rest was evaluated in 38 patients undergoing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stress (ATP group) and 38 age- and sex-matched patients subjected to exercise stress (Ex group) among 268 patients with normal SPECT findings. Coronary risk factors and LV volumetric measurements at baseline were similar in the two groups. Compared with volumetric measurements at rest, end-diastolic volume (EDV) increased (72±21 ml to 74±21 ml; P=0.01), end-systolic volume increased (25±12 ml to 28±13 ml; P=0.001), and ejection fraction (EF) decreased after stress (66%±8% to 63%±9%; P<0.002) in the ATP group. In the Ex group, by contrast, no such change was observed. In addition, changes in EDV (3±6 vs. -1±5 ml; P=0.01) and the stress-to-rest ratio of EDV (1.04±0.09 vs. 0.99±0.08; P<0.02) after stress were greater in the ATP than in the Ex group. Differential effects of stress methods on LV volumes persist more than 30 min after the stress. These findings should be kept in mind when interpreting post-ischemic stunning. (author)

  6. Profound Effect of Profiling Platform and Normalization Strategy on Detection of Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs – A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Swanhild U.; Kaiser, Sebastian; Wagner, Carola; Thirion, Christian; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate normalization minimizes the effects of systematic technical variations and is a prerequisite for getting meaningful biological changes. However, there is inconsistency about miRNA normalization performances and recommendations. Thus, we investigated the impact of seven different normalization methods (reference gene index, global geometric mean, quantile, invariant selection, loess, loessM, and generalized procrustes analysis) on intra- and inter-platform performance of two distinct and commonly used miRNA profiling platforms. Methodology/Principal Findings We included data from miRNA profiling analyses derived from a hybridization-based platform (Agilent Technologies) and an RT-qPCR platform (Applied Biosystems). Furthermore, we validated a subset of miRNAs by individual RT-qPCR assays. Our analyses incorporated data from the effect of differentiation and tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment on primary human skeletal muscle cells and a murine skeletal muscle cell line. Distinct normalization methods differed in their impact on (i) standard deviations, (ii) the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, (iii) the similarity of differential expression. Loess, loessM, and quantile analysis were most effective in minimizing standard deviations on the Agilent and TLDA platform. Moreover, loess, loessM, invariant selection and generalized procrustes analysis increased the area under the ROC curve, a measure for the statistical performance of a test. The Jaccard index revealed that inter-platform concordance of differential expression tended to be increased by loess, loessM, quantile, and GPA normalization of AGL and TLDA data as well as RGI normalization of TLDA data. Conclusions/Significance We recommend the application of loess, or loessM, and GPA normalization for miRNA Agilent arrays and qPCR cards as these normalization approaches showed to (i) effectively reduce standard deviations, (ii) increase sensitivity and accuracy of

  7. The opioid receptor pharmacology of GSK1521498 compared to other ligands with differential effects on compulsive reward-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Eamonn; Mundell, Stuart J; Sava, Anna; Roth, Adelheid L; Felici, Antonio; Maltby, Kay; Nathan, Pradeep J; Bullmore, Edward T; Henderson, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    The novel opioid receptor antagonist, GSK1421498, has been shown to attenuate reward-driven compulsive behaviours, such as stimulant drug seeking or binge eating, in animals and humans. Here, we report new data on the receptor pharmacology of GSK121498, in comparison to naltrexone, naloxone, 6-β-naltrexol and nalmefene. To determine whether the novel opioid antagonist, GSK1521498, is an orthosteric or allosteric antagonist at the μ opioid receptor (MOPr) and whether it has neutral antagonist or inverse agonist properties. A combination of radioligand binding assays and [(35)S]GTPγS binding assays was employed. GSK1521498 completely displaced [(3)H]naloxone binding to MOPr and did not alter the rate of [(3)H]naloxone dissociation from MOPr observations compatible with it binding to the orthosteric site on MOPr. GSK1521498 exhibited inverse agonism when MOPr was overexpressed but not when the level of MOPr expression was low. In parallel studies under conditions of high receptor expression density, naloxone, naltrexone, 6-β-naltrexol and nalmefene exhibited partial agonism, not inverse agonism as has been reported previously for naloxone and naltrexone. In brain tissue from mice receiving a prolonged morphine pre-treatment, GSK1521498 exhibited slight inverse agonism. Differences between GSK1521498 and naltrexone in their effects on compulsive reward seeking are arguably linked to the more selective and complete MOPr antagonism of GSK1521498 versus the partial MOPr agonism of naltrexone. GSK1521498 is also pharmacologically differentiated by its inverse agonist efficacy at high levels of MOPr expression, but this may be less likely to contribute to behavioural differentiation at patho-physiological levels of expression.

  8. Educational effect of a lecture on differential imaging features comparing ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumors of the mandible presented to dental students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Mitsuko; Ariji, Yoshiko; Kise, Yoshitaka; Goto, Masakazu; Izumi, Masahiro; Naitoh, Munetaka; Ariji, Eiichiro; Katsumata, Akitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the educational effect of a lecture on differential imaging features comparing ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumors of the mandibles presented to dental students. Panoramic and CT images of 10 ameloblastomas and 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumors were randomly presented 114 dental students. Test scores, correct answer ratios, identification index, and understanding of the imaging features contributing to a correct diagnosis were serially evaluated before and after the lecture on the differential imaging features comparing the two types of tumors. The mean and standard deviation of the scoring ratios of dental students diagnosing these lesions on panoramic and CT images were 48.8±10.8% and 52.5±12.9%, respectively. After the lecture on the differential imaging features comparing the two tumors, the scoring ratios improved significantly. After the lecture, both the numbers of patients whose images were correctly diagnosed and the identification indices increased. The lecture also increased the number of imaging features recognized as contributing to the correct diagnosis. A lecture on the differential imaging features comparing ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumors of the mandibles contributed to the improvement of imaging diagnosis skills among dental students. (author)

  9. Examining Differential Resilience Mechanisms by Comparing ‘Tipping Points’ of the Effects of Neighborhood Conditions on Anxiety by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Nicolae Coman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to adverse environmental and social conditions affects physical and mental health through complex mechanisms. Different racial/ethnic (R/E groups may be more or less vulnerable to the same conditions, and the resilience mechanisms that can protect them likely operate differently in each population. We investigate how adverse neighborhood conditions (neighborhood disorder, NDis differentially impact mental health (anxiety, Anx in a sample of white and Black (African American young women from Southeast Texas, USA. We illustrate a simple yet underutilized segmented regression model where linearity is relaxed to allow for a shift in the strength of the effect with the levels of the predictor. We compare how these effects change within R/E groups with the level of the predictor, but also how the “tipping points,” where the effects change in strength, may differ by R/E. We find with classic linear regression that neighborhood disorder adversely affects Black women’s anxiety, while in white women the effect seems negligible. Segmented regressions show that the Ndis → Anx effects in both groups of women appear to shift at similar levels, about one-fifth of a standard deviation below the mean of NDis, but the effect for Black women appears to start out as negative, then shifts in sign, i.e., to increase anxiety, while for white women, the opposite pattern emerges. Our findings can aid in devising better strategies for reducing health disparities that take into account different coping or resilience mechanisms operating differentially at distinct levels of adversity. We recommend that researchers investigate when adversity becomes exceedingly harmful and whether this happens differentially in distinct populations, so that intervention policies can be planned to reverse conditions that are more amenable to change, in effect pushing back the overall social risk factors below such tipping points.

  10. Cell biological effects of total body irradiation on growth and differentiation of acute myelogenous leukemia cells compared to normal bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberger, J S; Weichselbaum, R R; Botnick, L E; Sakakeeny, M; Moloney, W C

    1979-01-01

    Radiation therapy is used as total body treatment in preparation of the acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patient for bone marrow transplantation. Many AML patients will have residual leukemia cells at the time of total body irradiation (TBI). In the present study, the effect of TBI on leukemic myeloid cells was compared to the effect on normal marrow granulocytic stem cells (CFUc) in vitro. Little difference from that of normal CFUc was found in the radiosensitivity of two mouse myeloid leukemia cell lines. The effect of TBI on growth of WEHI-3 or J774 cells in millipore diffusion chambers was stimulatory. These AML cell lines as well as others derived from Friend or Abelson virus infected in vitro long term mouse marrow cultures showed some morphologic differentiation by 7 days growth in diffusion chambers in irradiated heterologous rat hosts, but immature cells predominated by day 21. Thus, evidence in murine models of AML indicates that residual AML cells surviving chemotherapy will show no greater susceptibility to radiation killing compared to normal stem cells and will rapidly repopulate the irradiated host.

  11. Effect of Chromatin Structure on the Extent and Distribution of DNA Double Strand Breaks Produced by Ionizing Radiation; Comparative Study of hESC and Differentiated Cells Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Priyanka; Panyutin, Irina V; Remeeva, Evgenia; Neumann, Ronald D; Panyutin, Igor G

    2016-01-02

    Chromatin structure affects the extent of DNA damage and repair. Thus, it has been shown that heterochromatin is more protective against DNA double strand breaks (DSB) formation by ionizing radiation (IR); and that DNA DSB repair may proceed differently in hetero- and euchromatin regions. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have a more open chromatin structure than differentiated cells. Here, we study the effect of chromatin structure in hESC on initial DSB formation and subsequent DSB repair. DSB were scored by comet assay; and DSB repair was assessed by repair foci formation via 53BP1 antibody staining. We found that in hESC, heterochromatin is confined to distinct regions, while in differentiated cells it is distributed more evenly within the nuclei. The same dose of ionizing radiation produced considerably more DSB in hESC than in differentiated derivatives, normal human fibroblasts; and one cancer cell line. At the same time, the number of DNA repair foci were not statistically different among these cells. We showed that in hESC, DNA repair foci localized almost exclusively outside the heterochromatin regions. We also noticed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in an increase in heterochromatin marker H3K9me3 in cancer HT1080 cells, and to a lesser extent in IMR90 normal fibroblasts, but not in hESCs. These results demonstrate the importance of chromatin conformation for DNA protection and DNA damage repair; and indicate the difference of these processes in hESC.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Fertility Differentials in Ghana and Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Our study compared the two countries' fertility levels and their determinants as well as the differentials in ... The sample of 33,385 and 4,916 women aged 15-49 years obtained in Nigeria and Ghana respectively was ... poverty at both the household and national levels1- ... China, India, United States, Indonesia, Brazil, and.

  13. Differential effectiveness of placebo treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Karin; Fässler, Margrit; Rücker, Gerta

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE When analyzing results of randomized clinical trials, the treatment with the greatest specific effect compared with its placebo control is considered to be the most effective one. Although systematic variations of improvements in placebo control groups would have important implications...... relevant sources through February 2012 and contacted the authors to identify randomized clinical trials on the prophylaxis of migraine with an observation period of at least 8 weeks after randomization that compared an experimental treatment with a placebo control group. We calculated pooled random-effects...... and sham surgery are associated with higher responder ratios than oral pharmacological placebos. Clinicians who treat patients with migraine should be aware that a relevant part of the overall effect they observe in practice might be due to nonspecific effects and that the size of such effects might differ...

  14. Comparing the Effects of Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior and Response-Cost Contingencies on Tics in Youth with Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Matthew R.; Brandt, Bryan C.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Espil, Flint M.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Tics are rapid, repetitive, stereotyped movements or vocalizations that arise from neurobiological dysfunction and are influenced by environmental factors. Although persons with tic disorders often experience aversive social reactions in response to tics, little is known about the behavioral effects of such consequences. Along several dimensions,…

  15. The differential susceptibility to media effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It

  16. Line pressure effects on differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, G.G.; Evans, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of differential pressure transducers in experimental pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems was evaluated. Transient differential pressure measurements made using a simple calibration proportionality relating differential pressure to output voltage could have large measurement uncertainties. A more sophisticated calibration equation was derived to incorporate the effects of zero shifts and sensitivity shifts as pressure in the pressure sensing line changes with time. A comparison made between the original calibration proportionality equation and the derived compensation equation indicates that potential measurement uncertainties can be reduced

  17. Giant parathyroid adenoma: differential aspects compared to parathyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Araujo Castro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The 85% of cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT are due to parathyroid adenomas (PA and less than 1% to parathyroid carcinomas (PC. The PA usually measure <2 cm, weigh <1 g and generate a mild PHPT, whereas the PC usually exceeds these dimensions and are associated with a severe PHPT. However, giant PA (GPA, which is defined as those larger than 3 g, has been documented. Those may be associated with very high levels of PTH and calcium. In these cases, their differentiation before and after surgery with PC is very difficult. We present a case of severe PHPT associated with a large parathyroid lesion, and we discuss the differential aspects between the GPA and PC.

  18. Preferences, comparative advantage, and compensating wage differentials for job routinization

    OpenAIRE

    Climent Quintana Domeque

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I attempt to explain why labor economists typically have not been able to find much evidence on compensating wage differentials for job disamenities, except for risk of death. The key insight here is that, although workers need to be compensated when their preferences do not match the requirements for performing a job task, the occurrence of mismatch also decreases productivity, reducing the surplus to be divided between workers and firms, and decreasing wages. I focus on the ma...

  19. Effective action for stochastic partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, David; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Perez-Mercader, Juan; Visser, Matt

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are the basic tool for modeling systems where noise is important. SPDEs are used for models of turbulence, pattern formation, and the structural development of the universe itself. It is reasonably well known that certain SPDEs can be manipulated to be equivalent to (nonquantum) field theories that nevertheless exhibit deep and important relationships with quantum field theory. In this paper we systematically extend these ideas: We set up a functional integral formalism and demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop physics for an arbitrary SPDE subject to arbitrary Gaussian noise. It is extremely important to realize that Gaussian noise does not imply that the field variables undergo Gaussian fluctuations, and that these nonquantum field theories are fully interacting. The limitation to one loop is not as serious as might be supposed: Experience with quantum field theories (QFTs) has taught us that one-loop physics is often quite adequate to give a good description of the salient issues. The limitation to one loop does, however, offer marked technical advantages: Because at one loop almost any field theory can be rendered finite using zeta function technology, we can sidestep the complications inherent in the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism (the SPDE analog of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism used in QFT) and instead focus attention on a minimalist approach that uses only the physical fields (this ''direct approach'' is the SPDE analog of canonical quantization using physical fields). After setting up the general formalism for the characteristic functional (partition function), we show how to define the effective action to all loops, and then focus on the one-loop effective action and its specialization to constant fields: the effective potential. The physical interpretation of the effective action and effective potential for SPDEs is addressed and we show that key features carry over from QFT to the case of

  20. Effective action for stochastic partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, David [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, (Spain); Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA, Carratera Ajalvir, Km. 4, 28850 Torrejon, Madrid, (Spain); Molina-Paris, Carmen [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Perez-Mercader, Juan [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, (Spain); Visser, Matt [Physics Department, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are the basic tool for modeling systems where noise is important. SPDEs are used for models of turbulence, pattern formation, and the structural development of the universe itself. It is reasonably well known that certain SPDEs can be manipulated to be equivalent to (nonquantum) field theories that nevertheless exhibit deep and important relationships with quantum field theory. In this paper we systematically extend these ideas: We set up a functional integral formalism and demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop physics for an arbitrary SPDE subject to arbitrary Gaussian noise. It is extremely important to realize that Gaussian noise does not imply that the field variables undergo Gaussian fluctuations, and that these nonquantum field theories are fully interacting. The limitation to one loop is not as serious as might be supposed: Experience with quantum field theories (QFTs) has taught us that one-loop physics is often quite adequate to give a good description of the salient issues. The limitation to one loop does, however, offer marked technical advantages: Because at one loop almost any field theory can be rendered finite using zeta function technology, we can sidestep the complications inherent in the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism (the SPDE analog of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism used in QFT) and instead focus attention on a minimalist approach that uses only the physical fields (this ''direct approach'' is the SPDE analog of canonical quantization using physical fields). After setting up the general formalism for the characteristic functional (partition function), we show how to define the effective action to all loops, and then focus on the one-loop effective action and its specialization to constant fields: the effective potential. The physical interpretation of the effective action and effective potential for SPDEs is addressed and we show that key features carry over from

  1. Type 2 diabetes risk alleles demonstrate extreme directional differentiation among human populations, compared to other diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    Full Text Available Many disease-susceptible SNPs exhibit significant disparity in ancestral and derived allele frequencies across worldwide populations. While previous studies have examined population differentiation of alleles at specific SNPs, global ethnic patterns of ensembles of disease risk alleles across human diseases are unexamined. To examine these patterns, we manually curated ethnic disease association data from 5,065 papers on human genetic studies representing 1,495 diseases, recording the precise risk alleles and their measured population frequencies and estimated effect sizes. We systematically compared the population frequencies of cross-ethnic risk alleles for each disease across 1,397 individuals from 11 HapMap populations, 1,064 individuals from 53 HGDP populations, and 49 individuals with whole-genome sequences from 10 populations. Type 2 diabetes (T2D demonstrated extreme directional differentiation of risk allele frequencies across human populations, compared with null distributions of European-frequency matched control genomic alleles and risk alleles for other diseases. Most T2D risk alleles share a consistent pattern of decreasing frequencies along human migration into East Asia. Furthermore, we show that these patterns contribute to disparities in predicted genetic risk across 1,397 HapMap individuals, T2D genetic risk being consistently higher for individuals in the African populations and lower in the Asian populations, irrespective of the ethnicity considered in the initial discovery of risk alleles. We observed a similar pattern in the distribution of T2D Genetic Risk Scores, which are associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program cohort, for the same individuals. This disparity may be attributable to the promotion of energy storage and usage appropriate to environments and inconsistent energy intake. Our results indicate that the differential frequencies of T2D risk alleles may

  2. Non-invasively predicting differentiation of pancreatic cancer through comparative serum metabonomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shi; Zhan, Bohan; Feng, Jianghua; Hu, Weize; Lin, Xianchao; Bai, Jianxi; Huang, Heguang

    2017-11-02

    The differentiation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) could be associated with prognosis and may influence the choices of clinical management. No applicable methods could reliably predict the tumor differentiation preoperatively. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the metabonomic profiling of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with different differentiations and assess the feasibility of predicting tumor differentiations through metabonomic strategy based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. By implanting pancreatic cancer cell strains Panc-1, Bxpc-3 and SW1990 in nude mice in situ, we successfully established the orthotopic xenograft models of PDAC with different differentiations. The metabonomic profiling of serum from different PDAC was achieved and analyzed by using 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with the multivariate statistical analysis. Then, the differential metabolites acquired were used for enrichment analysis of metabolic pathways to get a deep insight. An obvious metabonomic difference was demonstrated between all groups and the pattern recognition models were established successfully. The higher concentrations of amino acids, glycolytic and glutaminolytic participators in SW1990 and choline-contain metabolites in Panc-1 relative to other PDAC cells were demonstrated, which may be served as potential indicators for tumor differentiation. The metabolic pathways and differential metabolites identified in current study may be associated with specific pathways such as serine-glycine-one-carbon and glutaminolytic pathways, which can regulate tumorous proliferation and epigenetic regulation. The NMR-based metabonomic strategy may be served as a non-invasive detection method for predicting tumor differentiation preoperatively.

  3. Differential effects of gender on entropy perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcharoen, Kleddao

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine differences in perception of entropy (color intensity) between male and female computer users. The objectives include identifying gender-based differences in entropy intention and exploring the potential effects of these differences (if any) on user interface design. The research is an effort to contribute to an emerging field of interest in gender as it relates to science, engineering and technology (SET), particularly user interface design. Currently, there is limited evidence on the role of gender in user interface design and in use of technology generally, with most efforts at gender-differentiated or customized design based on stereotypes and assumptions about female use of technology or the assumption of a default position based on male preferences. Image entropy was selected as a potential characteristic where gender could be a factor in perception because of known differences in color perception acuity between male and female individuals, even where there is no known color perception abnormality (which is more common with males). Although the literature review suggested that training could offset differences in color perception and identification, tests in untrained subject groups routinely show that females are more able to identify, match, and differentiate colors, and that there is a stronger emotional and psychosocial association of color for females. Since image entropy is associated with information content and image salience, the ability to identify areas of high entropy could make a difference in user perception and technological capabilities.

  4. High-fat meals rich in EPA plus DHA compared with DHA only have differential effects on postprandial lipemia and plasma 8-isoprostane F2α concentrations relative to a control high-oleic acid meal: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Robert; Latham, Sally H; Botham, Kathleen M; Hall, Wendy L; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P D

    2014-10-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation has beneficial cardiovascular effects, but postprandial influences of these individual fatty acids are unclear. The primary objective was to determine the vascular effects of EPA + DHA compared with DHA only during postprandial lipemia relative to control high-oleic acid meals; the secondary objective was to characterize the effects of linoleic acid-enriched high-fat meals relative to the control meal. We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover trial of 4 high-fat (75-g) meals containing 1) high-oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS; control), 2) HOS + fish oil (FO; 5 g EPA and DHA), 3) HOS + algal oil (AO; 5 g DHA), and 4) high-linoleic acid sunflower oil (HLS) in 16 healthy men (aged 35-70 y) with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations (mean ± SD triacylglycerol, 1.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L). Elevations in triacylglycerol concentration relative to baseline were slightly reduced after FO and HLS compared with the HOS control (P acids after a mixed meal was inhibited after AO (Δ 0-3 h, P DHA-rich fish oil compared with DHA-rich AO, but these differences were not associated with consistent effects on postprandial vascular function or lipemia. More detailed analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipid mediators are required to determine possible divergent functional effects of single meals rich in either DHA or EPA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01618071.

  5. Temperature effects in differential mobility spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Evgeny V.; Coy, Stephen L.; Nazarov, Erkinjon G.

    2009-01-01

    Drift gas temperature and pressure influence differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) performance, changing DMS peak positions, heights and widths. This study characterizes the effect of temperature on DMS peak positions. Positive ions of methyl salicylate, DMMP, and toluene, and negative ions of methyl salicylate and the reactant ion peaks were observed in purified nitrogen in the Sionex microDMx planar DMS. Measurements were made at ambient pressure (1 atm) at temperatures from 25 °C to 150 °C in a planar sensor with height 0.5 mm. Peak value of the separation voltage asymmetric waveform was scanned from 500 V to 1500 V. Compensation voltage (DMS peak position) showed a strong variation with temperature for all investigated ions. By generalizing the concept of effective ion temperature to include the effects of inelastic ion-molecular collisions, we have been able to condense peak position dependence on separation field and temperature to dependence on a redefined effective temperature including a smoothly varying inelasticity correction. It allows prediction and correction of the gas temperature effect on DMS peak positions.

  6. Comparative Sex Chromosome Genomics in Snakes: Differentiation, Evolutionary Strata, and Lack of Global Dosage Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zektser, Yulia; Mahajan, Shivani; Bachtrog, Doris

    2013-01-01

    Snakes exhibit genetic sex determination, with female heterogametic sex chromosomes (ZZ males, ZW females). Extensive cytogenetic work has suggested that the level of sex chromosome heteromorphism varies among species, with Boidae having entirely homomorphic sex chromosomes, Viperidae having completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and Colubridae showing partial differentiation. Here, we take a genomic approach to compare sex chromosome differentiation in these three snake families. We identify homomorphic sex chromosomes in boas (Boidae), but completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes in both garter snakes (Colubridae) and pygmy rattlesnake (Viperidae). Detection of W-linked gametologs enables us to establish the presence of evolutionary strata on garter and pygmy rattlesnake sex chromosomes where recombination was abolished at different time points. Sequence analysis shows that all strata are shared between pygmy rattlesnake and garter snake, i.e., recombination was abolished between the sex chromosomes before the two lineages diverged. The sex-biased transmission of the Z and its hemizygosity in females can impact patterns of molecular evolution, and we show that rates of evolution for Z-linked genes are increased relative to their pseudoautosomal homologs, both at synonymous and amino acid sites (even after controlling for mutational biases). This demonstrates that mutation rates are male-biased in snakes (male-driven evolution), but also supports faster-Z evolution due to differential selective effects on the Z. Finally, we perform a transcriptome analysis in boa and pygmy rattlesnake to establish baseline levels of sex-biased expression in homomorphic sex chromosomes, and show that heteromorphic ZW chromosomes in rattlesnakes lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation. Our study provides the first full scale overview of the evolution of snake sex chromosomes at the genomic level, thus greatly expanding our knowledge of reptilian and vertebrate sex chromosomes

  7. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed sequence tags of sweet orange and mandarin infected with Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Citrus ESTs Sequencing Project (CitEST conducted at Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira/IAC has identified and catalogued ESTs representing a set of citrus genes expressed under relevant stress responses, including diseases such as citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC, caused by Xylella fastidiosa. All sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. varieties are susceptible to X. fastidiosa. On the other hand, mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco are considered tolerant or resistant to the disease, although the bacterium can be sporadically detected within the trees, but no disease symptoms or economic losses are observed. To study their genetic responses to the presence of X. fastidiosa, we have compared EST libraries of leaf tissue of sweet orange Pêra IAC (highly susceptible cultivar to X. fastidiosa and mandarin ‘Ponkan’ (tolerant artificially infected with the bacterium. Using an in silico differential display, 172 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in such conditions. Sweet orange presented an increase in expression of photosynthesis related genes that could reveal a strategy to counterbalance a possible lower photosynthetic activity resulting from early effects of the bacterial colonization in affected plants. On the other hand, mandarin showed an active multi-component defense response against the bacterium similar to the non-host resistance pattern.

  8. Differential Effects of Tacrolimus versus Sirolimus on the Proliferation, Activation and Differentiation of Human B Cells.

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    Opas Traitanon

    Full Text Available The direct effect of immunosuppressive drugs calcineurin inhibitor (Tacrolimus, TAC and mTOR inhibitor (Sirolimus, SRL on B cell activation, differentiation and proliferation is not well documented. Purified human B cells from healthy volunteers were stimulated through the B Cell Receptor with Anti-IgM + anti-CD40 + IL21 in the absence / presence of TAC or SRL. A variety of parameters of B cell activity including activation, differentiation, cytokine productions and proliferation were monitored by flow cytometry. SRL at clinically relevant concentrations (6 ng/ml profoundly inhibited CD19(+ B cell proliferation compared to controls whereas TAC at similar concentrations had a minimal effect. CD27(+ memory B cells were affected more by SRL than naïve CD27- B cells. SRL effectively blocked B cell differentiation into plasma cells (CD19(+CD138(+ and Blimp1(+/Pax5(low cells even at low dose (2 ng/ml, and totally eliminated them at 6 ng/ml. SRL decreased absolute B cell counts, but the residual responding cells acquired an activated phenotype (CD25(+/CD69(+ and increased the expression of HLA-DR. SRL-treated stimulated B cells on a per cell basis were able to enhance the proliferation of allogeneic CD4(+CD25(- T cells and induce a shift toward the Th1 phenotype. Thus, SRL and TAC have different effects on B lymphocytes. These data may provide insights into the clinical use of these two agents in recipients of solid organ transplants.

  9. Rethinking Differentiation--Using Teachers' Time Most Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The goals of differentiation are laudable, but in recent years, many question whether it is really possible for a teacher to tailor instruction for 20 to 30 different students and whether it's desirable to differentiate by learning styles. Differentiation is just one factor in effective instruction. Supervisors who walk into a classroom looking…

  10. Comparative metabonomics of differential hydrazine toxicity in the rat and mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollard, Mary E.; Keun, Hector C.; Beckonert, Olaf; Ebbels, Tim M.D.; Antti, Henrik; Nicholls, Andrew W.; Shockcor, John P.; Cantor, Glenn H.; Stevens, Greg; Lindon, John C.; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K.

    2005-01-01

    Interspecies variation between rats and mice has been studied for hydrazine toxicity using a novel metabonomics approach. Hydrazine hydrochloride was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats (30 mg/kg, n = 10 and 90 mg/kg, n = 10) and male B6C3F mice (100 mg/kg, n = 8 and 250 mg/kg, n = 8) by oral gavage. In each species, the high dose was selected to produce the major histopathologic effect, hepatocellular lipid accumulation. Urine samples were collected at sequential time points up to 168 h post dose and analyzed by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The metabolites of hydrazine, namely diacetyl hydrazine and 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-6-oxo-3-pyridazine carboxylic acid (THOPC), were detected in both the rat and mouse urine samples. Monoacetyl hydrazine was detected only in urine samples from the rat and its absence in the urine of the mouse was attributed to a higher activity of N-acetyl transferases in the mouse compared with the rat. Differential metabolic effects observed between the two species included elevated urinary β-alanine, 3-D-hydroxybutyrate, citrulline, N-acetylcitrulline, and reduced trimethylamine-N-oxide excretion unique to the rat. Metabolic principal component (PC) trajectories highlighted the greater degree of toxic response in the rat. A data scaling method, scaled to maximum aligned and reduced trajectories (SMART) analysis, was used to remove the differences between the metabolic starting positions of the rat and mouse and varying magnitudes of effect, to facilitate comparison of the response geometries between the rat and mouse. Mice followed 'biphasic' open PC trajectories, with incomplete recovery 7 days after dosing, whereas rats followed closed 'hairpin' time profiles, indicating functional reversibility. The greater magnitude of metabolic effects observed in the rat was supported by the more pronounced effect on liver pathology in the rat when compared with the mouse

  11. Comparative Analysis of Particle Swarm and Differential Evolution via Tuning on Ultrasmall Titanium Oxide Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inclan, Eric; Lassester, Jack; Geohegan, David; Yoon, Mina

    Optimization algorithms (OA) coupled with numerical methods enable researchers to identify and study (meta) stable nanoclusters without the control restrictions of empirical methods. An algorithm's performance is governed by two factors: (1) its compatibility with an objective function, (2) the dimension of a design space, which increases with cluster size. Although researchers often tune an algorithm's user-defined parameters (UDP), tuning is not guaranteed to improve performance. In this research, Particle Swarm (PSO) and Differential Evolution (DE), are compared by tuning their UDP in a multi-objective optimization environment (MOE). Combined with a Kolmogorov Smirnov test for statistical significance, the MOE enables the study of the Pareto Front (PF), made of the UDP settings that trade-off between best performance in energy minimization (``effectiveness'') based on force-field potential energy, and best convergence rate (``efficiency''). By studying the PF, this research finds that UDP values frequently suggested in the literature do not provide best effectiveness for these methods. Additionally, monotonic convergence is found to significantly improve efficiency without sacrificing effectiveness for very small systems, suggesting better compatibility. Work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  12. Equine induced pluripotent stem cells have a reduced tendon differentiation capacity compared to embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Patricia Bavin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tendon injuries occur commonly in horses and their repair through scar tissue formation predisposes horses to a high rate of re-injury. Pluripotent stem cells may provide a cell replacement therapy to improve tendon tissue regeneration and lower the frequency of re-injury. We have previously demonstrated that equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs differentiate into the tendon cell lineage upon injection into the damaged horse tendon and can differentiate into functional tendon cells in vitro to generate artificial tendons. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have now been derived from horses but, to date, there are no reports on their ability to differentiate into tendon cells. As iPSCs can be produced from adult cell types, they provide a more accessible source of cells than ESCs, which require the use of horse embryos. The aim of this study was to compare tendon differentiation by ESCs and iPSCs produced through two independent methods. In 2-dimensional differentiation assays the iPSCs expressed tendon associated genes and proteins, which were enhanced by the presence of transforming growth factor-β3. However, in 3-dimensional differentiation assays the iPSCs failed to differentiate into functional tendon cells and generate artificial tendons. These results demonstrate the utility of the 3-dimensional in vitro tendon assay for measuring tendon differentiation and the need for more detailed studies to be performed on equine iPSCs to identify and understand their epigenetic differences from pluripotent ESCs prior to their clinical application.

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of Helicobacter pylori from Malaysia identifies three distinct lineages suggestive of differential evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narender; Mariappan, Vanitha; Baddam, Ramani; Lankapalli, Aditya K; Shaik, Sabiha; Goh, Khean-Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Perkins, Tim; Benghezal, Mohammed; Hasnain, Seyed E; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Marshall, Barry J; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2015-01-01

    The discordant prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and its related diseases, for a long time, fostered certain enigmatic situations observed in the countries of the southern world. Variation in H. pylori infection rates and disease outcomes among different populations in multi-ethnic Malaysia provides a unique opportunity to understand dynamics of host-pathogen interaction and genome evolution. In this study, we extensively analyzed and compared genomes of 27 Malaysian H. pylori isolates and identified three major phylogeographic lineages: hspEastAsia, hpEurope and hpSouthIndia. The analysis of the virulence genes within the core genome, however, revealed a comparable pathogenic potential of the strains. In addition, we identified four genes limited to strains of East-Asian lineage. Our analyses identified a few strain-specific genes encoding restriction modification systems and outlined 311 core genes possibly under differential evolutionary constraints, among the strains representing different ethnic groups. The cagA and vacA genes also showed variations in accordance with the host genetic background of the strains. Moreover, restriction modification genes were found to be significantly enriched in East-Asian strains. An understanding of these variations in the genome content would provide significant insights into various adaptive and host modulation strategies harnessed by H. pylori to effectively persist in a host-specific manner. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Hepatic differentiation of human iPSCs in different 3D models: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Florian; Freyer, Nora; Brzeszczynska, Joanna; Knöspel, Fanny; Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Greuel, Selina; Damm, Georg; Ludwig-Schwellinger, Eva; Deschl, Ulrich; Ross, James A; Beilmann, Mario; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2017-12-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising source from which to derive distinct somatic cell types for in vitro or clinical use. Existent protocols for hepatic differentiation of hiPSCs are primarily based on 2D cultivation of the cells. In the present study, the authors investigated the generation of hiPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells using two different 3D culture systems: A 3D scaffold-free microspheroid culture system and a 3D hollow-fiber perfusion bioreactor. The differentiation outcome in these 3D systems was compared with that in conventional 2D cultures, using primary human hepatocytes as a control. The evaluation was made based on specific mRNA expression, protein secretion, antigen expression and metabolic activity. The expression of α-fetoprotein was lower, while cytochrome P450 1A2 or 3A4 activities were higher in the 3D culture systems as compared with the 2D differentiation system. Cells differentiated in the 3D bioreactor showed an increased expression of albumin and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, as well as secretion of α-1-antitrypsin as compared with the 2D differentiation system, suggesting a higher degree of maturation. In contrast, the 3D scaffold-free microspheroid culture provides an easy and robust method to generate spheroids of a defined size for screening applications, while the bioreactor culture model provides an instrument for complex investigations under physiological-like conditions. In conclusion, the present study introduces two 3D culture systems for stem cell derived hepatic differentiation each demonstrating advantages for individual applications as well as benefits in comparison with 2D cultures.

  15. Comparative differential gene expression analysis of nucleus-encoded proteins for Rafflesia cantleyi against Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siuk-Mun; Lee, Xin-Wei; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Regulation of functional nucleus-encoded proteins targeting the plastidial functions was comparatively studied for a plant parasite, Rafflesia cantleyi versus a photosynthetic plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. This study involved two species of different feeding modes and different developmental stages. A total of 30 nucleus-encoded proteins were found to be differentially-regulated during two stages in the parasite; whereas 17 nucleus-encoded proteins were differentially-expressed during two developmental stages in Arabidopsis thaliana. One notable finding observed for the two plants was the identification of genes involved in the regulation of photosynthesis-related processes where these processes, as expected, seem to be present only in the autotroph.

  16. Identification of Differentially Methylated Sites with Weak Methylation Effects

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    Hong Tran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA methylation is an epigenetic alteration crucial for regulating stress responses. Identifying large-scale DNA methylation at single nucleotide resolution is made possible by whole genome bisulfite sequencing. An essential task following the generation of bisulfite sequencing data is to detect differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs among treatments. Most statistical methods for DMC detection do not consider the dependency of methylation patterns across the genome, thus possibly inflating type I error. Furthermore, small sample sizes and weak methylation effects among different phenotype categories make it difficult for these statistical methods to accurately detect DMCs. To address these issues, the wavelet-based functional mixed model (WFMM was introduced to detect DMCs. To further examine the performance of WFMM in detecting weak differential methylation events, we used both simulated and empirical data and compare WFMM performance to a popular DMC detection tool methylKit. Analyses of simulated data that replicated the effects of the herbicide glyphosate on DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana show that WFMM results in higher sensitivity and specificity in detecting DMCs compared to methylKit, especially when the methylation differences among phenotype groups are small. Moreover, the performance of WFMM is robust with respect to small sample sizes, making it particularly attractive considering the current high costs of bisulfite sequencing. Analysis of empirical Arabidopsis thaliana data under varying glyphosate dosages, and the analysis of monozygotic (MZ twins who have different pain sensitivities—both datasets have weak methylation effects of <1%—show that WFMM can identify more relevant DMCs related to the phenotype of interest than methylKit. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs are genomic regions with different DNA methylation status across biological samples. DMRs and DMCs are essentially the same

  17. Comparative numerical solutions of stiff Ordinary differential equations using magnus series expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURE KÖME

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the effect of Magnus Series Expansion Method on homogeneous stiff ordinary differential equations with different stiffness ratios. A Magnus type integrator is used to obtain numerical solutions of two different examples of stiff problems and exact and approximate results are tabulated. Furthermore, absolute error graphics are demonstrated in detail.

  18. Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarsini Kumar

    Full Text Available Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2 and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion. Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin also occurred but differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast was not observed. Instead the cells differentiated to mononucleated spindle-shaped cells and showed molecular and behavioral characteristics of endovascular trophoblasts. Another highly specific inhibitor of GSK3, CHIR99021, failed to induce endovascular trophoblast characteristics. These observations suggest that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway correlates with both trophoblast differentiation pathways, but that additional factors determine specific cell fate decisions. Other experiments suggested that the differential effects of sodium butyrate and lithium chloride might be explained by their effects on TNF

  19. The effect of rules on differential reinforcement of other behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Amanda C; Wilder, David A; Gregory, Meagan K; Leon, Yanerys; Ditzian, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the treatment of problem behavior has shown differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) to be an effective behavior-reduction procedure. However, the extent to which presession descriptions of the DRO contingency enhance intervention effects has not been examined. In the current study, we compared a condition in which a presession rule that described the DRO contingency was given to a condition in which no rule was given for 4 participants. The target behavior was toy play, which served as an analogue to problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. Results showed that DRO was more efficient for 1 participant and more effective for 2 participants when a rule was given. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  20. Does external pneumatic compression treatment between bouts of overreaching resistance training sessions exert differential effects on molecular signaling and performance-related variables compared to passive recovery? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Cody T; Roberts, Michael D; Romero, Matthew A; Osburn, Shelby C; Mobley, Christopher B; Anderson, Richard G; Goodlett, Michael D; Pascoe, David D; Martin, Jeffrey S

    2017-01-01

    We sought to compare the effects of external pneumatic compression (EPC) and sham when used concurrently with resistance training on performance-related outcomes and molecular measures related to recovery. Twenty (N = 20) resistance-trained male participants (aged 21.6±2.4 years) were randomized to balanced sham or EPC intervention groups. The protocol consisted of 3 consecutive days of heavy, voluminous back squat exercise followed by EPC/sham treatment (Days2-4) and 3 consecutive days of recovery (Days5-7) with EPC/sham only on Days5-6. On Day1 (PRE), and Days3-7, venipuncture, flexibility and pressure-to-pain threshold (PPT) measures were performed. Vastsus lateralis muscle tissue was biopsied at PRE, 1-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day2 (POST1) and 24-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day7 (POST2). Isokinetic peak torque was assessed at PRE and POST2. Peak isokinetic strength did not change from PRE to POST2 in either group. The PPT was significantly lower on Days3-6 with sham, indicating greater muscle soreness, though this was largely abolished in the EPC group. A significant decrease in flexibility with sham was observed on Day3 (+16.2±4.6% knee joint angle; P0.01). Vastus lateralis poly-ubiquitinated proteins significantly increased at the POST2 time point relative to PRE with sham (+66.6±24.6%; Pmuscle oxidative stress and proteolysis markers during recovery from heavy resistance exercise.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals differentially expressed genes associated with sex expression in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2017-08-22

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a highly valuable vegetable crop of commercial and nutritional interest. It is also commonly used to investigate the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in plants. However, the sex expression mechanisms in asparagus remain poorly understood. De novo transcriptome sequencing via Illumina paired-end sequencing revealed more than 26 billion bases of high-quality sequence data from male and female asparagus flower buds. A total of 72,626 unigenes with an average length of 979 bp were assembled. In comparative transcriptome analysis, 4876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the possible sex-determining stage of female and male/supermale flower buds. Of these DEGs, 433, including 285 male/supermale-biased and 149 female-biased genes, were annotated as flower related. Of the male/supermale-biased flower-related genes, 102 were probably involved in anther development. In addition, 43 DEGs implicated in hormone response and biosynthesis putatively associated with sex expression and reproduction were discovered. Moreover, 128 transcription factor (TF)-related genes belonging to various families were found to be differentially expressed, and this finding implied the essential roles of TF in sex determination or differentiation in asparagus. Correlation analysis indicated that miRNA-DEG pairs were also implicated in asparagus sexual development. Our study identified a large number of DEGs involved in the sex expression and reproduction of asparagus, including known genes participating in plant reproduction, plant hormone signaling, TF encoding, and genes with unclear functions. We also found that miRNAs might be involved in the sex differentiation process. Our study could provide a valuable basis for further investigations on the regulatory networks of sex determination and differentiation in asparagus and facilitate further genetic and genomic studies on this dioecious species.

  2. Does external pneumatic compression treatment between bouts of overreaching resistance training sessions exert differential effects on molecular signaling and performance-related variables compared to passive recovery? An exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody T Haun

    Full Text Available We sought to compare the effects of external pneumatic compression (EPC and sham when used concurrently with resistance training on performance-related outcomes and molecular measures related to recovery.Twenty (N = 20 resistance-trained male participants (aged 21.6±2.4 years were randomized to balanced sham or EPC intervention groups. The protocol consisted of 3 consecutive days of heavy, voluminous back squat exercise followed by EPC/sham treatment (Days2-4 and 3 consecutive days of recovery (Days5-7 with EPC/sham only on Days5-6. On Day1 (PRE, and Days3-7, venipuncture, flexibility and pressure-to-pain threshold (PPT measures were performed. Vastsus lateralis muscle tissue was biopsied at PRE, 1-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day2 (POST1 and 24-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day7 (POST2. Isokinetic peak torque was assessed at PRE and POST2.Peak isokinetic strength did not change from PRE to POST2 in either group. The PPT was significantly lower on Days3-6 with sham, indicating greater muscle soreness, though this was largely abolished in the EPC group. A significant decrease in flexibility with sham was observed on Day3 (+16.2±4.6% knee joint angle; P0.01. Vastus lateralis poly-ubiquitinated proteins significantly increased at the POST2 time point relative to PRE with sham (+66.6±24.6%; P<0.025 and were significantly greater (P<0.025 than those observed with EPC at the same time point (-18.6±8.5%. 4-hydroxynonenal values were significantly lower at POST2 relative to PRE with EPC (-16.2±5.6%; P<0.025 and were significantly lower (P<0.025 than those observed with sham at the same time point (+11.8±5.9%.EPC mitigated a reduction in flexibility and PPT that occurred with sham. Moreover, EPC reduced select skeletal muscle oxidative stress and proteolysis markers during recovery from heavy resistance exercise.

  3. A comparative Study between the Structure of Cartilage Tissue Produced from Murine MSCs Differentiation and Hyaline Costal Cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Baghban Eslaminezhad, Ph.D.;  L. Taghiyar, M.Sc; A. Piryaee, M.Sc

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Vitro cartilage differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been noticed in several investigations. In this regard, almost always molecular differentiation of the cells has been examined, while structural and morphological differentiation of them has been ignored. Therefore, the present study examines the structure and ultrastructure of the cartilage differentiated from murine MSCs compared with that of costal cartilage.Materials and Methods: 2× 105 MSCs isola...

  4. An Analysis on a Dynamic Amplifier and Calibration Methods for a Pseudo-Differential Dynamic Comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Daehwa; Miyahara, Masaya; Matsuzawa, Akira

    This paper analyzes a pseudo-differential dynamic comparator with a dynamic pre-amplifier. The transient gain of a dynamic pre-amplifier is derived and applied to equations of the thermal noise and the regeneration time of a comparator. This analysis enhances understanding of the roles of transistor's parameters in pre-amplifier's gain. Based on the calculated gain, two calibration methods are also analyzed. One is calibration of a load capacitance and the other is calibration of a bypass current. The analysis helps designers' estimation for the accuracy of calibration, dead-zone of a comparator with a calibration circuit, and the influence of PVT variation. The analyzed comparator uses 90-nm CMOS technology as an example and each estimation is compared with simulation results.

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the urine of reservoir hosts of leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarlath E Nally

    Full Text Available Rattus norvegicus is a natural reservoir host for pathogenic species of Leptospira. Experimentally infected rats remain clinically normal, yet persistently excrete large numbers of leptospires from colonized renal tubules via urine, despite a specific host immune response. Whilst persistent renal colonization and shedding is facilitated in part by differential antigen expression by leptospires to evade host immune responses, there is limited understanding of kidney and urinary proteins expressed by the host that facilitates such biological equilibrium. Urine pellets were collected from experimentally infected rats shedding leptospires and compared to urine from non-infected controls spiked with in vitro cultivated leptospires for analysis by 2-D DIGE. Differentially expressed host proteins include membrane metallo endopeptidase, napsin A aspartic peptidase, vacuolar H+ATPase, kidney aminopeptidase and immunoglobulin G and A. Loa22, a virulence factor of Leptospira, as well as the GroEL, were increased in leptospires excreted in urine compared to in vitro cultivated leptospires. Urinary IgG from infected rats was specific for leptospires. Results confirm differential protein expression by both host and pathogen during chronic disease and include markers of kidney function and immunoglobulin which are potential biomarkers of infection.

  6. Effects of the imposed pressure differential conditions on duoplasmatron performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztarhan, A.

    1988-01-01

    The duoplasmatron plasma source (D.P.T.) was modified to allow access to the arc discharge (to measure the discharge properties) and to vary independently the pressures in different volumes of the arc with the aim of seeing if this freedom would help in optimising the output. The duoplasmatron plasma source was operated under normal running condition (N.R.C.), positive imposed pressure differential condition (P.I.P.D.C.) and negative imposed pressure differential condition (N.I.P.D.C.) and the corresponding properties of the plasma output were measured. Running the duoplasmatron under P.I.P.D. condition did not seem to improve the output as compared to that under N.R.C. However, running the duoplasmatron under N.I.P.D. condition seemed to be advantageous as the output increased by about 30%. It was observed that the back pressure was critical in maintaining the arc and the gap pressure could be lowered much below the normal minimum (while the arc was on) if back pressure was kept above a critical value. The results showed that the effects of varying the dimensions of the intermediate electrode nozzle on the output could be understood in terms of the effect of changes in these dimensions on the relative pressures. An empirical expression for the effect of the pressure ratio was developed from the observations and compared with the experimental results. The reasons for various results can be related to the plasma emission mechanism. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  7. Differential Radiosensitizing Effect of Valproic Acid in Differentiation Versus Self-Renewal Promoting Culture Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeb, Bisrat G.; Xu Wei; Mok, Henry; Li Li; Robertson, Fredika; Ueno, Naoto T.; Reuben, Jim; Lucci, Anthony; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It has been shown that valproic acid (VA) enhances the proliferation and self-renewal of normal hematopoietic stem cells and that breast cancer stem/progenitor cells can be resistant to radiation. From these data, we hypothesized that VA would fail to radiosensitize breast cancer stem/progenitor cells grown to three-dimensional (3D) mammospheres. Methods and Materials: We used the MCF7 breast cancer cell line grown under stem cell-promoting culture conditions (3D mammosphere) and standard nonstem cell monolayer culture conditions (two-dimensional) to examine the effect of pretreatment with VA on radiation sensitivity in clonogenic survival assays and on the expression of embryonic stem cell transcription factors. Results: 3D-cultured MCF-7 cells expressed higher levels of Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. The 3D passage enriched self-renewal and increased radioresistance in the 3D mammosphere formation assays. VA radiosensitized adherent cells but radioprotected 3D cells in single-fraction clonogenic assays. Moreover, fractionated radiation sensitized VA-treated adherent MCF7 cells but did not have a significant effect on VA-treated single cells grown to mammospheres. Conclusion: We have concluded that VA might preferentially radiosensitize differentiated cells compared with those expressing stem cell surrogates and that stem cell-promoting culture is a useful tool for in vitro evaluation of novel cancer therapeutic agents and radiosensitizers.

  8. Long-term outcome of lobar ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC): a comparative study with patients of completion thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Amburanjan; Maharjan, S.; Bal, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Completion thyroidectomy (CT) is usually recommended after partial surgery in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Radioiodine lobar ablation (RAILA) is an easy alternative and avoids complications that might be associated with re-surgery. But its effectiveness in terms of long-term outcome and recurrence free survival is yet to be established. This study was aimed to compare long term outcome of RAILA with that of completion thyroidectomy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done from the case records of patients treated in our thyroid clinic for last 25 years. Records of all patients of RAILA (364) and CT (372) were analyzed. Complete ablation rate, cumulative dose needed for complete ablation, Recurrence rate and recurrence free survival was estimated in each group. Comparison was made between two groups by statistical method. Results: There was 73% ablation rate at 1st dose of RAILA itself. Second dose in LA and first dose of remnant ablation after CT is comparable (92% and 93% respectively). Cumulative dose to achieve 100% ablation rate is more for RAILA group. Seven patients developed recurrence in RAILA group, compared to 14 in CT group. No statistically significant difference was noted between recurrence rate and recurrence free survival between two groups. Conclusion: Radioiodine Lobar ablation is a safe, effective and less costly alternative to completion thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with comparable long term outcome like recurrence rate and recurrence free survival

  9. Comparative gene expression profiling of in vitro differentiated megakaryocytes and erythroblasts identifies novel activatory and inhibitory platelet membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macaulay, Iain C.; Tijssen, Marloes R.; Thijssen-Timmer, Daphne C.; Gusnanto, Arief; Steward, Michael; Burns, Philippa; Langford, Cordelia F.; Ellis, Peter D.; Dudbridge, Frank; Zwaginga, Jaap-Jan; Watkins, Nicholas A.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Ouwehand, Willem H.

    2007-01-01

    To identify previously unknown platelet receptors we compared the transcriptomes of in vitro differentiated megakaryocytes (MKs) and erythroblasts (EBs). RNA was obtained from purified, biologically paired MK and EB cultures and compared using cDNA microarrays. Bioinformatical analysis of

  10. A comparative study of techniques for differential expression analysis on RNA-Seq data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technology allow high-throughput cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq to be widely applied in transcriptomic studies, in particular for detecting differentially expressed genes between groups. Many software packages have been developed for the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs between treatment groups based on RNA-Seq data. However, there is a lack of consensus on how to approach an optimal study design and choice of suitable software for the analysis. In this comparative study we evaluate the performance of three of the most frequently used software tools: Cufflinks-Cuffdiff2, DESeq and edgeR. A number of important parameters of RNA-Seq technology were taken into consideration, including the number of replicates, sequencing depth, and balanced vs. unbalanced sequencing depth within and between groups. We benchmarked results relative to sets of DEGs identified through either quantitative RT-PCR or microarray. We observed that edgeR performs slightly better than DESeq and Cuffdiff2 in terms of the ability to uncover true positives. Overall, DESeq or taking the intersection of DEGs from two or more tools is recommended if the number of false positives is a major concern in the study. In other circumstances, edgeR is slightly preferable for differential expression analysis at the expense of potentially introducing more false positives.

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Skin Color Differentiation in Red Tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Wang, Lanmei; Dong, Zaijie; Chen, Xingting; Song, Feibiao; Liu, Nian; Yang, Hui; Fu, Jianjun

    2016-08-11

    Red tilapia is becoming more popular for aquaculture production in China in recent years. However, the pigmentation differentiation in genetic breeding is the main problem limiting its development of commercial red tilapia culture and the genetic basis of skin color variation is still unknown. In this study, we conducted Illumina sequencing of transcriptome on three color variety red tilapia. A total of 224,895,758 reads were generated, resulting in 160,762 assembled contigs that were used as reference contigs. The contigs of red tilapia transcriptome had hits in the range of 53.4% to 86.7% of the unique proteins of zebrafish, fugu, medaka, three-spined stickleback and tilapia. And 44,723 contigs containing 77,423 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified, with 16,646 contigs containing more than one SSR. Three skin transcriptomes were compared pairwise and the results revealed that there were 148 common significantly differentially expressed unigenes and several key genes related to pigment synthesis, i.e. tyr, tyrp1, silv, sox10, slc24a5, cbs and slc7a11, were included. The results will facilitate understanding the molecular mechanisms of skin pigmentation differentiation in red tilapia and accelerate the molecular selection of the specific strain with consistent skin colors.

  12. Validation of differential gene expression algorithms: Application comparing fold-change estimation to hypothesis testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bickel David R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sustained research on the problem of determining which genes are differentially expressed on the basis of microarray data has yielded a plethora of statistical algorithms, each justified by theory, simulation, or ad hoc validation and yet differing in practical results from equally justified algorithms. Recently, a concordance method that measures agreement among gene lists have been introduced to assess various aspects of differential gene expression detection. This method has the advantage of basing its assessment solely on the results of real data analyses, but as it requires examining gene lists of given sizes, it may be unstable. Results Two methodologies for assessing predictive error are described: a cross-validation method and a posterior predictive method. As a nonparametric method of estimating prediction error from observed expression levels, cross validation provides an empirical approach to assessing algorithms for detecting differential gene expression that is fully justified for large numbers of biological replicates. Because it leverages the knowledge that only a small portion of genes are differentially expressed, the posterior predictive method is expected to provide more reliable estimates of algorithm performance, allaying concerns about limited biological replication. In practice, the posterior predictive method can assess when its approximations are valid and when they are inaccurate. Under conditions in which its approximations are valid, it corroborates the results of cross validation. Both comparison methodologies are applicable to both single-channel and dual-channel microarrays. For the data sets considered, estimating prediction error by cross validation demonstrates that empirical Bayes methods based on hierarchical models tend to outperform algorithms based on selecting genes by their fold changes or by non-hierarchical model-selection criteria. (The latter two approaches have comparable

  13. [On establishing comparative reference system for syndrome classification study from the thinking characteristics of syndrome differentiation dependent therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Hu, Yi-yang; Ni, Li-qiang

    2006-05-01

    To create a comparative referential system for syndrome classification study by viewing from the thinking characteristics of TCM on syndrome differentiation dependent therapy (SDDT), through analyzing the thinking process of SDDT, and the basic features of disease, syndrome and prescription, combining the basic principles of modern evidence-based medicine and feasibility of establishing integrative disease-syndrome animal model. The practice of creating a comparative referential system based on clinical efficacy of prescription was discussed around syndrome pathogenesis and its relationship with disease and prescription, which was one of the important scientific problems in TCM syndrome study. The authors hold that, it may be one of the available approaches for the present study on integration of disease with syndrome by way of insisting on the thinking pathway of stressing the characteristics of TCM and intermerging with modern scientific design; on taking the efficacy of prescription as the comparative reference system to accumulate and improve unceasingly according to the TCM method of syndrome diagnosis inferred from effect of prescription with reverse thought (i.e., to differentiate syndrome from the effect of prescription), and thus build up the syndrome diagnostic standard on the solid clinical and scientific base.

  14. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilsanz, Vicente; Chung, Sandra A.; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  15. Comparability Effects of Mandatory IFRS Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Cascino; Joachim Gassen

    2012-01-01

    The mandatory adoption of IFRS by many countries worldwide fuels the expectation that financial accounting information might become more comparable across countries. This expectation is opposed to an alternative view that stresses the importance of incentives in shaping accounting information. We provide early evidence on this debate by investigating the effects of mandatory IFRS adoption on the comparability of financial accounting information around the world. Using two comparability proxie...

  16. Comparative epigenetic influence of autologous versus fetal bovine serum on mesenchymal stem cells through in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fani, Nesa [Department of Genetics, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziadlou, Reihane [Department of Genetics, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahhoseini, Maryam, E-mail: m.shahhoseini@royaninstitute.org [Department of Genetics, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza, E-mail: eslami@royaninstitute.org [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM) represents a useful source of adult stem cells for cell therapy and tissue engineering. MSCs are present at a low frequency in the BM; therefore expansion is necessary before performing clinical studies. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a nutritional supplement for in vitro culture of MSCs is a suitable additive for human cell culture, but not regarding subsequent use of these cells for clinical treatment of human patients due to the risk of viral and prion transmission as well as xenogeneic immune responses after transplantation. Recently, autologous serum (AS) has been as a supplement to replace FBS in culture medium. We compared the effect of FBS versus AS on the histone modification pattern of MSCs through in vitro osteogenesis and adipogenesis. Differentiation of stem cells under various serum conditions to a committed state involves global changes in epigenetic patterns that are critically determined by chromatin modifications. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with real-time PCR showed significant changes in the acetylation and methylation patterns in lysine 9 (Lys9) of histone H3 on the regulatory regions of stemness (Nanog, Sox2, Rex1), osteogenic (Runx2, Oc, Sp7) and adipogenic (Ppar-γ, Lpl, adiponectin) marker genes in undifferentiated MSCs, FBS and AS. All epigenetic changes occurred in a serum dependent manner which resulted in higher expression level of stemness genes in undifferentiated MSCs compared to differentiated MSCs and increased expression levels of osteogenic genes in AS compared to FBS. Adipogenic genes showed greater expression in FBS compared to AS. These findings have demonstrated the epigenetic influence of serum culture conditions on differentiation potential of MSCs, which suggest that AS is possibly more efficient serum for osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in cell therapy purposes. - Highlights: • Bone marrow derived MSC could proliferate in AS as well as in FBS

  17. Comparative epigenetic influence of autologous versus fetal bovine serum on mesenchymal stem cells through in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fani, Nesa; Ziadlou, Reihane; Shahhoseini, Maryam; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM) represents a useful source of adult stem cells for cell therapy and tissue engineering. MSCs are present at a low frequency in the BM; therefore expansion is necessary before performing clinical studies. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a nutritional supplement for in vitro culture of MSCs is a suitable additive for human cell culture, but not regarding subsequent use of these cells for clinical treatment of human patients due to the risk of viral and prion transmission as well as xenogeneic immune responses after transplantation. Recently, autologous serum (AS) has been as a supplement to replace FBS in culture medium. We compared the effect of FBS versus AS on the histone modification pattern of MSCs through in vitro osteogenesis and adipogenesis. Differentiation of stem cells under various serum conditions to a committed state involves global changes in epigenetic patterns that are critically determined by chromatin modifications. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with real-time PCR showed significant changes in the acetylation and methylation patterns in lysine 9 (Lys9) of histone H3 on the regulatory regions of stemness (Nanog, Sox2, Rex1), osteogenic (Runx2, Oc, Sp7) and adipogenic (Ppar-γ, Lpl, adiponectin) marker genes in undifferentiated MSCs, FBS and AS. All epigenetic changes occurred in a serum dependent manner which resulted in higher expression level of stemness genes in undifferentiated MSCs compared to differentiated MSCs and increased expression levels of osteogenic genes in AS compared to FBS. Adipogenic genes showed greater expression in FBS compared to AS. These findings have demonstrated the epigenetic influence of serum culture conditions on differentiation potential of MSCs, which suggest that AS is possibly more efficient serum for osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in cell therapy purposes. - Highlights: • Bone marrow derived MSC could proliferate in AS as well as in FBS

  18. Comparing Postural Stability Entropy Analyses to Differentiate Fallers and Non-fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fino, Peter C; Mojdehi, Ahmad R; Adjerid, Khaled; Habibi, Mohammad; Lockhart, Thurmon E; Ross, Shane D

    2016-05-01

    The health and financial cost of falls has spurred research to differentiate the characteristics of fallers and non-fallers. Postural stability has received much of the attention with recent studies exploring various measures of entropy. This study compared the discriminatory ability of several entropy methods at differentiating two paradigms in the center-of-pressure of elderly individuals: (1) eyes open (EO) vs. eyes closed (EC) and (2) fallers (F) vs. non-fallers (NF). Methods were compared using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristic curves developed from logistic regression models. Overall, multiscale entropy (MSE) and composite multiscale entropy (CompMSE) performed the best with AUCs of 0.71 for EO/EC and 0.77 for F/NF. When methods were combined together to maximize the AUC, the entropy classifier had an AUC of for 0.91 the F/NF comparison. These results suggest researchers and clinicians attempting to create clinical tests to identify fallers should consider a combination of every entropy method when creating a classifying test. Additionally, MSE and CompMSE classifiers using polar coordinate data outperformed rectangular coordinate data, encouraging more research into the most appropriate time series for postural stability entropy analysis.

  19. Pulmonary antioxidants exert differential protective effects against ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    PM collections from both urban and industrial sites caused 50% oxidative degradation of DNA in vitro at concentrations as low ... chemical analysis in order that progress can be made in ... One popular hypothesis is that PM exerts toxic effects.

  20. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  1. Differential Interpolation Effects in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusic, William M.; Jamieson, Donald G.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts to determine whether a sufficiently demanding and difficult interpolated task (shadowing, i.e., repeating aloud) would decrease recall for earlier-presented items as well as for more recent items. Listening to music was included as a second interpolated task. Results support views that serial position effects reflect a single process.…

  2. Comparative proteomics and codon substitution analysis reveal mechanisms of differential resistance to hypoxia in congeneric snails

    KAUST Repository

    Mu, Huawei; Sun, Jin; Cheung, Siu Gin; Fang, Ling; Zhou, Haiyun; Luan, Tiangang; Zhang, Huoming; Wong, Chris K.C.; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Although high-throughput proteomics has been widely applied to study mechanisms of environmental adaptation, the conclusions from studies that are based on one species can be confounded by phylogeny. We compare the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata (a notorious invasive species) and its congener Pomacea diffusa (a non-invasive species) to understand the molecular mechanisms of their differential resistance to hypoxia. A 72-h acute exposure experiment showed that P. canaliculata is more tolerant to hypoxia than P. diffusa. The two species were then exposed to three levels of dissolved oxygen (6.7, 2.0 and 1.0mgL−1) for 8h, and their gill proteins were analyzed using iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS. The two species showed striking differences in protein expression profiles, with the more hypoxia tolerant P. canaliculata having more up-regulated proteins in signal transduction and down-regulated proteins in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Evolutionary analysis revealed five orthologous genes encoding differentially expressed proteins having clear signal of positive selection, indicating selection has acted on some of the hypoxia responsive genes. Our case study has highlighted the potential of integrated proteomics and comparative evolutionary analysis for understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to global environmental change in non-model species. SignificanceRapid globalization in recent decades has greatly facilitated species introduction around the world. Successfully established introduced species, so-called invasive species, have threatened the invaded ecosystems. There has been substantial interest in studying how invasive species respond to extreme environmental conditions because the results can help not only predict their range of expansion and manage their impact, but also may reveal the adaptive mechanisms underlying their invasiveness. Our study has adopted a comparative approach to study the differential physiological and proteomic

  3. Comparative proteomics and codon substitution analysis reveal mechanisms of differential resistance to hypoxia in congeneric snails

    KAUST Repository

    Mu, Huawei

    2017-11-06

    Although high-throughput proteomics has been widely applied to study mechanisms of environmental adaptation, the conclusions from studies that are based on one species can be confounded by phylogeny. We compare the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata (a notorious invasive species) and its congener Pomacea diffusa (a non-invasive species) to understand the molecular mechanisms of their differential resistance to hypoxia. A 72-h acute exposure experiment showed that P. canaliculata is more tolerant to hypoxia than P. diffusa. The two species were then exposed to three levels of dissolved oxygen (6.7, 2.0 and 1.0mgL−1) for 8h, and their gill proteins were analyzed using iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS. The two species showed striking differences in protein expression profiles, with the more hypoxia tolerant P. canaliculata having more up-regulated proteins in signal transduction and down-regulated proteins in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Evolutionary analysis revealed five orthologous genes encoding differentially expressed proteins having clear signal of positive selection, indicating selection has acted on some of the hypoxia responsive genes. Our case study has highlighted the potential of integrated proteomics and comparative evolutionary analysis for understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to global environmental change in non-model species. SignificanceRapid globalization in recent decades has greatly facilitated species introduction around the world. Successfully established introduced species, so-called invasive species, have threatened the invaded ecosystems. There has been substantial interest in studying how invasive species respond to extreme environmental conditions because the results can help not only predict their range of expansion and manage their impact, but also may reveal the adaptive mechanisms underlying their invasiveness. Our study has adopted a comparative approach to study the differential physiological and proteomic

  4. Comparative transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) during dehydration stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Charu; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Prasad, Manoj

    2010-03-19

    Dehydration stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that adversely influence crop growth and productivity. With the aim to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying dehydration stress tolerance in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), a drought tolerant crop, we examined its transcriptome changes at two time points (early and late) of dehydration stress. Two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) forward libraries were constructed from 21-day old seedlings of tolerant cv. Prasad at 0.5 and 6h PEG-induced dehydration stress. A total of 327 unique ESTs were identified from both libraries and were classified into 11 different categories according to their putative functions. The plant response against dehydration stress was complex, representing major transcripts involved in metabolism, stress, signaling, transcription regulation, translation and proteolysis. By Reverse Northern (RN) technique we identified the differential expression pattern of 327 transcripts, 86 (about 26%) of which showed > or = 1.7-fold induction. Further the obtained results were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to have a comparative expression profiling of randomly chosen 9 up-regulated transcripts (> or =2.5 fold induction) between cv. Prasad (tolerant) and cv. Lepakshi (sensitive) upon dehydration stress. These transcripts showed a differential expression pattern in both cultivars at different time points of stress treatment as analyzed by qRT-PCR. The possible relationship of the identified transcripts with dehydration tolerance mechanism is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Differential Item Functioning on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Kübra Atalay; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) items on test equating through multilevel item response models (MIRMs) and traditional IRMs. The performances of three different equating models were investigated under 24 different simulation conditions, and the variables whose effects were examined included sample size, test…

  6. Differentiating emotions across contexts: comparing adults with and without social anxiety disorder using random, social interaction, and daily experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Farmer, Antonina S

    2014-06-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning.

  7. Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Comparative Analysis Between Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, Iolanda; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Giuliani, Patricia; Pierdomenico, Laura; Marchisio, Marco; Zuccarini, Mariachiara; Di Iorio, Patrizia; Quaresima, Raimondo; Caciagli, Francesco; Ciccarelli, Renata

    2017-06-01

    White adipose tissue is a source of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) that are actively studied for their possible therapeutic use in bone tissue repair/remodeling. To better appreciate the osteogenic potential of these cells, we compared some properties of MSCs from human subcutaneous adipose tissue [subcutaneous-adipose stromal cells (S-ASCs)] and dental pulp stem cell (DPSCs) of third-impacted molars, the latter representing a well-established MSC source. Both undifferentiated cell types showed similar fibroblast-like morphology and mesenchymal marker expression. However, undifferentiated S-ASCs displayed a faster doubling time coupled to greater proliferation and colony-forming ability than DPSCs. Also, the osteogenic differentiation of S-ASCs was greater than that of DPSCs, as evaluated by the higher levels of expression of early osteogenic markers Runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2) and alkaline phosphatase at days 3-14 and of extracellular matrix mineralization at days 14-21. Moreover, S-ASCs showed a better colonization of the titanium scaffold. In addition, we investigated whether S-ASC osteogenic commitment was enhanced by adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) stimulation, as previously shown for DPSCs. Although A1R expression was constant during DPSC differentiation, it increased in S-ASC at day 21 from osteogenesis induction. Accordingly, A1R stimulation by the agonist 2-chloro-N 6 -cyclopentyl-adenosine, added to the cultures at each medium change, stimulated proliferation only in differentiating DPSC and enhanced the osteogenic differentiation earlier in DPSCs than in S-ASCs. These effects were counteracted by cell pretreatment with a selective A1R antagonist. Thus, our findings suggest that S-ASCs could be advantageously used in regenerative orthopedics/dentistry, and locally released or exogenously added purines may play a role in bone repair/remodeling, even though this aspect should be more thoroughly evaluated.

  8. Differentiating Emotions Across Contexts: Comparing Adults with and without Social Anxiety Disorder Using Random, Social Interaction, and Daily Experience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Farmer, Antonina S.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning. PMID:24512246

  9. Effect of resveratrol on proliferation and differentiation of embryonic cardiomyoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, C.-W.; Wong, C.H.; Lao, S.-C.; Leong, Emilia Conceicao; Lao, Iok Fong; Law, Patrick Tik Wan; Fung, Kwok Pui; Tsang, Kam Sze; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; Wang Yitao; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2007-01-01

    Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound found largely in the skins of red grapes, has been used as a nutritional supplement or an investigational new drug for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Previous reports showed that resveratrol had a protective effect against oxidative agent-induced cell injury. Our studies indicate that resveratrol plays a role in the differentiation of cardiomyoblasts. The cardiomyoblast cell line, H9c2, was exposed to 30-120 μM resveratrol for up to 5 days. Resveratrol inhibits cardiomyoblast proliferation without causing cells injury. Moreover, resveratrol treatment modulated the differentiation of morphological characteristics including elongation and cell fusion in cardiomyoblasts. Proliferation and differentiation of H9c2 cells were further revealed by measurement of the mRNA expression of a cell cycle marker (CDK2), a differentiation marker (myogenin), and a contractile apparatus protein (MLC-2). Gene expression analysis revealed that resveratrol promoted entry into cell cycle arrest but extended the myogenic differentiation progress. These results have implications for the role of resveratrol in modulating cell cycle control and differentiation in cardiomyoblasts

  10. Comparative Antioxidant, Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine and compare the antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of leaf infusions of Ilex laurina ... Both plant infusions inhibited viability and cell growth of SW480 and SW620 cells. .... 100 g of dry extract, from a gallic acid calibration curve [9]. ..... antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of colon.

  11. Comparative effects of imipramine, sertraline, nifedipine, furosemide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the comparative effects of imipramine, sertraline, nifedipine, furosemide and bumetanide on ingestive behavior in rodents. Twelve groups (with six in each group) of male mice (25 to 35 g) were used in the experiments. They were housed in labelled plastic cages in the departmental ...

  12. Comparative Antioxidant, Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine and compare the antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of leaf infusions of Ilex laurina and Ilex paraguariensis in colon cancer cells. Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined by ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power). Cytotoxic ...

  13. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  14. The Effect of Antidepressants on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Jeffrey S; Bermeo, Sandra; Skarratt, Kristen K; Fuller, Stephen J; Duque, Gustavo

    2018-02-01

    Use of antidepressant medications has been linked to detrimental impacts on bone mineral density and osteoporosis; however, the cellular basis behind these observations remains poorly understood. The effect does not appear to be homogeneous across the whole class of drugs and may be linked to affinity for the serotonin transporter system. In this study, we hypothesized that antidepressants have a class- and dose-dependent effect on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation, which may affect bone metabolism. Human MSCs (hMSCs) were committed to differentiate when either adipogenic or osteogenic media was added, supplemented with five increasing concentrations of amitriptyline (0.001-10 µM), venlafaxine (0.01-25 µM), or fluoxetine (0.001-10 µM). Alizarin red staining (mineralization), alkaline phosphatase (osteoblastogenesis), and oil red O (adipogenesis) assays were performed at timed intervals. In addition, cell viability was assessed using a MTT. We found that fluoxetine had a significant inhibitory effect on mineralization. Furthermore, adipogenic differentiation of hMSC was affected by the addition of amitriptyline, venlafaxine, and fluoxetine to the media. Finally, none of the tested medications significantly affected cell survival. This study showed a divergent effect of three antidepressants on hMSC differentiation, which appears to be independent of class and dose. As fluoxetine and amitriptyline, but not venlafaxine, affected both osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis, this inhibitory effect could be associated to the high affinity of fluoxetine to the serotonin transporter system.

  15. Differential Effects of Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium Ion, Rotenone, and Paraquat on Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Barbosa Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ, a cationic nonselective bipyridyl herbicide, has been used as neurotoxicant to modulate Parkinson’s disease in laboratory settings. Other compounds like rotenone (ROT, a pesticide, and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+ have been widely used as neurotoxicants. We compared the toxicity of these three neurotoxicants using differentiated dopaminergic SH-SY5Y human cells, aiming to elucidate their differential effects. PQ-induced neurotoxicity was shown to be concentration and time dependent, being mitochondrial dysfunction followed by neuronal death. On the other hand, cells exposure to MPP+ induced mitochondrial dysfunction, but not cellular lyses. Meanwhile, ROT promoted both mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death, revealing a biphasic pattern. To further elucidate PQ neurotoxic mechanism, several protective agents were used. SH-SY5Y cells pretreatment with tiron (TIR and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid sodium salt (NaSAL, both antioxidants, and Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, partially protected against PQ-induced cell injury. Additionally, 1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenylmethoxy]ethyl-4-(3-phenyl-propylpiperazine (GBR 12909, a dopamine transporter inhibitor, and cycloheximide (CHX, a protein synthesis inhibitor, also partially protected against PQ-induced cell injury. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PQ, MPP+, and ROT exerted differential toxic effects on dopaminergic cells. PQ neurotoxicity occurred through exacerbated oxidative stress, with involvement of uptake through the dopamine transporter and protein synthesis.

  16. Effect of silver nanoparticles on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sengstock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP are one of the fastest growing products in nano-medicine due to their enhanced antibacterial activity at the nanoscale level. In biomedicine, hundreds of products have been coated with Ag-NP. For example, various medical devices include silver, such as surgical instruments, bone implants and wound dressings. After the degradation of these materials, or depending on the coating technique, silver in nanoparticle or ion form can be released and may come into close contact with tissues and cells. Despite incorporation of Ag-NP as an antibacterial agent in different products, the toxicological and biological effects of silver in the human body after long-term and low-concentration exposure are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of both ionic and nanoparticulate silver on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages and on the secretion of the respective differentiation markers adiponectin, osteocalcin and aggrecan.Results: As shown through laser scanning microscopy, Ag-NP with a size of 80 nm (hydrodynamic diameter were taken up into hMSCs as nanoparticulate material. After 24 h of incubation, these Ag-NP were mainly found in the endo-lysosomal cell compartment as agglomerated material. Cytotoxicity was observed for differentiated or undifferentiated hMSCs treated with high silver concentrations (≥20 µg·mL−1 Ag-NP; ≥1.5 µg·mL−1 Ag+ ions but not with low-concentration treatments (≤10 µg·mL−1 Ag-NP; ≤1.0 µg·mL−1 Ag+ ions. Subtoxic concentrations of Ag-NP and Ag+ ions impaired the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas chondrogenic differentiation was unaffected after 21 d of incubation. In contrast to aggrecan, the inhibitory effect of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by a decrease in the secretion of

  17. Simple Comparative Analyses of Differentially Expressed Gene Lists May Overestimate Gene Overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhorn, Chelsea M; Schomaker, Rachel; Rowell, Jonathan T; Rueppell, Olav

    2018-04-16

    Comparing the overlap between sets of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) within or between transcriptome studies is regularly used to infer similarities between biological processes. Significant overlap between two sets of DEGs is usually determined by a simple test. The number of potentially overlapping genes is compared to the number of genes that actually occur in both lists, treating every gene as equal. However, gene expression is controlled by transcription factors that bind to a variable number of transcription factor binding sites, leading to variation among genes in general variability of their expression. Neglecting this variability could therefore lead to inflated estimates of significant overlap between DEG lists. With computer simulations, we demonstrate that such biases arise from variation in the control of gene expression. Significant overlap commonly arises between two lists of DEGs that are randomly generated, assuming that the control of gene expression is variable among genes but consistent between corresponding experiments. More overlap is observed when transcription factors are specific to their binding sites and when the number of genes is considerably higher than the number of different transcription factors. In contrast, overlap between two DEG lists is always lower than expected when the genetic architecture of expression is independent between the two experiments. Thus, the current methods for determining significant overlap between DEGs are potentially confounding biologically meaningful overlap with overlap that arises due to variability in control of expression among genes, and more sophisticated approaches are needed.

  18. Identification and comparative analysis of the epidermal differentiation complex in snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigit Holthaus, Karin; Mlitz, Veronika; Strasser, Bettina; Tschachler, Erwin; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Eckhart, Leopold

    2017-01-01

    The epidermis of snakes efficiently protects against dehydration and mechanical stress. However, only few proteins of the epidermal barrier to the environment have so far been identified in snakes. Here, we determined the organization of the Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC), a cluster of genes encoding protein constituents of cornified epidermal structures, in snakes and compared it to the EDCs of other squamates and non-squamate reptiles. The EDC of snakes displays shared synteny with that of the green anole lizard, including the presence of a cluster of corneous beta-protein (CBP)/beta-keratin genes. We found that a unique CBP comprising 4 putative beta-sheets and multiple cysteine-rich EDC proteins are conserved in all snakes and other squamates investigated. Comparative genomics of squamates suggests that the evolution of snakes was associated with a gene duplication generating two isoforms of the S100 fused-type protein, scaffoldin, the origin of distinct snake-specific EDC genes, and the loss of other genes that were present in the EDC of the last common ancestor of snakes and lizards. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the evolution of the skin in squamates and a basis for the characterization of the molecular composition of the epidermis in snakes. PMID:28345630

  19. Differential Atrophy of Hippocampal Subfields: A Comparative Study of Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Elijah; Su, Li; Williams, Guy B; Watson, Rosie; Firbank, Michael; Blamire, Andrew; O'Brien, John

    2016-02-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized by relative preservation of the medial temporal lobe compared with Alzheimer disease (AD). The differential involvement of the hippocampal subfields in both diseases has not been clearly established, however. We aim to investigate hippocampal subfield differences in vivo in a clinical cohort of DLB and AD subjects. 104 participants (35 DLBs, 36 ADs, and 35 healthy comparison [HC] subjects) underwent clinical assessment and 3T T1-weighted imaging. A Bayesian model implemented in Freesurfer was used to automatically segment the hippocampus and its subfields. We also examined associations between hippocampal subfields and tests of memory function. Both the AD and DLB groups demonstrated significant atrophy of the total hippocampus relative to HC but the DLB group was characterized by preservation of the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1), fimbria, and fissure. In contrast, all the hippocampal subfields except the fissure were significantly atrophied in AD compared with both DLB and HC groups. Among DLB subjects, CA1 was correlated with the Recent Memory score of the CAMCOG and Delayed Recall subscores of the HVLT. DLB is characterized by milder hippocampal atrophy that was accompanied by preservation of the CA1. The CA1 was also associated with memory function in DLB. Our findings highlight the promising role of hippocampal subfield volumetry, particularly that of the CA1, as a biomarker for the distinction between AD and DLB. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differentiating Performance Approach Goals and Their Unique Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ordene V.

    2014-01-01

    The study differentiates between two types of performance approach goals (competence demonstration performance approach goal and normative performance approach goal) by examining their unique effects on self-efficacy, interest, and fear of failure. Seventy-nine students completed questionnaires that measure performance approach goals,…

  1. Effect of differentiated instructional strategies on students' retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of differentiated instructional strategies on students' retention in geometry in senior secondary schools was examined. The study employed experimental research design of pretest, posttest control group. The area of this study is Abuja Municipal Area Council, the Federal Capital Territory. The target population ...

  2. Differential effects of aluminium on the seedling parameters of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential effects of aluminium on the seedling parameters of wheat. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... and Maroon (Al tolerant) were grown on hydroponic solution (non modified Hoagland) containing AlCl3 (0-100-200-300 μM). Factorial ...

  3. Effects of trichostatins on differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Nomura, S.; Beppu, T.

    1987-01-01

    The fungistatic antibiotics trichostatins (TS) A and C were isolated from culture broth of Streptomyces platensis No. 145 and were found to be potent inducers of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia (Friend and RV133) cells at concentrations of 1.5 X 10(-8) M for TSA and 5 X 10(-7) M for TSC. Differentiation induced by TS was cooperatively enhanced by UV irradiation but not by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. This enhanced activity was completely inhibited by adding cycloheximide to the culture medium 2 h after exposure to TS, suggesting that TS are dimethyl sulfoxide-type inducers of erythroid differentiation. No inhibitory effect of TS was observed on macromolecular synthesis in cultured cells

  4. Accurate and Rapid Differentiation of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains by Raman Spectroscopy: a Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremedhin, Meron; Heitkamp, Rae; Yesupriya, Shubha; Clay, Bradford; Crane, Nicole J

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become the standard for routine bacterial species identification due to its rapidity and low costs for consumables compared to those of traditional DNA-based methods. However, it has been observed that strains of some bacterial species, such as Acinetobacter baumannii strains, cannot be reliably identified using mass spectrometry (MS). Raman spectroscopy is a rapid technique, as fast as MALDI-TOF, and has been shown to accurately identify bacterial strains and species. In this study, we compared hierarchical clustering results for MS, genomic, and antimicrobial susceptibility test data to hierarchical clustering results from Raman spectroscopic data for 31 A. baumannii clinical isolates labeled according to their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis data for strain differentiation. In addition to performing hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), multiple chemometric methods of analysis, including principal-component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), were performed on the MS and Raman spectral data, along with a variety of spectral preprocessing techniques for best discriminative results. Finally, simple HCA algorithms were performed on all of the data sets to explore the relationships between, and natural groupings of, the strains and to compare results for the four data sets. To obtain numerical comparison values of the clustering results, the external cluster evaluation criteria of the Rand index of the HCA dendrograms were calculated. With a Rand index value of 0.88, Raman spectroscopy outperformed the other techniques, including MS (with a Rand index value of 0.58). Copyright © 2017 Ghebremedhin et al.

  5. Preliminary Competencies for Comparative Effectiveness Research

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, Jodi B.; Kapoor, Wishwa; Carey, Timothy; Mitchell, Pamela H.; Murray, Michael D.; Saag, Kenneth G.; Schumock, Glen; Jonas, Daniel; Steinman, Michael; Weinberger, Morris; Filart, Rosemarie; Selker, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Workgroup for Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) Education, Training, and Workforce Development identified a need to delineate the competencies that practitioners and users of CER for patient centered outcomes research, should acquire. With input from CTSA representatives and collaborators, we began by describing the workforce. We recognize the workforce that conduct CER and the end users who use CER to improve the health of individual...

  6. Comparative effectiveness research: Challenges for medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovey David

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Editors from a number of medical journals lay out principles for journals considering publication of Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER. In order to encourage dissemination of this editorial, this article is freely available in PLoS Medicine and will be also published in Medical Decision Making, Croatian Medical Journal, The Cochrane Library, Trials, The American Journal of Managed Care, and Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.

  7. Personality and Differential Treatment Response in Major Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagby, R Michael; Quilty, Lena C; Segal, Zindel V; McBride, Carolina C; Kennedy, Sidney H; Costa, Paul T

    2008-01-01

    Objective Effective treatments for major depressive disorder exist, yet some patients fail to respond, or achieve only partial response. One approach to optimizing treatment success is to identify which patients are more likely to respond best to which treatments. The objective of this investigation was to determine if patient personality characteristics are predictive of response to either cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) or pharmacotherapy (PHT). Method Depressed patients completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, which measures the higher-order domain and lower-order facet traits of the Five-Factor Model of Personality, and were randomized to receive either CBT or PHT. Result Four personality traits—the higher-order domain neuroticism and 3 lower-order facet traits: trust, straightforwardness, and tendermindedness—were able to distinguish a differential response rate to CBT, compared with PHT. Conclusion The assessment of patient dimensional personality traits can assist in the selection and optimization of treatment response for depressed patients. PMID:18616856

  8. A comparative evaluation of supervised and unsupervised representation learning approaches for anaplastic medulloblastoma differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; Arevalo, John; Basavanhally, Ajay; Madabhushi, Anant; González, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Learning data representations directly from the data itself is an approach that has shown great success in different pattern recognition problems, outperforming state-of-the-art feature extraction schemes for different tasks in computer vision, speech recognition and natural language processing. Representation learning applies unsupervised and supervised machine learning methods to large amounts of data to find building-blocks that better represent the information in it. Digitized histopathology images represents a very good testbed for representation learning since it involves large amounts of high complex, visual data. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of different supervised and unsupervised representation learning architectures to specifically address open questions on what type of learning architectures (deep or shallow), type of learning (unsupervised or supervised) is optimal. In this paper we limit ourselves to addressing these questions in the context of distinguishing between anaplastic and non-anaplastic medulloblastomas from routine haematoxylin and eosin stained images. The unsupervised approaches evaluated were sparse autoencoders and topographic reconstruct independent component analysis, and the supervised approach was convolutional neural networks. Experimental results show that shallow architectures with more neurons are better than deeper architectures without taking into account local space invariances and that topographic constraints provide useful invariant features in scale and rotations for efficient tumor differentiation.

  9. Comparative differential bacterial load in chicken meat from different areas of Lahore city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, T.; Ayub, M.; Ashraf, M.; Manzoor, M.; Tabinda, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Consumption of chicken meat has tremendously increased, especially in big cities of Pakistan like Lahore, during last few decades, due to low cholesterol level and lesser price as compared to beef and lamb meat. Non- scientific slaughter methods common in practice have increased the risk of bacterial load on chicken meat making it unsafe for human consumption. Keeping in view, the risk of bacterial contamination on chicken meat present study was conducted to determine bacterial load in different areas (Shad Bagh, Samanabad, Sanda) of city Lahore. Pour-plate method was used with differential media of blood agar, and selective medias of eosinmethylene blue, citrimide agar and mannitol agar. Maximum bacteria] growth (35.3 plus minus 0.77 million per gram) was observed in blood agar in Shad Bagh's poultry meat while in Samanabad's poultry meat maximum bacterial growth was observed in eosinmethylene blue agar (9.6 plus minus 0.40 million per gram) while Sanda's poultry meat showed maximum bacterial growth in cetrimide agar (6.9 plus minus 0.43). (author)

  10. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of differentially expressed genes in transgenic melatonin biosynthesis ovine HIOMT gene in switchgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Yuan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin serves pleiotropic functions in prompting plant growth and resistance to various stresses. The accurate biosynthetic pathway of melatonin remains elusive in plant species, while the N-acetyltransferase and O-methyltransferase were considered to be the last two key enzymes during its biosynthesis. To investigate the biosynthesis and metabolic pathway of melatonin in plants, the RNA-seq profile of overexpression of the ovine HIOMT was analyzed and compared with the previous transcriptome of transgenic oAANAT gene in switchgrass, a model plant for cellulosic ethanol production. A total of 946, 405 and 807 differentially expressed unigenes were observed in AANAT vs. control, HIOMT vs. control, and AANAT vs. HIOMT, respectively. The significantly upregulated (F-box/kelch-repeat protein, zinc finger BED domain-containing protein-3 genes were consistent with enhanced phenotypes of shoot, stem and root growth in transgenic oHIOMT switchgrass. Early flowering in overexpression of oHIOMT switchgrass involved in the regulation of flowering-time genes (APETALA2. Several stress resistant related genes (SPX domain-containing membrane protein, copper transporter 1, late blight resistance protein homolog R1A-6 OS etc. were specifically and significantly upregulated in transgenic oHIOMT only, while metabolism-related genes (phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase, tyrosine decarboxylase 1, protein disulfide-isomerase and galactinol synthase 2 etc. were significantly upregulated in transgenic oAANAT only. These results provide new sights into the biosynthetic and physiological functional networks of melatonin in plants.

  11. Stimulatory effect of undecylenic acid on mouse osteoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Hee; Shim, Ki Shuk; Lee, Su-Ui; Kim, Young Sup; Min, Yong Ki; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2010-04-01

    Natural compounds with bone-forming (or anabolic) activity have been recently focused on in bone research. The present study investigated the effect of undecylenic acid (UA) on osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cells and primary mouse calvarial cells. Low concentrations of UA (up to 5 microM) exhibited no cytotoxicity and significantly increased the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase (early differentiation marker of osteoblast) and calcium deposition with the induction of expression of the osteocalcin gene in both cells. Interestingly, at low concentration of UA, the induction of NF-kappaB p65 translocation into nucleus and the up-regulation of AP-1 and NFATc1 transcript levels were also observed, suggesting that the stimulatory effect of UA on osteoblast differentiation could be mediated through the activation of transcription factors. Additionally, although the patterns of UA-induced activation of MAP kinases (JNK and p38) were not completely consistent with the increase of both ALP activity and calcium deposition by UA, MAP kinases might be partially involved in the biological function of UA during the early and late stages of osteoblast differentiation. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects of emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within- and between-subject levels. In addition, the within-subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation.

  13. Stackelberg leadership with product differentiation and endogenous entry: some comparative static and limiting results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žigić, Krešimir

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2012), s. 221-232 ISSN 0931-8658 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : Stackelberg leadership * product differentiation * endogenous entry Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2012

  14. Comparative gene expression profiling of in vitro differentiated megakaryocytes and erythroblasts identifies novel activatory and inhibitory platelet membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Iain C; Tijssen, Marloes R; Thijssen-Timmer, Daphne C; Gusnanto, Arief; Steward, Michael; Burns, Philippa; Langford, Cordelia F; Ellis, Peter D; Dudbridge, Frank; Zwaginga, Jaap-Jan; Watkins, Nicholas A; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Ouwehand, Willem H

    2007-04-15

    To identify previously unknown platelet receptors we compared the transcriptomes of in vitro differentiated megakaryocytes (MKs) and erythroblasts (EBs). RNA was obtained from purified, biologically paired MK and EB cultures and compared using cDNA microarrays. Bioinformatical analysis of MK-up-regulated genes identified 151 transcripts encoding transmembrane domain-containing proteins. Although many of these were known platelet genes, a number of previously unidentified or poorly characterized transcripts were also detected. Many of these transcripts, including G6b, G6f, LRRC32, LAT2, and the G protein-coupled receptor SUCNR1, encode proteins with structural features or functions that suggest they may be involved in the modulation of platelet function. Immunoblotting on platelets confirmed the presence of the encoded proteins, and flow cytometric analysis confirmed the expression of G6b, G6f, and LRRC32 on the surface of platelets. Through comparative analysis of expression in platelets and other blood cells we demonstrated that G6b, G6f, and LRRC32 are restricted to the platelet lineage, whereas LAT2 and SUCNR1 were also detected in other blood cells. The identification of the succinate receptor SUCNR1 in platelets is of particular interest, because physiologically relevant concentrations of succinate were shown to potentiate the effect of low doses of a variety of platelet agonists.

  15. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT OF NATIONAL VS. REGIONAL CELEBRITIES ON CONSUMER ATTITUDES

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha JAIN; Subhadip ROY; Abhishek KUMAR; Anusha KABRA

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the differential effects of having a National/Regional celebrity in an advertisement/ endorsement. More specifically the study intends to find out whether a National celebrity would have a more favorable impact on consumer attitudes than a Regional celebrity when endorsing the same product. Experimental design was used as the research methodology. A 3 (National Celebrity/Regional Celebrity/No Celebrity) X 2 (High/Low Involvement Product) design was conducted on stud...

  16. Temperature effect compensation for fast differential pressure decay testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yan; Tong, Xiaomeng; Cai, Maolin

    2014-01-01

    To avoid the long temperature recovery period with differential pressure decay for leak detection, a novel method with temperature effect compensation is proposed to improve the testing efficiency without full stabilization of temperature. The mathematical model of conventional differential pressure decay testing is established to analyze the changes of temperature and pressure during the measuring period. Then the differential pressure is divided into two parts: the exponential part caused by temperature recovery and the linear part caused by leak. With prior information obtained from samples, parameters of the exponential part can be identified precisely, and the temperature effect will be compensated before it fully recovers. To verify the effect of the temperature compensated method, chambers with different volumes are tested under various pressures and the experiments show that the improved method is faster with satisfactory precision, and an accuracy less than 0.25 cc min −1  can be achieved when the compensation time is proportional to four times the theoretical thermal-time constant. (paper)

  17. Real parameter optimization by an effective differential evolution algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Wagdy Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an Effective Differential Evolution (EDE algorithm for solving real parameter optimization problems over continuous domain. The proposed algorithm proposes a new mutation rule based on the best and the worst individuals among the entire population of a particular generation. The mutation rule is combined with the basic mutation strategy through a linear decreasing probability rule. The proposed mutation rule is shown to promote local search capability of the basic DE and to make it faster. Furthermore, a random mutation scheme and a modified Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA mutation scheme are merged to avoid stagnation and/or premature convergence. Additionally, the scaling factor and crossover of DE are introduced as uniform random numbers to enrich the search behavior and to enhance the diversity of the population. The effectiveness and benefits of the proposed modifications used in EDE has been experimentally investigated. Numerical experiments on a set of bound-constrained problems have shown that the new approach is efficient, effective and robust. The comparison results between the EDE and several classical differential evolution methods and state-of-the-art parameter adaptive differential evolution variants indicate that the proposed EDE algorithm is competitive with , and in some cases superior to, other algorithms in terms of final solution quality, efficiency, convergence rate, and robustness.

  18. The Effect of Ageing on the Relationship between Subjective and Objective Recollection after Differential Encoding Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    The provision of environmental support is known to have differential effects on recognition memory in younger and older adults. Age-related differences within recognition memory were explored by investigating recollection and familiarity, and looking at their relationship with associative recognition memory. Additionally, environmental support, manipulated by different encoding conditions, was investigated by looking at its effect on this relationship, by comparing recognition memory for item...

  19. Comparative study of three sonoelastographic scores for differentiation between benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenghel, Lavinia Manuela, E-mail: pop.lavinia@umfcluj.ro [Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Radiology, Clinicilor Street, No. 3-5, 400006 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Botar Jid, Carolina, E-mail: cbotar@umfcluj.ro [Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Radiology, Clinicilor Street, No. 3-5, 400006 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bolboaca, Sorana D., E-mail: sbolboaca@umfcluj.ro [Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Medical Informatics and Biostatistics, Louis Pasteur Street, No. 6, 400349 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ciortea, Cristiana, E-mail: cristianaciortea@yahoo.com [Cluj District University Emergency, Department of Radiology, Clinicilor Street, No. 3-5, 400006 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Vasilescu, Dan, E-mail: vasilescu.dan@umfcluj.ro [Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Radiology, Clinicilor Street, No. 3-5, 400006 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Baciut, Grigore, E-mail: gbaciut@umfcluj.ro [Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Cardinal Iuliu Hossu Street, No. 37, 400029 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dudea, Sorin M., E-mail: sdudea@umfcluj.ro [Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Radiology, Clinicilor Street, No. 3-5, 400006 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We compared three sonoelastographic scoring systems for neck lymphnode assessment. • We proposed a six pattern scoring system of the elastographic images. • No significant differences were found in the diagnostic value of the assessed scores. - Abstract: Purpose: The aim of the study was to explore the diagnostic value of three different sonoelastographic scoring systems (labeled S1–S3) for the differentiation between benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes. Materials and method: The authors propose a six pattern scoring system of the elastographic images with pattern 1 – representing purely soft nodes, pattern 2 – predominantly soft nodes, pattern 3 – predominantly soft nodes with focal had area, pattern 4 – predominantly hard node, pattern 5 – entirely hard node and pattern 6 – node with necrosis. The sonoelastographic images of 50 benign and 70 malignant lymph nodes were assessed. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) for the differentiation between benign vs. malignant and benign vs. metastatic nodes were analyzed for the three scoring systems. Results: When all the malignant lymph nodes were considered, the S1 score showed an AUROC = 0.873 (95%CI [0.805–0.918], where CI = confidence interval; p < 0.001), sensibility (Se) = 58.57%, and specificity (Sp) = 96%. For S2 score the AUROC was 0.890 (95%CI [0.824–0.933], p < 0.001), Se = 92.86%, and Sp = 72%. For S3 score, the AUROC was 0.852 (95%CI [0.778–0.902], p < 0.001), Se = 64.29%, and Sp = 94%). When lymphomatous nodes were excluded, for S1 the AUROC was 0.884 (95%CI [0.809–0.932], p < 0.001), Se = 64%, and Sp = 96%. For S2 the AUROC was 0.894 (95%CI [0.818–0.939], p < 0.001), Se = 92%, and Sp = 72%. For S3, the AUROC was 0.856 (95%CI [0.771–0.911], p < 0.001), Se = 66%, and Sp = 94%. In the S3 scoring system, setting the benign vs. malignant cut off at pattern 3 increases the sensibility (41–65%) with minimal loss of specificity (96–94%). From the gray

  20. Comparative effectiveness research and medical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avolio, Leonard W; Farwell, Wildon R; Fiore, Louis D

    2010-12-01

    As is the case for environmental, ecological, astronomical, and other sciences, medical practice and research finds itself in a tsunami of data. This data deluge, due primarily to the introduction of digitalization in routine medical care and medical research, affords the opportunity for improved patient care and scientific discovery. Medical informatics is the subdiscipline of medicine created to make greater use of information in order to improve healthcare. The 4 areas of medical informatics research (information access, structure, analysis, and interaction) are used as a framework to discuss the overlap in information needs of comparative effectiveness research and potential contributions of medical informatics. Examples of progress from the medical informatics literature and the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System are provided. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Radiation effects, nuclear energy and comparative risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, D.V.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear energy had a promising start as an unlimited, inexpensive and environmentally benign source of energy for electricity generation. However, over the decades its growth was severely retarded due to concerns about its possible detrimental effects on the well-being of mankind and the environment. Since such concerns are essentially due to the gigantic magnitude of radioactivity and ionizing radiations associated with nuclear energy, this article starts with a comprehensive account of effects of the ionizing radiation on living systems. Quantitative description of types of radiation exposure and their varied effects is given. The origin, type and magnitude of mutagenic effects of radiation are described. The concept of radiation risk factors, basis for their evaluation and their currently accepted values are presented. With this background, origin and magnitude of radioactivity and associated ionizing radiations in nuclear reactors are presented and the elaborate measures to contain them are described. It is recognized that notwithstanding all the measures taken in the nuclear industry, certain amount of radiation exposure, however small, is inevitable and the values, based on the experience world over, are presented. Estimated health risk due to such exposures is evaluated. For a comparative analysis, risks in other options of electricity generation such as hydel and fossil-fuelled plants are described. It is seen that on an overall basis, the nuclear option is no more risky than the other commonly employed options, and is in fact, significantly less. Lastly, since every option of electricity generation entails some risk, the case of 'no addition of electricity, and its impact on the society are considered. Based on the analysis of extensive data provided by UNDP on the human development parameters for different countries in the world, it is shown that at least for developing countries, any option of addition of electricity would be far more desirable than the

  2. Theory of the negative differential conductivity effect in semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Hong Anh; Nguyen Hong Shon; Le Vu Ky

    1990-01-01

    A new mechanism of the negative differential conductivity (NDC) effect in semiconductor superlattices (SL) is proposed and analysed that is due to the conduction electron trapping by donor centers. It is shown that the NDC effect occurs for sufficently high (but reasonable) impurity concentration and not too large value of the τ ε /τ c ratio (where τ ε is the electron energy relaxation time and τ c the electron life time in the conduction band) when the applied d.c. electric field reaches certain critical value defined by the physical parameters of the sample. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  3. Schwinger effect and negative differential conductivity in holographic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankhadeep Chakrabortty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of the Schwinger effect for conductivity are computed for strong coupling systems using holography. The one-loop diagram on the flavor brane introduces an O(λNc imaginary part in the effective action for a Maxwell flavor gauge field. This in turn introduces a real conductivity in an otherwise insulating phase of the boundary theory. Moreover, in certain regions of parameter space the differential conductivity is negative. This is computed in the context of the Sakai–Sugimoto model.

  4. Perceptual differentiation and category effects in normal object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Gade, A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present PET study was (i) to investigate the neural correlates of object recognition, i.e. the matching of visual forms to memory, and (ii) to test the hypothesis that this process is more difficult for natural objects than for artefacts. This was done by using object decision...... tasks where subjects decided whether pictures represented real objects or non-objects. The object decision tasks differed in their difficulty (the degree of perceptual differentiation needed to perform them) and in the category of the real objects used (natural objects versus artefacts). A clear effect...... be the neural correlate of matching visual forms to memory, and the amount of activation in these regions may correspond to the degree of perceptual differentiation required for recognition to occur. With respect to behaviour, it took significantly longer to make object decisions on natural objects than...

  5. Effects of Internet Sales Promotion on a Differential Advertising Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising and sales promotion are two important specific marketing communications tools. In this paper, Internet sales promotion is introduced into a differential advertising model and investigated quantitatively. The conditions for the existence and stability of periodic solutions are obtained. Flip bifurcation of periodic solution is investigated analytically. The results show that the sales promotion parameter can modify the stability of the differential advertising model and lead to chaos through flip bifurcation, the sales level will eventually be no less than a given value by adjusting the value of the sales promotion parameter, and the optimal sales promotion strategy can lead to maximum profit. Numerical results for periodic solutions, bifurcation diagrams, and the effects of sales promotion strategies, which are illustrated with an example, are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. These results have certain significant theoretical and practical value in related markets.

  6. Differential effect of extracellular matrix derived from papillary and reticular fibroblasts on epidermal development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, David; Rietveld, Marion; Mahé, Christian; Saintigny, Gaëlle; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb

    2017-06-01

    Papillary and reticular fibroblasts have different effects on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these effects are caused by differential secretion of soluble factors or by differential generation of extracellular matrix from papillary and reticular fibroblasts. To study the effect of soluble factors, keratinocyte monolayer cultures were grown in papillary or reticular fibroblast-conditioned medium. To study the effect of extracellular matrix, keratinocytes were grown on papillary or reticular-derived matrix. Conditioned medium from papillary or reticular fibroblasts did not differentially affect keratinocyte viability or epidermal development. However, keratinocyte viability was increased when grown on matrix derived from papillary, compared with reticular, fibroblasts. In addition, the longevity of the epidermis was increased when cultured on papillary fibroblast-derived matrix skin equivalents compared with reticular-derived matrix skin equivalents. The findings indicate that the matrix secreted by papillary and reticular fibroblasts is the main causal factor to account for the differences in keratinocyte growth and viability observed in our study. Differences in response to soluble factors between both populations were less significant. Matrix components specific to the papillary dermis may account for the preferential growth of keratinocytes on papillary dermis.

  7. Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Exhibit Preferential Osteogenic and Chondrogenic Differentiation and Enhanced Matrix Production Compared With Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topoluk, Natasha; Hawkins, Richard; Tokish, John; Mercuri, Jeremy

    2017-09-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of various mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) types for orthopaedic applications is currently being investigated. While the concept of MSC therapy is well grounded in the basic science of healing and regeneration, little is known about individual MSC populations in terms of their propensity to promote the repair and/or regeneration of specific musculoskeletal tissues. Two promising MSC sources, adipose and amnion, have each demonstrated differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in the setting of musculoskeletal tissue regeneration. However, no study to date has directly compared the differentiation potential of these 2 MSC populations. To compare the ability of human adipose- and amnion-derived MSCs to undergo osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. Controlled laboratory study. MSC populations from the human term amnion were quantified and characterized via cell counting, histologic assessment, and flow cytometry. Differentiation of these cells in comparison to commercially purchased human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hADSCs) in the presence and absence of differentiation media was evaluated via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bone and cartilage gene transcript markers and histology/immunohistochemistry to examine ECM production. Analysis of variance and paired t tests were performed to compare results across all cell groups investigated. The authors confirmed that the human term amnion contains 2 primary cell types demonstrating MSC characteristics-(1) human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) and (2) human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs)-and each exhibited more than 90% staining for MSC surface markers (CD90, CD105, CD73). Average viable hAEC and hAMSC yields at harvest were 2.3 × 10 6 ± 3.7 × 10 5 and 1.6 × 10 6 ± 4.7 × 10 5 per milliliter of amnion, respectively. As well, hAECs and hAMSCs demonstrated significantly greater osteocalcin ( P = .025), aggrecan ( P

  8. Pyroelectric effect in tryglicyne sulphate single crystals - Differential measurement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybus, M.

    2018-06-01

    A simple mathematical model of the pyroelectric phenomenon was used to explain the electric response of the TGS (triglycine sulphate) samples in the linear heating process in ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Experimental verification of mathematical model was realized. TGS single crystals were grown and four electrode samples were fabricated. Differential measurements of the pyroelectric response of two different regions of the samples were performed and the results were compared with data obtained from the model. Experimental results are in good agreement with model calculations.

  9. Comparative Transcriptomic Analyses by RNA-seq to Elucidate Differentially Expressed Genes in the Muscle of Korean Thoroughbred Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Park, Jeong-Woong; Choi, Jae-Young; Chung, Young-Hwa; Sharma, Neelesh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kim, Nam Eun; Mongre, Raj Kumar; Huynh, Do; Jiao, Zhang Jiao; Do, Kyoung Tag; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Song, Ki-Duk; Cho, Byung-Wook; Jeong, DongKee

    2016-10-01

    The athletic abilities of the horse serve as a valuable model to understand the physiology and molecular mechanisms of adaptive responses to exercise. We analyzed differentially expressed genes in triceps brachii muscle tissues collected from Eonjena Taeyang and Jigusang Seryeok Thoroughbred horses and their co-expression networks in a large-scale RNA-sequence dataset comparing expression before and after exercise. High-quality horse transcriptome data were generated, with over 22 million 90-bp pair-end reads. By comparing the annotations, we found that MYH3, MPZ, and PDE8B genes in Eonjena Taeyang and PDE8B and KIF18A genes in Jigusang Seryeok were upregulated before exercise. Notably further, we observed that PPP1R27, NDUFA3, TNC, and ANK1 in Eonjena Taeyang and HIF1A, BDNF, ADRB2, OBSCN, and PER3 in Jigusang Seryeok have shown upregulation at the postexercise period. This investigation suggested that genes responsible for metabolism and oxidative phosphorylations associated with endurance and resistance exercise were highly expressed, whereas genes encoding structural proteins were generally suppressed. The expression profile of racehorses at pre- and postexercise will provide credible reference for further studies on biological effects such as responses to stress and adaption of other Thoroughbred horse, which might be useful for selective breeding for improvement of traits in commercial production.

  10. The effect of dexamethasone and triiodothyronine on terminal differentiation of primary bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randau, Thomas M; Schildberg, Frank A; Alini, Mauro; Wimmer, Matthias D; Haddouti, El-Mustapha; Gravius, Sascha; Ito, Keita; Stoddart, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    The newly evolved field of regenerative medicine is offering solutions in the treatment of bone or cartilage loss and deficiency. Mesenchymal stem cells, as well as articular chondrocytes, are potential cells for the generation of bone or cartilage. The natural mechanism of bone formation is that of endochondral ossification, regulated, among other factors, through the hormones dexamethasone and triiodothyronine. We investigated the effects of these hormones on articular chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, hypothesizing that these hormones would induce terminal differentiation, with chondrocytes and differentiated stem cells being similar in their response. Using a 3D-alginate cell culture model, bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated stem cells were cultured in presence of triiodothyronine or dexamethasone, and cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production were investigated. Collagen mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. Col X mRNA and alkaline phosphatase were monitored as markers of terminal differentiation, a prerequisite of endochondral ossification. The alginate culture system worked well, both for the culture of chondrocytes and for the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Dexamethasone led to an increase in glycosaminoglycan production. Triiodothyronine increased the total collagen production only in chondrocytes, where it also induced signs of terminal differentiation, increasing both collagen X mRNA and alkaline phosphatase activity. Dexamethasone induced terminal differentiation in the differentiated stem cells. The immature articular chondrocytes used in this study seem to be able to undergo terminal differentiation, pointing to their possible role in the onset of degenerative osteoarthritis, as well as their potential for a cell source in bone tissue engineering. When chondrocyte-like cells, after their differentiation, can indeed be moved on towards terminal

  11. Stackelberg leadership with product differentiation and endogenous entry: some comparative static and limiting results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žigić, Krešimir

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2012), s. 221-232 ISSN 0931-8658 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : Stackelberg leadership * product differentiation * endogenous entry Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2012

  12. Stackelberg leadership with product differentiation and endogenous entry: some comparative static and limiting results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žigić, Krešimir

    -, č. 369 (2008), s. 1-12 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : Stackelberg leader ship * product differentiation * endogenous entry Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp369.pdf

  13. Differential cytotoxic effects of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on blastomere-derived embryonic stem cells and differentiating neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chun Kyu; Kim, Suel-Kee; Ko, Duck Sung; Cho, Jea Won; Jun, Jin Hyun; An, Su-Yeon; Han, Jung Ho

    2009-01-01

    Potential applications of embryonic stem (ES) cells are not limited to regenerative medicine but can also include in vitro screening of various toxicants. In this study, we established mouse ES cell lines from isolated blastomeres of two-cell stage embryos and examined their potential use as an in vitro system for the study of developmental toxicity. Two ES cell lines were established from 69 blastomere-derived blastocysts (2.9%). The blastomere-derived ES (bm-ES) cells were treated with mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in an undifferentiated state or after directed differentiation into early neural cell types. We observed significantly decreased cell viability when undifferentiated bm-ES cells were exposed to a high dose of MEHP (1000 μM). The cytotoxic effects of MEHP were accompanied by increased DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, and activation of Caspase-3, which are biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. Compared to undifferentiated bm-ES cells, considerably lower doses of MEHP (50 and 100 μM) were sufficient to induce cell death in early neurons differentiated from bm-ES cells. At the lower doses, the number of neural cells positive for the active form of Caspase-3 was greater than that for undifferentiated bm-ES cells. Thus, our data indicate that differentiating neurons are more sensitive to MEHP than undifferentiated ES cells, and that undifferentiated ES cells may have more efficient defense systems against cytotoxic stresses. These findings might contribute to the development of a new predictive screening method for assessment of hazards for developmental toxicity.

  14. Sensing line effects on PWR-based differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.P.; Neff, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    An incorrrect configuration of the fluid-filled pressure sensing lines connecting differential pressure transducers to the pressure taps in a pressurized water reactor system can cause errors in the measurement and, during rapid pressure transients, could cause the transducer to fail. Testing was performed in both static and dynamic modes to experimentally determine the effects of sensing lines of various lengths, diameters, and materials. Testing was performed at ambient temperature with absolute line pressures at about 17 MPa using water as the pressure transmission fluid

  15. Level of Differentiation of Vocational Interests Profiles: Comparative Study by Age and Schooling in a Brazilian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocational interests can be defined as standards of preference, aversion or indifference to professional activities, but little is known about the factors involved in their development. From this perspective, this study attempted to clarify which variable, age or schooling, better fit comparisons of profile differentiation index. To this end, we analyzed the Escala de Aconselhamento Profissional (Professional Counseling Scale responses of 6,824 Brazilian students between 14 and 50 years old with various levels of education. Differentiation of the interest profile was observed by subtraction between dimensions with lower and higher scores. Normality of the distributions was verified and then Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s post hoc test were conducted in relation to groups of age and schooling. The results suggest that schooling is a more appropriate variable to compare the differentiation of interests. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed, and suggestions for future studies are given.

  16. Differential diagnosis and staging of urological tumors by magnetic resonance imaging compared with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Kazuo; Okada, Yusaku; Takeuchi, Hideo; Miyakawa, Mieko; Okada, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kazumasa

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 49 urological tumors (11 renal cell carcinomas, 3 renal pelvic cancers, 2 renal angiomyolipomas, 1 renal leiomyosarcoma, 1 large renal cvst, 4 adrenal tumors, 11 bladder cancers, 2 bone metastasis from bladder cancer, 10 prostatic cancers, 1 prostatic sarcoma, 1 urethral cancer, 1 penile cancer and 1 perivesical granuloma) since October 1985 to September 1986. MRI was performed using a Signa (G.E.) with a 1.5 T superconductive magnet and 3 images, including T1 weighted image, T2 weighted image, and proton density image, were obtained. In conclusion MRI is a noninvasive examination and gives more information than computed tomography despite its high cost. In renal cell carcinoma, the chemical shift in MRI and clear visualization of tumor thrombus enable accurate staging. Differential diagnosis from other renal mass lesions may be possible by the T2 weighted image. In adrenal disease, most of the adrenal masses can be differentiated, but in some cases it is impossible. In bladder cancer, wall invasion of tumor may be evaluated in T2 weighted image, and MRI is suitable for staging of locally advanced tumor. In prostatic cancer, visualization of periprostatic plexus and differentiation between internal and external gland may enable local staging and identification of low stage tumors. (author)

  17. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene Sundahl; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30...... concentration in the chylomicron rich fraction (P = .0293). Thus, we have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial metabolism of four dietary proteins supplemented to a fat rich mixed meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Supplementation with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia compared...

  18. The effect of differentiated margin on futures market investors' behavior and structure An experimental research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-hui Luo; Di-fang Wan; Yang Yang; Guang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze the role of differentiated margin system in leading investors' investing behavior and then optimize investor structure in futures markets.Design/methodology/approach-Using economic experimental research method,this paper designs and conducts a futures market experiment according to experimental research's basic norms,thus acquiring needed and credible empirical data.Findings-By analyzing the experimental data,it is found that compared with situations in futures markets that implement uniform margin system,investors' (especially speculators') futures open position and the ratio of their open position and futures turnover are both significantly higher,in futures markets that implement differentiated margin system.On the other hand,differentiated margin system has no effects on hedgers' futures turnover,but significantly reduces speculators' futures turnover.Research limitations/implications-The findings suggest that compared with uniform margin system,differentiated margin system is beneficial to effectively restrict both speculators' and hedgers' speculating behavior and lead hedgers' market participation.Practical implications-In order to resolve the problem of unreasonable investor structure in China's futures market,i.e.lack of hedgers and over-speculating China's futures market's regulators should reform the margin system and adopt differentiated margin system to lead investors' rational behavior and optimize investor structure.Originality/value-This paper empirically analyzes and verifies,for the first time,the roles of differentiated margin system in affecting investors' investing behavior.The futures market experiment designed and used in this study is a pioneering and exploratory experiment.

  19. An Effect Size Measure for Raju's Differential Functioning for Items and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Keith D.; Oshima, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study established an effect size measure for differential functioning for items and tests' noncompensatory differential item functioning (NCDIF). The Mantel-Haenszel parameter served as the benchmark for developing NCDIF's effect size measure for reporting moderate and large differential item functioning in test items. The effect size of…

  20. A Comparative Study of Differential Evolution, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Evolutionary Algorithms on Numerical Benchmark Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterstrøm, Jacob Svaneborg; Thomsen, Rene

    2004-01-01

    Several extensions to evolutionary algorithms (EAs) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) have been suggested during the last decades offering improved performance on selected benchmark problems. Recently, another search heuristic termed differential evolution (DE) has shown superior performance...... in several real-world applications. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of DE, PSO, and EAs regarding their general applicability as numerical optimization techniques. The comparison is performed on a suite of 34 widely used benchmark problems. The results from our study show that DE generally...... outperforms the other algorithms. However, on two noisy functions, both DE and PSO were outperformed by the EA....

  1. Effects of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide on adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinjuan ZHAO

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (DOP on the adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs. DOP was extracted fresh Dendrobium officinale. Rat BMSCs were prepared, and then were treated with 0 (control, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 μg/mL DOP, respectively. The cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The adipogenic differentiation was quantitatively analyzed by oil red O staining assay. The mRNA expressions of adipogenic differentiation related gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG, lipoprotein lipase (LPL and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4 were detected by RT-PCR. Results showed that, DOP with 0-800 μg/mL concentration had no significant toxicity to BMSCs. 200-800 μg/mL DOP could obviously inhibit the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Compared with control group, the expression levels of PPARG, LPL and FABP4 mRNA 200, 400 and 800 μg/mL DOP groups were significantly decreased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. DOP can inhibit the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs, which may be related with its down-regulation of PPARG, LPL and FABP4 expressions in BMSCs.

  2. Can Aurelia (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa species be differentiated by comparing their scyphistomae and ephyrae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gambill

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Debate exists regarding the number of species of the moon jellyfish (genus Aurelia, a common member of the planktonic community of the coastal shelf seas around the world. Three Aurelia congeners (A. aurita, A. labiata and A. limbata are currently considered to exist but recent genetic analyses suggested that this is an oversimplification. We analyzed the morphological characteristics of scyphistomae, morphological characteristics of ephyrae and differences in the time span of the strobilation process of Aurelia congeners from 17, 7 and 6 different source populations, respectively, of known species. Morphological characteristics of scyphistomae were similar among the 17 populations but those of ephyrae, such as the shape and form of lappets, were effective discriminators in the 6 cases examined. We recommend identifying species based on differences in 1 the morphological characteristics of scyphistomae and ephyrae (and not only medusae, 2 the genetics of individuals, and 3 the geographical occurrence of the population. This study adds to the growing body of knowledge on scyphozoan scyphistomae and ephyrae, stages of the metagenic life cycle of scyphozoans that have received relatively little study compared to medusae.

  3. effect of differentiated instructional strategies on students' retention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    show that retention ability was significantly higher in the experimental group ... Differentiated instruction, Lecture , Cognitive Achievement ,Retention ability, Geometry. ... thinking. Based on this knowledge, differentiated instruction applies an ...

  4. Effect of lactoferrin on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Chen, Qingyu; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dongquan; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Peng, Lei; Zi Xu, Hua; Zhu Lu, Chuan

    2012-03-01

    Many in vitro studies of the analysis of the lactoferrin (LF) effect on cells have been reported. However, no study has yet investigated the effect of LF on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LF on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells. The hADSCs were cultured in an osteogenic medium with 0, 10, 50 and 100 μg/ml LF, respectively. hADSC proliferation was analysed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, and cell osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, von Kossa staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell proliferation was significantly increased by LF in a dose-dependent manner from days 4 to 14. Cells cultured with 100 μg/ml LF presented a higher activity compared with the control. The deposition of calcium was increased after the addition of LF. The mRNA expression of type I collagen (COL-I), ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and RUNX2 increased markedly as a result of LF treatment. We have shown for the first time that LF could promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs, which could be a promising approach for enhancing osteogenic capacity of cell-based construction in bone tissue engineering.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Dibutyric cAMP and Butyric Acid on the Differentiation of Human Eosinophilic Leukemia EoL-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, YunJae

    2015-12-01

    Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity.

  6. Effect of acetaminophen on osteoblastic differentiation and migration of MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Fumio; Higashi, Sen; Ohsumi, Tomoko; Shiiba, Shunji; Watanabe, Seiji; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP, acetaminophen, paracetamol) is a widely used analgesic/antipyretic with weak inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase (COX) compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The mechanism of action of APAP is mediated by its metabolite that activates transient receptor potential channels, including transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) or the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). However, the exact molecular mechanism and target underlying the cellular actions of APAP remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of APAP on osteoblastic differentiation and cell migration, with a particular focus on TRP channels and CB1. Effects of APAP on osteoblastic differentiation and cell migration of MC3T3-E1, a mouse pre-osteoblast cell line, were assessed by the increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and both wound-healing and transwell-migration assays, respectively. APAP dose-dependently inhibited osteoblastic differentiation, which was well correlated with the effects on COX activity compared with other NSAIDs. In contrast, cell migration was promoted by APAP, and this effect was not correlated with COX inhibition. None of the agonists or antagonists of TRP channels and the CB receptor affected the APAP-induced cell migration, while the effect of APAP on cell migration was abolished by down-regulating TRPV4 gene expression. APAP inhibited osteoblastic differentiation via COX inactivation while it promoted cell migration independently of previously known targets such as COX, TRPV1, TRPA1 channels, and CB receptors, but through the mechanism involving TRPV4. APAP may have still unidentified molecular targets that modify cellular functions. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Proliferation and Differentiation of Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical stimulation of vibration on proliferation and differentiation of cells has been studied in vitro. To apply the vibration on the cells, a piezoelectric element was attached on the outside surface of the bottom of the culture plate of six wells. The piezoelectric element was vibrated by sinusoidally alternating voltage at 1.0 MHz generated by a function generator. Five kinds of cells were used in the experiment: C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell, L929 (fibroblast connective tissue of mouse, Hepa1-6 (mouse hepatoma cell, HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cell, and Neuro-2a (mouse neural crest-derived cell line. After the incubation for 24 hours, cells were exposed to the ultrasonic vibration intermittently for three days: for thirty minutes per day. At the end of the experiment, the number of cells was counted by colorimetric method with a microplate photometer. In the case of Neuro-2a, the total length of the neurite was calculated at the microscopic image. The experimental study shows following results. Cells are exfoliated by the strong vibration. Proliferation and differentiation of cells are accelerated with mild vibration. The optimum intensity of vibration depends on the kind of cells.

  8. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Differential Gene Expression Related to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Resistance in the Octoploid Strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is an important fruit worldwide; however, the development of the strawberry industry is limited by fungal disease. Anthracnose is caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and leads to large-scale losses in strawberry quality and production. However, the transcriptional response of strawberry to infection with C. gloeosporioides is poorly understood. In the present study, the strawberry leaf transcriptome of the ‘Yanli’ and ‘Benihoppe’ cultivars were deep sequenced via an RNA-seq analysis to study C. gloeosporioides resistance in strawberry. Among the sequences, differentially expressed genes were annotated with Gene Ontology terms and subjected to pathway enrichment analysis. Significant categories included defense, plant–pathogen interactions and flavonoid biosynthesis were identified. The comprehensive transcriptome data set provides molecular insight into C. gloeosporioides resistance genes in resistant and susceptible strawberry cultivars. Our findings can enhance breeding efforts in strawberry.

  9. Comparative limb proportions reveal differential locomotor morphofunctions of alligatoroids and crocodyloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masaya; Kubo, Tai; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu

    2018-03-01

    Although two major clades of crocodylians (Alligatoroidea and Crocodyloidea) were split during the Cretaceous period, relatively few morphological and functional differences between them have been known. In addition, interaction of multiple morphofunctional systems that differentiated their ecology has barely been assessed. In this study, we examined the limb proportions of crocodylians to infer the differences of locomotor functions between alligatoroids and crocodyloids, and tested the correlation of locomotor and feeding morphofunctions. Our analyses revealed crocodyloids including Gavialis have longer stylopodia (humerus and femur) than alligatoroids, indicating that two groups may differ in locomotor functions. Fossil evidence suggested that alligatoroids have retained short stylopodia since the early stage of their evolution. Furthermore, rostral shape, an indicator of trophic function, is correlated with limb proportions, where slender-snouted piscivorous taxa have relatively long stylopodia and short overall limbs. In combination, trophic and locomotor functions might differently delimit the ecological opportunity of alligatoroids and crocodyloids in the evolution of crocodylians.

  10. Detectability index of differential phase contrast CT compared with conventional CT: a preliminary channelized Hotelling observer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Yang, Yi; Tang, Shaojie

    2013-03-01

    Under the framework of model observer with signal and background exactly known (SKE/BKE), we investigate the detectability of differential phase contrast CT compared with that of the conventional attenuation-based CT. Using the channelized Hotelling observer and the radially symmetric difference-of-Gaussians channel template , we investigate the detectability index and its variation over the dimension of object and detector cells. The preliminary data show that the differential phase contrast CT outperforms the conventional attenuation-based CT significantly in the detectability index while both the object to be detected and the cell of detector used for data acquisition are relatively small. However, the differential phase contrast CT's dominance in the detectability index diminishes with increasing dimension of either object or detector cell, and virtually disappears while the dimension of object or detector cell approaches a threshold, respectively. It is hoped that the preliminary data reported in this paper may provide insightful understanding of the differential phase contrast CT's characteristic in the detectability index and its comparison with that of the conventional attenuation-based CT.

  11. A comparative transcriptomic analysis of astrocytes differentiation from human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistri, Marco; Khoury, Nathalie; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Velmeshev, Dmitry; Lee, Jae K; Bicciato, Silvio; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali

    2016-11-01

    Astrocytes are a morphologically and functionally heterogeneous population of cells that play critical roles in neurodevelopment and in the regulation of central nervous system homeostasis. Studies of human astrocytes have been hampered by the lack of specific molecular markers and by the difficulties associated with purifying and culturing astrocytes from adult human brains. Human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) with self-renewal and multipotent properties represent an appealing model system to gain insight into the developmental genetics and function of human astrocytes, but a comprehensive molecular characterization that confirms the validity of this cellular system is still missing. Here we used an unbiased transcriptomic analysis to characterize in vitro culture of human NPCs and to define the gene expression programs activated during the differentiation of these cells into astrocytes using FBS or the combination of CNTF and BMP4. Our results demonstrate that in vitro cultures of human NPCs isolated during the gliogenic phase of neurodevelopment mainly consist of radial glial cells (RGCs) and glia-restricted progenitor cells. In these cells the combination of CNTF and BMP4 activates the JAK/STAT and SMAD signaling cascades, leading to the inhibition of oligodendrocytes lineage commitment and activation of astrocytes differentiation. On the other hand, FBS-derived astrocytes have properties of reactive astrocytes. Our work suggests that in vitro culture of human NPCs represents a valuable cellular system to study human disorders characterized by impairment of astrocytes development and function. Our datasets represent an important resource for researchers studying human astrocytes development and might set the basis for the discovery of novel human-specific astrocyte markers. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comparative evaluation of immunohistochemistry, histopathology and conventional radiography in differentiating periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Prahlad A; Kamat, Sharad; Puranik, R S; Puranik, Surekha; Saraf, Suma P; Singh, Bhanu Pratap

    2014-03-01

    Periapical lesions often present differently on the radiograph resulting in a dilemma in the mind of the dentist to arrive at a final diagnosis. Although, histopathologic diagnosis has been used for confirmation of the true nature of periapical lesion, the concept of transformation of periapical granulomas containing epithelium without cystification into cyst remains controversial. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography and histopathology in differentiating periapical lesions in adjunct with immunohistochemical analysis. Periapical lesions often present differently on the radiograph resulting in a dilemma in the mind of the dentist to arrive at a final diagnosis. Although, histopathologic diagnosis has been used for confirmation of the true nature of periapical lesion, the concept of transformation of periapical granulomas containing epithelium without cystification into cyst remains controversial. The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional radiography and histopathology in differentiating periapical lesions in adjunct with immunohistochemical analysis. Thirty patients having large periapical radiolucency that do not heal successfully with routine endodontic therapy in relation to either maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth were selected for the study. Intraoral periapical radiographs were obtained and provisional diagnosis of the apical areas were made. Endodontic surgery was performed to enable histopathogical investigation. The histopathological interpretation was done to arrive at a final diagnosis and selected questionable granulomas were subjected for cytokeratin (CK-14) stain. The histopathological profile of lesions consisted of 66.66% periapical granulomas, 10% cysts, 6.67% abscess and 16.67% granulomas with cystic potential. The radiographic and histopathologic correlation was found in only 30% of these cases. Strong CK-14 expression was observed in all five cases of

  13. Differential effects of the extracellular microenvironment on human embryonic stem cell differentiation into keratinocytes and their subsequent replicative life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahednia, Mohammad Mehdi; Kidwai, Fahad Karim; Zou, Yu; Tong, Huei Jinn; Liu, Xiaochen; Islam, Intekhab; Toh, Wei Seong; Raghunath, Michael; Cao, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Culture microenvironment plays a critical role in the propagation and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their differentiated progenies. Although high efficiency of hESC differentiation to keratinocytes (hESC-Kert) has been achieved, little is known regarding the effects of early culture microenvironment and pertinent extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions during epidermal commitment on subsequent proliferative capacity of hESC-Kert. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the different ECM microenvironments during hESC differentiation on subsequent replicative life span of hESC-Kert. In doing so, H1-hESCs were differentiated to keratinocytes (H1-Kert) in two differentiation systems. The first system employed autologous fibroblast feeder support, in which keratinocytes (H1-Kert(ACC)) were derived by coculture of hESCs with hESC-derived fibroblasts (H1-ebFs). The second system employed a novel decellularized matrix from H1-ebFs to create a dermoepidermal junction-like (DEJ) matrix. H1-Kert(AFF) were derived by differentiation of hESCs on the feeder-free system employing the DEJ matrix. Our study indicated that the feeder-free system with the use of DEJ matrix was more efficient in differentiation of hESCs toward epidermal progenitors. However, the feeder-free system was not sufficient to support the subsequent replicative capacity of differentiated keratinocytes. Of note, H1-Kert(AFF) showed limited replicative capacity with reduced telomere length and early cellular senescence. We further showed that the lack of cell-cell interactions during epidermal commitment led to heightened production of TGF-β1 by hESC-Kert during extended culture, which in turn was responsible for resulting in the limited replicative life span with cellular senescence of hESC-Kert derived under the feeder-free culture system. This study highlights for the first time the importance of the culture microenvironment and cell-ECM interactions during

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of Conventional Rote Learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relative effectiveness of Mnemonics technique (MNIT) and conventional rote learning technique (CRL) on the teaching-learning of physical features (Geography). A pre-test and post-test control group design was adopted for the study. A sample of ninety SS I students was randomly selected out of ...

  15. Microcredit Effect on Agricultural Productivity: A Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F-value of 9.84 and 10.11 recorded for the two categories of farmers respectively, and being significant at 1 percent each, led to the rejection of the hypothesis of inputs having no significant effect on output. It is thus concluded that credit could bring about higher productivity and profit in agricultural production, hence, this ...

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of extracellular vesicles isolated by acoustic trapping or differential centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezeli, Melinda; Gidlöf, Olof; Evander, Mikael; Bryl-Górecka, Paulina; Sathanoori, Ramasri; Gilje, Patrik; Pawlowski, Krzysztof; Horvatovich, Péter; Erlinge, David; Marko-Varga, György; Laurell, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (ECVs), including microparticles (MPs) and exosomes, are submicron membrane vesicles released by diverse cell types upon activation or stress. Circulating ECVs are potential reservoirs of disease biomarkers, and the complexity of these vesicles is significantly lower compared

  17. Differential effects of white noise in cognitive and perceptual tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Alicia Herweg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of noise on higher cognition have recently attracted attention. Hypothesizing an involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system and its functional interactions with cortical areas, the current study aimed to demonstrate a facilitation of dopamine-dependent attentional and mnemonic functions by externally applying white noise in five behavioral experiments including a total sample of 167 healthy human subjects. During working memory, acoustic white noise impaired accuracy when presented during the maintenance period (experiment 1-3. In a reward based long-term memory task, white noise accelerated perceptual judgments for scene images during encoding but left subsequent recognition memory unaffected (experiment 4. In a modified Posner task (experiment 5, the benefit due to white noise in attentional orienting correlated weakly with reward dependence, a personality trait that has been associated with the dopaminergic system. These results suggest that white noise has no general effect on cognitive functions. Instead, they indicate differential effects on perception and cognition depending on a variety of factors such as task demands and timing of white noise presentation.

  18. Differential effects of white noise in cognitive and perceptual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herweg, Nora A; Bunzeck, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of noise on higher cognition have recently attracted attention. Hypothesizing an involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system and its functional interactions with cortical areas, the current study aimed to demonstrate a facilitation of dopamine-dependent attentional and mnemonic functions by externally applying white noise in five behavioral experiments including a total sample of 167 healthy human subjects. During working memory, acoustic white noise impaired accuracy when presented during the maintenance period (Experiments 1-3). In a reward based long-term memory task, white noise accelerated perceptual judgments for scene images during encoding but left subsequent recognition memory unaffected (Experiment 4). In a modified Posner task (Experiment 5), the benefit due to white noise in attentional orienting correlated weakly with reward dependence, a personality trait that has been associated with the dopaminergic system. These results suggest that white noise has no general effect on cognitive functions. Instead, they indicate differential effects on perception and cognition depending on a variety of factors such as task demands and timing of white noise presentation.

  19. Effect of boron on osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Chen, Qingyu; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dongquan; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Rompis, Ferdinand An; Peng, Lei; Zhu Lu, Chuan

    2011-12-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been well established as an ideal source of cell-based therapy for bone tissue engineering applications. Boron (B) is a notable trace element in humans; so far, the effects of boron on the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs have not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of boron (0, 1, 10,100, and 1,000 ng/ml) on osteogenic differentiation of human BMSCs. In this study, BMSCs proliferation was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay, and cell osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, Von Kossa staining, and real-time PCR. The results indicated that the proliferation of BMSCs was no different from the control group when added with B at the concentration of 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml respectively (P > 0.05); in contrast, 1,000 ng/ml B inhibited the proliferation of BMSCs at days 4, 7, and 14 (P < 0.05). By ALP staining, we discovered that BMSCs treated with 10 and 100 ng/ml B presented a higher ALP activity compared with control (P < 0.05). By real-time PCR, we detected the messenger RNA expression of ALP, osteocalcin, collagen type I, and bone morphogenetic proteins 7 were also increased in 10 and 100 ng/ml B treatment groups (P < 0.05). The calcium depositions were increased in 1 and 10 ng/ml B treatment groups (P < 0.05). Taken all together, it was the first time to report that B could increase osteogenic effect by stimulating osteogenic differentiation-related marker gene synthesis during the proliferation and differentiation phase in human BMSCs and could be a promising approach for enhancing osteogenic capacity of cell-based construction in bone tissue engineering.

  20. Effects of Feeder Cells on Dopaminergic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs and human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs are used for the culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. MEFs and HFFs differed in their capacity to support the proliferation and pluripotency of hESCs and could affect cardiac differentiation potential of hESCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MEFs and HFFs feeders on dopaminergic differentiation of hESCs lines. To minimize the impact of culture condition variation, two hESCs lines were cultured on mixed feeder cells (MFCs, MEFs: HFFs =1:1 and HFFs feeder respectively, and then were differentiated into DA neurons under the identical protocol. Dopaminergic differentiation was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, quantitative fluorescent real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and patch clamp. Our results demonstrated that these hESCs-derived neurons were genuine and functional DA neurons. However, compared to hESCs line on MFCs feeder, hESCs line on HFFs feeder had a higher proportion of TH positive cells and expressed higher levels of FOXA2, PITX3, NURR1 and TH genes. In addition, the values of threshold intensity and threshold membrane potential of DA neurons from hESCs line on HFFs feeder were lower than those of DA neurons from hESCs line on the MFCs feeder. In conclusion, HFFs feeder not only facilitated the differentiation of hESCs cells into dopaminergic neurons, but also induced hESCs-derived DA neurons to express higher electrophysiological excitability. Therefore, feeder cells could affect not only dopaminergic differentiation potential of different hESCs lines, but also electrophysiological properties of hESCs-derived DA neurons.

  1. The use of copulas to practical estimation of multivariate stochastic differential equation mixed effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupšys, P.

    2015-01-01

    A system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) with mixed-effects parameters and multivariate normal copula density function were used to develop tree height model for Scots pine trees in Lithuania. A two-step maximum likelihood parameter estimation method is used and computational guidelines are given. After fitting the conditional probability density functions to outside bark diameter at breast height, and total tree height, a bivariate normal copula distribution model was constructed. Predictions from the mixed-effects parameters SDE tree height model calculated during this research were compared to the regression tree height equations. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE

  2. The use of copulas to practical estimation of multivariate stochastic differential equation mixed effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupšys, P. [Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studenų g. 11, Akademija, Kaunas district, LT – 53361 Lithuania (Lithuania)

    2015-10-28

    A system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) with mixed-effects parameters and multivariate normal copula density function were used to develop tree height model for Scots pine trees in Lithuania. A two-step maximum likelihood parameter estimation method is used and computational guidelines are given. After fitting the conditional probability density functions to outside bark diameter at breast height, and total tree height, a bivariate normal copula distribution model was constructed. Predictions from the mixed-effects parameters SDE tree height model calculated during this research were compared to the regression tree height equations. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE.

  3. Effect of different calcium phosphate scaffold ratios on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbdulQader, Sarah Talib [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Department of Pedodontic and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad (Iraq); Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj, E-mail: kannan@usm.my [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Rahman, Ismail Ab [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Ismail, Hanafi [School of Materials and Minerals Resource Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Penang (Malaysia); Mahmood, Zuliani [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds have been widely and successfully used with osteoblast cells for bone tissue regeneration. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of these scaffolds on odontoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. In this study, three different hydroxyapatite (HA) to beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratios of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds, BCP20, BCP50, and BCP80, with a mean pore size of 300 μm and 65% porosity were prepared from phosphoric acid (H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) and calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sintered at 1000 °C for 2 h. The extracts of these scaffolds were assessed with regard to cell viability and differentiation of odontoblasts. The high alkalinity, more calcium, and phosphate ions released that were exhibited by BCP20 decreased the viability of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. However, the cells cultured with BCP20 extract expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity and high expression level of bone sialoprotein (BSP), dental matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) genes as compared to that cultured with BCP50 and BCP80 extracts. The results highlighted the effect of different scaffold ratios on the cell microenvironment and demonstrated that BCP20 scaffold can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • BCPs of different HA/β-TCP ratios influence cell microenvironment. • BCP20 decreases cell viability of HDPCs as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 express highest ALP activity. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 up-regulate BSP, DMP-1 and DSPP gene expressions. • BCP20 can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration.

  4. Effect of different calcium phosphate scaffold ratios on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdulQader, Sarah Talib; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Rahman, Ismail Ab; Ismail, Hanafi; Mahmood, Zuliani

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds have been widely and successfully used with osteoblast cells for bone tissue regeneration. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of these scaffolds on odontoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. In this study, three different hydroxyapatite (HA) to beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratios of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds, BCP20, BCP50, and BCP80, with a mean pore size of 300 μm and 65% porosity were prepared from phosphoric acid (H 2 PO 4 ) and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) sintered at 1000 °C for 2 h. The extracts of these scaffolds were assessed with regard to cell viability and differentiation of odontoblasts. The high alkalinity, more calcium, and phosphate ions released that were exhibited by BCP20 decreased the viability of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. However, the cells cultured with BCP20 extract expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity and high expression level of bone sialoprotein (BSP), dental matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) genes as compared to that cultured with BCP50 and BCP80 extracts. The results highlighted the effect of different scaffold ratios on the cell microenvironment and demonstrated that BCP20 scaffold can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • BCPs of different HA/β-TCP ratios influence cell microenvironment. • BCP20 decreases cell viability of HDPCs as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 express highest ALP activity. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 up-regulate BSP, DMP-1 and DSPP gene expressions. • BCP20 can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration

  5. Basin sidewall effects during comparable boom testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVitis, D.S.; Hannon, L.

    1995-01-01

    A quantitative investigation of the effects of boom sidewall clearance during first and gross oil loss speed tests was discussed. A second measure of sidewall was quantified in terms of flow characteristics at specific location in the boom apex. The test boom was rigged in 5 different configurations. First oil loss and gross oil loss tow speeds, and relative horizontal flow velocities within the boom apex were obtained for each configuration. Flow velocities of 0.5 to 1.5 knots in 0.25 knot increments were measured. Flow velocities illustrated similar flow characteristics within the apex regardless of side wall clearance. The results of the study illustrated that boom to basin sidewall clearance may be an independent test parameter without a significant bias. 5 tabs., 8 figs.,

  6. Differential Age Effects on Spatial and Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Joukje M.; Morel, Sascha; Meijer, Lisette; Buvens, Cleo; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Postma, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was intended to compare age effects on visual and spatial working memory by using two versions of the same task that differed only in presentation mode. The working memory task contained both a simultaneous and a sequential presentation mode condition, reflecting, respectively, visual and spatial working memory processes. Young…

  7. Effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Coculture on Calcium-Induced Differentiation of Normal Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Shyam Kishor; Kim, Hae Young; Lee, Ji Hae; Lee, Seong-Wook; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2017-06-01

    The influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on keratinocytes in altered microenvironments is poorly understood. Here, we cocultured umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs with normal human epidermal keratinocytes to evaluate their paracrine effect in the presence of high extracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration. High Ca 2+ environment to keratinocytes can disrupt normal skin barrier function due to abnormal/premature differentiation of keratinocytes. Surprisingly, we found that MSCs suppress both proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes under a high Ca 2+ environment in transforming growth factors β1 (TGFβ1)-dependent manner. Furthermore, we determined that MSCs can regulate the mitogen-activated protein kinases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B, and protein kinase C pathways in Ca 2+ -induced differentiated keratinocytes. Knockdown of TGFβ1 from MSCs results in decreased suppression of differentiation with significantly increased proliferation of keratinocytes compared with control MSCs. MSCs-derived TGFβ1 further induced growth inhibition of keratinocyte in high extracellular Ca 2+ environment as analyzed by a decrease in DNA synthesis, accumulation of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, cdc2, and increased mRNA level of p21, and independent of TGFβ1/SMAD pathway. Taken together, we found that MSCs-derived TGFβ1 is a critical regulator of keratinocyte function, and involves multiple proximal signaling cascades. Stem Cells 2017;35:1592-1602. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  8. Effects of PARP-1 Deficiency on Th1 and Th2 Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sambucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell differentiation to effector Th cells such as Th1 and Th2 requires the integration of multiple synergic and antagonist signals. Poly(ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins catalyzed by Poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs. Recently, many reports showed that PARP-1, the prototypical member of the PARP family, plays a role in immune/inflammatory responses. Consistently, its enzymatic inhibition confers protection in several models of immune-mediated diseases, mainly through an inhibitory effect on NF-κB (and NFAT activation. PARP-1 regulates cell functions in many types of immune cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes. Our results show that PARP-1KO cells displayed a reduced ability to differentiate in Th2 cells. Under both nonskewing and Th2-polarizing conditions, naïve CD4 cells from PARP-1KO mice generated a reduced frequency of IL-4+ cells, produced less IL-5, and expressed GATA-3 at lower levels compared with cells from wild type mice. Conversely, PARP-1 deficiency did not substantially affect differentiation to Th1 cells. Indeed, the frequency of IFN-γ+ cells as well as IFN-γ production, in nonskewing and Th1-polarizing conditions, was not affected by PARP-1 gene ablation. These findings demonstrate that PARP-1 plays a relevant role in Th2 cell differentiation and it might be a target to be exploited for the modulation of Th2-dependent immune-mediated diseases.

  9. Effect of ionizing radiation on the differentiation of neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ping; Tu Yu

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on neural stem cells differentiation, we cultured neural stem cells of newborn rat in serum-free media containing EGF or bFGF. The neural stem cells were divided into 4 groups, which were irradiated by γ-rays with doses of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 Gy. The irradiated cells were cultured under the same condition for 7 days, and the nestin content of neural stem cell was detected by immunofluorescence. The same method was carried out with irradiated cells in the culture medium after removing EGF, bFGF for 7 days, NSE and GFAP expression content and nestin were also detected by immunofluorescence. It has been found that the irradiated neural stem cells can express less nestin and differentiate more neurons compared to that of control group. Results show that ionizing radiation can induce the differentiation of the neural stem cells and make the neural stem cells differentiate more neuron. (authors)

  10. The Differential Effect of Sustained Operations on Psychomotor Skills of Helicopter Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G

    2018-06-01

    Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill requiring constant control inputs from pilots. A deterioration in psychomotor performance of a helicopter pilot may be detrimental to operational safety. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that psychomotor performance deteriorates over time during sustained operations and that the effect is more pronounced in the feet than the hands. The subjects were helicopter pilots conducting sustained multicrew offshore flight operations in a demanding environment. The remote flight operations involved constant workload in hot environmental conditions with complex operational tasking. Over a period of 6 d 10 helicopter pilots were tested. At the completion of daily flying duties, a helicopter-specific screen-based compensatory tracking task measuring tracking accuracy (over a 5-min period) tested both hands and feet. Data were compared over time and tested for statistical significance for both deterioration and differential effect. A statistically significant deterioration of psychomotor performance was evident in the pilots over time for both hands and feet. There was also a statistically significant differential effect between the hands and the feet in terms of tracking accuracy. The hands recorded a 22.6% decrease in tracking accuracy, while the feet recorded a 39.9% decrease in tracking accuracy. The differential effect may be due to prioritization of limb movement by the motor cortex due to factors such as workload-induced cognitive fatigue. This may result in a greater reduction in performance in the feet than the hands, posing a significant risk to operational safety.McMahon TW, Newman DG. The differential effect of sustained operations on psychomotor skills of helicopter pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):496-502.

  11. Comparative analysis of tumor spheroid generation techniques for differential in vitro drug toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Shreya; Rowley, Katelyn R.; Mehta, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular tumor spheroids are powerful in vitro models to perform preclinical chemosensitivity assays. We compare different methodologies to generate tumor spheroids in terms of resultant spheroid morphology, cellular arrangement and chemosensitivity. We used two cancer cell lines (MCF7 and OVCAR8) to generate spheroids using i) hanging drop array plates; ii) liquid overlay on ultra-low attachment plates; iii) liquid overlay on ultra-low attachment plates with rotating mixing (nutator plates). Analysis of spheroid morphometry indicated that cellular compaction was increased in spheroids generated on nutator and hanging drop array plates. Collagen staining also indicated higher compaction and remodeling in tumor spheroids on nutator and hanging drop arrays compared to conventional liquid overlay. Consequently, spheroids generated on nutator or hanging drop plates had increased chemoresistance to cisplatin treatment (20-60% viability) compared to spheroids on ultra low attachment plates (10-20% viability). Lastly, we used a mathematical model to demonstrate minimal changes in oxygen and cisplatin diffusion within experimentally generated spheroids. Our results demonstrate that in vitro methods of tumor spheroid generation result in varied cellular arrangement and chemosensitivity. PMID:26918944

  12. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Transgenic Poplar Dwarf Mutant Reveals Numerous Differentially Expressed Genes Involved in Energy Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In our previous research, the Tamarix androssowii LEA gene (Tamarix androssowii late embryogenesis abundant protein Mrna, GenBank ID: DQ663481 was transferred into Populus simonii × Populus nigra. Among the eleven transgenic lines, one exhibited a dwarf phenotype compared to the wild type and other transgenic lines, named dwf1. To uncover the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, digital gene expression libraries were produced from dwf1, wild-type, and other normal transgenic lines, XL-5 and XL-6. Gene expression profile analysis indicated that dwf1 had a unique gene expression pattern in comparison to the other two transgenic lines. Finally, a total of 1246 dwf1-unique differentially expressed genes were identified. These genes were further subjected to gene ontology and pathway analysis. Results indicated that photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism related genes were significantly affected. In addition, many transcription factors genes were also differentially expressed in dwf1. These various differentially expressed genes may be critical for dwarf mutant formation; thus, the findings presented here might provide insight for our understanding of the mechanisms of tree growth and development.

  13. Differential responsiveness to caffeine and perceived effects of caffeine in moderate and high regular caffeine consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, A S; Higgs, S; Terry, P

    2007-03-01

    Individual differences in responsiveness to caffeine occur even within a caffeine-consuming population, but the factors that mediate differential responsiveness remain unclear. To compare caffeine's effects on performance and mood in a group of high vs moderate consumers of caffeine and to examine the potential role of subjective awareness of the effects of caffeine in mediating any differential responsiveness. Two groups of regular caffeine consumers (200 mg/day) attended two sessions at which mood and cognitive functions were measured before and 30 min after consumption of 400-mg caffeine or placebo in a capsule. Cognitive tests included visual information processing, match-to-sample visual search (MTS) and simple and choice reaction times. Post-session questionnaires asked participants to describe any perceived effect of capsule consumption. High consumers, but not moderate consumers, demonstrated significantly faster simple and choice reaction times after caffeine relative to placebo. These effects were not attributable to obvious group differences in withdrawal or tolerance because there were no group differences in baseline mood or in reports of negative affect after caffeine. Instead, the high consumers were more likely to report experiencing positive effects of caffeine, whereas the moderate consumers were more likely to report no effect. The sensitivity of caffeine consumers to the mood- and performance-enhancing effects of caffeine is related to their levels of habitual intake. High caffeine consumers are more likely than moderate consumers to perceive broadly positive effects of caffeine, and this may contribute to their levels of use.

  14. What drives the comparability effect of mandatory IFRS adoption?

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Cascino; Joachim Gassen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of mandatory IFRS adoption on the comparability of financial accounting information. Using two comparability proxies based on De Franco et al. [2011] and a comparability proxy based on the degree of information transfer, our results suggest that the overall comparability effect of mandatory IFRS adoption is marginal. We hypothesize that firm-level heterogeneity in IFRS compliance explains the limited comparability effect. To test this conjecture, we first hand-colle...

  15. Professional development to differentiate kindergarten Tier 1 instruction: Can already effective teachers improve student outcomes by differentiating Tier 1 instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Folsom, Jessica S; Wanzek, Jeannie; Greulich, Luana; Wasche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (1) to examine changes from baseline through two years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers' differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; (2) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of three cohorts of the teachers' students ( n = 416). Teachers' instruction was observed and students were assessed on standardized measures of vocabulary and word reading. Results suggested that teachers significantly increased their differentiation and students showed significantly greater word reading outcomes relative to baseline. No change was observed for vocabulary. Results have implications for supporting teacher effectiveness through technology-supported professional development.

  16. If F(ST) does not measure neutral genetic differentiation, then comparing it with Q(ST) is misleading. Or is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelaar, Pim; Björklund, Mats

    2011-05-01

    The comparison between neutral genetic differentiation (F(ST) ) and quantitative genetic differentiation (Q(ST) ) is commonly used to test for signatures of selection in population divergence. However, there is an ongoing discussion about what F(ST) actually measures, even resulting in some alternative metrics to express neutral genetic differentiation. If there is a problem with F(ST) , this could have repercussions for its comparison with Q(ST) as well. We show that as the mutation rate of the neutral marker increases, F(ST) decreases: a higher within-population heterozygosity (He) yields a lower F(ST) value. However, the same is true for Q(ST) : a higher mutation rate for the underlying QTL also results in a lower Q(ST) estimate. The effect of mutation rate is equivalent in Q(ST) and F(ST) . Hence, the comparison between Q(ST) and F(ST) remains valid, if one uses neutral markers whose mutation rates are not too high compared to those of quantitative traits. Usage of highly variable neutral markers such as hypervariable microsatellites can lead to serious biases and the incorrect inference that divergent selection has acted on populations. Much of the discussion on F(ST) seems to stem from the misunderstanding that it measures the differentiation of populations, whereas it actually measures the fixation of alleles. In their capacity as measures of population differentiation, Hedrick's G'(ST) and Jost's D reach their maximum value of 1 when populations do not share alleles even when there remains variation within populations, which invalidates them for comparisons with Q(ST) . © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Differentiation state determines neural effects on microvascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muffley, Lara A.; Pan, Shin-Chen; Smith, Andria N.; Ga, Maricar; Hocking, Anne M.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that nerves and capillaries interact paracrinely in uninjured skin and cutaneous wounds. Although mature neurons are the predominant neural cell in the skin, neural progenitor cells have also been detected in uninjured adult skin. The aim of this study was to characterize differential paracrine effects of neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons on dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons have unique secretory profiles and distinct effects on dermal microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and nitric oxide production. Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons secrete different proteins related to angiogenesis. Specific to neural progenitor cells were dipeptidyl peptidase-4, IGFBP-2, pentraxin-3, serpin f1, TIMP-1, TIMP-4 and VEGF. In contrast, endostatin, FGF-1, MCP-1 and thrombospondin-2 were specific to dorsal root ganglion neurons. Microvascular endothelial cell proliferation was inhibited by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. In contrast, microvascular endothelial cell migration in a scratch wound assay was inhibited by neural progenitor cells and unaffected by dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, nitric oxide production by microvascular endothelial cells was increased by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. -- Highlights: ► Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. ► Neural progenitor cells, not dorsal root ganglion neurons, regulate microvascular endothelial cell migration. ► Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons do not effect microvascular endothelial tube formation. ► Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell production of nitric oxide. ► Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALISYS OF ARTICULATION AND PHONOLOGY DISORDERS IN FUNCTION OF DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana POPOSKA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sound expression is the first impression of speech and language. Whatever its origin, false pronunciation is the first sign. In the early school years of developmental speech – if a language disorder appears, it is often followed by the disruption of the phonological – articulation segment.This research aims to establish and compare frequency, type, and every articulate and acoustic characteristics of the disordered sound in both children with Dyslalia, as well as those with SLI.This micro investigation was done using 71 examinees ages 6 to 8. Thirty-five examinees were with Dyslalia and 36 had SLI. Their achievements are underlined using comparative analysis, tested with two relevant tests.Some of the more important conclusions are:Children with Dyslalia mostly showed distorted sounds, while those with SLI mostly substituted the disordered sound. In Dyslalia, fricatives were most affected, but in the case of SLI, all sound groups were disordered usually. In both tested groups, the type of disorder was due to the misplacement of sound formation. All children having articulation disorders while also having sound discrimination have not only phonetic contrasts, but were also being influenced by the rest of the linguistic aspects.

  19. Differential Effect of Plant Lipids on Membrane Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  20. Of mice and women: a comparative tissue biology perspective of breast stem cells and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontu, Gabriela; Ince, Tan A

    2015-06-01

    Tissue based research requires a background in human and veterinary pathology, developmental biology, anatomy, as well as molecular and cellular biology. This type of comparative tissue biology (CTB) expertise is necessary to tackle some of the conceptual challenges in human breast stem cell research. It is our opinion that the scarcity of CTB expertise contributed to some erroneous interpretations in tissue based research, some of which are reviewed here in the context of breast stem cells. In this article we examine the dissimilarities between mouse and human mammary tissue and suggest how these may impact stem cell studies. In addition, we consider the differences between breast ducts vs. lobules and clarify how these affect the interpretation of results in stem cell research. Lastly, we introduce a new elaboration of normal epithelial cell types in human breast and discuss how this provides a clinically useful basis for breast cancer classification.

  1. Effect of coumarins on HL-60 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-eight coumarins, including 7 furocoumarins, were examined for their activity of induction of terminal differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) by nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reducing, nonspecific esterase, specific esterase and phagocytic activities. Esculetin, nordalbergin, 6,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin and imperatorin had strong activity among the coumarins examined. HL-60 cells treated with these coumarins differentiated into mature monocyte/macrophage. The structure-activity relationship established from the results revealed that 6,7-dihydroxy moiety had an important role in the induction of differentiation of HL-60.

  2. Differential facilitative effects of glucose administration on Stroop task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karen R; Gibson, E Leigh; Rackie, James M

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that glucose administration improves memory performance. These glucose facilitation effects have been most reliably demonstrated in medial temporal lobe tasks with the greatest effects found for cognitively demanding tasks. The aim of the proposed research was to first explore whether such effects might be demonstrated in a frontal lobe task. A second aim was to investigate whether any beneficial effects of glucose may arise more prominently under tasks of increasing cognitive demand. To achieve these aims, the Stroop Task was administered to participants and effects of a drink of glucose (25 g) were compared with an aspartame-sweetened control drink on performance in young adults. Results demonstrated that glucose ingestion significantly reduced RTs in the congruent and incongruent conditions. No effect on error rates was observed. Of most importance was the finding that this glucose facilitative effect was significantly greatest in the most cognitively demanding task, that is, the incongruent condition. The present results support the contention that the glucose facilitation effect is most robust under conditions of enhanced task difficulty and demonstrate that such benefits extend to frontal lobe function.

  3. The emotional memory effect: differential processing or item distinctiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Saari, Bonnie

    2007-12-01

    A color-naming task was followed by incidental free recall to investigate how emotional words affect attention and memory. We compared taboo, nonthreatening negative-affect, and neutral words across three experiments. As compared with neutral words, taboo words led to longer color-naming times and better memory in both within- and between-subjects designs. Color naming of negative-emotion nontaboo words was slower than color naming of neutral words only during block presentation and at relatively short interstimulus intervals (ISIs). The nontaboo emotion words were remembered better than neutral words following blocked and random presentation and at both long and short ISIs, but only in mixed-list designs. Our results support multifactor theories of the effects of emotion on attention and memory. As compared with neutral words, threatening stimuli received increased attention, poststimulus elaboration, and benefit from item distinctiveness, whereas nonthreatening emotional stimuli benefited only from increased item distinctiveness.

  4. Effects of Co-Culture Media on Hepatic Differentiation of hiPSC with or without HUVEC Co-Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyer, Nora; Greuel, Selina; Knöspel, Fanny; Strahl, Nadja; Amini, Leila; Jacobs, Frank; Monshouwer, Mario; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2017-08-07

    The derivation of hepatocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) is of great interest for applications in pharmacological research. However, full maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes has not yet been achieved in vitro. To improve hepatic differentiation, co-cultivation of hiPSC with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) during hepatic differentiation was investigated in this study. In the first step, different culture media variations based on hepatocyte culture medium (HCM) were tested in HUVEC mono-cultures to establish a suitable culture medium for co-culture experiments. Based on the results, two media variants were selected to differentiate hiPSC-derived definitive endodermal (DE) cells into mature hepatocytes with or without HUVEC addition. DE cells differentiated in mono-cultures in the presence of those media variants showed a significant increase ( p < 0.05) in secretion of α-fetoprotein and in activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 as compared with cells differentiated in unmodified HCM used as control. Co-cultivation with HUVEC did not further improve the differentiation outcome. Thus, it can be concluded that the effect of the used medium outweighed the effect of HUVEC co-culture, emphasizing the importance of the culture medium composition for hiPSC differentiation.

  5. Integration Policies of European Cities in Comparative Perspective: Structural Convergence and Substantial Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinus Penninx

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the comparative study of integration policies of European cities. The first two sections present an analytical framework for the study of immigrants’ integration processes and the policies that intend to steer such processes. The third section outlines how local integration policies have developed in relation to national policies and EU integration policies, particularly after 2003. The fourth and main section analyses the framing and content of integration policies of European cities, looking at their diversity in the legal/political dimension, the socio-economic dimension – including the domains of work, housing, education and health – and the cultural, religious and ethnic dimension. It is concluded that there is a structural convergence, in the sense that in the complex structure of multilevel governance of migration and integration, cities do take a similar position, developing horizontal relations of cooperation and exchange. Cities that develop explicit integration policies tend to do this from a more inclusive and pragmatic framing than national and EU-policies. At the same time, there is great variation in what cities actually do: in the legal/political and in the cultural/religious dimensions, framing, intentions and measures do vary greatly; in the socio-economic dimension this variation is less when it comes to the domains of activity, but more in the intensity of policy intervention.

  6. Intergroup differentiation in computer-mediated communication : Effects of depersonalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lea, M

    Two studies examined intergroup discussions via computer-mediated communication systems. It was hypothesized that depersonalization, in comparison with individuated interaction, would increase the tendency for intergroup differentiation in attitudes and stereotypes, In Study 1, 24 groups

  7. Differential clinical profile of candesartan compared to other angiotensin receptor blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimlichman R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relu Cernes1,2, Margarita Mashavi1,3, Reuven Zimlichman1,31The Brunner Institute for Cardiovascular Research, Wolfson Medical Center and Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 2Department of Nephrology, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel; 3Department of Medicine, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, IsraelAbstract: The advantages of blood pressure (BP control on the risks of heart failure and stroke are well established. The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in volume homeostasis and BP regulation and is a target for several groups of antihypertensive drugs. Angiotensin II receptor blockers represent a major class of antihypertensive compounds. Candesartan cilexetil is an angiotensin II type 1 (AT[1] receptor antagonist (angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB] that inhibits the actions of angiotensin II on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Oral candesartan 8–32 mg once daily is recommended for the treatment of adult patients with hypertension. Clinical trials have demonstrated that candesartan cilexetil is an effective agent in reducing the risk of cardiovascular mortality, stroke, heart failure, arterial stiffness, renal failure, retinopathy, and migraine in different populations of adult patients including patients with coexisting type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or kidney impairment. Clinical evidence confirmed that candesartan cilexetil provides better antihypertensive efficacy than losartan and is at least as effective as telmisartan and valsartan. Candesartan cilexetil, one of the current market leaders in BP treatment, is a highly selective compound with high potency, a long duration of action, and a tolerability profile similar to placebo. The most important and recent data from clinical trials regarding candesartan cilexetil will be reviewed in this article.Keywords: angiotensin receptor blockers, candesartan, candesartan cilexetil, clinical trials, efficacy studies, safety, blood pressure

  8. Differential Features of Cerebral Perfusion in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Compared to Alzheimer's Dementia using SPM Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [College of Medicine, Univ. of Donga, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are most common cause of dementia in elderly people. Clinical distinction in some cases of DLB from AD may be difficult as symptom profiles overlap. Some neuropathologic overlap is also seen as beta-amyloidosis and senile plaques can be found in both disease. Both disease also share severe acetylcholine depletion. We evaluated the differences of brain perfusion between DLB and AD using statistical parametric mapping analysis. Twelve DLB (mean age ; 68.8{+-}8.3 years, K-MMSE ; 17.3{+-}6.1) and 51 AD patients (mean age ; 71.4{+-}7.2 years, K-MMSE ; 16.7{+-}4.5), which were matched for age and severity of dementia, participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed for measuring regional cerebral blood flow. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software was used for automatic and objective approach to analyze SPECT image data. The SPECT data of the patients with DLB were compared to patients with AD. Comparison of the two dementia groups (uncorrected p<0.01) revealed significant hypoperfusion in both occipital (both middle occipital gyrus, Rt B no. 18 and Lt cuneus), both parietal (Lt parietal precuneus, Lt B no. 39, Lt inferior parietal lobule and Rt supramarginal gyrus) lobes in DLB compared with AD. Significant hyperperfusion was noted in Rt frontal (sup. frontal gyrus, B no.10, middle frontal gyrus, B no. 9, B no. 11, inf. frontal gyrus), Rt putamen, Lt ant. cingulate gyrus (B no. 24), both cerebellar post. lobe (Lt tuber, Lt declive, Lt tonsil, Rt declive) in DLB compared with AD. We found a significant differences in the cerebral perfusion pattern between DLB and AD. Differential feature of cerebral perfusion in DLB was both occipital hypoperfusion and preserved Rt frontal perfusion compared to AD. Therefore in difficult case of clinical an neuro pathologic diagnosis, brain perfusion SPECT with SPM analysis may be helpful to differentiate DLB from AD.

  9. The effect of numerical techniques on differential equation based chaotic generators

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-29

    In this paper, we study the effect of the numerical solution accuracy on the digital implementation of differential chaos generators. Four systems are built on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA using Euler, mid-point, and Runge-Kutta fourth order techniques. The twelve implementations are compared based on the FPGA used area, maximum throughput, maximum Lyapunov exponent, and autocorrelation confidence region. Based on circuit performance and the chaotic response of the different implementations, it was found that less complicated numerical solution has better chaotic response and higher throughput.

  10. Differential effects of organic compounds on cucumber damping-off and biocontrol activity of antagonistic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Guanlin, X.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the organic compounds tryptic soy broth, cellulose, glucose and chitosan on cucumber damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and biocontrol efficacy of the biocontrol agents (BCAs) Paenibacillus macerans and P. polymyxa were examined in a seedling emergence bioassay. Results...... showed that the organic compounds differentially affected both pathogen and BCAs. Tryptic soy broth, glucose and chitosan increased Pythium damping-off of cucumber, compared to the control treatment without organic compounds, whereas cellulose had no effect. Both Paenibacillus species had biocontrol...

  11. Differential motor neuron involvement in progressive muscular atrophy: a comparative study with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riku, Yuichi; Atsuta, Naoki; Yoshida, Mari; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Mimuro, Maya; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Senda, Jo; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Koike, Haruki; Sobue, Gen

    2014-05-14

    Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) is a clinical diagnosis characterised by progressive lower motor neuron (LMN) symptoms/signs with sporadic adult onset. It is unclear whether PMA is simply a clinical phenotype of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in which upper motor neuron (UMN) signs are undetectable. To elucidate the clinicopathological features of patients with clinically diagnosed PMA, we studied consecutive autopsied cases. Retrospective, observational. Autopsied patients. We compared clinicopathological profiles of clinically diagnosed PMA and ALS using 107 consecutive autopsied patients. For clinical analysis, 14 and 103 patients were included in clinical PMA and ALS groups, respectively. For neuropathological evaluation, 13 patients with clinical PMA and 29 patients with clinical ALS were included. Clinical features, UMN and LMN degeneration, axonal density in the corticospinal tract (CST) and immunohistochemical profiles. Clinically, no significant difference between the prognosis of clinical PMA and ALS groups was shown. Neuropathologically, 84.6% of patients with clinical PMA displayed UMN and LMN degeneration. In the remaining 15.4% of patients with clinical PMA, neuropathological parameters that we defined as UMN degeneration were all negative or in the normal range. In contrast, all patients with clinical ALS displayed a combination of UMN and LMN system degeneration. CST axon densities were diverse in the clinical PMA group, ranging from low values to the normal range, but consistently lower in the clinical ALS group. Immunohistochemically, 85% of patients with clinical PMA displayed 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) pathology, while 15% displayed fused-in-sarcoma (FUS)-positive basophilic inclusion bodies. All of the patients with clinical ALS displayed TDP-43 pathology. PMA has three neuropathological background patterns. A combination of UMN and LMN degeneration with TDP-43 pathology, consistent with ALS, is the major pathological

  12. PKPD model of interleukin-21 effects on thermoregulation in monkeys - Application and evaluation of stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Rune Viig; Holford, Nick; Rytved, K. A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To describe the pharmacodynamic effects of recombinant human interleukin-21 (IL-21) on core body temperature in cynomolgus monkeys using basic mechanisms of heat regulation. A major effort was devoted to compare the use of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with stochastic differentia...

  13. Comparative analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis accessions from two ex situ genebanks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltohamy A A Yousef

    Full Text Available Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis is an important vegetable crop for human nutrition. We characterized 192 cauliflower accessions from the USDA and IPK genebanks with genotyping by sequencing (GBS. They originated from 26 different countries and represent about 44% of all cauliflower accessions in both genebanks. The analysis of genetic diversity revealed that accessions formed two major groups that represented the two genebanks and were not related to the country of origin. This differentiation was robust with respect to the analysis methods that included principal component analysis, ADMIXTURE and neighbor-joining trees. Genetic diversity was higher in the USDA collection and significant phenotypic differences between the two genebanks were found in three out of six traits investigated. GBS data have a high proportion of missing data, but we observed that the exclusion of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with missing data or the imputation of missing SNP alleles produced very similar results. The results indicate that the composition and type of accessions have a strong effect on the structure of genetic diversity of ex situ collections, although regeneration procedures and local adaptation to regeneration conditions may also contribute to a divergence. Fst-based outlier tests of genetic differentiation identified only a small proportion (<1% of SNPs that are highly differentiated between the two genebanks, which indicates that selection during seed regeneration is not a major cause of differentiation between genebanks. Seed regeneration procedures of both genebanks do not result in different levels of genetic drift and loss of genetic variation. We therefore conclude that the composition and type of accessions mainly influence the level of genetic diversity and explain the strong genetic differentiation between the two ex situ collections. In summary, GBS is a useful method for characterizing genetic diversity in cauliflower

  14. The inhibitory effect of vitamin K on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Kim, Min Seuk; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To further understand the correlation between vitamin K and bone metabolism, the effects of vitamins K1, menaquinone-4 (MK-4), and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were comparatively investigated. Vitamin K2 groups (MK-4 and MK-7) were found to significantly inhibit RANKL-medicated osteoclast cell formation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner, without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of specific osteoclast differentiation markers, such as c-Fos, NFATc1, OSCAR, and TRAP, as well as NFATc1 protein expression and TRAP activity in RANKL-treated BMMs were inhibited by vitamin K2, although MK-4 exhibited a significantly greater efficiency compared to MK-7. In contrast, the same dose of vitamin K1 had no inhibitory effect on RANKL-induced osteoclast cell formation, but increased the expression of major osteoclastogenic genes. Interestingly, vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 all strongly inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption (p vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 have anti-osteoporotic properties, while their regulation effects on osteoclastogenesis are somewhat different.

  15. Comparative glandular trichome transcriptome-based gene characterization reveals reasons for differential (-)-menthol biosynthesis in Mentha species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Md Qussen; Qamar, Nida; Yadav, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Pallavi; Kumar, Ajay; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome (GT) was carried out. In addition to the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPSs) transcripts were identified from annotation in M. arvensis and M. × piperita, respectively, and correlated to several monoterpenes present in the essential oil. Six isoforms of (-)-menthol dehydrogenases (MD), the last enzyme of the menthol biosynthetic pathway, were identified, cloned and characterized from the transcriptome data (three from each species). Varied expression levels and differential enzyme kinetics of these isoforms indicated the nature and composition of the product, as these isoforms generate both (-)-menthol and (+)-neomenthol from (-)-menthone and converts (-)-menthol to (-)-menthone in the reverse reaction, and hence together determine the quantity of (-)-menthol in the essential oil in these two species. Several genes for high value minor monoterpenes could also be identified from the transcriptome data. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. A comparative analysis of genetic differentiation across six shared willow host species in leaf- and bud-galling sawflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna A Leppänen

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence and speciation in plant-feeding insects could be driven by contrasting selection pressures imposed by different plant species and taxa. While numerous examples of host-associated differentiation (HAD have been found, the overall importance of HAD in insect diversification remains unclear, as few studies have investigated its frequency in relation to all speciation events. One promising way to infer the prevalence and repeatability of HAD is to estimate genetic differentiation in multiple insect taxa that use the same set of hosts. To this end, we measured and compared variation in mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS2 sequences in population samples of leaf-galling Pontania and bud-galling Euura sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae collected from six Salix species in two replicate locations in northern Fennoscandia. We found evidence of frequent HAD in both species complexes, as individuals from the same willow species tended to cluster together on both mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic trees. Although few fixed differences among the putative species were found, hierarchical AMOVAs showed that most of the genetic variation in the samples was explained by host species rather than by sampling location. Nevertheless, the levels of HAD measured across specific pairs of host species were not correlated in the two focal galler groups. Hence, our results support the hypothesis of HAD as a central force in herbivore speciation, but also indicate that evolutionary trajectories are only weakly repeatable even in temporally overlapping radiations of related insect taxa.

  17. Disability differentials in educational attainment in England: primary and secondary effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzitheochari, Stella; Platt, Lucinda

    2018-04-17

    Childhood disability has been largely overlooked in social stratification and life course research. As a result, we know remarkably little about mechanisms behind well-documented disability differentials in educational outcomes. This study investigates educational transitions of disabled youth using data from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. We draw on social stratification literature on primary and secondary effects as well as that on stigma and labelling in order to explain disabled young people's educational outcomes. We find that disability differentials in transition rates to full-time academic upper secondary education and to university are largely the result of primary effects, reflected in differences in school performance between disabled and non-disabled young people. However, we also find evidence for secondary effects, with similarly achieving disabled young people less likely to pursue full-time academic upper secondary education compared to their non-disabled peers. We examine the extent to which these effects can be explained by disabled youth's suppressed educational expectations as well as their experiences of being bullied at school, which we link to the stigma experienced by disabled young people and their families. We find that educational expectations play an important role at crucial transitions in the English school system, while the effect of bullying is considerably smaller. By drawing attention to different social processes contributing to disability differentials in attainment, our study moves beyond medical models that implicitly assume a naturalized association of disability with poor educational outcomes, and demonstrates the parallels of disability with other ascriptive inequalities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  18. Modulatory effects of quercetin on proliferation and differentiation of the human colorectal cell line Caco-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dihal, A.A.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B.v.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Stierum, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the dietary flavonoid quercetin was investigated on proliferation and differentiation of the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Confluent Caco-2 monolayers exposed to quercetin showed a biphasic effect on cell proliferation and a decrease in cell differentiation (0.001

  19. The effect of differential motivation on IRT linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittelhaëuser, M.A.; Béguin, A.A.; Sijtsma, K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether simulated differential motivation between the stakes for operational tests and anchor items produces an invalid linking result if the Rasch model is used to link the operational tests. This was done for an external anchor design and a variation of

  20. Effect of citrus flavonoids on HL-60 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-seven Citrus flavonoids were examined for their activity of induction of terminal differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) by nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reducing, nonspecific esterase, specific esterase, and phagocytic activities. 10 flavonoids were judged to be active (percentage of NBT reducing cells was more than 40% at a concentration of 40 microM), and the rank order of potency was natsudaidain, luteolin, tangeretin, quercetin, apigenin, 3, 3, '4, '5, 6, 7, 8-heptamethoxyflavone, nobiletin, acacetin, eriodictyol, and taxifolin. These flavonoids exerted their activity in a dose-dependent manner. HL-60 cells treated with these flavonoids differentiated into mature monocyte/macrophage. The structure-activity relationship established from comparison between flavones and flavanones revealed that ortho-catechol moiety in ring B and C2-C3 double bond had an important role for induction of differentiation of HL-60. In polymethoxylated flavones, hydroxyl group at C3 and methoxyl group at C8 enhanced the differentiation-inducing activity.

  1. Differential Effects of Music and Video Gaming During Breaks on Auditory and Visual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyan; Kuschpel, Maxim S; Schad, Daniel J; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    The interruption of learning processes by breaks filled with diverse activities is common in everyday life. This study investigated the effects of active computer gaming and passive relaxation (rest and music) breaks on auditory versus visual memory performance. Young adults were exposed to breaks involving (a) open eyes resting, (b) listening to music, and (c) playing a video game, immediately after memorizing auditory versus visual stimuli. To assess learning performance, words were recalled directly after the break (an 8:30 minute delay) and were recalled and recognized again after 7 days. Based on linear mixed-effects modeling, it was found that playing the Angry Birds video game during a short learning break impaired long-term retrieval in auditory learning but enhanced long-term retrieval in visual learning compared with the music and rest conditions. These differential effects of video games on visual versus auditory learning suggest specific interference of common break activities on learning.

  2. Comparative analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) accessions from two ex situ genebanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Eltohamy A A; Müller, Thomas; Börner, Andreas; Schmid, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an important vegetable crop for human nutrition. We characterized 192 cauliflower accessions from the USDA and IPK genebanks with genotyping by sequencing (GBS). They originated from 26 different countries and represent about 44% of all cauliflower accessions in both genebanks. The analysis of genetic diversity revealed that accessions formed two major groups that represented the two genebanks and were not related to the country of origin. This differentiation was robust with respect to the analysis methods that included principal component analysis, ADMIXTURE and neighbor-joining trees. Genetic diversity was higher in the USDA collection and significant phenotypic differences between the two genebanks were found in three out of six traits investigated. GBS data have a high proportion of missing data, but we observed that the exclusion of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with missing data or the imputation of missing SNP alleles produced very similar results. The results indicate that the composition and type of accessions have a strong effect on the structure of genetic diversity of ex situ collections, although regeneration procedures and local adaptation to regeneration conditions may also contribute to a divergence. Fst-based outlier tests of genetic differentiation identified only a small proportion (cauliflower genebank material and our results suggest that it may be useful to incorporate routine genotyping into accession management and seed regeneration to monitor the diversity present in ex situ collections and to reduce the loss of genetic diversity during seed regeneration.

  3. Maternal age, birth order, and race: differential effects on birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Edwards, Sharon; Gelfand, Alan; James, Sherman A; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies examining the influence of maternal age and birth order on birthweight have not effectively disentangled the relative contributions of each factor to birthweight, especially as they may differ by race. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study of North Carolina births from 1999 to 2003 was performed. Analysis was restricted to 510 288 singleton births from 28 to 42 weeks’ gestation with no congenital anomalies. Multivariable linear regression was used to model maternal age and birth order on birthweight, adjusting for infant sex, education, marital status, tobacco use and race. Results Mean birthweight was lower for non-Hispanic black individuals (NHB, 3166 g) compared with non-Hispanic white individuals (NHW, 3409 g) and Hispanic individuals (3348 g). Controlling for covariates, birthweight increased with maternal age until the early 30s. Race-specific modelling showed that the upper extremes of maternal age had a significant depressive effect on birthweight for NHW and NHB (35+ years, p<0.001), but only age less than 25 years was a significant contributor to lower birthweights for Hispanic individuals, p<0.0001. Among all racial subgroups, birth order had a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with the largest incremental increase from first to second births. Among NHB, birth order accounted for a smaller increment in birthweight than for NHW and Hispanic women. Conclusion Birth order exerts a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with signficantly different effects across racial subgroups. PMID:21081308

  4. Differential cardiac effects in rats exposed to atmospheric ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this study demonstrate that atmospheric smog generated from both isoprene and toluene cause cardiac effects in rats. In addition, it appears that smog from toluene is more toxic in terms of cardiac arrhythmogenicity. Smog, which is a complex mixture of particulate matter and gaseous irritants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, reactive aldehydes), as well as components which react with sunlight to form secondary pollutants, has recently been linked to increased risk of adverse cardiac responses. The components, and therefore health effects, of atmospheric smog are determined by the fuel used to generate them. In this study we examined the difference between isoprene- and toluene-generated smog in causing cardiac effects in rats and hypothesized that both atmospheres would cause cardiac electrical and functional changes in rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to either atmospheric smog generated by the USEPA’s mobile reaction chamber using either isoprene or toluene, or filtered air for four hours. One day later, rats were anesthetized and left ventricular functional responses to dobutamine were measured using a Millar probe and arrhythmia sensitivity to aconitine. Baseline left ventricular pressure (LVP) was lower in toluene-exposed animals but not isoprene when compared to air. Increases in LVP with increasing doses of dobutamine were impaired only in toluene-exposed rats. Both isoprene and toluene impaired the rate of ventri

  5. Differential Features of Cerebral Perfusion in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Compared to Alzheimer's Dementia using SPM Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo

    2003-01-01

    Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are most common cause of dementia in elderly people. Clinical distinction in some cases of DLB from AD may be difficult as symptom profiles overlap. Some neuropathologic overlap is also seen as beta-amyloidosis and senile plaques can be found in both disease. Both disease also share severe acetylcholine depletion. We evaluated the differences of brain perfusion between DLB and AD using statistical parametric mapping analysis. Twelve DLB (mean age ; 68.8±8.3 years, K-MMSE ; 17.3±6.1) and 51 AD patients (mean age ; 71.4±7.2 years, K-MMSE ; 16.7±4.5), which were matched for age and severity of dementia, participated in this study. Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed for measuring regional cerebral blood flow. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software was used for automatic and objective approach to analyze SPECT image data. The SPECT data of the patients with DLB were compared to patients with AD. Comparison of the two dementia groups (uncorrected p<0.01) revealed significant hypoperfusion in both occipital (both middle occipital gyrus, Rt B no. 18 and Lt cuneus), both parietal (Lt parietal precuneus, Lt B no. 39, Lt inferior parietal lobule and Rt supramarginal gyrus) lobes in DLB compared with AD. Significant hyperperfusion was noted in Rt frontal (sup. frontal gyrus, B no.10, middle frontal gyrus, B no. 9, B no. 11, inf. frontal gyrus), Rt putamen, Lt ant. cingulate gyrus (B no. 24), both cerebellar post. lobe (Lt tuber, Lt declive, Lt tonsil, Rt declive) in DLB compared with AD. We found a significant differences in the cerebral perfusion pattern between DLB and AD. Differential feature of cerebral perfusion in DLB was both occipital hypoperfusion and preserved Rt frontal perfusion compared to AD. Therefore in difficult case of clinical an neuro pathologic diagnosis, brain perfusion SPECT with SPM analysis may be helpful to differentiate DLB from AD

  6. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation pretreatment on callus inductivity and differentiation of strawberry anther

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiqin; Xie Ming; Jiang Guihua; Sun Congbo; Huang Pule; Wu Yanjun; Wu Qing

    2007-01-01

    Strawberry buds, in which a majority of pollen had single nuclear keeping to the side, were pretreated by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation at different doses. The irradiation effect on the callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate of strawberry anther were studied. The results indicated that the pretreatment by 60 Co γ-rays could increase the anther callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate significantly, and 20 Gy was the best dose. The callus inductivity of Akihime and Toyonoka increased by 39.09% and 35.68%, respectively, compared with the no-pretreatment materials. On the same media, the plant differentiation rate of Akihime and Toyonoka were also increased by 6.67%-6.72% and 4.73%-6.45%, respectively, compared with the two varieties of no-pretreatment. (authors)

  7. Comparing the Effects of Negative and Mixed Emotional Messages on Predicted Occasional Excessive Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera, Pilar; Caballero, Amparo; Mu?oz, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness) versus mixed (joy and sadness), with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating t...

  8. Comparing the effects of negative and mixed emotional messages on predicted occasional excessive drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera Levillain, Pilar; Caballero González, Amparo; Muñoz Cáceres, María Dolores

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness) versus mixed (joy and sadness), with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating t...

  9. Cerebral pathology and neuropsychological effects. Differential effects of cranial radiation as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) has been associated with an increased incidence of neuropsychological impairments and pathologic changes in the CNS among children. However, findings regarding a causal relationship between CRT and neurobehavioral impairments and the differential impact of CRT as a function of treatment age have been equivocal. Inconsistent findings may be attributed to the current research focus on description of impairments to the neglect of a larger theoretical framework and the failure of investigators to integrate findings from the various disciplines involved in assessing CRT effects. Two theories regarding the etiology of CRT effects on neuropsychological functions have been proposed. The myelination hypothesis suggests that CRT effects are attributable to direct effects on myelin synthesis. Findings indicating that the child is in a state of particular vulnerability to teratogens due to the rapid growth phase of myelin during the first 48 months of life provide the basis for this hypothesis. The myelination hypothesis predicts a differential effect for CRT as a function of age/maturation. The vascular hypothesis proposes that CRT effects are due to pathological changes in vascular tissues. Results indicating prominent white matter changes among some CRT recipients provide the basis for this hypothesis. The vascular hypothesis predicts no age effect or an inverse age effect; it places more emphasis on the relationship between indices of cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological test performance. Two basic mechanisms underlying the effects of CRT are outlined to provide a theoretical framework on which future research may be based. 29 references

  10. Effects of fullerol on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-ting TANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effect of fullerol on the osteogenic differentiation of rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rADSCs based on hanging drop culture. Methods  rADSC spheres were formed by hanging drop culture for 3 days, then the spheres were dissociated to single cell by trypsin (called rADSC sphere-derived cells. The rADSC sphere-derived cells were cultured in 2-D adherent cell cultures for 24 hours, then the ordinary culture medium was replaced by osteogenic induction medium (osteogenic medium, OM. OM without fullerol served as control group (CM; OM with 1.0μmol/L fullerol was used as the experimental group (OM+Ful1.0μmol/L. Two groups were induced to differentiation for 14d and 21d, using two methods of alizarin red staining and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR to detecte the ability of rADSC sphere-derived cells differentiating into osteoblasts. Results  rADSCs could form a uniform size microspheres structure through hanging drop culture for 3 days; rADSC sphere-derived cells were obtained by dissipation of trypsin. Compared with OM group, OM+Ful1.0μmol/L can make rADSC sphere-derived cells form more mineralized calcium nodules, and enhance the expression of the relevant osteogenic gene Runx2, OCN and ColI. Conclusion  Fullerol can significantly enhance the osteogenic differentiation of rADSCs based on hanging drop culture, and it is helpful to improve the efficiency of osteogenic induction of rADSCs. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.08.03

  11. Effect of Aminated Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles on the Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hwan Lee

    Full Text Available Mesoporous bioactive nanoparticles (MBNs have been developed as promising additives to various types of bone or dentin regenerative material. However, biofunctionality of MBNs as dentin regenerative additive to dental materials have rarely been studied. We investigated the uptake efficiency of MBNs-NH2 with their endocytosis pathway and the role of MBNs-NH2 in odontogenic differentiation to clarify inherent biofunctionality. MBNs were fabricated by sol-gel synthesis, and 3% APTES was used to aminate these nanoparticles (MBNs-NH2 to reverse their charge from negative to positive. To characterize the MBNs-NH2, TEM, XRD, FTIR, zeta(ξ-potential measurements, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis were performed. After primary cultured rat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs were incubated with various concentrations of MBNs-NH2, stem cell viability (24 hours with or without differentiated media, internalization of MBNs-NH2 in rDPSCs (~4 hours via specific endocytosis pathway, intra or extracellular ion concentration and odontoblastic differentiation (~28 days were investigated. Incubation with up to 50 μg/mL of MBNs-NH2 had no effect on rDPSCs viability with differentiated media (p>0.05. The internalization of MBNs-NH2 in rDPSCs was determined about 92% after 4 hours of incubation. Uptake was significantly decreased with ATP depletion and after 1 hour of pre-treatment with the inhibitor of macropinocytosis (p<0.05. There was significant increase of intracellular Ca and Si ion concentration in MBNs-NH2 treated cells compared to no-treated counterpart (p<0.05. The expression of odontogenic-related genes (BSP, COL1A, DMP-1, DSPP, and OCN and the capacity for biomineralization (based on alkaline phosphatase activity and alizarin red staining were significantly upregulated with MBNs-NH2. These results indicate that MBNs-NH2 induce odontogenic differentiation of rDPSCs and may serve as a potential dentin regenerative additive to dental material for promoting

  12. Transplant of Hepatocytes, Undifferentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells, and In Vitro Hepatocyte-Differentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Chronic Liver Failure Experimental Model: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Baz, Hanan; Demerdash, Zeinab; Kamel, Manal; Atta, Shimaa; Salah, Faten; Hassan, Salwa; Hammam, Olfat; Khalil, Heba; Meshaal, Safa; Raafat, Inas

    2018-02-01

    Liver transplant is the cornerstone line of treatment for chronic liver diseases; however, the long list of complications and obstacles stand against this operation. Searching for new modalities for treatment of chronic liver illness is a must. In the present research, we aimed to compare the effects of transplant of undifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cells, in vitro differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, and adult hepatocytes in an experimental model of chronic liver failure. Undifferentiated human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells were isolated, pro-pagated, and characterized by morphology, gene expression analysis, and flow cytometry of surface markers and in vitro differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells. Rat hepatocytes were isolated by double perfusion technique. An animal model of chronic liver failure was developed, and undifferentiated human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells, in vitro hepato-genically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, or freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were transplanted into a CCL4 cirrhotic experimental model. Animals were killed 3 months after transplant, and liver functions and histopathology were assessed. Compared with the cirrhotic control group, the 3 cell-treated groups showed improved alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, and bilirubin levels, with best results shown in the hepatocyte-treated group. Histopathologic examination of the treated groups showed improved fibrosis, with best results obtained in the undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell-treated group. Both adult hepatocytes and cord blood mesenchymal stem cells proved to be promising candidates for cell-based therapy in liver regeneration on an experimental level. Improved liver function was evident in the hepatocyte-treated group, and fibrosis control was more evident in the undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell-treated group.

  13. Age-Differential Effects of Job Characteristics on Job Attraction: A Policy-Capturing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Hannes; Dirkers, Bodil T; Korek, Sabine; Hughes, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Based on an integration of job design and lifespan developmental theories, Truxillo et al. (2012) proposed that job characteristics interact with employee age in predicting important work outcomes. Using an experimental policy-capturing design, we investigated age-differential effects of four core job characteristics (i.e., job autonomy, task variety, task significance, and feedback from the job) on job attraction (i.e., individuals' rating of job attractiveness). Eighty-two employees between 19 and 65 years ( M age = 41, SD = 14) indicated their job attraction for each of 40 hypothetical job descriptions in which the four job characteristics were systematically manipulated (in total, participants provided 3,280 ratings). Results of multilevel analyses showed that the positive effects of task variety, task significance, and feedback from the job were stronger for younger compared to older employees, whereas we did not find significant age-differential effects of job autonomy on job attraction. These findings are only partially consistent with propositions of Truxillo et al.'s (2012) lifespan perspective on job design.

  14. Differential RNA-seq analysis comparing APC-defective and APC-restored SW480 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lauren E; Love, Christopher G; Sieber, Oliver M; Faux, Maree C; Burgess, Antony W

    2016-03-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene is mutated in about 80% of colorectal cancers (CRC) Brannon et al. (2014) [1]. APC is a large multifunctional protein that regulates many biological functions including Wnt signalling (through the regulation of beta-catenin stability) Reya and Clevers (2005) [2], cell migration Kroboth et al. (2007), Sansom et al. (2004) [3], [4], mitosis Kaplan et al. (2001) [5], cell adhesion Faux et al. (2004), Carothers et al. (2001) [6], [7] and differentiation Sansom et al. (2004) [4]. Although the role of APC in CRC is often described as the deregulation of Wnt signalling, its other biological functions suggest that there are other factors at play that contribute to the onset of adenomas and the progression of CRC upon the truncation of APC. To identify genes and pathways that are dysregulated as a consequence of loss of function of APC, we compared the gene expression profiles of the APC mutated human CRC cell line SW480 following reintroduction of wild-type APC (SW480 + APC) or empty control vector (SW480 + vector control) Faux et al. (2004) . Here we describe the RNA-seq data derived for three biological replicates of parental SW480, SW480 + vector control and SW480 + APC cells, and present the bioinformatics pipeline used to test for differential gene expression and pathway enrichment analysis. A total of 1735 genes showed significant differential expression when APC was restored and were enriched for genes associated with cell polarity, Wnt signalling and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. There was additional enrichment for genes involved in cell-cell adhesion, cell-matrix junctions, angiogenesis, axon morphogenesis and cell movement. The raw and analysed RNA-seq data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE76307. This dataset is useful for further investigations of the impact of APC mutation on the properties of colorectal cancer cells.

  15. Effect of restriction vegan diet's on muscle mass, oxidative status, and myocytes differentiation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacore, Daniela; Messina, Giovanni; Lama, Stefania; Bitti, Giuseppe; Ambrosio, Pasqualina; Tenore, Giancarlo; Messina, Antonietta; Monda, Vincenzo; Zappavigna, Silvia; Boccellino, Mariarosaria; Novellino, Ettore; Monda, Marcellino; Stiuso, Paola

    2018-01-10

    This study was conceived to evaluate the effects of three different diets on body composition, metabolic parameters, and serum oxidative status. We enrolled three groups of healthy men (omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans) with similar age, weight and BMI, and we observed a significant decrease in muscle mass index and lean body mass in vegan compared to vegetarian and omnivore groups, and higher serum homocysteine levels in vegetarians and vegans compared to omnivores. We studied whether serum from omnivore, vegetarian, and vegan subjects affected oxidative stress, growth and differentiation of both cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2 and H-H9c2 (H9c2 treated with H 2 O 2 to induce oxidative damage). We demonstrated that vegan sera treatment of both H9c2 and H-H9c2 cells induced an increase of TBARS values and cell death and a decrease of free NO 2- compared to vegetarian and omnivorous sera. Afterwards, we investigated the protective effects of vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore sera on the morphological changes induced by H 2 O 2 in H9c2 cell line. We showed that the omnivorous sera had major antioxidant and differentiation properties compared to vegetarian and vegan sera. Finally, we evaluated the influence of the three different groups of sera on MAPKs pathway and our data suggested that ERK expression increased in H-H9c2 cells treated with vegetarian and vegan sera and could promote cell death. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that restrictive vegan diet could not prevent the onset of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases nor protect by oxidative damage. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Liver Effects of Clinical Drugs Differentiated in Human Liver Slices

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    Alison E. M. Vickers

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drugs with clinical adverse effects are compared in an ex vivo 3-dimensional multi-cellular human liver slice model. Functional markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, glutathione GSH and ATP levels, were affected by acetaminophen (APAP, 1 mM, diclofenac (DCF, 1 mM and etomoxir (ETM, 100 μM. Drugs targeting mitochondria more than GSH were dantrolene (DTL, 10 μM and cyclosporin A (CSA, 10 μM, while GSH was affected more than ATP by methimazole (MMI, 500 μM, terbinafine (TBF, 100 μM, and carbamazepine (CBZ 100 μM. Oxidative stress genes were affected by TBF (18%, CBZ, APAP, and ETM (12%–11%, and mitochondrial genes were altered by CBZ, APAP, MMI, and ETM (8%–6%. Apoptosis genes were affected by DCF (14%, while apoptosis plus necrosis were altered by APAP and ETM (15%. Activation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial energy, heat shock, ER stress, apoptosis, necrosis, DNA damage, immune and inflammation genes ranked CSA (75%, ETM (66%, DCF, TBF, MMI (61%–60%, APAP, CBZ (57%–56%, and DTL (48%. Gene changes in fatty acid metabolism, cholestasis, immune and inflammation were affected by DTL (51%, CBZ and ETM (44%–43%, APAP and DCF (40%–38%, MMI, TBF and CSA (37%–35%. This model advances multiple dosing in a human ex vivo model, plus functional markers and gene profile markers of drug induced human liver side-effects.

  17. The differential effects of interpersonal conflict from customers and coworkers: trait anger as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliter, Michael T; Pui, Shuang Yueh; Sliter, Katherine A; Jex, Steve M

    2011-10-01

    Interpersonal conflict (IC) at work is a frequently experienced type of workplace mistreatment that has been linked to a host of negative workplace outcomes. Previous research has shown that IC can have differential effects based on source, but this has not yet been investigated in terms of customer IC versus coworker IC. To remedy this oversight in the literature, we used a multimethod, multitime point design to compare IC from customers and coworkers experienced by 75 call center employees. Primarily, we investigated burnout, physical health symptoms, and task performance. Results indicated that customer IC was more strongly related to both personal and organizational outcomes. Additionally, trait anger was investigated as a moderator of these relationships, and the results indicated that people who are easy to anger may be more likely to experience negative effects as a result of customer IC. Implications of these findings, limitations, and areas for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. An alternative approach for modeling strength differential effect in sheet metals with symmetric yield functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukuri, Srihari; Worswick, Michael J.

    2013-12-01

    An alternative approach is proposed to utilize symmetric yield functions for modeling the tension-compression asymmetry commonly observed in hcp materials. In this work, the strength differential (SD) effect is modeled by choosing separate symmetric plane stress yield functions (for example, Barlat Yld 2000-2d) for the tension i.e., in the first quadrant of principal stress space, and compression i.e., third quadrant of principal stress space. In the second and fourth quadrants, the yield locus is constructed by adopting interpolating functions between uniaxial tensile and compressive stress states. In this work, different interpolating functions are chosen and the predictive capability of each approach is discussed. The main advantage of this proposed approach is that the yield locus parameters are deterministic and relatively easy to identify when compared to the Cazacu family of yield functions commonly used for modeling SD effect observed in hcp materials.

  19. Differential Susceptibility to the Effects of Child Temperament on Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and…

  20. The effects of diazinon and cypermethrin on the differentiation of neuronal and glial cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaskos, J.; Harris, W.; Sachana, M.; Munoz, D.; Tack, J.; Hargreaves, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Diazinon and cypermethrin are pesticides extensively used in sheep dipping. Diazinon is a known anti-cholinesterase, but there is limited information regarding its molecular mechanism of action. This paper describes the effects of diazinon and cypermethrin at a morphological and molecular level on differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma and rat C6 glioma cell lines. Concentrations up to 10 μM of both compounds and their mixture had no effect on the viability of either cell line, as determined by methyl blue tetrazolium reduction and total protein assays. Microscopic analysis revealed that 1 μM and 10 μM diazinon but not cypermethrin inhibited the outgrowth of axon-like processes in N2a cells after a 24-h exposure but neither compound affected process outgrowth by differentiating C6 cells at these concentrations. Under these conditions, 10 μM diazinon inhibited AChE slightly compared to the control after a 4-h exposure but not after 24 h. Western blotting analysis showed that morphological changes were associated with reduced cross-reactivity with antibodies that recognize the neurofilament heavy chain (NFH), microtubule associated protein MAP 1B and HSP-70 compared to control cell extracts, whereas reactivity with anti-α-tubulin antibodies was unchanged. Aggregation of NFH was observed in cell bodies of diazinon-treated N2a cells, as determined by indirect immunofluorescence staining. These data demonstrate that diazinon specifically targets neurite outgrowth in neuronal cells and that this effect is associated with disruption of axonal cytoskeleton proteins, whereas cypermethrin has no effect on the same parameters

  1. Differential effects of young maternal age on child growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of early maternal birthing age with smaller children has been widely observed. However, it is unclear if this is due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic status, or the age at which child growth restriction first occurs. Objective: To examine the effect of early maternal birthing age on the first-born child's height-for-age in a sample of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Design: Cross-sectional data from Demographic Health Surveys from 18 countries were used, to select the first-born child of mothers aged 15–24 years and a range of potential confounding factors, including maternal height. Child length/height-for-age z-scores (HAZs was estimated in age bands of 0–11, 12–23, 24–35, 36–47, and 48–59 months; HAZ was first compared between maternal age groups of 15–17, 18–19, and 20–24 years. Results: 1 There were significant bivariate associations between low child HAZ and young maternal age (71 of 180 possible cases; at p<0.10, but the majority of these did not persist when controlling for confounders (41 cases, 23% of the 180. 2 For children <12 months, when controlling for confounders, three out of seven Asian countries showed a significant association between lower infant HAZ and low maternal age, as did six out of nine African countries (15–17 or 15–19 years vs. the older group. 3 The association (adjusted continued after 24 months in 12 of the 18 countries, in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 4 The stunting differences for children between maternal age groups were around 9 percentage points (ppts in Asia, 14 ppts in Africa, and 10 ppts in Latin America. These data do not show whether this is due to, for example, socioeconomic factors that were not included, an emerging effect of intrauterine growth restriction, or the child feeding or caring behaviors of young mothers. The latter is considered to be the most likely. Conclusions: The effect of low maternal age

  2. Integrative and comparative genomics analysis of early hepatocellular carcinoma differentiated from liver regeneration in young and old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozand Pinar T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, and hence typically has a poor prognosis. To identify distinct molecular mechanisms for early HCC we developed a rat model of liver regeneration post-hepatectomy, as well as liver cells undergoing malignant transformation and compared them to normal liver using a microarray approach. Subsequently, we performed cross-species comparative analysis coupled with copy number alterations (CNA of independent early human HCC microarray studies to facilitate the identification of critical regulatory modules conserved across species. Results We identified 35 signature genes conserved across species, and shared among different types of early human HCCs. Over 70% of signature genes were cancer-related, and more than 50% of the conserved genes were mapped to human genomic CNA regions. Functional annotation revealed genes already implicated in HCC, as well as novel genes which were not previously reported in liver tumors. A subset of differentially expressed genes was validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Concordance was also confirmed for a significant number of genes and pathways in five independent validation microarray datasets. Our results indicated alterations in a number of cancer related pathways, including p53, p38 MAPK, ERK/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, and potential critical regulatory role of MYC, ERBB2, HNF4A, and SMAD3 for early HCC transformation. Conclusions The integrative analysis of transcriptional deregulation, genomic CNA and comparative cross species analysis brings new insights into the molecular profile of early hepatoma formation. This approach may lead to robust biomarkers for the detection of early human HCC.

  3. Effect of TCEA3 on the differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yue; Tong, Hui-Li; Li, Shu-Feng; Yan, Yun-Qin

    2017-01-01

    Bovine muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) are important for animal growth. In this study, the effect of transcription elongation factor A3 (TCEA3) on bovine MDSC differentiation was investigated. Western blotting, immunofluorescence assays, and cytoplasmic and nuclear protein isolation and purification techniques were used to determine the expression pattern and protein localization of TCEA3 in bovine MDSCs during in vitro differentiation. TCEA3 expression was upregulated using the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to study its effects on MDSC differentiation in vitro. TCEA3 expression gradually increased during the in vitro differentiation of bovine MDSCs and peaked on the 5th day of differentiation. TCEA3 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of bovine MDSCs, and its expression was not detected in the nucleus. The level of TCEA3 was relatively higher in myotubes at a higher degree of differentiation than during early differentiation. After transfection with a TCEA3-activating plasmid vector (TCEA3 overexpression) for 24 h, the myotube fusion rate, number of myotubes, and expression levels of the muscle differentiation-related loci myogenin (MYOG) and myosin heavy chain 3 (MYH3) increased significantly during the in vitro differentiation of bovine MDSCs. After transfection with a TCEA3-inhibiting plasmid vector for 24 h, the myotube fusion rate, number of myotubes, and expression levels of MYOG and MYH3 decreased significantly. Our results indicated, for the first time, that TCEA3 promotes the differentiation of bovine MDSCs and have implications for meat production and animal rearing. - Highlights: • Muscle-derived satellite cell differentiation is promoted by TCEA3. • TCEA3 protein was localized in the cytoplasm, but not nuclei of bovine MDSCs. • TCEA3 levels increased as myotube differentiation increased. • TCEA3 affected myotube fusion, myotube counts, and MYOG and MYH3 levels.

  4. Effects of differential mobility on biased diffusion of two species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipolito, R S; Zia, R K P; Schmittmann, B

    2003-01-01

    Using simulations and a simple mean-field theory, we investigate jamming transitions in a two-species lattice gas under non-equilibrium steady-state conditions. The two types of particles diffuse with different mobilities on a square lattice, subject to an excluded volume constraint and biased in opposite directions. Varying filling fraction, differential mobility and drive, we map out the phase diagram, identifying first order and continuous transitions between a free-flowing disordered and a spatially inhomogeneous jammed phase. Ordered structures are observed to drift, with a characteristic velocity, in the direction of the more mobile species

  5. Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Michael D

    2017-05-19

    Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals, and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky. Police collision reports linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) claims were analyzed for the period 2008 to 2012. Motorcycle operators with known helmet use who were not killed at the crash scene were included in the study. Helmet use was ascertained from the police report. Skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes on the claims records. The relative risks of each type of head injury for helmeted versus unprotected operators were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Helmets offer substantial protection against skull fracture (relative risk [RR] = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23, 0.34), cerebral contusion (RR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.53), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 0.47, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.63). The findings pertaining to uncomplicated concussion (RR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.64, 1.01) were inconclusive. A modest protective effect (20% risk reduction) was suggested by the relative risk estimate, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against

  6. Differential effects of chronic monocyte depletion on macrophage populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkman, A.; Chang, N.C.; Strausbauch, P.H.; Morahan, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    The administration of the bone-seeking isotope, 89 Sr, to mice results in severe monocytopenia without any apparent effect on the numbers of resident peritoneal macrophages (M luminal diameter). An explanation for this dichotomy was sought by determining whether the residual blood monocytes were still an effective source of M luminal diameter after 89 Sr treatment. Stem cell enumeration showed that a 90% fall in bone marrow macrophage colony-forming cells after 89 Sr was accompanied by a 10-fold rise in splenic M-CFC. Splenectomy performed before 89 Sr treatment, however, resulted in little additional monocytopenia and had no affect on the numbers of resident peritoneal M luminal diameter even when sampling was extended to 31 days, an interval beyond the accepted half-time for peritoneal M luminal diameter. Intraperitoneal injections of thioglycollate or Corynebacterium parvum elicited few or no monocyte-M luminal diameter during respective intervals of 4 and 7 days. Elicitation with thioglycollate was attempted in tritiated thymidine-labeled mice 26 days after 89 Sr. Four days later only a 2-fold increase in labeled peritoneal M luminal diameter was found in the 89 Sr-treated mice compared with a 150-fold increase in the controls. Studies of the ectoenzymes 5'-nucleotidase, alkaline phosphodiesterase I, and leucine aminopeptidase in such elicitation experiments suggested that the observed changes in activities reflected the direct stimulation of resident M luminal diameter rather than monocyte immigration. Overall, the results indicate that treatment with 89 Sr distinguishes two large populations of M luminal diameter on the basis of their dependence on bone marrow. M luminal diameter of inflammation reflect the monocytopenia and are severely and rapidly depleted by such treatment

  7. Subpopulations of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exhibit Differential Effects in Delaying Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Tian, H; Li, Z; Wang, L; Gao, F; Ou, Q; Lian, C; Li, W; Jin, C; Zhang, J; Xu, J-Y; Wang, J; Zhang, J; Wang, F; Lu, L; Xu, G-T

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have a therapeutic role in retinal degeneration (RD). However, heterogeneity of BMSCs may be associated with differential therapeutic effects in RD. In order to confirm this hypothesis, two subsets of rat BMSCs, termed rBMSC1 and rBMSC2, were obtained, characterized and functionally evaluated in the treatment of RD of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. Both subpopulations expressed mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) markers CD29 and CD90, but were negative for hemacyte antigen CD11b and CD45 expression. In comparison with rBMSC2, rBMSC1 showed higher rate of proliferation, stronger colony formation, and increased adipogenic potential, whereas rBMSC2 exhibited higher osteogenic potential. Microarray analysis showed differential gene expression patterns between rBMSC1 and rBMSC2, including functions related to proliferation, differentiation, immunoregulation, stem cell maintenance and division, survival and antiapoptosis. After subretinal transplantation in RCS rats, rBMSC1 showed stronger rescue effect than rBMSC2, including increased b-wave amplitude, restored retinal nuclear layer thickness, and decreased number of apoptotic photoreceptors, whereas the rescue function of rBMSC2 was essentially not better than the control. Histological analysis also demonstrated that rBMSC1 possessed a higher survival rate than rBMSC2 in subretinal space. In addition, treatment of basic fibroblast growth factor, an accompanying event in subretinal injection, triggered more robust increase in secretion of growth factors by rBMSC1 as compared to rBMSC2. Taken together, these results have suggested that the different therapeutic functions of BMSC subpopulations are attributed to their distinct survival capabilities and paracrine functions. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the different functions of BMSC subpopulation may lead to a new strategy for the treatment of RD.

  8. From symptoms to social functioning: differential effects of antidepressant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, S

    1999-05-01

    Significant impairments in social functioning frequently occur simultaneously with depressive symptoms. The implications of such impairments extend beyond the depressed individual to their family, friends and society at large. Classical rating scales such as the Hamilton rating scale for depression primarily assess the core symptoms of depression. A range of rating scales are available, both self-reporting and administered by clinician; however, many have been criticised for their unspecified conceptual background and for being complex and time-consuming. While antidepressants in general appear to improve social functioning, no clear advantage for any single class of agent has been reported. Recently, a new self-report rating scale, the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale, has been developed and used to compare the novel selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine, with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. The noradrenergic agent, reboxetine, was shown to be significantly more effective in improving social functioning than the serotonergic agent, fluoxetine. These findings are consistent with previous observations that noradrenaline may preferentially improve vigilance, motivation and self-perception.

  9. Stakeholder participation in comparative effectiveness research: defining a framework for effective engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverka, Patricia A; Lavallee, Danielle C; Desai, Priyanka J; Esmail, Laura C; Ramsey, Scott D; Veenstra, David L; Tunis, Sean R

    2012-03-01

    AIMS: Stakeholder engagement is fundamental to comparative effectiveness research (CER), but lacks consistent terminology. This paper aims to define stakeholder engagement and present a conceptual model for involving stakeholders in CER. MATERIALS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; METHODS: The definitions and model were developed from a literature search, expert input and experience with the Center for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Cancer Genomics, a proof-of-concept platform for stakeholder involvement in priority setting and CER study design. RESULTS: Definitions for stakeholder and stakeholder engagement reflect the target constituencies and their role in CER. The 'analytic-deliberative' conceptual model for stakeholder engagement illustrates the inputs, methods and outputs relevant to CER. The model differentiates methods at each stage of the project; depicts the relationship between components; and identifies outcome measures for evaluation of the process. CONCLUSION: While the definitions and model require testing before being broadly adopted, they are an important foundational step and will be useful for investigators, funders and stakeholder groups interested in contributing to CER.

  10. Ultrastructural characteristics of three undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cell lines and their differentiated three-dimensional derivatives: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Suzan; Elsafadi, Mona; Mobarak, Mohammed; Alrwili, Ali; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Al-Qudsi, Fatma; Karim, Saleh; Al-Nabaheen, May; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Mahmood, Amer

    2014-04-01

    The fine structures of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) grown as colonies and differentiated in three-dimensional (3D) culture as embryoid bodies (EBs) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Undifferentiated mESCs expressed markers that proved their pluripotency. Differentiated EBs expressed different differentiation marker proteins from the three germ layers. The ultrastructure of mESCs revealed the presence of microvilli on the cell surfaces, large and deep infolded nuclei, low cytoplasm-to-nuclear ratios, frequent lipid droplets, nonprominent Golgi apparatus, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found prominent juvenile mitochondria and free ribosomes-rich cytoplasm in mESCs. Ultrastructure of the differentiated mESCs as EBs showed different cell arrangements, which indicate the different stages of EB development and differentiation. The morphologies of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 EBs were very similar at day 4, whereas C57BL/6 EBs were distinct from the others at day 4. This finding suggested that differentiation of EBs from different cell lines occurs in the same pattern but not at the same rate. Conversely, the ultrastructure results of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 ESCs revealed differentiating features, such as the dilated profile of a rough endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found low expression levels of undifferentiated markers on the outer cells of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 mESC colonies, which suggests a faster differentiation potential.

  11. Differentiation between primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon: a prospective study comparing nailfold capillaroscopy using an ophthalmoscope or stereomicroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, H; Sigl, T; Schattenkirchner, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Nailfold capillary microscopy is a routine procedure in the investigation of patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). As a standard method, nailfold capillary morphology is inspected with a stereomicroscope to look for capillary abnormalities such as giant loops, avascular areas, and bushy capillaries, which have all been found to be associated with certain connective tissue diseases.
AIM—To investigate prospectively whether nailfold capillary inspection using an ophthalmoscope is of equivalent diagnostic value to standard nailfold capillary microscopy.
METHOD—All the fingers of 26 patients with RP were examined in a blinded fashion and compared with the final diagnosis one month later.
RESULTS—All giant loops, large avascular areas, and bushy capillaries were identified by both methods. The correlation for moderate avascular areas and crossed capillaries was 0.93 and 0.955 respectively. The correlation for minor abnormalities that do not contribute to the differentiation between primary and secondary RP was 0.837 and 0.861 respectively. All patients were classified identically by the two methods.
CONCLUSION—For the evaluation of patients with RP, nailfold capillary morphology can reliably be assessed with an ophthalmoscope.

 PMID:11247874

  12. Comparing the Cost of Protecting Selected Lightweight Block Ciphers against Differential Power Analysis in Low-Cost FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Diehl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight block ciphers are an important topic in the Internet of Things (IoT since they provide moderate security while requiring fewer resources than the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES. Ongoing cryptographic contests and standardization efforts evaluate lightweight block ciphers on their resistance to power analysis side channel attack (SCA, and the ability to apply countermeasures. While some ciphers have been individually evaluated, a large-scale comparison of resistance to side channel attack and the formulation of absolute and relative costs of implementing countermeasures is difficult, since researchers typically use varied architectures, optimization strategies, technologies, and evaluation techniques. In this research, we leverage the Test Vector Leakage Assessment (TVLA methodology and the FOBOS SCA framework to compare FPGA implementations of AES, SIMON, SPECK, PRESENT, LED, and TWINE, using a choice of architecture targeted to optimize throughput-to-area (TP/A ratio and suitable for introducing countermeasures to Differential Power Analysis (DPA. We then apply an equivalent level of protection to the above ciphers using 3-share threshold implementations (TI and verify the improved resistance to DPA. We find that SIMON has the highest absolute TP/A ratio of protected versions, as well as the lowest relative cost of protection in terms of TP/A ratio. Additionally, PRESENT uses the least energy per bit (E/bit of all protected implementations, while AES has the lowest relative cost of protection in terms of increased E/bit.

  13. Urinary calculi composed of uric acid, cystine, and mineral salts: differentiation with dual-energy CT at a radiation dose comparable to that of intravenous pyelography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christoph; Heuschmid, Martin; Schilling, David; Ketelsen, Dominik; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Stenzl, Arnulf; Claussen, Claus D; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter

    2010-11-01

    To retrospectively evaluate radiation dose, image quality, and the ability to differentiate urinary calculi of differing compositions by using low-dose dual-energy computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board approved this retrospective study; informed consent was waived. A low-dose dual-energy CT protocol (tube voltage and reference effective tube current-time product, 140 kV and 23 mAs and 80 kV and 105 mAs; collimation, 64 × 0.6 mm; pitch, 0.7) for the detection of urinary calculi was implemented into routine clinical care. All patients (n = 112) who were examined with this protocol from July 2008 to August 2009 were included. The composition of urinary calculi was assessed by using commercially available postprocessing software and was compared with results of the reference standard (ex vivo infrared spectroscopy) in 40 patients for whom the reference standard was available. Effective doses were calculated. Image quality was rated subjectively and objectively and was correlated with patient size expressed as body cross-sectional area at the level of acquisition by using Spearman correlation coefficients. One calcified concrement in the distal ureter of an obese patient was mistakenly interpreted as mixed calcified and uric acid. One struvite calculus was falsely interpreted as cystine. All other uric acid, cystine, and calcium-containing calculi were correctly identified by using dual-energy CT. The mean radiation dose was 2.7 mSv. The average image quality was rated as acceptable, with a decrease in image quality in larger patients. Low-dose unenhanced dual-source dual-energy CT can help differentiate between calcified, uric acid, and cystine calculi at a radiation dose comparable to that of conventional intravenous pyelography. Because of decreased image quality in obese patients, only nonobese patients should be examined with this protocol. © RSNA, 2010.

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Organization Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Organization Development Interventions on Organizational Leadership and Management Practice: A Case Of Green Earth Program (GEP) ... Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa.

  15. Comparative toxicity effect of bush tea leaves ( Hyptis suaveolens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyptis suaveolens) were compared for their toxicity effect on the larvae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti collected from disused tyres beside College of Natural Sciences building University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

  16. Differential effects of biochar on soils within an eroded field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Thomas; Chintala, Rajesh; Sandhu, Saroop; Kumar, Sandeep; Clay, Dave; Gelderman, Ron; Papiernik, Sharon; Malo, Douglas; Clay, Sharon; Julson, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Future uses of biochar will in part be dependent not only on the effects of biochar on soil processes but also on the availability and economics of biochar production. If pyrolysis for production of bio-oil and syngas becomes wide-spread, biochar as a by-product of bio-oil production will be widely available and relatively inexpensive compared to the production of biochar as primary product. Biochar produced as a by-product of optimized bio-oil production using regionally available feedstocks was examined for properties and for use as an amendment targeted to contrasting soils within an eroded field in an on-farm study initiated in 2013 at Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plant based biochar materials produced from carbon optimized gasification of corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were applied at a 1% (w/w) rate to a Maddock soil (Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) located in an eroded upper landscape position and a Brookings soil (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) located in a depositional landscape position. The cropping system within this agricultural landscape was a corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation. Biochar physical and chemical properties for each of the feedstocks were determined including pH, surface area, surface charge potential, C-distribution, ash content, macro and micro nutrient composition. Yields, nutrient content, and carbon isotope ratio measurements were made on the harvested seed. Soil physical properties measured included water retention, bulk density, and water infiltration from a ponded double ring infiltrometer. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of biochar on partitioning of nitrate and phosphorus at soil surface exchange complex and the extracellular enzymes activity of C and N cycles. Crop yields were increased only in the Maddock soil. Biochar interacted with each

  17. Chondroitin sulfate effects on neural stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, David R; Brelsford, Natalie R; Lovett, Neil W

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the role chondroitin sulfate has on cell interactions during neural plate formation in the early chick embryo. Using tissue culture isolates from the prospective neural plate, we have measured neural gene expression profiles associated with neural stem cell differentiation. Removal of chondroitin sulfate from stage 4 neural plate tissue leads to altered associations of N-cadherin-positive neural progenitors and causes changes in the normal sequence of neural marker gene expression. Absence of chondroitin sulfate in the neural plate leads to reduced Sox2 expression and is accompanied by an increase in the expression of anterior markers of neural regionalization. Results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of chondroitin sulfate in the anterior chick embryo is instrumental in maintaining cells in the neural precursor state.

  18. Comparing sensitivity of ecotoxicological effect endpoints between laboratory and field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, H.; Riemann, B.; Christoffersen, K.

    2002-01-01

    multispecies field tests using tributyltin (TBT) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) were compared with published laboratory single-species test results and measured in situ concentrations. Extrapolation methods were evaluated by comparing predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs), calculated by AF...

  19. Multicolor microRNA FISH effectively differentiates tumor types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Neil; Cekan, Pavol; Masry, Paul A.; McGeary, Sean E.; Miller, Jason B.; Hafner, Markus; Li, Zhen; Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Morozov, Pavel; Brown, Miguel; Gogakos, Tasos; Mobin, Mehrpouya B.; Snorrason, Einar L.; Feilotter, Harriet E.; Zhang, Xiao; Perlis, Clifford S.; Wu, Hong; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Feng, Huichen; Shuda, Masahiro; Moore, Patrick S.; Tron, Victor A.; Chang, Yuan; Tuschl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are excellent tumor biomarkers because of their cell-type specificity and abundance. However, many miRNA detection methods, such as real-time PCR, obliterate valuable visuospatial information in tissue samples. To enable miRNA visualization in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, we developed multicolor miRNA FISH. As a proof of concept, we used this method to differentiate two skin tumors, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), with overlapping histologic features but distinct cellular origins. Using sequencing-based miRNA profiling and discriminant analysis, we identified the tumor-specific miRNAs miR-205 and miR-375 in BCC and MCC, respectively. We addressed three major shortcomings in miRNA FISH, identifying optimal conditions for miRNA fixation and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) retention using model compounds and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses, enhancing signal amplification and detection by increasing probe-hapten linker lengths, and improving probe specificity using shortened probes with minimal rRNA sequence complementarity. We validated our method on 4 BCC and 12 MCC tumors. Amplified miR-205 and miR-375 signals were normalized against directly detectable reference rRNA signals. Tumors were classified using predefined cutoff values, and all were correctly identified in blinded analysis. Our study establishes a reliable miRNA FISH technique for parallel visualization of differentially expressed miRNAs in FFPE tumor tissues. PMID:23728175

  20. Effects of ultrasound on the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblast lineage cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inubushi, T.; Tanaka, E.; Rego, E.B.; Kitagawa, M.; Kawazoe, A.; Ohta, A.; Okada, H.; Koolstra, J.H.; Miyauchi, M.; Takata, T.; Tanne, K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulation on the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblast lineage cells. Methods: An immortalized human periodontal ligament cell line (HPL) showing immature cementoblastic

  1. Principles, effects and problems of differential power pricing policy for energy intensive industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Liu, Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government canceled the preferential power pricing policies for energy intensive industries and imposed a reverse differential pricing policy in order to promote energy efficiency and the adjustment and upgrading of the industrial structure. This article analyzes the principles of China's differential power pricing policy, the externalities of energy and the modified Ramsey pricing rule, and also points out the policy implications of China's differential power pricing policy. In our samples, we investigate eight power intensive products in the Henan province with respect to their power consumption per unit (power intensity), electricity cost, total cost, the electricity tariff and profit, in order to test the effects of the differential power pricing policy. The results show that the primary effect of the differential power pricing policy is that enterprises decrease their total costs and improve their productive efficiencies in advance, in anticipating a higher electricity tariff. -- Research highlights: → The article suggests a modified Ramsey pricing model where demand elasticity is replaced by elasticity of energy consumption and polluting elasticity to internalize the negative externality of high energy intensive industry. → The article assesses the effects of differential pricing policy through on-site survey of high energy intensive industries in Henan province and analyzes the reasons behind those effects. → The article presents the lessons and policy implications of implementing differential pricing policy aimed at energy conservation and emission reduction.

  2. Neurotrophic effects of growth/differentiation factor 5 in a neuronal cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Toulouse, André; Collins, Grace C.; Sullivan, Aideen M.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotrophin growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is studied as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease as it is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system. Progress in understanding the effects of GDF5 on dopaminergic neurones has been hindered by the use of mixed cell populations derived from primary cultures or in vivo experiments, making it difficult to differentiate between direct and indirect effects of GDF5 treatment on ne...

  3. Effects of Angular Variation on Split D Differential Eddy Current Probe Response (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0327 EFFECTS OF ANGULAR VARIATION ON SPLIT D DIFFERENTIAL EDDY CURRENT PROBE RESPONSE (POSTPRINT) Ryan D...March 2014 – 22 September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EFFECTS OF ANGULAR VARIATION ON SPLIT D DIFFERENTIAL EDDY CURRENT PROBE RESPONSE (POSTPRINT... Current Probe Response Ryan D. Mooers1, a) and John C. Aldrin2 1United States Air Force Research Labs, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Structural

  4. Comparing the effects of negative and mixed emotional messages on predicted occasional excessive drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Pilar; Caballero, Amparo; Muñoz, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness) versus mixed (joy and sadness), with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating the risk behavior and a less negative attitude toward it. These results suggest that mixed emotional messages (e.g. joy and sadness messages) could be more effective in campaigns for the prevention of this risk behavior.

  5. Enhanced proliferation and dopaminergic differentiation of ventral mesencephalic precursor cells by synergistic effect of FGF2 and reduced oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia; Gramsbergen, Jan-Bert; Zimmer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Effective numerical expansion of dopaminergic precursors might overcome the limited availability of transplantable cells in replacement strategies for Parkinson's disease. Here we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and FGF8 on expansion and dopaminergic differentiation o...... enzyme activity, which may explain the elevated dopamine levels. Our findings demonstrate that modulation of oxygen tension is a recognizable factor for in vitro expansion and dopaminergic differentiation of rat embryonic midbrain precursor cells....... of rat embryonic ventral mesencephalic neuroblasts cultured at high (20%) and low (3%) oxygen tension. More cells incorporated bromodeoxyuridine in cultures expanded at low as compared to high oxygen tension, and after 6 days of differentiation there were significantly more neuronal cells in low than......, switching FGF2-expanded cultures from low to high oxygen tension during the last two days of differentiation significantly enhanced dopamine release and intracellular dopamine levels as compared to all other treatment groups. In addition, the short-term exposure to high oxygen enhanced in situ assessed TH...

  6. ANALISIS DIAZINON SECARA DIFERENSIAL PULSA VOLTAMETRI DIBANDINGKAN DENGAN KROMATOGRAFI (Diazinon Analysis with Differential Pulse Voltametry Compared to Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirim Setiarso

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Telah dilakukan penelitian penentuan diazinon dari sampel tanah pertanian di beberapa kecamatan Kabupaten Nganjuk Jawa Timur menggunakan elektroda kerja tembaga amalgam padat (CuSAE secara diferensial pulsa voltametri (DPV dibandingkan dengan metode kromatografi. 100 g sampel tanah pertanian yang dihaluskan dengan ukuran 100 mesh diekstraksi menggunakan aseton. Ekstraksi dilakukan menggunakan ekstraktror soxhlet dengan 10 kali sirkulasi. Hasil ekstraksi sebagian ditambahkan surfaktan SDS untuk dianalisis secara voltametri menggunakan elektroda CuSAE dan sebagian dianalisis menggunakan kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi (HPLC. Analisis voltametri dilakukan pada pH 3 dengan elektrolit pendukung CaCl 2 menggunakan standar adisi, sedangkan analisis dengan HPLC menggunakan grafik standar. Berdasarkan data voltamogram dan kromatogram yang telah diolah dengan program origin 7.0 menghasilkan perolehan kembali rata-rata diazinon (97.40 ± 1.02 % pada voltametri dan (100.98 ± 7.10 % pada HPLC. Analisis diazinon kedua metode dibandingkan dengan uji t (t hitung = 0.4785 < t tabel = 2.31 sehingga tidak ada perbedaan hasil antara metode voltametri dan HPLC. ABSTRACT The research has been done for determination of diazinon in agricultural soil samples from several districts n Nganjuk, East Java . Solid copper amalgam (CuSAE used  as a working electrode using differential ulse voltammetry (DPV compared with chromatographic method. Around 100 g sample of agricultural soil ith a size 100 mesh was extracted using 100 ml acetone. The extraction was done using extractor oxhlet with 10 times the circulation. A part of the extraction  yield  was  added SDS surfactant for analysis by DPV,  and another part analyzed  by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Voltammetric analysis carried out at pH 3 with CaCl2 as a supporting electrolyte   using standard addition method, while the analysis by HPLC using calibration curve (standard

  7. Comparing Effectiveness of Undergraduate Course Delivery: A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education students can and do take courses delivered in a variety of ways. But, to date, little research has been done on the effectiveness of different delivery modes. This study sought to fill that void by comparing the effectiveness of three undergraduate course delivery modes: classroom, online, and video conference at a technical…

  8. "Families" in International Context: Comparing Institutional Effects across Western Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Lynn Prince; Baxter, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    We review comparative evidence of institutional effects on families in Western societies. We focus on 2 key aspects of family life: gendered divisions of labor and people's transitions into, within, and out of relationships. Many individual-level models assume the effects are robust across countries. The international evidence over the past decade…

  9. Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European Youth Olympic Festival (2011) ... The participating group was composed of 878 local spectators who watched the games. ... Sample group views on both positive and negative effects of these two events have high averages. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Mixed Effects Modeling Using Stochastic Differential Equations: Illustrated by Pharmacokinetic Data of Nicotinic Acid in Obese Zucker Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, Jacob; Almquist, Joachim; Ahlström, Christine; Gabrielsson, Johan; Jirstrand, Mats

    2015-05-01

    Inclusion of stochastic differential equations in mixed effects models provides means to quantify and distinguish three sources of variability in data. In addition to the two commonly encountered sources, measurement error and interindividual variability, we also consider uncertainty in the dynamical model itself. To this end, we extend the ordinary differential equation setting used in nonlinear mixed effects models to include stochastic differential equations. The approximate population likelihood is derived using the first-order conditional estimation with interaction method and extended Kalman filtering. To illustrate the application of the stochastic differential mixed effects model, two pharmacokinetic models are considered. First, we use a stochastic one-compartmental model with first-order input and nonlinear elimination to generate synthetic data in a simulated study. We show that by using the proposed method, the three sources of variability can be successfully separated. If the stochastic part is neglected, the parameter estimates become biased, and the measurement error variance is significantly overestimated. Second, we consider an extension to a stochastic pharmacokinetic model in a preclinical study of nicotinic acid kinetics in obese Zucker rats. The parameter estimates are compared between a deterministic and a stochastic NiAc disposition model, respectively. Discrepancies between model predictions and observations, previously described as measurement noise only, are now separated into a comparatively lower level of measurement noise and a significant uncertainty in model dynamics. These examples demonstrate that stochastic differential mixed effects models are useful tools for identifying incomplete or inaccurate model dynamics and for reducing potential bias in parameter estimates due to such model deficiencies.

  11. Differential effects of culture senescence and mechanical stimulation on the proliferation and leiomyogenic differentiation of MSC from different sources: implications for engineering vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koobatian, Maxwell T; Liang, Mao-Shih; Swartz, Daniel D; Andreadis, Stelios T

    2015-04-01

    We examined the effects of senescence on the proliferation and leiomyogenic differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) or hair follicles (HF-MSCs). To this end, we compared ovine HF-MSCs and BM-MSCs in terms of their proliferation and differentiation potential to the smooth muscle cell lineage. We discovered that HF-MSCs are less susceptible to culture senescence compared with BM-MSCs. We hypothesized that application of mechanical forces may enhance the contractility and mechanical properties of vascular constructs prepared from senescent MSCs. Interestingly, HF-MSCs and BM-MSCs responded differently to changes in the mechanical microenvironment, suggesting that despite phenotypic similarities, MSCs from different anatomic locations may activate different pathways in response to the same microenvironmental factors. In turn, this may also suggest that cell-based tissue regeneration approaches may need to be tailored to the stem cell origin, donor age, and culture time for optimal results.

  12. Evaluating construct validity of the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire through analysis of differential item functioning and differential item effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the construct validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) by means of tests for differential item functioning (DIF) and differential item effect (DIE). METHODS: We used a Danish general population postal survey (n = 4,732 with 3,517 wage earners) with a ...

  13. Differential Effects of Carbohydrates on Arabidopsis Pollen Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsche, Jörg; García Fernández, José M; Stabentheiner, Edith; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Roitsch, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Pollen germination as a crucial process in plant development strongly depends on the accessibility of carbon as energy source. Carbohydrates, however, function not only as a primary energy source, but also as important signaling components. In a comprehensive study, we analyzed various aspects of the impact of 32 different sugars on in vitro germination of Arabidopsis pollen comprising about 150 variations of individual sugars and combinations. Twenty-six structurally different mono-, di- and oligosaccharides, and sugar analogs were initially tested for their ability to support pollen germination. Whereas several di- and oligosaccharides supported pollen germination, hexoses such as glucose, fructose and mannose did not support and even considerably inhibited pollen germination when added to germination-supporting medium. Complementary experiments using glucose analogs with varying functional features, the hexokinase inhibitor mannoheptulose and the glucose-insensitive hexokinase-deficient Arabidopsis mutant gin2-1 suggested that mannose- and glucose-mediated inhibition of sucrose-supported pollen germination depends partially on hexokinase signaling. The results suggest that, in addition to their role as energy source, sugars act as signaling molecules differentially regulating the complex process of pollen germination depending on their structural properties. Thus, a sugar-dependent multilayer regulation of Arabidopsis pollen germination is supported, which makes this approach a valuable experimental system for future studies addressing sugar sensing and signaling. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Differential network analysis reveals genetic effects on catalepsy modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu D Iancu

    Full Text Available We performed short-term bi-directional selective breeding for haloperidol-induced catalepsy, starting from three mouse populations of increasingly complex genetic structure: an F2 intercross, a heterogeneous stock (HS formed by crossing four inbred strains (HS4 and a heterogeneous stock (HS-CC formed from the inbred strain founders of the Collaborative Cross (CC. All three selections were successful, with large differences in haloperidol response emerging within three generations. Using a custom differential network analysis procedure, we found that gene coexpression patterns changed significantly; importantly, a number of these changes were concordant across genetic backgrounds. In contrast, absolute gene-expression changes were modest and not concordant across genetic backgrounds, in spite of the large and similar phenotypic differences. By inferring strain contributions from the parental lines, we are able to identify significant differences in allelic content between the selected lines concurrent with large changes in transcript connectivity. Importantly, this observation implies that genetic polymorphisms can affect transcript and module connectivity without large changes in absolute expression levels. We conclude that, in this case, selective breeding acts at the subnetwork level, with the same modules but not the same transcripts affected across the three selections.

  15. Racial differences in hypertension knowledge: effects of differential item functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Brian J; Trivedi, Ranak; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2009-01-01

    Health-related knowledge is an important component in the self-management of chronic illnesses. The objective of this study was to more accurately assess racial differences in hypertension knowledge by using a latent variable modeling approach that controlled for sociodemographic factors and accounted for measurement issues in the assessment of hypertension knowledge. Cross-sectional data from 1,177 participants (45% African American; 35% female) were analyzed using a multiple indicator multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling approach. Available sociodemographic data included race, education, sex, financial status, and age. All participants completed six items on a hypertension knowledge questionnaire. Overall, the final model suggested that females, Whites, and patients with at least a high school diploma had higher latent knowledge scores than males, African Americans, and patients with less than a high school diploma, respectively. The model also detected differential item functioning (DIF) based on race for two of the items. Specifically, the error rate for African Americans was lower than would be expected given the lower level of latent knowledge on the items, on the questions related to: (a) the association between high blood pressure and kidney disease, and (b) the increased risk African Americans have for developing hypertension. Not accounting for DIF resulted in the difference between Whites and African Americans to be underestimated. These results are discussed in the context of the need for careful measurement of health-related constructs, and how measurement-related issues can result in an inaccurate estimation of racial differences in hypertension knowledge.

  16. High-order space charge effects using automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, Michael F.; Bruhwiler, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Northrop Grumman Topkark code has been upgraded to Fortran 90, making use of operator overloading, so the same code can be used to either track an array of particles or construct a Taylor map representation of the accelerator lattice. We review beam optics and beam dynamics simulations conducted with TOPKARK in the past and we present a new method for modeling space charge forces to high-order with automatic differentiation. This method generates an accurate, high-order, 6-D Taylor map of the phase space variable trajectories for a bunched, high-current beam. The spatial distribution is modeled as the product of a Taylor Series times a Gaussian. The variables in the argument of the Gaussian are normalized to the respective second moments of the distribution. This form allows for accurate representation of a wide range of realistic distributions, including any asymmetries, and allows for rapid calculation of the space charge fields with free space boundary conditions. An example problem is presented to illustrate our approach

  17. High-order space charge effects using automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, M.F.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Computer Accelerator Physics Conference Williamsburg, Virginia 1996)

    1997-01-01

    The Northrop Grumman Topkark code has been upgraded to Fortran 90, making use of operator overloading, so the same code can be used to either track an array of particles or construct a Taylor map representation of the accelerator lattice. We review beam optics and beam dynamics simulations conducted with TOPKARK in the past and we present a new method for modeling space charge forces to high-order with automatic differentiation. This method generates an accurate, high-order, 6-D Taylor map of the phase space variable trajectories for a bunched, high-current beam. The spatial distribution is modeled as the product of a Taylor Series times a Gaussian. The variables in the argument of the Gaussian are normalized to the respective second moments of the distribution. This form allows for accurate representation of a wide range of realistic distributions, including any asymmetries, and allows for rapid calculation of the space charge fields with free space boundary conditions. An example problem is presented to illustrate our approach. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. A modified differential evolution approach for dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xiaohui; Wang Liang; Yuan Yanbin; Zhang Yongchuan; Cao Bo; Yang Bo

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic economic dispatch (DED) plays an important role in power system operation, which is a complicated non-linear constrained optimization problem. It has nonsmooth and nonconvex characteristic when generation unit valve-point effects are taken into account. This paper proposes a modified differential evolution approach (MDE) to solve DED problem with valve-point effects. In the proposed MDE method, feasibility-based selection comparison techniques and heuristic search rules are devised to handle constraints effectively. In contrast to the penalty function method, the constraints-handling method does not require penalty factors or any extra parameters and can guide the population to the feasible region quickly. Especially, it can be satisfied equality constraints of DED problem precisely. Moreover, the effects of two crucial parameters on the performance of the MDE for DED problem are studied as well. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated for application example and the test results are compared with those of other methods reported in literature. It is shown that the proposed method is capable of yielding higher quality solutions

  19. Age effects in emotional prospective memory: cue valence differentially affects the prospective and retrospective component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Horn, Sebastian S; Bayen, Ute J; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    While first studies suggested that emotional task material may enhance prospective memory performance in young and older adults, the extent and mechanisms of this effect are under debate. The authors explored possible differential effects of cue valence on the prospective and retrospective component of prospective memory in young and older adults. Forty-five young and 41 older adults performed a prospective memory task in which emotional valence of the prospective memory cue was manipulated (positive, negative, neutral). The multinomial model of event-based prospective memory was used to analyze effects of valence and age on the two prospective memory components separately. Results revealed an interaction indicating that age differences were smaller in both emotional valence conditions. For older adults positive cues improved the prospective component, while negative cues improved the retrospective component. No main effect of valence was found for younger adults on an overt accuracy measure, but model-based analyses showed that the retrospective component was enhanced in the positive compared with the negative cue condition. The study extends the literature in demonstrating that processes underlying emotional effects on prospective memory may differ depending on valence and age. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Mousavi

    Full Text Available Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  1. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sadegh; Alisoltani, Arghavan; Shiran, Behrouz; Fallahi, Hossein; Ebrahimie, Esameil; Imani, Ali; Houshmand, Saadollah

    2014-01-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary) to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE) genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  2. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  3. Exploring Differential Effects of Mathematics Courses on Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; McIntyre, Laureen J.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Mathematics Participation (N = 1,518 students from 34 schools), we investigated the effects of pure and applied mathematics courses on mathematics achievement, controlling for prior mathematics achievement. Results of multilevel modelling showed that the effects of pure mathematics were significant after…

  4. Comparing effects of perfusion and hydrostatic pressure on gene profiles of human chondrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ge; Mayer-Wagner, Susanne; Schröder, Christian; Woiczinski, Matthias; Blum, Helmut; Lavagi, Ilaria; Krebs, Stefan; Redeker, Julia I; Hölzer, Andreas; Jansson, Volkmar; Betz, Oliver; Müller, Peter E

    2015-09-20

    Hydrostatic pressure and perfusion have been shown to regulate the chondrogenic potential of articular chondrocytes. In order to compare the effects of hydrostatic pressure plus perfusion (HPP) and perfusion (P) we investigated the complete gene expression profiles of human chondrocytes under HPP and P. A simplified bioreactor was constructed to apply loading (0.1 MPa for 2 h) and perfusion (2 ml) through the same piping by pressurizing the medium directly. High-density monolayer cultures of human chondrocytes were exposed to HPP or P for 4 days. Controls (C) were maintained in static cultures. Gene expression was evaluated by sequencing (RNAseq) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Both treatments changed gene expression levels of human chondrocytes significantly. Specifically, HPP and P increased COL2A1 expression and decreased COL1A1 and MMP-13 expression. Despite of these similarities, RNAseq revealed a list of cartilage genes including ACAN, ITGA10 and TNC, which were differentially expressed by HPP and P. Of these candidates, adhesion related molecules were found to be upregulated in HPP. Both HPP and P treatment had beneficial effects on chondrocyte differentiation and decreased catabolic enzyme expression. The study provides new insight into how hydrostatic pressure and perfusion enhance cartilage differentiation and inhibit catabolic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, Yvonne; Gorjup, Erwin; Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Büchel, Claudia; Briesen, Hagen von; Thielecke, Hagen

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are very attractive for biomedical products. However, there is a serious lack of information concerning the biological activity of nanosized gold in human tissue cells. An influence of nanoparticles on stem cells might lead to unforeseen consequences to organ and tissue functions as long as all cells arising from the initial stem cell might be subsequently damaged. Therefore the effect of negatively charged gold nanoparticles (9 and 95 nm), which are certified as reference material for preclinical biomedical research, on the adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is investigated here. Bone marrow hMSCs are chosen as differentiation model since bone marrow hMSCs are well characterized and their differentiation into the adipogenic lineage shows clear and easily detectable differentiation. In this study effects of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation are analyzed regarding fat storage and mitochondrial activity after different exposure times (4–21 days). Using time lapse microscopy the differentiation progress under chronically gold nanoparticle treatment is continuously investigated. In this preliminary study, chronically treatment of adipogenic differentiating hMSCs with gold nanoparticles resulted in a reduced number and size of lipid vacuoles and reduced mitochondrial activity depending on the applied concentration and the surface charge of the particles.

  6. Effect of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Yvonne; Gorjup, Erwin; Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Büchel, Claudia; von Briesen, Hagen; Thielecke, Hagen

    2011-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles are very attractive for biomedical products. However, there is a serious lack of information concerning the biological activity of nanosized gold in human tissue cells. An influence of nanoparticles on stem cells might lead to unforeseen consequences to organ and tissue functions as long as all cells arising from the initial stem cell might be subsequently damaged. Therefore the effect of negatively charged gold nanoparticles (9 and 95 nm), which are certified as reference material for preclinical biomedical research, on the adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is investigated here. Bone marrow hMSCs are chosen as differentiation model since bone marrow hMSCs are well characterized and their differentiation into the adipogenic lineage shows clear and easily detectable differentiation. In this study effects of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation are analyzed regarding fat storage and mitochondrial activity after different exposure times (4-21 days). Using time lapse microscopy the differentiation progress under chronically gold nanoparticle treatment is continuously investigated. In this preliminary study, chronically treatment of adipogenic differentiating hMSCs with gold nanoparticles resulted in a reduced number and size of lipid vacuoles and reduced mitochondrial activity depending on the applied concentration and the surface charge of the particles.

  7. The Effect of Differentially Focused Observation on Evaluation of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Robert A.; Prickett, Carol A.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a research study which examined problems that occur when preservice teachers in music education observe and evaluate a classroom. Perceptions of observers assigned three different visual perspectives of a single music lesson were compared. Concludes that student observers should be given specific direction regarding interpreting…

  8. The Effects of High Glucose on Adipogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation of Gestational Tissue-Derived MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawan Hankamolsiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most type 2 diabetic patients are obese who have increased number of visceral adipocytes. Those visceral adipocytes release several factors that enhance insulin resistance making diabetic treatment ineffective. It is known that significant percentages of visceral adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells and high glucose enhances adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs. However, the effect of high glucose on adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow and gestational tissue-derived MSCs is still poorly characterized. This study aims to investigate the effects of high glucose on proliferation as well as adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs derived from bone marrow and several gestational tissues including chorion, placenta, and umbilical cord. We found that high glucose reduced proliferation but enhanced adipogenic differentiation of all MSCs examined. The expression levels of some adipogenic genes were also upregulated when MSCs were cultured in high glucose. Although high glucose transiently downregulated the expression levels of some osteogenic genes examined, its effect on the osteogenic differentiation levels of the MSCs is not clearly demonstrated. The knowledge gained from this study will increase our understanding about the effect of high glucose on adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and might lead to an improvement in the diabetic treatment in the future.

  9. Differential effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Yasmin; Hysek, Cédric M; Simmler, Linda D; Crockett, Molly J; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-09-01

    Social cognition is important in everyday-life social interactions. The social cognitive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate (both used for neuroenhancement and as party drugs) are largely unknown. We investigated the acute effects of MDMA (75 mg), methylphenidate (40 mg) and placebo using the Facial Emotion Recognition Task, Multifaceted Empathy Test, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Social Value Orientation Test and the Moral Judgment Task in a cross-over study in 30 healthy subjects. Additionally, subjective, autonomic, pharmacokinetic, endocrine and adverse drug effects were measured. MDMA enhanced emotional empathy for positive emotionally charged situations in the MET and tended to reduce the recognition of sad faces in the Facial Emotion Recognition Task. MDMA had no effects on cognitive empathy in the Multifaceted Empathy Test or social cognitive inferences in the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition. MDMA produced subjective 'empathogenic' effects, such as drug liking, closeness to others, openness and trust. In contrast, methylphenidate lacked such subjective effects and did not alter emotional processing, empathy or mental perspective-taking. MDMA but not methylphenidate increased the plasma levels of oxytocin and prolactin. None of the drugs influenced moral judgment. Effects on emotion recognition and emotional empathy were evident at a low dose of MDMA and likely contribute to the popularity of the drug. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Potential Effect of CD271 on Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Calabrese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (LNGFR, also known as CD271, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The CD271 cell surface marker defines a subset of multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells and may be used to isolate and enrich cells derived from bone marrow aspirate. In this study, we compare the proliferative and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and adipose tissue by plastic adherence and positive selection. The proliferation and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells were assessed by inducing osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic in vitro differentiation. Compared to CD271+, CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells showed a lower proliferation rate and a decreased ability to give rise to osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Furthermore, we observed that CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue displayed a higher efficiency of proliferation and trilineage differentiation compared to CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow samples, although the CD271 expression levels were comparable. In conclusion, these data show that both the presence of CD271 antigen and the source of mesenchymal stromal cells represent important factors in determining the ability of the cells to proliferate and differentiate.

  11. Potential Effect of CD271 on Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Proliferation and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Giovanna; Giuffrida, Raffaella; Lo Furno, Debora; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Forte, Stefano; Gulino, Rosario; Colarossi, Cristina; Schinocca, Luciana Rita; Giuffrida, Rosario; Cardile, Venera; Memeo, Lorenzo

    2015-07-09

    The Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (LNGFR), also known as CD271, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The CD271 cell surface marker defines a subset of multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells and may be used to isolate and enrich cells derived from bone marrow aspirate. In this study, we compare the proliferative and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and adipose tissue by plastic adherence and positive selection. The proliferation and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells were assessed by inducing osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic in vitro differentiation. Compared to CD271+, CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells showed a lower proliferation rate and a decreased ability to give rise to osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Furthermore, we observed that CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue displayed a higher efficiency of proliferation and trilineage differentiation compared to CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow samples, although the CD271 expression levels were comparable. In conclusion, these data show that both the presence of CD271 antigen and the source of mesenchymal stromal cells represent important factors in determining the ability of the cells to proliferate and differentiate.

  12. Effect of 3D Cultivation Conditions on the Differentiation of Endodermal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakova, O. S.; Ashapkin, V. V.; Voroteliak, E. A.; Bragin, E. Y.; Shtratnikova, V. Y.; Chernioglo, E. S.; Sukhanov, Y. V.; Terskikh, V. V.; Vasiliev, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    Cellular therapy of endodermal organs is one of the most important issues in modern cellular biology and biotechnology. One of the most promising directions in this field is the study of the transdifferentiation abilities of cells within the same germ layer. A method for anin vitroinvestigation of the cell differentiation potential (the cell culture in a three-dimensional matrix) is described in this article. Cell cultures of postnatal salivary gland cells and postnatal liver progenitor cells were obtained; their comparative analysis under 2D and 3D cultivation conditions was carried out. Both cell types have high proliferative abilities and can be cultivated for more than 20 passages. Under 2D cultivation conditions, the cells remain in an undifferentiated state. Under 3D conditions, they undergo differentiation, which was confirmed by a lower cell proliferation and by an increase in the differentiation marker expression. Salivary gland cells can undergo hepatic and pancreatic differentiation under 3D cultivation conditions. Liver progenitor cells also acquire a pancreatic differentiation capability under conditions of 3D cultivation. Thus, postnatal salivary gland cells exhibit a considerable differentiation potential within the endodermal germ layer and can be used as a promising source of endodermal cells for the cellular therapy of liver pathologies. Cultivation of cells under 3D conditions is a useful model for thein vitroanalysis of the cell differentiation potential. PMID:23346379

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of Different Types of Cervical Laminoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, John G.; Raich, Annie L.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Study Rationale Numerous cervical laminoplasty techniques have been described but there are few studies that have compared these to determine the superiority of one over another. Clinical Questions The clinical questions include key question (KQ)1: In adults with cervical myelopathy from ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) or spondylosis, what is the comparative effectiveness of open door cervical laminoplasty versus French door cervical ...

  14. Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-06-01

    Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial.

  15. Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M. Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Summary Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial. PMID:20354968

  16. Possibilities for application of comparative advertising and its effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been evident that one form of competitive advertising gained in its importance - comparative advertising. Although its extensive use has probably been inspired by the belief that the perception of relative superiority of a brand compared to competition could be encouraged in that way, research evidence suggested mixed conclusions about its effectiveness. The paper summarizes the results of previous studies in this area, and in particular those which point out the factors that can influence effectiveness of comparative advertising. Additionally,, the paper summarizes the opinions of some authors about the long-term influence of this form of advertising on brand, and gives the recommendations for its more effective use. .

  17. [Intestinal cleaning for colonoscopy in children: effectiveness, adherence and adverse effects of schemes differentiated by age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Isabel; Arancibia, María Eugenia; Alliende, Francisco; Ríos, Gloria; Rodríguez, Lorena; Lucero, Yalda; Saelzer, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Adequate intestinal cleanliness is crucial to achieve optimal colonoscopy performance. Several bowel preparation (BP) schemes have been proposed, but there is still no consensus as regards which is the most suitable in paediatric patients. To describe the effectiveness, adherence, and adverse effects of BP protocols differentiated by age group in paediatric patients subjected to colonoscopy. Prospective, study that included patients PEG 3350 without electrolytes); 4y-9y 11 m (PEG 3350 without electrolytes + bisacodyl); 10 y-18 y (PEG 3350 with electrolytes). Demographic, clinical information, adherence and adverse effects were registered. Effectiveness was determined using a validated scale (Boston modified) during colonoscopy. A total of 159 patients were included, of which 87 (55%) were males, and with a median age of 4 years (range 1 m-17 years). Seventy eight percent of patients achieved successful BP. The higher effectiveness was observed in the groups of < 6 m (96%) and 10-18 y (91%). Constipation was significantly more frequent (29%) in the 4 yo-9 yo 11 m in which lower effectiveness was observed (69%). Good adherence was observed in 87% of patients. Adverse effects were observed in a third of patients, although they were mild and did not lead to the suspension of the BP. Satisfactory results were achieved with the BP schemes used, with a successful BP being obtained in 4 out of 5 patients. Results were different between groups, which is probably related to previous bowel transit and indicated medication.

  18. Effect of cell density on adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hongxu; Guo, Likun; Wozniak, Michal J.; Kawazoe, Naoki; Tateishi, Tetsuya; Zhang, Xingdong; Chen, Guoping

    2009-01-01

    The effect of cell density on the adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was investigated by using a patterning technique to induce the formation of a cell density gradient on a micropatterned surface. The adipogenic differentiation of MSCs at a density gradient from 5 x 10 3 to 3 x 10 4 cells/cm 2 was examined. Lipid vacuoles were observed at all cell densities after 1-3 weeks of culture in adipogenic differentiation medium although the lipid vacuoles were scarce at the low cell density and abundant at the high cell density. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that adipogenesis marker genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) were detected in the MSCs cultured at all cell densities. The results suggest that there was no apparent effect of cell density on the adipogenic differentiation of human MSCs.

  19. Differential GPS effectiveness in measuring area and perimeter in forested settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Jereme; Wing, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies area and perimeter measurement errors, traverse times, recording intervals, and overall time and cost effectiveness for using a mapping-grade differential Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver in forested settings. We compared two configurations including one that maximized data collection productivity (position dilution of precision (PDOP) 20, signal to noise ratio (SNR 33), and minimum elevation mask 5°) and a second that involved traditional receiver settings that was designed to improve accuracies (PDOP 6, SNR 39, and minimum elevation mask 15°). We determined that averaging 30 positions and using the settings that maximized productivity was the most time effective combination of recording interval and settings. This combination of recording interval and settings proved slightly more cost effective than other traditional surveying methods such as a laser with digital compass and string box. Average absolute per cent area errors when averaging 30 positions and using maximum settings were 2.6% and average absolute per cent perimeter errors were 2.0%. These results should help forest resource professionals more effectively evaluate GPS techniques and receiver configurations. (paper)

  20. The Differential Effects of Social Media Sites for Promoting Cancer Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauckner, Carolyn; Whitten, Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Social media are potentially valuable tools for disseminating cancer education messages, but the differential effects of various sites on persuasive outcomes are unknown. In an effort to inform future health promotion, this research tested the effects of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and blogs for delivering a cancer risk reduction message. Using an experimental design, participants were randomly placed in several conditions that delivered the same message but with different forms of social media. Effects on comprehension and attitudes were examined, as they are important variables in the behavior change process. YouTube led to higher comprehension and stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction than Twitter, but there were no differences between other sites. Additionally, YouTube led to stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction as compared to Facebook, but not any other sites. These results demonstrate that, even if the message is kept constant, the form of social media used to deliver content can have an effect on persuasive outcomes. More research is needed to determine the mechanisms behind the differences found, however. Altogether, this line of research is valuable for any individuals seeking to use social media for health promotion purposes and could have direct implications for the development of cancer risk reduction campaigns.

  1. Differential effects of the classroom on African American and non-African American's mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenke, Katerina; Nguyen, Tutrang; Watts, Tyler W; Sarama, Julie H; Clements, Douglas H

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether African American students differentially responded to dimensions of the observed classroom-learning environment compared with non-African American students. Further, we examined whether these dimensions of the classroom mediated treatment effects of a preschool mathematics intervention targeted at students from low-income families. Three observed dimensions of the classroom (teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness; teacher confidence and enthusiasm; and support for mathematical discourse) were evaluated in a sample of 1,238 preschool students in 101 classrooms. Using multigroup multilevel mediation where African American students were compared to non-African American students, we found that teachers in the intervention condition had higher ratings on the observed dimensions of the classroom compared with teachers in the control condition. Further, ratings on teacher expectations and developmental appropriateness had larger associations with the achievement of African American students than for non-African Americans. Findings suggest that students within the same classroom may react differently to that learning environment and that classroom learning environments could be structured in ways that are beneficial for students who need the most support.

  2. Differential effects of collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation on skeletal tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica P Homan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the genes encoding cartilage associated protein (CRTAP and prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1 encoded by LEPRE1 were the first identified causes of recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI. These proteins, together with cyclophilin B (encoded by PPIB, form a complex that 3-hydroxylates a single proline residue on the α1(I chain (Pro986 and has cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity essential for proper collagen folding. Recent data suggest that prolyl 3-hydroxylation of Pro986 is not required for the structural stability of collagen; however, the absence of this post-translational modification may disrupt protein-protein interactions integral for proper collagen folding and lead to collagen over-modification. P3H1 and CRTAP stabilize each other and absence of one results in degradation of the other. Hence, hypomorphic or loss of function mutations of either gene cause loss of the whole complex and its associated functions. The relative contribution of losing this complex's 3-hydroxylation versus PPIase and collagen chaperone activities to the phenotype of recessive OI is unknown. To distinguish between these functions, we generated knock-in mice carrying a single amino acid substitution in the catalytic site of P3h1 (Lepre1(H662A . This substitution abolished P3h1 activity but retained ability to form a complex with Crtap and thus the collagen chaperone function. Knock-in mice showed absence of prolyl 3-hydroxylation at Pro986 of the α1(I and α1(II collagen chains but no significant over-modification at other collagen residues. They were normal in appearance, had no growth defects and normal cartilage growth plate histology but showed decreased trabecular bone mass. This new mouse model recapitulates elements of the bone phenotype of OI but not the cartilage and growth phenotypes caused by loss of the prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex. Our observations suggest differential tissue consequences due to selective inactivation of P3H1 hydroxylase

  3. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  4. Differential age effects on lexical ambiguity resolution mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple neurocognitive subsystems are involved in resolving lexical ambiguity under different circumstances. We examined how processing in these subsystems changes with normal aging by comparing ERP responses to homographs and unambiguous words completing congruent sentences (with both semantic and syntactic contextual information) or syntactic prose (syntactic information only). Like young adults in prior work, older adults elicited more negative N400s to homographs in congruent sentences, ...

  5. Alternating current electric field effects on neural stem cell viability and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marvi A; Cicerone, Marcus T

    2010-01-01

    Methods utilizing stem cells hold tremendous promise for tissue engineering applications; however, many issues must be worked out before these therapies can be routinely applied. Utilization of external cues for preimplantation expansion and differentiation offers a potentially viable approach to the use of stem cells in tissue engineering. The studies reported here focus on the response of murine neural stem cells encapsulated in alginate hydrogel beads to alternating current electric fields. Cell viability and differentiation was studied as a function of electric field magnitude and frequency. We applied fields of frequency (0.1-10) Hz, and found a marked peak in neural stem cell viability under oscillatory electric fields with a frequency of 1 Hz. We also found an enhanced propensity for astrocyte differentiation over neuronal differentiation in the 1 Hz cultures, as compared to the other field frequencies we studied. Published 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  6. Chinese Traditionality Matters: Effects of Differentiated Empowering Leadership on Followers’ Trust in Leaders and Work Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S-L; Huo, Y; Long, L-R

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of the integrative model of organizational trust, this study proposes a multi-level model for whether, how, and when differentiated empowering leadership influences followers’ trust in leaders and their work outcomes. Drawing on a sample of 372 followers from 97 teams in China, it was found that the negative effect of differentiated empowering leadership on followers’ trust in leaders became salient when followers’ Chinese traditionality was low. Moreover, followers’ trus...

  7. The different effect of consumer learning on incentives to differentiate in Cournot and Bertrand competition

    OpenAIRE

    Conze, Maximilian; Kramm, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We combine two extensions of the differentiated duopoly model of Dixit (1979), namely Caminal and Vives (1996) and Brander and Spencer (2015a,b), to analyze the effect of consumer learning on firms' incentives to differentiate their products in models of Cournot and Bertrand competition. Products are of different quality, consumers buy sequentially and are imperfectly informed about the quality of the goods. Before simultaneously competing in quantities, firms simultaneously choose their inve...

  8. A Comparative Study to Evaluate Myogenic Differentiation Potential of Human Chorion versus Umbilical Cord Blood-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bana, Nikoo; Sanooghi, Davood; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Hayati Roodbari, Nasim; Alavi Moghaddam, Sepideh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Sayahpour, Forough Azam; Faghihi, Faezeh

    2017-08-01

    Musculodegenerative diseases threaten the life of many patients in the world. Since drug administration is not efficient in regeneration of damaged tissues, stem cell therapy is considered as a good strategy to restore the lost cells. Since the efficiency of myogenic differentiation potential of human Chorion- derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (C-MSCs) has not been addressed so far; we set out to evaluate myogenic differentiation property of these cells in comparison with Umbilical Cord Blood- derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UCB-MSCs) in the presence of 5-azacytidine. To do that, neonate placenta Umbilical Cord Blood were transferred to the lab. After characterization of the isolated cells using flowcytometry and multilineage differentiation capacity, the obtained Mesenchymal Stem Cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 2% FBS and 10μM of 5-azacytidine to induce myogenic differentiation. Real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry were used to assess the myogenic properties of the cells. Our data showed that C-MSCs and UCB-MSCs were spindle shape in morphology. They were positive for CD90, CD73 and CD44 antigens, and negative for hematopoietic markers. They also differentiated into osteoblast and adipoblast lineages. Real-time PCR results showed that the cells could express MyoD, desmin and α-MHC at the end of the first week (P<0.05). No significant upregulation was detected in the expression of GATA-4 in both groups. Immunocytochemical staining revealed the expression of Desmin, cTnT and α-MHC. Results showed that these cells are potent to differentiate into myoblast- like cells. An upregulation in the expression of some myogenic markers (desmin, α- MHC) was observed in C-MSCs in comparison with UCB-MSCs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Advantages in using Kalman phasor estimation in numerical differential protective relaying compared to the Fourier estimation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Bjarne; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Balle Holst, Per

    2007-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the results obtained from detailed studies of Kalman phasor estimation used in numerical differential protective relaying of a power transformer. The accuracy and expeditiousness of a current estimate in the numerical differential protection is critical for correct...... and not unnecessary activation of the breakers by the protecting relay, and the objective of the study was to utilize the capability of Kalman phasor estimation in a signal model representing the expected current signal from the current transformers of the power transformer. The used signal model included...

  10. Comparing the normalization methods for the differential analysis of Illumina high-throughput RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peipei; Piao, Yongjun; Shon, Ho Sun; Ryu, Keun Ho

    2015-10-28

    Recently, rapid improvements in technology and decrease in sequencing costs have made RNA-Seq a widely used technique to quantify gene expression levels. Various normalization approaches have been proposed, owing to the importance of normalization in the analysis of RNA-Seq data. A comparison of recently proposed normalization methods is required to generate suitable guidelines for the selection of the most appropriate approach for future experiments. In this paper, we compared eight non-abundance (RC, UQ, Med, TMM, DESeq, Q, RPKM, and ERPKM) and two abundance estimation normalization methods (RSEM and Sailfish). The experiments were based on real Illumina high-throughput RNA-Seq of 35- and 76-nucleotide sequences produced in the MAQC project and simulation reads. Reads were mapped with human genome obtained from UCSC Genome Browser Database. For precise evaluation, we investigated Spearman correlation between the normalization results from RNA-Seq and MAQC qRT-PCR values for 996 genes. Based on this work, we showed that out of the eight non-abundance estimation normalization methods, RC, UQ, Med, TMM, DESeq, and Q gave similar normalization results for all data sets. For RNA-Seq of a 35-nucleotide sequence, RPKM showed the highest correlation results, but for RNA-Seq of a 76-nucleotide sequence, least correlation was observed than the other methods. ERPKM did not improve results than RPKM. Between two abundance estimation normalization methods, for RNA-Seq of a 35-nucleotide sequence, higher correlation was obtained with Sailfish than that with RSEM, which was better than without using abundance estimation methods. However, for RNA-Seq of a 76-nucleotide sequence, the results achieved by RSEM were similar to without applying abundance estimation methods, and were much better than with Sailfish. Furthermore, we found that adding a poly-A tail increased alignment numbers, but did not improve normalization results. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that RC, UQ

  11. Differential Effects of Tea Extracts on Growth and Cytokine Production by Normal and Leukemic Human Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bayer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is one of the world’s most highly consumed beverages, second only to water. It is affordable and abundant and thus has great potential for improving health of those in both developed and developing areas. Green, oolong, and black teas differ in the extent of fermentation and types of bioactive polyphenols produced. Green tea and its major polyphenol decrease growth of some cancer cells and effect production of immune system cytokines. This study compares the effects of different types of tea extracts on viability and cytokine production by normal and leukemic human T lymphocytes. Generation of the toxic reactive oxygen species H2O2 by extracts was also examined.Methods: The Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and mitogen-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used in this study. Cell viability was determined by (3-4,5-dimethylthiamizol-2-yl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and production of interleukin-2 by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Levels of H2O2 generated by tea extracts were determined using the xylenol-orange method.Results: We found that green, oolong, and black tea extracts differentially effect the growth and viability of T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, substantially decreasing both growth and viability of leukemic T lymphocytes and having much lesser effects on their normal counterparts. Tea extracts also had differential effects on the production of the T lymphocyte growth factor interleukin-2, significantly decreasing production by leukemic cells while having only minor effects on normal cells. All three extracts induced H2O2 generation, with green and oolong tea extracts having the greatest effect. Leukemic cells were much more susceptible to growth inhibition and killing by H2O2 than normal lymphocytes.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:72-85 Conclusions: The three tea extracts studied altered leukemic T lymphocyte

  12. Do Some Schools Narrow the Gap? Differential School Effectiveness Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little research has explored whether schools differ in their effectiveness for different group of pupils (e.g. by ethnicity, poverty or gender), for different curriculum subjects (e.g. English, mathematics or science) or over time (different cohorts). This paper uses multilevel modelling to analyse the national test results at age 7 and…

  13. Differential effect of opioids in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staahl, Camilla; Dimcevski, Georg; Andersen, Søren Due

    2007-01-01

    and morphine on experimental pain in patients with pain caused by chronic pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients took part in this blinded, cross-over study. The analgesic effects of morphine (30 mg, oral), oxycodone (15 mg, oral) and placebo were tested against multimodal (mechanical, thermal...

  14. Differential effects of active and passive coping on secretory immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, JA; de Geus, E.J.C.; Kelder, A.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Hoogstraten, J.; van Nieuw Amerongen, A.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the acute immunological effects of two laboratory stressors, expected to evoke distinct patterns of cardiac autonomic activity; namely an "active coping" time-paced memory test, and a "passive coping" stressful video showing surgical operations. We measured salivary S-IgA,

  15. Differential Effects of Learning Games on Mathematics Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mido; Evans, Michael A.; Kim, Sunha; Norton, Anderson; Samur, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a learning game, [The Math App] on the mathematics proficiency of middle school students. For the study, researchers recruited 306 students, Grades 6-8, from two schools in rural southwest Virginia. Over a nine-week period, [The Math App] was deployed as an intervention for investigation. Students were assigned…

  16. ADHD and math - The differential effect on calculation and estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganor-Stern, Dana; Steinhorn, Ofir

    2018-05-31

    Adults with ADHD were compared to controls when solving multiplication problems exactly and when estimating the results of multidigit multiplication problems relative to reference numbers. The ADHD participants were slower than controls in the exact calculation and in the estimation tasks, but not less accurate. The ADHD participants were similar to controls in showing enhanced accuracy and speed for smaller problem sizes, for trials in which the reference numbers were smaller (vs. larger) than the exact answers and for reference numbers that were far (vs. close) from the exact answer. The two groups similarly used the approximated calculation and the sense of magnitude strategies. They differed however in strategy execution, mainly of the approximated calculation strategy, which requires working memory resources. The increase in reaction time associated with using the approximated calculation strategy was larger for the ADHD compared to the control participants. Thus, ADHD seems to selectively impair calculation processes in estimation tasks that rely on working memory, but it does not hamper estimation skills that are based on sense of magnitude. The educational implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Differential effects of whisky brands on human gut microbiome and fecal metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sarkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gut bacteria have significant impact on human physiology and are influenced by dietary habit [1]. Apart from normal diet, alcoholic beverages have also been shown to influence gut microbial makeup. The wine polyphenols have been linked to increase the beneficial bacteria in the gut after 4 weeks of consumption [2]. Consumption of alcoholic beverages for longer period (>10 years has also been correlated to detrimental gut bacterial dysbiosis [3]. The contrasting effects of alcoholic beverages in these two studies necessitate further research. Globally, 45.7% of alcoholic drinkers are spirit drinkers with India having the highest (71% [4]. In India whisky is preferred by most of the drinkers and 1400 million liters of whisky was consumed in India in the year 2012 [5]. Till date, no study has been reported to understand the effect of long-term consumption of different types of whisky on gut bacterial profile (GBP. In this purview apilot study of gut bacterial and metabolite profile was performed between the whisky drinker (n=18 and non-drinker (n=8 along with rice beer drinkers (n=3. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS analysis on illumina miseq platform revealed decrease in gut bacterial diversity in the drinkers compared to the non-drinkers. The whisky types have differential effects on the GBP. The GBP of whisky type 1 drinkers had higher abundance of Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae (fold change log 2: 3.33 & 3.1537, respectively; p< 0.002 in comparison to the non-drinker group, while the type 2 whisky drinkers had increased abundance of Lactococcus and Streptococcus (fold change log 2: 9.1827 & 4.2986; p< 0.002 compared to the non-drinker group. The butyric acid producing genera, Ruminococcaceae was found to be decreased in both the whisky drinking cohorts (fold change log 2: -1.5449 & -2.7327, respectively; p<0.002. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA, mainly butyric acid

  18. Comparative study on the pathogenic effects of Diminazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in goats to compare the pathogenic effects of .... membrane was examined, the rectal temperature of the goats was recorded ... the plasma layer, the content was expressed on the slide and covered with slip. ... measure analysis of variance in SPSS version 15.0 (2000). ..... Canadanian Journal of.

  19. Comparative Effects of Tri-Polar Eclectic Teaching Approach on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is an experimental study that examined the comparative effects of Tripolar Interactionist teaching strategy on the academic performance of Junior Secondary School III students of Adeyemi Demonstration secondary School Ondo in social studies. The instrument used for the study includes scheme of work, lesson notes ...

  20. Comparative effects of Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey (Mellifica sp) is produced by Apis mellifera africana, widely consumed without prescription or restriction, and has been shown to possess wound healing and antitusive properties. Comparative study of the effects of honey paste and Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture on the healing of incisional wound on albino ...

  1. Comparative Effect of Graphic Organiser and Expository teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the comparative effects of graphic organiser and expository teaching strategies on the achievement of senior secondary school students in Economics. Graphic organiser is a teaching strategy used to visualise the structure of knowledge, instead of describing all concepts and their relations in text as in ...

  2. Comparing the effect of various pipe materials on biofilm formation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing the effect of various pipe materials on biofilm formation in chlorinated and combined chlorine-chloraminated water systems. ... The capability of bacterial regrowth occurring on the surface of test pipe materials during this period was linked to the depletion of the concentration of monochloramine residual.

  3. Comparative effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to compare the effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling was carried out with a total of 65 DNA samples using 12 species of Indian Garcinia. ISSR and RAPD profiling were performed with 19 and 12 primers, respectively. ISSR markers ...

  4. Comparative Clinical Study on the Effectiveness of Homeopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of homeopathic combination remedy compared with standard maintenance therapy for the treatment of dengue fever. Method: A total of 50 patients with dengue fever were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 was treated with homeopathic combination remedy for consecutive 6 ...

  5. Comparing the effect of bioflocculant with synthetic polymers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at introducing a novel bioflocculant to enhance anaerobic granulation in a UASB reactor for lowstrength synthetic wastewater and comparing the effect with synthetic polymers. A laboratory-scale study was undertaken to achieve this goal. Four identical UASB reactors were operated in parallel in the ...

  6. 13 Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Abstract. Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  7. Comparing fixed effects and covariance structure estimators for panel data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Holm, Anders

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors compare the traditional econometric fixed effect estimator with the maximum likelihood estimator implied by covariance structure models for panel data. Their findings are that the maximum like lipoid estimator is remarkably robust to certain types of misspecifications...

  8. Comparative Study on the Effects of Crude Extracts of Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on the effects of crude extracts of pterocarpus soyauxii and Telfairia occidentalis on haematological parameters of albino wistar rats was carried out. Forty nine albino rats of both sexes, weighing between 150 and 250 g were used for the study. The rats were divided into seven groups of seven rats each.

  9. Differential effects of cognitive inhibition and intelligence on creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Benedek, Mathias; Franz, Fabiola; Heene, Moritz; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2012-01-01

    There are different conceptions about how cognitive inhibition is related to creativity. Creativity has either been associated with effective inhibition, or with disinhibition, or with an adaptive engagement of inhibition. In this study, we examined the relationship of cognitive inhibition, assessed by means of the random motor generation task, with different measures of creativity. We also analyzed whether this relation is mediated by intelligence. We generally found a positive correlation o...

  10. The effects of female status on sex differentiated mate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Fhionna R.

    2007-01-01

    Mate preferences provide an opportunity to explore the validity of evolutionary and social role origin theories of sex differences in human behaviour. In evolutionary models, preferences are sex-specific adaptive responses to constraints to reproductive success. In social role models, sex differences arise from the allocation of men and women to different gender roles. I explored the effects of the status of women on preferences to assess the validity of the origin theories....

  11. Differential effects of white noise in cognitive and perceptual tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Herweg, Nora A.; Bunzeck, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of noise on higher cognition have recently attracted attention. Hypothesizing an involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system and its functional interactions with cortical areas, the current study aimed to demonstrate a facilitation of dopamine-dependent attentional and mnemonic functions by externally applying white noise in five behavioral experiments including a total sample of 167 healthy human subjects. During working memory, acoustic white noise impaired accuracy whe...

  12. Effects of differentiated music on cycling time trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H B T; Atkinson, G; Karageorghis, C I; Eubank, M R; Eubank, M M

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of music introduced and removed during a 10-km cycling time trial with reference to Rejeski's parallel processing theory and Karageorghis, Terry and Lane's conceptual framework for the prediction of responses to asynchronous music during sub-maximal exercise. A range of performance variables, ratings of perceived exertion, positive affect, negative affect, and blood lactate were assessed. Eleven males (mean age=24.9, s=6.1 years) completed a 10-km time trial under three conditions; no music, music played initially then removed between 5-10 km, and music played between 5-10 km only. Variables of time, power, cadence, speed, RPE, blood lactate, positive and negative affect were analysed using a ConditionxDistance ANOVA. There was no significant main effect for music conditions for the performance variables, perceived exertion, blood lactate, and affect (p>0.05). Nevertheless, a significant interaction effect for ConditionxDistance was found for cycling speed, with participants cycling 1-1.25 km/h faster at the start of the music introduced time trial than in both the music removed and no music time trials (pmusic during exercise and this finding can be used to extend current theory as it does not specifically address the periodic use music. The fact that participants exercised harder when they expected music to be introduced at a later stage illustrates the behavioural influences that music can engender during self-paced exercise.

  13. When problem size matters: differential effects of brain stimulation on arithmetic problem solving and neural oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rütsche

    Full Text Available The problem size effect is a well-established finding in arithmetic problem solving and is characterized by worse performance in problems with larger compared to smaller operand size. Solving small and large arithmetic problems has also been shown to involve different cognitive processes and distinct electroencephalography (EEG oscillations over the left posterior parietal cortex (LPPC. In this study, we aimed to provide further evidence for these dissociations by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Participants underwent anodal (30min, 1.5 mA, LPPC and sham tDCS. After the stimulation, we recorded their neural activity using EEG while the participants solved small and large arithmetic problems. We found that the tDCS effects on performance and oscillatory activity critically depended on the problem size. While anodal tDCS improved response latencies in large arithmetic problems, it decreased solution rates in small arithmetic problems. Likewise, the lower-alpha desynchronization in large problems increased, whereas the theta synchronization in small problems decreased. These findings reveal that the LPPC is differentially involved in solving small and large arithmetic problems and demonstrate that the effects of brain stimulation strikingly differ depending on the involved neuro-cognitive processes.

  14. The effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the proliferation and differentiation of human megakaryocytic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Satoru; Takahashi, Kenji; Abe, Yoshinao; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Mori, Takao; Inanami, Osamu; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2006-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) has been widely recognized as a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger. The effects of EGCg on the proliferation and differentiation of X-irradiated megakaryocytic progenitor cells (colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte, CFU-Meg) using CD34 + cells prepared from human placental and umbilical cord blood have been shown. In the absence of exogenous thrombopoietin (TPO), no colonies are observed in cultures containing or lacking EGCg (1 nM-100 μM). In the presence of TPO, in contrast, EGCg significantly promotes CFU-Meg-derived colony formations within the 10-100 nM range. A 1.5-fold increase in the total number of CFU-Meg has been counted compared with the control. These favorable effects of EGCg are also observed in the culture of CD34 + cells before and after X irradiation with 2 Gy. Moreover, in order to investigate the function of EGCg promoting megakaryocyto-poiesis and thrombopoiesis in ex vivo cultures, both non-irradiated and X-irradiated CD34 + cells are grown in liquid cultures supplemented with TPO. In both cultures, EGCg increases the total number of cells and megakaryocytes. It has been suggested that the favorable effects of EGCg reduce the risk factor from radiation damage in megakaryocytopoiesis. (author)

  15. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the diagnostic strategies for differentiating focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Chong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Liver Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Namwon Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Namwon-si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Won [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Liver Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Harvard Medical School, Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Seong Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Liver Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sangjin; Ahn, Jeonghoon [National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency, Division of Healthcare Technology Assessment Research, Department of Economic Evaluation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Junhee [Utrecht University, Collaborating Center for Pharmaceutical Policy and Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Utrecht (Netherlands); Shinagare, Atul B.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Ramaiya, Nikhil H. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) strategy compared with conventional MRI strategy and biopsy to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) from hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). A decision tree model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of EOB-MRI, conventional MRI with extracellular contrast agents, and biopsy as the initial diagnostic modality in patients with incidentally detected focal liver lesions suspected of being FNH or HCA. We analysed the cost and effectiveness, i.e. probability of successful diagnosis of each strategy. Costs were based on utilisation rates and Medicare reimbursements in the USA and South Korea. In the base case analysis of our decision tree model, the effectiveness of the three strategies was similar. The cost of the EOB-MRI strategy ($1283 in USA, $813 in South Korea) was lowest compared with the biopsy strategy ($1725 in USA, $847 in South Korea) and the conventional MRI strategy ($1750 in USA, $962 in South Korea). One-way, two-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed unchanged results over an acceptable range. EOB-MRI strategy is the most cost-effective strategy for differentiating FNH from HCA in patients with incidentally detected focal liver lesions in a non-cirrhotic liver. (orig.)

  16. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the diagnostic strategies for differentiating focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chong Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Seong Ho; Shin, Sangjin; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Pyo, Junhee; Shinagare, Atul B.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Ramaiya, Nikhil H.

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) strategy compared with conventional MRI strategy and biopsy to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) from hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). A decision tree model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of EOB-MRI, conventional MRI with extracellular contrast agents, and biopsy as the initial diagnostic modality in patients with incidentally detected focal liver lesions suspected of being FNH or HCA. We analysed the cost and effectiveness, i.e. probability of successful diagnosis of each strategy. Costs were based on utilisation rates and Medicare reimbursements in the USA and South Korea. In the base case analysis of our decision tree model, the effectiveness of the three strategies was similar. The cost of the EOB-MRI strategy ($1283 in USA, $813 in South Korea) was lowest compared with the biopsy strategy ($1725 in USA, $847 in South Korea) and the conventional MRI strategy ($1750 in USA, $962 in South Korea). One-way, two-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed unchanged results over an acceptable range. EOB-MRI strategy is the most cost-effective strategy for differentiating FNH from HCA in patients with incidentally detected focal liver lesions in a non-cirrhotic liver. (orig.)

  17. The Differential Effect of Various Stakeholder Groups in Place Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshuis, Jasper; Braun, Erik; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses whether involving various stakeholder groups in place marketing has effects on the content of place brands, and on how place marketing influences other policy fields, i.e. spatial planning and tourism/leisure policies. The research applies structural equation modelling...... businesses increases influence on tourism/leisure policies. Other studies have shown varying influence of stakeholder groups in cases, but not in quantitative studies. The research also addresses the mechanisms at play in Germany and the Netherlands, showing mainly commonalities....

  18. Differential effect of procaine on irradiated mammalian cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djordjevic, B.

    1979-01-01

    HeLa and V-79 Chinese hamster cells temporarily stored in ampoules were treated with the local anesthetic procaine. Postirradiation treatment increased lethality in HeLa cells depending on drug concentration, duration of treatment, and cell density, as measured by colony-forming ability upon plating. If present during irradiation only, procaine protected from irradiation. In V-79 cells, procaine potentiated radiation lethality only in freshly trypsinized cells. Procaine effect was thus cell type specific and most likely involved the cell membrane

  19. Differentiated-effect shims for medium field levels and saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richie, A.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement of shims on the upstream and downstream ends of magnets may be based on the independent effects of variations in the geometric length and degree of saturation at the edges of the poles. This technique can be used to match the bending strength of an accelerator's magnets at two field levels (medium fields and maximum fields) and thus save special procedures (mixing the laminations, local compensation for errors by arranging the magnets in the appropriate order) and special devices (for instance, correcting dipoles) solely for correcting bending strengths at low field levels. (Auth.)

  20. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS RESEARCH AND ITS APPLICATION TO NURSING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Su-Yeon Park

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This in-depth integrative literature review aimed to investigate comparative effectiveness research (CER methodologies applicable to nursing research and to propose a CER design relevant to nursing education. Integration and synthesis were conducted from August 20 to December 15, 2013 and from October 20 to December 05, 2015 using electronic databases and refereed published books. The key words were “comparative effectiveness research,” “education,” “patient outcomes,” “effectiveness,” “cost-effectiveness,” and “efficiency.” All selected literatures were initially scrutinized by the principal investigator in terms of scientific rigor and then synthesized on an ongoing basis. CER methodologies in nursing research were presented to be significant in terms of enabling the distinctiveness of the nursing profession to stand out. Three CER methodologies applicable to nursing research—a Pragmatic Clinical Trial, Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research and Cost Effectiveness Research—revealed each of their distinguishable strengths and weaknesses compared to the Randomized Controlled Trial. For ethical considerations, the importance of ensuring “equipoise” was identified. Lastly, in a head to head comparison of two nursing education programs, a single blind, randomized crossover study design was proposed as a type of Pragmatic Clinical Trial utilizing cost-utility analysis. A mixed method Analysis of Covariance and a Doubly Multivariate Repeated Analysis of Covariance were suggested as relevant statistical analyses. Considering that CER is still inchoate in nursing research and nurse scientists’ endeavors to address the gap are urgent, this study is compelling in that it proposed a rigorous CER design not only directly applicable to nursing education, but also to other disciplines in education.

  1. Effect of Differential Diffusion in Two-Component Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingel', L. Kh.

    2017-03-01

    Examples are presented of an exact solution of a nonstationary problem on the development of convection in a binary mixture (seawater) near an infinite vertical surface in which the buoyancy disturbances are determined both by the temperature and by the disturbances of the impurity (salt) concentration. Consideration is given to the development of convection in a homogeneous medium near an infinite vertical surface at whose boundary specification is made of constant (after ″switching on″ at the initial moment) heat fluxes and impurities or variations of these substances, i.e., problems with boundary conditions of 1st and 2nd kind are considered. The obtained analytical solutions demonstrate the possibility of a nontrivial effect associated with the difference in the values of the coefficients of transfer of two substances: the inflows of positive buoyancy may lead, contrary to intuitive notions, to the origination of descending motion of the medium rather than the ascending one. Clarification is provided for the physical meaning of such effects, which can be substantial, for example, in melting of sea ice.

  2. Effect Size Measures for Differential Item Functioning in a Multidimensional IRT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Youngsuk

    2016-01-01

    This study adapted an effect size measure used for studying differential item functioning (DIF) in unidimensional tests and extended the measure to multidimensional tests. Two effect size measures were considered in a multidimensional item response theory model: signed weighted P-difference and unsigned weighted P-difference. The performance of…

  3. The Effect of Instrument-Specific Rater Training on Interrater Reliability and Counseling Skills Performance Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Paul Douglas, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of instrument-specific rater training on interrater reliability (IRR) and counseling skills performance differentiation. Strong IRR is of primary concern to effective program evaluation (McCullough, Kuhn, Andrews, Valen, Hatch, & Osimo, 2003; Schanche, Nielsen, McCullough, Valen, &…

  4. Effects of caffeine and its reactive metabolites theophylline and theobromine on the differentiating testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, I; Locquet, O; Solvar, A; Magre, S

    2001-01-01

    A previous study in the rat (Pollard et al. 1990) established that caffeine, when administered during pregnancy, significantly inhibited the differentiation of the seminiferous cords and subsequent Leydig cell development in the interstitium. However, that study could not distinguish between the direct effects of caffeine and/or the intermediary secondary toxic effects of metabolites such as theophylline and theobromine. Because the fetus lacks the appropriate enzyme systems, clearance of toxic substances takes place via the placenta and maternal liver. Thus, a suitable in vitro system can effectively differentiate between primary and secondary drug effects. In the present study, 13-day-old fetal testis, at the stage of incipient differentiation, were cultured for 4 days in vitro in the presence of graded doses of caffeine, theophylline or theobromine. It was found that explants exposed to caffeine or theobromine differentiated normally, developing seminiferous cords made up of Sertoli and germ cells, soon followed by the differentiation of functionally active Leydig cells appearing in the newly formed interstitium. However, explants exposed to theophylline failed to develop seminiferous cords and, as a consequence, Leydig cells. In conclusion, insights obtained from different experimental methods, such as organ culture or whole organism studies, are not always identical. It may be prudent, therefore, to take into account that certain experimental techniques, despite providing valuable information, may require confirmation by other test methods in order to obtain an in-depth understanding of mechanisms of action involved.

  5. The relative contribution of paracine effect versus direct differentiation on adipose-derived stem cell transplantation mediated cardiac repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that transplantation of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC can improve cardiac function in animal models of myocardial infarction (MI. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect are not fully understood. In this study, we characterized the paracrine effect of transplanted ADSC and investigated its relative importance versus direct differentiation in ADSC transplantation mediated cardiac repair. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MI was experimentally induced in mice by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Either human ADSC, conditioned medium (CM collected from the same amount of ADSC or control medium was injected into the peri-infarct region immediately after MI. Compared with the control group, both ADSC and ADSC-CM significantly reduced myocardial infarct size and improved cardiac function. The therapeutic efficacy of ADSC was moderately superior to ADSC-CM. ADSC-CM significantly reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the infarct border zone, to a similar degree with ADSC treatment. ADSC enhanced angiogenesis in the infarct border zone, but to a stronger degree than that seen in the ADSC-CM treatment. ADSC was able to differentiate to endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell in post-MI heart; these ADSC-derived vascular cells amount to about 9% of the enhanced angiogenesis. No cardiomyocyte differentiated from ADSC was found. CONCLUSIONS: ADSC-CM is sufficient to improve cardiac function of infarcted hearts. The therapeutic function of ADSC transplantation is mainly induced by paracrine-mediated cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while ADSC differentiation contributes a minor benefit by being involved in angiogenesis. Highlights 1 ADSC-CM is sufficient to exert a therapeutic potential. 2. ADSC was able to differentiate to vascular cells but not cardiomyocyte. 3. ADSC derived vascular cells amount to about 9% of the enhanced angiogenesis. 4. Paracrine effect is the major

  6. Differential effects of myostatin deficiency on motor and sensory axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Maria R; Villalón, Eric; Northcutt, Adam J; Calcutt, Nigel A; Garcia, Michael L

    2017-12-01

    Deletion of myostatin in mice (MSTN -/- ) alters structural properties of peripheral axons. However, properties like axon diameter and myelin thickness were analyzed in mixed nerves, so it is unclear whether loss of myostatin affects motor, sensory, or both types of axons. Using the MSTN -/- mouse model, we analyzed the effects of increasing the number of muscle fibers on axon diameter, myelin thickness, and internode length in motor and sensory axons. Axon diameter and myelin thickness were increased in motor axons of MSTN -/- mice without affecting internode length or axon number. The number of sensory axons was increased without affecting their structural properties. These results suggest that motor and sensory axons establish structural properties by independent mechanisms. Moreover, in motor axons, instructive cues from the neuromuscular junction may play a role in co-regulating axon diameter and myelin thickness, whereas internode length is established independently. Muscle Nerve 56: E100-E107, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Differential Effect of Various Stakeholder Groups in Place Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshuis, Jasper; Braun, Erik; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses whether involving various stakeholder groups in place marketing has effects on the content of place brands, and on how place marketing influences other policy fields, i.e. spatial planning and tourism/leisure policies. The research applies structural equation modelling...... to nationwide surveys in the Netherlands and Germany among professionals in place marketing (N = 444). The study shows that different stakeholder groups have a varied influence; involving residents and public managers increases the influence of place marketing on spatial planning policies, whereas involving...... businesses increases influence on tourism/leisure policies. Other studies have shown varying influence of stakeholder groups in cases, but not in quantitative studies. The research also addresses the mechanisms at play in Germany and the Netherlands, showing mainly commonalities....

  8. The policy debate over public investment in comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Eugene C

    2009-06-01

    Policy makers across the political spectrum, as well as many clinicians and physician professional associations, have proposed that better information on comparative clinical effectiveness should be a key element of any solution to the US health-care cost crisis. This superficial consensus hides intense disagreements over critical issues essential to any new public effort to promote more comparative effectiveness research (CER). This article reviews the background for these disputes, summarizes the different perspectives represented by policy makers and advocates, and offers a framework to aid both practicing and academic internists in understanding the key elements of the emerging debate. Regarding the fundamental question of "what is CER," disagreements rage over whether value or cost effectiveness should be a consideration, and how specific patient perspectives should be reflected in the development and the use of such research. The question of how to pay for CER invokes controversies over the role of the market in producing such information and the private (e.g., insurers and employers) versus public responsibility for its production. The financing debate further highlights the high stakes of comparative effectiveness research, and the risks of stakeholder interests subverting any public process. Accordingly there are a range of proposals for the federal government's role in prioritization, development, and dissemination of CER. The internal medicine community, with its long history of commitment to scientific medical practice and its leadership in evidence-based medicine, should have a strong interest and play an active role in this debate.

  9. The effect of decaying atomic states on integral and time differential Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankeleit, E.

    1975-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra for time dependent monopole interaction have been calculated for the case that the nuclear transition feeding the Moessbauer state excites an electric state of the atom. This is assumed to decay in a time comparable with the lifetime of the Moessbauer state. Spectra have been calculated for both time differential and integral experiments. (orig.) [de

  10. Effects on Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engineered to Express Neurotrophic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotential cells with capability to form colonies in vitro and differentiate into distinctive end-stage cell types. Although MSCs secrete many cytokines, the efficacy can be improved through combination with neurotrophic factors (NTFs. Moreover, MSCs are excellent opportunities for local delivery of NTFs into injured tissues. The aim of this present study is to evaluate the effects of overexpressing NTFs on proliferation and differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs. Overexpressing NTFs had no effect on cell proliferation. Overexpressing NT-3, BDNF, and NGF also had no significant effect on the differentiation of HUMSCs. Overexpressing NTFs all promoted the neurite outgrowth of embryonic chick E9 dorsal root ganglion (DRG. The gene expression profiles of the control and NT-3- and BDNF-modified HUMSCs were compared using RNA sequencing and biological processes and activities were revealed. This study provides novel information about the effects of overexpressing NTFs on HUMSCs and insight into the choice of optimal NTFs for combined cell and gene therapy.

  11. Ideal Standards, Acceptance, and Relationship Satisfaction: Latitudes of Differential Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Buyukcan-Tetik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether the relations of consistency between ideal standards and perceptions of a current romantic partner with partner acceptance and relationship satisfaction level off, or decelerate, above a threshold. We tested our hypothesis using a 3-year longitudinal data set collected from heterosexual newlywed couples. We used two indicators of consistency: pattern correspondence (within-person correlation between ideal standards and perceived partner ratings and mean-level match (difference between ideal standards score and perceived partner score. Our results revealed that pattern correspondence had no relation with partner acceptance, but a positive linear/exponential association with relationship satisfaction. Mean-level match had a significant positive association with actor’s acceptance and relationship satisfaction up to the point where perceived partner score equaled ideal standards score. Partner effects did not show a consistent pattern. The results suggest that the consistency between ideal standards and perceived partner attributes has a non-linear association with acceptance and relationship satisfaction, although the results were more conclusive for mean-level match.

  12. Differential effects of fasting vs food restriction on liver thyroid hormone metabolism in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, E M; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Kalsbeek, A; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2015-01-01

    A variety of illnesses that leads to profound changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) are axis collectively known as the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterized by decreased tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and inappropriately low TSH serum concentrations, as well as altered hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. Spontaneous caloric restriction often occurs during illness and may contribute to NTIS, but it is currently unknown to what extent. The role of diminished food intake is often studied using experimental fasting models, but partial food restriction might be a more physiologically relevant model. In this comparative study, we characterized hepatic TH metabolism in two models for caloric restriction: 36 h of complete fasting and 21 days of 50% food restriction. Both fasting and food restriction decreased serum T4 concentration, while after 36-h fasting serum T3 also decreased. Fasting decreased hepatic T3 but not T4 concentrations, while food restriction decreased both hepatic T3 and T4 concentrations. Fasting and food restriction both induced an upregulation of liver D3 expression and activity, D1 was not affected. A differential effect was seen in Mct10 mRNA expression, which was upregulated in the fasted rats but not in food-restricted rats. Other metabolic pathways of TH, such as sulfation and UDP-glucuronidation, were also differentially affected. The changes in hepatic TH concentrations were reflected by the expression of T3-responsive genes Fas and Spot14 only in the 36-h fasted rats. In conclusion, limited food intake induced marked changes in hepatic TH metabolism, which are likely to contribute to the changes observed during NTIS. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  13. Comparative genomic analysis uncovers 3 novel loci encoding type six secretion systems differentially distributed in Salmonella serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiviago Carlos A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recently described Type VI Secretion System (T6SS represents a new paradigm of protein secretion in bacteria. A number of bioinformatic studies have been conducted to identify T6SS gene clusters in the available bacterial genome sequences. According to these studies, Salmonella harbors a unique T6SS encoded in the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 6 (SPI-6. Since these studies only considered few Salmonella genomes, the present work aimed to identify novel T6SS loci by in silico analysis of every genome sequence of Salmonella available. Results The analysis of sequencing data from 44 completed or in progress Salmonella genome projects allowed the identification of 3 novel T6SS loci. These clusters are located in differentially-distributed genomic islands we designated SPI-19, SPI-20 and SPI-21, respectively. SPI-19 was identified in a subset of S. enterica serotypes including Dublin, Weltevreden, Agona, Gallinarum and Enteritidis. In the later, an internal deletion eliminated most of the island. On the other hand, SPI-20 and SPI-21 were restricted to S. enterica subspecies arizonae (IIIa serotype 62:z4,z23:-. Remarkably, SPI-21 encodes a VgrG protein containing a C-terminal extension similar to S-type pyocins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is not only the first evolved VgrG described in Salmonella, but also the first evolved VgrG including a pyocin domain described so far in the literature. In addition, the data indicate that SPI-6 T6SS is widely distributed in S. enterica and absent in serotypes Enteritidis, Gallinarum, Agona, Javiana, Paratyphi B, Virchow, IIIa 62:z4,z23:- and IIIb 61:1,v:1,5,(7. Interestingly, while some serotypes harbor multiple T6SS (Dublin, Weltvreden and IIIa 62:z4,z23:- others do not encode for any (Enteritidis, Paratyphi B, Javiana, Virchow and IIIb 61:1,v:1,5,(7. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the 4 T6SS loci in Salmonella have a distinct evolutionary history. Finally, we

  14. Preschoolers’ Emotion Knowledge and the Differential Effects of Harsh Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzenski, Sara R.; Yates, Tuppett M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children’s behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children’s emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. Two hundred fifty preschool age children (50% female; Mage=49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% Multiracial/Other) were assessed through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment (Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scale), conduct problems (Teacher Report Form, California Child Q-Sort), self concept (Self Description Questionnaire for Preschoolers, California Child Q-Sort), and emotion knowledge (Kuschè Emotion Inventory). Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children’s responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs. PMID:23750528

  15. Differential effect of visual masking in perceptual categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélie, Sébastien; Cousineau, Denis

    2015-06-01

    This article explores the visual information used to categorize stimuli drawn from a common stimulus space into verbal and nonverbal categories using 2 experiments. Experiment 1 explores the effect of target duration on verbal and nonverbal categorization using backward masking to interrupt visual processing. With categories equated for difficulty for long and short target durations, intermediate target duration shows an advantage for verbal categorization over nonverbal categorization. Experiment 2 tests whether the results of Experiment 1 can be explained by shorter target duration resulting in a smaller signal-to-noise ratio of the categorization stimulus. To test for this possibility, Experiment 2 used integration masking with the same stimuli, categories, and masks as Experiment 1 with a varying level of mask opacity. As predicted, low mask opacity yielded similar results to long target duration while high mask opacity yielded similar results to short target duration. Importantly, intermediate mask opacity produced an advantage for verbal categorization over nonverbal categorization, similar to intermediate target duration. These results suggest that verbal and nonverbal categorization are affected differently by manipulations affecting the signal-to-noise ratio of the stimulus, consistent with multiple-system theories of categorizations. The results further suggest that verbal categorization may be more digital (and more robust to low signal-to-noise ratio) while the information used in nonverbal categorization may be more analog (and less robust to lower signal-to-noise ratio). This article concludes with a discussion of how these new results affect the use of masking in perceptual categorization and multiple-system theories of perceptual category learning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Genomic characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates selected for medical countermeasures testing: comparative genomics associated with differential virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Sahl

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis and a potential bioterrorism agent. In the development of medical countermeasures against B. pseudomallei infection, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA animal Rule recommends using well-characterized strains in animal challenge studies. In this study, whole genome sequence data were generated for 6 B. pseudomallei isolates previously identified as candidates for animal challenge studies; an additional 5 isolates were sequenced that were associated with human inhalational melioidosis. A core genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP phylogeny inferred from a concatenated SNP alignment from the 11 isolates sequenced in this study and a diverse global collection of isolates demonstrated the diversity of the proposed Animal Rule isolates. To understand the genomic composition of each isolate, a large-scale blast score ratio (LS-BSR analysis was performed on the entire pan-genome; this demonstrated the variable composition of genes across the panel and also helped to identify genes unique to individual isolates. In addition, a set of ~550 genes associated with pathogenesis in B. pseudomallei were screened against the 11 sequenced genomes with LS-BSR. Differential gene distribution for 54 virulence-associated genes was observed between genomes and three of these genes were correlated with differential virulence observed in animal challenge studies using BALB/c mice. Differentially conserved genes and SNPs associated with disease severity were identified and could be the basis for future studies investigating the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei. Overall, the genetic characterization of the 11 proposed Animal Rule isolates provides context for future studies involving B. pseudomallei pathogenesis, differential virulence, and efficacy to therapeutics.

  17. Differential effects of insular and ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions on risky decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L; Bechara, A; Damasio, H; Aitken, M R F; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W

    2008-05-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and insular cortex are implicated in distributed neural circuitry that supports emotional decision-making. Previous studies of patients with vmPFC lesions have focused primarily on decision-making under uncertainty, when outcome probabilities are ambiguous (e.g. the Iowa Gambling Task). It remains unclear whether vmPFC is also necessary for decision-making under risk, when outcome probabilities are explicit. It is not known whether the effect of insular damage is analogous to the effect of vmPFC damage, or whether these regions contribute differentially to choice behaviour. Four groups of participants were compared on the Cambridge Gamble Task, a well-characterized measure of risky decision-making where outcome probabilities are presented explicitly, thus minimizing additional learning and working memory demands. Patients with focal, stable lesions to the vmPFC (n = 20) and the insular cortex (n = 13) were compared against healthy subjects (n = 41) and a group of lesion controls (n = 12) with damage predominantly affecting the dorsal and lateral frontal cortex. The vmPFC and insular cortex patients showed selective and distinctive disruptions of betting behaviour. VmPFC damage was associated with increased betting regardless of the odds of winning, consistent with a role of vmPFC in biasing healthy individuals towards conservative options under risk. In contrast, patients with insular cortex lesions failed to adjust their bets by the odds of winning, consistent with a role of the insular cortex in signalling the probability of aversive outcomes. The insular group attained a lower point score on the task and experienced more 'bankruptcies'. There were no group differences in probability judgement. These data confirm the necessary role of the vmPFC and insular regions in decision-making under risk. Poor decision-making in clinical populations can arise via multiple routes, with functionally dissociable effects of vmPFC and

  18. Robust photonic differentiator employing slow light effect in photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Siqi; Cheng, Ziwei; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2017-01-01

    A robust photonic DIFF exploiting the slow light effect in a photonic crystal waveguide is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Input Gaussian pulses with full-width halfmaximums ranging from 2.7 ps to 81.4 ps can be accurately differentiated.......A robust photonic DIFF exploiting the slow light effect in a photonic crystal waveguide is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Input Gaussian pulses with full-width halfmaximums ranging from 2.7 ps to 81.4 ps can be accurately differentiated....

  19. Differentiation of direct and indirect socioeconomic effects on suicide attempts in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Myung; Seong Sohn, Eui; An, Byungduck; Lim, Jiseun

    2017-12-01

    Despite the wide recognition of the inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and suicidal behaviors, its underlying process and potential mediators are little known. This study investigated the pathway from SEP to suicide attempts with attention to potential mediators.From the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2013, which is a nationwide cross-sectional survey of the health and nutritional status, a total of 34,565 participants (≥30 years) were included in the analysis. To unfold the pathways linking SEP to suicide attempts, the direct and indirect effects of 3 SEP measures (educational attainment, household income, and occupational group) and 3 mediators (physical illness, mental health problems, and problematic drinking) were differentiated using structured equation model (SEM).Most of direct and indirect effects of educational attainment, household income, and occupational group on suicide attempts were significant; Nonemployment status had the largest total (β = 0.291, P suicide attempts, compared to mental health problem and problem drinking.Overall, experience of socioeconomic disadvantage increased suicide attempts independently of mental and physical problems. An extension of suicide prevention program is required for comprehensively targeting people with general problems such as physical illness and low SEP, complemented to narrowly targeting high risk group with, such as mental health problem. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential effect of EGFR inhibitors on tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmin; Lee, Jeongmin; Oh, Soo Jin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon

    2015-09-01

    Although tamoxifen is the most common and effective therapy for treatment of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) breast cancer patients, resistance of endocrine therapy occurs, either de novo or acquired during therapy. Here, we investigated the clinical value of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) patients and the differential effect of EGFR inhibitors, neratinib and gefitinib, on TamR breast cancer cell model. The morphology of TamR MCF7 cells showed mesenchymal phenotypes and did not induce cell death by tamoxifen treatment compared with tamoxifen‑sensitive (TamS) MCF7 cells. In addition, mesenchymal marker proteins, including N-cadherin (N-cad), fibronectin (FN), and Slug, significantly increased in TamR cells. In contrast, ER-α and E-cadherin (E-cad) were greatly decreased. We also found that the levels of EGFR and HER2 expression were increased in TamR cells. Furthermore, we observed that EGFR expression was directly involved with poor prognosis of tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients using the GSE1378 date set. Thus, we treated TamR and TamS cells with EGFR inhibitors, neratinib and gefitinib, respectively. Interestingly, neratinib induced apoptotic cell death of TamR but not gefitinib. Cleaved PARP-1 expression was also increased by neratinib treatment in TamR cells. Therefore, we suggest that neratinib may be a potential therapeutic drug for treating TamR breast cancer.

  1. Factorization and resummation of Higgs boson differential distributions in soft-collinear effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantry, Sonny; Petriello, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We derive a factorization theorem for the Higgs boson transverse momentum (p T ) and rapidity (Y) distributions at hadron colliders, using the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for m h >>p T >>Λ QCD , where m h denotes the Higgs mass. In addition to the factorization of the various scales involved, the perturbative physics at the p T scale is further factorized into two collinear impact-parameter beam functions (IBFs) and an inverse soft function (ISF). These newly defined functions are of a universal nature for the study of differential distributions at hadron colliders. The additional factorization of the p T -scale physics simplifies the implementation of higher order radiative corrections in α s (p T ). We derive formulas for factorization in both momentum and impact parameter space and discuss the relationship between them. Large logarithms of the relevant scales in the problem are summed using the renormalization group equations of the effective theories. Power corrections to the factorization theorem in p T /m h and Λ QCD /p T can be systematically derived. We perform multiple consistency checks on our factorization theorem including a comparison with known fixed-order QCD results. We compare the SCET factorization theorem with the Collins-Soper-Sterman approach to low-p T resummation.

  2. Differential Effects of Olanzapine and Haloperidol on MK-801-induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Chun; Seo, Mi Kyoung; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, Jung Goo; Kim, Young Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the differential effects of the antipsychotic drugs olanzapine and haloperidol on MK-801-induced memory impairment and neurogenesis in mice. Methods MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) was administered 20 minutes prior to behavioral testing over 9 days. Beginning on the sixth day of MK-801 treatment, either olanzapine (0.05 mg/kg) or haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg) was administered 40 minutes prior to MK-801 for the final 4 days. Spatial memory performance was measured using a Morris water maze (MWM) test for 9 days (four trials/day). Immunohistochemistry with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to identify newborn cells labeled in tissue sections from the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Results MK-801 administration over 9 days significantly impaired memory performance in the MWM test compared to untreated controls (p801 also resulted in a decrease in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus (28.6%; p801 in mice via the stimulating effects of neurogenesis. PMID:27489382

  3. Comparative Antitussive Effects of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Saeideh; Shakeri, Farzaneh; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-01-15

    Context • The cough is a protective reflex, with 2 types, one being more sensitive to mechanical stimulation and the other to chemical stimulation, such as sulfur dioxide, ammonia, citric acid, and capsaicin. Some evidence is available that suppressant therapy is most effective when used for the short-term reduction of coughing. Today, use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments, including to provide antitussive activity. Objective • The study intended to review the antitussive effects of various extracts, some fractions, and some constituents of the studied medicinal plants. Design • Various databases, including the Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were searched for studies published between 1978 and 2015, using the keywords antitussive and cough and the names of various medicinal plants and their constituents. Setting • The study took place in the districts related to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran). Outcome Measures • The antitussive effects of medicinal plants and their constituents were normalized to 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/mL against various cough stimulants and compared. Results • The most potent antitussive effect was observed for Nigella sativa and Linum usitatissimum on coughs induced by sulfur dioxide. Artemisia absinthium showed a higher antitussive effect on cough induced by ammonia compared with the other studied medicinal plants. The antitussive effects of Cuminum cyminum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were more potent on cough induced by citric acid than other medicinal plants. Conclusions • These results suggest the therapeutic potential of the studied medicinal plants as antitussive therapies. However, only a few clinical studies have examined the antitussive effects of medicinal plants, and more clinical studies are needed. The underlying mechanisms of the antitussive effects of medicinal plants should be also examined in further studies.

  4. Effect of 3D-scaffold formation on differentiation and survival in human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Stefanie; Schmich, Jürgen; Block, Stephan; Liedmann, Andrea; Jonas, Ludwig; Weiss, Dieter G; Helm, Christiane A; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J

    2010-11-11

    3D-scaffolds have been shown to direct cell growth and differentiation in many different cell types, with the formation and functionalisation of the 3D-microenviroment being important in determining the fate of the embedded cells. Here we used a hydrogel-based scaffold to investigate the influences of matrix concentration and functionalisation with laminin on the formation of the scaffolds, and the effect of these scaffolds on human neural progenitor cells cultured within them. In this study we used different concentrations of the hydrogel-based matrix PuraMatrix. In some experiments we functionalised the matrix with laminin I. The impact of concentration and treatment with laminin on the formation of the scaffold was examined with atomic force microscopy. Cells from a human fetal neural progenitor cell line were cultured in the different matrices, as well as in a 2D culture system, and were subsequently analysed with antibody stainings against neuronal markers. In parallel, the survival rate of the cells was determined by a live/dead assay. Atomic force microscopy measurements demonstrated that the matrices are formed by networks of isolated PuraMatrix fibres and aggregates of fibres. An increase of the hydrogel concentration led to a decrease in the mesh size of the scaffolds and functionalisation with laminin promoted aggregation of the fibres (bundle formation), which further reduces the density of isolated fibres. We showed that laminin-functionalisation is essential for human neural progenitor cells to build up 3D-growth patterns, and that proliferation of the cells is also affected by the concentration of matrix. In addition we found that 3D-cultures enhanced neuronal differentiation and the survival rate of the cells compared to 2D-cultures. Taken together, we have demonstrated a direct influence of the 3D-scaffold formation on the survival and neuronal differentiation of human neural progenitor cells. These findings emphasize the importance of optimizing 3

  5. Enamel Matrix Derivative has No Effect on the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveldt, Lisanne C.; Knuth, Callie; Witte-Bouma, Janneke [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Special Dental Care and Orthodontics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); O’Brien, Fergal J. [Tissue Engineering Research Group, Department of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Wolvius, Eppo B.; Farrell, Eric, E-mail: e.farrell@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Special Dental Care and Orthodontics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-09-02

    Background: Treatment of large bone defects due to trauma, tumor resection, or congenital abnormalities is challenging. Bone tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represents a promising treatment option. However, the quantity and quality of engineered bone tissue are not sufficient to fill large bone defects. The aim of this study was to determine if the addition of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) improves in vitro chondrogenic priming of MSCs to ultimately improve in vivo MSC mediated endochondral bone formation. Methods: MSCs were chondrogenically differentiated in 2.0 × 10{sup 5} cell pellets in medium supplemented with TGFβ3 in the absence or presence of 1, 10, or 100 μg/mL EMD. Samples were analyzed for gene expression of RUNX2, Col II, Col X, and Sox9. Protein and glycoaminoglycan (GAG) production were also investigated via DMB assays, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity were also assessed. Results: The addition of EMD did not negatively affect chondrogenic differentiation of adult human MSCs. EMD did not appear to alter GAG production or expression of chondrogenic genes. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation were also unaffected though a trend toward decreased adipogenic gene expression was observed. Conclusion: EMD does not affect chondrogenic differentiation of adult human MSCs. As such the use of EMD in combination with chondrogenically primed MSCs for periodontal bone tissue repair is unlikely to have negative effects on MSC differentiation.

  6. Enamel Matrix Derivative has No Effect on the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveldt, Lisanne C.; Knuth, Callie; Witte-Bouma, Janneke; O’Brien, Fergal J.; Wolvius, Eppo B.; Farrell, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of large bone defects due to trauma, tumor resection, or congenital abnormalities is challenging. Bone tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represents a promising treatment option. However, the quantity and quality of engineered bone tissue are not sufficient to fill large bone defects. The aim of this study was to determine if the addition of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) improves in vitro chondrogenic priming of MSCs to ultimately improve in vivo MSC mediated endochondral bone formation. Methods: MSCs were chondrogenically differentiated in 2.0 × 10 5 cell pellets in medium supplemented with TGFβ3 in the absence or presence of 1, 10, or 100 μg/mL EMD. Samples were analyzed for gene expression of RUNX2, Col II, Col X, and Sox9. Protein and glycoaminoglycan (GAG) production were also investigated via DMB assays, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity were also assessed. Results: The addition of EMD did not negatively affect chondrogenic differentiation of adult human MSCs. EMD did not appear to alter GAG production or expression of chondrogenic genes. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation were also unaffected though a trend toward decreased adipogenic gene expression was observed. Conclusion: EMD does not affect chondrogenic differentiation of adult human MSCs. As such the use of EMD in combination with chondrogenically primed MSCs for periodontal bone tissue repair is unlikely to have negative effects on MSC differentiation.

  7. A call for action: comparative effectiveness research in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Jerry A.; Schatz, Michael X.; Apter, Andrea J.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has received considerable research attention in recent months, and efforts to promote CER are part of the newly enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In this paper, we define CER, how it complements traditional efficacy research in asthma, and discuss how CER can help provide the basis for rational decision-making about the care of individual patients with asthma and how best to deliver this care in real-world settings. We present informa...

  8. PRIVATE MANUFACTURERS’ THRESHOLDS TO INVEST IN COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS TRIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Anirban; Meltzer, David

    2012-01-01

    The recent rush of enthusiasm for public investment in comparative effectiveness research (CER) in the United States has focused attention on these public investments. However, little attention has been given to how changing public investment in CER may affect private manufacturers’ incentives for CER, which has long been a major source of CER. In this work, based on a simple revenue maximizing economic framework, we generate predictions on thresholds to invest in CER for a private manufactur...

  9. Differential regulation of morphine antinociceptive effects by endogenous enkephalinergic system in the forebrain of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wei-Zen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mice lacking the preproenkephalin (ppENK gene are hyperalgesic and show more anxiety and aggression than wild-type (WT mice. The marked behavioral changes in ppENK knock-out (KO mice appeared to occur in supraspinal response to painful stimuli. However the functional role of enkephalins in the supraspinal nociceptive processing and their underlying mechanism is not clear. The aim of present study was to compare supraspinal nociceptive and morphine antinociceptive responses between WT and ppENK KO mice. Results The genotypes of bred KO mice were confirmed by PCR. Met-enkephalin immunoreactive neurons were labeled in the caudate-putamen, intermediated part of lateral septum, lateral globus pallidus, intermediated part of lateral septum, hypothalamus, and amygdala of WT mice. Met-enkephalin immunoreactive neurons were not found in the same brain areas in KO mice. Tail withdrawal and von Frey test results did not differ between WT and KO mice. KO mice had shorter latency to start paw licking than WT mice in the hot plate test. The maximal percent effect of morphine treatments (5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, i.p. differed between WT and KO mice in hot plate test. The current source density (CSD profiles evoked by peripheral noxious stimuli in the primary somatosenstory cortex (S1 and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC were similar in WT and KO mice. After morphine injection, the amplitude of the laser-evoked sink currents was decreased in S1 while the amplitude of electrical-evoked sink currents was increased in the ACC. These differential morphine effects in S1 and ACC were enhanced in KO mice. Facilitation of synaptic currents in the ACC is mediated by GABA inhibitory interneurons in the local circuitry. Percent increases in opioid receptor binding in S1 and ACC were 5.1% and 5.8%, respectively. Conclusion The present results indicate that the endogenous enkephalin system is not involved in acute nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord

  10. Isospin effects on pt-differential flow in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Rubina; Jain, Anupriya; Kumar, Suneel

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the role of isospin degree of freedom in heavy-ion collisions through the transverse momentum (p t ), neutron to proton ratio and system mass dependence of p t -differential transverse flow. Our study shows that (p t )-differential transverse flow dependence can act as sensitive probe to study symmetry energy and its density dependence compared to the energy of vanishing flow. Symmetry energy and its density dependence play a dominant role over the isospin-dependence of nucleon–nucleon cross-section at Fermi energy. (author)

  11. Comparative study on radon effects and thermal effects on humans in radon hot spring therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Mitsunobu, F.; Hanamoto, K.; Tanizaki, Y.; Sugita, K.; Kohima, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The radon therapy is used radon ( 222 Rn) gas, which mainly emits alpha-rays, and induces a small amount of active oxygen in the body. Because most of the diseases to which the radon therapy as well as the thermal therapy is applied are related to activated oxygen, in this study the effects of the radioactivity of radon and thermal effects were compared under the room or the hot spring condition with the similar chemical component, using as the parameters which are closely involved in the clinical for radon therapy. In the results, the radon and thermal therapy enhanced the antioxidation function, such as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which inhibit lipid peroxidation and total cholesterol produce in the body. Moreover the therapy enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mitogen response, and increased the level of CD4, which is the marker of helper T cell, and decreased the level of CD8, which is the common marker of killer T cell and supresser T cell, in the white cell differentiation antigen (CD4/CD8) assay. Furthermore, the therapy increased the levels of alpha atrial natriuretic polypeptide (alpha ANP), beta endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin and glucose-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and decreased the vasopression level. The results were on the whole larger in the radon group than in the thermal group. The findings suggest that the radon therapy more contributes to the prevention of life style-related diseases related to peroxidation reactions and immune depression than thermal therapy. Moreover these indicate what may be a part of the mechanism for the alleviation of hypertension, osteoarthritis (pain) and diabetes mellitus brought about more radon therapy than thermal therapy

  12. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis in Paddy Rice under Storage and Identification of Differentially Regulated Genes in Response to High Temperature and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chanjuan; Xie, Junqi; Li, Li; Cao, Chongjiang

    2017-09-20

    The transcriptomes of paddy rice in response to high temperature and humidity were studied using a high-throughput RNA sequencing approach. Effects of high temperature and humidity on the sucrose and starch contents and α/β-amylase activity were also investigated. Results showed that 6876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in paddy rice under high temperature and humidity storage. Importantly, 12 DEGs that were downregulated fell into the "starch and sucrose pathway". The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays indicated that expression of these 12 DEGs was significantly decreased, which was in parallel with the reduced level of enzyme activities and the contents of sucrose and starch in paddy rice stored at high temperature and humidity conditions compared to the control group. Taken together, high temperature and humidity influence the quality of paddy rice at least partially by downregulating the expression of genes encoding sucrose transferases and hydrolases, which might result in the decrease of starch and sucrose contents.

  13. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuanfei; Li, Yang; Holmes, Andrew; Szafranski, Karol; Faulkes, Chris G; Coen, Clive W; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Platzer, Matthias; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Church, George M

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam), a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m), and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  14. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfei Yu

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam, a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m, and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  15. Differential regulation of proton-sensitive ion channels by phospholipids: a comparative study between ASICs and TRPV1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Jin Kweon

    Full Text Available Protons are released in pain-generating pathological conditions such as inflammation, ischemic stroke, infection, and cancer. During normal synaptic activities, protons are thought to play a role in neurotransmission processes. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs are typical proton sensors in the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral nervous system (PNS. In addition to ASICs, capsaicin- and heat-activated transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 channels can also mediate proton-mediated pain signaling. In spite of their importance in perception of pH fluctuations, the regulatory mechanisms of these proton-sensitive ion channels still need to be further investigated. Here, we compared regulation of ASICs and TRPV1 by membrane phosphoinositides, which are general cofactors of many receptors and ion channels. We observed that ASICs do not require membrane phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4P or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5P2 for their function. However, TRPV1 currents were inhibited by simultaneous breakdown of PI(4P and PI(4,5P2. By using a novel chimeric protein, CF-PTEN, that can specifically dephosphorylate at the D3 position of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5P3, we also observed that neither ASICs nor TRPV1 activities were altered by depletion of PI(3,4,5P3 in intact cells. Finally, we compared the effects of arachidonic acid (AA on two proton-sensitive ion channels. We observed that AA potentiates the currents of both ASICs and TRPV1, but that they have different recovery aspects. In conclusion, ASICs and TRPV1 have different sensitivities toward membrane phospholipids, such as PI(4P, PI(4,5P2, and AA, although they have common roles as proton sensors. Further investigation about the complementary roles and respective contributions of ASICs and TRPV1 in proton-mediated signaling is necessary.

  16. Differential Effects for Sexual Risk Behavior: An Application of Finite Mixture Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Kugler, Kari C.; Mathur, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the multiple factors that place individuals at risk for sexual risk behavior is critical for developing effective intervention programs. Regression-based methods are commonly used to estimate the average effects of risk factors, however such results can be difficult to translate to prevention implications at the individual level. Although differential effects can be examined to some extent by including interaction terms, as risk factors and moderators are added to the model inte...

  17. Effects of intermittent versus continuous parathyroid hormone administration on condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi; Wan, Qilong; Yang, Rongtao; Zhou, Haihua; Li, Zubing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Different PTH administration exerts different effects on condylar chondrocyte. ► Intermittent PTH administration suppresses condylar chondrocyte proliferation. ► Continuous PTH administration maintains condylar chondrocyte proliferating. ► Intermittent PTH administration enhances condylar chondrocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Endochondral ossification is a complex process involving chondrogenesis and osteogenesis regulated by many hormones and growth factors. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), one of the key hormones regulating bone metabolism, promotes osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis by intermittent administration, whereas continuous PTH administration inhibits bone formation. However, the effects of PTH on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are still unclear. In this study, intermittent PTH administration presented enhanced effects on condylar chondrocyte differentiation and bone formation, as demonstrated by increased mineral nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, up-regulated runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), ALP, collagen type X (COL10a1), collagen type I (COL1a1), osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and osterix (OSX) mRNA and/or protein expression. On the contrary, continuous PTH administration promoted condylar chondrocyte proliferation and suppressed its differentiation, as demonstrated by up-regulated collagen type II (COL2a1) mRNA expression, reduced mineral nodule formation and down-regulated expression of the mRNAs and/or proteins mentioned above. Our data suggest that PTH can regulate condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, depending on the type of PTH administration. These results provide new insight into the effects of PTH on condylar chondrocytes and new evidence for using local PTH administration to cure mandibular asymmetry.

  18. Effects of intermittent versus continuous parathyroid hormone administration on condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Wan, Qilong; Yang, Rongtao; Zhou, Haihua [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); Li, Zubing, E-mail: lizubing0827@163.com [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different PTH administration exerts different effects on condylar chondrocyte. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermittent PTH administration suppresses condylar chondrocyte proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous PTH administration maintains condylar chondrocyte proliferating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermittent PTH administration enhances condylar chondrocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Endochondral ossification is a complex process involving chondrogenesis and osteogenesis regulated by many hormones and growth factors. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), one of the key hormones regulating bone metabolism, promotes osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis by intermittent administration, whereas continuous PTH administration inhibits bone formation. However, the effects of PTH on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are still unclear. In this study, intermittent PTH administration presented enhanced effects on condylar chondrocyte differentiation and bone formation, as demonstrated by increased mineral nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, up-regulated runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), ALP, collagen type X (COL10a1), collagen type I (COL1a1), osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and osterix (OSX) mRNA and/or protein expression. On the contrary, continuous PTH administration promoted condylar chondrocyte proliferation and suppressed its differentiation, as demonstrated by up-regulated collagen type II (COL2a1) mRNA expression, reduced mineral nodule formation and down-regulated expression of the mRNAs and/or proteins mentioned above. Our data suggest that PTH can regulate condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, depending on the type of PTH administration. These results provide new insight into the effects of PTH on condylar chondrocytes and new evidence for using local PTH administration to cure mandibular

  19. Effect of F-spondin on cementoblastic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Masae; Kudo, Yasusei; Iizuka, Shinji; Ogawa, Ikuko; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Takata, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Cementum is a mineralized tissue produced by cementoblasts covering the roots of teeth that provides for the attachment of periodontal ligament to roots and surrounding alveolar bone. To study the mechanism of proliferation and differentiation of cementoblasts is important for understanding periodontal physiology and pathology including periodontal tissue regeneration. However, the detailed mechanism of the proliferation and differentiation of human cementoblasts is still unclear. We previously established human cementoblast-like (HCEM) cell lines. We thought that comparing the transcriptional profiles of HCEM cells and human periodontal ligament (HPL) cells derived from the same teeth could be a good approach to identify genes that influence the nature of cementoblasts. We identified F-spondin as the gene demonstrating the high fold change expression in HCEM cells. Interestingly, F-spondin highly expressing HPL cells showed similar phenotype of cementoblasts, such as up-regulation of mineralized-related genes. Overall, we identified F-spondin as a promoting factor for cementoblastic differentiation

  20. Effects of nano-emulsion preparations of tocopherols and tocotrienols on oxidative stress and osteoblast differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Liang-Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tocopherols and tocotrienols are two groups of compounds in the vitamin E family, of which the tocopherols are widely used as antioxidant dietary supplements. Recent studies have shown mixed observations for tocopherol functions in bone homeostasis. We have evaluated the potency of suspension- and nano-emulsion formulation-based delivery of different vitamin E family members in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced oxidative stress and osteoblast differentiation. Our results showed the both tocopherols and tocotrienols could reduce oxidative stress as evaluated by the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Their effects were enhanced when applied in the nano-emulsion mode of delivery due to increased bioavailability. In addition, our results showed that tocotrienols increased osteoblast differentiation, while tocopherols showed reduced osteoblast differentiation, which may be due to their differential effects on SMAD and p65 signaling. Together, these findings indicate that tocotrienols delivered through nano-emulsion exhibit superior antioxidant properties and osteoblast differentiation, and could serve as a better alternative to tocopherol-based vitamin E supplements.

  1. Differential Effects of Two Fermentable Carbohydrates on Central Appetite Regulation and Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Glenn R.; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Swann, Jonathan R.; Deaville, Eddie R.; Sleeth, Michele L.; Thomas, E. Louise; Holmes, Elaine; Bell, Jimmy D.; Frost, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan) exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w) fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w) inulin or 10% (w/w) β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI), respectively, PYY (peptide YY) concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β- glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. Conclusions/Significance Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-glucan appears to suppress neuronal

  2. Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Arora

    Full Text Available Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice.Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state.Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress neuronal activity in the hypothalamic appetite centers. Differential

  3. Procoagulant snake venoms have differential effects in animal plasmas: Implications for antivenom testing in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduwage, Kalana P; Scorgie, Fiona E; Lincz, Lisa F; O'Leary, Margaret A; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2016-01-01

    Animal models are used to test toxic effects of snake venoms/toxins and the antivenom required to neutralise them. However, venoms that cause clinically relevant coagulopathy in humans may have differential effects in animals. We aimed to investigate the effect of different procoagulant snake venoms on various animal plasmas. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen and D-dimer levels were measured in seven animal plasmas (human, rabbit, cat, guinea pig, pig, cow and rat). In vitro clotting times were then used to calculate the effective concentration (EC50) in each plasma for four snake venoms with different procoagulant toxins: Pseudonaja textilis, Daboia russelli, Echis carinatus and Calloselasma rhodostoma. Compared to human, PT and aPTT were similar for rat, rabbit and pig, but double for cat and cow, while guinea pig had similar aPTT but double PT. Fibrinogen and D-dimer levels were similar for all species. Human and rabbit plasmas had the lowest EC50 for P. textilis (0.1 and 0.4 μg/ml), D. russelli (0.4 and 0.1 μg/ml), E. carinatus (0.6 and 0.1 μg/ml) venoms respectively, while cat plasma had the lowest EC50 for C. rhodostoma (11 μg/ml) venom. Cow, rat, pig and guinea pig plasmas were highly resistant to all four venoms with EC50 10-fold that of human. Different animal plasmas have varying susceptibility to procoagulant venoms, and excepting rabbits, animal models are not appropriate to test procoagulant activity. In vitro assays on human plasma should instead be adopted for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential effects of oxytocin on social sensitivity in two distinct breeds of dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Krisztina; Kis, Anna; Pogány, Ákos; Koller, Dóra; Topál, József

    2016-12-01

    Dogs have been proven to show several human-analogue social behaviors, and recent research raises the possibility that the oxytocin system is related to these. However, despite dogs' general tendency to excel in the domain of social cognition, there is increasing evidence that dogs' ability to utilize human signals may vary with breed. Moreover, breeds may show differences not only in their 'inborn' communicative abilities, but also in their learning skills related to these. The aim of the present study was to explore breed differences and breed-specific effects of oxytocin administration on different aspects of social responsiveness. Dogs from two markedly different breeds, Border Collies (cooperative workers) and Siberian Huskies (independent workers) were tested. After having received intranasal administration of oxytocin or placebo, subjects participated in three behavioral tests measuring social responsiveness. Our results show that there are several behavioral differences between the two breeds and also that there are differential effects of the oxytocin treatment. Border Collies were in general more susceptible to the 'social' effects of oxytocin compared to Siberian Huskies: after oxytocin administration they (1) looked more at the experimenter in the 'Unreachable food' situation, (2) looked more at the owner and shifted their gaze more between the sound source and the owner in a potentially dangerous situation, and (3) looked longer at the experimenter's eyes in the 'Tolerance of prolonged eye contact' test. These findings suggest that selection for enhanced cooperative abilities, possibly complemented by the effect of different social environments the two breeds experience, affects dogs' performance in several behavioral tests and that the neurohormonal background differently modulates social behavior in different working breeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of irradiation on stem cell response to differentiation inhibitors in the Planarian Dugesia etrusca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, V.E.; Lange, C.S.

    1976-07-01

    The planarian owes its extensive powers of regeneration to the possession of a totipotential stem cell system. The survival of the animal after irradiation depends mainly upon this system. In this respect the planarian is analogous to mammalian organ systems such as bone marrow or gut epithelium. The differentiated cells control the course of stem cell mediated tissue renewal by the secretion of differentiator and/or inhibitor substances. One such inhibitor substance, present in extracts prepared from homogenized whole planarians, specifically inhibits brain formation. This substance is organ specific, but not species specific. The differentiative integrity of the stem cells after irradiation is measured by comparing the regenerated brain volumes resulting from the presence or absence of the brain inhibitory extract during the regeneration period. Our data suggest that increasing doses of x irradiation decreases the ability of the stem cells to respond to differentiative substances. The data presented also explore the possibility of altering the postirradiation recovery pattern by shifting the differentiative demands placed on the stem cells. The final proportions of animals (one-half regenerated with, and one-half without, the extract) surviving after 60 days were not significantly different.

  6. Differential effects of x-rays and high-energy 56Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpinski, Kyle; Jang, Deok-Jin; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Rydberg, Bjorn; Chu, Julia; So, Joanna; Wyrobek, Andy; Li, Song; Wang, Daojing

    2009-03-01

    Stem cells hold great potential for regenerative medicine, but they have also been implicated in cancer and aging. How different kinds of ionizing radiation affect stem cell biology remains unexplored. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of X-rays and of high-linear energy transfer (LET) (56)Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). A multi-functional comparison was carried out to investigate the differential effects of X-rays and (56)Fe ions on hMSC. The end points included modulation of key markers such as p53, cell cycle progression, osteogenic differentiation, and pathway and networks through transcriptomic profiling and bioinformatics analysis. X-rays and (56)Fe ions differentially inhibited the cell cycle progression of hMSC in a p53-dependent manner without impairing their in vitro osteogenic differentiation process. Pathway and network analyses revealed that cytoskeleton and receptor signaling were uniquely enriched for low-dose (0.1 Gy) X-rays. In contrast, DNA/RNA metabolism and cell cycle regulation were enriched for high-dose (1 Gy) X-rays and (56)Fe ions, with more significant effects from (56)Fe ions. Specifically, DNA replication, DNA strand elongation, and DNA binding/transferase activity were perturbed more severely by 1 Gy (56)Fe ions than by 1 Gy X-rays, consistent with the significant G2/M arrest for the former while not for the latter. (56)Fe ions exert more significant effects on hMSC than X-rays. Since hMSC are the progenitors of osteoblasts in vivo, this study provides new mechanistic understandings of the relative health risks associated with low- and high-dose X-rays and high-LET space radiation.

  7. Differential Effects of X-Rays and High-Energy 56Fe Ions on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpinski, Kyle; Jang, Deok-Jin; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Rydberg, Bjorn; Chu, Julia; So, Joanna; Wyrobek, Andy; Li Song; Wang Daojing

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Stem cells hold great potential for regenerative medicine, but they have also been implicated in cancer and aging. How different kinds of ionizing radiation affect stem cell biology remains unexplored. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of X-rays and of high-linear energy transfer (LET) 56 Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Methods and Materials: A multi-functional comparison was carried out to investigate the differential effects of X-rays and 56 Fe ions on hMSC. The end points included modulation of key markers such as p53, cell cycle progression, osteogenic differentiation, and pathway and networks through transcriptomic profiling and bioinformatics analysis. Results: X-rays and 56 Fe ions differentially inhibited the cell cycle progression of hMSC in a p53-dependent manner without impairing their in vitro osteogenic differentiation process. Pathway and network analyses revealed that cytoskeleton and receptor signaling were uniquely enriched for low-dose (0.1 Gy) X-rays. In contrast, DNA/RNA metabolism and cell cycle regulation were enriched for high-dose (1 Gy) X-rays and 56 Fe ions, with more significant effects from 56 Fe ions. Specifically, DNA replication, DNA strand elongation, and DNA binding/transferase activity were perturbed more severely by 1 Gy 56 Fe ions than by 1 Gy X-rays, consistent with the significant G2/M arrest for the former while not for the latter. Conclusions: 56 Fe ions exert more significant effects on hMSC than X-rays. Since hMSC are the progenitors of osteoblasts in vivo, this study provides new mechanistic understandings of the relative health risks associated with low- and high-dose X-rays and high-LET space radiation

  8. A blinded prospective study comparing four current noninvasive approaches in the differential diagnosis of medical versus surgical jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, K.W.; Snodgrass, P.J.; Swonder, J.E.; Mahoney, S.; Burt, R.; Cockerill, E.M.; Lumeng, L.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to compare the diagnostic accuracy of clinical evaluation, ultrasound, computed tomography, and technetium 99m-HIDA or -PIPIDA biliary scans in distinguishing between intrahepatic and extrahepatic jaundice. A final diagnosis was established in each of the 50 patients who completed the study, among whom 29 had intrahepatic cholestasis and 21 had extrahepatic obstruction. In the diagnosis of extrahepatic obstruction, the sensitivities of clinical evaluation, ultrasound, computed tomography, and nuclear medicine biliary scan were 95%, 55%, 63%, and 41%, respectively; the specificities were 76%, 93%, 93%, and 88%; and the overall accuracies were 84%, 78%, 81%, and 68%. These data support the conclusion that when the clinical evaluation is carefully performed, it is the single most effective noninvasive means of detecting extrahepatic biliary obstruction in a jaundiced patient. Although ultrasound, computed tomography, and radionuclide biliary scan are less sensitive, they are highly reliable if they indicate that extrahepatic obstruction is present. A flow chart of invasive and noninvasive approaches for evaluation of the jaundiced patient is presented

  9. Comparative effectiveness of the SNaP™ Wound Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, David W; Sheehan, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Diabetic lower extremity wounds cause substantial burden to healthcare systems, costing tens of thousands of dollars per episode. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) devices have been shown to be cost-effective at treating these wounds, but the traditional devices use bulky electrical pumps that require a durable medical equipment rental-based procurement process. The Spiracur SNaP™ Wound Care System is an ultraportable NPWT system that does not use an electric pump and is fully disposable. It has superior healing compared to standard of care with modern dressings and comparable healing to traditional NPWT devices while giving patients greater mobility and giving clinicians a simpler procurement process. We used a mathematical model to analyse the costs of the SNaP™ system and compare them to standard of care and electrically powered NPWT devices. When compared to standard of care, the SNaP™ system saves over $9000 per wound treated and more than doubles the number of patients healed. The SNaP system has similar healing time to powered NPWT devices, but saves $2300 in Medicare payments or $2800 for private payers per wound treated. Our analysis shows that the SNaP™ system could save substantial treatment costs in addition to allowing patients greater freedom and mobility. © 2011 The Authors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  10. Three-dimensional polymer scaffolds for enhanced differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells to hepatocyte-like cells: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitrangi, Swati; Nair, Prabha; Khanna, Aparna

    2017-08-01

    Stem cell-based tissue engineering has emerged as a promising avenue for the treatment of liver diseases and as drug metabolism and toxicity models in drug discovery and development. The in vitro simulation of a micro-environmental niche for hepatic differentiation remains elusive, due to lack of information about crucial factors for the stem cell niche. For generation of functional hepatocytes, an in vivo three-dimensional (3D) micro-environment and architecture should be reproduced. Towards this, we fabricated three scaffolds as dextran-gelatin (DG1), chitosan-hyaluronic acid (CH1) and gelatin-vinyl acetate (GEVAC). Hepatic differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) was induced by culturing hUC-MSCs on these scaffolds. The scaffolds support hepatic differentiation by mimicking the native extracellular matrix (ECM) micro-environment and architecture to facilitate 3D cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The expression of hepatic markers, glycogen storage, urea production, albumin secretion and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activity indicated the hepatic differentiation of hUC-MSCs. The differentiated hUC-MSCs on the 3D scaffolds formed hepatospheroids (3D hepatocyte aggregates), as illustrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal microscopy and cytoskeleton organization. It was observed that the 3D scaffolds supported improved cell morphology, expression of hepatic markers and metabolic activities, as compared to Matrigel-coated plates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the use of a well-characterized scaffold (GEVAC) for enhanced differentiation of hUC-MSCs to hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Comparative X-ray morphometry of prenatal osteogenesis imperfecta type 2 and thanatophoric dysplasia: a contribution to prenatal differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondioni, Maria Pia; Pazzaglia, Ugo Ernesto; Izzi, Claudia; Di Gaetano, Giuseppe; Laffranchi, Francesco; Baldi, Maurizia; Prefumo, Federico

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the paper was to assess the morphometric parameters to improve the specificity of the ultrasound (US) signs for the early differential diagnosis between two lethal dysplasias, as thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) and osteogenesis imperfecta type 2 (OI-2). The diaphyseal length and the bowed shape of long bones associated with vertebral body dimension assessment were investigated in a group of 14 pregnancy terminations carried out in the time period 2007-2013. The definitive diagnosis was established after pregnancy termination by means of skeletal standardized X-rays, histopathology and gene analysis. TD and OI-2 long bones were significantly shorter than controls. No significant differences were observed between the two dysplasias. The bowing angle was higher in OI-2; a true angulation or eventually axial displacement was present only in the latter. Furthermore, they did not show any evidence of vertebral collapse. The thanatophoric dysplasia presented less bowed long bones, and never true angulation. The spine was steadily characterized by flattened anterior vertebral bodies. Long bone shortening is not a sufficient and accurate sign for early sonographic differential diagnosis between TD and OI-2. Angled diaphysis, axial diaphyseal displacement and a conserved vertebral body height in the prenatal period support the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type 2, while moderately regular bowed diaphysis associated with platyspondyly that of thanatophoric dysplasia.

  12. A comparative analysis of particle swarm optimization and differential evolution algorithms for parameter estimation in nonlinear dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Amit; Abu-Mahfouz, Issam

    2014-01-01

    The use of evolutionary algorithms has been popular in recent years for solving the inverse problem of identifying system parameters given the chaotic response of a dynamical system. The inverse problem is reformulated as a minimization problem and population-based optimizers such as evolutionary algorithms have been shown to be efficient solvers of the minimization problem. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no published work that evaluates the efficacy of using the two most popular evolutionary techniques – particle swarm optimization and differential evolution algorithm, on a wide range of parameter estimation problems. In this paper, the two methods along with their variants (for a total of seven algorithms) are applied to fifteen different parameter estimation problems of varying degrees of complexity. Estimation results are analyzed using nonparametric statistical methods to identify if an algorithm is statistically superior to others over the class of problems analyzed. Results based on parameter estimation quality suggest that there are significant differences between the algorithms with the newer, more sophisticated algorithms performing better than their canonical versions. More importantly, significant differences were also found among variants of the particle swarm optimizer and the best performing differential evolution algorithm

  13. Comparative evaluation of differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy as a technique to discriminate emerging skin pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozikowski, Raymond T.; Smith, Sarah E.; Lee, Jennifer A.; Castleman, William L.; Sorg, Brian S.; Hahn, David W.

    2012-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has been widely investigated as a technique for identifying pathological tissue; however, unrelated subject-to-subject variations in spectra complicate data analysis and interpretation. We describe and evaluate a new biosensing technique, differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy (DLIPS), based on deep ultraviolet (UV) photochemical perturbation in combination with difference spectroscopy. This technique combines sequential fluorescence probing (pre- and post-perturbation) with sub-ablative UV perturbation and difference spectroscopy to provide a new spectral dimension, facilitating two improvements over fluorescence spectroscopy. First, the differential technique eliminates significant variations in absolute fluorescence response within subject populations. Second, UV perturbations alter the extracellular matrix (ECM), directly coupling the DLIPS response to the biological structure. Improved biosensing with DLIPS is demonstrated in vivo in a murine model of chemically induced skin lesion development. Component loading analysis of the data indicates that the DLIPS technique couples to structural proteins in the ECM. Analysis of variance shows that DLIPS has a significant response to emerging pathology as opposed to other population differences. An optimal likelihood ratio classifier for the DLIPS dataset shows that this technique holds promise for improved diagnosis of epithelial pathology. Results further indicate that DLIPS may improve diagnosis of tissue by augmenting fluorescence spectra (i.e. orthogonal sensing).

  14. Differential effects of risk factors on infant wheeze and atopic dermatitis emphasize a different etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Simonsen, Jacob B; Petersen, Janne

    2005-01-01

    regression models. RESULTS: The following variables had significantly differential effects on infant wheezing and AD: parental hay fever, parental asthma, parental AD, sex, maternal age, maternal occupation, smoking during pregnancy, season of birth, birth weight, gestational age, head circumference, breast-feeding...

  15. An Investigation of the Differential Effects of Group versus Individual Treatment on Vocational Indecision and Indecisiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stewart E.; Van Matre, Gene

    The differential effects of individual versus group treatment on career indecision and general indecisiveness among career counseling clients were investigated. Data were obtained from 24 career-undecided students seeking vocational counseling through the counseling center of a midwestern state university. Twelve subjects participated in the group…

  16. Comparison of Effects of Running and Playing Exercises on Differential Leucocyte Count in Young Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenikli, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present research are to test the effects of running and playing exercises on leucocyte and differential leucocyte accounts, and to test the possible differences between running and playing exercises in terms of leucocyte accounts. They were thirty two male young soccer players. Participants arrived at the laboratory after a 12-hour…

  17. Differential Effects of Reinforcement on the Self-Monitoring of On-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Tiffany L.; Haut, Jillian M.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the differential effects of reinforcement on a self-monitoring intervention were evaluated. Three students nominated by their teachers for having a marked difficultly maintaining on-task behaviors participated in the study. Using an alternating treatments single-case design to assess self-monitoring with and without…

  18. Effects of Differential Item Functioning on Examinees' Test Performance and Reliability of Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) on measurement consequences such as total scores, item response theory (IRT) ability estimates, and test reliability in terms of the ratio of true-score variance to observed-score variance and the standard error of estimation for the IRT ability parameter. The…

  19. Theory of insulated gate field effect transistor with negative differential electron mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, A.S.

    1995-09-01

    We study the consequences of negative differential electron mobility in FETs using the field model and the gradual channel approximation. We find that the FET may show convective or absolute instability. The fluctuations growths is governed by diffusion law with negative effective diffusion coefficient. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  20. General Factor Loadings and Specific Effects of the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jennifer L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Acklie, Teresa J.; Houston, Lawrence, III

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the "g" loadings and specific effects of the core and diagnostic composite scores from the Differential Abilities Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007a). Scores from a subset of the DAS-II standardization sample for ages 3:6 to 17:11 were submitted to principal factor analysis. Four…

  1. Indirect measurement of the magnetocaloric effect using a novel differential scanning calorimeter with magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stinus; Linderoth, Søren; Pryds, Nini

    2008-01-01

    A simple and high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) unit operating under magnetic field has been built for indirect determination of the magnetocaloric effect. The principle of the measuring unit in the calorimeter is based on Peltier elements as heat flow sensors. The high...

  2. Exercise effects in a virtual type 1 diabetes patient: Using stochastic differential equations for model extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, S.; Nørgaard, K.

    2013-01-01

    extension incorporating exercise effects on insulin and glucose dynamics. Our model is constructed as a stochastic state space model consisting of a set of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). In a stochastic state space model, the residual error is split into random measurement error...

  3. Differentiating Major and Incremental New Product Development: The Effects of Functional and Numerical Workforce Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.A.W.; Ligthart, P.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to explain the differential effects of workforce flexibility on incremental and major new product development (NPD). Drawing on the resource-based theory of the firm, human resource management research, and innovation management literature, the authors distinguish two types of

  4. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  5. The effect of numerical techniques on differential equation based chaotic generators

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of the numerical solution accuracy on the digital implementation of differential chaos generators. Four systems are built on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA using Euler, mid-point, and Runge-Kutta fourth order techniques

  6. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  7. A NOVEL EFFECT OF DIOXIN: EXPOSURE DURING PREGNANCY SEVERELY IMPAIRS MAMMARY GLAND DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel effect of dioxin: Exposure during pregnancy severely impairs mammary gland differentiation.Beth A. Vorderstrasse1, Suzanne E. Fenton2, Andrea A. Bohn3, Jennifer A. Cundiff1, and B. Paige Lawrence1,3,4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State Universi...

  8. The Effects of Differential Goal Weights on the Performance of a Complex Financial Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmister, Robert O.; Locke, Edwin A.

    1987-01-01

    Determined whether people could obtain outcomes on a complex task that would be in line with differential goal weights corresponding to different aspects of the task. Bank lending officers were run through lender-simulation exercises. Five performance goals were weighted. Demonstrated effectiveness of goal setting with complex tasks, using group…

  9. GLOBOX : A spatially differentiated global fate, intake and effect model for toxicity assessment in LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegener Sleeswijk, Anneke; Heijungs, Reinout

    GLOBOX is a model for the calculation of spatially differentiated LCA toxicity characterisation factors on a global scale. It can also be used for human and environmental risk assessment. The GLOBOX model contains equations for the calculation of fate, intake and effect factors, and equations for

  10. Enhanced computational methods for quantifying the effect of geographic and environmental isolation on genetic differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botta, Filippo; Eriksen, Casper; Fontaine, Michael Christophe; Guillot, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper, Bradburd et al. (2013) proposed a model to quantify the relative effect ofgeographic and environmental distance on genetic differentiation. Here, we enhance this method in several ways. 1. We modify the covariance model so as to fit better with mainstream geostatistical models and

  11. Falsification Testing of Instrumental Variables Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, Steven D

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate how falsification tests can be used to evaluate instrumental variables methods applicable to a wide variety of comparative effectiveness research questions. Brief conceptual review of instrumental variables and falsification testing principles and techniques accompanied by an empirical application. Sample STATA code related to the empirical application is provided in the Appendix. Comparative long-term risks of sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones for management of type 2 diabetes. Outcomes include mortality and hospitalization for an ambulatory care-sensitive condition. Prescribing pattern variations are used as instrumental variables. Falsification testing is an easily computed and powerful way to evaluate the validity of the key assumption underlying instrumental variables analysis. If falsification tests are used, instrumental variables techniques can help answer a multitude of important clinical questions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Practical guide to understanding Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, J Gail; Sharon, Jeffrey D; Graboyes, Evan M; Paniello, Randal C; Nussenbaum, Brian; Grindler, David J; Dassopoulos, Themistocles

    2013-12-01

    "Comparative effectiveness research" (CER) is not a new concept; however, recently it has been popularized as a method to develop scientifically sound actionable data by which patients, physicians, payers, and policymakers may make informed health care decisions. Fundamental to CER is that the comparative data are derived from large diverse populations of patients assembled from point-of-care general primary care practices and that measured outcomes include patient value judgments. The challenge is to obtain scientifically valid data to be acted upon by decision-making stakeholders with potentially quite diversely different agenda. The process requires very thoughtful research designs modulated by complex statistical and analytic methods. This article is composed of a guiding narrative with an extensive set of tables outlining many of the details required in performing and understanding CER. It ends with short discussions of three example papers, limitations of the method, and how a practicing physician may view such reports.

  13. Comparison of Effectiveness in Differentiating Benign from Malignant Ovarian Masses between IOTA Simple Rules and Subjective Sonographic Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, Theera; Tinnangwattana, Dangcheewan; Vichak-Ururote, Linlada; Tontivuthikul, Paponrad; Charoenratana, Cholaros; Lerthiranwong, Thitikarn

    2016-01-01

    To compare diagnostic performance in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian masses between IOTA (the International Ovarian Tumor Analysis) simple rules and subjective sonographic assessment. Women scheduled for elective surgery because of ovarian masses were recruited into the study and underwent ultrasound examination within 24 hours of surgery to apply the IOTA simple rules by general gynecologists and to record video clips for subjective assessment by an experienced sonographer. The diagnostic performance of the IOTA rules and subjective assessment for differentiation between benign and malignant masses was compared. The gold standard diagnosis was pathological or operative findings. A total of 150 ovarian masses were covered, comprising 105 (70%) benign and 45 (30%) malignant. Of them, the IOTA simple rules could be applied in 119 (79.3%) and were inconclusive in 31 (20.7%) whereas subjective assessment could be applied in all cases (100%). The sensitivity and the specificity of the IOTA simple rules and subjective assessment were not significantly different, 82.9% vs 86.7% and 94.0% vs 94.3% respectively. The agreement of the two methods in prediction was high with a Kappa index of 0.835. Both techniques had a high diagnostic performance in differentiation between benign and malignant ovarian masses but the IOTA rules had a relatively high rate of inconclusive results. The IOTA rules can be used as an effective screening technique by general gynecologists but when the results are inconclusive they should consult experienced sonographers.

  14. Alternating current electric fields of varying frequencies: effects on proliferation and differentiation of porcine neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji-Hey; McCullen, Seth D; Piedrahita, Jorge A; Loboa, Elizabeth G; Olby, Natasha J

    2013-10-01

    Application of sinusoidal electric fields (EFs) has been observed to affect cellular processes, including alignment, proliferation, and differentiation. In the present study, we applied low-frequency alternating current (AC) EFs to porcine neural progenitor cells (pNPCs) and investigated the effects on cell patterning, proliferation, and differentiation. pNPCs were grown directly on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) localizing the EFs to a region accessible visually for fluorescence-based assays. Cultures of pNPCs were exposed to EFs (1 V/cm) of 1 Hz, 10 Hz, and 50 Hz for 3, 7, and 14 days and compared to control cultures. Immunocytochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of neural markers. pNPCs grew uniformly with no evidence of alignment to the EFs and no change in cell numbers when compared with controls. Nestin expression was shown in all groups at 3 and 7 days, but not at 14 days. NG2 expression was low in all groups. Co-expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and TUJ1 was significantly higher in the cultures exposed to 10- and 50-Hz EFs than the controls. In summary, sinusoidal AC EFs via IDEs did not alter the alignment and proliferation of pNPCs, but higher frequency stimulation appeared to delay differentiation into mature astrocytes.

  15. Differentiated effects of deep brain stimulation and medication on somatosensory processing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Kousik Sarathy; Højlund, Andreas; Johnsen, Erik Lisbjerg; Sunde, Niels Aagaard; Johansen, Lars Gottfried; Beniczky, Sándor; Østergaard, Karen

    2017-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and dopaminergic medication effectively alleviate the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, but their effects on the sensory symptoms of PD are still not well understood. To explore early somatosensory processing in PD, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) from thirteen DBS-treated PD patients and ten healthy controls during median nerve stimulation. PD patients were measured during DBS-treated, untreated and dopaminergic-medicated states. We focused on early cortical somatosensory processing as indexed by N20m, induced gamma augmentation (31-45Hz and 55-100Hz) and induced beta suppression (13-30Hz). PD patients' motor symptoms were assessed by UPDRS-III. Using Bayesian statistics, we found positive evidence for differentiated effects of treatments on the induced gamma augmentation (31-45Hz) with highest gamma in the dopaminergic-medicated state and lowest in the DBS-treated and untreated states. In contrast, UPDRS-III scores showed beneficial effects of both DBS and dopaminergic medication on the patients' motor symptoms. Furthermore, treatments did not affect the amplitude of N20m. Our results suggest differentiated effects of DBS and dopaminergic medication on cortical somatosensory processing in PD patients despite consistent ameliorating effects of both treatments on PD motor symptoms. The differentiated effect suggests differences in the effect mechanisms of the two treatments. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulating changes to emergency care resources to compare system effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Wolff, Catherine S; Williams, Justin; Margolis, Gregg; Carr, Brendan G

    2013-08-01

    To apply systems optimization methods to simulate and compare the most effective locations for emergency care resources as measured by access to care. This study was an optimization analysis of the locations of trauma centers (TCs), helicopter depots (HDs), and severely injured patients in need of time-critical care in select US states. Access was defined as the percentage of injured patients who could reach a level I/II TC within 45 or 60 minutes. Optimal locations were determined by a search algorithm that considered all candidate sites within a set of existing hospitals and airports in finding the best solutions that maximized access. Across a dozen states, existing access to TCs within 60 minutes ranged from 31.1% to 95.6%, with a mean of 71.5%. Access increased from 0.8% to 35.0% after optimal addition of one or two TCs. Access increased from 1.0% to 15.3% after optimal addition of one or two HDs. Relocation of TCs and HDs (optimal removal followed by optimal addition) produced similar results. Optimal changes to TCs produced greater increases in access to care than optimal changes to HDs although these results varied across states. Systems optimization methods can be used to compare the impacts of different resource configurations and their possible effects on access to care. These methods to determine optimal resource allocation can be applied to many domains, including comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of the Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical DDT on Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Amy L.; Shi, Zhenzhen; Strong, Michael J.; Miller, David F.B.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Buechlein, Aaron M.; Flemington, Erik K.; McLachlan, John A.; Nephew, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the global use of the endocrine-disrupting chemical DDT has decreased, its persistence in the environment has resulted in continued human exposure. Accumulating evidence suggests that DDT exposure has long-term adverse effects on development, yet the impact on growth and differentiation of adult stem cells remains unclear. Objectives: Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exposed to DDT were used to evaluate the impact on stem cell biology. Methods: We assessed DDT-treated MSCs for self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation potential. Whole genome RNA sequencing was performed to assess gene expression in DDT-treated MSCs. Results: MSCs exposed to DDT formed fewer colonies, suggesting a reduction in self-renewal potential. DDT enhanced both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, which was confirmed by increased mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), lipoprotein lipase (LpL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), leptin, osteonectin, core binding factor 1 (CBFA1), and FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (c-Fos). Expression of factors in DDT-treated cells was similar to that in estrogen-treated MSCs, suggesting that DDT may function via the estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated pathway. The coadministration of ICI 182,780 blocked the effects of DDT. RNA sequencing revealed 121 genes and noncoding RNAs to be differentially expressed in DDT-treated MSCs compared with controls cells. Conclusion: Human MSCs provide a powerful biological system to investigate and identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of environmental agents on stem cells and human health. MSCs exposed to DDT demonstrated profound alterations in self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression, which may partially explain the homeostatic imbalance and increased cancer incidence among those exposed to long-term EDCs. Citation: Strong AL, Shi Z, Strong MJ, Miller DF, Rusch DB, Buechlein AM, Flemington EK

  18. Differentiating between heat pain intensities: the combined effect of multiple autonomic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Roi; Kliger, Mark; Zuckerman, Galit; Goor Aryeh, Itay; Eisenberg, Elon

    2012-09-01

    Although it is well known that pain induces changes in autonomic parameters, the extent to which these changes correlate with the experience of pain is under debate. The aim of the present study was to compare a combination of multiple autonomic parameters and each parameter alone in their ability to differentiate among 4 categories of pain intensity. Tonic heat stimuli (1minute) were individually adjusted to induce no pain, low, medium, and high pain in 45 healthy volunteers. Electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, and galvanic skin response were recorded, and the following parameters were calculated: heart rate; heart rate variability-high frequency (0.15 to 0.4Hz) spectral power; skin conductance level; number of skin conduction fluctuations; and photoplethysmographic pulse wave amplitude. A combination of parameters was created by fitting an ordinal cumulative logit model to the data and using linear coefficients of the model. Friedman test with post-hoc Wilcoxon test were used to compare between pain intensity categories for every parameter alone and for their linear combination. All of the parameters successfully differentiated between no pain and all other pain categories. However, none of the parameters differentiated between all 3 pain categories (i.e., low and medium; medium and high; low and high). In contrast, the linear combination of parameters significantly differentiated not only between pain and no pain, but also between all pain categories (Ppain assessment. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Students' performance in accounting: differential effect of field dependence-independence as a learning style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Richard A

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the differential moderating effects associated with field dependence-independence and perceptions of stress on students' performance after controlling for SAT Mathematics and Verbal scores as well as students' actual effort on homework. The average performance of 178 third-year accounting majors over three examinations was used to evaluate their understanding of financial accounting. The students also took the Group Embedded Figures Test. While the data indicate that the most significant variables were students' effort, SAT Verbal scores, and their perceptions of stress, these variables were differentially associated with students' performance depending upon whether the student was classified as a field-independent or field-dependent learner.

  20. Indirect measurement of the magnetocaloric effect using a novel differential scanning calorimeter with magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, S; Linderoth, S; Pryds, N; Kuhn, L Theil; Jensen, J Buch

    2008-08-01

    A simple and high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) unit operating under magnetic field has been built for indirect determination of the magnetocaloric effect. The principle of the measuring unit in the calorimeter is based on Peltier elements as heat flow sensors. The high sensitivity of the apparatus combined with a suitable calibration procedure allows very fast and accurate heat capacity measurements under magnetic field to be made. The device was validated from heat capacity measurements for the typical DSC reference material gallium (Ga) and a La(0.67)Ca(0.33)MnO(3) manganite system and the results were highly consistent with previous reported data for these materials. The DSC has a working range from 200 to 340 K and has been tested in magnetic fields reaching 1.8 T. The signal-to-noise ratio is in the range of 10(2)-10(3) for the described experiments. Finally the results have been compared to results from a Quantum Design(R) physical properties measuring system. The configuration of the system also has the advantage of being able to operate with other types of magnets, e.g., permanent magnets or superconducting coils, as well as the ability to be expanded to a wider temperature range.

  1. Differential effects of social isolation in adolescent and adult mice on behavior and cortical gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Sharon S; Linder-Shacham, Donna; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna

    2017-01-01

    Intact function of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) function relies on proper development of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal populations and on integral myelination processes. Social isolation (SI) affects behavior and brain circuitry in adulthood, but previous rodent studies typically induced prolonged (post-weaning) exposure and failed to directly compare between the effects of SI in adolescent and adulthood. Here, we assessed the impact of a 3-week SI period, starting in mid-adolescence (around the onset of puberty) or adulthood, on a wide range of behaviors in adult male mice. Additionally, we asked whether adolescent SI would differentially affect the expression of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal markers and myelin-related genes in mPFC. Our findings indicate that mid-adolescent or adult SI increase anxiogenic behavior and locomotor activity. However, SI in adolescence uniquely affects the response to the psychotomimetic drug amphetamine, social and novelty exploration and performance in reversal and attentional set shifting tasks. Furthermore, adolescent but not adult SI increased the expression of glutamate markers in the adult mPFC. Our results imply that adolescent social deprivation is detrimental for normal development and may be particularly relevant to the investigation of developmental psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of microenvironment on growth and differentiation of human dental pulp cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datko, Laura Christine

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have recently been described as a potential stem cell source for various regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. They appear to be multipotent, however more characterization is necessary to determine the true potential of these cells. An important aspect of using DPSCs, or any stem cell type, tissue engineering application is the microenvironment within the construct. The microenvironment could include construct mechanical properties, construct composition, and 3D dynamic conditions in vivo. This work aims to study those specific microenvironment effects on DPSCs. To determine the effects of mechanical properties of the substrate on DPSCs, they were seeded on polyacrylamide (PA) gels of different elastic moduli. These gels ranged from 3 kPa to 75 kPa and a glass coverslip was used as a control. They were also exposed to either standard stem cell media or an osteogenic differentiation media, to determine the potential of the DPSCs for osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation. The cultures were analyzed for morphological changes, osteopontin production, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production, and mineralization. The results showed that the DPSCs adhered well to the PA gels for the first few days in culture, but by day 7, they were starting to detach from the PA gels and only remain viable in gel defects or along the edges. This selective growth was also reflected in the mineralization, which only occurred in areas of confluence for the cells on the PA gels. Interestingly, all cultures produced osteopontin and ALP, however by the end of the experiment, the cells cultured on glass had the highest ALP production. It appeared that without the addition of growth factors to induce other cell lineages, DPSCs defaulted to an osteogenic/odontogenic lineage. To determine the effect of mineral composition, preliminary studies were done on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and 7F2 osteoblasts. These two cell types were exposed to

  3. Comparative Effects of Retinoic Acid or Glycolic Acid Vehiculated in Different Topical Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo; Gonçalves, Gisele Mara Silva; Pereira, Lúcia Helena Terenciane Rodrigues; Semprini, Marisa; Lopes, Ruberval Armando

    2015-01-01

    Retinoids and hydroxy acids have been widely used due to their effects in the regulation of growth and in the differentiation of epithelial cells. However, besides their similar indication, they have different mechanisms of action and thus they may have different effects on the skin; in addition, since the topical formulation efficiency depends on vehicle characteristics, the ingredients of the formulation could alter their effects. Thus the objective of this study was to compare the effects of retinoic acid (RA) and glycolic acid (GA) treatment on the hairless mouse epidermis thickness and horny layer renewal when added in gel, gel cream, or cream formulations. For this, gel, gel cream, and cream formulations (with or without 6% GA or 0.05% RA) were applied in the dorsum of hairless mice, once a day for seven days. After that, the skin was analyzed by histopathologic, morphometric, and stereologic techniques. It was observed that the effects of RA occurred independently from the vehicle, while GA had better results when added in the gel cream and cream. Retinoic acid was more effective when compared to glycolic acid, mainly in the cell renewal and the exfoliation process because it decreased the horny layer thickness. PMID:25632398

  4. Effects of Substrate and Co-Culture on Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Erin Boote [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the study of stem and progenitor cells has moved to the forefront of research. Since the isolation of human hematopoietic stem cells in 1988 and the subsequent discovery of a self renewing population of multipotent cells in many tissues, many researchers have envisioned a better understanding of development and potential clinical usage in intractable diseases. Both these goals, however, depend on a solid understanding of the intracellular and extracellular forces that cause stem cells to differentiate to a specific cell fate. Many diseases of large scale cell loss have been suggested as candidates for stem cell based treatments. It is proposed that replacing the function of the damaged or defective cells by specific differentiation of stem or progenitor cells could treat the disease. Before cells can be directed to specific lineages, the mechanisms of differentiation must be better understood. Differentiation in vivo is an intensively complex system that is difficult to study. The goal of this research is to develop further understanding of the effects of soluble and extracellular matrix (ECM) cues on the differentiation of neural progenitor cells with the use of a simplified in vitro culture system. Specific research objectives are to study the differentiation of neural progenitor cells in response to astrocyte conditioned medium and protein substrate composition and concentration. In an effort to reveal the mechanism of the conditioned medium interaction, a test for the presence of a feedback loop between progenitor cells and astrocytes is presented along with an examination of conditioned medium storage temperature, which can reveal enzymatic dependencies. An examination of protein substrate composition and concentration will help to reveal the role of any ECM interactions on differentiation. This thesis is organized into a literature review covering recent advances in use of external modulators of differentiation such as surface coatings, co

  5. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF CANDIDAL DYSBACTERIOSIS THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Nikolaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of effectiveness of different methods of microbiological disorders correction in children after 3 years old with candidal dysbacteriosis are presented in this article. The study compared probiotical sour milk-made stuff («Actimel» and sour milk-made stuff, not fortified with probiotical cultures («Rastishka» and traditional kefir. It was shown that an inclusion of probiotical sour milkmade stuff in diet of children with candidal dysbacteriosis results in normalization of lacto- and bifidobacteria level and decreasing of Candida level.Key words: children, candidal dysbacteriosis, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:31-35

  6. Comparative effectiveness of non-print media and live CME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing Medical Education is an integral ingredient of professional development of health care providers. The educational activity can be delivered by different modes. Here we share our experience of using Digital Video Disc (DVD of a CME on Sleep Medicine as an alternative and cost effective mode.Objective: To assess improvement in knowledge and competencies in terms of comparative effectiveness of a model CME program using validated non-print medium for medical education.Methods: Recorded and validated DVD of talks delivered at NAMS-AIIMS Regional Symposium on Sleep Medicine was played to the participants in presence of one of the content experts. Video scripts of talk were also distributed to the participants. The assessment of participants and program evaluation of this CME was compared to the previously held live CME.Results: Eighty nine participants completed both pre and post test. Mean score increased from 9.91± 3.5 to 14.09 ± 2.85. Pass percentage based on an arbitrary cut off of 50%, increased from 8.3 to 43.8 (p< 0.001. Among the live CME group, mean score improved from 12.1±4.6 to 18.3 ± 3.8. Comparative analysis between live and DVD based CME showed improvement in scores of 6.17 and 4.18 respectively while pass percentage of 84.7 and 43.8 post CME among two modes were significant. The program evaluation showed identical level of satisfaction in all parameters except they were less satisfied vis-a-vis 'organizers made use of any critical comments I made' since all locally available resource persons were not present. Activity could be completed at just half the cost of live CME.Conclusions: The educational background and selection process of UG students between two medical institutes were strikingly different. While students at one institute were selected by highly competitive exam at All India level, the students at other institute were selected through state level competitive examination. In spite of that, results showed

  7. Revisiting the effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Assenova

    Full Text Available European settler mortality has been proposed as an instrument to predict the causal effect of colonial institutions on differences in economic development. We examine the relationship between mortality, temperature, and economic development in former European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. We find that (i European settler mortality rates increased with regional temperatures and (ii economic output decreased with regional temperatures. Conditioning on the continent of settlement and accounting for colonies that were not independent as of 1900 undermines the causal effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development. Our findings run counter to the institutions hypothesis of economic development, showing instead that geography affected both historic mortality rates and present-day economic output.

  8. Comparing interactive videodisc training effectiveness to traditional training methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    Videodisc skills training programs developed by Industrial Training Corporation are being used and evaluated by major industrial facilities. In one such study, interactive videodisc training programs were compared to videotape and instructor-based training to determine the effectiveness of videodisc in terms of performance, training time and trainee attitudes. Results showed that when initial training was done using the interactive videodisc system, trainee performance was superior to the performance of trainees using videotape, and approximately equal to the performance of those trained by an instructor. When each method was used in follow-up training, interactive videodisc was definitely the most effective. Results also indicate that training time can be reduced using interactive videodisc. Attitudes of both trainees and instructors toward the interactive videodisc training were positive

  9. Differential effect of a patient-education transition intervention in adolescents with IBD vs. diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Silke; Markwart, Henriette; Bomba, Franziska; Muehlan, Holger; Findeisen, Annette; Kohl, Martina; Menrath, Ingo; Thyen, Ute

    2018-04-01

    Patient education programs (PEPs) to improve disease management are part of standard and regular treatment in adolescents with diabetes. In Germany, youth with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receive individual counseling but not PEPs in group settings. Generic PEPs have been developed in order to improve transition from child-centered to adolescent health services. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a transition-oriented PEP on quality of life (QoL) and self-management in young patients with IBD (PEP naive), compared to patients with diabetes (familiar with PEPs). A 2-day transition workshop was oriented at improving psychosocial skills and addressed both generic as well as specific aspects of the condition. A controlled trial on the outcomes of a generic transition-oriented PEP was conducted in 14- to 20-year-old patients with IBD (n = 99) and diabetes (n = 153). Transition competence and QoL were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Results show that the intervention lead to a significant increase in QoL only in patients with IBD. The PEP significantly improved transition competence in both groups, however to a higher extent in subjects with IBD. Transition-oriented PEPs can have differential effects in different patient groups. However, this needs further longitudinal investigations. What is Known: • To date, evidence has accumulated concerning the effectiveness of patient education programs (PEPs) in pediatric health care for chronic conditions such as type 1 diabetes, asthma, atopic dermatitis, or obesity but is less documented in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In particular, PEPs in the transition period have not been investigated in youth with IBD. • The current study focuses on evaluating a PEP for transition preparation and management designed to be generically used across different chronic conditions since many aspects of managing chronic conditions share commonalities across conditions. The 2-day workshop

  10. Differential inhibitory effect on human nociceptive skin senses induced by local stimulation of thin cutaneous fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, H J; Schouenborg, J

    1999-03-01

    It is known that stimulation of thin cutaneous nerve fibers can induce long lasting analgesia through both supraspinal and segmental mechanisms, the latter often exhibiting restricted receptive fields. On this basis, we recently developed a new method, termed cutaneous field stimulation (CFS), for localized stimulation of A delta and C fibers in the superficial part of the skin. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of CFS on non-nociceptive and nociceptive skin senses. We compared the effects of CFS with those of conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), known to preferentially activate coarse myelinated fibers. A battery of sensory tests were made on the right volar forearm of 20 healthy subjects. CFS (16 electrodes, 4 Hz per electrode, 1 ms, up to 0.8 mA) and TENS (100 Hz, 0.2 ms, up to 26 mA) applied either on the right volar forearm (homotopically), or on the lower right leg (heterotopically) were used as conditioning stimulation for 25 min. The tactile threshold was not affected by either homo- or heterotopical CFS or TENS. The mean thresholds for detecting warming or cooling of the skin were increased by 0.4-0.9 degrees C after homo- but not heterotopical CFS and TENS. Regarding nociceptive skin senses, homo- but not heterotopical CFS, markedly reduced CO2-laser evoked A delta- and C fiber mediated heat pain to 75 and 48% of control, respectively, and mechanically evoked pain to 73% of control. Fabric evoked prickle, was not affected by CFS. Neither homo- nor heterotopical TENS induced any marked analgesic effects. It is concluded that different qualities of nociception can be differentially controlled by CFS.

  11. Differential effects of two virtual reality interventions: distraction versus pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto-Quijada, Desirée; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Nieto, Rubén; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Olga; Ferrer-García, Marta; Saldaña, Carmina; Fusté-Escolano, Adela; Liutsko, Liudmila

    2014-06-01

    There is evidence that virtual reality (VR) pain distraction is effective at improving pain-related outcomes. However, more research is needed to investigate VR environments with other pain-related goals. The main aim of this study was to compare the differential effects of two VR environments on a set of pain-related and cognitive variables during a cold pressor experiment. One of these environments aimed to distract attention away from pain (VRD), whereas the other was designed to enhance pain control (VRC). Participants were 77 psychology students, who were randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions during the cold pressor experiment: (a) VRD, (b) VRC, or (c) Non-VR (control condition). Data were collected regarding both pain-related variables (intensity, tolerance, threshold, time perception, and pain sensitivity range) and cognitive variables (self-efficacy and catastrophizing). Results showed that in comparison with the control condition, the VRC intervention significantly increased pain tolerance, the pain sensitivity range, and the degree of time underestimation. It also increased self-efficacy in tolerating pain and led to a reduction in reported helplessness. The VRD intervention significantly increased the pain threshold and pain tolerance in comparison with the control condition, but it did not affect any of the cognitive variables. Overall, the intervention designed to enhance control seems to have a greater effect on the cognitive variables assessed. Although these results need to be replicated in further studies, the findings suggest that the VRC intervention has considerable potential in terms of increasing self-efficacy and modifying the negative thoughts that commonly accompany pain problems.

  12. Differential effects of rapamycin and dexamethasone in mouse models of established allergic asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Mushaben

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR plays an important role in cell growth/differentiation, integrating environmental cues, and regulating immune responses. Our lab previously demonstrated that inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin prevented house dust mite (HDM-induced allergic asthma in mice. Here, we utilized two treatment protocols to investigate whether rapamycin, compared to the steroid, dexamethasone, could inhibit allergic responses during the later stages of the disease process, namely allergen re-exposure and/or during progression of chronic allergic disease. In protocol 1, BALB/c mice were sensitized to HDM (three i.p. injections and administered two intranasal HDM exposures. After 6 weeks of rest/recovery, mice were re-exposed to HDM while being treated with rapamycin or dexamethasone. In protocol 2, mice were exposed to HDM for 3 or 6 weeks and treated with rapamycin or dexamethasone during weeks 4-6. Characteristic features of allergic asthma, including IgE, goblet cells, airway hyperreactivity (AHR, inflammatory cells, cytokines/chemokines, and T cell responses were assessed. In protocol 1, both rapamycin and dexamethasone suppressed goblet cells and total CD4(+ T cells including activated, effector, and regulatory T cells in the lung tissue, with no effect on AHR or total inflammatory cell numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Rapamycin also suppressed IgE, although IL-4 and eotaxin 1 levels were augmented. In protocol 2, both drugs suppressed total CD4(+ T cells, including activated, effector, and regulatory T cells and IgE levels. IL-4, eotaxin, and inflammatory cell numbers were increased after rapamycin and no effect on AHR was observed. Dexamethasone suppressed inflammatory cell numbers, especially eosinophils, but had limited effects on AHR. We conclude that while mTOR signaling is critical during the early phases of allergic asthma, its role is much more limited once disease is established.

  13. The happy survivor? Effects of differential mortality on life satisfaction in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C; Combs, Hannah L; Winning, Ashley; Boehm, Julia K; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2016-06-01

    Older adults report higher psychological well-being than younger adults. Those highest in well-being also have the lowest risk of mortality. If those with lower well-being die earlier, it could affect the appearance of developmental change in well-being. In adults aged 50 and older (N = 4,458), we estimated effects of differential mortality on life satisfaction by imputing life satisfaction, adjusting for attrition due to death, or estimating life satisfaction using pattern-mixture modeling. There was an increase in life satisfaction with age; however, differential mortality affected the elevation of the curve. Observed life satisfaction, particularly above age 70, is affected by differential mortality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Effects of Wnt3a on proliferation and differentiation of human epidermal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Liwei; Zhou Jiaxi; Peng Sha; Li Juxue; Cao Yujing; Duan Enkui

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal stem cells maintain development and homeostasis of mammalian epidermis throughout life. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal stem cells are far from clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Wnt3a and Wnt/β-catenin signaling on proliferation and differentiation of human fetal epidermal stem cells. We found both Wnt3a and active β-catenin, two key members of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, were expressed in human fetal epidermis and epidermal stem cells. In addition, Wnt3a protein can promote proliferation and inhibit differentiation of epidermal stem cells in vitro culture. Our results suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays important roles in human fetal skin development and homeostasis, which also provide new insights on the molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis in human epidermis

  15. Effects of hTERT immortalization on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ayachi Ikbale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These data relate to the differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC and DPSC immortalized by constitutively expressing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT through both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages (i.e. to make bone producing and fat producing cells from these dental pulp stem cells. The data augment another study to characterize immortalized DPSC for the study of neurogenetic “Characterization of neurons from immortalized dental pulp stem cells for the study of neurogenetic disorders” [1]. Two copies of one typical control cell line (technical replicates were used in this study. The data represent the differentiation of primary DPSC into osteoblast cells approximately 60% more effectively than hTERT immortalized DPSC. Conversely, both primary and immortalized DPSC are poorly differentiated into adipocytes. The mRNA expression levels for both early and late adipogenic and osteogenic gene markers are shown. Keywords: Stem cells, Osteogenic, Adipogenic, Immortalized, hTERT, DPSC

  16. The Differential Outcomes Effect in Pigeons (Columba livia: Is It Truly Anticipatory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn Kouwenhoven

    Full Text Available We used delay-interval interference to investigate the nature of the differential outcomes effect (DOE in pigeons. Birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample (DMS task under either common outcome or differential outcome conditions, and then presented with visual interference during the delay period. Consistent with previous literature, the common outcomes birds were slower to learn the DMS task than the differential outcomes birds. The common outcome birds were also more impaired by the visual interference than the differential outcomes birds. Our findings are consistent with the view that the birds trained with common outcomes were likely remembering the sample stimulus during the delay period, and hence were disrupted by the visual interference, whereas the birds trained with differential outcomes were likely relying on the different emotional reactions elicited by the different outcomes to guide their choice behaviour, and hence were less affected by the visual interference. Our findings suggest that the DOE is not truly evidence of anticipatory mediation of short-term retention in pigeons, but rather emotionally driven decision making, which is not truly anticipatory in nature.

  17. [Comprehensive regulation effect of traditional Chinese medicine on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Jin; Li, Jing-Jing; Ke, Hui; Xu, Xiao-Yu

    2017-11-01

    Since the discovery of neural stem cells(NSCs) in embryonic and adult mammalian central nervous systems, new approaches for proliferation and differentiation of NSCs have been put forward. One of the approaches to promote the clinical application of NSCs is to search effective methods to regulate the proliferation and differentiation. This problem is urgently to be solved in the medical field. Previous studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine could promote the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs by regulating the relevant signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. Domestic and foreign literatures for regulating the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in recent 10 years and the reports for their target and signaling pathways were analyzed in this paper. Traditional Chinese medicine could regulate the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs through signaling pathways of Notch, PI3K/Akt, Wnt/β-catenin and GFs. However, studies about NSCs and traditional Chinese medicine should be further deepened; the mechanism of multiple targets and the comprehensive regulation function of traditional Chinese medicine should be clarified. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Effects of matrix elasticity and cell density on human mesenchymal stem cells differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ruyue; Li, Julie Yi-Shuan; Yeh, Yiting; Yang, Li; Chien, Shu

    2013-09-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can differentiate into various cell types, including osteogenic and chondrogenic cells. The matrix elasticity and cell seeding density are important factors in hMSCs differentiation. We cultured hMSCs at different seeding densities on polyacrylamide hydrogels with different stiffness corresponding to Young's moduli of 1.6 ± 0.3 and 40 ± 3.6 kPa. The promotion of osteogenic marker expression by hard gel is overridden by a high seeding density. Cell seeding density, however, did not influence the chondrogenic marker expressions induced by soft gel. These findings suggest that interplays between cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions contribute to hMSCs differentiation. The promotion of osteogenic differentiation on hard matrix was shown to be mediated through the Ras pathway. Inhibition of Ras (RasN17) significantly decreased ERK, Smad1/5/8 and AKT activation, and osteogenic markers expression. However, constitutively active Ras (RasV12) had little effect on osteogenic marker expression, suggesting that the Ras pathways are necessary but not sufficient for osteogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that matrix elasticity and cell density are important microenvironmental cues driving hMSCs proliferation and differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  19. [Observation of curative effect of herpes zoster treated with acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation combined with pricking and cupping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hua

    2011-10-01

    To compare the differences of curative effects of herpes zoster treated with acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation combined with pricking and cupping and simple pricking and cupping. Eighty-six cases were randomly divided into an observation group (43 cases) and a control group (43 cases). In observation group, acupoints selection based on syndrome differentiation i.e. Quchi (LI 11), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), etc. were selected and pricking and cupping at affected parts were applied, and the cases were classified into damp heat in liver and gallbladder, damp retention and spleen deficiency, and qi deficiency and blood stasis. In control group, all the cases were simplely treated with pricking and cupping at affected parts. The treatment was given once a day, and seven days were made one session. The curative effect was evaluated after 2 courses, and the follow-up was carried on after 1 month. The cured and markedly effective rate was 93.0% (40/43) in observation group, superior to that of 67.4% (29/43) in control group (P 0.05). The cured and markedly effective rate of damp retention and spleen deficiency: 93.8% (15/16) in observation group, superior to that of 60.0% (9/15) in control group (P cupping therapy is high pertinent and effective, the postherpetic neuralgia can be reduced significantly and the curative effect is superior to that of simple pricking and cupping.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of different types of cervical laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, John G; Raich, Annie L; Dettori, Joseph R; Riew, K Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Study Rationale Numerous cervical laminoplasty techniques have been described but there are few studies that have compared these to determine the superiority of one over another. Clinical Questions The clinical questions include key question (KQ)1: In adults with cervical myelopathy from ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) or spondylosis, what is the comparative effectiveness of open door cervical laminoplasty versus French door cervical laminoplasty? KQ2: In adults with cervical myelopathy from OPLL or spondylosis, are postoperative complications, including pain and infection, different for the use of miniplates versus the use of no plates following laminoplasty? KQ3: Do these results vary based on early active postoperative cervical motion? Materials and Methods A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and March 11, 2013. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating (1) open door cervical laminoplasty and French door cervical laminoplasty and (2) the use of miniplates or no plates in cervical laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy or OPLL in adults. Studies involving traumatic onset, cervical fracture, infection, deformity, or neoplasms were excluded, as were noncomparative studies. Two independent reviewers (A.L.R., J.R.D.) assessed the level of evidence quality using the Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results We identified three studies (one of class of evidence [CoE] II and two of CoE III) meeting our inclusion criteria comparing open door cervical laminoplasty with French door laminoplasty and two studies (one CoE II and one CoE III) comparing the use of miniplates with no plates. Data from one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and two retrospective cohort

  1. Comparing the Effects of Negative and Mixed Emotional Messages on Predicted Occasional Excessive Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Carrera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness versus mixed (joy and sadness, with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating the risk behavior and a less negative attitude toward it. These results suggest that mixed emotional messages (e.g. joy and sadness messages could be more effective in campaigns for the prevention of this risk behavior.

  2. Distinguishing differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress: recommendations for evaluating interaction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I; Newman, Daniel A; Fraley, R Chris; Haltigan, John D; Groh, Ashley M; Haydon, Katherine C

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the state of the art in distinguishing data generated by differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress models. We discuss several limitations of existing practices for probing interaction effects and offer solutions that are designed to better differentiate differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress models and quantify their corresponding implications. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of these methods by revisiting published evidence suggesting that temperamental difficulty serves as a marker of enhanced susceptibility to early maternal caregiving across a range of outcome domains in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. We find that, with the exception of mother reports of psychopathology, there is consistent evidence in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development that the predictive significance of early sensitivity is moderated by difficult temperament over time. However, differential susceptibility effects emerged primarily for teacher reports of academic skills, social competence, and symptomatology. In contrast, effects more consistent with the diathesis-stress model were obtained for mother reports of social skills and objective tests of academic skills. We conclude by discussing the value of the application of this work to the next wave of Gene × Environment studies focused on early caregiving experiences.

  3. A grounded theory study on the role of differentiated instruction in effective middle school science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian Kirby

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model explaining the role of differentiated instruction (DI) in effective middle school science teaching. The study examined the best teaching practices and differentiated elements from eight general education middle school science teachers, all scoring at the highest level of a teaching effectiveness measure on their evaluations, through a collection of observational, interview, survey, and teaching artifact data. The data were analyzed through the methodology of a systematic grounded theory qualitative approach using open, axial, and selective coding to develop a model describing how and to what degree effective middle school science teachers differentiated their best teaching practices. The model that emerged from the data shows instruction as a four-phase process and highlights the major elements of best practices and DI represented at each phase. The model also depicts how teachers narrowed the scope of their differentiating strategies as instruction progressed. The participants incorporated DI into their pedagogies, though in different degrees at each phase, and primarily by using variety to present concepts with multiple types of instruction followed by a series of sense-making activities related to several learning modalities. Teachers scaffolded students carefully, using informal and formal assessment data to inform future instructional decisions and especially their plans to reteach or extend on a concept. The model is intended to provide insight into the value of DI for middle school science teaching.

  4. Differentiation-Dependent Energy Production and Metabolite Utilization: A Comparative Study on Neural Stem Cells, Neurons, and Astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jády, Attila Gy.; Nagy, Ádám M.; Kőhidi, Tímea; Ferenczi, Szilamér; Tretter, László

    2016-01-01

    While it is evident that the metabolic machinery of stem cells should be fairly different from that of differentiated neurons, the basic energy production pathways in neural stem cells (NSCs) or in neurons are far from clear. Using the model of in vitro neuron production by NE-4C NSCs, this study focused on the metabolic changes taking place during the in vitro neuronal differentiation. O2 consumption, H+ production, and metabolic responses to single metabolites were measured in cultures of NSCs and in their neuronal derivatives, as well as in primary neuronal and astroglial cultures. In metabolite-free solutions, NSCs consumed little O2 and displayed a higher level of mitochondrial proton leak than neurons. In stem cells, glycolysis was the main source of energy for the survival of a 2.5-h period of metabolite deprivation. In contrast, stem cell-derived or primary neurons sustained a high-level oxidative phosphorylation during metabolite deprivation, indicating the consumption of own cellular material for energy production. The stem cells increased O2 consumption and mitochondrial ATP production in response to single metabolites (with the exception of glucose), showing rapid adaptation of the metabolic machinery to the available resources. In contrast, single metabolites did not increase the O2 consumption of neurons or astrocytes. In “starving” neurons, neither lactate nor pyruvate was utilized for mitochondrial ATP production. Gene expression studies also suggested that aerobic glycolysis and rapid metabolic adaptation characterize the NE-4C NSCs, while autophagy and alternative glucose utilization play important roles in the metabolism of stem cell-derived neurons. PMID:27116891

  5. Differentiated risk models in portfolio optimization: a comparative analysis of the degree of diversification and performance in the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ricardo Gartner

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Faced with so many risk modeling alternatives in portfolio optimization, several questions arise regarding their legitimacy, utility and applicability. In particular, a question arises involving the adherence of the alternative models with regard to the basic presupposition of Markowitz's classical model, with regard to the concept of diversification as a means of controlling the relationship between risk and return within a process of optimization. In this context, the aim of this article is to explore the risk-differentiated configurations that entropy can provide, from the point of view of the repercussions that these have on the degree of diversification and on portfolios performance. The reach of this objective requires that a comparative analysis is made between models that include entropy in their formulation and the classic Markowitz model. In order to contribute to this debate, this article proposes that adaptations are made to the models of relative minimum entropy and of maximum entropy, so that these can be applied to investment portfolio optimizations. The comparative analysis was based on performance indicators and on a ratio of the degree of portfolio diversification. The portfolios were formed by considering a sample of fourteen assets that compose the IBOVESPA, which were projected during the period from January 2007 to December 2009, and took into account the matrices of covariance that were formed as from January 1999. When comparing the Markowitz model with two models that were constructed to represent new risk configurations based on entropy optimization, the present study concluded that the first model was far superior to the others. Not only did the Markowitz model present better accumulated nominal yields, it also presented a far greater predictive efficiency and better effective performance, when considering the trade-off between risk and return. However, with regards to diversification, the Markowitz model concentrated

  6. Comparative effectiveness of correction strategies in connected discourse tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunato, K E; Weisenberger, J M

    1994-10-01

    The effectiveness of four correction strategies commonly used in connected discourse tracking was investigated in the present study. The strategies were 1) verbatim repetition of a word or phrase; 2) use of antonyms or synonyms as cues; 3) use of phonemic cues, with no whole word repetition; and 4) going back or ahead in the text, with no repetition of the missed segment. Four normal-hearing adults served as listeners. Live-voice presentation of text by two female talkers was employed for all conditions. Listeners were tested in two stimulus presentation modes, speechreading alone and speechreading plus a multichannel tactile aid. Results indicated that strategy 1, repetition of the missed segment, produced the highest tracking rates, significantly higher than any of the other strategies. Strategy 2 produced the lowest tracking rates. Strategies 1 and 3 yielded the lowest percentage of initially missed words, or blockages, and strategy 4 the highest percentage. Significantly higher tracking rates were found under the speechreading plus tactile aid presentation mode, compared with speechreading alone. Further, tracking rates increased significantly from the beginning to the end of training. Data were compared with a more typical CDT task, in which all correction strategies were operative, and results showed little difference in tracking rates between this task and the constrained CDT employing only strategy 1. Overall, results suggest that simple repetition of missed segments is an effective correction strategy for CDT and argue for its inclusion in computer-assisted tracking implementations.

  7. Comparative effectiveness of instructional methods: oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nereyda P; Marks, John G; Sandow, Pamela R; Seleski, Christine E; Logan, Henrietta L

    2014-04-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of different methods of instruction for the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. A group of thirty sophomore students at the University of Florida College of Dentistry were randomly assigned to three training groups: video instruction, a faculty-led hands-on instruction, or both video and hands-on instruction. The training intervention involved attending two sessions spaced two weeks apart. The first session used a pretest to assess students' baseline didactic knowledge and clinical examination technique. The second session utilized two posttests to assess the comparative effectiveness of the training methods on didactic knowledge and clinical technique. The key findings were that students performed the clinical examination significantly better with the combination of video and faculty-led hands-on instruction (p<0.01). All students improved their clinical exam skills, knowledge, and confidence in performing the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination independent of which training group they were assigned. Utilizing both video and interactive practice promoted greater performance of the clinical technique on the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

  8. Cytopathogenic effects in enterocytelike Caco-2 cells differentiate virulent from avirulent Listeria strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Pine, L; Kathariou, S; Quinn, F; George, V; Wenger, J D; Weaver, R E

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a simple test that differentiates between virulent and avirulent Listeria species as defined by the mouse 50% lethal doses (LD50S). The assay is based on trypan blue-revealed cytopathogenic effects that are produced during the infection of the human enterocytelike cell line Caco-2. These effects were elicited only by Listeria strains that had an intraperitoneal mouse LD50 less than 10(8) and were not produced by nonhemolytic, avirulent strains of Listeria monocytogenes gener...

  9. Anti-stress and neuronal cell differentiation induction effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Myra O; Ikeya, Ayumi; Sasaki, Kazunori; Arfa, Abdelkarim Ben; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

    2017-12-22

    Mood disorder accounts for 13 % of global disease burden. And while therapeutic agents are available, usually orally administered, most have unwanted side effects, and thus making the inhalation of essential oils (EOs) an attractive alternative therapy. Rosmarinus officinalis EO (ROEO), Mediterranean ROEO reported to improve cognition, mood, and memory, the effect on stress of which has not yet been determined. Here, the anti-stress effect of ROEO on stress was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Six-week-old male ICR mice were made to inhale ROEO and subjected to tail suspension test (TST). To determine the neuronal differentiation effect of ROEO in vitro, induction of ROEO-treated PC12 cells differentiation was observed. Intracellular acetylcholine and choline, as well as the Gap43 gene expression levels were also determined. Inhalation of ROEO significantly decreased the immobility time of ICR mice and serum corticosterone level, accompanied by increased brain dopamine level. Determination of the underlying mechanism in vitro revealed a PC12 differentiation-induction effect through the modulation of intracellular acetylcholine, choline, and Gap43 gene expression levels. ROEO activates the stress response system through the NGF pathway and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, promoting dopamine production and secretion. The effect of ROEO may be attributed to its bioactive components, specifically to α-pinene, one of its major compounds that has anxiolytic property. The results of this study suggest that ROEO inhalation has therapeutic potential against stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  10. Differential effects of parenting in preterm and full-term children on developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Angela N; Fine, Jodene Goldenring

    2014-12-01

    To examine the relations between preterm birth, parenting behavior during early childhood, cognitive development, and social-emotional outcomes at Kindergarten entry, and to determine whether parenting behavior differentially influences this developing system in children born preterm compared to children born full-term. The nationally representative sample comprised 3600 full-term and 1300 preterm children born in the US in the year 2001. All children who entered Kindergarten and who participated in data collection at 9 months, 24 months, and Kindergarten entry were included in the study. Measures of parenting behavior were collected at 9 and 24 months and cognitive development at 24 months via home visits. Social-emotional outcomes were assessed at Kindergarten entry via parent and teacher report. Multiple-sample Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze group differences in a model whereby early childhood parenting behavior predicted cognitive outcomes, and social-emotional outcomes at Kindergarten entry, and indirectly predicted social-emotional outcomes via early cognitive processes. The full sample developmental model indicated excellent fit to the data. Preterm birth status indirectly influenced social-emotional outcomes at Kindergarten entry via its effect on early childhood parenting behavior and cognitive development. The multi-sample model revealed significant differences in the way in which early parenting behavior exerted its influence on outcomes at Kindergarten entry in preterm children compared to full-term children. For preterm children, parenting indirectly influenced social-emotional outcomes via early cognitive functioning. Findings highlight the importance of early identification and targeted parenting programs to support early cognitive development in preterm children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential sex-specific effects of oxygen toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuhao; Lingappan, Krithika

    2017-01-01

    Despite the well-established sex-specific differences in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the molecular mechanism(s) behind these are not completely understood. Pulmonary angiogenesis is critical for alveolarization and arrest in vascular development adversely affects lung development. Human neonatal umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) provide a robust in vitro model for the study of endothelial cell physiology and function. Male and Female HUVECs were exposed to room air (21% O 2 , 5% CO 2 ) or hyperoxia (95% O 2 , 5% CO 2 ) for up to 72 h. Cell viability, proliferation, H 2 O 2 production and angiogenesis were analyzed. Sex-specific differences in the expression of VEGFR2 and modulation of NF-kappa B pathway were measured. Male HUVECs have decreased survival, greater oxidative stress and impairment in angiogenesis compared to similarly exposed female cells. There is differential expression of VEGFR2 between male and female HUVECs and greater activation of the NF-kappa B pathway in female HUVECs under hyperoxic conditions. The results indicate that sex differences exist between male and female HUVECs in vitro after hyperoxia exposure. Since endothelial dysfunction has a major role in the pathogenesis of BPD, these differences could explain in part the mechanisms behind sex-specific differences in the incidence of this disease. - Highlights: • Cellular sex effects viability and oxidative stress in HUVECs exposed to hyperoxia. • Male HUVECs show greater impairment in angiogenesis compared to female cells. • Sex-specific modulation of VEGFR2 and the NF-kappaB pathway was noted.

  12. Chromatin degradation under the effect of differentiation inductors and γ-radiation on thymus lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldatenkov, V.A.; Sorokina, N.I.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical inductors of differentiation were shown to cause chromatin degradation in thymus lymphocytes. This process was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitors. The fragments formed after the effect of chemical differentiation inductors on thymocytes were fully identical to chromatin internucleosome degradation products formed in the exposed cells. Chromatin degradation under the effect of chemical differentiation inductors was most pronounced in a more radiosensitive thymocyte fraction

  13. PKPD model of interleukin-21 effects on thermoregulation in monkeys--application and evaluation of stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Rune Viig; Holford, Nick; Rytved, Klaus A; Madsen, Henrik

    2007-02-01

    To describe the pharmacodynamic effects of recombinant human interleukin-21 (IL-21) on core body temperature in cynomolgus monkeys using basic mechanisms of heat regulation. A major effort was devoted to compare the use of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modelling. A temperature model was formulated including circadian rhythm, metabolism, heat loss, and a thermoregulatory set-point. This model was formulated as a mixed-effects model based on SDEs using NONMEM. The effects of IL-21 were on the set-point and the circadian rhythm of metabolism. The model was able to describe a complex set of IL-21 induced phenomena, including 1) disappearance of the circadian rhythm, 2) no effect after first dose, and 3) high variability after second dose. SDEs provided a more realistic description with improved simulation properties, and further changed the model into one that could not be falsified by the autocorrelation function. The IL-21 induced effects on thermoregulation in cynomolgus monkeys are explained by a biologically plausible model. The quality of the model was improved by the use of SDEs.

  14. Stress Alters the Discriminative Stimulus and Response Rate Effects of Cocaine Differentially in Lewis and Fischer Inbred Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. Kosten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine, perhaps via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. Yet, compared to Fischer 344 (F344 rats, Lewis rats have hyporesponsive HPA axis function and more readily acquire cocaine self-administration. We hypothesized that stress would differentially affect cocaine behaviors in these strains. The effects of three stressors on the discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of cocaine were investigated. Rats of both strains were trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced (FR10 procedure. Immediately prior to cumulative dose (1, 3, 10 mg/kg cocaine test sessions, rats were restrained for 15-min, had 15-min of footshock in a distinct context, or were placed in the shock-paired context. Another set of F344 and Lewis rats were tested similarly except they received vehicle injections to test if stress substituted for cocaine. Most vehicle-tested rats failed to respond after stressor exposures. Among cocaine-tested rats, restraint stress enhanced cocaine’s discriminative stimulus effects in F344 rats. Shock and shock-context increased response rates in Lewis rats. Stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels showed strain differences but did not correlate with behavior. These data suggest that the behavioral effects of cocaine can be differentially affected by stress in a strain-selective manner.

  15. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsuwadee Paiboon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In addition, decreased levels of mRNA associated with T-cell signaling were found in the jejunum and ileum. Several members of the Solute Carrier (SLC and Adenosine Triphosphate Binding Cassette (ABC superfamilies of membrane transporters were found to be differentially expressed; these genes may play a role in differences in nutrient and xenobiotic absorption and disposition. mRNA expression of SLC39a4_predicted, a zinc transporter, was increased in all tissues, suggesting that it is involved in increased zinc uptake during lactation. Microarray data are available through GEO under GSE19175. Conclusions We detected differential expression of mRNA from several pathways in lactating dams, including upregulation of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in liver and intestine, consistent with Srebp activation. Differential T-Cell signaling in the two most distal regions of the small intestine (ileum and

  16. Professional Development to Differentiate Kindergarten Tier 1 Instruction: Can Already Effective Teachers Improve Student Outcomes by Differentiating Tier 1 Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Folsom, Jessica S.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Greulich, Luana; Waesche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol M.

    2016-01-01

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (a) to examine changes from baseline through 2 years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers' differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; and (b) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of 3 cohorts of the teachers'…

  17. Effects of extracellular calcium on viability and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qingyu; Kou, Dongquan; Ying, Xiaozhou; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Yu, Ziming; Peng, Lei; Lu, Chuanzhu

    2013-09-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been extensively used for tissue engineering. However, the effect of Ca(2+) on the viability and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs has yet to be evaluated. To determine the dose-dependent effect of Ca(2+) on viability and osteogenesis of BMSCs in vitro, BMSCs were cultured in calcium-free DMEM medium supplemented with various concentrations of Ca(2+) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mM) from calcium citrate. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay and osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, Von Kossa staining, and real-time PCR. Ca(2+) stimulated BMSCs viability in a dose-dependent manner. At slightly higher concentrations (4 and 5 mM) in the culture, Ca(2+) significantly inhibited the activity of ALP on days 7 and 14 (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), significantly suppressed collagen synthesis (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), and significantly elevated calcium deposition (P < 0.01) and mRNA levels of osteocalcin (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) and osteopontin (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Therefore, elevated concentrations of extracellular calcium may promote cell viability and late-stage osteogenic differentiation, but may suppress early-stage osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs.

  18. Thrombopoietin has a differentiative effect on late-stage human erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Wang, M; Tang, D C; Ding, I; Rodgers, G P

    1999-05-01

    To further explore the mechanism of the effect of thrombopoietin (TPO) on erythropoiesis, we used a two-phase culture system to investigate the effect of TPO on late-stage human erythroid lineage differentiation. In serum-free suspension and semisolid cultures of human peripheral blood derived erythroid progenitors, TPO alone did not produce benzidine-positive cells. However, in serum-containing culture, TPO alone stimulated erythroid cell proliferation and differentiation, demonstrated by erythroid colony formation, production of benzidine-positive cells and haemoglobin (Hb) synthesis. Monoclonal anti-human erythropoietin antibody and anti-human erythropoietin receptor antibody completely abrogated the erythroid differentiative ability of TPO in the serum-containing systems. This implied that binding of EPO and EPO-R was essential for erythropoiesis and the resultant signal transduction may be augmented by the signals emanating from TPO-c-Mpl interaction. Experiment of withdrawal of TPO further demonstrated the involvement of TPO in late-stage erythropoiesis. RT-PCR results showed that there was EPO-R but not c-Mpl expression on developing erythroblasts induced by TPO in serum-containing system. Our results establish that TPO affects not only the proliferation of erythroid progenitors but also the differentiation of erythroid progenitors to mature erythroid cells.

  19. Differential cardiorespiratory effects of endomorphin 1, endomorphin 2, DAMGO, and morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla, M A; Gozal, D; Alea, O A; Beckerman, R C; Zadina, J E

    2000-09-01

    The novel endogenous mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists endomorphin 1 (EM1) and 2 (EM2) were tested for their cardiorespiratory effects in conscious, freely behaving rats. After systemic (intravenous) administration of EM1, EM2, or the selective MOR agonist DAMGO, analgesia, minute ventilation (V E), heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood pressure (BP) were measured. The threshold dose for analgesia was similar for all 3 peptides ( approximately 900 nmol/kg). All 3 compounds elicited biphasic V E responses, with marked, short-lived V E depressions (4-6 s) followed by more sustained V E increases (10-12 min). However, compared with responses elicited by EM2 or DAMGO, EM1 decreased V E only at higher doses, and produced greater V E stimulation. Morphine produced a V E decrease, but no subsequent V E increase. EM2 and DAMGO decreased HR and BP, while EM1 decreased HR, but did not decrease BP in conscious rats at doses up to 9,600 nmol/kg. In anesthetized rats, all 3 peptides decreased HR and BP. The decreases in V E, HR, and BP were blocked by the MOR antagonist, naloxone HCI (NIx). Only the HR and BP responses, however, were blocked by naloxone-methiodide (MeNIx), indicating central mediation of V E responses and peripheral mediation of cardiovascular responses. We conclude that MOR-selective compounds vary in their cardiorespiratory response characteristics which could be linked to differential cellular actions. The results support the concept that the analgesic, respiratory, and cardiovascular effects of MOR agonists can be dissociated and that EM1-like compounds could provide the basis for novel, safer analgesics.

  20. Differential effects of massed and spaced training on place and response learning: A memory systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Jeffrey C; Goodman, Jarid; Leong, Kah-Chung; Packard, Mark G

    2015-09-01

    Studies employing brain lesion or intracerebral drug infusions in rats have demonstrated a double dissociation between the roles of the hippocampus and dorsolateral striatum in place and response learning. The hippocampus mediates a rapid cognitive learning process underlying place learning, whereas the dorsolateral striatum mediates a relatively slower learning process in which stimulus-response habits underlying response learning are acquired in an incremental fashion. One potential implication of these findings is that hippocampus-dependent learning may benefit from a relative massing of training trials, whereas dorsal striatum-dependent learning may benefit from a relative distribution of training trials. In order to examine this hypothesis, the present study compared the effects of massed (30s inter-trial interval; ITI) or spaced (30min ITI) training on acquisition of a hippocampus-dependent place learning task, and a dorsolateral striatum-dependent response task in a plus-maze. In the place task rats swam from varying start points (N or S) to a hidden escape platform located in a consistent spatial location (W). In the response task rats swam from varying start points (N or S) to a hidden escape platform located in the maze arm consistent with a body-turn response (left). In the place task, rats trained with the massed trial schedule acquired the task quicker than rats trained with the spaced trial schedule. In the response task, rats trained with the spaced trial schedule acquired the task quicker than rats trained with the massed trial schedule. The double dissociation observed suggests that the reinforcement parameters most conducive to effective learning in hippocampus-dependent and dorsolateral striatum-dependent learning may have differential temporal characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-linear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling in NLME using differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Agersø, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The standard software for non-linear mixed-effect analysis of pharmacokinetic/phar-macodynamic (PK/PD) data is NONMEM while the non-linear mixed-effects package NLME is an alternative as tong as the models are fairly simple. We present the nlmeODE package which combines the ordinary differential...... equation (ODE) solver package odesolve and the non-Linear mixed effects package NLME thereby enabling the analysis of complicated systems of ODEs by non-linear mixed-effects modelling. The pharmacokinetics of the anti-asthmatic drug theophylline is used to illustrate the applicability of the nlme...

  2. Neurotrophic effects of growth/differentiation factor 5 in a neuronal cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, André; Collins, Grace C; Sullivan, Aideen M

    2012-04-01

    The neurotrophin growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) is studied as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease as it is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of the nigrostriatal system. Progress in understanding the effects of GDF5 on dopaminergic neurones has been hindered by the use of mixed cell populations derived from primary cultures or in vivo experiments, making it difficult to differentiate between direct and indirect effects of GDF5 treatment on neurones. In an attempt to establish an useful model to study the direct neuronal influence of GDF5, we have characterised the effects of GDF5 on a human neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y. Our results show that GDF5 has the capability to promote neuronal but not dopaminergic differentiation. We also show that it promotes neuronal survival in vitro following a 6-hydroxydopamine insult. Our results show that application of GDF5 to SH-SY5Y cultures induces the SMAD pathway which could potentially be implicated in the intracellular transmission of GDF5's neurotrophic effects. Overall, our study shows that the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line provides an excellent neuronal model to study the neurotrophic effects of GDF5.

  3. Differentially Severe Cognitive Effects of Compromised Cerebral Blood Flow in Aged Mice: Association with Myelin Degradation and Microglia Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly Wolf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS models the effects of compromised cerebral blood flow on brain structure and function in mice. We compared the effects of BCAS in aged (21 month and young adult (3 month female mice, anticipating a differentially more severe effect in the older mice. Four weeks after surgery there was a significant age by time by treatment interaction on the radial-arm water maze (RAWM; p = 0.014: on the first day of the test, latencies of old mice were longer compared to the latencies of young adult mice, independent of BCAS. However, on the second day of the test, latencies of old BCAS mice were significantly longer than old control mice (p = 0.049, while latencies of old controls were similar to those of the young adult mice, indicating more severe impairment of hippocampal dependent learning and working memory by BCAS in the older mice. Fluorescence staining of myelin basic protein (MBP showed that old age and BCAS both induced a significant decrease in fluorescence intensity. Evaluation of the number oligodendrocyte precursor cells demonstrated augmented myelin replacement in old BCAS mice (p < 0.05 compared with young adult BCAS and old control mice. While microglia morphology was assessed as normal in young adult control and young adult BCAS mice, microglia of old BCAS mice exhibited striking activation in the area of degraded myelin compared to young adult BCAS (p < 0.01 and old control mice (p < 0.05. These findings show a differentially more severe effect of cerebral hypoperfusion on cognitive function, myelin integrity and inflammatory processes in aged mice. Hypoperfusion may exacerbate degradation initiated by aging, which may induce more severe neuronal and cognitive phenotypes.

  4. Comparing differential tolerance of native and non-indigenous marine species to metal pollution using novel assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piola, Richard F.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests anthropogenic disturbance may disproportionately advantage non-indigenous species (NIS), aiding their establishment within impacted environments. This study used novel laboratory- and field-based toxicity testing to determine whether non-indigenous and native bryozoans (common within marine epibenthic communities worldwide) displayed differential tolerance to the common marine pollutant copper (Cu). In laboratory assays on adult colonies, NIS showed remarkable tolerance to Cu, with strong post-exposure recovery and growth. In contrast, native species displayed negative growth and reduced feeding efficiency across most exposure levels. Field transplant experiments supported laboratory findings, with NIS growing faster under Cu conditions. In field-based larval assays, NIS showed strong recruitment and growth in the presence of Cu relative to the native species. We suggest that strong selective pressures exerted by the toxic antifouling paints used on transport vectors (vessels), combined with metal contamination in estuarine environments, may result in metal tolerant NIS advantaged by anthropogenically modified selection regimes. - Greater tolerance to pollutants in marine NIS may increase the risk of invasion in port and harbours worldwide by providing a competitive advantage over native taxa.

  5. De novo transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in dryoperis fragrans under temperature stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.Z.; Tong, W.S.; Gao, R.

    2016-01-01

    Dryopteris fragrans is a species of fern and contains flavonoids compounds with medicinal value. This study explain the temperature stress impact flavonoids synthesis in D. fragrans tissue culture seedlings under the low temperature at 4 degree C, high temperature at 35 degree C and moderate temperature at 25 degree C. By using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing, 80.9 million raw sequence reads were de novo assembled into 66,716 non-redundant unigenes. 38,486 unigenes (57.7%) were annotated for their function. 13,973 unigenes and 29,598 unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) and clusters of orthologous group (COG), respectively. 18,989 sequences mapped to 118 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 204 genes were involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, regulation and transport. 25,292 and 16,817 unigenes exhibited marked differential expression in response to temperature shifts of 25 degree C to 4 degree C and 25 degree C to 35 degree C, respectively. 4CL and CHS genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were tested and suggested that they were responsible for biosynthesis of flavonoids. This study provides the first published data to describe the D. fragrans transcriptome and should accelerate understanding of flavonoids biosynthesis, regulation and transport mechanisms. Since most unigenes described here were successfully annotated, these results should facilitate future functional genomic understanding and research of D. fragrans. (author)

  6. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermodynamic Predictions—A Comparative Study of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot K.-H. Kolb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys are widely used in aircraft applications because of their superior mechanical properties and strength/weight ratios. Commercial Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys have been intensively studied over the last few decades. However, well-considered thermodynamic calculations, via the CALPHAD approach, on a variation of alloying elements can guide the fine-tuning of known alloy systems and the development of optimized heat treatments. In this study, a comparison was made of the solidus temperatures of different Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys determined from thermodynamic predictions and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurements. A variation of the main alloying elements Zn, Mg, and Cu generated 38 experimentally produced alloys. An experimental determination of the solidus temperature via DSC was carried out according to a user-defined method, because the broad melting interval present in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys does not allow the use of the classical onset method for pure substances. The software algorithms implemented in FactSage®, Pandat™, and MatCalc with corresponding commercially available databases were deployed for thermodynamic predictions. Based on these investigations, the predictive power of the commercially available CALPHAD databases and software packages was critically reviewed.

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation on differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Sho; Yoshino, Hironori; Ishikawa, Junya; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Nishiyama, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Kouki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells, immune effector cells produced from bone marrow cells, play a major role in immunoglobulin E–mediated allergic responses. Ionizing radiation affects the functions of mast cells, which are involved in radiation-induced tissue damage. However, whether ionizing radiation affects the differential induction of mast cells is unknown. Here we investigated whether bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells. To induce mast cells, bone marrow cells from X-irradiated and unirradiated mice were cultured in the presence of cytokines required for mast cell induction. Although irradiation at 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy decreased the number of bone marrow cells 1 day post-irradiation, the cultured bone marrow cells of X-irradiated and unirradiated mice both expressed mast cell–related cell-surface antigens. However, the percentage of mast cells in the irradiated group was lower than in the unirradiated group. Similar decreases in the percentage of mast cells induced in the presence of X-irradiation were observed 10 days post irradiation, although the number of bone marrow cells in irradiated mice had recovered by this time. Analysis of mast cell function showed that degranulation of mast cells after immunoglobulin E–mediated allergen recognition was significantly higher in the X-irradiated group compared with in the unirradiated group. In conclusion, bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells, but ionizing radiation affected the differentiation efficiency and function of mast cells. (author)

  8. Comparative study of P19 EC stem cell differentiation in between conventional hanging drop and the zebrafish chorion as a bio-derived material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dae Seok Na; Lee, Hwang; Sun Uk Kim; Chang Nam Hwang; Sang Ho Lee; Ji Yoon Kang; Jai Kyeong Kim; James Jungho Pak

    2008-07-01

    Various materials including glass and polymers have been widely used for stem cell culture due to their biocompatibility. However, the roles of these materials are fundamentally limited because they cannot realize or imitate the complex biological functions of living tissues, except in very simple cases. Here, the development of a bio-derived material suitable for stem cell culture and improvement of differentiation efficiency to specific cell lineages with no stimulating agents by using a chorion obtained from a fertilized zebrafish egg through the removal of the yolk and embryonic cell mass from the egg is reported. Mouse P19 EC stem cells introduced into the empty chorion form a uniform embryoid body (EB) without addition of any inducing agent. It is demonstrated that the zebrafish chorion with nanopores improves efficiencies greatly in the EB formation, cell proliferation, and lineage-specific differentiations compared to those of the conventional hanging drop culture method.

  9. Stakeholder assessment of comparative effectiveness research needs for Medicaid populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael A; Allen-Coleman, Cora; Farrell, Stephen F; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Patients, providers and policy-makers rely heavily on comparative effectiveness research (CER) when making complex, real-world medical decisions. In particular, Medicaid providers and policy-makers face unique challenges in decision-making because their program cares for traditionally underserved populations, especially children, pregnant women and people with mental illness. Because these patient populations have generally been underrepresented in research discussions, CER questions for these groups may be understudied. To address this problem, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality commissioned our team to work with Medicaid Medical Directors and other stakeholders to identify relevant CER questions. Through an iterative process of topic identification and refinement, we developed relevant, feasible and actionable questions based on issues affecting Medicaid programs nationwide. We describe challenges and limitations and provide recommendations for future stakeholder engagement. PMID:26388438

  10. Comparing the effect of pressure and temperature on ion mobilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabrizchi, Mahmoud; Rouholahnejad, Fereshteh

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pressure on ion mobilities has been investigated and compared with that of temperature. In this connection, an ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) cell, which employs a corona discharge as the ionization source, has been designed and constructed to allow varying pressure inside the drift region. IMS spectra were recorded at various pressures ranging from 15 Torr up to atmospheric pressure. The results show that IMS peaks shift perfectly linear with pressure which is in excellent agreement with the ion mobility theory. However, experimental ion mobilities versus temperature show deviation from the theoretical trend. The deviation is attributed to formation of clusters. The different behaviour of pressure and temperature was explained on the basis of the different impact of pressure and temperature on hydration and clustering of ions. Pressure affects the clustering reactions linearly but temperature affects it exponentially

  11. An overview of methods for comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Weinberger, Morris; Chen, Ronald C; Carpenter, William R

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is a broad category of outcomes research encompassing many different methods employed by researchers and clinicians from numerous disciplines. The goal of cancer-focused CER is to generate new knowledge to assist cancer stakeholders in making informed decisions that will improve health care and outcomes of both individuals and populations. There are numerous CER methods that may be used to examine specific questions, including randomized controlled trials, observational studies, systematic literature reviews, and decision sciences modeling. Each has its strengths and weaknesses. To both inform and serve as a reference for readers of this issue of Seminars in Radiation Oncology as well as the broader oncology community, we describe CER and several of the more commonly used approaches and analytical methods. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Effectiveness testing of some vegetal extracts comparing with clasical anthelmintics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie M.S.,

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We have tested the efficacy of some vegetal extracts (Parazitol –Medica Laboratories, a natural product with an anthelmintic effect and a Cucurbita sp. oil extract compared to the classic anthelmintics (Rombendazol – Romvac and Dehelman – KRKA Slovenia at domestic poultry, whose parasitical status had been previously established through animal killing and necropsies. Parazitol and the pumpkin oil have had a lower efficacy than the levamisole and albendazole upon the species Ascaridia galli. Heterakis gallinarum was not affected by the pumpkin oil. Parazitol have a moderate efficacy (36%, while levamisole and albendazole were very efficient (100%. The treatments with albendazole upon the cestods belonging to the genus Raillietina have had a 100% efficacy. In cestods, Parazitol had a better efficacy (57% than the pumpkin oil (14%.

  13. A CTSA Agenda to Advance Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, Mark; Tunis, Sean; Whitlock, Evelyn P.; Pauker, Stephen G.; Basu, Anirban; Chilingerian, Jon; Harrell Jr., Frank E.; Meltzer, David O.; Montori, Victor M.; Shepard, Donald S.; Kent, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Clinical research needs to be more useful to patients, clinicians, and other decision makers. To meet this need, more research should focus on patient‐centered outcomes, compare viable alternatives, and be responsive to individual patients’ preferences, needs, pathobiology, settings, and values. These features, which make comparative effectiveness research (CER) fundamentally patient‐centered, challenge researchers to adopt or develop methods that improve the timeliness, relevance, and practical application of clinical studies. In this paper, we describe 10 priority areas that address 3 critical needs for research on patient‐centered outcomes (PCOR): (1) developing and testing trustworthy methods to identify and prioritize important questions for research; (2) improving the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical research studies; and (3) linking the process and outcomes of actual practice to priorities for research on patient‐centered outcomes. We argue that the National Institutes of Health, through its clinical and translational research program, should accelerate the development and refinement of methods for CER by linking a program of methods research to the broader portfolio of large, prospective clinical and health system studies it supports. Insights generated by this work should be of enormous value to PCORI and to the broad range of organizations that will be funding and implementing CER. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 188–198 PMID:21707950

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of transabdominal high-resolution US for staging gallbladder cancer and differential diagnosis of neoplastic polyps compared with EUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Sub; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Yong Jae; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong-Tae; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-07-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of transabdominal high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) for staging gallbladder cancer and differential diagnosis of neoplastic polyps compared with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and pathology. Among 125 patients who underwent both HRUS and EUS, we included 29 pathologically proven cancers (T1 = 7, T2 = 19, T3 = 3) including 15 polypoid cancers and 50 surgically proven polyps (neoplastic = 30, non-neoplastic = 20). We reviewed formal reports and assessed the accuracy of HRUS and EUS for diagnosing cancer as well as the differential diagnosis of neoplastic polyps. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square tests. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for gallbladder cancer were 82.7 %, 44.4 %, 82.7 %, and 44 % using HRUS and 86.2 %, 22.2 %, 78.1 %, and 33.3 % using EUS. HRUS and EUS correctly diagnosed the stage in 13 and 12 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for neoplastic polyps were 80 %, 80 %, 86 %, and 73 % using HRUS and 73 %, 85 %, 88 %, and 69 % using EUS. Single polyps (8/20 vs. 21/30), larger (1.0 ± 0.28 cm vs. 1.9 ± 0.85 cm) polyps, and older age (52.5 ± 13.2 vs. 66.1 ± 10.3 years) were common in neoplastic polyps (p diagnostic accuracy for GB cancer compared with EUS. • HRUS and EUS showed similar diagnostic accuracy for differentiating neoplastic polyps. • Single, larger polyps and older age were common in neoplastic polyps. • HRUS is less invasive compared with EUS.

  15. Effective Differentiation: A Guide for Teachers and Leaders. Q&A for Carol A. Tomlinson, Ed.D. REL Mid-Atlantic Educator Effectiveness Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In this webinar, Dr. Carol Tomlinson of the University of Virginia presented the research base supporting the practice of differentiation and described the characteristics of effective differentiation. She led a discussion of how quality preparation can build and strengthen teachers' knowledge and skills in implementing differentiated instruction…

  16. Response of Turkey Muscle Satellite Cells to Thermal Challenge. II. Transcriptome Effects in Differentiating Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent M. Reed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of poultry to extreme temperatures during the critical period of post-hatch growth can seriously affect muscle development and thus compromise subsequent meat quality. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey muscle satellite cells by thermal challenge during differentiation. Our goal is to better define how thermal stress alters breast muscle ultrastructure and subsequent development.Results: Skeletal muscle satellite cells previously isolated from the Pectoralis major muscle of 7-wk-old male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo from two breeding lines: the F-line (16 wk body weight-selected and RBC2 (randombred control line were used in this study. Cultured cells were induced to differentiate at 38°C (control or thermal challenge temperatures of 33 or 43°C. After 48 h of differentiation, cells were harvested and total RNA was isolated for RNAseq analysis. Analysis of 39.9 Gb of sequence found 89% mapped to the turkey genome (UMD5.0, annotation 101 with average expression of 18,917 genes per library. In the cultured satellite cells, slow/cardiac muscle isoforms are generally present in greater abundance than fast skeletal isoforms. Statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed among treatments and between turkey lines, with a greater number of genes affected in the F-line cells following cold treatment whereas more differentially expressed (DE genes were observed in the RBC2 cells following heat treatment. Many of the most significant pathways involved signaling, consistent with ongoing cellular differentiation. Regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis appears to be significantly affected by temperature treatment, particularly cold treatment.Conclusions: Satellite cell differentiation is directly influenced by temperature at the level of gene transcription with greater effects attributed to selection for fast growth. At lower temperature, muscle-associated genes in the

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis of nodules of two Mesorhizobium-chickpea associations with differential symbiotic efficiency under phosphate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Inoue, Komaki; Chu, Ha Duc; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Van Ha, Chien; Watanabe, Yasuko; Burritt, David J; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Mochida, Keiichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2017-09-01

    Phosphate (Pi) deficiency is known to be a major limitation for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF), and hence legume crop productivity globally. However, very little information is available on the adaptive mechanisms, particularly in the important legume crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), which enable nodules to respond to low-Pi availability. Thus, to elucidate these mechanisms in chickpea nodules at molecular level, we used an RNA sequencing approach to investigate transcriptomes of the nodules in Mesorhizobium mediterraneum SWRI9-(MmSWRI9)-chickpea and M. ciceri CP-31-(McCP-31)-chickpea associations under Pi-sufficient and Pi-deficient conditions, of which the McCP-31-chickpea association has a better SNF capacity than the MmSWRI9-chickpea association during Pi starvation. Our investigation revealed that more genes showed altered expression patterns in MmSWRI9-induced nodules than in McCP-31-induced nodules (540 vs. 225) under Pi deficiency, suggesting that the Pi-starvation-more-sensitive MmSWRI9-induced nodules required expression change in a larger number of genes to cope with low-Pi stress than the Pi-starvation-less-sensitive McCP-31-induced nodules. The functional classification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was examined to gain an understanding of how chickpea nodules respond to Pi starvation, caused by soil Pi deficiency. As a result, more DEGs involved in nodulation, detoxification, nutrient/ion transport, transcriptional factors, key metabolic pathways, Pi remobilization and signalling were found in Pi-starved MmSWRI9-induced nodules than in Pi-starved McCP-31-induced nodules. Our findings have enabled the identification of molecular processes that play important roles in the acclimation of nodules to Pi deficiency, ultimately leading to the development of Pi-efficient chickpea symbiotic associations suitable for Pi-deficient soils. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of daily low dose gamma irradiation on growth and differentiation of human myeloid leukaemic bone marrow in diffusion chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberger, J S [Joint Center for Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiation and Sidney Farber Cancer Institute; Chang, J M; King, V; Fulmer, S; Balzuno, S; Moloney, W C [Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow from each of 8 untreated patients with myeloproliferative disorders was grown in diffusion chambers in 760 rad total body irradiated rats. Rats were exposed to 11.5, 57.5, or 108.5 rad daily for 14-21 and cell growth compared to that detected in unirradiated chambers. Cells from acute myelogenous leukaemia patients exposed to 11.5 rad per d grew for 11-21 d and there was no consistent stimulation of differentiation of immature granulocytic cells to mature granulocytes that was attributable to irradiation. Cells from a chronic myeloid leukaemia patient in chronic phase or blast crisis, and a polycythaemia vera patient with myeloid metaplasia showed signigicant morphologic differentiation from immature to mature granulocytes in control chambers with no additional effect of daily irradiation. Marrow specimens from 2 AML patients exposed to each of 3 daily dose fractions over 14 d revealed a dose-dependent decrease in immature granulocytes with no persistent increase in mature granulocytes. In both irradiated and control chambers, macrophages increased over 21 d. Thus, cells from patients with myeloprofilerative disorders may not necessarily differentiate to mature granulocytes following in vivo exposure to ionizing irradiation.

  19. Stage-specific effects of FGF2 on the differentiation of dental pulp cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Dentinogenesis is a complex and multistep process, which is regulated by various growth factors, including members of the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family. Both positive and negative effects of FGFs on dentinogenesis have been reported but the underlying mechanisms of these conflicting results are still unclear. To gain better insight into the role of FGF2 in dentinogenesis, we used dental pulp cells from various transgenic mice, in which fluorescent protein expression identifies cells at different stages of odontoblast differentiation. Our results showed that continuous exposure of pulp cells to FGF2 inhibited mineralization and revealed both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of FGF2 on expression of markers of dentinogenesis and various transgenes. During the proliferation phase of in vitro growth FGF2 increased expression of markers of dentinogenesis and the percentages of DMP1-GFP+ functional odontoblasts and DSPP-Cerulean+ odontoblasts. Additional exposure to FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of in vitro growth decreased the extent of mineralization, expression of markers of dentinogenesis, and expression of DMP1-GFP and DSPP-Cerulean transgenes. Recovery experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis were related to the blocking of differentiation of cells into mature odontoblasts. These observations together showed stage-specific effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis by dental pulp cells and provide critical information for the development of improved treatments for vital pulp therapy and dentin regeneration. PMID:25823776

  20. A Comparison of Two-Stage Approaches for Fitting Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation Models with Mixed Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Bendezú, Jason J; Cole, Pamela M; Ram, Nilam

    2016-01-01

    Several approaches exist for estimating the derivatives of observed data for model exploration purposes, including functional data analysis (FDA; Ramsay & Silverman, 2005 ), generalized local linear approximation (GLLA; Boker, Deboeck, Edler, & Peel, 2010 ), and generalized orthogonal local derivative approximation (GOLD; Deboeck, 2010 ). These derivative estimation procedures can be used in a two-stage process to fit mixed effects ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. While the performance and utility of these routines for estimating linear ODEs have been established, they have not yet been evaluated in the context of nonlinear ODEs with mixed effects. We compared properties of the GLLA and GOLD to an FDA-based two-stage approach denoted herein as functional ordinary differential equation with mixed effects (FODEmixed) in a Monte Carlo (MC) study using a nonlinear coupled oscillators model with mixed effects. Simulation results showed that overall, the FODEmixed outperformed both the GLLA and GOLD across all the embedding dimensions considered, but a novel use of a fourth-order GLLA approach combined with very high embedding dimensions yielded estimation results that almost paralleled those from the FODEmixed. We discuss the strengths and limitations of each approach and demonstrate how output from each stage of FODEmixed may be used to inform empirical modeling of young children's self-regulation.

  1. Graphene nanomesh-based devices exhibiting a strong negative differential conductance effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung Nguyen, V; Mazzamuto, F; Saint-Martin, J; Bournel, A; Dollfus, P

    2012-01-01

    Using atomistic quantum simulation based on a tight binding model, we have investigated the transport characteristics of graphene nanomesh-based devices and evaluated the possibilities of observing negative differential conductance. It is shown that by taking advantage of bandgap opening in the graphene nanomesh lattice, a strong negative differential conductance effect can be achieved at room temperature in pn junctions and n-doped structures. Remarkably, the effect is improved very significantly (with a peak-to-valley current ratio of a few hundred) and appears to be weakly sensitive to the transition length in graphene nanomesh pn hetero-junctions when inserting a pristine (gapless) graphene section in the transition region between n and p zones. The study therefore suggests new design strategies for graphene electronic devices which may offer strong advantages in terms of performance and processing over the devices studied previously. (paper)

  2. The effect of alcohol on the differential expression of cluster of differentiation 14 gene, associated pathways, and genetic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana X Zhou

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption affects human health in part by compromising the immune system. In this study, we examined the expression of the Cd14 (cluster of differentiation 14 gene, which is involved in the immune system through a proinflammatory cascade. Expression was evaluated in BXD mice treated with saline or acute 1.8 g/kg i.p. ethanol (12.5% v/v. Hippocampal gene expression data were generated to examine differential expression and to perform systems genetics analyses. The Cd14 gene expression showed significant changes among the BXD strains after ethanol treatment, and eQTL mapping revealed that Cd14 is a cis-regulated gene. We also identified eighteen ethanol-related phenotypes correlated with Cd14 expression related to either ethanol responses or ethanol consumption. Pathway analysis was performed to identify possible biological pathways involved in the response to ethanol and Cd14. We also constructed a genetic network for Cd14 using the top 20 correlated genes and present several genes possibly involved in Cd14 and ethanol responses based on differential gene expression. In conclusion, we found Cd14, along with several other genes and pathways, to be involved in ethanol responses in the hippocampus, such as increased susceptibility to lipopolysaccharides and neuroinflammation.

  3. [Inhibitory effect of murine cytomegalovirus infection on neural stem cells' differentiation and its mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-feng; Fang, Feng; Dong, Yong-sui; Zhou, Hua; Zhen, Hong; Liu, Jin; Li, Ge

    2006-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading infectious cause of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system caused by intrauterine infection. However, the exact pathogenesis of these brain abnormalities has not been fully elucidated. It has been reported that periependymitis, periventricular necrosis and calcification are the most frequent findings in the brains of congenital CMV infection. Because a number of multipotential neural stem cells (NSCs) have been identified from ventricular zone, it is possible that NSCs in this area are primary targets for viral infection, which seems to be primarily responsible for the generation of the brain abnormalities. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection on neural stem cells' differentiation in vitro and its role in the mechanisms of brain abnormalities caused by congenital cytomegalovirus infection. NSCs were prepared from fetal BALB/c mouse and were infected with recombinant MCMV RM461 inserted with a report gene LacZ at 1 multiplicity of infection (MOI = 1). The effect of MCMV infection on neural stem cells' differentiation was observed by detecting the ratio of nestin, GFAP and NSE positive cells with immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry on day 2 postinfection. The effects of MCMV infection on gene expression of Wnt-1 and neurogenin 1 (Ngn1) related to neural differentiation were detected by RT-PCR. NSCs isolated from embryonic mouse brains strongly expressed nestin, a specific marker of NSCs and had the capacity to differentiate into NF-200 and NSE positive neurons or GFAP positive astrocytes. At MOI = 1, the results of flow cytometry assay showed that nestin positive cells' proportion in the infection group [(62.2 +/- 1.8)%] was higher than that in the normal group [(37.2 +/- 2.4)%] (t = 4.62, P differentiation, which may be primary causes of disorders of brain development in congenital CMV infection. The decreased

  4. A comparative proteomic study on the effects of metal pollution in oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Ji, Chenglong; Wu, Huifeng; Tan, Qiaoguo; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-11-15

    The metal pollution has posed great risk on the coastal organisms along the Jiulongjiang Estuary in South China. In this work, two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics was applied to the oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis from metal pollution sites to characterize the proteomic responses to metal pollution. Metal accumulation and proteomic responses indicated that the oysters from BJ site were more severely contaminated than those from FG site. Compared with those oyster samples from the clean site (JZ), metal pollution induced cellular injuries, oxidative and immune stresses in oyster heapatopancreas from both BJ and FG sites via differential metabolic pathways. In addition, metal pollution in BJ site induced disturbance in energy and lipid metabolisms in oysters. Results indicated that cathepsin L and ferritin GF1 might be the biomarkers of As and Fe in oyster C. hongkongensis, respectively. This study demonstrates that proteomics is a useful tool for investigating biological effects induced by metal pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of atmospheric hydrogen fluoride upon Drosophila melanogaster. I. Differential genotyptic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, R A; Smith, J D; Applegate, H G

    1971-01-01

    Four inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster were exposed to various concentrations of gaseous hydrogen fluoride for a period of six weeks. The effects upon the viability of these populations were predominantly linear with respect to fluoride concentration over the range tested. Differential responses of the inbred lines were interpreted to mean that tolerance to fluoride contamination is influenced by genotype. 4 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  6. The Effects of Cost Leadership Strategy and Product Differentiation Strategy on the Performance of Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Valipour; Hamid Birjandi; Samira Honarbakhsh

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the effects of business strategies on the relationship between financial leverage and the performance of firms. The research data is collected from 45 firms in the Tehran Security Exchange (TSE) during 2003-2010.The statistical technique is used to examine the assumption of multiple regressions. To test the assumptions, firms were divided into 2 groups: firms with cost leadership strategy and firms with product differentiation strategy. The results indicate...

  7. Perception through a Perspective-Taking Lens: Differential Effects on Judgment and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ku , Gillian; Wang , Cynthia S.; Galinsky , Adam D.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In contrast to the view that social perception has symmetric effects on judgments and behavior, the current research explored whether perspective-taking leads stereotypes to differentially affect judgments and behavior. Across three studies, perspective-takers consistently used stereotypes more in their own behavior while simultaneously using them less in their judgments of others. After writing about an African American, perspective-taking tendencies were positively c...

  8. Consensus of recommendations guiding comparative effectiveness research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacob B; McConeghy, Robert; Heinrich, Kirstin; Gatto, Nicolle M; Caffrey, Aisling R

    2016-12-01

    Because of an increasing demand for quality comparative effectiveness research (CER), methods guidance documents have been published, such as those from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Our objective was to identify CER methods guidance documents and compare them to produce a summary of important recommendations which could serve as a consensus of CER method recommendations. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify CER methods guidance documents published through 2014. Identified documents were analyzed for methods guidance recommendations. Individual recommendations were categorized to determine the degree of overlap. We identified nine methods guidance documents, which contained a total of 312 recommendations, 97% of which were present in two or more documents. All nine documents recommended transparency and adaptation for relevant stakeholders in the interpretation and dissemination of results. Other frequently shared CER methods recommendations included: study design and operational definitions should be developed a priori and allow for replication (n = 8 documents); focus on areas with gaps in current clinical knowledge that are relevant to decision-makers (n = 7); validity of measures, instruments, and data should be assessed and discussed (n = 7); outcomes, including benefits and harms, should be clinically meaningful, and objectively measured (n = 7). Assessment for and strategies to minimize bias (n = 6 documents), confounding (n = 6), and heterogeneity (n = 4) were also commonly shared recommendations between documents. We offer a field-consensus guide based on nine CER methods guidance documents that will aid researchers in designing CER studies and applying CER methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Comparative Metabolomic Analyses of Ipomoea lacunosa Biotypes with Contrasting Glyphosate Tolerance Captures Herbicide-Induced Differential Perturbations in Cellular Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith S; Nandula, Vijay K; Duke, Stephen O; Gerard, Patrick; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2018-02-28

    Glyphosate-tolerant Ipomoea lacunosa is emerging as a problematic weed in the southeastern United States. Metabolomic profiling was conducted to examine the innate physiology and the glyphosate induced perturbations in two biotypes of I. lacunosa (WAS and QUI) that had contrasting glyphosate tolerance. Compared to the less tolerant QUI-biotype, the innate metabolism of the more tolerant WAS-biotype was characterized by a higher abundance of amino acids, and pyruvate; whereas the sugar profile of the QUI biotype was dominated by the transport sugar sucrose. Glyphosate application (80 g ae/ha) caused similar shikimate accumulation in both biotypes. Compared to QUI, in WAS, the content of aromatic amino acids was less affected by glyphosate treatment, and the content of Ala, Val, Ile, and Pro increased. However, the total sugars decreased by ∼75% in WAS, compared to ∼50% decrease in QUI. The innate, higher proportional abundance, of the transport-sugar sucrose in QUI coud partly explain the higher translocation and greater sensitivity of this biotype to glyphosate. The decrease in sugars, accompanied by an increase in amino acids could delay feedback regulation of upstream enzymes of the shikimate acid pathway in WAS, which could contribute to a greater glyphosate tolerance. Our study, through a metabolomics approach, provides complementary data that elucidates the cellular physiology of herbicide tolerance in Ipomoea lacunosa biotypes.

  10. Differential psychophysiological effects of operant and cognitive behavioural treatments in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, K; Turk, D C; Gracely, R H; Flor, H

    2016-10-01

    Determination of psychophysiological effects of operant behavioural (OBT) and cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) for fibromyalgia patients. One hundred and fifteen female patients randomized to OBT (N = 43), CBT (N = 42), or whole-body infrared heat (IH) (N = 30) were compared before and after group treatment as well as at 6- and 12-month follow-ups using intent-to-treat analysis (12 drop-outs). Thirty matched pain-free controls (CON) served as reference group for the initial psychophysiological analysis. Surface electromyogram (EMG), blood pressure, heart rate (HR) and skin conductance levels (SCL) were continuously recorded during adaptation, baseline, social conflict, mental arithmetic and relaxation tasks. At baseline, fibromyalgia patients showed higher SCL and HR, lower diastolic blood pressure and EMG in comparison to controls. OBT and CBT compared to IH significantly reduced pain intensity [OBT: effect size (ES) = 1.21 CI: 0.71-1.71, CBT: ES = 1.23, CI: 0.72-1.74]. OBT increased diastolic blood pressure [ES = 1.13, CI: 0.63-1.63 and CBT reduced SCL (ES) = -0.66, CI: -1.14-0.18] 12 months after treatment. Both CBT and OBT significantly increased EMG levels (OBT: ES = 0.97, CI: 0.48-1.46, CBT: ES = 1.17, CI: 0.67-1.68). In contrast, the IH group did not show any significant changes in the psychophysiological parameters. Increased diastolic blood pressure and decreased pain after OBT suggest a reactivation of baroreflex-mechanisms in fibromyalgia and a normalization of the blood pressure and pain functional relationship. Reduced SCL following CBT may indicate reduced general arousal levels. Increased muscle tension after CBT and OBT suggest a normalization of physical parameters. The reduction in pain seems to be mediated by different psychophysiological processes, providing support for mechanism-based treatments might be indicated for CBT and OBT. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: Differential physiological stress responses followed different

  11. Effects of interfacial micromotions on vitality and differentiation of human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, J; Fan, S; Schulze, C; Kämmerer, P W; Bader, R; Jonitz-Heincke, A

    2018-02-01

    Enhanced micromotions between the implant and surrounding bone can impair osseointegration, resulting in fibrous encapsulation and aseptic loosening of the implant. Since the effect of micromotions on human bone cells is sparsely investigated, an in vitro system, which allows application of micromotions on bone cells and subsequent investigation of bone cell activity, was developed. Micromotions ranging from 25 µm to 100 µm were applied as sine or triangle signal with 1 Hz frequency to human osteoblasts seeded on collagen scaffolds. Micromotions were applied for six hours per day over three days. During the micromotions, a static pressure of 527 Pa was exerted on the cells by Ti6Al4V cylinders. Osteoblasts loaded with Ti6Al4V cylinders and unloaded osteoblasts without micromotions served as controls. Subsequently, cell viability, expression of the osteogenic markers collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin, as well as gene expression of osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, matrix metalloproteinase-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, were investigated. Live and dead cell numbers were higher after 25 µm sine and 50 µm triangle micromotions compared with loaded controls. Collagen type I synthesis was downregulated in respective samples. The metabolic activity and osteocalcin expression level were higher in samples treated with 25 µm micromotions compared with the loaded controls. Furthermore, static loading and micromotions decreased the osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio. Our system enables investigation of the behaviour of bone cells at the bone-implant interface under shear stress induced by micromotions. We could demonstrate that micromotions applied under static pressure conditions have a significant impact on the activity of osteoblasts seeded on collagen scaffolds. In future studies, higher mechanical stress will be applied and different implant surface structures will be

  12. Comparative proteomics of cerebrospinal fluid reveals a predictive model for differential diagnosis of pneumococcal, meningococcal, and enteroviral meningitis, and novel putative therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges in response to infection or chemical agents. While aseptic meningitis, most frequently caused by enteroviruses, is usually benign with a self-limiting course, bacterial meningitis remains associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, despite advances in antimicrobial therapy and intensive care. Fast and accurate differential diagnosis is crucial for assertive choice of the appropriate therapeutic approach for each form of meningitis. Methods We used 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry to identify the cerebrospinal fluid proteome specifically related to the host response to pneumococcal, meningococcal, and enteroviral meningitis. The disease-specific proteome signatures were inspected by pathway analysis. Results Unique cerebrospinal fluid proteome signatures were found to the three aetiological forms of meningitis investigated, and a qualitative predictive model with four protein markers was developed for the differential diagnosis of these diseases. Nevertheless, pathway analysis of the disease-specific proteomes unveiled that Kallikrein-kinin system may play a crucial role in the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to brain damage in bacterial meningitis. Proteins taking part in this cellular process are proposed as putative targets to novel adjunctive therapies. Conclusions Comparative proteomics of cerebrospinal fluid disclosed candidate biomarkers, which were combined in a qualitative and sequential predictive model with potential to improve the differential diagnosis of pneumococcal, meningococcal and enteroviral meningitis. Moreover, we present the first evidence of the possible implication of Kallikrein-kinin system in the pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis. PMID:26040285

  13. Analyses of glass transition phenomena by solving differential equation with delay effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, A.; Inoue, A.

    2007-01-01

    A linear differential equation for the analyses of glass transition phenomena has been proposed by taking into account the delay effect due to the change in transportation of atoms near the glass transition temperature (T g ). Under the condition maintaining the order of the differential equation as the second, the non-linear differential equation proposed by Van Den Beukel and Sietsma is modified to obtain the analytic solution for a linear equation by introducing the following points: the delay effect which is described with a term of Mackey-Glass model, a concept of effective free volume (x fe eff ) and its concentration expression (C fe eff ) which correspond to the equilibrium, and an additional term associated with C fe eff . In analyzing the linear equation, Doyle's p-function was used for the integral of reaction rate with respect to temperature (T). It is found that the linear equation proposed in the present study can describe the changes in free volume (x) with increasing temperature in the dx/dT-T chart, the sharp increase in free volume at T g , and over shooting phenomena of free volume slightly above the T g , as experimentally in thermal analyses for metallic glasses. The linear solution obtained in the present study is of great importance for the analyses of the glass transition because the change in free volume with increasing temperature on heating is described with fundamental functions

  14. An Effective Model of the Retinoic Acid Induced HL-60 Differentiation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasseff, Ryan; Jensen, Holly A; Congleton, Johanna; Dai, David; Rogers, Katharine V; Sagar, Adithya; Bunaciu, Rodica P; Yen, Andrew; Varner, Jeffrey D

    2017-10-30

    In this study, we present an effective model All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA)-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells. The model describes reinforcing feedback between an ATRA-inducible signalsome complex involving many proteins including Vav1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, and the activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. We decomposed the effective model into three modules; a signal initiation module that sensed and transformed an ATRA signal into program activation signals; a signal integration module that controlled the expression of upstream transcription factors; and a phenotype module which encoded the expression of functional differentiation markers from the ATRA-inducible transcription factors. We identified an ensemble of effective model parameters using measurements taken from ATRA-induced HL-60 cells. Using these parameters, model analysis predicted that MAPK activation was bistable as a function of ATRA exposure. Conformational experiments supported ATRA-induced bistability. Additionally, the model captured intermediate and phenotypic gene expression data. Knockout analysis suggested Gfi-1 and PPARg were critical to the ATRAinduced differentiation program. These findings, combined with other literature evidence, suggested that reinforcing feedback is central to hyperactive signaling in a diversity of cell fate programs.

  15. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    The effects of Curcuma longa ( C. longa ) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO 2 , NO 3 , MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 μg/ml) rats. Total and most differential WBC count, NO 2 , NO 3 and MDA were increased but lymphocytes, SOD, CAT and thiol were decreased in asthmatic animals compared to controls ( P longa and curcumin compared to asthmatic group ( P longa and curcumin ( P longa extract and its constituent curcumin in animal model of asthma was observed which suggest a therapeutic potential for the plant and its constituent on asthma.

  16. Differential effects of ephemeral colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two Cuscuta species with different ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdarvandi, Behrang; Guinel, Frédérique C; Costea, Mihai

    2015-10-01

    Seedlings of parasitic Cuscuta species are autotrophic but can survive only a short period of time, during which they must locate and attach to a suitable host. They have an ephemeral root-like organ considered not a "true" root by most studies. In the present study, two species with contrasting ecology were examined: Cuscuta gronovii, a North American riparian species, and Cuscuta campestris, an invasive dodder that thrives in disturbed habitats. The morphology, structure, and absorptive capability of their root-like organ were compared, their potential for colonization by two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed, and the effect of the AMF on seedling growth and survival was determined. The root of both species absorbed water and interacted with AMF, but the two species exhibited dissimilar growth and survival patterns depending on the colonization level of their seedlings. The extensively colonized seedlings of C. gronovii grew more and survived longer than non-colonized seedlings. In contrast, the scarce colonization of C. campestris seedlings did not increase their growth or longevity. The differential growth responses of the AMF-colonized and non-colonized Cuscuta species suggest a mycorrhizal relationship and reflect their ecology. While C. gronovii roots have retained a higher ability to interact with AMF and are likely to take advantage of fungal communities in riparian habitats, the invasive C. campestris has largely lost this ability possibly as an adaptation to disturbed ecosystems. These results indicate that dodders have a true root, even if much reduced and ephemeral, that can interact with AMF.

  17. Sex Reversal and Comparative Data Undermine the W Chromosome and Support Z-linked DMRT1 as the Regulator of Gonadal Sex Differentiation in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Claire E; Major, Andrew T; Ayers, Katie L; Brown, Rosie J; Mariette, Mylene; Sackton, Timothy B; Smith, Craig A

    2017-09-01

    The exact genetic mechanism regulating avian gonadal sex differentiation has not been completely resolved. The most likely scenario involves a dosage mechanism, whereby the Z-linked DMRT1 gene triggers testis development. However, the possibility still exists that the female-specific W chromosome may harbor an ovarian determining factor. In this study, we provide evidence that the universal gene regulating gonadal sex differentiation in birds is Z-linked DMRT1 and not a W-linked (ovarian) factor. Three candidate W-linked ovarian determinants are HINTW, female-expressed transcript 1 (FET1), and female-associated factor (FAF). To test the association of these genes with ovarian differentiation in the chicken, we examined their expression following experimentally induced female-to-male sex reversal using the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (FAD). Administration of FAD on day 3 of embryogenesis induced a significant loss of aromatase enzyme activity in female gonads and masculinization. However, expression levels of HINTW, FAF, and FET1 were unaltered after experimental masculinization. Furthermore, comparative analysis showed that FAF and FET1 expression could not be detected in zebra finch gonads. Additionally, an antibody raised against the predicted HINTW protein failed to detect it endogenously. These data do not support a universal role for these genes or for the W sex chromosome in ovarian development in birds. We found that DMRT1 (but not the recently identified Z-linked HEMGN gene) is male upregulated in embryonic zebra finch and emu gonads, as in the chicken. As chicken, zebra finch, and emu exemplify the major evolutionary clades of birds, we propose that Z-linked DMRT1, and not the W sex chromosome, regulates gonadal sex differentiation in birds. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  18. Pharmacological activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promotes osteoblast differentiation via bone morphogenetic protein-2 and induces bone anabolic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Monika; Pal, Subhashis; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Porwal, Konica [Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Dev, Kapil [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Shrivastava, Richa [Division of Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Rashid, Mamunur [Pharmaceutics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Trivedi, Arun Kumar; Sanyal, Sabyasachi [Biochemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Wahajuddin, Muhammad [Pharmaceutics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Bhaduria, Smrati [Division of Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Maurya, Rakesh [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya, E-mail: n_chattopadhyay@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India)

    2017-02-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a family of enzymes involved in detoxifying aldehydes. Previously, we reported that an ALDH inhibitor, disulfiram caused bone loss in rats and among ALDHs, osteoblast expressed only ALDH2. Loss-of-function mutation in ALDH2 gene is reported to cause bone loss in humans which suggested its importance in skeletal homeostasis. We thus studied whether activating ALDH2 by N-(1, 3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-2, 6-dichlorobenzamide (alda-1) had osteogenic effect. We found that alda-1 increased and acetaldehyde decreased the differentiation of rat primary osteoblasts and expressions of ALDH2 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Silencing ALDH2 in osteoblasts abolished the alda-1 effects. Further, alda-1 attenuated the acetaldehyde-induced lipid-peroxidation and oxidative stress. BMP-2 is essential for bone regeneration and alda-1 increased its expression in osteoblasts. We then showed that alda-1 (40 mg/kg dose) augmented bone regeneration at the fracture site with concomitant increase in BMP-2 protein compared with control. The osteogenic dose (40 mg/kg) of alda-1 attained a bone marrow concentration that was stimulatory for osteoblast differentiation, suggesting that the tissue concentration of alda-1 matched its pharmacologic effect. In addition, alda-1 promoted modeling-directed bone growth and peak bone mass achievement, and increased bone mass in adult rats which reiterated its osteogenic effect. In osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats, alda-1 reversed trabecular osteopenia with attendant increase in serum osteogenic marker (procollagen type I N-terminal peptide) and decrease in oxidative stress. Alda-1 has no effect on liver and kidney function. We conclude that activating ALDH2 by alda-1 had an osteoanabolic effect involving increased osteoblastic BMP-2 production and decreased OVX-induced oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Alda-1 induced osteoblast differentiation that involved upregulation of ALDH2 and BMP-2 • Alda-1

  19. Differentials of fertility in North and South Gondar zones, northwest Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worku Alemayehu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa with an estimated population of 77.1 million in mid-2007. Uncontrolled fertility has adversely influenced the socio-economic, demographic and environmental situations of the country. It is one of the largest and poorest countries that, even in the midst of crisis, has maintained high levels of fertility. This study was aimed at investigating the most important factors influencing fertility behavior in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study which included 2424 women aged 25 years and above was undertaken in the Amhara region of Northwest Ethiopia. The study subjects were grouped into high fertile and low fertile categories. There were 1011 and 1413 women in the high and low fertile groups, respectively. A multi-stage cluster sampling stratified by place of residence was employed to select the required study subjects. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to analyze the data. Results Among the 25 variables considered in this study, only 9 of them were found significantly and independently associated with the level of fertility. Women with at least secondary education were at a lower risk of high fertility with OR = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.21 to 0.64 compared to those with no formal education. However, women with primary education did not show any significant difference when compared with the same baseline group. Age at first marriage was inversely associated with the number of children ever born alive. Place of residence, household expenditure, number of children who have died, attitude towards using contraceptives, women's knowledge on the safe period, and current marital status were the other variables that showed significant associations with the level of fertility. Conclusion Female education beyond the primary level, reduced infant and child mortality, delayed marriage and correct knowledge on the safe

  20. EFFECT OF CSR ON PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION IN THE PRESENCE OF COST ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar K. Mukhopadhyay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR, once thought of only a philanthropic activity of a firm, is now treated as a serious business strategy that can contribute to a firm’s profitability. The seemingly altruistic activity helps build the firm’s image with all the stakeholders including its customers so that it has the potential to increase the firm’s profit. This fact is now well established in research literature. Product differentiation is another corporate strategy that is pursued by some companies in order to offer a distinctive product in the market to avoid competition, charge premium price, and increase profit. What is not known is that when two firms compete in a Hotelling type product differentiation line, how much this product differentiation is affected by the extent of the CSR activity of a firm. Our study is conducted in a game-theoretic setting where the CSR firm is competing with a non-CSR firm. The CSR firm maximizes a convex combination of its own profit and a form of social utility function, while the non-CSR firm maximizes its own profit only. The CSR firm is also assumed to have a technological advantage that reduces its production cost. The interaction of the effects of both the extent of CSR and the extent of this production cost advantage is also considered. We also study a scenario of asymmetric information. Our main results include that the degree of product differentiation is reduced when CSR is practiced. On the other hand, product differentiation increases with the production cost advantage. The interaction between the two factors – CSR activity and cost advantage – is also studied.

  1. Differential utilization of primary health care services among older immigrants and Norwegians: a register-based comparative study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Esperanza; Kumar, Bernadette N

    2014-11-26

    Aging in an unfamiliar landscape can pose health challenges for the growing numbers of immigrants and their health care providers. Therefore, better understanding of how different immigrant groups use Primary Health Care (PHC), and the underlying factors that explain utilization is needed to provide adequate and appropriate public health responses. Our aim is to describe and compare the use of PHC between elderly immigrants and Norwegians. Registry-based study using merged data from the National Population Register and the Norwegian Health Economics Administration database. All 50 year old or older Norwegians with both parents from Norway (1,516,012) and immigrants with both parents from abroad (89,861) registered in Norway in 2008 were included. Descriptive analyses were carried out. Immigrants were categorised according to country of origin, reason for migration and length of stay in Norway. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to study the utilization of PHC comparing Norwegians and immigrants, and to assess associations between utilization and both length of stay and reason for immigration, adjusting for other socioeconomic variables. A higher proportion of Norwegians used PHC services compared to immigrants. While immigrants from high-income countries used PHC less than Norwegians disregarding age (OR from 0.65 to 0.92 depending on age group), they had similar number of diagnoses when in contact with PHC. Among immigrants from other countries, however, those 50 to 65 years old used PHC services more often (OR 1.22) than Norwegians and had higher comorbidity levels, but this pattern was reversed for older adults (OR 0.56 to 0.47 for 66-80 and 80+ years respectively). For all immigrants, utilization of PHC increased with longer stay in Norway and was higher for refugees (1.67 to 1.90) but lower for labour immigrants (0.33 to 0.45) compared to immigrants for family reunification. However, adjustment for education and income levels reduced most

  2. Differential gene expression in human fibroblasts after alpha-particle emitter (211)At compared with (60)Co irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsson, Anna; Claesson, Kristina; Parris, Toshima Z

    2013-01-01

    trastuzumab monoclonal antibody (0.25, 0.5, and 1 Gy) and (60)Co (1, 2, and 3 Gy). Results: We report gene expression profiles that distinguish the effect different radiation qualities and absorbed doses have on cellular functions in human fibroblasts. In addition, we identified commonly expressed transcripts...

  3. Data sources for heart failure comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Ying; Hammill, Bradley G; Curtis, Lesley H

    2013-01-01

    Existing data sources for heart failure research offer advantages and disadvantages for CER. Clinical registries collect detailed information about disease presentation, treatment, and outcomes on a large number of patients and provide the "real-world" population that is the hallmark of CER. Data are not collected longitudinally, however, and follow-up is often limited. Large administrative datasets provide the broadest population coverage with longitudinal outcomes follow-up but lack clinical detail. Linking clinical registries with other databases to assess longitudinal outcomes holds great promise. The Federal Coordinating Council for Comparative Effectiveness Research recommends further efforts on longitudinal linking of administrative or EHR-based databases, patient registries, private sector databases (particularly those with commercially insured populations that are not covered under federal and state databases), and other relevant data sources containing pharmacy, laboratory, adverse events, and mortality information. Advancing the infrastructure to provide robust, scientific data resources for patient-centered CER must remain a priority. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Glucose enhancement of recognition memory: differential effects on effortful processing but not aspects of 'remember-know' responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Sünram-Lea, Sandra; Elliott, Jade; Stough, Con; Kennedy, David

    2013-01-01

    The administration of a glucose drink has been shown to enhance cognitive performance with effect sizes comparable with those from pharmaceutical interventions in human trials. In the memory domain, it is currently debated whether glucose facilitation of performance is due to differential targeting of hippocampal memory or whether task effort is a more important determinant. Using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover 2(Drink: glucose/placebo) × 2(Effort: ± secondary task) design, 20 healthy young adults' recognition memory performance was measured using the 'remember-know' procedure. Two high effort conditions (one for each drink) included secondary hand movements during word presentation. A 25 g glucose or 30 mg saccharine (placebo) drink was consumed 10 min prior to the task. The presence of a secondary task resulted in a global impairment of memory function. There were significant Drink × Effort interactions for overall memory accuracy but no differential effects for 'remember' or 'know' responses. These data suggest that, in some circumstances, task effort may be a more important determinant of the glucose facilitation of memory effect than hippocampal mediation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. What differentiates primary care physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics for treating mild to moderate hypertension from those who do not? A comparative qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, Christian M; Morlec, Julia; Tamblyn, Robyn M

    2012-02-29

    Thiazide diuretics are cost-effective for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension, but physicians often opt for more expensive treatment options such as angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. With escalating health care costs, there is a need to elucidate the factors influencing physicians' treatment choices for this highly prevalent chronic condition. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of physicians' decision-making process regarding hypertension treatment choices. A comparative qualitative study was conducted in 2009 in the Canadian province of Quebec. Overall, 29 primary care physicians--who are also participating in an electronic health record research program--participated in a semi-structured interview about their prescribing decisions. Physicians were categorized into two groups based on their patterns of prescribing antihypertensive drugs: physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics, and physicians who predominantly prescribe drug classes other than diuretics. Cases of hypertension that were newly started on antihypertensive therapy were purposely selected from each physician's electronic health record database. Chart stimulated recall interview, a technique utilizing patient charts to probe recall and provide context to physician decision-making during clinical encounters, was used to elucidate reasons for treatment choices. Interview transcripts were synthesized using content analysis techniques, and factors influencing physicians' decision making were inductively generated from the data. We identified three themes that differentiated physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics from those who predominantly prescribe other drug classes for the initial treatment of mild to moderate hypertension: a) perceptions about the efficacy of diuretics, b) preferred approach to hypertension management and, c) perceptions about hypertension guidelines. Specifically, physicians had

  6. What differentiates primary care physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics for treating mild to moderate hypertension from those who do not? A comparative qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochefort Christian M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thiazide diuretics are cost-effective for the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension, but physicians often opt for more expensive treatment options such as angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. With escalating health care costs, there is a need to elucidate the factors influencing physicians' treatment choices for this highly prevalent chronic condition. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of physicians' decision-making process regarding hypertension treatment choices. Methods A comparative qualitative study was conducted in 2009 in the Canadian province of Quebec. Overall, 29 primary care physicians--who are also participating in an electronic health record research program--participated in a semi-structured interview about their prescribing decisions. Physicians were categorized into two groups based on their patterns of prescribing antihypertensive drugs: physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics, and physicians who predominantly prescribe drug classes other than diuretics. Cases of hypertension that were newly started on antihypertensive therapy were purposely selected from each physician's electronic health record database. Chart stimulated recall interview, a technique utilizing patient charts to probe recall and provide context to physician decision-making during clinical encounters, was used to elucidate reasons for treatment choices. Interview transcripts were synthesized using content analysis techniques, and factors influencing physicians' decision making were inductively generated from the data. Results We identified three themes that differentiated physicians who predominantly prescribe diuretics from those who predominantly prescribe other drug classes for the initial treatment of mild to moderate hypertension: a perceptions about the efficacy of diuretics, b preferred approach to hypertension management and, c perceptions about

  7. A tool for assessing the feasibility of comparative effectiveness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker AM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexander M Walker,1 Amanda R Patrick,2 Michael S Lauer,3 Mark C Hornbrook,4 Matthew G Marin,5 Richard Platt,6 Véronique L Roger,7 Paul Stang,8 Sebastian Schneeweiss21World Health Information Science Consultants, Newton, MA; 2Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; 3National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; 4The Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR; 5Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ; 6Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 7Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; 8Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Titusville, NJ, USABackground: Comparative effectiveness research (CER provides actionable information for health care decision-making. Randomized clinical trials cannot provide the patients, time horizons, or practice settings needed for all required CER. The need for comparative assessments and the infeasibility of conducting randomized clinical trials in all relevant areas is leading researchers and policy makers to non-randomized, retrospective CER. Such studies are possible when rich data exist on large populations receiving alternative therapies that are used as-if interchangeably in clinical practice. This setting we call “empirical equipoise.”Objectives: This study sought to provide a method for the systematic identification of settings it in which it is empirical equipoise that offers promised non-randomized CER.Methods: We used a standardizing transformation of the propensity score called “preference” to assess pairs of common treatments for uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia and new-onset heart failure in a population of low-income elderly people in Pennsylvania, for whom we had access to de-identified insurance records. Treatment

  8. Comparative metabonomics of Wenxin Keli and Verapamil reveals differential roles of gluconeogenesis and fatty acid ?-oxidation in myocardial injury protection

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Miaomiao; Wang, Qiuying; Chen, Jingrui; Wang, Yanan; Fan, Guanwei; Zhu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Metabonomics/metabolomics is a rapid technology for comprehensive profiling of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues, or whole organisms, the application of which has led to understanding pathophysiologic mechanisms of cardiometabolic diseases, defining predictive biomarkers for those diseases, and also assessing the efficacious effects of incident drugs. In this study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was employed to identify the metabolic changes in rat plas...

  9. Differential effects of platelet rich plasma and washed platelets on the proliferation of mouse MSC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianmin; Kuang, Wei; Tan, Jiali; Li, Hongtao; Zhang, Yi; Hirotaka, Kikuchi; Tadashi, Katayama

    2011-04-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies are being tested clinically for a variety of disorders. However, despite the remarkable clinical advancements in this field, most applications still use traditional culture media containing fetal bovine serum. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) appears as a novel application for tissue engineering and its effect on bone healing is thought to be mainly dependent on the proliferation promoting function, with the molecular mechanisms largely unknown. In this study, mouse osteogenic progenitor mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured in PRP or washed platelet (WPLT)-treated wells or in untreated wells, and analyzed on cycloxygenase 2 (COX2) expression (qRT-PCR), cell growth (MTT assay) and cell differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity). The results showed that PRP and WPLT stimulated cell growth similarly in the first 6 days, together with the steady induction of COX2 and PGE2. 10 μmol/l celecoxib (an inhibitor of COX2) significantly inhibited the pro-proliferation effects. Interestingly, WPLT had stronger effects than PRP in proliferation at the later time points (6-9 days). ALP activity assay and collagen 1a expression revealed PRP had a mild but statistically significant pro-differentiation effect, while no obvious effects observed in WLPT group. In summary, PRP stimulates initial growth of MSCs in a COX2 partially dependent manner and the less obvious osteogenic differentiation promoting effects of WPLT strongly indicates WPLT rather than the PRP should be the optional choice for expanding MSCs in vitro for clinical use.

  10. The Differential Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Jacqueline K.; Calder, Philip C.

    2018-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports the cardioprotective effects of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). There is increasing interest in the independent effects of EPA and DHA in the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. This systematic review aims to appraise the latest available evidence of the differential effects of EPA and DHA on such risk factors. A systematic literature review was conducted up to May 2017. Randomised controlled trials were included if they met strict eligibility criteria, including EPA or DHA > 2 g/day and purity ≥ 90%. Eighteen identified articles were included, corresponding to six unique studies involving 527 participants. Both EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride concentration, with DHA having a greater triglyceride-lowering effect. Whilst total cholesterol levels were largely unchanged by EPA and DHA, DHA increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, particularly HDL2, and increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration and LDL particle size. Both EPA and DHA inhibited platelet activity, whilst DHA improved vascular function and lowered heart rate and blood pressure to a greater extent than EPA. The effects of EPA and DHA on inflammatory markers and glycaemic control were inconclusive; however both lowered oxidative stress. Thus, EPA and DHA appear to have differential effects on cardiometabolic risk factors, but these need to be confirmed by larger clinical studies. PMID:29425187

  11. Differential effects of malignant mesothelioma cells on THP-1 monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzi, Valerio; Chiurchiù, Valerio; D'Aquilio, Fabiola; Palumbo, Camilla; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Modesti, Andrea; Baldini, Patrizia M

    2009-02-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly fatal tumor arising from inner body membranes, whose extensive growth is facilitated by its week immunogenicity and by its ability to blunt the immune response which should arise from the huge mass of leukocytes typically infiltrating this tumor. It has been reported that the inflammatory infiltrate found in MM tissues is characterized by a high prevalence of macrophages. Thus, in this work we evaluated the ability of human MM cells to modulate the inflammatory phenotype of human THP-1 monocytes and macrophages, a widely used in vitro model of monocyte/macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that the exposure to MM cells could alter the differentiation of THP-1 monocytes favoring the development of alternatively activated, tumor-supporting macrophages. Our data prove for the first time that MM cells can polarize monocytes towards an altered inflammatory phenotype and macrophages towards an immunosuppressive phenotype. Moreover, we demonstrate that monocytes cocultivated with MM cells 'keep a memory' of their encounter with the tumor which influences their differentiation to macrophages. On the whole, we provide evidence that MM cells exert distinct, cell-specific effects on monocytes and macrophages. The thorough characterization of such effects may be of a crucial importance for the rational design of new immunotherapeutic protocols.

  12. Assessing neurodevelopmental effects of arsenolipids in pre-differentiated human neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Barbara; Ebert, Franziska; Meyer, Sören; Francesconi, Kevin A; Schwerdtle, Tanja

    2017-11-01

    In the general population exposure to arsenic occurs mainly via diet. Highest arsenic concentrations are found in seafood, where arsenic is present predominantly in its organic forms including arsenolipids. Since recent studies have provided evidence that arsenolipids could reach the brain of an organism and exert toxicity in fully differentiated human neurons, this work aims to assess the neurodevelopmental toxicity of arsenolipids. Neurodevelopmental effects of three arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHC), two arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFA), arsenite and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V ) were characterized in pre-differentiated human neurons. AsHCs and arsenite caused substantial cytotoxicity in a similar, low concentration range, whereas AsFAs and DMA V were less toxic. AsHCs were highly accessible for cells and exerted pronounced neurodevelopmental effects, with neurite outgrowth and the mitochondrial membrane potential being sensitive endpoints; arsenite did not substantially decrease those two endpoints. In fully differentiated neurons, arsenite and AsHCs caused neurite toxicity. These results indicate for a neurodevelopmental potential of AsHCs. Taken into account the possibility that AsHCs might easily reach the developing brain when exposed during early life, neurotoxicity and neurodevelopmental toxicity cannot be excluded. Further studies are needed in order to progress the urgently needed risk assessment. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. [Effects of nicotine on bone marrow stromal cells proliferation and differentiation of chondrocyte in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiao-zhou; Peng, Lei; Cheng, Shao-wen; Chen, Qing-yu; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dong-quan; Shen, Yue

    2011-11-01

    To examine the effects of various concentration of nicotine on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) proliferation and differentiation of cartilaginous in vitro. BMSCs was obtained from femoral bone and tibia of New-Zealand albino rabbit. The cells of the 3rd generation were used in study. Different concentration of nicotine (0, 1 x 10(-7), 1 x 10(-6), 1 x 10(-5) M) were added into BMSCs. BMSCs proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay at the 1, 4, 7, 14 days. The expression of collagen type II and aggrecan as the marker genes of cartilaginous differentiation from BMSCs were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Microscope showed that BMSCs transformed from round to fusiform shape. The concentration of nicotine in 1 x 10(-7), 1 x 10(-6) M had a significant positive effect on cell proliferation and the expression of type II collagen in a time-dependent manner when supplemented in commonly used induction media (P<0.05). Concentrations of nicotine in 1 x 10(-7) can promote the expression of aggrecan at the 7th day after induction,and in 1 x 10(-5) M may inhibit the expression of type II collagen and aggrecan. It was implied that local application of nicotine at an appropriate concentration may be a promising approach for enhancing cartilaginous differentiation capacity of BMSCs in cartilage tissue engineering.

  14. Evaluation of biological effects of intermediate frequency magnetic field on differentiation of embryonic stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Sachiko; Ogasawara, Yuki; Ikehata, Masateru; Ishii, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Wada, Keiji; Wake, Kanako; Nakasono, Satoshi; Taki, Masao; Ohkubo, Chiyoji

    2016-01-01

    The embryotoxic effect of intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic field (MF) was evaluated using murine embryonic stem (ES) cells and fibroblast cells based on the embryonic stem cell test (EST). The cells were exposed to 21 kHz IF-MF up to magnetic flux density of 3.9 mT during the cell proliferation process (7 days) or the cell differentiation process (10 days) during which an embryonic body differentiated into myocardial cells. As a result, there was no significant difference in the cell proliferation between sham- and IF-MF-exposed cells for both ES and fibroblast cells. Similarly, the ratio of the number of ES-derived cell aggregates differentiated to myocardial cells to total number of cell aggregates was not changed by IF-MF exposure. In addition, the expressions of a cardiomyocytes-specific gene, Myl2 , and an early developmental gene, Hba-x , in the exposed cell aggregate were not altered. Since the magnetic flux density adopted in this study is much higher than that generated by an inverter of the electrical railway, an induction heating (IH) cooktop, etc . in our daily lives, these results suggested that IF-MF in which the public is exposed to in general living environment would not have embryotoxic effect.

  15. Effects of Na/K-ATPase and its ligands on bone marrow stromal cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Sayed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous ligands of Na/K-ATPase have been demonstrated to increase in kidney dysfunction and heart failure. It is also reported that Na/K-ATPase signaling function effects stem cell differentiation. This study evaluated whether Na/K-ATPase activation through its ligands and associated signaling functions affect bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiation capacity. BMSCs were isolated from male Sprague–Dawley rats and cultured in minimal essential medium alpha (MEM-α supplemented with 15% Fetal Bovine serum (FBS. The results showed that marinobufagenin (MBG, a specific Na/K-ATPase ligand, potentiated rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis in these BMSCs. Meanwhile, it attenuated BMSC osteogenesis. Mechanistically, MBG increased CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα protein expression through activation of an extracellular regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathway, which leads to enhanced rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis. Inhibition of ERK activation by U0126 blocks the effect of MBG on C/EBPα expression and on rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis. Reciprocally, MBG reduced runt-related transcription factor 2 (RunX2 expression, which resulted in the inhibition of osteogenesis induced by β-glycerophosphate/ascorbic acid. MBG also potentiated rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and in mouse BMSCs. These results suggest that Na/K-ATPase and its signaling functions are involved in the regulation of BMSCs differentiation.

  16. Modelling ventricular fibrillation coarseness during cardiopulmonary resuscitation by mixed effects stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Kenneth; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Eftestøl, Trygve; Kramer-Johansen, Jo

    2015-10-15

    For patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and being in a shockable rhythm, the coarseness of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is an indicator of the state of the patient. In the current work, we show how mixed effects stochastic differential equations (SDE) models, commonly used in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling, can be used to model the relationship between CPR quality measurements and ECG coarseness. This is a novel application of mixed effects SDE models to a setting quite different from previous applications of such models and where using such models nicely solves many of the challenges involved in analysing the available data. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. On the influence of dissipative effects on instabilities of differentially-rotating plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhin, V. P.; Ilgisonis, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The stability of differentially-rotating cylindrical plasmas in the axial homogeneous magnetic field is studied in the framework of one-fluid dissipative magnetohydrodynamics. The dispersion relation of small-scale axisymmetric perturbations, taking into account the effects of the plasma thermal stratification, its resistivity and its viscosity, is derived. In the limiting cases of negligible resistivity and of negligible viscosity, the criteria of plasma stability are obtained. It is shown that in the case of small viscosity, the azimuthal flow of resistive plasma in the axial magnetic field is unstable due to the buoyancy effect if both the plasma pressure and its entropy either increase or decrease in the radial direction.

  18. Design of VA Cooperative Study #591: CERV-PTSD, comparative effectiveness research in veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Paula P; Chard, Kathleen M; Ruzek, Josef I; Chow, Bruce K; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Resick, Patricia A; Foa, Edna B; Marx, Brian P; Huang, Grant D; Lu, Ying

    2015-03-01

    CERV-PTSD is a randomized controlled trial of two of the most effective treatments for PTSD, Prolonged Exposure (PE) and Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT). Despite solid evidence that both treatments are effective, there is limited evidence about their effectiveness relative to one another. The primary objective is to compare the effectiveness of PE and CPT for reducing PTSD symptom severity in a healthcare system that offers both treatments. The secondary objective is to compare the effectiveness of PE and CPT for reducing the severity of comorbid mental health problems and service utilization as well as improving functioning and quality of life. The tertiary objective is to examine whether discrepancy between patient preferences and treatment assignment reduces the effectiveness of each treatment. Exploratory analyses will examine whether demographic and clinical characteristics predict differential response to PE and CPT. The study is designed to randomize 900 male and female veterans with PTSD due to any traumatic military event to receive PE or CPT. The standard dose of treatment is 12 weekly sessions but veterans who improve more rapidly may finish in fewer sessions and veterans who improve more slowly may have additional sessions. The primary outcome is improvement in PTSD symptoms, measured during and after treatment and then 3 and 6 months later. As a large multi-site trial with men and women, CERV-PTSD is designed to advance the delivery of care for PTSD by providing conclusive information about whether one treatment is better than the other, overall, and for different types of patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Differential in Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Macrophages Cell Cultures in Response to Perthamide C Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Riccio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites contained in marine organisms disclose diverse pharmacological activities, due to their intrinsic ability to recognize bio-macromolecules, which alter their expression and modulate their function. Thus, the identification of the cellular pathways affected by marine natural products is crucial to provide important functional information concerning their mechanism of action at the molecular level. Perthamide C, a marine sponge metabolite isolated from the polar extracts of Theonella swinhoei and endowed with a broad and interesting anti-inflammatory profile, was found in a previous study to specifically interact with heat shock protein-90 and glucose regulated protein-94, also disclosing the ability to reduce cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of this compound on the whole proteome of murine macrophages cells by two-dimensional DIGE proteomics. Thirty-three spots were found to be altered in expression by at least 1.6-fold and 29 proteins were identified by LC ESI-Q/TOF-MS. These proteins are involved in different processes, such as metabolism, structural stability, protein folding assistance and gene expression. Among them, perthamide C modulates the expression of several chaperones implicated in the folding of proteins correlated to apoptosis, such as Hsp90 and T-complexes, and in this context our data shed more light on the cellular effects and pathways altered by this marine cyclo-peptide.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of mepolizumab and omalizumab in severe asthma: An indirect treatment comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockle, Sarah M; Stynes, Gillian; Gunsoy, Necdet B; Parks, Daniel; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Wex, Jaro; Bradford, Eric S; Albers, Frank C; Willson, Jenny

    2017-02-01

    Severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease. Patients with both eosinophilic and allergic asthma phenotypes may be eligible for treatment with mepolizumab and omalizumab. Evidence on the relative effectiveness of these treatments in this 'overlap' population would be informative for clinical and payer decision making. A systematic literature review and indirect treatment comparison (Bayesian framework) were performed to assess the comparative effectiveness and tolerability of mepolizumab and omalizumab, as add-ons to standard of care. Studies included in the primary analysis were double-blind, randomized controlled trials, ≥12 weeks' duration enrolling patients with severe asthma with a documented exacerbation history and receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus ≥1 additional controller. Two populations were examined: patients potentially eligible for 1) both treatments (Overlap population) and 2) either treatment (Trial population). In the Overlap population, no differences between treatments in clinically significant exacerbations and exacerbations requiring hospitalization were found, although trends favored mepolizumab (rate ratio [RR]:0.66 [95% credible intervals (Crl):0.37,1.19]; 0.19[0.02,2.32], respectively). In the Trial population, mepolizumab treatment produced greater reductions in clinically significant exacerbations (RR:0.63 [95% CrI:0.45,0.89]) but not exacerbations requiring hospitalization compared with omalizumab (RR:0.58 [95% Crl: 0.16,2.13]), although the trend favored mepolizumab. Both treatments had broadly comparable effects on lung function, and similar tolerability profiles. Whilst this analysis has limitations due to a restricted evidence base and residual heterogeneity, it showed that in patients with severe asthma, mepolizumab seems to be at least as effective as omalizumab and that the tolerability profiles of the two treatments did not meaningfully differentiate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thrombospondin-1, -2 and -5 have differential effects on vascular smooth muscle cell physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helkin, Alex; Maier, Kristopher G. [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Services, Syracuse, NY (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs VA Healthcare Network Upstate New York at Syracuse, Syracuse, NY (United States); Gahtan, Vivian, E-mail: gahtanv@upstate.edu [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Services, Syracuse, NY (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs VA Healthcare Network Upstate New York at Syracuse, Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2015-09-04

    Introduction: The thrombospondins (TSPs) are matricellular proteins that exert multifunctional effects by binding cytokines, cell-surface receptors and other proteins. TSPs play important roles in vascular pathobiology and are all expressed in arterial lesions. The differential effects of TSP-1, -2, and -5 represent a gap in knowledge in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) physiology. Our objective is to determine if structural differences of the TSPs imparted different effects on VSMC functions critical to the formation of neointimal hyperplasia. We hypothesize that TSP-1 and -2 induce similar patterns of migration, proliferation and gene expression, while the effects of TSP-5 are different. Methods: Human aortic VSMC chemotaxis was tested for TSP-2 and TSP-5 (1–40 μg/mL), and compared to TSP-1 and serum-free media (SFM) using a modified Boyden chamber. Next, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2 or TSP-5 (0.2–40 μg/mL). Proliferation was assessed by MTS assay. Finally, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2, TSP-5 or SFM for 3, 6 or 24 h. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on 96 genes using a microfluidic card. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA or t-test, with p < 0.05 being significant. Results: TSP-1, TSP-2 and TSP-5 at 20 μg/mL all induce chemotaxis 3.1 fold compared to serum-free media. TSP-1 and TSP-2 induced proliferation 53% and 54% respectively, whereas TSP-5 did not. In the gene analysis, overall, cardiovascular system development and function is the canonical pathway most influenced by TSP treatment, and includes multiple growth factors, cytokines and proteases implicated in cellular migration, proliferation, vasculogenesis, apoptosis and inflammation pathways. Conclusions and relevance: The results of this study indicate TSP-1, -2, and -5 play active roles in VSMC physiology and gene expression. Similarly to TSP-1, VSMC chemotaxis to TSP-2 and -5 is dose-dependent. TSP-1 and -2 induces VSMC proliferation, but TSP-5 does not, likely

  2. Using DNA Barcoding and Standardized Sampling to Compare Geographic and Habitat Differentiation of Crustaceans: A Hawaiian Islands Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Julian Caley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Census of Marine Life has explored methods to assess coral reef diversity by combining standardized sampling (to permit comparison across sites with molecular techniques (to make rapid counts of species possible. To date, this approach has been applied across geographically broad scales (seven sites spanning the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, focusing on similar habitats at all sites (10–12 m forereef. Here we examine crustacean spatial diversity patterns for a single atoll, comparing results for four sites (comprising forereef, backreef, and lagoon habitats at French Frigate Shoals (FFS, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA, within the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. The Bray-Curtis index of similarity across these habitats at FFS was the same or greater than the similarity between similar habitats on Heron Island and Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef and much greater than similarity between more widely separated localities in the Indo-Pacific Ocean (e.g., Ningaloo, Moorea, French Polynesia or the Line Islands. These results imply that, at least for shallow reefs, sampling multiple locations versus sampling multiple habitats within a site maximizes the rate at which we can converge on the best global estimate of coral reef biodiversity.

  3. COMPETITION AND FACILITATION EFFECTS OF DIFFERENTIAL INTRA-AND INTER-ROW WEED MANAGEMENT IN SUGARCANE

    OpenAIRE

    Martin , J; Chabalier , M; Letourmy , P; Chopart , J.-L; Arhiman , E; Marion , D

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Differential intra-and inter-row weed management can be a mean to reduce herbicide use in sugarcane. In 2011, a field experiment was conducted in La Reunion Island to assess inter-row weed competition. Four inter-row weed competition treatments for a duration of one (T1), two (T2), three (T3) and four (T4) months after planting were compared in a randomized complete block design with 5 replicates; treatment plots were paired with non-weeded inter-row control plots. All...

  4. Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Myogenesis and Mitochondrial Biosynthesis during Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun-Yun Hsueh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients for human health, especially omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, which have been found to play positive roles in the prevention of various diseases. However, previous studies have reported that excessive omega-3 fatty acids supplement during pregnancy caused side effects such as slower neural transmission times and postnatal growth restriction. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA and DHA on mitochondrial function and gene expression in C2C12 myoblasts during skeletal muscle differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured to confluency and then treated with differentiation medium that contained fatty acids (50-µM EPA and DHA. After 72 h of myogenic differentiation, mRNA was collected, and gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Microscopy was used to examine cell morphology following treatment with fatty acids. The effect of EPA and DHA on cellular oxygen consumption was measured using a Seahorse XF24 Analyzer. Cells treated with fatty acids had fewer myotubes formed (P ≤ 0.05 compared with control cells. The expression of the genes related to myogenesis was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05 in cells treated with fatty acids, compared with control cells. Genes associated with adipogenesis had higher (P ≤ 0.05 expression after treatment with fatty acids. Also, the mitochondrial biogenesis decreased with lower (P ≤ 0.05 gene expression and lower (P ≤ 0.05 mtDNA/nDNA ratio in cells treated with fatty acids compared with control cells. However, the expression of genes related to peroxisome biosynthesis was higher (P ≤ 0.05 in cells treated with fatty acids. Moreover, fatty-acid treatment reduced (P ≤ 0.05 oxygen consumption rate under oligomycin-inhibited (reflecting proton leak and uncoupled conditions. Our data imply that fatty acids might reduce myogenesis and increase adipogenesis in myotube formation. Fatty acids

  5. Comparing and counting logs in direct and effective methods of QCD resummation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Leandro G. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Université Paris-Sud 11 and CNRS,91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Institut de Biologie de l’École Normale Supérieure (IBENS),Inserm 1024-CNRS 8197, 46 rue d’Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); Ellis, Stephen D. [Department of Physics, University of Washington,Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lee, Christopher [Theoretical Division, MS B283, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Sterman, George [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Sung, Ilmo [Department of Applied Physics, New York University,Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Queens College, City University of New York,Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Walsh, Jonathan R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-04-29

    We compare methods to resum logarithms in event shape distributions as they have been used in perturbative QCD directly and in effective field theory. We demonstrate that they are equivalent. In showing this equivalence, we are able to put standard soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) formulae for cross sections in momentum space into a novel form more directly comparable with standard QCD formulae, and endow the QCD formulae with dependence on separated hard, jet, and soft scales, providing potential ways to improve estimates of theoretical uncertainty. We show how to compute cross sections in momentum space to keep them as accurate as the corresponding expressions in Laplace space. In particular, we point out that that care is required in truncating differential distributions at N{sup k}LL accuracy to ensure they match the accuracy of the corresponding cumulant or Laplace transform. We explain how to avoid such mismatches at N{sup k}LL accuracy, and observe why they can also be avoided by working to N{sup k}LL{sup ′} accuracy.