WorldWideScience

Sample records for dietary salt restriction

  1. Effects of dietary salt restriction on puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chor Ho Jo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary salt restriction may reduce proteinuria although the mechanism is not clear. We investigated the effects of dietary salt restriction on rat kidneys in an animal model of glomerular proteinuria. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: vehicle-treated normal-salt controls, puromycin aminonucleoside (PA-treated normal-salt rats, and PA-treated low-salt rats. PA was given at a dose of 150 mg/kg BW at time 0, followed by 50 mg/kg BW on days 28, 35, and 42. Sodium-deficient rodent diet with and without additional NaCl (0.5% were provided for normal-salt rats and low-salt rats, respectively. On day 63, kidneys were harvested for histopathologic examination. PA treatment produced overt proteinuria and renal damage. Dietary salt restriction insignificantly reduced proteinuria in PA-treated rats, and PA-treated low-salt rats had lower urine output and smaller creatinine clearance than vehicle-treated normal-salt controls. The tubulointerstitial injury score positively correlated with proteinuria. It was significantly increased by PA treatment and relieved by low-salt diet. ED1-positive infiltrating cells and immunostaining for interstitial collagen III were significantly increased by PA treatment. These changes appeared less in PA-treated low-salt rats although the differences in PA-treated normal-salt versus low-salt rats did not reach the statistical significance. Our results suggest that renal histopathology in PA nephrosis may potentially be improved by dietary salt restriction. The decreasing tendency in glomerular filtration rate induced by low-sodium diet might be beneficial in retarding renal progression.

  2. Effects of Dietary Salt Restriction on Renal Progression and Interstitial Fibrosis in Adriamycin Nephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Sung Park

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although high salt intake is thought to accelerate renal progression in proteinuric kidney disease, it is not known whether strict dietary salt restriction could delay renal inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. Here, we sought to answer this question in a rat model of adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome. Methods: Adriamycin was administered via the femoral vein in a single bolus (7.5 mg/kg, and the rats were put on a sodium-deficient rodent diet. Rats with intact kidneys were studied for 5 weeks (experiment 1, and uninephrectomized rats were studied for 6 weeks (experiment 2. Results: In experiment 1, restricting salt intake improved renal tubulointerstitial histopathology in adriamycin-treated rats. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot results additionally showed that restricting dietary salt lowered adriamycin-induced expression of osteopontin, collagen III, and fibronectin. In experiment 2, salt restriction improved adriamycin-induced azotemia, although it did not affect proteinuria or blood pressure. Dietary salt restriction also reduced adriamycin-induced infiltration of ED1-positive cells and the upregulated expression of osteopontin and a-SMA. Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining revealed that salt restriction slowed Adriamycin-induced progression of renal interstitial fibrosis. Finally, qPCR revealed that adriamycin-induced expression of TNF-a, IκB-a, gp91phox, p47phox, and p67phox mRNA was blocked by salt restriction. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that strict dietary salt restriction delays the progress of renal inflammation and fibrosis in proteinuric kidney disease, most likely via relieving the reactive oxygen species-mediated NF-κB activation.

  3. Restriction of salt intake and other dietary modifications for the treatment of Ménière's disease or syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussain, Kiran; Murdin, Louisa; Schilder, Anne GM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/09110906X

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine the effectiveness of dietary modifications, specifically restriction of salt, alcohol and caffeine intake, in patients suffering from Ménière's disease or syndrome. We will also review other

  4. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  5. Dietary salt and gastric ulcer.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenberg, A

    1986-01-01

    Statistically significant linear correlations between geographic variations in salt consumption and mortality from gastric, but not duodenal ulcer, are reported. It is suggested that dietary consumption of salt is a risk factor in mortality from gastric ulcer.

  6. Dietary Salt Exacerbates Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Alan L; Liu, Bo; Rogers, Troy D; Sartor, R Balfour; Miao, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    The Western diet is characterized by high protein, sugar, fat, and low fiber intake, and is widely believed to contribute to the incidence and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, high sodium chloride salt content, a defining feature of processed foods, has not been considered as a possible environmental factor that might drive IBD. We set out to bridge this gap. We examined murine models of colitis on either a high salt diet (HSD) or a low salt diet. We demonstrate that an HSD exacerbates inflammatory pathology in the IL-10-deficient murine model of colitis relative to mice fed a low salt diet. This was correlated with enhanced expression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, sodium accumulated in the colons of mice on an HSD, suggesting a direct effect of salt within the colon. Similar to the IL-10-deficient model, an HSD also enhanced cytokine expression during infection by Salmonella typhimurium This occurred in the first 3 d of infection, suggesting that an HSD potentiates an innate immune response. Indeed, in cultured dendritic cells we found that high salt media potentiates cytokine expression downstream of TLR4 activation via p38 MAPK and SGK1. A third common colitis model, administration of dextran sodium sulfate, was hopelessly confounded by the high sodium content of the dextran sodium sulfate. Our results raise the possibility that high dietary salt is an environmental factor that drives increased inflammation in IBD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Hypertension: salt restriction, sodium homeostasis, and other ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neeru; Jani, Kishan Kumar; Gupta, Nivedita

    2011-03-01

    Salt is composed of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) which in body water becomes essential electrolytes, viz., Sodium (Na⁺) and Chloride (Cl⁻) ions, including in the blood and other extracellular fluids (ECF). Na⁺ ions are necessary cations in muscle contractions and their depletion will effect all the muscles in body including smooth muscle contraction of blood vessels, a fact which is utilized in lowering the blood pressure. Na⁺ ions also hold water with them in the ECF. Na⁺ homeostasis in body is maintained by thirst (water intake), kidneys (urinary excretion) and skin (sweating). In Na⁺ withdrawal, body tries to maintain homeostasis as far as possible. However, in certain conditions (e.g., during exercise, intake of drugs and in disorders causing Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti Diuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH), diuretics, diarrhea) coupled with moderate or severe dietary salt restriction (anorexia nervosa), hyponatremia can get precipitated. Hyponatremia is one end point in the spectrum of disorders caused by severe Na⁺ depletion whereas in moderate depletion it can cause hypohydration (or less total body water) and lower urinary volume (U v ). Moreover, salt sensitivity varies in various populations leading to different responses in relation to dietary Na⁺ intake. Diabetes and Hypertension often co-exist but Na⁺ withdrawal in salt sensitive subjects worsens diabetes though hypertension gets better and reverse occurs in salt loading. Therefore, Na⁺ or salt restriction may be non-physiological. In hypertensive subjects other alternatives to Na⁺ withdrawal could be Potassium (K⁺) and Calcium (Ca⁺²) supplementation. Further studies are required to monitor safety/side effects of salt restriction.

  8. Dietary restriction increases variability in longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, D.; Simpson, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional environments, particularly those experienced during early life, are hypothesized to affect longevity. A recent cross-taxa meta-analysis found that, depending upon circumstance, average longevity may be increased or decreased by early-life dietary restriction. Unstudied are the effects of diet during development on among-individual variance in longevity. Here, we address this issue using emerging methods for meta-analysis of variance. We found that, in general, standard deviation (s.d.) in longevity is around 8% higher under early-life dietary restriction than a standard diet. The effects became especially profound when dietary insults were experienced prenatally (s.d. increased by 29%) and/or extended into adulthood (s.d. increased by 36.6%). Early-life dietary restriction may generate variance in longevity as a result of increased variance in resource acquisition or allocation, but the mechanisms underlying these largely overlooked patterns clearly warrant elucidation. PMID:28298596

  9. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR. The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health.

  10. [Dietary salt in the era of antihypertensive drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel; Aller, Rocío; Zarzuelo, Susana

    2006-11-04

    Hypertension has a high prevalence and worldwide distribution, secondary to economics, social, cultural and ethnics factors. The prevalence increases with the age, over 50 year a 50% of the population has hypertension. No pharmacological approach is an important device in the treatment of these patients, salt restriction is one of the main dietary treatment. A lot of studies and designs have been realized in this topic area with controversial results. In summary, restriction in salt intake improves blood pressure (BP). However, other nutritional interventions such as DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) have been usefull. This diet is low in saturated fat, total fat and cholesterol, and it has high levels of fruit, vegetable, pulses and semiskimmed dairy products. In a recent metaanalysis, it has been demonstrated the improvement in BP with different interventions: aerobic exercise, 4.6 mmHg, reducing alcohol intake, 3.8 mmHg, decreasing salt intake, 3.6 mmHg and using supplements of fish oil, 2.3 mmHg. In conclusion, restriction in salt intake is important in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. However this treatment has another piece in the integral approach of this entity with weight reduction programs, suppression of coffe, alcohol and smoking habit, and a right source and type of fats.

  11. Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rod S; Ashton, Kate E; Moxham, Tiffany; Hooper, Lee; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Background An earlier Cochrane review of dietary advice identified insufficient evidence to assess effects of reduced salt intake on mortality or cardiovascular events. Objectives To assess the long term effects of interventions aimed at reducing dietary salt on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. To investigate whether blood pressure reduction is an explanatory factor in any effect of such dietary interventions on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. Search methods The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect (DARE)), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched through to October 2008. References of included studies and reviews were also checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: (1) randomised with follow up of at least six-months, (2) intervention was reduced dietary salt (restricted salt dietary intervention or advice to reduce salt intake), (3) adults, (4) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data was available. Two reviewers independently assessed whether studies met these criteria. Data collection and analysis Data extraction and study validity were compiled by a single reviewer, and checked by a second. Authors were contacted where possible to obtain missing information. Events were extracted and relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs calculated. Main results Six studies (including 6,489 participants) met the inclusion criteria - three in normotensives (n=3518), two in hypertensives (n=758), and one in a mixed population of normo- and hypertensives (n=1981) with end of trial follow-up of seven to 36 months and longest observational follow up (after trial end) to 12.7 yrs. Relative risks for all cause mortality in normotensives (end of trial RR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.40 to 1.12, 60 deaths; longest follow up RR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.40, 79 deaths) and hypertensives (end of trial RR 0.97, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.13, 513 deaths

  12. Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Shimizu

    Full Text Available Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD or 50% dietary restriction (DR groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks, we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG slow wave activity (SWA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure.

  13. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  14. Salt Restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Simple Need or a Must?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mallamaci

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary salt restriction is one of the most important non pharmacological intervention in the management of hypertension and cardiovascular complications. In Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD patients, observational and recent interventional studies investigating the relationship between sodium intake and renal outcomes suggest that low salt diet is warranted in this high risk category of patients. Moreover reducing and maintaining a low salt intake in these patients plays a fundamental role for maximizing the beneficial effect of ACE inhibitors on CKD progression. On the other hand, in hypertensive patients there is experimental evidence indicating that a very low sodium diet (<50 mEq/day generates a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by an increase in Procalcitonin and TNF-alpha and a reduction in an anti-inflammatory cytokine like Adiponectin. In this brief review the main mechanisms whereby salt intake may determine kidney damage and studies showing that salt restriction may have a beneficial effect in CKD patients will be discussed.

  15. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  16. Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Leandro P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M, which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g: animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP, animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP, animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD, and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD. Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals.

  17. The reno-protective effects of dietary caloric restriction against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that dietary caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition can increase longevity. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of CR on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory cytokines in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty 12-week old male Wistar rats, weighing ...

  18. The effects of dietary restriction on oxidative stress in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael E.; Shi, Yun; Van Remmen, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is observed during aging and in numerous age-related diseases. Dietary restriction (DR) is a regimen that protects against disease and extends lifespan in multiple species. However, it is unknown how DR mediates its protective effects. One prominent and consistent effect of DR in a number of systems is the ability to reduce oxidative stress and damage. The purpose of this review is to comprehensively examine the hypothesis that dietary restriction reduces oxidative stress in rodents by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and increasing antioxidant enzyme activity, leading to an overall reduction of oxidative damage to macromolecules. The literature reveals that the effects of DR on oxidative stress are complex and likely influenced by a variety of factors, including sex, species, tissue examined, types of ROS and antioxidant enzymes examined, and duration of DR. Here we present a comprehensive review of the existing literature on the effect of DR on mitochondrial ROS generation, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative damage. In a majority of studies, dietary restriction had little effect on mitochondrial ROS production or antioxidant activity. On the other hand, DR decreased oxidative damage in the majority of cases. Although the effects of DR on endogenous antioxidants are mixed, we find that glutathione levels are the most likely antioxidant to be increased by dietary restriction, which supports the emerging redox-stress hypothesis of aging. PMID:23743291

  19. Not Salt Taste Perception but Self-Reported Salt Eating Habit Predicts Actual Salt Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-01-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a s...

  20. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  1. “Use salt and foods high in salt sparingly”: a food-based dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... disease, stroke1 and kidney disease.2 Although sodium is an essential element, it is required in small amounts only. Comprehensive strategies that focus on salt reduction are needed to reduce national blood pressure levels in the future. The previous food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs), published in ...

  2. Dietary management of chronic kidney disease: protein restriction and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Wesson, Donald E

    2012-11-01

    More kidney protective strategies are needed to reduce the burden of complete kidney failure from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinicians sometimes use protein restriction as kidney protection despite its demonstrated lack of effectiveness in the only large-scale study. Small-scale studies support that dietary acid reduction is kidney-protective, including when done with base-inducing foods like fruits and vegetables. We review these studies in light of current kidney-protective recommendations. Animal models of CKD show that acid-inducing dietary protein exacerbates and base-inducing protein ameliorates nephropathy progression, and that increased intake of acid-inducing but not base-inducing dietary protein exacerbates progression. Clinical studies show that dietary acid reduction with Na-based alkali reduces kidney injury and slows nephropathy progression in patients with CKD and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR); base-inducing fruits and vegetables reduce kidney injury in patients with reduced GFR; and base-inducing fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis in CKD. Protein type rather than amount might more importantly affect nephropathy progression. Base-inducing foods might be another way to reduce dietary acid, a strategy shown in small studies to slow nephropathy progression. Further studies will determine if CKD patients should be given base-inducing food as part of their management.

  3. How three countries in the Americas are fortifying dietary salt reduction: a north and south perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowski, Barbara; Legetic, Branka

    2011-09-01

    A chronic disease/risk factor prevention framework with three policy environments--communications, physical and economic--was used to organize population level interventions that address the "over consumption of dietary salt", a key risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The framework was then used to map the population based strategies to reduce dietary salt consumption being applied in three countries in the Americas--Argentina, Canada and Chile--each with a history of multi-sector approaches to deal with the risk factors for chronic disease, offering a north versus south perspective. Results show that in all three countries policy instruments are concentrated in the communications environment, e.g., media and education campaigns and/or regulations for standardized information on the salt or sodium content of packaged food products. Notable gaps are the requirement for nutrient information on meals and food items prepared by food establishments and restrictions on advertising and marketing of foods to children. In the physical environment, referring to the sodium levels in commercially prepared foods and meals available on the market, voluntary reformulation of food products is underway at this time in the three countries. Argentina and Chile began with bread and have gradually added other food categories; Canada at the outset is addressing all food categories where products have added salt. Argentina alone is at this point actively approaching regulations to limit the salt content of food, preferring this over ongoing monitoring of voluntary targets. No government in the three counties has yet considered action in the economic environment, a complex area where the research on and initiatives to limit or disadvantage energy-dense food products to address obesity may also capture foods that are highly salted. In the meantime, with recent research estimating substantially higher gains in population health from government legislation to limit salt in foods

  4. The role of dietary phosphate restriction in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Grahame J; Malik, Avya; Lambert, Kelly

    2017-10-24

    Patients with progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) develop positive phosphate balance that is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality. Modification of dietary phosphate is a commonly used strategy to improve outcomes but is complicated by the need for adequate dietary protein. Surprisingly, the evidence for patient-level benefits from phosphate restriction is tenuous, and the justification for using any phosphate binder for pre-dialysis patients is questionable. We review the evidence for dietary phosphate modification and the possible role of a smart phone application (app.) that provides information on phosphate, sodium, potassium and nutrients in over 50,000 Australian foods. We performed a pilot study of healthy participants assigned to dietetic advice and standard diet sheets, or dietetic advice, diet sheets and use of the smart phone app. Following baseline studies, 25 participants commenced the sodium and phosphate restricted diet. After two weeks, both groups showed non-significant trends to reduction in urinary phosphate and sodium. App. users referred to information on the app. more frequently than the control group participants referred to written instructions, found referring to the app. more convenient, felt they learned more new information, were more motivated to maintain the diet and were more likely to recommend their information source to family or friends (all pphosphate balance remains an important goal of CKD management, although diets incorporating very low phosphate and protein contents may worsen patient outcomes. For selected patients, a smart phone app. may improve dietary acceptance and compliance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mütze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional

  6. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18 in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re- absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6 a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2 and thromboxane B(3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta

  7. Consumption and sources of dietary salt in family members in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Puhong; Zhang, Lu; Niu, Wenyi; Gao, Jianmei; Lu, Lixin; Liu, Caixia; Gao, Xian

    2015-04-10

    In China, few people are aware of the amount and source of their salt intake. We conducted a survey to investigate the consumption and sources of dietary salt using the "one-week salt estimation method" by weighing cooking salt and major salt-containing food, and estimating salt intake during dining out based on established evidence. Nine hundred and three families (1981 adults and 971 children) with students in eight primary or junior high schools in urban and suburban Beijing were recruited. On average, the daily dietary salt intake of family members in Beijing was 11.0 (standard deviation: 6.2) g for children and adolescents (under 18 years old), 15.2 (9.1) g for adults (18 to 59 years old), and 10.2 (4.8) g for senior citizens (60 years old and over), respectively. Overall, 60.5% of dietary salt was consumed at home, and 39.5% consumed outside the home. Approximately 90% of the salt intake came from cooking (household cooking and cafeteria or restaurant cooking), while less than 10% came from processed food. In conclusion, the dietary salt intake in Beijing families far surpassed the recommended amounts by World Health Organization, with both household cooking and dining-out as main sources of salt consumption. More targeted interventions, especially education about major sources of salt and corresponding methods for salt reduction should be taken to reduce the risks associated with a high salt diet.

  8. Consumption and Sources of Dietary Salt in Family Members in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Puhong; Zhang, Lu; Niu, Wenyi; Gao, Jianmei; Lu, Lixin; liu, Caixia; Gao, Xian

    2015-01-01

    In China, few people are aware of the amount and source of their salt intake. We conducted a survey to investigate the consumption and sources of dietary salt using the “one-week salt estimation method” by weighing cooking salt and major salt-containing food, and estimating salt intake during dining out based on established evidence. Nine hundred and three families (1981 adults and 971 children) with students in eight primary or junior high schools in urban and suburban Beijing were recruited. On average, the daily dietary salt intake of family members in Beijing was 11.0 (standard deviation: 6.2) g for children and adolescents (under 18 years old), 15.2 (9.1) g for adults (18 to 59 years old), and 10.2 (4.8) g for senior citizens (60 years old and over), respectively. Overall, 60.5% of dietary salt was consumed at home, and 39.5% consumed outside the home. Approximately 90% of the salt intake came from cooking (household cooking and cafeteria or restaurant cooking), while less than 10% came from processed food. In conclusion, the dietary salt intake in Beijing families far surpassed the recommended amounts by World Health Organization, with both household cooking and dining-out as main sources of salt consumption. More targeted interventions, especially education about major sources of salt and corresponding methods for salt reduction should be taken to reduce the risks associated with a high salt diet. PMID:25867952

  9. Consumption and Sources of Dietary Salt in Family Members in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In China, few people are aware of the amount and source of their salt intake. We conducted a survey to investigate the consumption and sources of dietary salt using the “one-week salt estimation method” by weighing cooking salt and major salt-containing food, and estimating salt intake during dining out based on established evidence. Nine hundred and three families (1981 adults and 971 children with students in eight primary or junior high schools in urban and suburban Beijing were recruited. On average, the daily dietary salt intake of family members in Beijing was 11.0 (standard deviation: 6.2 g for children and adolescents (under 18 years old, 15.2 (9.1 g for adults (18 to 59 years old, and 10.2 (4.8 g for senior citizens (60 years old and over, respectively. Overall, 60.5% of dietary salt was consumed at home, and 39.5% consumed outside the home. Approximately 90% of the salt intake came from cooking (household cooking and cafeteria or restaurant cooking, while less than 10% came from processed food. In conclusion, the dietary salt intake in Beijing families far surpassed the recommended amounts by World Health Organization, with both household cooking and dining-out as main sources of salt consumption. More targeted interventions, especially education about major sources of salt and corresponding methods for salt reduction should be taken to reduce the risks associated with a high salt diet.

  10. Awareness of salt restriction and actual salt intake in hypertensive patients at a hypertension clinic and general clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Ohta, Kazuhiro; Ishizuka, Azusa; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Kishida, Masatsugu; Iwashima, Yoshio; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Nakamura, Satoko; Kawano, Yuhei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate awareness of salt restriction and actual salt intake in hypertensive patients at a hypertension clinic and general clinic. Subjects included 330 patients, with a mean age of 69±12 years, who were followed at a hypertension clinic and 200 patients, with a mean age of 67±11 years, who were followed at a general clinic. We estimated 24-h salt excretion using spot urine samples and checked the awareness of salt intake using a self-description questionnaire. The number of antihypertensive drugs available at the hypertension clinic was significantly higher than that at the general clinic (2.2±1.1 versus 1.6±0.9, psalt excretion was significantly lower at the hypertension clinic than at the general clinic (8.7±2.5 versus 9.3±2.5 g/d, psalt intakehypertension clinic and 6% at the general clinic. In patients with excessive salt intake (≥10 g/d), 28% of patients at the hypertensive clinic and 23% at the general clinic thought that their salt intake was low. Urinary salt excretion in hypertensive patients was lower at a hypertensive clinic than at a general clinic. This may be due to the professional nutritional guidance at the hypertension clinic. However, most patients could not comply with the guidelines, and the awareness of salt restriction in patients with excessive salt intake was low.

  11. Dietary restriction alters fine motor function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lori K; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2005-08-07

    A number of standard behavioral tasks in animal research utilize food rewards for positive reinforcement. In order to enhance the motivation to participate in these tasks, animals are usually placed on a restricted diet. While dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to have beneficial effects on recovery after brain injury, life span and aging processes, it might also represent a stressor. Since stress can influence a broad range of behaviors, the purpose of this study was to assess whether DR may have similar effects on skilled movement. Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained and tested in a skilled reaching task both prior to and during a mild food restriction regimen that maintained their body weights at 90-95% of baseline weight for eight days. The observations revealed that DR decreased reaching success and increased the number of attempts to grasp a single food pellet. The animals appeared to be more frantic when attempting to reach for food pellets, and the time taken to reach for 20 pellets decreased following the onset of DR. A second experiment investigating behaviors that do not require food rewards, including a ladder rung walking task and an open field test, confirmed that rats on DR display deficits in skilled movements and are hyperactive. These findings suggest that results obtained in motor tasks using food rewards need to be interpreted with caution. The findings are discussed with respect to stress associated with DR.

  12. The Sexual Dimorphism of Dietary Restriction Responsiveness in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakiko Honjoh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organismal lifespan is highly plastic in response to environmental cues, and dietary restriction (DR is the most robust way to extend lifespan in various species. Recent studies have shown that sex also is an important factor for lifespan regulation; however, it remains largely unclear how these two factors, food and sex, interact in lifespan regulation. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has two sexes, hermaphrodite and male, and only the hermaphrodites are essential for the short-term succession of the species. Here, we report an extreme sexual dimorphism in the responsiveness to DR in C. elegans; the essential hermaphrodites show marked longevity responses to various forms of DR, but the males show few longevity responses and sustain reproductive ability. Our analysis reveals that the sex determination pathway and the steroid hormone receptor DAF-12 regulate the sex-specific DR responsiveness, integrating sex and environmental cues to determine organismal lifespan.

  13. Dietary Sodium Restriction and Association with Urinary Marinobufagenin, Blood Pressure, and Aortic Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Olga V.; Racine, Matthew L.; Geolfos, Candace J.; Gates, Phillip E.; Chonchol, Michel; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Bagrov, Alexei Y.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Systolic BP and large elastic artery stiffness both increase with age and are reduced by dietary sodium restriction. Production of the natriuretic hormone marinobufagenin, an endogenous α1 Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor, is increased in salt-sensitive hypertension and contributes to the rise in systolic BP during sodium loading. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The hypothesis was that dietary sodium restriction performed in middle-aged/older adults (eight men and three women; 60±2 years) with moderately elevated systolic BP (139±2/83±2 mmHg) would reduce urinary marinobufagenin excretion as well as systolic BP and aortic pulse-wave velocity (randomized, placebo-controlled, and crossover design). This study also explored the associations among marinobufagenin excretion with systolic BP and aortic pulse-wave velocity across conditions of 5 weeks of a low-sodium (77±9 mmol/d) and 5 weeks of a normal-sodium (144±7 mmol/d) diet. Results Urinary marinobufagenin excretion (weekly measurements; 25.4±1.8 versus 30.7±2.1 pmol/kg per day), systolic BP (127±3 versus 138±5 mmHg), and aortic pulse-wave velocity (700±40 versus 843±36 cm/s) were lower during the low- versus normal-sodium condition (all Psodium excretion (slope=0.46, Psodium condition (both Psodium restriction reduces urinary marinobufagenin excretion and that urinary marinobufagenin excretion is positively associated with systolic BP, aortic stiffness (aortic pulse-wave velocity), and endothelial cell expression of the oxidant enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. Importantly, marinobufagenin excretion is positively related to systolic BP over ranges of sodium intake typical of an American diet, extending previous observations in rodents and humans fed experimentally high-sodium diets. PMID:23929930

  14. Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinski, Grzegorz; Lonnie, Marta; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wadolowska, Lidia; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2016-12-19

    Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls' Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth) study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs). Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%), high-fat foods (22.4%), and fats (21.3%). Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the "fruit and vegetables" (considered pro-healthy) dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14-2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17-2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30-2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04-2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38-2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97-5.37, respectively), and less likely to adhere to the "fast foods and sweets" (unhealthy) and "traditional Polish" (rather unhealthy) patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the "fruit and vegetables" pattern and were uncommon in

  15. Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Galinski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls’ Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA, based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%, high-fat foods (22.4%, and fats (21.3%. Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the “fruit and vegetables” (considered pro-healthy dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14–2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17–2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30–2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04–2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38–2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97–5.37, respectively, and less likely to adhere to the “fast foods and sweets” (unhealthy and “traditional Polish” (rather unhealthy patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the “fruit and

  16. Salt-sensitive hypertension: mechanisms and effects of dietary and other lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilic, Leta; Pedlar, Charles R; Mavrommatis, Yiannis

    2016-10-01

    Salt sensitivity, which is an increase in blood pressure in response to high dietary salt intake, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. It is associated with physiological, environmental, demographic, and genetic factors. This review focuses on the physiological mechanisms of salt sensitivity in populations at particular risk, along with the associated dietary factors. The interplay of mechanisms such as the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, endothelial dysfunction, ion transport, and estrogen decrease in women contributes to development of salt sensitivity. Because of their effects on these mechanisms, higher dietary intakes of potassium, calcium, vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins, and proteins rich in L-arginine, as well as adherence to dietary patterns similar to the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, can be beneficial to salt-sensitive populations. In contrast, diets similar to the typical Western diet, which is rich in saturated fats, sucrose, and fructose, together with excessive alcohol consumption, may exacerbate salt-sensitive changes in blood pressure. Identifying potential mechanisms of salt sensitivity in susceptible populations and linking them to protective or harmful dietary and lifestyle factors can lead to more specific guidelines for the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Dietary Methionine Restriction: Novel Treatment for Hormone Independent Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epner, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    .... We used Southern blot analysis with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes, western blot analysis, and RT-PCR to determine whether methionine restriction restored expression of growth inhibitory...

  18. Acute toxicity studies and characterisation of local dietary salts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characterization of the salts through infrared spectroscopy showed that both salts had carbonyl groups in the finger print region inferring that the chemical structure may likely be similar. The suggested chemical formula for both salts is a complex inorganic salt which is a combination of carbonates and sulphates. Kanwa ...

  19. Knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding dietary salt intake among medical students in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Pedro; Sanhangala, Edgar J R; Dombele, Isildro M; Ulundo, Henrique S N; Capingana, Daniel P; Silva, Amílcar B T

    2015-01-01

    Levels of salt consumption and its awareness among medical students in Angola remain insufficiently studied. This study determined salt intake and assessed medical students' knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding salt consumption. Were collected 24-hour urine samples from a random sample of 123 undergraduate medical students aged 17-43 years who were studying at the University of Agostinho Neto in Luanda. Their knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding dietary salt were surveyed. Socio-demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected. Average salt intake was 14.2 ± 5.1 g/day, without significant difference between genders (p = 0.221). In total, 96.7% consumed over 5 g/day, but only 6.5% of participants were aware of their excessive salt intake. The majority knew about salt-related health consequences and 45.5% reported they controlled their salt intake. This study indicated a high salt intake and inadequate behaviour regarding dietary salt consumption among medical students studying at the University of Agostinho Neto. This highlights the need for nutritional education to improve their dietary habits and future role in counselling.

  20. Splicing factor 1 modulates dietary restriction and TORC1 pathway longevity in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Caroline; Doktor, Thomas K; Lanjuin, Anne

    2017-01-01

    via splicing factor 1 (SFA-1; the C. elegans homologue of SF1, also known as branchpoint binding protein, BBP). We show that SFA-1 is specifically required for lifespan extension by dietary restriction and by modulation of the TORC1 pathway components AMPK, RAGA-1 and RSKS-1/S6 kinase. We also...... homeostasis is a biomarker and predictor of life expectancy in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using transcriptomics and in-depth splicing analysis in young and old animals fed ad libitum or subjected to dietary restriction, we find defects in global pre-mRNA splicing with age that are reduced by dietary restriction...

  1. The effects of restricted circulation on the salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Bolke, E.L.

    1973-01-01

    During the 1970-1972 water years a net load of dissolved solids of 0.26 billion tons moved from the south to north part of Great Salt Lake, Utah, through the causeway of the Southern Pacific Transportation Co. The load loss from the south part during the 1972 water year was only 0.01 billion tons, thus indicating that the salt balance between the two parts of the lake was near equilibrium for inflow conditions such as those of 1972.

  2. Dietary salt intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association among dietary salt, fluid, and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and weight status in a nationally representative sample of Australian children aged 2 to 16 years. Cross-sectional data from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Consumption of dietary salt, fluid, and SSB was determined via two 24-hour dietary recalls. BMI was calculated from recorded height and weight. Regression analysis was used to assess the association between salt, fluid, SSB consumption, and weight status. Of the 4283 participants, 62% reported consuming SSBs. Older children and those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) were more likely to consume SSBs (both Ps salt intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P salt was associated with a 46 g/d greater intake of fluid, adjusted for age, gender, BMI, and SES (P salt intake was positively associated with SSB consumption (r = 0.35, P salt was associated with a 17 g/d greater intake of SSB, adjusted for age, gender, SES, and energy (P salt intake predicted total fluid consumption and SSB consumption within consumers of SSBs. Furthermore, SSB consumption was associated with obesity risk. In addition to the known benefits of lowering blood pressure, salt reduction strategies may be useful in childhood obesity prevention efforts.

  3. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Accurso, Anthony; Bernstein, Richard K; Dahlqvist, Annika; Draznin, Boris; Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J; Gleed, Amy; Jacobs, David B; Larson, Gabriel; Lustig, Robert H; Manninen, Anssi H; McFarlane, Samy I; Morrison, Katharine; Nielsen, Jørgen Vesti; Ravnskov, Uffe

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Current nutritional approaches to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes generally rely on reductions in dietary fat. The success of such approaches has been limited and therapy more generally relies on pharmacology. The argument is made that a re-evaluation of the role of carbohydrate restriction, the historical and intuitive approach to the problem, may provide an alternative and possibly superior dietary strategy. The rationale is that carbohydrate restriction improves glycemic co...

  4. Benefits of dietary sodium restriction in the management of chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, Jan A.; Laverman, Gozewijn D.; Navis, Gerjan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review To evaluate the role of restricting dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications. Recent findings A consistent line of evidence shows that high dietary sodium intake is a determinant of therapy resistance to blockade of the

  5. A role for autophagy in the extension of lifespan by dietary restriction in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Hansen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In many organisms, dietary restriction appears to extend lifespan, at least in part, by down-regulating the nutrient-sensor TOR (Target Of Rapamycin. TOR inhibition elicits autophagy, the large-scale recycling of cytoplasmic macromolecules and organelles. In this study, we asked whether autophagy might contribute to the lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in C. elegans. We find that dietary restriction and TOR inhibition produce an autophagic phenotype and that inhibiting genes required for autophagy prevents dietary restriction and TOR inhibition from extending lifespan. The longevity response to dietary restriction in C. elegans requires the PHA-4 transcription factor. We find that the autophagic response to dietary restriction also requires PHA-4 activity, indicating that autophagy is a transcriptionally regulated response to food limitation. In spite of the rejuvenating effect that autophagy is predicted to have on cells, our findings suggest that autophagy is not sufficient to extend lifespan. Long-lived daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants require both autophagy and the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO for their longevity, but we find that autophagy takes place in the absence of DAF-16. Perhaps autophagy is not sufficient for lifespan extension because although it provides raw material for new macromolecular synthesis, DAF-16/FOXO must program the cells to recycle this raw material into cell-protective longevity proteins.

  6. Short-term dietary restriction and fasting precondition against ischemia reperfusion injury in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Mitchell (James); M. Verweij (Marielle); K. Brand (Karl); H.W.M. van de Ven (Marieke); N.N.T. Goemaere (Natascha); S. van den Engel (Sandra); T. Chu (Timothy); F. Forrer (Flavio); C. Müller (Cristina); M. de Jong (Marion); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); R.W.F. de Bruin (Ron)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan and increases resistance to multiple forms of stress, including ischemia reperfusion injury to the brain and heart in rodents. While maximal effects on lifespan require long-term restriction, the kinetics of onset of benefits against acute stress

  7. Effect of a standardised dietary restriction protocol on multiple laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Grandison

    Full Text Available Outcomes of lifespan studies in model organisms are particularly susceptible to variations in technical procedures. This is especially true of dietary restriction, which is implemented in many different ways among laboratories.In this study, we have examined the effect of laboratory stock maintenance, genotype differences and microbial infection on the ability of dietary restriction (DR to extend life in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. None of these factors block the DR effect.These data lend support to the idea that nutrient restriction genuinely extends lifespan in flies, and that any mechanistic discoveries made with this model are of potential relevance to the determinants of lifespan in other organisms.

  8. Salt intake of children and adolescents in South London: consumption levels and dietary sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Naomi M; He, Feng J; Whincup, Peter; Macgregor, Graham A

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003/2004, the United Kingdom has implemented a salt reduction campaign; however, there are no data on salt intake in children as assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium, the gold standard method, to inform this campaign. We performed a cross-sectional study, involving South London school children across 3 age tiers: young children (5- to 6-year olds), intermediate-aged children (8- to 9-year olds), and adolescents (13- to 17-year olds). Dietary salt intake was measured by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and compared with newly derived maximum salt intake recommendations. In addition, dietary sources of salt were assessed using a 24-hour photographic food diary. Valid urine collections were provided by 340 children (162 girls, 178 boys). The mean salt intakes were 3.75 g/d (95% confidence interval, 3.49-4.01), 4.72 g/d (4.33-5.11), and 7.55 g/d (6.88-8.22) for the 5- to 6-year olds, 8- to 9-year olds, and 13- to 17-year olds, respectively. Sixty-six percent of the 5- to 6-year olds, 73% of the 8- to 9-year olds, and 73% of 13- to 17-year olds had salt intake above their maximum daily intake recommendations. The major sources of dietary salt intake were cereal and cereal-based products (36%, which included bread 15%), meat products (19%), and milk and milk products (11%). This study demonstrates that salt intake in children in South London is high, with most of the salt coming from processed foods. Much further effort is required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods.

  9. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Karl S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current nutritional approaches to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes generally rely on reductions in dietary fat. The success of such approaches has been limited and therapy more generally relies on pharmacology. The argument is made that a re-evaluation of the role of carbohydrate restriction, the historical and intuitive approach to the problem, may provide an alternative and possibly superior dietary strategy. The rationale is that carbohydrate restriction improves glycemic control and reduces insulin fluctuations which are primary targets. Experiments are summarized showing that carbohydrate-restricted diets are at least as effective for weight loss as low-fat diets and that substitution of fat for carbohydrate is generally beneficial for risk of cardiovascular disease. These beneficial effects of carbohydrate restriction do not require weight loss. Finally, the point is reiterated that carbohydrate restriction improves all of the features of metabolic syndrome.

  10. Variations of dietary salt and fluid modulate calcium and magnesium transport in the renal distal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Te; Lien, Yeong-Hau H; Lai, Li-Wen; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Chiou, Terry Ting-Yu; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2012-01-01

    The renal distal tubule fine-tunes renal epithelial calcium transport. Dietary intake of salt and fluid varies day-to-day and the kidney adapts accordingly to maintain homeostasis. The alternations in salt and fluid balance affect calcium and magnesium transport in the distal tubule, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into high-salt, low-salt and dehydration treatment. Daily intake, water consumption and urine output were recorded. At the end of the experiment, blood and urine samples were collected for hormonal and biochemical tests. Genetic analysis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence studies were then performed to assess the alterations of calcium and magnesium transport-related molecules. High-salt treatment increased urinary sodium, calcium and magnesium excretion. Low-salt treatment and dehydration were associated with decreased urinary excretion of all electrolytes. High-salt treatment was associated with increased intact parathyroid hormone levels. A significant increase in gene expression of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28k and TRPM6 was found during high-salt treatment, while low salt and dehydration diminished expression. These findings were confirmed with immunofluorescence studies. High-salt and low-salt intake or dehydration did not cause any significant changes in WNK1, WNK3 and WNK4. Alternations in salt and water intake affect renal calcium and magnesium handling. High-salt intake increases the distal delivery of the divalent cations which upregulates distal tubule calcium and magnesium transport molecules, while the opposite effects are associated with low-salt intake or dehydration. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Variations of Dietary Salt and Fluid Modulate Calcium and Magnesium Transport in Renal Distal Tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Te; Lien, Yeong-Hau H; Lai, Li-Wen; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Chiou, Terry Ting-Yu; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background The renal distal tubule serves as the fine tuning of renal epithelial calcium transport. Dietary intake of salt and fluid varies day to day and the kidney adapts accordingly to maintain the homeostasis. The alternations in salt and fluid balance affect calcium and magnesium transport in the distal tubule, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into high salt, low salt and dehydration treatment. Daily intake, water consumption and urine output were recorded. At the end of experiment, blood and urine samples were collected for hormonal and biochemical testes. Genetic analysis, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence studies were then performed to assess the alterations of calcium and magnesium transport-related molecules. Results High salt treatment increased urinary sodium, calcium and magnesium excretion. Low salt treatment and dehydration were associated with decreased urinary excretion of all electrolytes. High salt treatment was associated with increased intact parathyroid hormone levels. Significant increase in gene expression of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28k and TRPM6 was found during high salt treatment while low salt and dehydration diminished the expression. These findings were confirmed with immunofluorescence studies. High salt and low salt intake or dehydration did not cause any significant changes in WNK1, WNK3 and WNK4. Conclusions Alternations in salt and water intake affect renal calcium and magnesium handling. High salt intake increases distal delivery of the divalent cations which upregulates distal tubule calcium and magnesium transport molecules, while the opposite effects are associated with low salt intake or dehydration. PMID:23774784

  12. Willingness-to-pay for a population program aimed at reducing dietary salt in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Nexøe, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High intake of salt increases blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Population programs aimed at reducing dietary salt may be cost-effective, but little is known about people's valuation of such programs. METHODS: A random sample (n = 924) of Danish people aged 20......-74 was interviewed in-person in year 2000. They were asked how much they would be willing to contribute in additional tax for a population program that would half the intake of salt. The respondents were randomized to presentation of effectiveness format (number-needed-to-treat (NNT), relative risk reduction (RRR...

  13. Dietary sodium restriction: a neglected therapeutic opportunity in chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humalda, Jelmer K.; Navis, Gerjan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Restriction of dietary sodium is recommended at a population level as well as for groups at high cardiovascular risk, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review addresses recent evidence for the protective effect of dietary sodium restriction in CKD patients specifically. Recent findings Sodium intake in CKD populations is generally high, and often above population average. Recent data demonstrated that moderately lower sodium intake in CKD patients is associated with substantially better long-term outcome of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)-blockade, in diabetic and nondiabetic CKD, related to better effects of RAAS-blockade on proteinuria, independent of blood pressure. This is in line with better short-term efficacy of RAAS-blockade during moderate sodium restriction in diabetic and nondiabetic CKD. This effect of sodium restriction is likely mediated by its effects on volume status. Sustainable sodium restriction can be achieved by approaches on the basis of behavioral sciences. Summary Moderate restriction of dietary sodium can substantially improve the protective effects of RAAS-blockade in CKD, by specific renal effects apparent from proteinuria reduction. The latter precludes straightforward extrapolation of data from nonrenal populations to CKD. Concerns regarding the adverse effects of a very low sodium intake should not distract from the protective effects of moderate sodium restriction. Prospective studies should assess the efficacy and sustainability of different strategies to target high sodium intake in CKD, along with measures at population level. Video abstract http://links.lww.com/CONH/A14 PMID:25222815

  14. “Use salt and foods high in salt sparingly”: A food-based dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legislating the levels of salt in processed food is only one part of this national strategy. All health professionals and educators should also provide appropriate nutritional recommendations that will educate, motivate and enable consumers to change their nutritional behaviour to reduce salt intake to less than 5 g per day, ...

  15. Exercise coupled with dietary restriction reduces oxidative stress in male adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Feng, Feihu; Xiong, Xiaoling; Li, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2017-04-01

    The increased oxidative stress is usually observed in obese population, but the control of body weight by calorie restriction and/or exercise training can ameliorate oxidative stress. In order to evaluate oxidative stress in response to exercise and dietary restriction in obese adolescents, a total of 20 obese volunteers were enrolled in a 4-week intervention program including exercise training and dietary restriction. Body compositions and blood samples were analysed before and after 4-week intervention, and biomarkers associated with oxidative stress were examined. After 4-week exercise training coupled with dietary restriction, physical composition parameters including body mass, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass, body fat mass and fat mass ratio had obvious reduction by 12.43%, 13.51%, 5.83%, 25.05% and 14.52%, respectively. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) revealed a remarkable enhancement. On the other hand, protein carbonyls (PC) exhibited an obvious reduction. Moreover, total thiols and nitrites with respect to baseline revealed a reducing trend although no significant difference was observed. Therefore, the 4-week exercise intervention coupled with dietary restriction is benefit for the loss of body weight and the mitigation of oxidative stress in obese population so that it can be a recommendable intervention prescription for the loss of body weight.

  16. Role of Dietary Restriction in the Prevention of Infection in Leukaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-09-28

    Sep 28, 1974 ... to compare the results with the bacterial content of cooked foods as supplied in a general medical ward in our hospital. in order to assess the validity of strict dietary restriction. METHODS. A spot test sample of a variety of cooked food was taken from the food trolley usually used for distribution of meals to the ...

  17. Long-term dietary restriction up-regulates activity and expression of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of dietary restriction to modulate the agedependentchanges of arginase II was also studied. Results showed that renal arginase II activity declines significantlywith the progression of age (p<0.01 and p<0.001 in 6- and 18-month-old mice, respectively as compared to 2-monthold mice) and is due to the reduction in ...

  18. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers

  19. Adipose gene expression response of lean and obese mice to short-term dietary restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, Evert M van; Keijer, Jaap; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Brom, Charissa E van den; Kohl, Thomas; Franssen-van Hal, Nicole L W; Hoebee, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to higher morbidity risks, which are alleviated even by mild weight loss. To gain insight in the molecular effects of weight loss in adipose tissue, we analyzed the effects of short-term dietary restriction (DR) on mice fed a low-fat diet (lean mice) or a high-fat diet

  20. Dietary restriction depends on nutrient composition to extend chronological lifespan in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyun; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2013-01-01

    The traditional view on dietary restriction has been challenged with regard to extending lifespan of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. This is because studies have shown that changing the balance of dietary components without reduction of dietary intake can increase lifespan, suggesting that nutrient composition other than dietary restriction play a pivotal role in regulation of longevity. However, this opinion has not been reflected in yeast aging studies. Inspired by this new finding, response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the relationships between nutrients (glucose, amino acids and yeast nitrogen base) and lifespan as well as biomass production in four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (wild-type BY4742, sch9Δ, tor1Δ, and sir2Δ mutants) using a high throughput screening assay. Our results indicate that lifespan extension by a typical dietary restriction regime was dependent on the nutrients in media and that nutrient composition was a key determinant for yeast longevity. Four different yeast strains were cultured in various media, which showed similar response surface trends in biomass production and viability at day two but greatly different trends in lifespan. The pH of aging media was dependent on glucose concentration and had no apparent correlation with lifespan under conditions where amino acids and YNB were varied widely, and simply buffering the pH of media could extend lifespan significantly. Furthermore, the results showed that strain sch9Δ was more responsive in nutrient-sensing than the other three strains, suggesting that Sch9 (serine-threonine kinase pathway) was a major nutrient-sensing factor that regulates cell growth, cell size, metabolism, stress resistance and longevity. Overall, our findings support the notion that nutrient composition might be a more effective way than simple dietary restriction to optimize lifespan and biomass production from yeast to other organisms.

  1. Differential regulation of renal prostaglandin receptor mRNAs by dietary salt intake in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Mann, Birgitte; Skøtt, O

    1999-01-01

    and cells by ribonuclease protection assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Functional correlates were studied by measurement of PGE2-induced cAMP formation and renin secretion in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells isolated from animals on various salt intakes. RESULTS: EP1 and EP3......BACKGROUND: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that prostaglandin (PG) receptor expression in the rat kidney is subject to physiological regulation by dietary salt intake. METHODS: Rats were fed diets with 0.02 or 4% NaCl for two weeks. PG receptor expression was assayed in kidney regions...... did not affect the expression of EP1 or IP receptors, whereas EP4 transcripts in glomeruli were increased twofold by salt deprivation. Consistent with this, we found that PGE2-evoked cAMP production and renin secretion by JG cells from salt-deprived animals were significantly higher compared...

  2. Sodium homeostasis in lymphocytes and blood pressure alterations before and during salt restriction in normotensives and in essential hypertensives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jest, P; Pedersen, K E; Klitgaard, N A

    1986-01-01

    Blood pressure, lymphocytic sodium content and sodium efflux were studied in hypertensive and normotensive subjects during salt restriction. Diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups. In essential hypertension the initial high lymphocyte sodium content decreased during salt...... mechanisms with regard to lymphocyte sodium metabolism differs between hypertensive and normotensive subjects....

  3. Relation of Dietary Sodium (Salt) to Blood Pressure and Its Possible Modulation by Other Dietary Factors: The INTERMAP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, Jeremiah; Chan, Queenie; Daviglus, Martha L; Dyer, Alan R; Van Horn, Linda; Garside, Daniel B; Miura, Katsuyuki; Wu, Yangfeng; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Elliott, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Available data indicate that dietary sodium (as salt) relates directly to blood pressure (BP). Most of these findings are from studies lacking dietary data; hence, it is unclear whether this sodium-BP relationship is modulated by other dietary factors. With control for multiple nondietary factors, but not body mass index, there were direct relations to BP of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio among 4680 men and women 40 to 59 years of age (17 population samples in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) in the INTERMAP (International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure), and among its 2195 American participants, for example, 2 SD higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (118.7 mmol) associated with systolic BP 3.7 mm Hg higher. These sodium-BP relations persisted with control for 13 macronutrients, 12 vitamins, 7 minerals, and 18 amino acids, for both sex, older and younger, blacks, Hispanics, whites, and socioeconomic strata. With control for body mass index, sodium-BP-but not sodium/potassium-BP-relations were attenuated. Normal weight and obese participants manifested significant positive relations to BP of urinary sodium; relations were weaker for overweight people. At lower but not higher levels of 24-hour sodium excretion, potassium intake blunted the sodium-BP relation. The adverse association of dietary sodium with BP is minimally attenuated by other dietary constituents; these findings underscore the importance of reducing salt intake for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00005271. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. The role of dietary phosphorus restriction in the conservative management of chronic renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Giuliano; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2005-01-01

    Evidence exists that phosphate retention plays a major role in causing secondary hyperparathyroidism, cardiovascular morbidity, and loss of residual renal function in chronic renal disease patients, and that a subtle elevation in serum phosphate occurs at early stages in the course of renal insufficiency. The implementation of a low-phosphorus, low-protein dietary regimen plays a special role in the conservative management of chronic renal disease patients, for the prevention and correction of secondary hyperparathyroidism and for the renal and cardiovascular protection. However, the success and safety of dietary phosphate restriction largely depends on good compliance with dietary recommendations, which must represent a major goal to be regularly pursued in the clinical practice. To this aim, it is crucial that dietitians expert in renal nutrition give education and personalized dietary advice, with the aim of enhancing the patient's adherence to nutritional prescriptions.

  5. Differential regulation of renal cyclooxygenase mRNA by dietary salt intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Kurtz, A

    1997-01-01

    RNA correlated directly with salt intake. We conclude that dietary salt intake influences renal cyclooxygenase mRNAs zone-specifically with opposite responses between cortex and medulla. Cortical COX II-mediated prostaglandin formation is probably important in low salt states whereas medullary COX I......Experiments were done to investigate the influence of dietary salt intake on renal cyclooxygenase (COX) I and II mRNA levels. To this end rats were fed either a low NaCl diet (LS; 0.02% NaCl wt/wt) or a high NaCl diet (HS diet; 4% NaCl wt/wt) for 5, 10 and 20 days. After 10 days Na excretion...... differed 760-fold, plasma renin activity and renin mRNA were increased eight- and threefold in LS compared to HS animals. Total renal COX I mRNA decreased 50% following the LS diet and did not change after the HS diet. Conversely, COX II mRNA declined after HS intake and transiently increased after salt...

  6. The population risks of dietary salt excess are exaggerated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin J; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-05-01

    Policy positions on salt consumption (based largely on the association of sodium and blood pressure [BP]) has remained unchanged since the 1970s, until recently. However, this is beginning to change as new evidence emerges. The evidence supports a strong association of sodium with BP and cardiovascular disease events in hypertensive individuals, the elderly, and those who consume > 6 g/d of sodium. However, there is no association of sodium with clinical events at 3 to 6 g/day and a paradoxical higher rate of events at < 3 g/day. Therefore, until new evidence emerges, the optimal range of sodium consumption should be considered to be between 3 and 6 g/d. Population-wide sodium reduction is not justified in countries such as Canada. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Discriminating between energetic content and dietary composition as an explanation for dietary restriction effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellers, J.; Ruhe, B.; Visser, B.

    2011-01-01

    A reduction in dietary calories has been shown to prolong life span in a wide variety of taxa, but there has been much debate about confounding factors such as nutritional composition of the diet, or reallocation of nutrients from reduced reproduction. To disentangle the contribution of these

  8. Insulin secretion and signaling in response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinéad M

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine systemic insulin response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and transcript abundance of genes of the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, during both dietary restriction and re-alimentation-induced compensatory growth. Holstein Friesian bulls were blocked to one of two groups: 1) restricted feed allowance for 125 days (period 1) (RES, n = 15) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (period 2) or 2) ad libitum access to feed throughout (periods 1 and 2) (ADLIB, n = 15). On days 90 and 36 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, a GTT was performed. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2, respectively, and RNA-Seq analysis was performed. RES displayed a lower growth rate during period 1 (RES: 0.6 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.9 kg/day; P alimentation (RES: 2.5 kg/day, ADLIB: 1.4 kg/day; P alimentation (P > 0.05). Genes differentially expressed in the insulin signaling pathway suggested a greater sensitivity to insulin in skeletal muscle, with pleiotropic effects of insulin signaling interrupted during dietary restriction. Collectively, these results indicate increased sensitivity to glucose clearance and skeletal muscle insulin signaling during dietary restriction; however, no overall role for insulin was apparent in expressing compensatory growth. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Dietary phosphorus restriction in predialysis chronic kidney disease: time for a cease-fire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenepoel, Pieter; Vervloet, Marc G

    2016-01-01

    The increased awareness that disorders of phosphorus metabolism occur early in the course of chronic kidney disease fuels interest in early intervention strategies. A post hoc analysis of data from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study questions the clinical relevance of early dietary phosphate restriction, so far considered a mainstay in the prevention and treatment of mineral metabolism disorders. Still, on the basis of available evidence, a cease-fire in the war on dietary phosphate would be premature. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary salt levels affect salt preference and learning in larval Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Russell

    Full Text Available Drosophila larvae change from exhibiting attraction to aversion as the concentration of salt in a substrate is increased. However, some aversive concentrations appear to act as positive reinforcers, increasing attraction to an odour with which they have been paired. We test whether this surprising dissociation between the unconditioned and conditioned response depends on the larvae's experience of salt concentration in their food. We find that although the point at which a NaCl concentration becomes aversive shifts with different rearing experience, the dissociation remains evident. Testing larvae using a substrate 0.025 M above the NaCl concentration on which the larvae were reared consistently results in aversive choice behaviour but appetitive reinforcement effects.

  11. Association of interactions between dietary salt consumption and hypertension-susceptibility genetic polymorphisms with blood pressure among Japanese male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Takahiro; Ando, Masahiko; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Maruyama, Shoichi; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Honda, Hiroyuki; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Kato, Sawako; Kondo, Takaaki; Iwata, Masamitsu; Nakashima, Toru; Yasui, Hiroshi; Takamatsu, Hideki; Okajima, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yasuko; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2017-06-01

    Blood pressure is influenced by hereditary factors and dietary habits. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary salt consumption and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on blood pressure (BP). This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2728 male participants who participated in a health examination in 2009. Average dietary salt consumption was estimated using electronically collected meal purchase data from cafeteria. A multivariate analysis, adjusting for clinically relevant factors, was conducted to examine whether the effect on BP of salt consumption, SNPs, and interaction between salt consumption and each SNP. This study examined the SNPs AGT rs699 (Met235Thr), ADD1 rs4961 (Gly460Trp), NPPA rs5063 (Val32Met), GPX1 rs1050450 (Pro198Leu), and AGTR1 rs5186 (A1166C) in relation to hypertension and salt sensitivity. BP was not significantly associated with SNPs or salt consumption. The interaction between salt consumption and SNPs with systolic BP showed a significant association in NPPA rs5063 (Val32Met) (P = 0.023) and a marginal trend toward significance in rs4961 and rs1050450 (P = 0.060 and 0.067, respectively). The effect of salt consumption on BP differed by genotype. Dietary salt consumption and genetic variation can predict a high risk of hypertension.

  12. Dietary phosphorus restriction in advanced chronic kidney disease: merits, challenges, and emerging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Wolf, Myles

    2010-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients on maintenance dialysis. Since phosphorus clearance by standard three times-weekly dialysis is insufficient to balance ongoing dietary phosphorus intake, strategies to prevent absorption of dietary phosphorus are essential for attenuating increased serum levels. Dietary phosphorus binders are used widely for this purpose but dietary phosphorus restriction is relatively underutilized, most likely because of the logistical complexity of instituting and monitoring a low phosphorus diet, and for fear of worsening protein-energy wasting, which itself is a potent risk factor for mortality. In this review, we propose sustainable strategies for reducing phosphorus intake while avoiding exacerbation of protein-energy wasting. The approach is based on recognition of the dissociation between protein and phosphorus content in phosphorus-rich processed foods and the varying phosphorus bioavailability in different dietary sources. Controlling serum phosphate levels is among the most challenging aspects of day-to-day dialysis care but integration of sensible dietary interventions will likely improve phosphorus control.

  13. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  14. The impact of dietary magnesium restriction on magnesiotropic and calciotropic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Angelen, Annelies A; San-Cristobal, Pedro; Pulskens, Wilco P; Hoenderop, Joost G; Bindels, René J

    2013-12-01

    Magnesium (Mg(2+)) is an essential electrolyte with important physiological functions. Consequently, hypomagnesaemia, an electrolyte disorder frequently diagnosed in critically ill patients, can have life-threatening consequences. The kidney plays a central role in the regulation of the Mg(2+) balance. The present study investigated the molecular consequences of dietary Mg(2+) restriction on renal Mg(2+) transporters. Two groups of 10 mice were fed a Mg(2+)-deficient diet or a Mg(2+)-enriched diet for 2 weeks. Serum and urine electrolyte concentrations were assayed. Next, renal mRNA expression levels of Mg(2+)-related genes were measured to determine their sensitivity to the dietary Mg(2+) content. Subsequently, parvalbumin (PV) and the thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), both co-expressed in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) with TRPM6, were further analysed at the protein level using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Serum and urine electrolyte measurements revealed that dietary Mg(2+) restriction resulted in significant reduction of serum Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) levels, and that the urinary excretion of these ions was also markedly reduced, while phosphate (Pi) excretion was significantly increased. In addition, the serum FGF23 level was markedly increased, whereas Pi was not significantly changed in the Mg(2+)-restricted mouse group. The renal abundance of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1B) and the epithelial Mg(2+) channel TRPM6 were increased in response to dietary Mg(2+) restriction, whereas other magnesiotropic transporters were not affected. PV abundance was upregulated, while NCC was significantly downregulated. Furthermore, the expression levels of the epithelial Ca(2+) channel TRPV5 and calbindin-D28K were markedly reduced in the low Mg(2+) group. Our data indicate an essential adaptive role for DCT during hypomagnesaemia since TRPM6, HNF1B, PV and NCC expression levels were adjusted. Moreover, hypomagnesaemia resulted in

  15. Dietary restriction of choline reduces hippocampal acetylcholine release in rats: in vivo microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Suzuki, Y; Umegaki, H; Ikari, H; Tajima, T; Endo, H; Iguchi, A

    2001-12-01

    We fed rats with a diet deficient in choline for 12 weeks and studied how dietary choline deficiency affected their behavior and their ability to release acetylcholine in discrete regions of rat brain using step-through passive avoidance task and in vivo microdialysis. In comparison with the control, rats fed the choline-deficient diet showed poorer retention of nociceptive memory in the passive avoidance task. Average choline level in cerebrospinal fluid in the choline-deficient group was significantly less (33.1%) than that of control rats. In vivo microdialysis showed no difference in the pattern of acetylcholine release enhanced by intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) in the striatum between the two groups, whereas in the hippocampus, the maximum and subsequent increase of acetylcholine from the baseline by scopolamine injection was significantly lower in the choline-deficient group than in the control. From the results of our study, we speculate that long-term dietary restriction of choline can affect extra- and intracellular sources of substrates required for acetylcholine synthesis, and eventually limit the ability to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Reduced capacity to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus implies that the mechanism, maintaining acetylcholine synthesis on increased neuronal demand, may vary in discrete regions of the brain in response to dietary manipulation. The vulnerability of the mechanism in the hippocampus to dietary choline restriction is indicated by impaired mnemonic performance we observed.

  16. A mitochondrial mutator plasmid that causes senescence under dietary restricted conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoekstra Rolf F

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calorie or dietary restriction extends life span in a wide range of organisms including the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. Under dietary restricted conditions, P. anserina isolates are several-fold longer lived. This is however not the case in isolates that carry one of the pAL2-1 homologous mitochondrial plasmids. Results We show that the pAL2-1 homologues act as 'insertional mutators' of the mitochondrial genome, which may explain their negative effect on life span extension. Sequencing revealed at least fourteen unique plasmid integration sites, of which twelve were located within the mitochondrial genome and two within copies of the plasmid itself. The plasmids were able to integrate in their entirety, via a non-homologous mode of recombination. Some of the integrated plasmid copies were truncated, which probably resulted from secondary, post-integrative, recombination processes. Integration sites were predominantly located within and surrounding the region containing the mitochondrial rDNA loci. Conclusion We propose a model for the mechanism of integration, based on innate modes of mtDNA recombination, and discuss its possible link with the plasmid's negative effect on dietary restriction mediated life span extension.

  17. Dietary restrictions in healing among speakers of Iquito, an endangered language of the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Kevin A

    2011-07-11

    Ethno botanical research was carried out with speakers of Iquitos, a critically endangered Amazonian language of the Zaparoan family. The study focused on the concept of "dieting" (siyan++ni in Iquitos), a practice involving prohibitions considered necessary to the healing process. These restrictions include: 1) foods and activities that can exacerbate illness, 2) environmental influences that conflict with some methods of healing (e.g. steam baths or enemas) and 3) foods and activities forbidden by the spirits of certain powerful medicinal plants. The study tested the following hypotheses: H1--Each restriction will correlate with specific elements in illness explanatory models and H2--Illnesses whose explanatory models have personality elements will show a greater number and variety of restrictions than those based on naturalistic reasoning. The work was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in the Alto Nanay region of Peru. In structured interviews, informants gave explanatory models for illness categories, including etiologies, pathophysiologies, treatments and dietary restrictions necessary for 49 illnesses. Seventeen botanical vouchers for species said to have powerful spirits that require diets were also collected. All restrictions found correspond to some aspect of illness explanatory models. Thirty-five percent match up with specific illness etiologies, 53% correspond to particular pathophysiologies, 18% correspond with overall seriousness of the illness and 18% are only found with particular forms of treatment. Diets based on personalistic reasoning have a significantly higher average number of restrictions than those based on naturalistic reasoning. Dieting plays a central role in healing among Iquitos speakers. Specific prohibitions can be explained in terms of specific aspects of illness etiologies, pathophysiologies and treatments. Although the Amazonian literature contains few studies focusing on dietary proscriptions over a wide range of illnesses, some

  18. Dietary restrictions in healing among speakers of Iquito, an endangered language of the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernigan Kevin A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical research was carried out with speakers of Iquito, a critically endangered Amazonian language of the Zaparoan family. The study focused on the concept of "dieting" (siyan++ni in Iquito, a practice involving prohibitions considered necessary to the healing process. These restrictions include: 1 foods and activities that can exacerbate illness, 2 environmental influences that conflict with some methods of healing (e.g. steam baths or enemas and 3 foods and activities forbidden by the spirits of certain powerful medicinal plants. The study tested the following hypotheses: H1 - Each restriction will correlate with specific elements in illness explanatory models and H2 - Illnesses whose explanatory models have personalistic elements will show a greater number and variety of restrictions than those based on naturalistic reasoning. Methods The work was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in the Alto Nanay region of Peru. In structured interviews, informants gave explanatory models for illness categories, including etiologies, pathophysiologies, treatments and dietary restrictions necessary for 49 illnesses. Seventeen botanical vouchers for species said to have powerful spirits that require diets were also collected. Results All restrictions found correspond to some aspect of illness explanatory models. Thirty-five percent match up with specific illness etiologies, 53% correspond to particular pathophysiologies, 18% correspond with overall seriousness of the illness and 18% are only found with particular forms of treatment. Diets based on personalistic reasoning have a significantly higher average number of restrictions than those based on naturalistic reasoning. Conclusions Dieting plays a central role in healing among Iquito speakers. Specific prohibitions can be explained in terms of specific aspects of illness etiologies, pathophysiologies and treatments. Although the Amazonian literature contains few studies focusing on

  19. Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction of Vitamin B-6 on Neocortex Development in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groziak, Susan Marie

    The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the effects of a dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6 during gestation or gestation and lactation on neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation in the neocortex of rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were fed, ad libitum, a Vitamin B-6 free diet (AIN 76) supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control level of 7.0 mg PN/kg diet during lactation, or were fed the Vitamin B-6 free diet supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. The neocortex of progeny of these animals were examined at 30 days of age employing light and electron microscopy. Analyses of neurogenesis, neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons (size of somata, dendritic arborization and spine density in Golgi Cox preparations, and synaptic density in E.M. preparations) were conducted. Each of the Vitamin B-6 restricted treatments adversely affected neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation. The degree of adverse effects paralleled the severity (dose or duration) of the restriction imposed. Expressed as percentage reduction from control values, the findings indicated that neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex were more severely affected than neurogenesis by a maternal dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6.

  20. The diet board: welfare impacts of a novel method of dietary restriction in laboratory rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasanen, I H E; Inhilä, K J; Vainio, O M

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory rats are commonly fed ad libitum (AL). Moderate dietary restriction (DR) decreases mortality and morbidity when compared with AL feeding, but there are several obstacles to the implementation of DR. Traditional methods of restricted feeding disrupt normal diurnal eating rhythms...... and are not compatible with group housing. We have designed a novel method, the diet board, to restrict the feeding of group-housed rats. Animals fed from the diet board had 15% lower body weight than the AL-fed animals at the age of 17 weeks. The welfare effects of diet board feeding were assessed by comparing...... the stress physiology of diet board fed animals with that of AL-fed animals. Diet board feeding was associated with higher serum corticosterone levels and lower faecal secretion of IgA, suggesting the diet board causes a stress reaction. However, the AL-fed group had larger adrenal glands with higher...

  1. High Dietary Salt Intake Exacerbates Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Radin, Jana N.; Loh, John T.; Zhang, Feng; Washington, M. Kay; Peek, Richard M.; Algood, Holly M. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Persistent colonization of the human stomach with Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, and H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis is dependent on the actions of a bacterial oncoprotein known as CagA. Epidemiological studies have shown that high dietary salt intake is also a risk factor for gastric cancer. To investigate the effects of a high-salt diet, we infected Mongolian gerbils with a wild-type (WT) cagA+ H. pylori strain or an isogenic cagA mutant strain and maintained the animals on a regular diet or a high-salt diet. At 4 months postinfection, gastric adenocarcinoma was detected in 100% of the WT-infected/high-salt-diet animals, 58% of WT-infected/regular-diet animals, and none of the animals infected with the cagA mutant strain (P gastric inflammation, higher gastric pH, increased parietal cell loss, increased gastric expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and decreased gastric expression of hepcidin and hydrogen potassium ATPase (H,K-ATPase) compared to those on a regular diet. Previous studies have detected upregulation of CagA synthesis in response to increased salt concentrations in the bacterial culture medium, and, concordant with the in vitro results, we detected increased cagA transcription in vivo in animals fed a high-salt diet compared to those on a regular diet. Animals infected with the cagA mutant strain had low levels of gastric inflammation and did not develop hypochlorhydria. These results indicate that a high-salt diet potentiates the carcinogenic effects of cagA+ H. pylori strains. PMID:23569116

  2. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsueh Pai

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2 and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg, and decreased pup weight (~50% and size (~24%, but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway.

  3. Life-span extension by dietary restriction is mediated by NLP-7 signaling and coelomocyte endocytosis in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Kyu; Link, Christopher D; Johnson, Thomas E

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that the rate of aging can be modulated by diverse interventions. Dietary restriction is the most widely used intervention to promote longevity; however, the mechanisms underlying the effect of dietary restriction remain elusive. In a previous study, we identified two novel genes, nlp-7 and cup-4, required for normal longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. nlp-7 is one of a set of neuropeptide-like protein genes; cup-4 encodes an ion-channel involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes. Here, we assess whether nlp-7 and cup-4 mediate longevity increases by dietary restriction. RNAi of nlp-7 or cup-4 significantly reduces the life span of the eat-2 mutant, a genetic model of dietary restriction, but has no effect on the life span of long-lived mutants resulting from reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling or dysfunction of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The life-span extension observed in wild-type N2 worms by dietary restriction using bacterial dilution is prevented significantly in nlp-7 and cup-4 mutants. RNAi knockdown of genes encoding candidate receptors of NLP-7 and genes involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes also specifically shorten the life span of the eat-2 mutant. We conclude that two novel pathways, NLP-7 signaling and endocytosis by coelomocytes, are required for life extension under dietary restriction in C. elegans.

  4. Regression of glomerular and tubulointerstitial injuries by dietary salt reduction with combination therapy of angiotensin II receptor blocker and calcium channel blocker in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Rafiq

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that renal tissue injuries are reversible. We investigated whether dietary salt reduction with the combination therapy of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB plus calcium channel blocker (CCB reverses renal tissue injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS hypertensive rats. DSS rats were fed a high-salt diet (HS; 4% NaCl for 4 weeks. Then, DSS rats were given one of the following for 10 weeks: HS diet; normal-salt diet (NS; 0.5% NaCl, NS + an ARB (olmesartan, 10 mg/kg/day, NS + a CCB (azelnidipine, 3 mg/kg/day, NS + olmesartan + azelnidipine or NS + hydralazine (50 mg/kg/day. Four weeks of treatment with HS diet induced hypertension, proteinuria, glomerular sclerosis and hypertrophy, glomerular podocyte injury, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DSS rats. A continued HS diet progressed hypertension, proteinuria and renal tissue injury, which was associated with inflammatory cell infiltration and increased proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels, NADPH oxidase activity and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production in the kidney. In contrast, switching to NS halted the progression of hypertension, renal glomerular and tubular injuries. Dietary salt reduction with ARB or with CCB treatment further reduced blood pressure and partially reversed renal tissues injury. Furthermore, dietary salt reduction with the combination of ARB plus CCB elicited a strong recovery from HS-induced renal tissue injury including the attenuation of inflammation and oxidative stress. These data support the hypothesis that dietary salt reduction with combination therapy of an ARB plus CCB restores glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury in DSS rats.

  5. Ouabain Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy of Male Rat Offspring Exposed to Intrauterine Growth Restriction Following High-Salt Diet Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Yue, Jing; Wu, Han; Yang, Jun; Han, Xiaojuan; Li, Juan; Hu, Yali

    2015-12-01

    Ouabain can normalize the blood pressure of the adult intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) offspring through retaining the number of glomeruli of the IUGR newborn. However, the melioration of hemodynamic features coinciding with the improvement in cardiac structure and function is poorly understood. Intrauterine growth restriction was induced in pregnant rats with protein intake restriction, and ouabain was administrated using osmotic mini pumps from the second gestational day. The male offspring of the mothers with normal diet, low-protein diet, and low-protein diet added with ouabain treatment were randomly divided into 2 groups, one of which received normal diet and the other was treated with isocaloric 8% high-salt diet. We found that maternal malnutrition caused fetal growth retardation. At the end of a 40-week research, the offspring of the IUGR group presented high blood pressure and deteriorative cardiac performance and even worse in the offspring fed with 8% high-salt diet. Ouabain can normalize the blood pressure and improve the cardiac performance, even if following 8% high-salt diet challenge. Pathological and molecular analyses showed IUGR following 8% high-salt diet significantly increased the cardiac hypertrophy, whereas the unfavorable effects were ameliorated in the offspring treated with ouabain. Results suggest that the effects of ouabain on restoration of glomerular number in newborn and normalization of blood pressure during adulthood in IUGR male offspring can benefit the cardiac structure and function, especially under high-salt diet challenge. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Dietary sodium restriction and β2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism modulate cardiovascular function in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenach, John H; Schroeder, Darrell R; Pike, Tasha L; Johnson, Christopher P; Schrage, William G; Snyder, Eric M; Johnson, Bruce D; Garovic, Vesna D; Turner, Stephen T; Joyner, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Dietary Na+ intake influences β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) responsiveness. While receiving a normal Na+ diet (150 mmol day−1), subjects homozygous for glycine at amino acid 16 (Gly16) have greater forearm β2AR-mediated vasodilatation than subjects homozygous for arginine (Arg16), an effect that is mediated by endothelial NO. We tested the hypothesis that dietary Na+ restriction eliminates genotype differences in forearm and systemic β2AR-mediated dilatation in these groups. We measured heart rate, mean arterial pressure and cardiac output (CO, acetylene breathing) responses to administration of intravenous terbutaline (TRB) before and after 5 days of low dietary Na+ intake (10 mmol day−1) in healthy Gly16 (n = 17; age, 31 ± 7 year) and Arg16 homozygotes (n = 15; age, 29 ± 8 year). After the low-Na+ diet, a catheter was placed in the brachial artery to measure forearm blood flow (FBF, plethysmography) responses to administration of isoprenaline (isoproterenol) before and after NO inhibition with NG-mono-methyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA). In the Gly16 group, the low-Na+ diet decreased baseline CO from 6.4 ± 1.4 to 5.5 ± 1.2 l min−1 (P = 0.003, paired t test), tended to decrease stroke volume from 97.0 ± 20.6 to 86.9 ± 21.7 ml (P = 0.06) and increased peripheral resistance from 1106 ± 246 to 1246 ± 222 dynes s cm−5 (P = 0.02); significant effects of the low-Na+ diet were not observed in Arg16 subjects. In a repeated measures ANOVA, the responses of all cardiovascular measures to systemic administration of TRB were not influenced by genotype or diet. Additionally, the FBF response to incremenetal doses of isoprenaline did not differ between genotype groups before or after administration of l-NMMA. We conclude that dietary Na+ restriction blunted the increased forearm NO-mediated β2AR responsiveness in Gly16 homozygotes observed in a previous study after normal dietary Na+ intake, while baseline CO decreased and peripheral resistance increased in this

  7. A Systems Approach to Reverse Engineer Lifespan Extension by Dietary Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Wang, Dan; Chen, Di; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yue; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Chi; Sun, Na; McDermott, Joseph; Mair, William B; Han, Jing-Dong J

    2016-03-08

    Dietary restriction (DR) is the most powerful natural means to extend lifespan. Although several genes can mediate responses to alternate DR regimens, no single genetic intervention has recapitulated the full effects of DR, and no unified system is known for different DR regimens. Here we obtain temporally resolved transcriptomes during calorie restriction and intermittent fasting in Caenorhabditis elegans and find that early and late responses involve metabolism and cell cycle/DNA damage, respectively. We uncover three network modules of DR regulators by their target specificity. By genetic manipulations of nodes representing discrete modules, we induce transcriptomes that progressively resemble DR as multiple nodes are perturbed. Targeting all three nodes simultaneously results in extremely long-lived animals that are refractory to DR. These results and dynamic simulations demonstrate that extensive feedback controls among regulators may be leveraged to drive the regulatory circuitry to a younger steady state, recapitulating the full effect of DR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Changing Role of Dietary Protein Restriction in Management of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bharat V

    2015-01-01

    In the last 5 to 6 decades there has been a marked variation in use of dietary protein restriction (DPR) in treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Before availability of renal replacement therapy (RRT), DPR restriction was widely practised in uraemic patients to reduce generation of nitrogenous waste products and ameliorate uraemic symptoms. With availability of RRT, the interest in DPR was lost. There was a resurgence of interest in DPR when animal experimental studies suggested that DPR can retard the progression of CKD. Then there was concern about worsening nutritional status with DPR. This article reviews how the role of DPR in treatment of CKD as perceived by physicians has varied over the years and suggests a strategy that should be followed in India considering that RRT is available to a very small percentage of cases developing end stage kidney disease (ESKD).

  9. Flies and their golden apples: the effect of dietary restriction on Drosophila aging and age-dependent gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletcher, Scott D; Libert, Sergiy; Skorupa, Danielle

    2005-11-01

    Reduced nutrient availability (dietary restriction) extends lifespan in species as diverse as yeast, nematode worms, Daphnia, Drosophila, and mammals. Recent demographic experiments have shown that moderate nutrient manipulation in adult Drosophila affects current mortality rate in a completely reversible manner, which suggests that dietary restriction in Drosophila increases lifespan through a reduction of the current risk of death rather than a slowing of aging-related damage. When examined in the light of the new demographic data, age-dependent changes in gene expression in normal and diet-restricted flies can provide unique insight into the biological processes affected by aging and may help identify molecular pathways that regulate it.

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to dietary salt among adults in the state of Victoria, Australia 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A. Grimes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on consumer’s knowledge, attitudes and behaviours (KABs related to salt can be used to inform awareness and education campaigns and serve as a baseline measure to monitor changes in KABs over time. The aim of this study was to determine KABs related to salt intake among Victorian adults. Methods Cross-sectional survey conducted in Victorian adults aged 18–65 years. Participants were recruited from shopping centres located in Melbourne and Geelong and via online methods (Facebook and Consumer Research Panel to complete an online survey assessing KABs related to dietary salt. Descriptive statistics (mean (SD or n (% were used to report survey findings. Results A total of 2398 participants provided a valid survey (mean age 43 years (SD 13, 57% female. The majority (80% were born in Australia and 63% were the main household grocery shopper. The majority (89% were aware of the health risks associated with a high salt intake. Eighty three percent believed that Australians eat too much salt. Three quarters (75% correctly identified salt from processed foods as being the main source of salt in the diet. Less than a third (29% of participants believed their own individual salt intake exceeded dietary recommendations and only 28% could correctly identify the maximum recommended daily intake for salt. Just under half (46% of participants were concerned about the amount of salt in food. Almost two thirds (61% of participants believed that there should be laws which limit the amount of salt added to manufactured foods and 58% agreed that it was difficult to find lower salt options when eating out. Conclusions The findings of this study serve as a baseline assessment of KABs related to salt intake in Victorian adults and can be used to assess changes in salt related KABs over time. Public concern about salt is low as many people remain unaware of their own salt intake. An increased awareness of the excessive amount of

  11. A low dose of dietary resveratrol partially mimics caloric restriction and retards aging parameters in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Barger

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol in high doses has been shown to extend lifespan in some studies in invertebrates and to prevent early mortality in mice fed a high-fat diet. We fed mice from middle age (14-months to old age (30-months either a control diet, a low dose of resveratrol (4.9 mg kg(-1 day(-1, or a calorie restricted (CR diet and examined genome-wide transcriptional profiles. We report a striking transcriptional overlap of CR and resveratrol in heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Both dietary interventions inhibit gene expression profiles associated with cardiac and skeletal muscle aging, and prevent age-related cardiac dysfunction. Dietary resveratrol also mimics the effects of CR in insulin mediated glucose uptake in muscle. Gene expression profiling suggests that both CR and resveratrol may retard some aspects of aging through alterations in chromatin structure and transcription. Resveratrol, at doses that can be readily achieved in humans, fulfills the definition of a dietary compound that mimics some aspects of CR.

  12. Cultural factors influencing dietary and fluid restriction behaviour: perceptions of older Chinese patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xiaoshan; Peng, Youqing; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Dan

    2017-03-01

    To explore the cultural factors related to dietary and fluid restriction behaviours among older Chinese patients. Excess dietary sodium and fluid intake are risk factors contributing to the worsening and rehospitalisation for heart failure in older patients. Managing the complex fluid and diet requirements of heart failure patients is challenging and is made more complicated by cultural variations in self-management behaviours in response to a health threat. Qualitative study using semi-structured in interviews and framework analysis. The design of this study is qualitative descriptive. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 heart failure patients. Data were analysed through content analysis. Seven cultural themes emerged from the qualitative data: the values placed on health and illness, customary way of life, preference for folk care and the Chinese healthcare system, and factors related to kinship and social ties, religion, economics and education. Dietary change and management in response to illness, including heart failure, is closely related to individuals' cultural background. Healthcare providers should have a good understanding of cultural aspects that can influence patients' conformity to medical recommendations. Heart failure patients need support that considers their cultural needs. Healthcare providers must have a good understanding of the experiences of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Stochastic dietary restriction using a Markov-chain feeding protocol elicits complex, life history response in medflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James R.; Liedo, Pablo; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Zhang, Ying; Harshman, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Summary Lifespan in individually housed medflies (virgins of both sexes) and daily reproduction for females were studied following one of 12 dietary restriction (DR) treatments in which the availability of high-quality food (yeast–sugar mixture) for each fly was based on a Markov chain feeding scheme – a stochastic dietary regime which specifies that the future dietary state depends only on the present dietary state and not on the path by which the present state was achieved. The stochastic treatments consisted of a combination of one of four values of a ‘discovery’ parameter and one of three values of a ‘persistence’ parameter. The results supported the hypotheses that: (i) longevity is extended in most medfly cohorts subject to stochastic DR; and (ii) longevity is more affected by the patch discovery than the patch persistence parameter. One of the main conclusions of the study is that, in combination with the results of earlier dietary restriction studies on the medfly, the results reinforce the concept that the details of the dietary restriction protocols have a profound impact on the sign and magnitude of the longevity extension relative to ad libitum cohorts and that a deeper understanding of the effect of food restriction on longevity is not possible without an understanding of its effect on reproduction. PMID:15659211

  14. Emotional ratings of high- and low-calorie food are differentially associated with cognitive restraint and dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E

    2018-02-01

    Dietary restraint is a robust risk factor for binge eating and eating disorders, which may partially result from increased reward reactivity to food in individuals who attempt to diet. However, research examining the association between dietary restraint and reactivity to food cues is mixed. Mixed findings may reflect distinct relations between food cue reactivity and different dimensions of dietary behavior; attempts to diet (cognitive restraint) may be associated with increased positive evaluations of food, whereas actual reduction in food intake (dietary restriction) may be achieved through decreased reactivity to food cues. The aim of the current study was to examine whether cognitive restraint and dietary restriction, as assessed via subscales on a recently developed multidimensional measure of eating pathology (i.e., Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory [EPSI]), are differentially associated with emotional evaluations of high- and low-calorie food. Female participants (N = 203) viewed 12 high-calorie (i.e., sweet, savory) and 12 low-calorie (i.e., fruits, vegetables) food images, as well as 36 standard emotional images. Images were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, and craving using the Self-Assessment Manikin. Cognitive restraint was correlated with greater pleasure and craving ratings of low-calorie, but not high-calorie, foods. In contrast, dietary restriction was related to reduced pleasure and craving ratings for both high- and low-calorie foods. Findings suggest that cognitive restraint may be associated with a preference for low-calorie foods; whereas dietary restriction may relate to reduced sensitivity to the hedonic and motivational value of food, regardless of caloric content. Results also provide support for the distinction between cognitive restraint and dietary restriction, as assessed via the EPSI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of a Theory-Based Intervention Aimed at Reducing Intention to Use Restrictive Dietary Behaviors Among Adolescent Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramée, Catherine; Drapeau, Vicky; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Jacob, Raphaëlle; Provencher, Véronique; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to reduce the intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among adolescent female athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Aesthetic sport teams of adolescent female athletes aged 12-17 years. Two teams (n = 37 athletes) in the intervention group and 3 teams (n = 33) in the comparison group. The 2 groups received nutrition education during 3 weekly 60-minute sessions. The intervention group was further exposed to a theory-based intervention targeting the specific determinant of intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight, namely attitude. Difference over time between groups in intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight and in nutrition knowledge. Mixed models for repeated measures. The theory-based intervention contributed to maintaining a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight over time in the intervention group compared with the comparison group (P theory-based behavior change intervention may help maintain a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among female high school athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. [Comparison of dietary survey, frequency and 24 hour urinary Na methods in evaluation of salt intake in the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhong; Lu, Zilong; Yan, Liuxia; Zhang, Jiyu; Tang, Junli; Cai, Xiaoning; Guo, Xiaolei; Ma, Jixiang; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-12-01

    To compare the difference and correlation between dietary salt intakes assessed by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method. All 2 184 subjects aged 18 to 69 were selected by multi stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Shandong province in June to September, 2011. Dietary salt intakes were measured by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method. The information on gender, age, dining locations and labour intensity of members dining at home for 3 days were recorded. And the dietary habits were surveyed by questionnaire. Salt intakes were 14.0, 12.0 and 10.5 g/d assessed by 24 hours urinary Na method, food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire, respectively. Comparing with 24 hours urinary Na method, salt intakes assessed by food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method were 2.0 g (14.3% undervalued) and 3.4 g (24.3% undervalued) less, respectively. Comparing with 24 hours urinary Na method, the proportion of individuals with salt intake over-reported and under-reported were 42.4% (856/2 020) and 55.3% (1 117/2 020) by food weighted record method, and were 20.7% (418/2 020) and 16.3% (329/2 020) by food frequency questionnaire method, respectively; the proportion of individuals with salt intakes within ± 25% of 24 hours urinary Na method were 36.9% (745/2 020) and 28.4% (574/2 020), respectively. Salt intakes assessed by 24 hours urinary method correlated significantly with both salt intakes assessed by food weighted record method and food frequency questionnaire method; the correlation coefficients were 0.13 and 0.07, respectively. With the increasing of salt intakes by subjects' self-judgment, salt intakes were all rising significantly using three survey methods. Salt intakes of three group population of light, moderate and partial taste salty were 13.6, 13.6 and 14.7 g/d by 24 hours urinary Na method (F

  17. Dietary sodium, added salt, and serum sodium associations with growth and depression in the U.S. general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Pavel; Leshem, Micah

    2014-08-01

    It is not known why salt is so attractive to humans. Here, guided by hypotheses suggesting that the attraction of salt is conditioned by postingestive benefits, we sought to establish whether there are such benefits in a population by analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 database (n = ~ 10,000). We focus on two potential benefits supported by the literature, growth and moderation of depression, and examine their relationship to sodium, dietary, added at table, and serum. We find that during growth (sodium intake, independent of caloric or other electrolyte intakes. We find that adding salt and depression are related. In contrast, and in women only, dietary sodium and depression are inversely related. The relationships are correlational, but we speculate that this constellation may reflect self-medication for depression by adding salt, and that men may be protected by their higher dietary sodium intake. Additional findings are that women add more salt than men below age ~30, after which men add more, and below 40 years of age, serum sodium is lower in women than in men. It remains possible that small but beneficial effects of sodium could condition salt preference and thus contribute to population-wide sodium intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-term dietary restriction and fasting precondition against ischemia reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James R; Verweij, Mariëlle; Brand, Karl; van de Ven, Marieke; Goemaere, Natascha; van den Engel, Sandra; Chu, Timothy; Forrer, Flavio; Müller, Cristina; de Jong, Marion; van IJcken, Wilfred; IJzermans, Jan N M; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; de Bruin, Ron W F

    2010-02-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan and increases resistance to multiple forms of stress, including ischemia reperfusion injury to the brain and heart in rodents. While maximal effects on lifespan require long-term restriction, the kinetics of onset of benefits against acute stress is not known. Here, we show that 2-4 weeks of 30% DR improved survival and kidney function following renal ischemia reperfusion injury in mice. Brief periods of water-only fasting were similarly effective at protecting against ischemic damage. Significant protection occurred within 1 day, persisted for several days beyond the fasting period and extended to another organ, the liver. Protection by both short-term DR and fasting correlated with improved insulin sensitivity, increased expression of markers of antioxidant defense and reduced expression of markers of inflammation and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling. Unbiased transcriptional profiling of kidneys from mice subject to short-term DR or fasting revealed a significant enrichment of signature genes of long-term DR. These data demonstrate that brief periods of reduced food intake, including short-term daily restriction and fasting, can increase resistance to ischemia reperfusion injury in rodents and suggest a rapid onset of benefits of DR in mammals.

  19. Compliance to antihypertensive drugs, salt restriction, exercise and control of systemic hypertension in hypertensive patients at abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Waqas, A.; Khaliq, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factor but its control is still a challenge for physicians all around the world. Control of blood pressure can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, so the compliance to antihypertensive drugs and life style modification play an important role for the control of hypertension. This analytical (cross-sectional) study was conducted to assess prevalence of control of hypertension among hypertensive patients and to assess the relationship of control of hypertension with factors like compliance to antihypertensive drugs, salt restriction and exercise among the hypertensive patients. This study was conducted at outpatient clinic of medicine at Shahina Jamil Hospital Abbottabad from April 2007 to September 2007. Eighty-nine patients seen in the outpatient clinic of medicine were enrolled in the study. All the patients with age 15 years or above, diagnosed as a case of systemic hypertension were included. Among eighty nine patients, 67 were female and 22 were male with mean age of 55.8+-13.4 years, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 160+-28.6 and 97.8+-14.1 mm Hg respectively, and pulse rate of 85.9+-11.4 per minutes. Out of 89 patients, 25.8% were having controlled hypertension, 48.3% were compliant and 51.7% were not compliant to antihypertensive drugs, 55.1% were having salt restriction and 44.9% were having no salt restriction and 23.6% were used to do physical activity while 76.4% were not used to do physical activity. In group A consisted of patients with controlled hypertension, 95.7% patients were compliant to antihypertensive patients, 95.7% were having salt restriction and 43.5% were used to do physical activity. In group B consisted of patients with uncontrolled hypertension, only 31.8% were compliant to antihypertensive drugs, 40.9% were having salt restriction, 16.7% were used to do physical activity. Hypertension can be controlled if the hypertensive patients have good compliance

  20. The thioredoxin TRX-1 regulates adult lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos [Karolinska Institute, Center for Biosciences at NOVUM, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, S-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Gonzalez-Barrios, Maria [Centro Andaluz de Biologia del Desarrollo (CABD-CSIC), Departamento de Fisiologia, Anatomia y Biologia Celular, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio, E-mail: amirviz@upo.es [Centro Andaluz de Biologia del Desarrollo (CABD-CSIC), Departamento de Fisiologia, Anatomia y Biologia Celular, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, E-41013 Sevilla (Spain); Swoboda, Peter, E-mail: peter.swoboda@ki.se [Karolinska Institute, Center for Biosciences at NOVUM, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, S-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2011-03-18

    Highlights: {yields} First in vivo data for thioredoxin in dietary-restriction-(DR)-induced longevity. {yields} Thioredoxin (trx-1) loss suppresses longevity of eat-2 mutant, a genetic DR model. {yields} trx-1 overexpression extends wild-type longevity, but not that of eat-2 mutant. {yields} Longevity by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic DR model, requires trx-1. {yields} trx-1 expression in ASJ neurons of aging adults is increased in response to DD. -- Abstract: Dietary restriction (DR) is the only environmental intervention known to extend adult lifespan in a wide variety of animal models. However, the genetic and cellular events that mediate the anti-aging programs induced by DR remain elusive. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to provide the first in vivo evidence that a thioredoxin (TRX-1) regulates adult lifespan extension induced by DR. We found that deletion of the gene trx-1 completely suppressed the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2, a genetic surrogate of DR in the worm. However, trx-1 deletion only partially suppressed the long lifespan caused by mutation of the insulin-like receptor gene daf-2 or by mutation of the sensory cilia gene osm-5. A trx-1::GFP translational fusion expressed from its own promoter in ASJ neurons (Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP) rescued the trx-1 deletion-mediated suppression of the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2. This rescue was not observed when trx-1::GFP was expressed from the ges-1 promoter in the intestine. In addition, overexpression of Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP extended lifespan in wild type, but not in eat-2 mutants. trx-1 deletion almost completely suppressed the lifespan extension induced by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic, nutrient-based model of DR in the worm. Moreover, DD upregulated the expression of a trx-1 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene (Ptrx-1::GFP) in ASJ neurons of aging adults, but not that of control Pgpa-9::GFP (which is also expressed in ASJ neurons). We propose

  1. The thioredoxin TRX-1 regulates adult lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierro-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Gonzalez-Barrios, Maria; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Swoboda, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → First in vivo data for thioredoxin in dietary-restriction-(DR)-induced longevity. → Thioredoxin (trx-1) loss suppresses longevity of eat-2 mutant, a genetic DR model. → trx-1 overexpression extends wild-type longevity, but not that of eat-2 mutant. → Longevity by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic DR model, requires trx-1. → trx-1 expression in ASJ neurons of aging adults is increased in response to DD. -- Abstract: Dietary restriction (DR) is the only environmental intervention known to extend adult lifespan in a wide variety of animal models. However, the genetic and cellular events that mediate the anti-aging programs induced by DR remain elusive. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to provide the first in vivo evidence that a thioredoxin (TRX-1) regulates adult lifespan extension induced by DR. We found that deletion of the gene trx-1 completely suppressed the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2, a genetic surrogate of DR in the worm. However, trx-1 deletion only partially suppressed the long lifespan caused by mutation of the insulin-like receptor gene daf-2 or by mutation of the sensory cilia gene osm-5. A trx-1::GFP translational fusion expressed from its own promoter in ASJ neurons (Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP) rescued the trx-1 deletion-mediated suppression of the lifespan extension caused by mutation of eat-2. This rescue was not observed when trx-1::GFP was expressed from the ges-1 promoter in the intestine. In addition, overexpression of Ptrx-1::trx-1::GFP extended lifespan in wild type, but not in eat-2 mutants. trx-1 deletion almost completely suppressed the lifespan extension induced by dietary deprivation (DD), a non-genetic, nutrient-based model of DR in the worm. Moreover, DD upregulated the expression of a trx-1 promoter-driven GFP reporter gene (Ptrx-1::GFP) in ASJ neurons of aging adults, but not that of control Pgpa-9::GFP (which is also expressed in ASJ neurons). We propose that DR activates TRX-1

  2. d-Allulose, a stereoisomer of d-fructose, extends Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan through a dietary restriction mechanism: A new candidate dietary restriction mimetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Tomoya; Sakoguchi, Hirofumi; Yoshihara, Akihide; Izumori, Ken; Sato, Masashi

    2017-12-02

    Dietary restriction (DR) is an effective intervention known to increase lifespan in a wide variety of organisms. DR also delays the onset of aging-associated diseases. DR mimetics, compounds that can mimic the effects of DR, have been intensively explored. d-Allulose (d-Alu), the C3-epimer of d-fructose, is a rare sugar that has various health benefits, including anti-hyperglycemia and anti-obesity effects. Here, we report that d-Alu increased the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans both under monoxenic and axenic culture conditions. d-Alu did not further extend the lifespan of the long-lived DR model eat-2 mutant, strongly indicating that the effect is related to DR. However, d-Alu did not reduce the food intake of wild-type C. elegans. To explore the mechanisms of the d-Alu longevity effect, we examined the lifespan of d-Alu-treated mutants deficient for nutrient sensing pathway-related genes daf-16, sir-2.1, aak-2, and skn-1. As a result, d-Alu increased the lifespan of the daf-16, sir-2.1, and skn-1 mutants, but not the aak-2 mutant, indicating that the lifespan extension was dependent on the energy sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). d-Alu also enhanced the mRNA expression and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. From these findings, we conclude that d-Alu extends lifespan by increasing oxidative stress resistance through a DR mechanism, making it a candidate DR mimetic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of dietary restriction and menstrual cycle on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuba, Y; Yano, Y; Murakami, H; Kan, A; Miura, A

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute dietary restriction on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in young women at two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Five young sedentary women (age 21-22 years) participated in this study. Each subject visited the laboratory eight times for measurement of EPOC. They performed cycle ergometer exercise for 60 min at a work rate corresponding to approximately 70% of VO2max under each four different conditions (i.e. standard diet/follicular phase (SF), standard diet/luteal phase (SL), restricted diet/follicular phase (RF) and restricted diet/luteal phase (RL)). The exercise was performed in the morning and VO2 was measured for the last 15 min of each hour for 7 h after the exercise. As a control, VO2 was also measured with an identical time schedule under the same four conditions but without exercise. EPOC was calculated as the difference of the VO2-time integral for 7 h between the exercise and control trial days in each of the four conditions (i.e. SL, SF, RL and RF). The diet was precisely controlled during 2 days (i.e. the test day and the day preceding it). The standard diet was 1600 kcal day-1 and the restricted diet was half of the standard diet. A two-way (dietary and menstrual cycle factors) ANOVA indicated that EPOC was significantly affected only by the dietary factor. The dietary restriction decreased EPOC compared to the standard dietary condition (SF 8.6 +/- 2.1, RF 5.3 +/- 1.6, SL 8.9 +/- 4.8, RL 4.0 +/- 1.2 l). These data indicate that for young sedentary women, EPOC is significantly lowered by prior acute dietary restriction but is not influenced by different phases of the menstrual cycle.

  4. Mannan-Binding Lectin Is Involved in the Protection against Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Dietary Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushimita Shushimita

    Full Text Available Preoperative fasting and dietary restriction offer robust protection against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI in mice. We recently showed that Mannan-binding lectin (MBL, the initiator of the lectin pathway of complement activation, plays a pivotal role in renal I/RI. Based on these findings, we investigated the effect of short-term DR (30% reduction of total food intake or three days of water only fasting on MBL in 10-12 weeks old male C57/Bl6 mice. Both dietary regimens significantly reduce the circulating levels of MBL as well as its mRNA expression in liver, the sole production site of MBL. Reconstitution of MBL abolished the protection afforded by dietary restriction, whereas in the fasting group the protection persisted. These data show that modulation of MBL is involved in the protection against renal I/RI induced by dietary restriction, and suggest that the mechanisms of protection induced by dietary restriction and fasting may be different.

  5. Reporting accuracy of population dietary sodium intake using duplicate 24 h dietary recalls and a salt questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer, de W.; Dofkova, M.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Maeyer, de M.; Frost Andersen, L.; Ruprich, J.; Rehurkova, I.; Geelen, Anouk; Veer, van 't P.; Henauw, de S.; Crispim, S.P.; Boer, de Evelien; Ocke, M.C.; Slimani, N.; Huybrechts, I.

    2015-01-01

    High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the
    present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall
    (24-HDR).

  6. Food cravings discriminate between anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Implications for "success" versus "failure" in dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Silvia; Warren, Cortney S; Rodríguez, Sonia; Fernández, M Carmen; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2009-06-01

    Food cravings are subjective, motivational states thought to induce binge eating among eating disorder patients. This study compared food cravings across eating disorders. Women (N=135) diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, restrictive (ANR) or binge-purging (ANBP) types, or bulimia nervosa, non-purging (BNNP) or purging (BNP) types completed measures of food cravings. Discriminant analysis yielded two statistically significant functions. The first function differentiated between all the four group pairs except ANBP and BNNP, with levels of various food-craving dimensions successively increasing for ANR, ANBP, BNNP, and BNP participants. The second function differentiated between ANBP and BNNP participants. Overall, the functions improved classification accuracy above chance level (44% fewer errors). The findings suggest that cravings are more strongly associated with loss of control over eating than with dietary restraint tendencies.

  7. Predicting whether dietary restriction would increase longevity in species not tested so far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourg, Eric

    2010-07-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is often considered as a nearly universal means to extend longevity in animal species. This article argues that whether DR will increase longevity is dependent on life-history strategies. Long-lived species are not expected to live much longer under DR, contrarily to short-lived ones. However, species able to cover long distances are not expected to live longer under DR, even if they are short-lived. Human beings are long-lived and can also cover long distances: thus, DR would probably not increase their lifespan. One may wonder whether DR mimetics would have some effects in human beings if DR does not increase longevity in this species. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying lifespan and age-related effects of dietary restriction and the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Cesar L; Mobbs, Charles V

    2017-11-05

    Aging constitutes the central risk factor for major diseases including many forms of cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular diseases. The aging process is characterized by both global and tissue-specific changes in gene expression across taxonomically diverse species. While aging has historically been thought to entail cell-autonomous, even stochastic changes, recent evidence suggests that modulation of this process can be hierarchal, wherein manipulations of nutrient-sensing neurons (e.g., in the hypothalamus) produce peripheral effects that may modulate the aging process itself. The most robust intervention extending lifespan, plausibly impinging on the aging process, involves different modalities of dietary restriction (DR). Lifespan extension by DR is associated with broad protection against diseases (natural and engineered). Here we review potential epigenetic processes that may link lifespan to age-related diseases, particularly in the context of DR and (other) ketogenic diets, focusing on brain and hypothalamic mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A key role for neuropeptide Y in lifespan extension and cancer suppression via dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takuya; Tamashiro, Yukari; Park, Daeui; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Fujie, Ryoko; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Kim, Sang Eun; Park, Seongjoon; Hayashi, Hiroko; Mori, Ryoichi; Yamashita, Hitoshi; Chung, Hae Young; Shimokawa, Isao

    2014-03-31

    Knowledge of genes essential for the life-extending effect of dietary restriction (DR) in mammals is incomplete. In this study, we found that neuropeptide Y (Npy), which mediates physiological adaptations to energy deficits, is an essential link between DR and longevity in mice. The lifespan-prolonging effect of lifelong 30% DR was attenuated in Npy-null mice, as was the effect on the occurrence of spontaneous tumors and oxidative stress responses in comparison to wild-type mice. In contrast, the physiological processes activated during adaptation to DR, including inhibition of anabolic signaling molecules (insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1), modulation of adipokine and corticosterone levels, and preferential fatty acid oxidation, were unaffected by the absence of Npy. These results suggest a key role for Npy in mediating the effects of DR. We also provide evidence that most of the physiological adaptations to DR could be achieved in mice without Npy.

  10. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne; Bernstein, Richard K; Fine, Eugene J; Westman, Eric C; Accurso, Anthony; Frassetto, Lynda; Gower, Barbara A; McFarlane, Samy I; Nielsen, Jörgen Vesti; Krarup, Thure; Saslow, Laura; Roth, Karl S; Vernon, Mary C; Volek, Jeff S; Wilshire, Gilbert B; Dahlqvist, Annika; Sundberg, Ralf; Childers, Ann; Morrison, Katharine; Manninen, Anssi H; Dashti, Hussain M; Wood, Richard J; Wortman, Jay; Worm, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications, in combination with the continued success of low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome without significant side effects, point to the need for a reappraisal of dietary guidelines. The benefits of carbohydrate restriction in diabetes are immediate and well documented. Concerns about the efficacy and safety are long term and conjectural rather than data driven. Dietary carbohydrate restriction reliably reduces high blood glucose, does not require weight loss (although is still best for weight loss), and leads to the reduction or elimination of medication. It has never shown side effects comparable with those seen in many drugs. Here we present 12 points of evidence supporting the use of low-carbohydrate diets as the first approach to treating type 2 diabetes and as the most effective adjunct to pharmacology in type 1. They represent the best-documented, least controversial results. The insistence on long-term randomized controlled trials as the only kind of data that will be accepted is without precedent in science. The seriousness of diabetes requires that we evaluate all of the evidence that is available. The 12 points are sufficiently compelling that we feel that the burden of proof rests with those who are opposed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Life Span in Calorie Restricted Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Domínguez, José A; Ramsey, Jon J; Tran, Dianna; Imai, Denise M; Koehne, Amanda; Laing, Steven T; Griffey, Stephen M; Kim, Kyoungmi; Taylor, Sandra L; Hagopian, Kevork; Villalba, José M; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; McDonald, Roger B

    2015-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition extends life span in several animal models. It has been proposed that a decrease in the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and especially n-3 fatty acids, in membrane phospholipids may contribute to life span extension with CR. Phospholipid PUFAs are sensitive to dietary fatty acid composition, and thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary lipids on life span in CR mice. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to four groups (a 5% CR control group and three 40% CR groups) and fed diets with soybean oil (high in n-6 PUFAs), fish oil (high in n-3 PUFAs), or lard (high in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids) as the primary lipid source. Life span was increased (p Life span was also increased (p life span in mice on CR, and suggest that a diet containing a low proportion of PUFAs and high proportion of monounsaturated and saturated fats may maximize life span in animals maintained on CR. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on the transcriptional profile of bovine jejunal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Waters, Sinead M; Cormican, Paul; Kelly, Alan K; Kenny, David A

    2018-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG), an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is utilised worldwide in animal production systems as a management practise to lower feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of jejunal epithelial to CG in cattle through transcriptional profiling following a period of dietary restriction as well as subsequent re-alimentation induced CG. Sixty Holstein Friesian bulls were separated into two groups; RES and ADLIB, with 30 animals in each. RES animals were offered a restricted diet for 125 days (Period 1) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (Period 2). ADLIB animals had ad libitum access to feed across both periods 1 and 2. At the end of each period, 15 animals from each treatment group were slaughtered, jejunal epithelium collected and RNAseq analysis performed. Animals that were previously diet restricted underwent CG, gaining 1.8 times the rate of their non-restricted counterparts. Twenty-four genes were differentially expressed in RES compared to ADLIB animals at the end of Period 1, with only one gene, GSTA1, differentially expressed between the two groups at the end of Period 2. When analysed within treatment (RES, Period 2 v Period 1), 31 genes were differentially expressed between diet restricted and animals undergoing CG. Dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation were associated with altered expression of genes involved in digestion and metabolism as well as those involved in cellular division and growth. Compensatory growth was also associated with greater expression of genes involved in cellular protection and detoxification in jejunal epithelium. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating the response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation induced CG in cattle; however the gene expression results suggest that most of the CG in jejunal epithelium had occurred by day 55 of re-alimentation.

  13. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Stocks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. ( REGISTRATION: ISRCTN25867281. One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat% in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6 greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1 greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007. The replication study showed a similar (non-significant interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on

  14. Randomized clinical trial of fluid and salt restriction compared with a controlled liberal regimen in elective gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyan, J P; Rosbergen, M; Pal, N; Sargen, K; Fletcher, S J; Nunn, D L; Clark, A; Williams, M R; Lewis, M P N

    2013-12-01

    Excessive intravenous fluid prescription may play a causal role in postoperative complications following major gastrointestinal resectional surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fluid and salt restriction would decrease postoperative complications compared with a more modern controlled liberal regimen. In this observer-blinded single-site randomized clinical trial consecutive patients undergoing major gastrointestinal resectional surgery were randomized to receive either a liberal control fluid regimen or a restricted fluid and salt regimen. The primary outcome was postoperative complications of grade II and above (moderate to severe). Some 240 patients (194 colorectal resections and 46 oesophagogastric resections) were enrolled in the study; 121 patients were randomized to the restricted regimen and 119 to the control (liberal) regimen. During surgery the control group received a median (interquartile range) fluid volume of 2033 (1576-2500) ml and sodium input of 282 (213-339) mmol, compared with 1000 (690-1500) ml and 142 (93-218) mmol respectively in the restricted group. There was no significant difference in major complication rate between groups (38·0 and 39·0 per cent respectively). Median (range) hospital stay was 8 (3-101) days in the controls and 8 (range 3-76) days among those who received restricted fluids. There were four in-hospital deaths in the control group and two in the restricted group. Substantial differences in weight change, serum sodium, osmolality and urine : serum osmolality ratio were observed between the groups. There were no significant differences in major complication rates, length of stay and in-hospital deaths when fluid restriction was used compared with a more liberal regimen. ISRCTN39295230 (http://www.controlled-trials.com). © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Surgery published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.

  15. Importance and benefits of dietary sodium restriction in the management of chronic kidney disease patients: experience from a single Chinese center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wang; Luying, Sun; Haiyan, Wang; Xiaomei, Li

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have suggested that sodium intake may affect blood pressure (BP), proteinuria, and intrarenal transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) production in patients and animal models with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Chinese population has a high prevalence of CKD and is well known for consuming salty foods. This study will investigate the role of dietary sodium intake on BP control among non-dialysis Chinese CKD patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a cohort of 176 non-dialysis hypertensive CKD patients to investigate their sodium intake and its effect on BP control by measuring 24-h urine sodium excretion (24-h UNa). A total of 20 patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) participated in a 7-day sodium restriction study (100 mmol/day). Their changes in BP, proteinuria, and urinary TGF-β1 excretion were subsequently analyzed. Another 23 IgAN patients without salt restriction were included as controls. The average 24-h UNa of the study cohort was 149.0 ± 66.4 mmol/day. Only 31.8% patients had a 24-h UNa less than 100 mmol/day. The OR for each 17 mmol increment in 24-h UNa (salt 1 g/day) for BP > 130/80 mmHg was 1.26 (95% CI 1.10-1.44, P = 0.001). The sodium restriction group achieved significantly more reduction in SBP (-11.1 mmHg vs. -5.0 mmHg, P = 0.022), DBP (-9.4 mmHg vs. -2.1 mmHg, P = 0.009), and urine protein excretion [-465 (-855 to -340) mg/day vs. -150 (-570 to 40) mg/day, P = 0.024]. A positive correlation was observed between the change of 24-h UNa and the change of SBP (r = 0.450, P = 0.047) in the sodium restriction group. The change of 24-h UNa was also correlated with the 24-h TGF-β1 excretion (r = 0.558, P = 0.011) in these patients. Dietary sodium intake restriction should be monitored and intensified in the treatment of Chinese CKD patients.

  16. Effect of dietary lysine restriction and arginine supplementation in two patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzyuk, Tatiana; Thomas, Amanda; Viau, Krista; Liu, Aiping; De Biase, Irene; Botto, Lorenzo D; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy (PDE) is a recessive disorder caused by deficiency of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the catabolic pathway of lysine. It is characterized by intractable seizures controlled by the administration of pharmacological doses of vitamin B6. Despite seizure control with pyridoxine, intellectual disability and developmental delays are still observed in some patients with PDE, likely due to the accumulation of toxic intermediates in the lysine catabolic pathway: alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AASA), delta-1-piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C), and pipecolic acid. Here we evaluate biochemical and clinical parameters in two PDE patients treated with a lysine-restricted diet and arginine supplementation (100-150mg/kg), aimed at reducing the levels of PDE biomarkers. Lysine restriction resulted in decreased accumulation of PDE biomarkers and improved development. Plasma lysine but not plasma arginine, directly correlated with plasma levels of AASA-P6C (p<0.001, r(2)=0.640) and pipecolic acid (p<0.01, r(2)=0.484). In addition, plasma threonine strongly correlated with the levels of AASA-P6C (p<0.0001, r(2)=0.732) and pipecolic acid (p<0.005, r(2)=0.527), suggesting extreme sensitivity of threonine catabolism to pyridoxine availability. Our results further support the use of dietary therapies in combination with pyridoxine for the treatment of PDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An information, education and communication module to reduce dietary salt intake and blood pressure among tea garden workers of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K. Borah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: High salt diet increases blood pressure. Tea garden workers (TGW of Assam, India have high (60.8% prevalence of hypertension (HTN, which may be due to consumption of extra salt (salt as side dish and salted tea at work place and home. The present study evaluated an information, education and communication (IEC module to reduce salt intake and blood pressure among TGW. Methods: Two tea gardens (usual care and intervention were selected at random covering a total population of 13,458. The IEC module consisting of poster display, leaflets, health rally, documentary show, individual and group discussion was introduced in the intervention garden targeting study participants, health care providers, key stake holders, school children and teachers. IEC intervention was continued for one year. Participants from usual care and intervention were followed at three monthly intervals and BP and other information were compared after one year. Results: A total of 393 study participants (Non intervention: 194; intervention: 199 were included. After one year of follow up, consumption of extra salt was reduced significantly in the intervention participants (66.3 vs. 45.5%, p = 0.000. Intention to treat analysis revealed significant reduction in systolic [−6.4 (−8.6 to −4.2] and diastolic [−6.9 (−8.1 to −5.7] blood pressure after one year. Prevalence of HTN was reduced significantly (52.5 vs. 40.0%, p = 0.02 among them. Conclusions: Our IEC module created awareness about risk of hypertension associated with high salt intake and could reduce dietary salt intake and BP. Keywords: Blood pressure, Dietary salt, Hypertension, Tea garden worker

  18. The influence of dietary restriction before and after 10 weeks of age on osteochondrosis in growing gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de D.B.; Grevenhof, van E.M.; Laurenssen, B.F.A.; Weeren, van P.R.; Hazeleger, W.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondrosis (OC) is one of the main causes of leg weakness causing premature culling in breeding sows and develops in a short time frame in young growing gilts. Dietary restriction may have different effects on OC prevalence depending on the age of the gilts. The aim of this study is to

  19. Target of rapamycin signalling mediates the lifespan-extending effects of dietary restriction by essential amino acid alteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emran, S.; Yang, M.Y.; He, X.L.; Zandveld, J.; Piper, M.D.W.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR), defined as a moderate reduction in food intake short of malnutrition, has been shown to extend healthy lifespan in a diverse range of organisms, from yeast to primates. Reduced signalling through the insulin/IGF-like (IIS) and Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathways

  20. Bifidogenic effect of whole-grain wheat during a 12-week energy-restricted dietary intervention in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Licht, Tine Rask; Kristensen, M.

    2013-01-01

    composition after consumption of whole-grain (WW) or refined wheat (RW) and further study effects on gut wall integrity.Subjects/Methods:Quantitative PCR was used to determine changes in the gut bacterial composition in postmenopausal women following a 12-week energy-restricted dietary intervention with WW (N...

  1. Dietary Methionine Restriction: Effects on Glucose Tolerance, Lipid Content and micro-RNA composition in the muscle of Rainbow Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean muscle mass plays an important role in overall health, as altered skeletal muscle metabolism can impact both the incidence and prevention of conditions related to metabolic health. Intriguingly, dietary methionine restriction (MR) has been shown to ameliorate this phenotype over time potentiall...

  2. The relationship between dietary salt intake and ambulatory blood pressure variability in non-diabetic hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkayar, Nihal; Dede, Fatih; Ates, Ihsan; Akyel, Fatma; Yildirim, Tolga; Altun, Bulent

    High dietary salt intake was reported to increase blood pressure by numerous studies, but no study has investigated the effect of dietary salt intake on blood pressure variability (BPV). This study aimed to determine if daily salt intake is related to ambulatory BPV. The study included 136 primary hypertensive patients (92 male, 44 female) with a mean age of 50.7±11.1 years. All the patients underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to determine both the 24-h systolic and 24-h diastolic BPV. 24-h urine sodium was measured. The correlation between BPV and 24-h urinary sodium was investigated. Logarithmic transformation of 24-h urinary sodium [log(24-h urinary sodium)] was positively correlated with the mean 24-h systolic ARV, and nighttime systolic ARV (r=0.371 and p=0.001, r=0.329 and p=0.028, respectively). Similarly, log(24-h urinary sodium) was positively correlated with mean 24-h diastolic ARV and nighttime diastolic ARV (r=0.381 and p=0.001, r=0.320 and p=0.020 respectively). Log(24-h urinary sodium) was an independent predictor of BPV based on multivariate regression analysis. Dietary salt intake might play a role in the pathogenesis of ambulatory BPV. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between dietary salt intake and ambulatory blood pressure variability in non-diabetic hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Ozkayar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High dietary salt intake was reported to increase blood pressure by numerous studies, but no study has investigated the effect of dietary salt intake on blood pressure variability (BPV. This study aimed to determine if daily salt intake is related to ambulatory BPV. The study included 136 primary hypertensive patients (92 male, 44 female with a mean age of 50.7 ± 11.1 years. All the patients underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to determine both the 24-h systolic and 24-h diastolic BPV. 24-h urine sodium was measured. The correlation between BPV and 24-h urinary sodium was investigated. Logarithmic transformation of 24-h urinary sodium [log(24-h urinary sodium] was positively correlated with the mean 24-h systolic ARV, and nighttime systolic ARV (r = 0.371 and p = 0.001, r = 0.329 and p = 0.028, respectively. Similarly, log(24-h urinary sodium was positively correlated with mean 24-h diastolic ARV and nighttime diastolic ARV (r = 0.381 and p = 0.001, r = 0.320 and p = 0.020 respectively. Log(24-h urinary sodium was an independent predictor of BPV based on multivariate regression analysis. Dietary salt intake might play a role in the pathogenesis of ambulatory BPV.

  4. Dietary fat modifies mitochondrial and plasma membrane apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle of calorie-restricted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Domínguez, José Alberto; Khraiwesh, Husam; González-Reyes, José Antonio; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; Ramsey, Jon Jay; de Cabo, Rafael; Burón, María Isabel; Villalba, José M

    2013-12-01

    Calorie restriction decreases skeletal muscle apoptosis, and this phenomenon has been mechanistically linked to its protective action against sarcopenia of aging. Alterations in lipid composition of membranes have been related with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. However, no study has been designed to date to elucidate if different dietary fat sources with calorie restriction modify apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle. We show that a 6-month calorie restriction decreased the activity of the plasma membrane neutral sphingomyelinase, although caspase-8/10 activity was not altered, in young adult mice. Lipid hydroperoxides, Bax levels, and cytochrome c and AIF release/accumulation into the cytosol were also decreased, although caspase-9 activity was unchanged. No alterations in caspase-3 and apoptotic index (DNA fragmentation) were observed, but calorie restriction improved structural features of gastrocnemius fibers by increasing cross-sectional area and decreasing circularity of fibers in cross sections. Changing dietary fat with calorie restriction produced substantial alterations of apoptotic signaling. Fish oil augmented the protective effect of calorie restriction decreasing plasma membrane neutral sphingomyelinase, Bax levels, caspase-8/10, and -9 activities, while increasing levels of the antioxidant coenzyme Q at the plasma membrane, and potentiating the increase of cross-sectional area and the decrease of fiber circularity in cross sections. Many of these changes were not found when we used lard. Our data support that dietary fish oil with calorie restriction produces a cellular anti-apoptotic environment in skeletal muscle with a downregulation of components involved in the initial stages of apoptosis engagement, both at the plasma membrane and the mitochondria.

  5. Effect of Dietary Restriction and Subsequent Re-Alimentation on the Transcriptional Profile of Bovine Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Cormican, Paul; McCabe, Matthew S; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinead M

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG), an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is exploited worldwide in animal production systems as a method to lower feed costs. However the molecular mechanisms regulated CG expression remain to be elucidated fully. This study aimed to uncover the underlying biology regulating CG in cattle, through an examination of skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles utilising next generation mRNA sequencing technology. Twenty Holstein Friesian bulls were fed either a restricted diet for 125 days, with a target growth rate of 0.6 kg/day (Period 1), following which they were allowed feed ad libitum for a further 55 days (Period 2) or fed ad libitum for the entirety of the trial. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2 respectively and RNAseq analysis was performed. During re-alimentation in Period 2, previously restricted animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of the ad libitum control animals. Compensating animals were also more feed efficient during re-alimentation and compensated for 48% of their previous dietary restriction. 1,430 and 940 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed (Benjamini Hochberg adjusted P < 0.1) in periods 1 and 2 respectively. Additionally, 2,237 genes were differentially expressed in animals undergoing CG relative to dietary restriction. Dietary restriction in Period 1 was associated with altered expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and energy production. CG expression in Period 2 occurred in association with greater expression of genes involved in cellular function and organisation. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating CG in cattle. Differentially expressed genes identified are potential candidate genes for the identification of biomarkers for CG and feed efficiency, which may be incorporated into future breeding programmes.

  6. [THE EFFECT OF DIETARY RESTRICTION DURING DEVELOPMENT OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER ON THE ACTIVITY OF ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM ENZYMES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabuga, O G; Koliada, A K; Kukharskyy, V M; Bazhynova, A I; Vaiserman, A M

    2015-01-01

    In the previous study we demonstrated that dietary restriction only at the development stage of Drosophila melanogaster may impact the life span of adult flies. It was important that we didn't use qualitative (restriction of proteins or other macro- or microelements) and not a calorie restriction as well, but quantitative dietary restriction that was the proportional reduction of all food components in the larval medium. In the situations when the larvae were reared in the medium types, that contained protein and carbohydrate components in concentrations of 90-10% of food components compared to the standard one (100%), the males were characterised with the significant increase in the maximum life span. The average life span was also increased, but only in those male individuals that developed in the medium types, that contained 50% and 60% of food components compared to controls. Such an effect we haven't detected in the female flies. To study the biochemical changes associated with the physiological effects we have determined the activity of the antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. In the male flies the 50% dietary restriction implemented during the development has led to the significant increase in a SOD and catalase activity. Also the flies of both sexes reared in the medium with the 50% of food components have been characterised with the reduction in the accumulation of glycation end products. According to these results, we suggest that the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes may play a role in the increase of the flies life span caused by the dietary restriction during the development.

  7. Effect of Dietary Restriction and Subsequent Re-Alimentation on the Transcriptional Profile of Bovine Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Keogh

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG, an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is exploited worldwide in animal production systems as a method to lower feed costs. However the molecular mechanisms regulated CG expression remain to be elucidated fully. This study aimed to uncover the underlying biology regulating CG in cattle, through an examination of skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles utilising next generation mRNA sequencing technology. Twenty Holstein Friesian bulls were fed either a restricted diet for 125 days, with a target growth rate of 0.6 kg/day (Period 1, following which they were allowed feed ad libitum for a further 55 days (Period 2 or fed ad libitum for the entirety of the trial. M. longissimus dorsi biopsies were harvested from all bulls on days 120 and 15 of periods 1 and 2 respectively and RNAseq analysis was performed. During re-alimentation in Period 2, previously restricted animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of the ad libitum control animals. Compensating animals were also more feed efficient during re-alimentation and compensated for 48% of their previous dietary restriction. 1,430 and 940 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed (Benjamini Hochberg adjusted P < 0.1 in periods 1 and 2 respectively. Additionally, 2,237 genes were differentially expressed in animals undergoing CG relative to dietary restriction. Dietary restriction in Period 1 was associated with altered expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and energy production. CG expression in Period 2 occurred in association with greater expression of genes involved in cellular function and organisation. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating CG in cattle. Differentially expressed genes identified are potential candidate genes for the identification of biomarkers for CG and feed efficiency, which may be incorporated into future breeding programmes.

  8. Blood Pressure Genetic Risk Score Predicts Blood Pressure Responses to Dietary Sodium and Potassium: The GenSalt Study (Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierenberg, Jovia L; Li, Changwei; He, Jiang; Gu, Dongfeng; Chen, Jichun; Lu, Xiangfeng; Li, Jianxin; Wu, Xigui; Gu, C Charles; Hixson, James E; Rao, Dabeeru C; Kelly, Tanika N

    2017-12-01

    We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) for blood pressure (BP), based on single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in previous BP genome-wide association study meta-analyses, and salt and potassium sensitivity of BP among participants of the GenSalt study (Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity). The GenSalt study was conducted among 1906 participants who underwent a 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/d), 7-day high-sodium (307.8 mmol sodium/d), and 7-day high-sodium plus potassium (60 mmol potassium/d) intervention. BP was measured 9× at baseline and at the end of each intervention period using a random zero sphygmomanometer. Associations between systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure GRS and respective SBP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure responses to the dietary interventions were assessed using mixed linear regression models that accounted for familial dependencies and adjusted for age, sex, field center, body mass index, and baseline BP. As expected, baseline SBP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure significantly increased per quartile increase in GRS ( P =2.7×10 -8 , 9.8×10 -8 , and 6.4×10 -6 , respectively). In contrast, increasing GRS quartile conferred smaller SBP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure responses to the low-sodium intervention ( P =1.4×10 -3 , 0.02, and 0.06, respectively) and smaller SBP responses to the high-sodium and potassium interventions ( P =0.10 and 0.05). In addition, overall findings were similar when examining GRS as a continuous measure. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, we identified an inverse relationship between BP GRS and salt and potassium sensitivity of BP. These data may provide novel implications on the relationship between BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium and hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Novel Mechanism for Buffering Dietary Salt in Humans: Effects of Salt Loading on Skin Sodium, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C, and Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajah, Viknesh; Mäki-Petäjä, Kaisa M; Pedro, Liliana; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F A; Burling, Keith; Goodhart, Anna K; Brown, Morris J; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B

    2017-11-01

    High dietary sodium intake triggers increased blood pressure (BP). Animal studies show that dietary salt loading results in dermal Na + accumulation and lymphangiogenesis mediated by VEGF-C (vascular endothelial growth factor C), both attenuating the rise in BP. Our objective was to determine whether these mechanisms function in humans. We assessed skin electrolytes, BP, and plasma VEGF-C in 48 healthy participants randomized to placebo (70 mmol sodium/d) and slow sodium (200 mmol/d) for 7 days. Skin Na + and K + concentrations were measured in mg/g of wet tissue and expressed as the ratio Na + :K + to correct for variability in sample hydration. Skin Na + :K + increased between placebo and slow sodium phases (2.91±0.08 versus 3.12±0.09; P =0.01). In post hoc analysis, there was a suggestion of a sex-specific effect, with a significant increase in skin Na + :K + in men (2.59±0.09 versus 2.88±0.12; P =0.008) but not women (3.23±0.10 versus 3.36±0.12; P =0.31). Women showed a significant increase in 24-hour mean BP with salt loading (93±1 versus 91±1 mm Hg; P salt, and this may be influenced by sex. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. High dietary salt does not significantly affect plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayorh Mohamed A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dahl salt-sensitive rat, but not the Dahl salt-resistant rat, develops hypertension and hypovitaminosis D when fed a high salt diet. Since the salt-sensitive rat and salt-resistant rat were bred from the Sprague Dawley rat, the aim of this research was to test the hypothesis that salt-resistant and Sprague Dawley rats would be similar in their vitamin D endocrine system response to high salt intake. Findings Sprague Dawley, salt-sensitive, and salt-resistant rats were fed high (80 g/kg, 8% or low (3 g/kg, 3% salt diets for three weeks. The blood pressure of Sprague Dawley rats increased from baseline to week 3 during both high and low salt intake and the mean blood pressure at week 3 of high salt intake was higher than that at week 3 of low salt intake (P Conclusions These data indicate that the effect of high salt intake on the vitamin D endocrine system of Sprague Dawley rats at week 3 was similar to that of salt-resistant rats. The salt-sensitive rat, thus, appears to be a more appropriate model than the Sprague Dawley rat for assessing possible effects of salt-sensitivity on vitamin D status of humans.

  11. Fecal Fermentation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Influence of Dietary Restriction of Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeur, Jørgen; Røseth, Arne Gustav; Knudsen, Torunn; Malmstrøm, Gunn Helen; Fiennes, Jennifer T; Midtvedt, Tore; Berstad, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) may relieve symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We investigated whether this diet alters microbial fermentation, a process that may be involved in IBS symptom generation. Patients with IBS were included consecutively to participate in a 4-week FODMAP restricted diet. IBS symptoms were evaluated by using the IBS severity scoring system (IBS-SSS). Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed in fecal samples before and after the dietary intervention, both at baseline and after in vitro fermentation for 24 h. Sixty-three patients completed the study. Following the dietary intervention, IBS-SSS scores improved significantly (p fermentation for 24 h (p = 0.013). Following diet, baseline levels of acetic (p = 0.003) and n-butyric acids (p = 0.009) decreased, whereas 24 h levels of i-butyric (p = 0.003) and i-valeric acids (p = 0.003) increased. Fecal SCFA levels and IBS symptom scores were not correlated. Dietary FODMAP restriction markedly modulated fecal fermentation in patients with IBS. Saccharolytic fermentation decreased, while proteolytic fermentation increased, apparently independent of symptoms. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Dietary protein restriction causes modification in aluminum-induced alteration in glutamate and GABA system of rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Ajay K

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration of glutamate and γ-aminobutyrate system have been reported to be associated with neurodegenerative disorders and have been postulated to be involved in aluminum-induced neurotoxicity as well. Aluminum, an well known and commonly exposed neurotoxin, was found to alter glutamate and γ-aminobutyrate levels as well as activities of associated enzymes with regional specificity. Protein malnutrition also reported to alter glutamate level and some of its metabolic enzymes. Thus the region-wise study of levels of brain glutamate and γ-aminobutyrate system in protein adequacy and inadequacy may be worthwhile to understand the mechanism of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity. Results Protein restriction does not have any significant impact on regional aluminum and γ-aminobutyrate contents of rat brain. Significant interaction of dietary protein restriction and aluminum intoxication to alter regional brain glutamate level was observed in the tested brain regions except cerebellum. Alteration in glutamate α-decarboxylase and γ-aminobutyrate transaminase activities were found to be significantly influenced by interaction of aluminum intoxication and dietary protein restriction in all the tested brain regions. In case of regional brain succinic semialdehyde content, this interaction was significant only in cerebrum and thalamic area. Conclusion The alterations of regional brain glutamate and γ-aminobutyrate levels by aluminum are region specific as well as dependent on dietary protein intake. The impact of aluminum exposure on the metabolism of these amino acid neurotransmitters are also influenced by dietary protein level. Thus, modification of dietary protein level or manipulation of the brain amino acid homeostasis by any other means may be an useful tool to find out a path to restrict amino acid neurotransmitter alterations in aluminum-associated neurodisorders.

  13. Dietary restriction protects from age-associated DNA methylation and induces epigenetic reprogramming of lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Oliver; Grönke, Sebastian; Stubbs, Thomas M; Ficz, Gabriella; Hendrich, Oliver; Krueger, Felix; Andrews, Simon; Zhang, Qifeng; Wakelam, Michael J; Beyer, Andreas; Reik, Wolf; Partridge, Linda

    2017-03-28

    Dietary restriction (DR), a reduction in food intake without malnutrition, increases most aspects of health during aging and extends lifespan in diverse species, including rodents. However, the mechanisms by which DR interacts with the aging process to improve health in old age are poorly understood. DNA methylation could play an important role in mediating the effects of DR because it is sensitive to the effects of nutrition and can affect gene expression memory over time. Here, we profile genome-wide changes in DNA methylation, gene expression and lipidomics in response to DR and aging in female mouse liver. DR is generally strongly protective against age-related changes in DNA methylation. During aging with DR, DNA methylation becomes targeted to gene bodies and is associated with reduced gene expression, particularly of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The lipid profile of the livers of DR mice is correspondingly shifted towards lowered triglyceride content and shorter chain length of triglyceride-associated fatty acids, and these effects become more pronounced with age. Our results indicate that DR remodels genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation so that age-related changes are profoundly delayed, while changes at loci involved in lipid metabolism affect gene expression and the resulting lipid profile.

  14. Dietary methionine restriction in mice elicits an adaptive cardiovascular response to hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ables, Gene P; Ouattara, Amadou; Hampton, Thomas G; Cooke, Diana; Perodin, Frantz; Augie, Ines; Orentreich, David S

    2015-03-06

    Dietary methionine restriction (MR) in rodents increased lifespan despite higher heart-to-body weight ratio (w/w) and hyperhomocysteinemia, which are symptoms associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated this paradoxical effect of MR on cardiac function using young, old, and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-KO) mice. Indeed, MR animals exhibited higher heart-to-body weight ratio (w/w) and hyperhomocysteinemia with a molecular pattern consistent with cardiac stress while maintaining the integrity of cardiac structure. Baseline cardiac function, which was measured by non-invasive electrocardiography (ECG), showed that young MR mice had prolonged QRS intervals compared with control-fed (CF) mice, whereas old and ApoE-KO mice showed similar results for both groups. Following β-adrenergic challenge, responses of MR mice were either similar or attenuated compared with CF mice. Cardiac contractility, which was measured by isolated heart retrograde perfusion, was similar in both groups of old mice. Finally, the MR diet induced secretion of cardioprotective hormones, adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), in MR mice with concomitant alterations in cardiac metabolic molecular signatures. Our findings demonstrate that MR diet does not alter cardiac function in mice despite the presence of hyperhomocysteinemia because of the adaptive responses of increased adiponectin and FGF21 levels.

  15. Intestinal IRE1 Is Required for Increased Triglyceride Metabolism and Longer Lifespan under Dietary Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Nuno Miguel; Wang, Lifen; Ortega, Mauricio; Deng, Hansong; Katewa, Subhash D; Li, Patrick Wai-Lun; Karpac, Jason; Jasper, Heinrich; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2016-10-25

    Dietary restriction (DR) is one of the most robust lifespan-extending interventions in animals. The beneficial effects of DR involve a metabolic adaptation toward increased triglyceride usage. The regulatory mechanism and the tissue specificity of this metabolic switch remain unclear. Here, we show that the IRE1/XBP1 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling module mediates metabolic adaptation upon DR in flies by promoting triglyceride synthesis and accumulation in enterocytes (ECs) of the Drosophila midgut. Consistently, IRE1/XBP1 function in ECs is required for increased longevity upon DR. We further identify sugarbabe, a Gli-like zinc-finger transcription factor, as a key mediator of the IRE1/XBP1-regulated induction of de novo lipogenesis in ECs. Overexpression of sugarbabe rescues metabolic and lifespan phenotypes of IRE1 loss-of-function conditions. Our study highlights the critical role of metabolic adaptation of the intestinal epithelium for DR-induced lifespan extension and explores the IRE1/XBP1 signaling pathway regulating this adaptation and influencing lifespan. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Age- and calorie-independent life span extension from dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary restriction (DR increases life span and delays age-associated disease in many organisms. The mechanism by which DR enhances longevity is not well understood. Results Using bacterial food deprivation as a means of DR in C. elegans, we show that transient DR confers long-term benefits including stress resistance and increased longevity. Consistent with studies in the fruit fly and in mice, we demonstrate that DR also enhances survival when initiated late in life. DR by bacterial food deprivation significantly increases life span in worms when initiated as late as 24 days of adulthood, an age at which greater than 50% of the cohort have died. These survival benefits are, at least partially, independent of food consumption, as control fed animals are no longer consuming bacterial food at this advanced age. Animals separated from the bacterial lawn by a barrier of solid agar have a life span intermediate between control fed and food restricted animals. Thus, we find that life span extension from bacterial deprivation can be partially suppressed by a diffusible component of the bacterial food source, suggesting a calorie-independent mechanism for life span extension by dietary restriction. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation increases longevity in C. elegans by a combination of reduced food consumption and decreased food sensing.

  17. Dietary restriction of mice on a high-fat diet induces substrate efficiency and improves metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duivenvoorde, Loes P M; van Schothorst, Evert M; Bunschoten, Annelies; Keijer, Jaap

    2011-08-01

    High energy intake and, specifically, high dietary fat intake challenge the mammalian metabolism and correlate with many metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. However, dietary restriction (DR) is known to prevent the development of metabolic disorders. The current western diets are highly enriched in fat, and it is as yet unclear whether DR on a certain high-fat (HF) diet elicits similar beneficial effects on health. In this research, we report that HF-DR improves metabolic health of mice compared with mice receiving the same diet on an ad libitum basis (HF-AL). Already after five weeks of restriction, the serum levels of cholesterol and leptin were significantly decreased in HF-DR mice, whereas their glucose sensitivity and serum adiponectin levels were increased. The body weight and measured serum parameters remained stable in the following 7 weeks of restriction, implying metabolic adaptation. To understand the molecular events associated with this adaptation, we analyzed gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) with whole genome microarrays. HF-DR strongly influenced gene expression in WAT; in total, 8643 genes were differentially expressed between both groups of mice, with a major role for genes involved in lipid metabolism and mitochondrial functioning. This was confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and substantiated by increase in mitochondrial density in WAT of HF-DR mice. These results provide new insights in the metabolic flexibility of dietary restricted animals and suggest the development of substrate efficiency.

  18. Screening for colorectal neoplasias with fecal occult blood tests: false-positive impact of non-dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslani, April Camilla; Abdullah, Taufiq; Arumugam, Kulenthran

    2012-01-01

    Screening for colorectal cancer using guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests (gFOBT) is well established in Western populations, but is hampered by poor patient compliance due to the imposed dietary restrictions. Fecal immunochemical tests (FIT) do not require dietary restriction, but are more expensive than gFOBT and therefore restrict its use in developing countries in Asia. However, Asian diets being low in meat content may not require diet restriction for gFOBT to achieve equivalent results. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the validity and suitability of gFOBT and FIT or a combination of the two in screening for colorectal neoplasias without prior dietary restriction in an Asian population. Patients referred to the Endoscopic Unit for colonoscopy were recruited for the study. Stool samples were collected prior to bowel preparation, and tested for occult blood with both gFOBT and FIT. Dietary restriction was not imposed. To assess the validity of either tests or in combination to detect a neoplasm or cancer in the colon, their false positive rates, their sensitivity (true positive rate) and the specificity (true negative rate) were analyzed and compared. One hundred and three patients were analysed. The sensitivity for picking up any neoplasia was 53% for FIT, 40% for gFOBT and 23.3% for the combination. The sensitivities for picking up only carcinoma were 77.8% , 66.7% and 55.5%, respectively. The specificity for excluding any neoplasia was 91.7% for FIT, 74% for gFOBT and 94.5% for a combination, whereas for excluding only carcinomas they were 84%, 73.4% and 93.6%. Of the 69 with normal colonoscopic findings, FOBT was positive in 4.3%, 23.2 %and 2.9% for FIT, gFOBT, or combination of tests respectively. FIT is the recommended method if we are to dispense with dietary restriction in our patients because of its relatively low-false positivity and better sensitivity and specificity rates.

  19. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (PPCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Kisspeptin and CART. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. The influence of dietary restriction before and after 10 weeks of age on osteochondrosis in growing gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, D B; van Grevenhof, E M; Laurenssen, B F A; van Weeren, P R; Hazeleger, W; Kemp, B

    2013-11-01

    Osteochondrosis (OC) is one of the main causes of leg weakness causing premature culling in breeding sows and develops in a short time frame in young growing gilts. Dietary restriction may have different effects on OC prevalence depending on the age of the gilts. The aim of this study is to investigate age-dependent effects of dietary restriction, ad libitum vs. restricted (80% of ad libitum), on the occurrence of OC in gilts at slaughter (26 wk of age). At weaning (4 wk of age), 211 gilts were subjected to one of 4 treatments of a feeding regime. Gilts were administered either ad libitum feeding from weaning until slaughter (AA); restricted feeding from weaning until slaughter (RR); ad libitum feeding from weaning until 10 wk of age, after which gilts were switched to restricted feeding (AR); or restricted feeding from weaning until 10 wk of age, after which gilts were switched to ad libitum feeding (RA). At slaughter, the elbow, hock, and knee joints were harvested. Joints were scored macroscopically for articular surface deformations indicative of OC. Gilts in the RA treatment had significantly higher odds of being affected by OC than gilts in the RR and AR treatments in the hock joint (OR=3.3, P=0.04 and OR=8.5, P=0.002, respectively) and at animal level (OR=2.5, P=0.001 and OR=1.9, P=0.01, respectively). Gilts in the AA treatment had higher odds of being affected by OC than gilts in the AR treatment in the hock joint (OR=5.3, P=0.01). The results indicate a possible pathway to reduce the prevalence of OC in breeding gilts that will have to last several parities. Switching from restricted feeding to ad libitum feeding after 10 wk of age increases OC prevalence as opposed to restricted feeding after 10 wk of age.

  1. Comparison of various phosphate salts as the dietary phosphorus source on nephrocalcinosis and kidney function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, H; Kikuchi, T; Kajita, Y; Masuyama, R; Uehara, M; Goto, S; Suzuki, K

    1999-10-01

    The effects of various phosphate salts as the dietary phosphorus sources on the development of nephrocalcinosis and kidney function were examined in rats fed diets containing monophosphate salts (sodium dihydrogenphosphate, NaH2PO4, or potassium dihydrogenphosphate, KH2PO4) or polyphosphate salts (sodium tripolyphosphate, Na5P3O10, or potassium tripolyphosphate, K5P3O10), at levels representing normal phosphorus (normal phosphorus diet) or high phosphorus (high phosphorus diet) contents for 21 d. High phosphorus diet-feeding increased the kidney calcium and phosphorus concentrations. Kidney calcium and phosphorus concentrations were higher in rats fed the high phosphorus diet containing Na5P3O10 or K5P3O10 than in rats fed the high phosphorus diet containing NaH2PO4 or KH2PO4. Nephrocalcinosis was observed in all rats fed a high phosphorus diet, and the degree of nephrocalcinosis was more severe in rats fed Na5P3O10 or K5P3O10 than in rats fed NaH2PO4 or KH2PO4. In rats fed the high phosphorus diet, creatinine clearance was higher in rats fed Na5P3O10 or K5P3O10 than in rats fed NaH2PO4 or KH2PO4. In rats fed Na5P3O10 or K5P3O10, urinary albumin excretion and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity in the urine were increased in rats fed the high phosphorus diet. These were higher in rats fed the high phosphorus diet containing Na5P3O10 than in rats fed the high phosphorus diet containing NaH2PO4 or KH2PO4. This study observed that the development of nephrocalcinosis and kidney function in rats fed the high phosphorus diet was influenced by the difference in monophosphate or polyphosphate salts provided as the dietary phosphorus source, while the effects of sodium and potassium salts were not evident. We suggest that the development of nephrocalcinosis and kidney function in rats fed a high phosphorus diet was altered depending on the form of phosphate salts provided as the dietary source of phosphorus. Additionally, the development of nephrocalcinosis and

  2. Changes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in response to dietary salt intake in normal and hypertensive pregnancy. A randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lise H; Ovesen, Per; Hansen, Mie R

    2016-01-01

    during low-salt diet in PE patients (n = 7), healthy pregnant women (n = 15), and nonpregnant women (n = 13). High-salt intake decreased renin and angiotensin II concentrations significantly in healthy pregnant women (P ... in aldosterone and increases in brain natriuretic peptid (BNP) were similar in the groups. In PE patients, uterine and umbilical artery indices were not adversely changed during low-salt diet. Creatinine clearance was significantly lower in PE with no change by salt intake. PE patients displayed alterations...... of plasma renin and angiotensin II in response to changes in dietary salt intake compatible with a primary increase in renal sodium reabsorption in hypertensive pregnancies....

  3. Effect of Dietary Restriction and Subsequent Re-Alimentation on the Transcriptional Profile of Bovine Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A.; Cormican, Paul; McCabe, Matthew S.; Kelly, Alan K.; Waters, Sinead M.

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG), an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is exploited worldwide in animal production systems as a method to lower feed costs. However the molecular mechanisms regulated CG expression remain to be elucidated fully. This study aimed to uncover the underlying biology regulating CG in cattle, through an examination of skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles utilising next generation mRNA sequencing technology. Twenty Holste...

  4. Effect of dietary restriction on immune response of laboratory mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    To study whether dietary restriction (DR; 70% of ad lib. feeding)-elicited immunosuppression results from the trade-off between the costs of mounting an immune response and the metabolic costs of maintenance, we subjected mice from two divergent lines selected for high basal metabolic rate (H-BMR) and low BMR (L-BMR) to 4 wk of DR and then challenged them with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen. Those line types differ genetically with respect to BMR and to the mass of metabolically expensive internal organs, which are larger in H-BMR mice. In mice of both line types, DR resulted in a significant reduction of body mass, an immune response, and the downsizing of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, heart, and kidneys but not small intestines. DR resulted in a greater reduction of the spleen and lymph nodes in mice of the H-BMR line type, whereas the thymus was more affected in L-BMR line type. In contrast, immunization resulted in an increase of liver mass in DR mice of both line types. A comparison of the results of current and earlier studies on the same mouse line types suggests that metabolic trade-offs involving the costs of an immune response are more apparent when animals are forced to increase energy demands (e.g., by cold exposure) compared to when energy demands are decreased through DR. Our findings also suggest that divelrgent selection on BMR resulted in between-line-type differences in T-cell- and B-cell-mediated types of an immune response. More generally, our results indicate that production of a wide repertoire of antibodies is not correlated with high BMR.

  5. Role of CBP and SATB-1 in aging, dietary restriction, and insulin-like signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhua Zhang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available How dietary restriction (DR increases lifespan and decreases disease burden are questions of major interest in biomedical research. Here we report that hypothalamic expression of CREB-binding protein (CBP and CBP-binding partner Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB-1 is highly correlated with lifespan across five strains of mice, and expression of these genes decreases with age and diabetes in mice. Furthermore, in Caenorhabditis elegans, cbp-1 is induced by bacterial dilution DR (bDR and the daf-2 mutation, and cbp-1 RNAi specifically in adults completely blocks lifespan extension by three distinct protocols of DR, partially blocks lifespan extension by the daf-2 mutation but not of cold, and blocks delay of other age-related pathologies by bDR. Inhibiting the C. elegans ortholog of SATB-1 and CBP-binding partners daf-16 and hsf-1 also attenuates lifespan extension by bDR, but not other protocols of DR. In a transgenic Abeta42 model of Alzheimer's disease, cbp-1 RNAi prevents protective effects of bDR and accelerates Abeta42-related pathology. Furthermore, consistent with the function of CBP as a histone acetyltransferase, drugs that enhance histone acetylation increase lifespan and reduce Abeta42-related pathology, protective effects completely blocked by cbp-1 RNAi. Other factors implicated in lifespan extension are also CBP-binding partners, suggesting that CBP constitutes a common factor in the modulation of lifespan and disease burden by DR and the insulin/IGF1 signaling pathway.

  6. Demonstration of psychometric soundness of the Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Brooke; Lennie, Terry A; Biddle, Martha; Chung, Misook L; Moser, Debra K

    2009-01-01

    Recommendation of a low-sodium diet is the most common nonpharmacologic intervention used in patients with heart failure (HF). However, nonadherence to this recommendation is extremely high. There are no instruments available for the specific measurement of patients' perceptions of their barriers to, and attitudes toward, following a low-sodium diet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new instrument, the Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ). Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the DSRQ assesses adherence through the use of 3 subscales. Each subscale represents a construct of the TPB: attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. The sample consisted of 174 patients with HF (age 62.4 +/- 13.5 years, 56.1% were male, 83.8% were white, and 86.9% had New York Heart Association class II/III). Factorial validity was tested using principal component analysis. Reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha to assess the internal consistency of the 3 subscales. Reliability was further evaluated with item-total correlations and inter-item correlations. Principal component analysis of the DSRQ resulted in the extraction of 3 factors, each factor corresponding to a construct of the TPB. The 3-factor solution explained a total of 54.2% of the variance, with Attitude contributing 23.4%, Perceived Behavioral Control contributing 18.1%, and Subjective Norm contributing 12.7%. The Cronbach's coefficient alpha for each subscale was Attitude .88, Subjective Norm .62, and Perceived Behavioral Control .76. The DSRQ is a valid and reliable tool for measuring patients' attitudes, beliefs, and barriers related to following a low-sodium diet in adult, white patients with New York Heart Association class II/III HF.

  7. Dietary restriction and exercise improve airway inflammation and clinical outcomes in overweight and obese asthma: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, H A; Gibson, P G; Garg, M L; Pretto, J J; Morgan, P J; Callister, R; Wood, L G

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and asthma are associated conditions; however, the mechanisms linking the two remain unclear. Few studies have examined the effects of weight loss on inflammation and clinical outcomes in obese-asthma. To compare the effects of weight loss achieved by dietary restriction, exercise or combined dietary restriction and exercise on airway inflammation and clinical outcomes in overweight and obese adults with asthma. Participants (n = 46; 54.3% female, body mass index (mean ± SD) 33.7 ± 3.5 kg/m(2) ) were randomized to complete a 10-week dietary, exercise or combined dietary and exercise intervention. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was performed, the Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire and Juniper Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire completed and inflammatory markers, dietary intake and physical activity measured. The trial was registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12611000235909. Retention was 82.6%. Mean ± SD weight loss was 8.5 ± 4.2%, 1.8 ± 2.6% and 8.3 ± 4.9% after the dietary, exercise and combined interventions respectively. Asthma control improved after the dietary (mean ± SD; -0.6 ± 0.5, P ≤ 0.001) and combined interventions (-0.5 ± 0.7, P = 0.040), whereas quality of life improved after the dietary [median (IQR); 0.9 (0.4, 1.3), P = 0.002], exercise [0.49 (0.03, 0.78), P = 0.037] and combined [0.5 (0.1, 1.0), P = 0.007] interventions. A 5-10% weight loss resulted in clinically important improvements to asthma control in 58%, and quality of life in 83%, of subjects. Gynoid adipose tissue reduction was associated with reduced neutrophilic airway inflammation in women [β-coefficient (95% CI); 1.75 (0.02, 3.48), P = 0.047], whereas a reduction in dietary saturated fat was associated with reduced neutrophilic airway inflammation in males (r = 0.775, P = 0.041). The exercise intervention resulted in a significant reduction to sputum eosinophils [median (IQR); -1.3 (-2.0, -1.0)%, P = 0.028]. This study suggests a weight

  8. The SONG (Salt intake and OrigiN from General foods) Study - A Large-scale Survey of the Eating Habits and Dietary Salt Intake in the Working-age Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Yoshitaka; Moriyama, Toshiki; Kanda, Kiyomi

    2017-09-15

    Objective Dietary salt reduction is important for the prevention and treatment of lifestyle-related diseases, including hypertension. Thus, in order to follow a strict low-salt diet, it is necessary to assess one's salt intake and to become aware of the importance of salt reduction. Methods More than 2,000 employees of a company, who received a periodic health checkup, participated in the present study. They assessed their day-to-day diet-related lifestyle, using the Salt Check Sheet, and we analyzed the correlations among the Salt Check Sheet scores, the daily salt intake (as estimated by a spot urine sample), and the results of the periodic health checkup. Results In the overall survey population, we only found a weak correlation between the salt check scores and the salt intake. In a subgroup analysis, significant correlations between these two variables were observed among untreated hypertensive participants, but not among treated hypertensive participants. We examined the association between 13 individual questionnaire items and the estimated daily salt intake using a multivariate linear regression model and found that only 5 of the 13 questionnaire items were correlated with the daily salt intake. Conclusion We found that a Salt Check Sheet composed of the 5 items that showed a strong correlation with the salt intake might be more useful for periodic health checks of the working-age population.

  9. Restricting dietary sodium reduces plasma sodium response to exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, E E; Franken, C P G; Cotter, J D; Thornton, S N; Rehrer, N J

    2017-11-01

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia can be life-threatening. Excessive hypotonic fluid ingestion is the primary etiological factor but does not explain all variability. Possible effects of chronic sodium intake are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary sodium affects plasma sodium concentration [Na + ] during exercise in the heat, when water intake nearly matches mass loss. Endurance-trained men (n = 9) participated in this crossover experiment. Each followed a low-sodium (lowNa) or high-sodium (highNa) diet for 9 days with 24-h fluid intakes and urine outputs measured before experimental trials (day 10). The trials were ≥2 week apart. Trials comprised 3 h (or if not possible to complete, to exhaustion) cycling (55% VO 2max ; 34 °C, 65% RH) with water intake approximating mass loss. Plasma [Na + ], hematocrit, sweat and urine [Na + ], heart rate, core temperature, and subjective perceptions were monitored. Urine [Na + ] was lower on lowNa 24 h prior to (31 ± 24, 76 ± 30 mmol/L, P = 0.027) and during trials (10 ± 10, 52 ± 32 mmol/L, P = 0.004). Body mass was lower on lowNa (79.6 ± 8.5, 80.5 ± 8.9, P = 0.03). Plasma [Na + ] was lower on lowNa before (137 ± 2, 140 ± 3, P = 0.007) and throughout exercise (P = 0.001). Sweat [Na + ] was unaffected by diet (54.5 ± 40, 54.5 ± 23 mmol/L, P = 0.99). Heart rate and core temperature were higher on lowNa (P ≤ 0.001). Despite decreased urinary sodium losses, plasma sodium was lower on lowNa, with decreased mass indicating (extracellular) water may have been less, explaining greater heart rate and core temperature. General population health recommendations to lower salt intake may not be appropriate for endurance athletes, particularly those training in the heat. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Magnesium retention from metabolic-balance studies in female adolescents: impact of race, dietary salt, and calcium123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; Wigertz, Karin; Braun, Michelle; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda; Pratt, J Howard; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previously, we showed that black girls retained more calcium than white girls did and that salt loading negatively affected calcium retention. Racial differences likely exist in other bone minerals also, such as magnesium, in response to salt loading during growth. Objective: We studied racial differences in magnesium metabolism in response to dietary sodium and calcium during rapid bone growth. Design: Twenty-seven white and 40 black girls (11–15 y old) were studied for 3 wk while they consumed low-sodium (1.3 g/d) and high-sodium (3.8 g/d) diets by using a randomized-order, crossover metabolic study with 3 dietary calcium intakes; the magnesium dietary intake was fixed at 230 mg/d. Urine and feces were collected during each 3-wk period in 24-h pools and analyzed for magnesium. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of race and dietary sodium with calcium intake as a covariate. Results: Salt loading or calcium intake had no significant effect on urinary magnesium excretion. Blacks excreted significantly less urinary magnesium (mean ± SD: 83.8 ± 25.6 mg/d) than did whites (94.9 ± 27.3 mg/d; P magnesium excretion. Magnesium retention was higher with the low-sodium diet (50.1 ± 44.0 mg/d) than with the high-sodium diet (39.3 ± 49.8 mg/d) (P magnesium than did whites. Magnesium retention was similar between races but higher with the low-sodium diet. Kinetic studies are needed to fully explain magnesium homeostasis. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01564238. PMID:23553157

  11. Magnesium retention from metabolic-balance studies in female adolescents: impact of race, dietary salt, and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; Wigertz, Karin; Braun, Michelle; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda; Pratt, J Howard; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

    2013-05-01

    Previously, we showed that black girls retained more calcium than white girls did and that salt loading negatively affected calcium retention. Racial differences likely exist in other bone minerals also, such as magnesium, in response to salt loading during growth. We studied racial differences in magnesium metabolism in response to dietary sodium and calcium during rapid bone growth. Twenty-seven white and 40 black girls (11-15 y old) were studied for 3 wk while they consumed low-sodium (1.3 g/d) and high-sodium (3.8 g/d) diets by using a randomized-order, crossover metabolic study with 3 dietary calcium intakes; the magnesium dietary intake was fixed at 230 mg/d. Urine and feces were collected during each 3-wk period in 24-h pools and analyzed for magnesium. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to determine the effect of race and dietary sodium with calcium intake as a covariate. Salt loading or calcium intake had no significant effect on urinary magnesium excretion. Blacks excreted significantly less urinary magnesium (mean ± SD: 83.8 ± 25.6 mg/d) than did whites (94.9 ± 27.3 mg/d; P magnesium excretion. Magnesium retention was higher with the low-sodium diet (50.1 ± 44.0 mg/d) than with the high-sodium diet (39.3 ± 49.8 mg/d) (P magnesium than did whites. Magnesium retention was similar between races but higher with the low-sodium diet. Kinetic studies are needed to fully explain magnesium homeostasis. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01564238.

  12. Influence of two methods of dietary restriction on life history features and aging of the cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Janice Christina; Naikkhwah, Wida; Aksenov, Vadim; Rollo, C David

    2011-12-01

    Studying aging is constrained using vertebrates by their longevity, size, ethical restrictions, and expense. The key insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, is holometabolous. Larvae feed on yeast in moist media and adults sponge food. Most aging studies are restricted to adults. Another key model, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, feeds on bacteria in moist media. For either invertebrate refreshing test materials, preventing degradation and obtaining accurate dosing are difficult even with synthetic media. The cricket Acheta domesticus has a short lifespan (∼120 days at 30°C) and is omnivorous. Age-matched cohorts are easily obtained from eggs. The life cycle is hemimetabolous and nymphs eat the same foods as adults. Growth is easily monitored, gender can be differentiated before maturity, and maturation is indicated by wings and mature genitalia. Crickets can be reared in large numbers at low cost. Test materials can be mixed into food and ingestion rates or mass budgets easily assessed. Here, we validate the cricket as a model of aging by testing two fundamental methods of restricting food intake: time-restricted access to food and dietary dilution. Growth, maturation, survivorship, and longevity varied with treatments and genders. Intermittent feeding (which is ineffective in flies) significantly extended longevity of crickets. Dietary dilution also extended longevity via remarkable prolongation of the juvenile period.

  13. Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness are related to dietary salt intake and urinary potassium excretion in male children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistelli, R; Forastiere, F; Corbo, G M; Dell'Orco, V; Brancato, G; Agabiti, N; Pizzabiocca, A; Perucci, C A

    1993-04-01

    To investigate whether dietary salt intake and urinary sodium and potassium levels are related to respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness, a cross-sectional study among 2593 subjects aged 9 to 16 was conducted in four communities of the Latium region (Italy). Questionnaires were administered to the parents, urine samples were collected, lung function, methacholine challenge tests and prick tests were performed. Information about familial and personal dietary salt use and respiratory health was collected from the parents of 2439 (94%) subjects. A total of 2020 methacholine challenge tests and 916 urinary sodium and potassium levels were available for analysis. Personal table salt use was strongly related to cough and phlegm apart from colds (adjusted odds ratios, OR, 1.87, 95% confidence intervals, CI, 1.20-2.90), wheezing apart from colds (OR, 2.19, 95% CI, 1.27-3.77), wheezing with dyspnoea (OR, 1.45, 95% CI, 0.98-2.12) and wheezing after exercise (OR, 2.16, 95% CI, 1.35-3.44). These associations were mainly found in boys. Use of familial table salt and canned food showed no relation to respiratory symptoms. Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with a higher urinary potassium excretion in boys, but not with urinary sodium. In conclusion, personal table salt use is related to an increased prevalence of bronchial symptoms; an increase in bronchial responsiveness among those with higher potassium excretion also seems to be implied. Although it is difficult to interpret the results of this study in causal terms, the findings might be relevant to the distribution of bronchial symptoms and diseases in the population.

  14. Dietary flexibility in three representative waterbirds across salinity and depth gradients in salt ponds of San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A.K.; Tsao-Melcer, D. C.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Fregien, S.; Athearn, N.D.

    2009-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have existed in San Francisco Bay, California, for more than a century. In the past decade, most of the salt ponds have been retired from production and purchased for resource conservation with a focus on tidal marsh restoration. However, large numbers of waterbirds are found in salt ponds, especially during migration and wintering periods. The value of these hypersaline wetlands for waterbirds is not well understood, including how different avian foraging guilds use invertebrate prey resources at different salinities and depths. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary flexibility of waterbirds by examining the population number and diet of three feeding guilds across a salinity and depth gradient in former salt ponds of the Napa-Sonoma Marshes. Although total invertebrate biomass and species richness were greater in low than high salinity salt ponds, waterbirds fed in ponds that ranged from low (20 g l-1) to very high salinities (250 g l -1). American avocets (surface sweeper) foraged in shallow areas at pond edges and consumed a wide range of prey types (8) including seeds at low salinity, but preferred brine flies at mid salinity (40-80 g l-1). Western sandpipers (prober) focused on exposed edges and shoal habitats and consumed only a few prey types (2-4) at both low and mid salinities. Suitable depths for foraging were greatest for ruddy ducks (diving benthivore) that consumed a wide variety of invertebrate taxa (5) at low salinity, but focused on fewer prey (3) at mid salinity. We found few brine shrimp, common in higher salinity waters, in the digestive tracts of any of these species. Dietary flexibility allows different guilds to use ponds across a range of salinities, but their foraging extent is limited by available water depths. ?? 2009 USGS, US Government.

  15. Dietary phosphate restriction suppresses phosphaturia but does not prevent FGF23 elevation in a mouse model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiqin; Gillihan, Ryan; He, Nan; Fields, Timothy; Liu, Shiguang; Green, Troy; Stubbs, Jason R

    2013-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone that in end-stage renal disease is markedly increased in serum; however, the mechanisms responsible for this increase are unclear. Here, we tested whether phosphate retention in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for the elevation of FGF23 in serum using Col4α3 knockout mice, a murine model of Alport disease exhibiting CKD. We found a significant elevation in serum FGF23 in progressively azotemic 8- and 12-week-old CKD mice along with an increased fractional excretion of phosphorus. Both moderate and severe phosphate restriction reduced fractional excretion of phosphorus by 8 weeks, yet serum FGF23 levels remained strikingly elevated. By 12 weeks, FGF23 levels were further increased with moderate phosphate restriction, while severe phosphate restriction led to severe bone mineralization defects and decreased FGF23 production in bone. CKD mice on a control diet had low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) levels and 3-fold higher renal Cyp24α1 gene expression compared to wild-type mice. Severe phosphate restriction increased 1,25(OH)(2)D levels in CKD mice by 8 weeks and lowered renal Cyp24α1 gene expression despite persistently elevated serum FGF23. Renal klotho gene expression declined in CKD mice on a control diet, but improved with severe phosphate restriction. Thus, dietary phosphate restriction reduces the fractional excretion of phosphorus independent of serum FGF23 levels in mice with CKD.

  16. Modified lingguizhugan decoction incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise ameliorates hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Limei; Wei, Jingjing; Shi, Si; Guo, Kunbin; Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Qi; Chen, Dingsheng; Li, Weirong

    2017-01-01

    Background Modified Lingguizhugan Decoction (MLD) came from famous Chinese medicine Linggui Zhugan Decoction. The MLD is used for the treatment of metabolic syndrome in the clinical setting. Our study focuses on the comprehensive treatment of MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods Rats were divided into five groups: control group (Cont), high-fat diet group (HFD), high-fat diet incorporated with dietary restriction group (...

  17. The health impacts of dietary sodium and a low-salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A

    2015-12-01

    High salt intake is now endemic worldwide. It contributes to the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure, which is now the biggest risk factor for global disease. There is now compelling evidence to support salt reduction in hypertensives and a substantial body of evidence to support salt reduction in the general population to reduce risk of death from cardiovascular disease. In specific diseases such as heart failure and chronic kidney disease, guidelines support the World Health Organization target for reduced salt intake at 5 g daily. Achieving a diet that is lower in salt has challenges, but is more likely to be achieved through salt reduction strategies particularly focused on processed food and through educational programs. To be effective, these interventions require collaboration between industry, health agencies and governments. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  18. Knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding dietary salt intake among medical students in Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Magalh?es, Pedro; Sanhangala, Edgar JR; Dombele, Isildro M; Ulundo, Henrique SN; Capingana, Daniel P; Silva, Am?lcar BT

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Levels of salt consumption and its awareness among medical students in Angola remain insufficiently studied. This study determined salt intake and assessed medical students? knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding salt consumption. Methods Were collected 24-hour urine samples from a random sample of 123 undergraduate medical students aged 17?43 years who were studying at the University of Agostinho Neto in Luanda. Their knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding dietar...

  19. Preventive dietary potassium supplementation in young salt-sensitive Dahl rats attenuates development of salt hypertension by decreasing sympathetic vasoconstriction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zicha, Josef; Dobešová, Zdenka; Behuliak, Michal; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Vaněčková, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 202, č. 1 (2011), s. 29-38 ISSN 1748-1708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0139; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0336; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : dietary potassium * nitric oxide * prostacyclin * calcium-activated potassium channels Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.090, year: 2011

  20. RELATION BETWEEN GLUCOLIPID PROFILE AND SMALL INTESTINE HISTOLOGICAL PATTERNS IN DIABETIC RATS EXPOSED TO AN INTERMITTENT DIETARY RESTRICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Hisano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an intermittent and prolonged dietary restriction on biochemical variables and histological small intestinal patterns in 12-month-old male eSMT rats are examined. These spontaneously diabetic animals were separated in two groups after weaning: 10 rats fed ad libitum with standard rat chow and 10 rats fed a restricted diet by deprivation of the same food for 24 hours every 72. At 12 months of age, animals were weighed and euthanized after tail vein bleeding for plasma analysis (glycemia- both fasting and 120 minutes after an oral glucose challenge-, triglyceridemia and total cholesterolemia. Small intestines were removed, weighed and measured in length.Intestinal specimens were fixed, embedded in paraffin, semi serially cut at 6 µm and stained with PAS-Hematoxilyn and Hematoxilyn-Eosin. Histometry was performed through a linear devise attached to ocular lens and lectin histochemistry was accomplished employing Canavalis ensiformis, Dolichos biflorus, Arachis hypogea, Ulex europaeus-I, Triticum vulgaris, Ricinus communis and Soy Bean (Glicine Max Agglutinin. Essentially, eSMT rats, a suitable animal model for studying diabetes and/or its complications, revealed at 12 months of age after undergoing the dietary restriction: 1.- An expected improvement in body weight and determined biochemical variables (fasting and after glucose overload glycemias, triglyceridemia and total cholesterolemia without reaching euglycemic values. 2.- Changes in most of the analyzed histometric patterns with no relevant reflection on morphometric ones, and 3.- No modifications in lectinhistochemical patterns.

  1. Dietary salt and water pH effects on growth and Na+ fluxes of silver catfish juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Copatti,Carlos Eduardo; Garcia,Luciano de Oliveira; Kochhann,Daiani; Cunha,Mauro Alves; Baldisserotto,Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    This study verified the optimum dietary salt level for the growth and ion regulation of silver catfish juveniles at different water pH levels (5.5, 7.0 and 9.0). The control diet was supplemented with NaCl to yield experimental diets with 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% NaCl. Juveniles were collected at 15 and 35 days after the beginning of experiment for analyses of Na+ net fluxes. Exposure of silver catfish juveniles to alkaline or acidic water did not affect their survival. Fish fed with diets without N...

  2. Calories or protein? The effect of dietary restriction on lifespan in rodents is explained by calories alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, J R; Mitchell, S E; Mazidi, M

    2016-12-15

    called dietary or caloric dilution, rather than dietary or caloric restriction, to distinguish these potentially important methodological differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbohydrate malabsorption and the effect of dietary restriction on symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and functional bowel complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, R; Braverman, D; Stankiewicz, H

    2000-08-01

    Carbohydrate malabsorption of lactose, fructose and sorbitol has already been described in normal volunteers and in patients with functional bowel complaints including irritable bowel syndrome. Elimination of the offending sugar(s) should result in clinical improvement. To examine the importance of carbohydrate malabsorption in outpatients previously diagnosed as having functional bowel disorders, and to estimate the degree of clinical improvement following dietary restriction of the malabsorbed sugar(s). A cohort of 239 patients defined as functional bowel complaints was divided into a group of 94 patients who met the Rome criteria for irritable bowel syndrome and a second group of 145 patients who did not fulfill these criteria and were defined as functional complaints. Lactose (18 g), fructose (25 g) and a mixture of fructose (25 g) plus sorbitol (5 g) solutions were administered at weekly intervals. End-expiratory hydrogen and methane breath samples were collected at 30 minute intervals for 4 hours. Incomplete absorption was defined as an increment in breath hydrogen of at least 20 ppm, or its equivalent in methane of at least 5 ppm. All patients received a diet without the offending sugar(s) for one month. Only 7% of patients with IBS and 8% of patients with FC absorbed all three sugars normally. The frequency of isolated lactose malabsorption was 16% and 12% respectively. The association of lactose and fructose-sorbitol malabsorption occurred in 61% of both patient groups. The frequency of sugar malabsorption among patients in both groups was 78% for lactose malabsorption (IBS 82%, FC 75%), 44% for fructose malabsorption and 73% for fructose-sorbitol malabsorption (IBS 70%, FC 75%). A marked improvement occurred in 56% of IBS and 60% of FC patients following dietary restriction. The number of symptoms decreased significantly in both groups (P malabsorption patterns are common in functional bowel disorders and may contribute to symptomatology in most patients

  4. Long-term dietary restriction up-regulates activity and expression of renal arginase II in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaw, T; Sharma, R

    2017-06-01

    Arginase II is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of L-arginine into urea and ornithine. It is present in other extra-hepatic tissues that lack urea cycle. Therefore, it is plausible that arginase II has a physiological role other than urea cycle which includes polyamine, proline, glutamate synthesis and regulation of nitric oxide production. The high expression of arginase II in kidney, among extrahepatic tissues, might have an important role associated with kidney functions. The present study is aimed to determine the age-associated alteration in the activity and expression of arginase II in the kidney of mice of different ages. The effect of dietary restriction to modulate the agedependent changes of arginase II was also studied. Results showed that renal arginase II activity declines significantly with the progression of age (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001 in 6- and 18-month-old mice, respectively as compared to 2-month old mice) and is due to the reduction in its protein as well as the mRNA level (p less than 0.001 in both 6- and 18-month-old mice as compared to 2-month-old mice). Long-term dietary restriction for three months has significantly up-regulated arginase II activity and expression level in both 2- and 18-month-old mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively as compared to AL group). These findings clearly indicate that the reducing level of arginase II during aging might have an impact on the declining renal functions. This age-dependent down-regulation of arginase II in the kidney can be attenuated by dietary restriction which may help in the maintenance of such functions.

  5. Acute and chronic effects of dietary sodium restriction on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in cisplatin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon-Sung; Jo, Chor Ho; Kim, Sua; Kim, Gheun-Ho

    2013-03-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis is a major complication of cisplatin (CP) treatment, and increased sodium intake may accelerate its progression by stimulating transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signaling. However, it is not clear whether a low-sodium diet has beneficial effects on the development of interstitial fibrosis because it activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Here, we tested whether the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is stimulated in CP-treated rats, and whether the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in CP nephropathy can be checked by dietary sodium restriction. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into controls, CP treatment and CP treatment with low-sodium diet. The acute experiment lasted 7 days with a single intraperitoneal injection (6 mg/kg) of CP, and the chronic experiment involved weekly injections (2 mg/kg) for 7 weeks. In both sets of experiments, CP treatment produced pronounced tubulointerstitial injury, increased infiltration of ED1-positive cells and increased expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), TGF-β1, phosphorylated Smad3, fibronectin and collagen III proteins. In the acute experiment, the increases in expression of osteopontin, MCP-1, α-SMA, TGF-β and collagen III were significantly reduced by dietary sodium restriction. In the chronic experiment, however, none of the measurements were improved by a low-sodium diet. Examination of CP-treated rat kidneys revealed de novo vimentin expression in tubular epithelial cells and invasion of α-SMA-positive tubular epithelial cells through the basement membrane into the interstitium. The pro-fibrotic effect of TGF-β in CP nephropathy appears to be associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and is ameliorated by dietary sodium restriction only during the acute phase.

  6. Major urinary protein 5, a scent communication protein, is regulated by dietary restriction and subsequent re-feeding in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Giller, K.; Huebbe, P.; Doering, F.; Pallauf, K.; Rimbach, G.

    2013-01-01

    Major urinary proteins (Mups) are important for rodent scent communication and sexual behaviour. Recent evidence suggests that Mup1 may be regulated by fasting and re-feeding (RF). However, other Mup isoforms are poorly investigated, and data on the impact of long-term dietary restriction (DR) and ad libitum RF on Mup expression are missing. We investigated the effects of long-term 25 per cent DR and subsequent RF on Mup expression in male C57BL6 mice. DR significantly decreased Mup gene expr...

  7. Dietary Methionine Restriction Alleviates Hyperglycemia in Pigs with Intrauterine Growth Restriction by Enhancing Hepatic Protein Kinase B Signaling and Glycogen Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhixiong; Zhang, Hao; Su, Weipeng; Zhou, Le; Wang, Fei; Li, Yue; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-10-01

    Background: Individuals with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are prone to developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Dietary methionine restriction (MR) improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in individuals with normal birth weight (NBW). Objective: This study investigated the effects of MR on plasma glucose concentration and hepatic and muscle glucose metabolism in pigs with IUGR. Methods: Thirty female NBW and 60 same-sex spontaneous IUGR piglets (Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected. After weaning (day 21), the piglets were fed diets with adequate methionine (NBW-CON and IUGR-CON) or 30% less methionine (IUGR-MR) ( n = 6). At day 180, 1 pig with a body weight near the mean of each replication was selected for biochemical analysis. Results: The IUGR-CON group showed 41.6%, 68.6%, and 67.1% higher plasma glucose concentration, hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity, and glucose-6-phosphatase activity, respectively, than the NBW-CON group ( P glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity were 36.9% and 38.8% lower, respectively, in the IUGR-CON than the NBW-CON group ( P glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity of the IUGR-MR pigs were 62.9% and 50.8% higher than those of the IUGR-CON pigs ( P glycogen synthesis, implying a potential nutritional strategy to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus in IUGR offspring. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Evaluation of Nutritional Knowledge in Terms of Dietary Sources of Protein, Phosphorous, Potassium and Fluids Restriction in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montazeri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background There has not been any published literature in Iran about the evaluation of hemodialysis patients’ knowledge in relation to dietary sources of protein, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and fluids. Objectives Therefore, the present study was performed with this aim, in patients with renal failure treated with hemodialysis. Patients and Methods Fifty hemodialysis patients were recruited. Demographic information, and anthropometric characteristics, were collected and measured. Awareness of nutrition in six parts (fluids, proteins, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and cooking methods was analyzed through a validated questionnaire. Results The mean age of the participants was 47.5 ± 14.9 years. In total, 26% of the patients had a poor knowledge of nutrition, 58% had a moderate understanding, and only 16% had good nutritional knowledge. In addition, the level of nutritional knowledge was significantly greater in patients with higher educational levels than those with primary education or lower. The mean score of knowledge about dietary sources of phosphorous and potassium was significantly lower than that of the other parts (P < 0.001. Furthermore, nutritional awareness regarding dietary sources of protein did not significantly differ from fluids restriction; however, it was significantly lower than sodium and cooking methods (P < 0.001 and significantly higher than phosphorus and potassium (P < 0.01. Conclusions Patients’ knowledge scores about dietary sources of phosphorous and potassium were significantly lower than those of other parts. It is worth noting that qualified doctors, nurses and dieticians, should educate hemodialysis patients in relation to their literacy levels, especially when describing dietary sources of phosphorus, potassium and protein.

  9. Modified lingguizhugan decoction incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise ameliorates hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Limei; Wei, Jingjing; Shi, Si; Guo, Kunbin; Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Qi; Chen, Dingsheng; Li, Weirong

    2017-02-28

    Modified Lingguizhugan Decoction (MLD) came from famous Chinese medicine Linggui Zhugan Decoction. The MLD is used for the treatment of metabolic syndrome in the clinical setting. Our study focuses on the comprehensive treatment of MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Rats were divided into five groups: control group (Cont), high-fat diet group (HFD), high-fat diet incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR), exercise incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR-Ex) and MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise group (HFD-DR-Ex-MLD). Treatments were conducted for 1 week after feeding high-fat diet for 12 weeks. The effects of treatments on high fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hepatic injury and insulin resistance in rats of MS were examined. In addition, the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), leptin and protein kinase B (PKB) in rats serum and liver were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After a week's intervention by dietary restriction, dietary restriction incorporated with exercise or MLD, compared with HFD rats, the relative weight of liver and fat, levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, free fatty acid, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, insulin, were significantly decreased (p dietary restriction and exercise treatment exhibit effects in alleviating high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hepatic injury and insulin resistance, which are possibly due to the down-regulation of TNF-α, leptin and PKB.

  10. Effects of dietary salt on adrenomedullin and its receptor mRNAs in rat kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Gambaryan, S; Schmaus, E

    1998-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that adrenomedullin (ADM) is involved in the control of salt and water homeostasis. ADM is considered to act primarily in a paracrine fashion, and since the kidneys are target organs for ADM, we investigated the localization and regulation of ADM and ADM receptor (ADM...... and a preferential action of ADM in the papilla. Ten days of feeding a low-salt (0.02%) or a high-salt diet (4%) did not change ADM mRNA or ADM-R mRNA in any kidney zone....

  11. Moderate salt restriction with or without paricalcitol in type 2 diabetes and losartan-resistant macroalbuminuria (PROCEED) : A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvanova, Aneliya; Trillini, Matias; Podestà, Manuel A; Iliev, Ilian Petrov; Ruggiero, Barbara; Abbate, Manuela; Perna, Annalisa; Peraro, Francesco; Diadei, Olimpia; Rubis, Nadia; Gaspari, Flavio; Carrara, Fabiola; Stucchi, Nadia; Belviso, Antonio; Bossi, Antonio C; Trevisan, Roberto; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; de Borst, Martin; Ruggenenti, Piero

    BACKGROUND: Macroalbuminuria predicts renal and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the albuminuria-lowering effects of salt restriction, paricalcitol therapy, or both, in this population. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover

  12. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.......Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  13. Differences between health and ethical vegetarians. Strength of conviction, nutrition knowledge, dietary restriction, and duration of adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Sarah R; Stallings, Sarah F; Bessinger, Raymond C; Brooks, Gary T

    2013-06-01

    Little research has been published concerning the differences between health oriented and ethically oriented vegetarians. The present study compared differences in conviction, nutrition knowledge, dietary restriction, and duration of adherence to vegetarianism between the two groups. Subjects completed an online survey and were grouped by original reason for becoming vegetarian (n=292, 58 health, 234 ethical), and current reason for remaining vegetarian (n=281, 49 health, 232 ethical). Whether grouped by current or original motivation, ethical vegetarians scored higher on the conviction instrument than health vegetarians and exhibited somewhat greater dietary restriction (significant when grouped by current motivation) and had been vegetarian for longer (significant when grouped by original motivation). Nutrition knowledge did not differ between the two groups. The results suggest that ethical vegetarians could experience stronger feelings of conviction and consume fewer animal products than health vegetarians, and may remain vegetarian longer. More research is necessary to understand how vegetarians' eating behaviors are influenced by their motivational profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of restricted feeding and re-alimentation of dietary protein or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of re-alimenting dietary protein or energy on growth, carcass characteristics and meat eating quality parameters of sheep. Twenty-seven intact rams (~9 months; 11.3 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly divided into three groups. Each group was fed a maintenance diet (MT) containing, on dry matter ...

  15. Triple therapy with pyridoxine, arginine supplementation and dietary lysine restriction in pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy: Neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Curtis R; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Al-Hertani, Walla; Shuen, Andrew Y; Jaggumantri, Sravan; Jack, Rhona M; Gaughan, Sommer; Burns, Casey; Mirsky, David M; Gallagher, Renata C; Van Hove, Johan L K

    2015-01-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is an epileptic encephalopathy characterized by response to pharmacologic doses of pyridoxine. PDE is caused by deficiency of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase resulting in impaired lysine degradation and subsequent accumulation of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde. Despite adequate seizure control with pyridoxine monotherapy, 75% of individuals with PDE have significant developmental delay and intellectual disability. We describe a new combined therapeutic approach to reduce putative toxic metabolites from impaired lysine metabolism. This approach utilizes pyridoxine, a lysine-restricted diet to limit the substrate that leads to neurotoxic metabolite accumulation and L-arginine to compete for brain lysine influx and liver mitochondrial import. We report the developmental and biochemical outcome of six subjects who were treated with this triple therapy. Triple therapy reduced CSF, plasma, and urine biomarkers associated with neurotoxicity in PDE. The addition of arginine supplementation to children already treated with dietary lysine restriction and pyridoxine further reduced toxic metabolites, and in some subjects appeared to improve neurodevelopmental outcome. Dietary lysine restriction was associated with improved seizure control in one subject, and the addition of arginine supplementation increased the objective motor outcome scale in two twin siblings, illustrating the contribution of each component of this treatment combination. Optimal results were noted in the individual treated with triple therapy early in the course of the disease. Residual disease symptoms could be related to early injury suggested by initial MR imaging prior to initiation of treatment or from severe epilepsy prior to diagnosis. This observational study reports the use of triple therapy, which combines three effective components in this rare condition, and suggests that early diagnosis and treatment with this new triple therapy may ameliorate the

  16. Effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on the transcriptional profile of bovine ruminal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Keogh

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG is utilised worldwide in beef production systems as a management approach to reduce feed costs. However the underlying biology regulating the expression of CG remains to be fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation induced CG on the global gene expression profile of ruminal epithelial papillae. Holstein Friesian bulls (n = 60 were assigned to one of two groups: restricted feed allowance (RES; n = 30 for 125 days (Period 1 followed by ad libitum access to feed for 55 days (Period 2 or (ii ad libitum access to feed throughout (ADLIB; n = 30. At the end of each period, 15 animals from each treatment were slaughtered and rumen papillae harvested. mRNA was isolated from all papillae samples collected. cDNA libraries were then prepared and sequenced. Resultant reads were subsequently analysed bioinformatically and differentially expressed genes (DEGs are defined as having a Benjamini-Hochberg P value of <0.05. During re-alimentation in Period 2, RES animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of their ADLIB contemporary animals in Period 2 (P < 0.001. At the end of Period 1, 64 DEGs were identified between RES and ADLIB, with only one DEG identified at the end of Period 2. When analysed within RES treatment (RES, Period 2 v Period 1, 411 DEGs were evident. Genes identified as differentially expressed in response to both dietary restriction and subsequent CG included those involved in processes such as cellular interactions and transport, protein folding and gene expression, as well as immune response. This study provides an insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the expression of CG in rumen papillae of cattle; however the results suggest that the role of the ruminal epithelium in supporting overall animal CG may have declined by day 55 of re-alimentation.

  17. Beliefs about obesity and their relationship with dietary restriction and body image perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Magallares

    Full Text Available The reviewed literature provides evidence that beliefs about the causes of obesity may actually have an influence on eating habits. In this work we wanted to analyze the relationship that may exists between beliefs about obesity, dietary restraint and body image perception. For that purpose, 258 female and male students of a High School and Occupational Training School in Seville (Spain were recruited to conduct the study. According to our results, it was found that beliefs about obesity were positively related with dietary restraint and body image perception. Additionally, it was found that people high in beliefs about the controllability of the weight scored more in dietary restraint and body image perception than participants that did not believe that obesity was under personal control. No differences were found in Body Mass Index. Finally, it is suggested, according to the results that we found, that in order to be effective, public health campaigns may need to target people's beliefs just as much as they target their behaviours.

  18. Low or moderate dietary energy restriction for long-term weight loss: what works best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoretical calculations suggest that small daily reductions in energy intake can cumulatively lead to substantial weight loss, but experimental data to support these calculations are lacking. We conducted a 1-year randomized controlled pilot study of low (10%) or moderate (30%) energy restriction (...

  19. Effect of dietary phytoestrogens, feed restriction, and their interaction on reproductive status of broiler pullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Madnurkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: A major problem faced by the broiler industry around the world is a lowered reproductive fitness of breeding hens which can cause major economic impact in terms of lowered hatchable egg production. In broiler breeders, a lot of the selection pressure has been exerted on growth, conformation and feed efficiency as a result broiler breeder hens are prone to several metabolic disorders and reproductive anomalies. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of phytoestrogen, feed restrictions (75% of their control ad libitum, and their interaction on reproductive parameters in high and low body weight broiler breeder hens. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty-eight healthy female broiler breeder pullets were divided randomly into eight groups from the same hatch and strain. They were transferred to individual laying cages. Birds received ad libitum drinking water and feeding, depend on divided group i.e., ad libitum or restricted feeding (75% of control ad libitum counterpart separately for heavy or low body weight till first egg laid in respective groups. Experimental diets made with practical feed ingredients as per institution recommendation (broiler breeder ration as per experimental planning. Results: Phytoestrogen significantly (p<0.05 improved egg number and size in broiler breeding hens by checking reproductive anomalies (internal laying, double hierarchy, and follicular atresia, restructuring ovarian, and oviductal functional development besides improved physiological maturation of infundibulum. Unlike phytoestrogen, feed restriction as expected delayed the age of sexual maturity but helped in a reduction of ovary weight, number of yellow follicle, number of atretic yellow follicle, incidence of double hierarchy, and internal ovulation. Interaction between phytoestrogen and feed restriction did not give any additional remunerative advantage. Conclusions: It is concluded that phytoestrogens and limited feed

  20. Validation of the effects of small differences in dietary metabolizable energy and feed restriction in first-cycle laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, G R; Persia, M E

    2013-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate energy utilization of laying hens fed diets containing 2 ME concentrations, using response criteria including performance, BW, abdominal fat pad, and energy digestibility. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial with 2 feeding regimens (ad libitum and restriction fed), and 2 dietary ME levels [2,880 kcal/kg of ME (CON); and 2,790 kcal/kg of ME (LME)]. A total of 60 Hy-Line W36 first-cycle laying hens were fed experimental diets, resulting in 15 individually caged hens for each of the 4 treatments. Hens in the restriction-fed group were fed 90 g of feed per day. The CON diet was formulated to meet or exceed the NRC (1994) recommendations with 2,880 kcal/kg, whereas the LME diet was similar with the exception of a 90 kcal/kg reduction in ME. Hens were fed experimental diets for 12 wk from hen 28 to 39 wk of age. Hen day egg production, weekly feed intake, and every 2 wk, egg weights and egg mass were recorded, whereas hen BW was measured every 4 wk. Excreta samples were collected over the last 5 d of experiment to determine AMEn. Abdominal fat pads were measured individually for all hens at the end of experiment. There were no interactions between feeding regimens and dietary ME levels throughout the experiment. Feed restriction resulted in reductions (P ≤ 0.01) in hen day egg production, BW, and abdominal fat pad, indicating reduced nutrient availability to partition toward production, maintenance, and storage functions. The reduction in energy intake between CON and LME fed birds (90 kcal/kg) did not change the energy partitioned toward production or maintenance, but reduced (P = 0.03) the energy stored (reduced fat pad) of LME-fed hens. These results suggest that energy is used following the pattern of production and maintenance before storage requirements and that fat pad (energy storage) may be the most sensitive indicator of dietary energy status over short-term in Hy-Line W36 laying hens.

  1. Dietary fat composition influences glomerular and proximal convoluted tubule cell structure and autophagic processes in kidneys from calorie?restricted mice

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo?Rubio, Miguel; Bur?n, M? Isabel; L?pez?Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Pl?cido; de Cabo, Rafael; Ramsey, Jon J.; Villalba, Jos? M.; Gonz?lez?Reyes, Jos? A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Calorie restriction (CR) has been repeatedly shown to prevent cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and other age?related diseases in a wide range of animals, including non?human primates and humans. In rodents, CR also increases lifespan and is a powerful tool for studying the aging process. Recently, it has been reported in mice that dietary fat plays an important role in determining lifespan extension with 40% CR. In these conditions, animals fed lard as dietary fat showed an increased l...

  2. Effect of dietary salt levels on the performance of West African Dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 70-day feeding trial was conducted to estimate the effect of levels (0, 5, 10, and 15g/kg cassava peels, respectively) of common salt and cassava peels (dry and fresh using Gmelina arborea leaves as a basal diet on the average daily gain, dry matter intake, feed conversion efficiency and water consumption in West African ...

  3. Effects of dietary education, followed by a tailored fructose-restricted diet in adults with fructose malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfrate, Leonilde; Krawczyk, Marcin; Lembo, Antony; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Lammert, Frank; Portincasa, Piero

    2015-07-01

    Fructose is absorbed by GLUT transporters in the small intestine. If this process is inadequate, abdominal symptoms because of fructose intolerance may arise. The effect of a tailored fructose-restricted diet on gastrointestinal complaints was assessed in patients with fructose intolerance. Following an abnormal fructose breath test (50 g), 107 patients (64 also with lactose intolerance) entered three study periods: weeks 0-32 (free diet), weeks 32-36 (progressive increasing amount of fructose up to quantity inducing symptoms, 'trigger dose'), and weeks 36-48 (tailored fructose-restricted diet according to the 'trigger dose'). A subgroup of 15 patients underwent additional fructose breath tests (35, 25 g) to compare three different doses. At baseline, the most frequent symptoms were bloating and abdominal pain, and were more severe with combined fructose and lactose intolerance. During the free diet, patients reported eliminating (48%) or reducing (52%) fructose-containing foods, with a significant improvement in symptoms (abdominal pain from 79.7 ± 1.3 to 19.3 ± 1.8 mm; bloating from 83.1 ± 1.3 to 19.4 ± 1.8 mm; number of evacuations/day from 3.9 ± 0.16 to 1.1 ± 0.04; Bristol score from 5.1 ± 0.14 to 3.8 ± 0.1, P fructose-restricted diet, the consistent improvement in symptoms persisted and was similar to the improvement on free diet (abdominal pain 23.6 ± 1.9 mm; bloating 19.4 ± 1.8 mm; number of evacuations/day 1.7 ± 0.07; Bristol score 3.5 ± 0.06, Pfructose was observed on symptoms during the fructose breath test. In our setting, individuals with fructose intolerance show an inappropriate dietary self-management. By contrast, a tailored fructose-restricted diet improves gastrointestinal symptoms without senseless food deprivation.

  4. Effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on the transcriptional profile of hepatic tissue in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Kenny, David A; Cormican, Paul; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinead M

    2016-03-17

    Compensatory growth (CG) is an accelerated growth phenomenon observed in animals upon re-alimentation following a period of dietary restriction. It is typically utilised in livestock systems to reduce feed costs during periods of reduced feed availability. The biochemical mechanisms controlling this phenomenon, however, are yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to uncover the molecular mechanisms regulating the hepatic expression of CG in cattle, utilising RNAseq. RNAseq was performed on hepatic tissue of bulls following 125 days of dietary restriction (RES) and again following 55 days of subsequent re-alimentation during which the animals exhibited significant CG. The data were compared with those of control animals offered the same diet on an ad libitum basis throughout (ADLIB). Elucidation of the molecular control of CG may yield critical information on genes and pathways which could be targeted as putative molecular biomarkers for the selection of animals with improved CG potential. Following a period of differential feeding, body-weight and liver weight were 161 and 4 kg higher, respectively, for ADLIB compared with RES animals. At this time RNAseq analysis of liver tissue revealed 1352 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEG) between the two treatments. DEGs indicated down-regulation of processes including nutrient transport, cell division and proliferation in RES. In addition, protein synthesis genes were up-regulated in RES following a period of restricted feeding. The subsequent 55 days of ad libitum feeding for both groups resulted in the body-weight difference reduced to 84 kg, with no difference in liver weight between treatment groups. At the end of 55 days of unrestricted feeding, 49 genes were differentially expressed between animals undergoing CG and their continuously fed counterparts. In particular, hepatic expression of cell proliferation and growth genes were greater in animals undergoing CG. Greater expression of cell cycle and cell

  5. Dietary Restriction Behaviors and Binge Eating in Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder: Trans-diagnostic Examination of the Restraint Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Sztainer, Maya; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Hill, Laura L; Crosby, Ross D; Powers, Pauline; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    To compare dietary restriction behaviors among adults with eating disorders involving binge eating, including anorexia nervosa-binge/purge subtype (AN-BE/P), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), and to examine whether dietary restriction behaviors impact binge eating frequency across diagnoses. Participants included 845 treatment seeking adults (M=30.42+10.76years) who met criteria for DSM-5 AN-BE/P (7.3%;n=62), BN (59.7%;n=504), and BED (33.0%;n=279). All participants self-reported their past and current eating disorder symptoms on the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Adults with AN-BE/P and BN reported significantly more dietary restriction behaviors (e.g. eating fewer meals per day, higher frequency of fasting, consuming small and low calorie meals) in comparison to adults with BED. Adults with AN-BE/P and BN who reported restricting food intake via eating fewer meals per day had more frequent binge eating episodes. However, adults with BN who reported restricting food intake via eating small meals and low calorie meals had less frequent binge eating episodes. This study provides mixed support for the restraint model by suggesting that not all dietary restriction behaviors are associated with higher levels of binge eating. It may be that adults with BN who report a higher frequency of eating small and low calorie meals display more control over their eating in general, and therefore also have lower frequency of binge eating. Clinicians should assess for dietary restriction behaviors at the start of treatment prior to assuming that all forms of strict dieting and weight control behaviors similarly impact binge eating. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA levels are modified by dietary n-3 fatty acid restriction and energy restriction in the brain and liver of growing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without dietary sources of long chain (LC) n-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA;18:3n-3) is the precursor for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). It is not known how energy restriction (ER) impacts ALA conversion to DHA. We tested the hypothesis that ER reduces LCn-3 content in growing rats ...

  7. Effect of aging and dietary salt and potassium intake on endothelial PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Zhong Ying

    Full Text Available Aging promotes endothelial dysfunction, defined as a reduction in bioavailable nitric oxide (NO produced by the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS3. This enzyme is critically regulated by phosphorylation by protein kinase B (Akt, which in turn is regulated by the lipid phosphatase, PTEN. The present series of studies demonstrated a reduction in bioavailable NO as the age of rats increased from 1 to 12 months. At 12 months of age, rats no longer demonstrated increases in phosphorylated NOS3 in response to high dietary salt intake. Endothelial cell levels of PTEN increased with age and became refractory to change with increased salt intake. In contrast to the reduction in NO production, endothelial cell production of transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß relative to NO increased progressively with age. In macrovascular endothelial cells, PTEN was regulated in a dose-dependent fashion by TGF-ß, which was further regulated by extracellular [KCl]. When combined with prior studies, the present series of experiments suggested an integral role for PTEN in endothelial cell pathobiology of aging and an important mitigating function of TGF-ß in endothelial PTEN regulation. The findings further supported a role for diet in affecting vascular function through the production of TGF-ß and NO.

  8. Hypertension, dietary salt intake, and the role of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride transporter NCCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Mark; Zuber, Annie Mercier; O'Shaughnessy, Kevin M

    2011-02-01

    A high salt intake in industrialized countries is an important cardiovascular risk factor. It remains at typically twice the maximum recommended levels of 5-6 g/day, and halving this would have enormous public health benefit in preventing stroke and cardiovascular disease. Salt homeostasis can also be affected pharmacologically by diuretic drugs that target mechanisms within the distal kidney nephron to cause salt wasting. Indeed, thiazide-type diuretics are among the most widely used agents in the management of hypertension and work by blocking NCCT, the NaCl-transporter in the distal nephron. The biology of this membrane transporter was not previously well understood until the discovery of the molecular basis of a rare familial form of hypertension called Gordon syndrome (pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2, PHAII). This has established that the NCCT transporter is dynamically regulated in the kidney by WNK kinases and a signaling cascade using a second kinase called SPAK. Common polymorphisms in the SPAK gene have recently been shown to affect blood pressure in human cohorts and removing its function lowers blood pressure in mice. The SPAK-deficient mouse actually has a phenotype reminiscent of Gitelman syndrome. This suggests that specific inhibitors of SPAK kinase may provide a novel class of diuretic drugs to lower blood pressure through salt wasting. The expectation is that SPAK inhibitors would mimic the on-target effects of thiazides but not their adverse off-target effects. An antihypertensive drug that could lower blood pressure with the efficacy of a thiazide without producing metabolic side effects such as hyperuricaemia or impaired glucose tolerance is therapeutically very attractive. It also exemplifies how data coming from the rare monogenic hypertension syndromes can together with genome-wide association studies in hypertension deliver novel druggable targets. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Dietary salt modulates the sodium chloride cotransporter expression likely through an aldosterone-mediated WNK4-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lingyun; Feng, Xiuyan; Liu, Defeng; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Yiqian; Niu, Bowen; Gu, Yong; Cai, Hui

    2012-03-01

    WNK is a serine/threonine kinase. Mutation in WNK1 or WNK4 kinase results in pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHA II) featuring hypertension, hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) is known to be regulated by phosphorylation and trafficking. Dietary salt and hormonal stimulation, such as aldosterone, also affect the regulation of NCC. We have previously reported that WNK4 inhibits NCC protein expression. To determine whether dietary salt affects NCC abundance through WNK4-mediated mechanism, we investigated the effects of dietary salt change with or without aldosterone infusion (1 mg/kg/day) on NCC and WNK4 expression in rats. We found that high-salt (HS, 4% NaCl) diet significantly inhibits NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while enhancing WNK4 mRNA and protein expression, whereas low-salt (LS, 0.07% NaCl) diet increases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while reducing WNK4 expression. We also found that aldosterone infusion in HS-fed rats increases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance, but decreases WNK4 expression. Administration with spironolactone (0.1 g/kg/day) in LS-fed rats decreases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while increasing WNK4 expression. We further showed that ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in HS-fed rats, but decreased in LS-fed rats. In HEK293 cells, over-expressed WNK4 increases ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of WNK4 expression decreases ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Aldosterone treatment for 3 h decreases ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These data suggest that dietary salt change affects NCC protein abundance in an aldosterone-dependent mechanism likely via the WNK4-ERK1/2-mediated pathway.

  10. Targeting specific nutrient deficiencies in protein-restricted diets: some practical facts in PKU dietary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Filipa B; Alves, Rita C; Oliva-Teles, M Teresa; Costa, Anabela S G; Fernandes, Telmo J R; Almeida, Manuela F; Torres, Duarte; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-12-01

    Among aminoacidopathies, phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most prevalent one. Early diagnosis in the neonatal period with a prompt nutritional therapy (low natural-protein and phenylalanine diet, supplemented with phenylalanine-free amino acid mixtures and special low-protein foods) remains the mainstay of the treatment. Data considering nutrient contents of cooked dishes is lacking. In this study, fourteen dishes specifically prepared for PKU individuals were analysed, regarding the lipid profile and iron and zinc contents. These dishes are poor sources of essential nutrients like Fe, Zn or n-3 fatty acids, reinforcing the need for adequate supplementation to cover individual patients' needs. This study can contribute to a more accurate adjustment of PKU diets and supplementation in order to prevent eventual nutritional deficiencies. This study contributes to a better understanding of nutrient intake from PKU patients' meals, showing the need for dietary supplementation.

  11. Dietary protein restriction for renal patients: don't forget protein-free foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Rossi, Andrea; Innocenti, Maurizio; Ricchiuti, Guido; Bozzoli, Laura; Sbragia, Giulietta; Meola, Mario; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) consists of pharmacological, nutritional, and psychological-social approaches. The dietary therapy of CKD, namely a low-protein low-phosphorus diet, plays a crucial role in contributing to delay the onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to protect cardiovascular and nutritional status. The protein-free food products represent a very important tool for the implementation of a low-protein diet to ensure adequate energy supply, reducing the production of nitrogenous waste products. This survey included 100 consecutive CKD patients who were asked their opinion about the use of protein-free foods. Ninety-eight patients (98%) reported a regular daily intake of protein-free pasta (as macaroni, spaghetti, etc.), which was the preferred product consumed. Actually, the taste and texture of protein-free pasta were considered as "good" or "very good" by 70% of patients. Conversely, 43% of CKD patients perceived the taste and texture of protein-free bread as "bad" or "very bad", and 30% found it "acceptable". Therefore, the main concern for the implementation of low-protein diets is the use and palatability of the protein-free products, bread in particular. The use of these products may help in reducing protein, phosphorus, and sodium intake while supplying an adequate energy intake, which represents the basis for a nutritionally safe and successful dietary treatment of advanced CKD patients. Manufacturers and food technology should make more efforts to finding new solutions to improve the taste and texture of protein-free products. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Variation in dietary salt intake induces coordinated dynamics of monocyte subsets and monocyte-platelet aggregates in humans: implications in end organ inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monocyte activation and tissue infiltration are quantitatively associated with high-salt intake induced target organ inflammation. We hypothesized that high-salt challenge would induce the expansion of CD14++CD16+ monocytes, one of the three monocyte subsets with a pro-inflammatory phenotype, that is associated with target organ inflammation in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A dietary intervention study was performed in 20 healthy volunteers, starting with a 3-day usual diet and followed with a 7-day high-salt diet (≥15 g NaCl/day, and a 7-day low-salt diet (≤5 g NaCl/day. The amounts of three monocyte subsets ("classical" CD14++CD16-, "intermediate" CD14++CD16+ and "non-classical" CD14+CD16++ and their associations with monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs were measured by flow cytometry. Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI was used to evaluate renal hypoxia. Switching to a high-salt diet resulted in CD14++ monocyte activation and a rapid expansion of CD14++CD16+ subset and MPAs, with a reciprocal decrease in the percentages of CD14++CD16- and CD14+CD16++ subsets. In vitro study using purified CD14++ monocytes revealed that elevation in extracellular [Na(+] could lead to CD14++CD16+ expansion via a ROS dependent manner. In addition, high-salt intake was associated with progressive hypoxia in the renal medulla (increased R2* signal and enhanced urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 excretion, indicating a temporal and spatial correlation between CD14++CD16+ subset and renal inflammation. The above changes could be completely reversed by a low-salt diet, whereas blood pressure levels remained unchanged during dietary intervention. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present work demonstrates that short-term increases in dietary salt intake could induce the expansion of CD14++CD16+ monocytes, as well as an elevation of MPAs, which might be the underlying cellular basis of high-salt induced

  13. Effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on the transcriptional profile of bovine ruminal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Waters, Sinead M; Cormican, Paul; Kelly, Alan K; O'Shea, Emma; Kenny, David A

    2017-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG) is utilised worldwide in beef production systems as a management approach to reduce feed costs. However the underlying biology regulating the expression of CG remains to be fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation induced CG on the global gene expression profile of ruminal epithelial papillae. Holstein Friesian bulls (n = 60) were assigned to one of two groups: restricted feed allowance (RES; n = 30) for 125 days (Period 1) followed by ad libitum access to feed for 55 days (Period 2) or (ii) ad libitum access to feed throughout (ADLIB; n = 30). At the end of each period, 15 animals from each treatment were slaughtered and rumen papillae harvested. mRNA was isolated from all papillae samples collected. cDNA libraries were then prepared and sequenced. Resultant reads were subsequently analysed bioinformatically and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are defined as having a Benjamini-Hochberg P value of alimentation in Period 2, RES animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of their ADLIB contemporary animals in Period 2 (P alimentation.

  14. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis.

  15. Chronic Oral L-Carnitine Supplementation Drives Marked Plasma TMAO Elevations in Patients with Organic Acidemias Despite Dietary Meat Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marcus J; Bostwick, Bret L; Kennedy, Adam D; Donti, Taraka R; Sun, Qin; Sutton, V Reid; Elsea, Sarah H

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in atherosclerosis, raising concern about L-carnitine, a common supplement for patients with inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) and a TMAO precursor metabolized, in part, by intestinal microbes. Dietary meat restriction attenuates carnitine-to-TMAO conversion, suggesting that TMAO production may not occur in meat-restricted individuals taking supplemental L-carnitine, but this has not been tested. Here, we mine a metabolomic dataset to assess TMAO levels in patients with diverse IEMs, including organic acidemias. These data were correlated with clinical information and confirmed using a quantitative TMAO assay. Marked plasma TMAO elevations were detected in patients treated with supplemental L-carnitine, including those on a meat-free diet. On average, patients with an organic acidemia had ~45-fold elevated [TMAO], as compared to the reference population. This effect was mitigated by metronidazole therapy lasting 7 days each month. Collectively, our data show that TMAO production occurs at high levels in patients with IEMs receiving oral L-carnitine. Further studies are needed to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of chronic oral L-carnitine supplementation and whether suppression or circumvention of intestinal bacteria may improve L-carnitine therapy.

  16. Genetic perturbation of key central metabolic genes extends lifespan in Drosophila and affects response to dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Matthew E; Barnett, Brittany; Hoff, Robert; Amella, Maria; Kuczynski, Kate; Lavington, Erik; Koury, Spencer; Brud, Evgeny; Eanes, Walter F

    2015-09-22

    There is a connection between nutrient inputs, energy-sensing pathways, lifespan variation and aging. Despite the role of metabolic enzymes in energy homeostasis and their metabolites as nutrient signals, little is known about how their gene expression impacts lifespan. In this report, we use P-element mutagenesis in Drosophila to study the effect on lifespan of reductions in expression of seven central metabolic enzymes, and contrast the effects on normal diet and dietary restriction. The major observation is that for five of seven genes, the reduction of gene expression extends lifespan on one or both diets. Two genes are involved in redox balance, and we observe that lower activity genotypes significantly extend lifespan. The hexokinases also show extension of lifespan with reduced gene activity. Since both affect the ATP/ADP ratio, this connects with the role of AMP-activated protein kinase as an energy sensor in regulating lifespan and mediating caloric restriction. These genes possess significant expression variation in natural populations, and our experimental genotypes span this level of natural activity variation. Our studies link the readout of energy state with the perturbation of the genes of central metabolism and demonstrate their effect on lifespan. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. The Effect of Moderate Dietary Protein and Phosphate Restriction on Calcium-Phosphate Homeostasis in Healthy Older Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, R F; Biourge, V; Chang, Y; Syme, H M; Elliott, J

    2016-09-01

    Dietary phosphate and protein restriction decreases plasma PTH and FGF-23 concentrations and improves survival time in azotemic cats, but has not been examined in cats that are not azotemic. Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet decreases PTH and FGF-23 in healthy older cats and thereby slows progression to azotemic CKD. A total of 54 healthy, client-owned cats (≥ 9 years). Prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Cats were assigned to test diet (protein 76 g/Mcal and phosphate 1.6 g/Mcal) or control diet (protein 86 g/Mcal and phosphate 2.6 g/Mcal) and monitored for 18 months. Changes in variables over time and effect of diet were assessed by linear mixed models. A total of 26 cats ate test diet and 28 cats ate control diet. There was a significant effect of diet on urinary fractional excretion of phosphate (P = 0.045), plasma PTH (P = 0.005), and ionized calcium concentrations (P = 0.018), but not plasma phosphate, FGF-23, or creatinine concentrations. Plasma PTH concentrations did not significantly change in cats fed the test diet (P = 0.62) but increased over time in cats fed the control diet (P = 0.001). There was no significant treatment effect of the test diet on development of azotemic CKD (3 of 26 (12%) test versus 3 of 28 (11%) control, odds ratio 1.09 (95% CI 0.13-8.94), P = 0.92). Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet has effects on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in healthy older cats and is well tolerated. This might have an impact on renal function and could be useful in early chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Different modulation by dietary restriction of adipokine expression in white adipose tissue sites in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Montserrat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a disperse organ acting as energy storage depot and endocrine/paracrine controlling factor in the management of energy availability and inflammation. WAT sites response under energy-related stress is not uniform. In the present study we have analyzed how different WAT sites respond to limited food restriction as a way to better understand the role of WAT in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Overweight male rats had their food intake reduced a 40% compared with free-feeding controls. On day ten, the rats were killed; circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triacylglycerols and other parameters were measured. The main WAT sites were dissected: mesenteric, retroperitoneal, epididymal and subcutaneous inguinal, which were weighed and frozen. Later all subcutaneous WAT was also dissected and weighed. Samples were used for DNA (cellularity analysis and mRNA extraction and semiquantitarive RT-PCR analysis of specific cytokine gene expressions. Results There was a good correlation between serum leptin and cumulative WAT leptin gene mRNA, but not for adiponectin. Food restriction reduced WAT size, but not its DNA content (except for epididymal WAT. Most cytokines were correlated to WAT site weight, but not to DNA. There was WAT site specialization in the differential expression (and probably secretion of adipokines: subcutaneous WAT showed the highest concentration for leptin, CD68 and MCP-1, mesenteric WAT for TNFα (and both tissues for the interleukins 1β and 6; resistin was highly expressed in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT. Conclusion Food restriction induced different patterns for mesenteric and the other WAT sites, which may be directly related to both the response to intestine-derived energy availability, and an inflammatory-related response. However, retroperitoneal WAT, and to a lower extent, subcutaneous and epididymal, reacted decreasing the expression of

  19. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snorgaard, Ole; Møller, Grith; Andersen, Henning K

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition therapy is an integral part of selfmanagement education in patients with type 2 diabetes. Carbohydrates with a low glycemic index are recommended, but the ideal amount of carbohydrate in the diet is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis comparing diets containing low...... to moderate amounts of carbohydrate (LCD) (energy percentage below 45%) to diets containing high amounts of carbohydrate (HCD) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: We systematically reviewed Cochrane library databases, EMBASE, and MEDLINE in the period 2004–2014 for guidelines, meta...... to moderate carbohydrate diets have greater effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes compared with high-carbohydrate diets in the first year of intervention. The greater the carbohydrate restriction, the greater glucose lowering, a relationship that has not been demonstrated earlier. Apart from...

  20. Diet-related restrictive parenting practices. Impact on dietary intake of 2-year-old children and interactions with child characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Vries, N.K.de; Thijs, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between diet-related parenting practices, parental characteristics, child characteristics, and 2-year-old child's dietary intake. Cross-sectional data (N = 2578) originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Principal component analyses revealed two restrictive

  1. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Laura V.; Dobrowolski, Linn C.; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J. O. N.; Riphagen, Ineke J.; Krediet, C. T. Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown. We therefore

  2. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade : A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Laura V; Dobrowolski, Linn C; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J O N; Riphagen, Ineke J; Krediet, C T Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan

    BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown.

  3. If you can't eat what you like, like what you can: How coeliac disease patients and their families construct dietary restrictions as a matter of choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M.; te Molder, Hedwig Frederica Maria; Gremmen, B.; van Woerkum, C.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is recognised that a gluten-free diet has many social implications for coeliac disease patients, not much is known about how such patients actually manage these implications in their everyday interactions. This article examines how dietary restrictions are treated by patients and their

  4. The effect of pre- and post-mating dietary restriction on embryonic survival in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condous, P C; Kirkwood, R N; van Wettere, W H E J

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if pre- and post-mating feeding levels interact to affect embryonic survival, and to determine whether feeding to the maintenance requirement would impair embryo survival. Gilts were allocated to a pre-mating treatment of 1 or 0.8× energy maintenance from day 1 to 14 of their oestrous cycle prior to mating. From day 15 to mating all gilts were group housed and fed ad lib. Gilts were artificially inseminated at their third oestrus. The day after mating, gilts were group housed and allocated to post-mating treatments of 1.5 or 1× maintenance. Gilts were slaughtered day 25.5±0.2 post-insemination and reproductive tracts collected. Gilts fed the restricted pre-mating diet lost significantly more weight than gilts fed the increased pre-mating diet (6.7±0.8 versus 3.7±0.7kg). From mating to slaughter, gilts fed the restricted post-mating diet lost 0.5±1.02kg liveweight, while gilts fed the increased post-mating diet gained 5.7±0.90kg liveweight (Pgilts fed the high post-mating diet compared with gilts fed the low post-mating diet (88.4±2.5 versus 77.8±4.0%), resulting in more (P<0.05) conceptuses present (14.0±0.6 versus 11.7±0.7). There was no interaction between pre-mating and post-mating feed intake on any reproductive measure. These data demonstrated that reducing post-mating feed intakes to maintenance levels impaired embryo survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of conditioned place preference to determine broiler preferences for quantitative or qualitative dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, L A; Sandilands, V; Hocking, P M; Tolkamp, B J; D'eath, R B

    2012-01-01

    1. Calcium propionate (CAP) may improve the welfare of feed restricted broiler breeders by improving their satiety when included within the feed ration. However, the evidence for this is mixed. 2. This study used a closed economy conditioned place preference (CPP) task and aimed to identify whether broilers (as a model for broiler breeders) preferred an environment associated with quantitative food restriction (QFR) or an environment associated with a diet quality-adjusted by the inclusion of CAP. Birds taught to associate different environments with QFR and ad libitum (AL) access to feed were used to validate the methodology. 3. The two treatment groups were (1) QFR/AL (n = 12) in which birds alternated every 2 d between QFR and ad libitum access to food, and (2) QFR/CAP (n = 12) in which birds alternated every 2 d between QFR and QFR + calcium propionate (increased from 3-9% over the study period). Birds were taught to associate one diet option with vertical stripes and the other with horizontal black and white stripes. Each bird was tested twice for a CPP (once per diet). 4. QFR/AL birds showed a significant preference for the pen associated with ad libitum access to feed, but only when tested hungry (i.e. fed QFR on day of testing). QFR/CAP birds did not show a preference under either hunger state. 5. Reasons for the failure of QFR/CAP birds to show a preference are unclear but could include a lack of preference or failure to learn the task. 6. The existence of state-dependent effects indicates that care is needed in the design of future CPP studies and that the effect of calcium propionate and level of hunger on ability to learn a CPP needs further investigation.

  6. Dietary Sodium Restriction Decreases Insulin Secretion Without Affecting Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Loretta M.; Yu, Chang; Wang, Thomas J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system prevents incident diabetes in high-risk individuals, although the mechanism remains unclear. Objective: To test the hypothesis that activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or exogenous aldosterone impairs insulin secretion in humans. Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded crossover study of aldosterone vs vehicle and compared the effects of a low-sodium versus a high-sodium diet. Setting: Academic clinical research center. Participants: Healthy, nondiabetic, normotensive volunteers. Interventions: Infusion of exogenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg/h for 12.5 h) or vehicle during low or high sodium intake. Low sodium (20 mmol/d; n = 12) vs high sodium (160 mmol/d; n = 17) intake for 5–7 days. Main Outcome Measures: Change in acute insulin secretory response assessed during hyperglycemic clamps while in sodium balance during a low-sodium vs high-sodium diet during aldosterone vs vehicle. Results: A low-sodium diet increased endogenous aldosterone and plasma renin activity, and acute glucose-stimulated insulin (−16.0 ± 5.6%; P = .007) and C-peptide responses (−21.8 ± 8.4%; P = .014) were decreased, whereas the insulin sensitivity index was unchanged (−1.0 ± 10.7%; P = .98). Aldosterone infusion did not affect the acute insulin response (+1.8 ± 4.8%; P = .72) or insulin sensitivity index (+2.0 ± 8.8%; P = .78). Systolic blood pressure and serum potassium were similar during low and high sodium intake and during aldosterone infusion. Conclusions: Low dietary sodium intake reduces insulin secretion in humans, independent of insulin sensitivity. PMID:25029426

  7. The adrenocortical stress-response of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks in relation to dietary restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Romano, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we examined hormonal responses of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) chicks to experimental variations in energy content and nutritional quality (low or high lipid to protein ratio, LPR) of their food. Starting at the age of 10 days, chicks were fed either high or low LPR fish at 30, 50, 70 and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. After 20 days of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where a baseline sample was taken immediately after taking a chick from the nest, and three additional blood samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. Testosterone and corticosterone titres in plasma were measured via radioimmunoassay. We found that baseline testosterone levels were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. Food-restricted chicks had elevated baseline and acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. An elevation of circulating levels of corticosterone in energetically stressed individuals was further magnified by low nutritional quality of food. Baseline and acute stress-induced corticosterone levels of chicks were negatively correlated with their fat reserves. We conclude that the physiological condition of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks can be assessed reliably by measuring circulating levels of corticosterone. We discuss short-and long-term effects of elevated corticosterone secretion in food-stressed nest-bound chicks.

  8. The adrenocorical stress-response of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks in relation to dietary restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Romano, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we examined hormonal responses of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) chicks to experimental variations in energy content and nutritional quality (low or high lipid to protein ratio, LPR) of their food. Starting at the age of 10 days, chicks were fed either high or low LPR fish at 30, 50, 70 and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. After 20 days of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where a baseline sample was taken immediately after taking a chick from the nest, and three additional blood samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. Testosterone and corticosterone titres in plasma were measured via radioimmunoassay. We found that baseline testosterone levels were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. Food-restricted chicks had elevated baseline and acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. An elevation of circulating levels of corticosterone in energetically stressed individuals was further magnified by low nutritional quality of food. Baseline and acute stress-induced corticosterone levels of chicks were negatively correlated with their fat reserves. We conclude that the physiological condition of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks can be assessed reliably by measuring circulating levels of corticosterone. We discuss short- and long-term effects of elevated corticosterone secretion in food-stressed nest-bound chicks.

  9. Increased Dietary Salt Changes Baroreceptor Sensitivity and Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System in Goldblatt Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoura, Caroline G; Lincevicius, Gisele S; Nishi, Erika E; Girardi, Adriana C C; Simon, Karin A; Bergamaschi, Cassia T; Campos, Ruy R

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension (2-kidney 1-clip model (2K1C)) is characterized by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Increased Angiotensin II (AngII) leads to sympathoexcitation, oxidative stress, and alterations in sodium and water balance. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a discrete increase in sodium chloride intake in 2K1C rats leads to changes in cardiovascular and autonomic function, oxidative stress, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system. After 4 weeks of induction of hypertension, rats were fed a normal sodium diet (0.4% NaCl) or a high-sodium diet (2% NaCl) for 2 consecutive weeks. Experiments were carried out for 6 weeks after clipping. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal sympathetic nerve activity (rSNA), arterial baroreflex control of rSNA, and heart rate (HR) were assessed. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and glutathione were measured as indicators of systemic oxidative stress. Angiostensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, and angiotensinogen were evaluated in clipped and unclipped kidneys as also urinary angiotensinogen and plasma renin activity. Angiotensinogen, plasma renin activity (PRA) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 in clipped and unclipped kidneys were evaluated. High-sodium diet did not change systemic oxidative stress, and basal values of MAP, HR, or rSNA; however, increased renal (-0.7±0.2 vs. -1.5±0.1 spikes/s/mm Hg) and cardiac (-0.9±0.14 vs. -1.5±0.14 bpm/mm Hg) baroreceptor reflex sensitivity in 2K1C rats. Although there was no alteration in PRA, a high-salt diet significantly decreased urinary angiotensinogen, ACE, and ACE2 expressions in the clipped and unclipped kidneys. Increased arterial baroreceptor control associated with a suppression of the intrarenal RAS in the 2K1C rats on high-salt diet provide a salt-resistant effect on hypertension and sympathoexcitation in renovascular hypertensive rats. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  10. Dietary sodium restriction reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Kristen L.; Racine, Matthew L.; Geolfos, Candace J.; Gates, Phillip E.; Chonchol, Michel; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We determined the efficacy of dietary sodium restriction (DSR) for improving vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP; 130–159 mmHg) and the associated physiological mechanisms. Background Vascular endothelial dysfunction develops with advancing age and elevated SBP, contributing to increased cardiovascular risk. DSR lowers BP, but its effect on vascular endothelial function and mechanisms involved are unknown. Methods Seventeen subjects (11M/6F; 62±7 yrs, mean±S.D.) completed a randomized, crossover study of 4 weeks of both low and normal sodium intake. Vascular endothelial function (endothelium-dependent dilation; EDD), nitric oxide (NO)/tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) bioavailability and oxidative stress-associated mechanisms were assessed following each condition. Results Urinary sodium excretion was reduced by ~50% (to 70±30 mmol/day), and conduit (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMDBA]) and resistance (forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine [FBFACh]) artery EDD were 68% and 42% (peak FBFACh) higher following the low sodium diet (psodium markedly enhanced NO- mediated EDD (greater ΔFBFACh with endothelial NO synthase [eNOS] inhibition) without changing eNOS expression/activation (Ser1177 phosphorylation), restored BH4 bioactivity (less ΔFMDBA with acute BH4), abolished tonic superoxide suppression of EDD (less ΔFMDBA and ΔFBFACh with ascorbic acid infusion), and increased circulating superoxide dismutase activity (p<0.05). These effects were independent of ΔSBP. Other subject characteristics/dietary factors and endothelium-independent dilation were unchanged. Conclusions DSR largely reverses both macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction by enhancing NO and BH4 bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress. Our findings support the emerging concept that DSR induces “vascular protection” beyond that attributable to its BP-lowering effects. PMID

  11. Effects of Salt Supplementation on the Albuminuric Response to Telmisartan With or Without Hydrochlorothiazide Therapy in Hypertensive Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Are Modulated by Habitual Dietary Salt Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Ekinci, Elif I.; Thomas, Georgina; Thomas, David; Johnson, Cameron; MacIsaac, Richard J.; Houlihan, Christine A.; Finch, Sue; Panagiotopoulos, Sianna; O'Callaghan, Chris; Jerums, George

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study examined the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) supplementation on the antialbuminuric action of telmisartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, increased albumin excretion rate (AER), and habitual low dietary salt intake (LDS; 200 mmol sodium/24 h on two of three consecutive occasions). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Following a washout period, subjects (n = ...

  12. Effects of Dietary Sodium Restriction in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Laura V; Dobrowolski, Linn C; van den Bosch, Jacqueline J O N; Riphagen, Ineke J; Krediet, C T Paul; Bemelman, Frederike J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-06-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, dietary sodium restriction is an often-used treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Whether these effects extend to kidney transplant recipients is unknown. We therefore studied the effects of dietary sodium restriction on BP and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade. Two-center randomized crossover trial. Stable outpatient kidney transplant recipients with creatinine clearance > 30mL/min, BP ≥120/80mmHg, receiving stable RAAS blockade therapy. 6-week regular-sodium diet (target, 150mmol/24 h) and a 6-week low-sodium diet (target, 50mmol/24 h). Main outcome parameters were systolic and diastolic BP, UAE, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the end of each diet period. Dietary adherence was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. We randomly assigned 23 kidney transplant recipients, of whom 22 (mean age, 58±8 [SD] years; 50% men; mean eGFR, 51±21mL/min/1.73m(2)) completed the study. One patient withdrew from the study because of concerns regarding orthostatic hypotension on the low-sodium diet. Sodium excretion decreased from 164±50mmol/24 h during the regular-sodium diet to 87±55mmol/24 h during the low-sodium diet (mean difference, -77 [95% CI, -110 to -44] mmol/24 h; Padherence to sodium diet was achieved in 86% of patients. In stable kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade, dietary sodium restriction effectively reduces BP without affecting eGFR. Dietary sodium restriction is relevant to BP management in kidney transplant recipients receiving RAAS blockade. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Advanced glycation end products dietary restriction effects on bacterial gut microbiota in peritoneal dialysis patients; a randomized open label controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi Yacoub

    Full Text Available The modern Western diet is rich in advanced glycation end products (AGEs. We have previously shown an association between dietary AGEs and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in a population of end stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD. In the current pilot study we explored the effects of dietary AGEs on the gut bacterial microbiota composition in similar patients. AGEs play an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular (CVD disease. Plasma concentrations of different bacterial products have been shown to predict the risk of incident major adverse CVD events independently of traditional CVD risk factors, and experimental animal models indicates a possible role AGEs might have on the gut microbiota population. In this pilot randomized open label controlled trial, twenty PD patients habitually consuming a high AGE diet were recruited and randomized into either continuing the same diet (HAGE, n = 10 or a one-month dietary AGE restriction (LAGE, n = 10. Blood and stool samples were collected at baseline and after intervention. Variable regions V3-V4 of 16s rDNA were sequenced and taxa was identified on the phyla, genus, and species levels. Dietary AGE restriction resulted in a significant decrease in serum Nε-(carboxymethyl lysine (CML and methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG. At baseline, our total cohort exhibited a lower relative abundance of Bacteroides and Alistipes genus and a higher abundance of Prevotella genus when compared to the published data of healthy population. Dietary AGE restriction altered the bacterial gut microbiota with a significant reduction in Prevotella copri and Bifidobacterium animalis relative abundance and increased Alistipes indistinctus, Clostridium citroniae, Clostridium hathewayi, and Ruminococcus gauvreauii relative abundance. We show in this pilot study significant microbiota differences in peritoneal dialysis patients' population, as well as the effects

  14. Advanced glycation end products dietary restriction effects on bacterial gut microbiota in peritoneal dialysis patients; a randomized open label controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Rabi; Nugent, Melinda; Cai, Weijin; Nadkarni, Girish N; Chaves, Lee D; Abyad, Sham; Honan, Amanda M; Thomas, Shruthi A; Zheng, Wei; Valiyaparambil, Sujith A; Bryniarski, Mark A; Sun, Yijun; Buck, Michael; Genco, Robert J; Quigg, Richard J; He, John C; Uribarri, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    The modern Western diet is rich in advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We have previously shown an association between dietary AGEs and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in a population of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). In the current pilot study we explored the effects of dietary AGEs on the gut bacterial microbiota composition in similar patients. AGEs play an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular (CVD) disease. Plasma concentrations of different bacterial products have been shown to predict the risk of incident major adverse CVD events independently of traditional CVD risk factors, and experimental animal models indicates a possible role AGEs might have on the gut microbiota population. In this pilot randomized open label controlled trial, twenty PD patients habitually consuming a high AGE diet were recruited and randomized into either continuing the same diet (HAGE, n = 10) or a one-month dietary AGE restriction (LAGE, n = 10). Blood and stool samples were collected at baseline and after intervention. Variable regions V3-V4 of 16s rDNA were sequenced and taxa was identified on the phyla, genus, and species levels. Dietary AGE restriction resulted in a significant decrease in serum Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) and methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG). At baseline, our total cohort exhibited a lower relative abundance of Bacteroides and Alistipes genus and a higher abundance of Prevotella genus when compared to the published data of healthy population. Dietary AGE restriction altered the bacterial gut microbiota with a significant reduction in Prevotella copri and Bifidobacterium animalis relative abundance and increased Alistipes indistinctus, Clostridium citroniae, Clostridium hathewayi, and Ruminococcus gauvreauii relative abundance. We show in this pilot study significant microbiota differences in peritoneal dialysis patients' population, as well as the effects of dietary

  15. Major urinary protein 5, a scent communication protein, is regulated by dietary restriction and subsequent re-feeding in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, K.; Huebbe, P.; Doering, F.; Pallauf, K.; Rimbach, G.

    2013-01-01

    Major urinary proteins (Mups) are important for rodent scent communication and sexual behaviour. Recent evidence suggests that Mup1 may be regulated by fasting and re-feeding (RF). However, other Mup isoforms are poorly investigated, and data on the impact of long-term dietary restriction (DR) and ad libitum RF on Mup expression are missing. We investigated the effects of long-term 25 per cent DR and subsequent RF on Mup expression in male C57BL6 mice. DR significantly decreased Mup gene expression, hepatic and urinary protein levels compared with ad libitum (AL) fed control mice, with the greatest downregulation found for Mup5 expression. The decline in Mup expression was inverted by six months of RF. Because of inhibitory glucocorticoid response elements in the genomic sequence of the Mup5 gene, the observed inverse correlation of nuclear glucocorticoid receptor levels with Mup expression in response to DR and subsequent RF is a possible regulatory mechanism. Additionally, gene-expression-inhibiting histone deacetylation (H3K9) occurred in the region of the Mup5 gene in response to DR. We assume that Mup may act as a molecular switch linking nutritional status to sexual behaviour of mice, and thereby regulating male fertility and reproduction in response to food supply. PMID:23446533

  16. Interactive effects of sex, social environment, dietary restriction, and methionine on survival and reproduction in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajitschek, Felix; Zajitschek, Susanne R K; Friberg, Urban; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2013-08-01

    For the evolution of life histories, the trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental. Because sexes optimize fitness in different ways, this trade-off is expected to be resolved differently by males and females. Consequently, the sexes are predicted to respond differently to changes in resource availability. In fruit flies, research on dietary restriction has focused largely on females maintained in the absence of males, thereby neglecting sexual interactions that affect reproductive behavior of both sexes under more natural conditions. Here, we tested for the interactive effects of diet (40, 60, 100, and 300 % of standard yeast concentrations) and social environment (separate-sex vs. mixed-sex groups) on male and female Drosophila melanogaster life histories. Additionally, we evaluated the essential amino acid methionine as an agent that can uncouple the survival-reproduction trade-off. We show sex differences in the effect of social environment on survival patterns, but not on reproductive fitness. In females, yeast had a positive effect on reproduction and a negative effect on survival. In males, yeast had a negative effect on reproduction and the effect on survival depended on the social environment. Methionine reduced survival, but had no effect on reproduction. Our findings highlight the need to include both sexes and to vary social environments in research programs aimed at lifespan extension and call for further evaluation of the fecundity-restoring effect of methionine.

  17. Effect of chronic unpredictable stress on short term dietary restriction and its modulation by multivitamin-mineral supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Shirin; Fatima, Naureen; Bilal, Nayeem; Suhail, Nida; Fatima, Sabiha; Morgan, Enas N; Aldebasy, Yousef; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Banu, Naheed

    2013-06-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) lowers steady-state levels of oxidative stress and alters behavioral, physiological and biochemical responses in mammals. However, various factors effect its application in humans like socio-cultural, appetite and the daily life stress. Physiological and psychological stress owing to fast-paced lifestyles, translates into oxidative stress. In this work, the role of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) on the effects of short term DR in mice in terms of biochemical and oxidative stress parameters was investigated. Further, the modulatory role of multivitamin-mineral supplement (MVM) on CUS and DR induced biochemical changes was studied to delineate the role of micronutrient supplementation. DR treatment increased the antioxidant status in the circulation and liver of mice but in the presence of chronic stressors there was a significant shift towards the pro-oxidant state. A decrease was found in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase in the rats exposed to CUS with DR (CUS+DR), with an increased malondialdehyde and a decreased glutathione (GSH) levels as compared to the controls. Liver function enzymes-glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase were increased and a significant DNA damage was observed. Oral MVM supplement significantly improved this oxidative deterioration. Hence, MVM supplementation appears to potentially offer an effective intervention in the DR regimen to combat daily life physical and mental stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrient acquisition across a dietary shift: fruit feeding butterflies crave amino acids, nectivores seek salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscraft, Alison; Boggs, Carol L

    2016-05-01

    Evolutionary dietary shifts have major ecological consequences. One likely consequence is a change in nutrient limitation-some nutrients become more abundant in the diet, others become more scarce. Individuals' behavior should change accordingly to match this new limitation regime: they should seek out nutrients that are deficient in the new diet. We investigated the relationship between diet and responses to nutrients using adult Costa Rican butterflies with contrasting feeding habits, testing the hypothesis that animals will respond more positively to nutrients that are scarcer in their diets. Via literature searches and our own data, we showed that nitrogen and sodium are both at lower concentration in nectar than in fruit. We therefore assessed butterflies' acceptance of sodium and four nitrogenous compounds that ranged in complexity from inorganic nitrogen (ammonium chloride) to protein (albumin). We captured wild butterflies, offered them aqueous solutions of each substance, and recorded whether they accepted (drank) or rejected each substance. Support for our hypothesis was mixed. Across the sexes, frugivores were four times more likely to accept amino acids (hydrolyzed casein) than nectivores, in opposition to expectation. In males, nectivores accepted sodium almost three times more frequently than frugivores, supporting expectations. Together, these results suggest that in butterflies, becoming frugivorous is associated with an increased receptivity to amino acids and decreased receptivity to sodium. Nectivory and frugivory are widespread feeding strategies in organisms as diverse as insects, birds, and bats; our results suggest that these feeding strategies may put different pressures on how animals fulfill their nutritional requirements.

  19. Consumption of dietary salt measured by urinary sodium excretion and its association with body weight status in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libuda, Lars; Kersting, Mathilde; Alexy, Ute

    2012-03-01

    Highly processed foods such as convenience foods usually have a high salt content and therefore might indirectly act as adipogenic due to an increasing consumption of sugar-containing beverages (SCB). We examined the association between dietary salt and body weight status. We used data on urinary Na excretion as an indicator of dietary salt and BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and percentage body fat (%BF) of children and adolescents participating in the DONALD (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) Study. Dortmund, Germany. Children and adolescents (n 364) who had at least two 24 h urine samples and two dietary records in the observational period between 2003 and 2009 were considered in our data analysis. Repeated-measures regression models revealed that urinary Na was positively associated with BMI-SDS (+0·202 SDS/g Na excretion at baseline; P consumption and total energy intake. Furthermore, there was a positive trend between baseline Na excretion and the individual change in %BF in the study period (+0·364 increase in %BF/g Na excretion at baseline), which was confirmed after inclusion of SCB consumption or total energy intake. There was no significant association between the change in Na excretion and the concurrent change of either BMI-SDS or %BF in any model. Our results suggest that a high intake of processed salty foods could have a negative impact on body weight status in children and adolescents independently from their consumption of SCB.

  20. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  1. Chronic Caloric Restriction and Exercise Improve Metabolic Conditions of Dietary-Induced Obese Mice in Autophagy Correlated Manner without Involving AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of AMPK activation and autophagy in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction in obesity. Methods. Dietary-induced obesity mice were made and divided into 5 groups; one additional group of normal mice serves as control. Mice in each group received different combinations of interventions including low fat diet, caloric restriction, and exercise. Then their metabolic conditions were assessed by measuring serum glucose and insulin, serum lipids, and liver function. AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy activity were detected by western blotting. Results. Obese mice models were successfully induced by high fat diet. Caloric restriction consistently improved the metabolic conditions of the obese mice, and the effects are more prominent than the mice that received only exercise. Also, caloric restriction, exercise, and low fat diet showed a synergistic effect in the improvement of metabolic conditions. Western blotting results showed that this improvement was not related with the activation of AMPK in liver, skeletal muscle, or heart but correlates well with the autophagy activity. Conclusion. Caloric restriction has more prominent beneficial effects than exercise in dietary-induced obese mice. These effects are correlated with the autophagy activity and may be independent of AMPK activation.

  2. Salt intake and eating habits of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Iwayama, Keiko; Suzuki, Hirotoshi; Sakata, Satoko; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwashima, Yoshio; Takata, Akira; Kawano, Yuhei

    2016-11-01

    Salt restriction is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension; however, salt consumption is still high in Japan. Improvements in dietary habits, including salt reduction in childhood, may contribute to the prevention of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salt intake of school-aged children and the relationship between their diet diary and actual salt intake. The subjects comprised 580 schoolchildren (471 elementary school pupils and 109 junior high school pupils) who wanted to evaluate their salt intake in Kuji, a northeast coastal area in Japan. We estimated salt intake using spot urine samples and a formula. Lifestyle was assessed using a questionnaire. We also evaluated the salt intake and the lifestyles of 440 parents. The estimated salt intakes of elementary school pupils, junior high school pupils and their parents were 7.1±1.5, 7.6±1.5 and 8.0±1.7 g per day, respectively. The proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. In the multivariate analysis, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children correlated with their age, estimated salt intake of their parents and the menu priorities of the household. The estimated salt intake of the parents was associated with female gender, obesity, age and the habitual consumption of bread and noodles. In conclusion, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children positively correlated with the estimated salt intake of their parents, and the proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. Guidance on salt restriction for children and their parents may reduce the salt intake of school-aged children.

  3. Intermittent fasting dietary restriction regimen negatively influences reproduction in young rats: a study of hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY) play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG) axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s) to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.

  4. Intermittent fasting dietary restriction regimen negatively influences reproduction in young rats: a study of hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    Full Text Available Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.

  5. The MDT-15 subunit of mediator interacts with dietary restriction to modulate longevity and fluoranthene toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Schleit

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction (DR, the limitation of calorie intake while maintaining proper nutrition, has been found to extend life span and delay the onset of age-associated disease in a wide range of species. Previous studies have suggested that DR can reduce the lethality of environmental toxins. To further examine the role of DR in toxin response, we measured life spans of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans treated with the mutagenic polyaromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (FLA. FLA is a direct byproduct of combustion, and is one of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's sixteen priority environmental toxins. Treatment with 5 µg/ml FLA shortened the life spans of ad libitum fed nematodes, and DR resulted in increased sensitivity to FLA. To determine the role of detoxifying enzymes in the toxicity of FLA, we tested nematodes with mutations in the gene encoding the MDT-15 subunit of mediator, a transcriptional coactivator that regulates genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and detoxification. Mutation of mdt-15 increased the life span of FLA treated animals compared to wild-type animals with no difference observed between DR and ad libitum fed mdt-15 animals. We also examined mutants with altered insulin-IGF-1-like signaling (IIS, which is known to modulate life span and stress resistance in C. elegans independently of DR. Mutation of the genes coding for the insulin-like receptor DAF-2 or the FOXO-family transcription factor DAF16 did not alter the animals' susceptibility to FLA compared to wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that certain compounds have increased toxicity when combined with a DR regimen through increased metabolic activation. This increased metabolic activation appears to be mediated through the MDT-15 transcription factor and is independent of the IIS pathway.

  6. Chronic hyperinsulinemia contributes to insulin resistance under dietary restriction in association with altered lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Ippei; Tanimoto, Keiichi; Akiyama, Nobuteru; Naya, Noriyuki; Fujieda, Kumiko; Iwasaki, Takanori; Yukioka, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    Hyperinsulinemia is widely thought to be a compensatory response to insulin resistance, whereas its potentially causal role in the progression of insulin resistance remains to be established. Here, we aimed to examine whether hyperinsulinemia could affect the progression of insulin resistance in Zucker fatty diabetic (ZDF) rats. Male ZDF rats at 8 wk of age were fed a diet ad libitum (AL) or dietary restriction (DR) of either 15 or 30% from AL feeding over 6 wk. Insulin sensitivity was determined by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. ZDF rats in the AL group progressively developed hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia by 10 wk of age, and then plasma insulin rapidly declined to nearly normal levels by 12 wk of age. Compared with AL group, DR groups showed delayed onset of hyperglycemia and persistent hyperinsulinemia, leading to weight gain and raised plasma triglycerides and free fatty acids by 14 wk of age. Notably, insulin sensitivity was significantly reduced in the DR group rather than the AL group and inversely correlated with plasma levels of insulin and triglyceride but not glucose. Moreover, enhanced lipid deposition and upregulation of genes involved in lipogenesis were detected in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues of the DR group rather than the AL group. Alternatively, continuous hyperinsulinemia induced by insulin pellet implantation produced a decrease in insulin sensitivity in ZDF rats. These results suggest that chronic hyperinsulinemia may lead to the progression of insulin resistance under DR conditions in association with altered lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues in ZDF rats. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Evaluating the safety and efficacy of sodium-restricted/Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet after acute decompensated heart failure hospitalization: design and rationale for the Geriatric OUt of hospital Randomized MEal Trial in Heart Failure (GOURMET-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Jeffrey D; Maurer, Mathew S; Hummel, Scott L

    2015-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem affecting predominantly older adults. Nonadherence to diet remains a significant contributor to acute decompensated HF (ADHF). The sodium-restricted Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH/SRD) eating plan reduces cardiovascular dysfunction that can lead to ADHF and is consistent with current HF guidelines. We propose that an intervention that promotes adherence to the DASH/SRD by home-delivering meals will be safe and improve health-related quality of life (QOL) in older adults after hospitalization for ADHF. This is a 3-center, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial of 12-week duration designed to determine the safety and efficacy of home-delivered DASH/SRD-compliant meals in older adults after discharge from ADHF hospitalization. Sixty-six subjects will be randomized in a 1:1 stratified fashion by gender and left ventricular ejection fraction (DASH/SRD-compliant meals or usual dietary advice for 4weeks after hospital discharge. Investigators will be blinded to group assignment, food diaries, and urinary electrolyte measurements until study completion. The primary efficacy end point is the change in the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire summary scores for health-related QOL from study enrollment to 4weeks postdischarge. Safety evaluation will focus on hypotension, renal insufficiency, and hyperkalemia. Exploratory end points include echocardiography, noninvasive vascular testing, markers of oxidative stress, and salt taste sensitivity. This randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of 4weeks of DASH/SRD after ADHF hospitalization. By testing a novel dietary intervention supported by multiple levels of evidence including preliminary data in outpatients with stable HF, we will address a critical evidence gap in the care of older patients with ADHF. If effective and safe, this intervention could be scaled to assess effects on readmission and healthcare costs in

  8. Adaptação transcultural para o Brasil do Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (Questionário Restritivo da Dieta de Sódio (DSRQ Adaptación transcultural para Brasil del dietary sodium restriction questionnaire (Cuestionario Restrictivo de la Dieta de Sodio (DSRQ Cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian portuguese of the Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Sanches Machado d'Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A restrição de sódio é uma medida não farmacológica frequentemente orientada aos pacientes com Insuficiência Cardíaca (IC. No entanto, a adesão é de baixa prevalência, ficando entre as causas mais frequentes de descompensação da IC. O Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ tem como objetivo identificar fatores que afetam a adesão à restrição dietética de sódio para pacientes com IC. No Brasil, não existem instrumentos que avaliem tais fatores. OBJETIVO: Realizar a adaptação transcultural do DSRQ. MÉTODOS: Estudo metodológico que envolveu as seguintes etapas: tradução, síntese, retrotradução, revisão por um comitê de especialistas, pré-teste da versão final e análise de concordância interobservador. No pré-teste foram avaliados os itens e sua compreensão, além da consistência interna pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. O instrumento foi aplicado por dois pesquisadores simultânea e independentemente, sendo utilizado o teste Kappa para análise da concordância. RESULTADOS: Apenas uma questão sofreu alterações semânticas e/ou culturais maiores. No pré-teste, o alfa de Cronbach obtido para o total foi de 0,77, e para as escalas de Atitude, Norma subjetiva e Controle Comportamental obtiveram-se, respectivamente, 0,66, 0,50 e 0,85. Na etapa de concordância, o Kappa foi calculado para 12 das 16 questões, com valores que variaram de 0,62 a 1,00. Nos itens em que o cálculo não foi possível, a incidência de respostas iguais variou de 95% a 97,5%. CONCLUSÃO: A partir da adaptação transcultural do DSRQ foi possível propor uma versão do questionário para posterior avaliação das propriedades psicométricas.FUNDAMENTO: La restricción de sodio es una medida no farmacológica a menudo dirigida a los pacientes con Insuficiencia Cardíaca (IC. Sin embargo, la adhesión es de baja prevalencia, y queda entre las causas más comunes de descompensación de la IC. El Dietary Sodium

  9. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  10. Dietary phytosterols and phytostanols decrease cholesterol levels but increase blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of salt-loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnayake Walisundera MN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are safety concerns regarding widespread consumption of phytosterol and phytostanol supplemented food products. The aim of this study was to determine, in the absence of excess dietary salt, the individual effects of excess accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY inbred rats that have a mutation in the Abcg5 gene and thus over absorb phytosterols and phytostanols. Methods Thirty 35-day old male WKY inbred rats (10/group were fed a control diet or a diet containing phytosterols or phytostanols (2.0 g/kg diet for 5 weeks. The sterol composition of the diets, plasma and tissues were analysed by gas chromatography. Blood pressure was measured by the tail cuff method. mRNA levels of several renal blood pressure regulatory genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared to the control diet, the phytosterol diet resulted in 3- to 4-fold increases in the levels of phytosterols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of WKY inbred rats (P 9-fold the levels of phytostanols in plasma, red blood cells, liver, aorta and kidney of these rats (P P P P P angiotensinogen mRNA levels of these rats. Conclusion These data suggest that excessive accumulation of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols in plasma and tissues may contribute to the increased blood pressure in WKY inbred rats in the absence of excess dietary salt. Therefore, even though phytosterols and phytostanols lower cholesterol levels, prospective clinical studies testing the net beneficial effects of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on cardiovascular events for subgroups of individuals that have an increased incorporation of these substances are needed.

  11. Dietary intake and sources of sodium and potassium among Australian schoolchildren: results from the cross-sectional Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Campbell, Karen J; Beckford, Kelsey; Baxter, Janet R; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2017-10-30

    To examine sodium and potassium urinary excretion by socioeconomic status (SES), discretionary salt use habits and dietary sources of sodium and potassium in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study. Primary schools located in Victoria, Australia. 666 of 780 children aged 4-12 years who participated in the Salt and Other Nutrients in Children study returned a complete 24-hour urine collection. 24-hour urine collection for the measurement of sodium and potassium excretion and 24-hour dietary recall for the assessment of food sources. Parent and child reported use of discretionary salt. SES defined by parental highest level of education. Participants were 9.3 years (95% CI 9.0 to 9.6) of age and 55% were boys. Mean urinary sodium and potassium excretion was 103 (95% CI 99 to 108) mmol/day (salt equivalent 6.1 g/day) and 47 (95% CI 45 to 49) mmol/day, respectively. Mean molar Na:K ratio was 2.4 (95% CI 2.3 to 2.5). 72% of children exceeded the age-specific upper level for sodium intake. After adjustment for age, sex and day of urine collection, children from a low socioeconomic background excreted 10.0 (95% CI 17.8 to 2.1) mmol/day more sodium than those of high socioeconomic background (p=0.04). The major sources of sodium were bread (14.8%), mixed cereal-based dishes (9.9%) and processed meat (8.5%). The major sources of potassium were dairy milk (11.5%), potatoes (7.1%) and fruit/vegetable juice (5.4%). Core foods provided 55.3% of dietary sodium and 75.5% of potassium while discretionary foods provided 44.7% and 24.5%, respectively. For most children, sodium intake exceeds dietary recommendations and there is some indication that children of lower socioeconomic background have the highest intakes. Children are consuming about two times more sodium than potassium. To improve sodium and potassium intakes in schoolchildren, product reformulation of lower salt core foods combined with strategies that seek to reduce the consumption of

  12. Reduced Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Signaling and Dietary Restriction Inhibit Translation but Preserve Muscle Mass in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depuydt, Geert; Xie, Fang; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Shanmugam, Nilesh; Smolders, Arne; Dhondt, Ineke; Brewer, Heather M.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Braeckman, Bart P.

    2013-09-03

    Reduced signaling through the C. elegans insulin/IGF1 like tyrosine kinase receptor daf2 and dietary restriction via bacterial dilution are two well-characterized lifespan-extending interventions that operate in parallel or through (partially) independent mechanisms. Using accurate mass and time tag LCMS/MS quantitative proteomics we detected that the abundance of a large number of ribosomal subunits is decreased in response to dietary restriction as well as in the daf2(e1370) insulin/IGF1 receptor mutant. In addition, general protein synthesis levels in these long-lived worms are repressed. Surprisingly, ribosomal transcript levels were not correlated to actual protein abundance, suggesting that posttranscriptional regulation determines ribosome content. Proteomics also revealed increased presence of many structural muscle cell components in long-lived worms, which appears to result from prioritized preservation of muscle cell volume in nutrient-poor conditions or low insulin-like signaling. Activation of DAF16, but not diet-restriction, stimulates mRNA expression of muscle-related genes to prevent muscle atrophy. Important daf2 specific proteome changes include overexpression of aerobic metabolism enzymes and a general activation of stress responsive and immune defense systems, while increased abundance of many protein subunits of the proteasome core complex is a DR-specific characteristic.

  13. Effects of maternal dietary restriction in vitamin B-6 on neocortex development in rats: B-6 vitamer concentrations, volume and cell estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groziak, S M; Kirksey, A

    1987-06-01

    Influence of the time of maternal restriction in dietary vitamin B-6 on vitamer concentrations and morphological development of neocortex was examined. Rats were fed ad libitum a vitamin B-6-free diet supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine X hydrochloride (PN X HCl)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control diet (7.0 mg PN X HCl/kg) during lactation or were supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN X HCl/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. During postweaning offspring received the maternal diets fed during lactation. Neocortices of offspring were examined at 30 d of age by liquid chromatography and light microscopy. Vitamin restriction during gestation and 30 d postnatal was the only vitamin B-6-restricted treatment of the three administered that altered B-6 vitamer levels in neocortex; all vitamers were depressed equally. Brain weight and volume of neocortex were not changed significantly by the maternal restrictions imposed. However, each restriction adversely affected neurogenesis and neuron longevity of the neocortex and when expressed as percent reduction from control, neuron longevity was affected more severely than neurogenesis.

  14. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR) to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE) consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF) consists of two interchanging days; one day, subjects may consume food ad libitum (sometimes equaling twice the normal intake); on the other day, food is reduced or withheld altogether. Dietary restriction (DR) - restriction of one or more components of intake (typically macronutrients) with minimal to no reduction in total caloric intake - is another alternative to CR. Many religions incorporate one or more forms of food restriction. The following religious fasting periods are featured in this review: 1) Islamic Ramadan; 2) the three principal fasting periods of Greek Orthodox Christianity (Nativity, Lent, and the Assumption); and 3) the Biblical-based Daniel Fast. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge related to CR and DR. A specific section is provided that illustrates related work pertaining to religious forms of food restriction. Where available, studies involving both humans and animals are presented. The review includes suggestions for future research pertaining to the topics of discussion. PMID:21981968

  15. Dietary fat composition influences glomerular and proximal convoluted tubule cell structure and autophagic processes in kidneys from calorie-restricted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Rubio, Miguel; Burón, M Isabel; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; de Cabo, Rafael; Ramsey, Jon J; Villalba, José M; González-Reyes, José A

    2016-06-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been repeatedly shown to prevent cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and other age-related diseases in a wide range of animals, including non-human primates and humans. In rodents, CR also increases lifespan and is a powerful tool for studying the aging process. Recently, it has been reported in mice that dietary fat plays an important role in determining lifespan extension with 40% CR. In these conditions, animals fed lard as dietary fat showed an increased longevity compared with mice fed soybean or fish oils. In this paper, we study the effect of these dietary fats on structural and physiological parameters of kidney from mice maintained on 40% CR for 6 and 18 months. Analyses were performed using quantitative electron microcopy techniques and protein expression in Western blots. CR mitigated most of the analyzed age-related parameters in kidney, such as glomerular basement membrane thickness, mitochondrial mass in convoluted proximal tubules and autophagic markers in renal homogenates. The lard group showed improved preservation of several renal structures with aging when compared to the other CR diet groups. These results indicate that dietary fat modulates renal structure and function in CR mice and plays an essential role in the determination of health span in rodents. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of Dietary Restriction on the Expression of Lipid Metabolism and Growth Hormone Signaling Genes in the Muscle of Korean Cattle Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of dietary restriction on growth and the expression of lipid metabolism and growth hormone signaling genes in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM of Korean cattle. Thirty-one Korean cattle steers (average age 10.5 months were allocated to normal (N; n = 16 or dietary restriction (DR; n = 15 groups. The feeding trial consisted of two stages: for the 8-month growing period, the DR group was fed 80% of the food intake of the normal diet, and for the 6-month growth-finishing period, the DR group was fed a DR total mixed ration with 78.4% of the crude protein and 64% of the net energy for gain of the normal diet. The LM was biopsied 5 months (period 1 [P1] at 15.5 months of age and 14 months (period 2 [P2] at 24.5 months of age after the start of feeding. The mRNA levels were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Body weight, daily feed intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency were lower in the DR group compared with the normal group at both P1 and P2. At P1, the lipogenic fatty acid synthase (FASN mRNA levels were lower (p<0.05 in the DR group compared with the normal group. The DR group tended (p = 0.06 to have higher of levels of growth hormone receptor (GHR mRNA than the normal group. At P2, the DR group tended to have lower (p = 0.06 androgen receptor (AR mRNA levels than the normal group. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that dietary restriction partially decreases the transcription of lipogenic FASN and growth hormone signaling AR genes, but increases transcription of the GHR gene. These changes in gene transcription might affect body fat accumulation and the growth of the animals.

  17. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  18. Effects of salt supplementation on the albuminuric response to telmisartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide therapy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes are modulated by habitual dietary salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Elif I; Thomas, Georgina; Thomas, David; Johnson, Cameron; Macisaac, Richard J; Houlihan, Christine A; Finch, Sue; Panagiotopoulos, Sianna; O'Callaghan, Chris; Jerums, George

    2009-08-01

    OBJECTIVE This prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study examined the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) supplementation on the antialbuminuric action of telmisartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, increased albumin excretion rate (AER), and habitual low dietary salt intake (LDS; 200 mmol sodium/24 h on two of three consecutive occasions). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Following a washout period, subjects (n = 32) received 40 mg/day telmisartan for 4 weeks followed by 40 mg telmisartan plus 12.5 mg/day HCT for 4 weeks. For the last 2 weeks of each treatment period, patients received either 100 mmol/day NaCl or placebo capsules. After a second washout, the regimen was repeated with supplements in reverse order. AER and ambulatory blood pressure were measured at weeks 0, 4, 8, 14, 18, and 22. RESULTS In LDS, NaCl supplementation reduced the anti-albuminuric effect of telmisartan with or without HCT from 42.3% (placebo) to 9.5% (P = 0.004). By contrast, in HDS, NaCl supplementation did not reduce the AER response to telmisartan with or without HCT (placebo 30.9%, NaCl 28.1%, P = 0.7). Changes in AER were independent of changes in blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS The AER response to telmisartan with or without HCT under habitual low salt intake can be blunted by NaCl supplementation. By contrast, when there is already a suppressed renin angiotensin aldosterone system under habitual high dietary salt intake, the additional NaCl does not alter the AER response.

  19. Dietary salt and water pH effects on growth and Na+ fluxes of silver catfish juveniles - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.11192 Dietary salt and water pH effects on growth and Na+ fluxes of silver catfish juveniles - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.11192

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiani Kochhann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study verified the optimum dietary salt level for the growth and ion regulation of silver catfish juveniles at different water pH levels (5.5, 7.0 and 9.0. The control diet was supplemented with NaCl to yield experimental diets with 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% NaCl. Juveniles were collected at 15 and 35 days after the beginning of experiment for analyses of Na+ net fluxes. Exposure of silver catfish juveniles to alkaline or acidic water did not affect their survival. Fish fed with diets without NaCl supplementation and exposed to pH 7.0 showed significantly higher weight, length, specific growth rate and biomass per tank than those exposed to pH 5.5. Ionoregulatory disturbances of silver catfish maintained at all pH are less pronounced when fed higher dietary salt supplementation (1.0-2.0% NaCl. The increase of dietary NaCl reduced body Na+ loss and protected against the impact of acidic water on growth.This study verified the optimum dietary salt level for the growth and ion regulation of silver catfish juveniles at different water pH levels (5.5, 7.0 and 9.0. The control diet was supplemented with NaCl to yield experimental diets with 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% NaCl. Juveniles were collected at 15 and 35 days after the beginning of experiment for analyses of Na+ net fluxes. Exposure of silver catfish juveniles to alkaline or acidic water did not affect their survival. Fish fed with diets without NaCl supplementation and exposed to pH 7.0 showed significantly higher weight, length, specific growth rate and biomass per tank than those exposed to pH 5.5. Ionoregulatory disturbances of silver catfish maintained at all pH are less pronounced when fed higher dietary salt supplementation (1.0-2.0% NaCl. The increase of dietary NaCl reduced body Na+ loss and protected against the impact of acidic water on growth.

  20. Metabolic Responses to Dietary Protein Restriction Require an Increase in FGF21 that Is Delayed by the Absence of GCN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Laeger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available FGF21 contributes to the metabolic response to dietary protein restriction, and prior data implicate GCN2 as the amino acid sensor linking protein restriction to FGF21 induction. Here, we demonstrate the persistent and essential role of FGF21 in the metabolic response to protein restriction. We show that Fgf21 KO mice are fully resistant to low protein (LP-induced changes in food intake, energy expenditure (EE, body weight gain, and metabolic gene expression for 6 months. Gcn2 KO mice recapitulate this phenotype, but LP-induced effects on food intake, EE, and body weight subsequently begin to appear after 14 days on diet. We show that this delayed emergence of LP-induced metabolic effects in Gcn2 KO mice coincides with a delayed but progressive increase of hepatic Fgf21 expression and blood FGF21 concentrations over time. These data indicate that FGF21 is essential for the metabolic response to protein restriction but that GCN2 is only transiently required for LP-induced FGF21.

  1. Cell size and fat content of dietary-restricted Caenorhabditis elegans are regulated by ATX-2, an mTOR repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Daniel Z; Charar, Chayki; Dorfman, Jehudith; Yadid, Tam; Tafforeau, Lionel; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2016-08-09

    Dietary restriction (DR) is a metabolic intervention that extends the lifespan of multiple species, including yeast, flies, nematodes, rodents, and, arguably, rhesus monkeys and humans. Hallmarks of lifelong DR are reductions in body size, fecundity, and fat accumulation, as well as slower development. We have identified atx-2, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the human ATXN2L and ATXN2 genes, as the regulator of these multiple DR phenotypes. Down-regulation of atx-2 increases the body size, cell size, and fat content of dietary-restricted animals and speeds animal development, whereas overexpression of atx-2 is sufficient to reduce the body size and brood size of wild-type animals. atx-2 regulates the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, downstream of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and upstream of ribosomal protein S6 kinase and mTOR complex 1 (TORC1), by its direct association with Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor β, which likely regulates RHEB shuttling between GDP-bound and GTP-bound forms. Taken together, this work identifies a previously unknown mechanism regulating multiple aspects of DR, as well as unknown regulators of the mTOR pathway. They also extend our understanding of diet-dependent growth retardation, and offers a potential mechanism to treat obesity.

  2. Dietary phosphorus restriction in dialysis patients: potential impact of processed meat, poultry, and fish products as protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Richard A; Mehta, Ojas

    2009-07-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus is derived largely from protein sources and is a critical determinant of phosphorus balance in patients with chronic kidney disease. Information about the phosphorus content of prepared foods generally is unavailable, but it is believed to contribute significantly to the phosphorus burden of patients with chronic kidney disease. Analysis of dietary components. We measured the phosphorus content of 44 food products, including 30 refrigerated or frozen precooked meat, poultry, and fish items, generally national brands. Measured and reported phosphorus content of foods. Phosphorus by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 984.27; protein by using Association of Analytical Communities official method 990.03. We found that the ratio of phosphorus to protein content in these items ranged from 6.1 to 21.5 mg of phosphorus per 1 g of protein. The mean ratio in the 19 food products with a label listing phosphorus as an additive was 14.6 mg/g compared with 9.0 mg/g in the 11 items without listed phosphorus. The phosphorus content of only 1 precooked food product was available in a widely used dietary database. Results cannot be extrapolated to other products. Manufacturers also may alter the phosphorus content of foods at any time. Protein content was not directly measured for all foods. Better reporting of phosphorus content of foods by manufacturers could result in improved dietary phosphorus control without risk of protein malnutrition.

  3. Design of a randomized controlled clinical trial assessing dietary sodium restriction and hemodialysis-related symptom profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya N. Clark-Cutaia

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Curbing dietary sodium intake may lead to improvement in intradialytic symptom amelioration and potential for better long-term outcomes. Generating empirical support will be critical to ascertain, and espouse, the appropriate level of sodium intake for patients receiving HD.

  4. Oxidative stress-induced glomerular mineralocorticoid receptor activation limits the benefit of salt reduction in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kento Kitada

    Full Text Available Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR antagonists attenuate renal injury in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats with low plasma aldosterone levels. We hypothesized that oxidative stress causes MR activation in high-salt-fed Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Furthermore, we determined if MR activation persisted and induced renal injury, even after switching from a high- to a normal-salt diet.High-salt feeding for 4 weeks increased dihydroethidium fluorescence (DHE, an oxidant production marker, p22phox (a NADPH oxidase subunit and serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-1 (SGK1, an MR transcript in glomeruli, compared with normal-salt feeding, and these changes persisted 4 weeks after salt withdrawal. Tempol treatment (0.5 mmol/L during high-salt feeding abolished the changes in DHE fluorescence, p22phox and SGK1. Dietary salt reduction after a 4-week high-salt diet decreased both blood pressure and proteinuria, but was associated with significantly higher proteinuria than in normal control rats at 4 weeks after salt reduction. Administration of tempol during high-salt feeding, or eplerenone, an MR antagonist (100 mg/kg/day, started after salt reduction, recovered proteinuria to normal levels at 4 weeks after salt reduction. Paraquat, a reactive oxygen species generator, enhanced MR transcriptional activity in cultured rat mesangial cells and mouse podocytes.These results suggest that oxidative stress plays an important role in glomerular MR activation in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Persistent MR activation even after reducing salt intake could limit the beneficial effects of salt restriction.

  5. Pilot study of dietary phosphorus restriction and phosphorus binders to target fibroblast growth factor 23 in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, Tamara; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Smith, Kelsey; Epstein, Michael; Keating, Leigh K; Jüppner, Harald; Wolf, Myles

    2011-02-01

    High levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are associated with mortality and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Reducing dietary phosphorus intake lowers FGF23 secretion in healthly individuals, but there is little data on its effects in patients with pre-dialysis CKD. Using a 2×2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 16 normophosphataemic CKD stage 3-4 patients to receive a 2-week treatment with either lanthanum carbonate 1000 mg three times daily or placebo, and to ingest a tightly controlled diet containing 750 or 1500 mg of dietary phosphorus daily. We analysed serial measurements of FGF23, parathyroid hormone, serum phosphate and calcium, and 24-h urinary phosphate and calcium excretion using repeated-measures analyses. Compared with the 1500-mg phosphorus diet, patients assigned to the 750-mg diet had greater reduction in 24-h urinary phosphate excretion (66% vs. 29%; Pphosphorus loading. Although dietary phosphorus restriction and lanthanum lowered urinary phosphate excretion consistent with a rapid decrease in phosphorus absorption, inducing a reduction in FGF23 levels in CKD patients may require interventions with a longer duration than in healthy volunteers.

  6. Green Tea Polyphenols, Mimicking the Effects of Dietary Restriction, Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Kidney Injury via Regulating Autophagy Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies reveal that Western dietary patterns contribute to chronic kidney disease, whereas dietary restriction (DR or dietary polyphenols such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs can ameliorate the progression of kidney injury. This study aimed to investigate the renal protective effects of GTPs and explore the underlying mechanisms. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: standard diet (STD, DR, high-fat diet (HFD, and three diets plus 200 mg/kg(bw/day GTPs, respectively. After 18 weeks, HFD group exhibited renal injuries by increased serum cystatin C levels and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity, which can be ameliorated by GTPs. Meanwhile, autophagy impairment as denoted by autophagy-lysosome related proteins, including LC3-II, Beclin-1, p62, cathepsin B, cathepsin D and LAMP-1, was observed in HFD group, whereas DR or GTPs promoted renal autophagy activities and GTPs ameliorated HFD-induced autophagy impairment. In vitro, autophagy flux suppression was detected in palmitic acid (PA-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2, which was ameliorated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Furthermore, GTPs (or EGCG elevated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the kidneys of HFD-treated rats and in PA-treated HK-2 cells. These findings revealed that GTPs mimic the effects of DR to induce autophagy and exert a renal protective effect by alleviating HFD-induced autophagy suppression.

  7. Carbohydrate restriction and dietary cholesterol modulate the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor in mononuclear cells from adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek Jeff S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The liver is responsible for controlling cholesterol homeostasis in the body. HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor (LDL-r are involved in this regulation and are also ubiquitously expressed in all major tissues. We have previously shown in guinea pigs that there is a correlation in gene expression of HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL-r between liver and mononuclear cells. The present study evaluated human mononuclear cells as a surrogate for hepatic expression of these genes. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate restriction with low and high cholesterol content on HMG-CoA reductase and LDL-r mRNA expression in mononuclear cells. All subjects were counseled to consume a carbohydrate restricted diet with 10–15% energy from carbohydrate, 30–35% energy from protein and 55–60% energy from fat. Subjects were randomly assigned to either EGG (640 mg/d additional dietary cholesterol or SUB groups [equivalent amount of egg substitute (0 dietary cholesterol contributions per day] for 12 weeks. At the end of the intervention, there were no changes in plasma total or LDL cholesterol (LDL-C compared to baseline (P > 0.10 or differences in plasma total or LDL-C between groups. The mRNA abundance for HMG-CoA reductase and LDL-r were measured in mononuclear cells using real time PCR. The EGG group showed a significant decrease in HMG-CoA reductase mRNA (1.98 ± 1.26 to 1.32 ± 0.92 arbitrary units P

  8. Effects of dietary energy levels using calcium salts of fatty acids on nutritive value of diets and milk quality in peripartum dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum is a critical period for dairy goats, as dry matter intake (DMI is not enough to supply the energy requirement for foetal growth and subsequent lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase dietary energy level of peripartum dairy goats and its effects on nutritive value of diets and milk quality. Twenty multiparous Saanen goats (body weight 63.5±10.3 kg were distributed in a completely randomised design in four treatments at the following dietary energy levels: 2.6 Mcal of metabolisable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM - control diet; and 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9 Mcal/kg DM - with added CSFA. Goats were housed in individual stalls and evaluated in the peripartum period, by measuring body weight (BW, DMI, dry matter and nutrient digestibility of diets, blood composition, and milk quality and yield. Increasing dietary energy level to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had no effect on BW and did not limit DMI. CSFA supplementation increased intake of total digestible nutrients and did not affect fibre digestion. Blood triglycerides and cholesterol concentration increased with CSFA addition. The treatments had no effect on milk yield and composition; however, CSFA supplementation changed the fatty acid concentration of milk fat, increasing levels of polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids. In conclusion, peripartum dairy goats supplemented with CSFA to increase dietary energy level up to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had a greater supply of total digestible nutrients and showed altered fatty acid concentration of milk fat.

  9. Moderately Decreased Dietary Salt Intake Suppresses the Progression of Renal Insufficiency in Rats with 5/6 Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Burkert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Up to now, an appropriate salt intake in renal insufficiency has not been clearly determined. We hypothesize that even a moderate decrease in salt intake may affect functional and morphologic response of the rat remnant kidney after 5/6 nephrectomy. Methods. Subtotal nephrectomy was performed in 77 inbred 12 week-old-female AVN Wistar rats. The two groups of rats were fed either a standard or a low salt diet. Median of salt intake was 14.6 and 10.4 mg/100 g/24 h in the two groups. Results. Ten weeks after ablation, the remnant kidney parenchyma wet weight was 0.66 ± 0.16 g/100 g of body weight and 0.56 ± 0.11 g/100 g of body weight (P<0.01 in rats with a standard and low salt diet, respectively. In these two groups, systolic blood pressure was 151 ± 29 versus 126 ± 21 mmHg (P<0.05, serum creatinine levels were 164 ± 84 versus 106 ± 29 µmol/L (P<0.001, proteinuria was 84 ± 37 versus 83 ± 40 mg/100 g/24 h (N.S., and the glomerular injury score was 2.06 ± 0.49 versus 1.43 ± 0.62 (P<0.01, respectively. Conclusion. Moderately decreased salt intake slowed down the development of ablation nephropathy in AVN inbred strain of rats.

  10. Enquête alimentaire sur la consommation de sel chez des hypertendus à Oran (Algérie en 2014 [Dietary survey of salt consumption in hypertensive subjects of Oran (Algeria on 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imene DRAOUA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypertension is a cardiovascular risk factor which results from the combination of genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional factors may explain 30 to 75% of hypertension cases. Objective. To investigate the association between dietary salt intake and blood pressure control in hypertensive subjects. Population and methods. A prospective investigation to comprehensive collection was realized in 162 hypertensive patients, aged between 27 and 87 years and monitored in cardiology offices in Oran city from June 1st to December 31th 2014. The daily intake of salt was estimated by a food inquiry about the main salty foods.The patients were scored according to the quantity of salt in each food, then classified into three groups according to their salt intake level as low,reasonable, and excessive consumption. Results. The average age of patients was 57± 12 years The average salt consumption represented 8.73 ± 3.11 g/day. The average systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic (DBP were respectively 137 97 mmHg and 88.99 mmHg. A significant relationship was found between salt intake and blood pressure control level (OR = 3.38; 95% CI = [1.43-8]. Conclusion. The reduction of dietary salt can lower significantly blood pressure; nutritional actions must be deployed for a better blood pressure control.

  11. Cotyledonary responses to maternal selenium and dietary restriction may influence alteration in fetal weight and fetal liver glycogen sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    To examine the effects of maternal supranutritional Se and nutrient restriction during mid and late gestation on placental characteristics and fetal liver glycogen, ewes received either adequate Se (ASe) or high Se (HSe) prior to breeding. On day 64 of gestation, ASe and HSe ewes remained at 100% of...

  12. Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Qiu, Qinghua; Shao, Taoqi; Niu, Wenjing; Xia, Chuanqi; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qianwen; Gao, Zhibiao; Yu, Zhantao; Su, Huawei; Cao, Binghai

    2017-12-20

    This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P fatty acids in plasma. Alfalfa and CSFA had mutual interaction effect on fat digestion and plasma triglycerides.

  13. SOD isoforms play no role in lifespan in ad lib or dietary restricted conditions, but mutational inactivation of SOD-1 reduces life extension by cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Kelvin; Patel, Harshil B; Lublin, Alex L; Mobbs, Charles V

    2009-03-01

    The free radical theory of aging is one of the most prominent theories of aging and senescence, but has yet to be definitively proven. If free radicals are the cause of senescence, then the cellular anti-oxidant system should play a large role in lifespan determination. Because superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays a central role in detoxifying superoxide radicals, we have examined the effects of mutational inactivation of each isoform of sod on normal lifespan and lifespan extension by dietary restriction (DR) or cold-/hypothermic-induced longevity (CHIL). We find no significant decrease in lifespan for control worms or worms undergoing DR when sod isoforms are knocked-out even though sod mutational inactivation produces hypersensitivity to paraquat. In contrast, sod-1 inactivation significantly reduces lifespan extension by CHIL, suggesting that CHIL requires a specific genetic program beyond simple reduction in metabolic rate. Furthermore, CHIL paradoxically increases lifespan while reducing resistance to oxidative stress, further disassociating oxidative stress resistance and lifespan.

  14. Whole Grain Compared with Refined Wheat Decreases the Percentage of Body Fat Following a 12-Week, Energy-Restricted Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Toubro, Søren; Jensen, Morten Georg

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies show inverse associations between intake of whole grain and adiposity and cardiovascular risk; however, only a few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole-grain consumption on health outcomes. We studied the effect of replacing refined wheat (RW......) with whole-grain wheat (WW) for 12 wk on body weight and composition after a 2-wk run-in period of consumption of RW-containing food intake. In this open-label randomized trial, 79 overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomized to an energy-restricted diet (deficit of approximately 1250 k...... body weight changes did not differ between the RW and WW groups. Serum total and LDL cholesterol, two important risk factors of cardiovascular disease, increased with RW but not WW consumption, which may suggest a cardioprotective role for whole grain....

  15. Prolonged calorie restriction downregulates skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling independent of dietary protein intake and associated microRNA expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M Margolis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Short-term (5-10 days calorie restriction (CR downregulates muscle protein synthesis, with consumption of a high protein-based diet attenuating this decline. Benefit of increase protein intake is believed to be due to maintenance of amino acid-mediated anabolic signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, however, there is limited evidence to support this contention. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of prolonged CR and high protein diets on skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling and expression of associated microRNA (miR. 12-wk old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or calorie restricted (CR; 40% adequate (10%, AIN-93M or high (32% protein milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle protein content was calculated from muscle homogenate protein concentrations expressed relative to fat-free mass to estimate protein content. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to determine mTORC1 signaling and mRNA and miR expression in fasted mixed gastrocnemius. Independent of dietary protein intake, muscle protein content was 38% lower (P < 0.05 in CR compared to AL. Phosphorylation and total Akt, mTOR, rpS6 and p70S6K were lower (P < 0.05 in CR versus AL, and total rpS6 was associated with muscle protein content (r = 0.64, r2 = 0.36. Skeletal muscle miR expression was not altered by either energy or protein intake. This study provides evidence that chronic CR attenuates muscle protein content by downregulating mTORC1 signaling. This response is independent of skeletal muscle miR and dietary protein.

  16. Effects of Vitamin D Receptor Activation and Dietary Sodium Restriction on Residual Albuminuria in CKD: The ViRTUE-CKD Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyzer, Charlotte A; van Breda, G Fenna; Vervloet, Marc G; de Jong, Maarten A; Laverman, Gozewijn D; Hemmelder, Marc H; Janssen, Wilbert M T; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Kwakernaak, Arjan J; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan; de Borst, Martin H

    2017-04-01

    Reduction of residual albuminuria during single-agent renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade is accompanied by improved cardiorenal outcomes in CKD. We studied the individual and combined effects of the vitamin D receptor activator paricalcitol (PARI) and dietary sodium restriction on residual albuminuria in CKD. In a multicenter, randomized, placebo (PLAC)-controlled, crossover trial, 45 patients with nondiabetic CKD stages 1-3 and albuminuria >300 mg/24 h despite ramipril at 10 mg/d and BPalbuminuria (geometric mean) was 1060 (95% confidence interval, 778 to 1443) mg/24 h during RS + PLAC and 990 (95% confidence interval, 755 to 1299) mg/24 h during RS + PARI ( P =0.20 versus RS + PLAC). LS + PLAC reduced albuminuria to 717 (95% confidence interval, 512 to 1005) mg/24 h ( P albuminuria to 683 (95% confidence interval, 502 to 929) mg/24 h ( P albuminuria reduction ( P =0.04 LS + PARI versus LS + PLAC). Dietary adherence was good as reflected by urinary excretion of 174±64 mmol Na + per day in the combined RS groups and 108±61 mmol Na + per day in the LS groups ( P albuminuria during fixed dose angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. The additional effect of PARI was small and nonsignificant. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. The effect of dietary restriction on longevity, fecundity, and antioxidant responses in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Er-Hu; Wei, Dong; Wei, Dan-Dan; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies in fruit flies have imposed dietary restriction (DR) by diluting yeast and have reported increased lifespan as the yeast-to-sugar ratio decreased. In this study, the effects of DR on the lifespan of Bactrocera dorsalis were investigated using constant-feeding diets with different yeast:sugar ratios and an intermittent-feeding diet in which flies ate every sixth day. Antioxidant enzyme activities and the malondialdehyde concentration were also measured in virgin females under constant-feeding DR protocols to investigate their relationships with lifespan. The results showed that B. dorsalis lifespan was significantly extended by DR, and carbohydrate-enriched diet may be important for lifespan-extension. Female flies lived significantly longer than males at all dietary levels under both feeding regimes, indicating no interaction between diet and sex in determining lifespan. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased with the amount of yeast increased in the diets (0-4.76%) between starvation and DR treatments, indicating that the antioxidants may have influences in determining lifespan in B. dorsalis under starvation and DR treatments. However, antioxidants cannot keep up with increased oxidative damage induced by the high yeast diet (25%). These results revealed that the extension of lifespan by DR is evolutionarily conserved in B. dorsalis and that yeast:sugar ratios significantly modulate lifespan in this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Altered Metabolic Profile With Sodium-Restricted Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet in Hypertensive Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Anna V; Seymour, E Mitchell; Byun, Jaeman; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Hummel, Scott L

    2015-12-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasingly recognized as a distinct entity with unique pathophysiology. In the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension in Diastolic Heart Failure (DASH-DHF) study, the sodium-restricted Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (DASH/SRD) was associated with improved blood pressure and cardiovascular function in 13 hypertensive patients with HFpEF. With the use of targeted metabolomics, we explored metabolite changes and their relationship with energy-dependent measures of cardiac function in DASH-DHF. With the use of chromatography and mass spectrometry, 152 metabolites including amino acids, free fatty acids, phospholipids, diglycerides, triglycerides, cholesterol esters, and acyl carnitines were measured. Comparison of baseline and post-DASH/SRD samples revealed increases in short-chain acetyl, butryl, and propionyl carnitines (P values .02, .03, .03, respectively). Increases in propionyl carnitine correlated with ventricular-arterial coupling ratio (Ees:Ea; r = 0.78; P = .005) and ventricular contractility (maximum rate of change of pressure-normalized stress [dσ*/dtmax]; r = 0.66; P = .03). Changes in L-carnitine also correlated with Ees:Ea (r = 0.62; P = .04) and dσ*/dtmax (r = 0.60; P = .05) and inversely with ventricular stiffness (r = -0.63; P = .03). Metabolite profile changes of patients with HFpEF during dietary modification with the use of DASH/SRD suggest improved energy substrate utilization. Additional studies are needed to clarify connections between diet, metabolic changes, and myocardial function in HFpEF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Synergic chemoprevention with dietary carbohydrate restriction and supplementation of AMPK-activating phytochemicals: the role of SIRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Doo; Choi, Min-Ah; Ro, Simon Weonsang; Yang, Woo Ick; Cho, Arthur E H; Ju, Hye-Lim; Baek, Sinhwa; Chung, Sook In; Kang, Won Jun; Yun, Mijin; Park, Jeon Han

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) can increase life span in normal cells while inhibiting carcinogenesis. Various phytochemicals also have calorie restriction-mimetic anticancer properties. We investigated whether an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-activating phytochemicals induce synergic tumor suppression. We used a mixture of AMPK-activating phytochemical extracts including curcumin, quercetin, catechins, and resveratrol. Survival analysis was carried out in a B16F10 melanoma model fed a control diet (62.14% kcal carbohydrate, 24.65% kcal protein and 13.2% kcal fat), a control diet with multiple phytochemicals (MP), LCD (16.5, 55.2, and 28.3% kcal, respectively), LCD with multiple phytochemicals (LCDmp), a moderate-carbohydrate diet (MCD, 31.9, 62.4, and 5.7% kcal, respectively), or MCD with phytochemicals (MCDmp). Compared with the control group, MP, LCD, or MCD intervention did not produce survival benefit, but LCDmp (22.80±1.58 vs. 28.00±1.64 days, P=0.040) and MCDmp (23.80±1.08 vs. 30.13±2.29 days, P=0.008) increased the median survival time significantly. Suppression of the IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, activation of the AMPK/SIRT1/LKB1pathway, and NF-κB suppression were the critical tumor-suppression mechanisms. In addition, SIRT1 suppressed proliferation of the B16F10 and A375SM cells under a low-glucose condition. Alterations in histone methylation within Pten and FoxO3a were observed after the MCDmp intervention. In the transgenic liver cancer model developed by hydrodynamic transfection of the HrasG12V and shp53, MCDmp and LCDmp interventions induced significant cancer-prevention effects. Microarray analysis showed that PPARα increased with decreased IL-6 and NF-κB within the hepatocytes after an MCDmp intervention. In conclusion, an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and natural AMPK-activating agents induce synergistic anticancer effects. SIRT1 acts as a

  20. Salts and nutrients present in regenerated waters induce changes in water relations, antioxidative metabolism, ion accumulation and restricted ion uptake in Myrtus communis L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Motos, José R; Alvarez, Sara; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Hernández, José A; Sánchez-Blanco, María J

    2014-12-01

    The use of reclaimed water (RW) constitutes a valuable strategy for the efficient management of water and nutrients in landscaping. However, RW may contain levels of toxic ions, affecting plant production or quality, a very important aspect for ornamental plants. The present paper evaluates the effect of different quality RWs on physiological and biochemical parameters and the recovery capacity in Myrtus communis L. plants. M. communis plants were submitted to 3 irrigation treatments with RW from different sources (22 weeks): RW1 (1.7 dS m(-1)), RW2 (4.0 dS m(-1)) and RW3 (8.0 dS m(-1)) and one control (C, 0.8 dS m(-1)). During a recovery period of 11 weeks, all plants were irrigated with the control water. The RW treatments did not negatively affect plant growth, while RW2 even led to an increase in biomass. After recovery,only plants irrigated with RW3 showed some negative effects on growth, which was related to a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, higher Na accumulation and a reduction in K levels. An increase in salinity was accompanied by decreases in leaf water potential, relative water content and gas exchange parameters, and increases in Na and Cl uptake. Plants accumulated Na in roots and restricted its translocation to the aerial part. The highest salinity levels produced oxidative stress, as seen from the rise in electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. The use of regenerated water together with carefully managed drainage practices, which avoid the accumulation of salt by the substrate, will provide economic and environmental benefits.

  1. Regression of cardiac hypertrophy in the SHR by combined renin-angiotensin system blockade and dietary sodium restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Abro

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Altered operation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS and dietary sodium intake have been identified as independent risk factors for cardiac hypertrophy. The way in which sodium intake and the operation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system interact in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy is poorly understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the cardiac effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS blockade in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, using co-treatment with an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor with different sodium intakes. Our experiments with SHR show that, at high levels of sodium intake (4.0%, aggressive RAS blockade treatment with candesartan (3 mg/kg and perindopril (6 mg/kg does not result in regression of cardiac hypertrophy. In contrast, RAS blockade coupled with reduced sodium diet (0.2% significantly regresses cardiac hypertrophy, impairs animal growth and is associated with elevated plasma renin and dramatically suppressed plasma angiotensinogen levels. Histological analyses indicate that the differential effect of reduced sodium on heart growth during RAS blockade is not associated with any change in myocardial interstitial collagen, but reflects modification of cellular geometry. Dimensional measurements of enzymatically-isolated ventricular myocytes show that, in the RAS blocked, reduced sodium group, myocyte length and width were decreased by about 16—19% compared with myocytes from the high sodium treatment group. Our findings highlight the importance of `titrating' sodium intake with combined RAS blockade in the clinical setting to optimise therapeutic benefit.

  2. Response to dietary-induced energy restriction in dairy sheep divergently selected for resistance or susceptibility to mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Muller, J; Allain, C; Enjalbert, F; Tabouret, G; Portes, D; Caubet, C; Tasca, C; Foucras, G; Rupp, R

    2016-01-01

    Dairy ruminants experiencing a severe postpartum negative energy balance (NEB) are considered to be more susceptible to mastitis. Although the genetic variability of mastitis resistance is well established, the biological basis of the link between energy metabolism and resistance is mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of NEB on metabolism and immune response according to the genetic background for mastitis resistance or susceptibility. Forty-eight ewes from high and low somatic cell score (SCS) genetic lines were allocated to 2 homogeneous subgroups 2 wk after lambing: one group (NEB) received an energy-restricted diet to cover 60% of their energy requirements, and the other group received a control (positive energy balance: PEB) diet. Both diets met the protein requirements. After 10 d on either the NEB or PEB diet, all ewes were injected with a Pam3CSK4/MDP solution in one half-udder to induce an inflammatory response. The ewes were monitored for milk production, somatic cell count (SCC), body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and blood metabolites. Differential milk cell counts were determined by flow cytometry. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and triiodothyronine were determined. Energy restriction resulted in an increased fat:protein ratio in milk and decreased milk yield, BW, and BCS. The NEB ewes had significantly higher NEFA and BHB and lower plasma glucose concentrations than PEB ewes, reflecting a mobilization of body reserves and ketone body synthesis. High-SCS ewes had a higher SCS than low-SCS throughout the experiment, except after the inflammatory challenge, which resulted in similar SCS in all 4 groups. A noteworthy interaction between genetic background and diet was evidenced on metabolic parameters and BW. Indeed, high-SCS ewes subjected to NEB showed greater decrease in BW and increased NEFA and BHB concentrations compared with low

  3. Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Serum Mineral Chemistry as Affected by Dietary Sodium and Sodium Salts Fed to Broiler Chickens Reared under Phase Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. H. Mushtaq

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A basal diet (0.8 g/kg dNa was formulated in which each of the two sources (NaHCO3 and Na2SO4 were supplemented in such a way to attain four levels (1.7, 2.6, 3.5, and 4.4 g/kg of total dNa, respectively, under 4×2 factorial arrangement. Eight dietary treatments were replicated four times, with 40 birds in each replicate (n = 1,280. The diets supplemented with Na2SO4 to attain higher levels of dNa showed highest BW gain and feed intake (FI during d 1 to 10 (interaction effects while 2.6 g/kg dNa exhibited improved BW gain and gain:feed (FG during d 11 to 20. Linear rise in daily water intake (DWI was associated with diets containing increasing dNa during d 1 to 42 (p≤0.036. During the first 10 d, DWI:FI was found highest in NaHCO3 diets while Na2SO4 diets showed highest DWI:FI during last 10 d of the experiment (p≤0.036. Increasing dNa and changing Na2SO4 with NaHCO3 salt increased pH and resulted in poor growth performance. Dressing weight (p≤0.001 and abdominal fat (p≤0.001; quadratic effect were reduced, whereas breast (p≤0.001 and thigh (p<0.001 weights were aggravated with increasing dNa (linear effects. Present findings suggested higher levels of dNa from Na2SO4 as the supplemental salt in broiler diets would produce better growth performance, especially in first ten days of life, and improve carcass and body organ characteristics.

  4. Hypertension Due to Toxic White Crystals in the Diet: Should We Blame Salt or Sugar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H

    The "Salt Hypothesis" is the notion that an increase in salt intake will increase blood pressure and thus increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD),which has been a point of contention for decades. Despite this, numerous health organizations, dietary guidelines, and government policies advocate population-wide salt restriction. However, there is no conclusive proof that restricting salt intake reduces the risk of hypertension (HTN) and/or CVD events; sodium restriction in fact may paradoxically lead to adverse health outcomes. Importantly, another white crystal, sucrose (or table sugar) but also high-fructose corn syrup are much more detrimental food additives. Indeed, added sugars have the ability to induce hypertension via the promotion of inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and obesity. Considering that there is no physiologic requirement for dietary carbohydrate, there is little reason to suspect adverse health consequences from cutting back on sugar. This paper reviews the evidence relating to salt and sugar on HTN and CVD. Based on our review of the scientific literature, guidelines should focus more on reducing sugar rather than salt for the prevention and treatment of HTN and its consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Using the Global Burden of Disease study to assist development of nation-specific fact sheets to promote prevention and control of hypertension and reduction in dietary salt: a resource from the World Hypertension League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Lackland, Daniel T; Lisheng, Liu; Niebylski, Mark L; Nilsson, Peter M; Zhang, Xin-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Increased blood pressure and high dietary salt are leading risks for death and disability globally. Reducing the burden of both health risks are United Nations' targets for reducing noncommunicable disease. Nongovernmental organizations and individuals can assist by ensuring widespread dissemination of the best available facts and recommended interventions for both health risks. Simple but impactful fact sheets can be useful for informing the public, healthcare professionals, and policy makers. The World Hypertension League has developed fact sheets on dietary salt and hypertension but in many circumstances the greatest impact would be obtained from national-level fact sheets. This manuscript provides instructions and a template for developing fact sheets based on the Global Burden of Disease study and national survey data. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. DAF-2/insulin-like signaling in C. elegans modifies effects of dietary restriction and nutrient stress on aging, stress and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy B Iser

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction (DR and reduced insulin/IGF-I-like signaling (IIS are two regimens that promote longevity in a variety of organisms. Genetic analysis in C. elegans nematodes has shown that DR and IIS couple to distinct cellular signaling pathways. However, it is not known whether these pathways ultimately converge on overlapping or distinct targets to extend lifespan.We investigated this question by examining additional effects of DR in wildtype animals and in daf-2 mutants with either moderate or severe IIS deficits. Surprisingly, DR and IIS had opposing effects on these physiological processes. First, DR induced a stress-related change in intestinal vesicle trafficking, termed the FIRE response, which was suppressed in daf-2 mutants. Second, DR did not strongly affect expression of a daf-2- and stress-responsive transcriptional reporter. Finally, DR-related growth impairment was suppressed in daf-2 mutants.These findings reveal that an important biological function of DAF-2/IIS is to enhance growth and survival under nutrient-limited conditions. However, we also discovered that levels of DAF-2 pathway activity modified the effects of DR on longevity. Thus, while DR and IIS clearly affect lifespan through independent targets, there may also be some prolongevity targets that are convergently regulated by these pathways.

  7. Dietary restriction delays the secretion of senescence associated secretory phenotype by reducing DNA damage response in the process of renal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjuan; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2017-09-13

    Dietary restriction (DR) has multiple and essential effects in protecting against DNA damage in model organisms. Persistent DNA damage plays a central role in the process of aging. Senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), as a product of cellular aging, can accelerate the process of cellular senescence as a feedback. In this study, we directly observed whether a DR of 30% for 6months in aged rats could retard SASP by delaying the progression of DNA damage and also found the specific mechanism. The results revealed that a 30% DR could significantly improve renal pathology and some metabolic characteristics. The biomarkers and products of DNA damage were decreased in the process of renal aging on a 30% DR. A series of SASP, notably cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor, were obviously reduced by DR during renal aging. The phosphorylation levels of NF-κB and IκBα in aged kidneys of DR group were markedly reduced. These findings suggest that a 30% DR for 6months can delay renal aging and reduce the accumulation of SASP by retarding the progression of DNA damage and decreasing the transcription activity of NF-κB, thus providing a target to delay renal aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary phosphorus restriction by a standard low-protein diet decreased serum fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in patients with early and advanced stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shunsuke; Nakai, Kentaro; Kono, Keiji; Yonekura, Yuriko; Ito, Jun; Fujii, Hideki; Nishi, Shinichi

    2014-12-01

    Elevated serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels are associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, and disease progression in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although recent studies demonstrated that FGF23 levels decreased in response to dietary restriction of phosphorus and/or use of phosphate binders, research on the effects of a standard low-protein diet is lacking. The effects of a standard low-protein diet on serum FGF23, intact parathyroid hormone, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were investigated in patients with early (n = 15) and advanced (n = 20) CKD. Serum FGF23 levels decreased in both groups. Changes in FGF23 levels correlated with changes in 24 h urinary phosphorus excretion in the advanced CKD group. Decreased serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were observed only in the advanced CKD group and increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels only in the early CKD group. These findings suggest that consuming standard low-protein diet decreased serum FGF23 levels in patients with CKD. Serum FGF23 levels may therefore be a useful marker to monitor the effects of a low-protein diet in early and advanced stage CKD.

  9. Effect of dietary restriction on metabolic, anatomic and molecular traits in mice depends on the initial level of basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Pawel; Ksiazek, Aneta; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-09-15

    Dietary restriction (DR)-related delay of ageing is hypothesized to be mediated by the reduction of the metabolic rate (MR). However, studies on the effect of DR on MR have produced equivocal results. We demonstrated that this lack of congruency can be due to a variation in the initial level of MR within a given pool of experimental subjects. We subjected laboratory mice from two line types divergently selected for basal MR (BMR) to 30% DR lasting 6 months to test whether the effect of DR depends on the initial variation in BMR and peak MR. BMR and peak MR were independently affected by DR. The effect of DR was stronger in line types with higher initial levels of MR. Line-type-specific changes in the proportions of body components explained contrasting effects of DR on the mass-corrected BMR, which decreased in the high-BMR line type and did not change in the low-BMR line type. We conclude that the initial variation in MR can significantly affect response to DR. However, we found no association between the level of MR and mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to or protection against oxidative stress.

  10. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation Improves the Intestinal Development and Immune Function of Neonates with Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction in a Pig Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianqiang Che

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to determine whether dietary nucleotides supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR neonate using pig as animal model. A total of 14 pairs of normal birth weight (NBW and IUGR piglets (7 days old were randomly assigned to receive a milk-based control diet (CON diet or diet supplemented with nucleotides (NT diet for a period of 21 days. Blood samples, intestinal tissues and digesta were collected at necropsy and analyzed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, microbial populations, peripheral immune cells, expression of intestinal innate immunity and barrier-related genes and proteins. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had significantly lower average daily dry matter intake and body weight gain (P<0.05. Moreover, IUGR markedly decreased the villous height and villi: crypt ratio in duodenum (P<0.05, as well as the maltase activity in jejunum (P<0.05. In addition, IUGR significantly decreased the serum concentrations of IgA, IL-1βand IL-10 (P<0.05, as well as the percentage of peripheral lymphocytes (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the down-regulation of innate immunity-related genes such as TOLLIP (P<0.05, TLR-9 (P = 0.08 and TLR-2 (P = 0.07 was observed in the ileum of IUGR relative to NBW piglets. Regardless of birth weight, however, feeding NT diet markedly decreased (P<0.05 feed conversion ratio, increased the villous height in duodenum (P<0.05, activities of lactase and maltase in jejunum (P<0.05, count of peripheral leukocytes (P<0.05, serum concentrations of IgA and IL-1β as well as gene expressions of TLR-9, TLR-4 and TOLLIP in ileum (P<0.05. In addition, expressions of tight junction proteins (Claudin-1 and ZO-1 in ileum were markedly increased by feeding NT diet relative to CON diet (P<0.05. These results indicated that IUGR impaired growth performance, intestinal and immune function, but dietary nucleotides supplementation

  11. EFFECT OF ULTRAVIOLET B RADIATION ON ACTIVATOR PROTEIN 1 CONSTITUENT PROTEINS AND MODULATION BY DIETARY ENERGY RESTRICTION IN SKH-1 MOUSE SKIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Brian D.; Przybyszewski, Joseph; Chen, Haw-Wen; Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Birt, Diane F.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the timing of modulation of activator protein 1(AP-1):DNA binding and production of AP-1 constituent proteins by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation and effect of dietary energy restriction [DER, 40% calorie reduction from fat and carbohydrate compared to control ad-libitum (AL) diet] in SKH-1 mouse epidermis. AP-1:DNA binding by electromobility shift assay (EMSA) was increased in a biphasic manner after treatment with a tumor promoting suberythemal dose (750mJ/cm2) of UVB light (311-313nm) with peaks at 3 and 18 hours post irradiation. DER overall reduced AP-1:DNA binding in mock-treated and UVB treated skin at 3 and 18 hours after UVB treatment. The timing of modulation of production of AP-1 constituent proteins by western blot analysis was examined at 0hr (mock treatment), 3hr, 9hr, 18hr, and 24hr. We found that c-jun (9 hr), jun-B (9 and 18hrs), phosphorylated c-jun (3hr), and fra-1 (18hr) protein levels were increased after UVB treatment compared to mock controls. In a follow-up diet experiment, animals were placed on DER or AL diet for 10-12 weeks and treated with UVB as before. DER was found to completely block the UVB induced increase in phosphorylated c-jun protein levels and decrease in fra-2 protein levels at 18hr. In addition, DER enhanced UVB-induced increase in jun-B levels and lowered basal levels of c-fos seen 18 hours after UVB. These data suggest that DER may be able to assist in the prevention of UVB induced skin carcinogenesis by modulating AP-1:DNA binding and AP-1 constituent protein levels. PMID:19263438

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor C levels are modulated by dietary salt intake in proteinuric chronic kidney disease patients and in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagman, Maartje C. J.; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Yazdani, Saleh; Laverman, Gozewijn D.; van den Born, Jaap; Titze, Jens; Navis, Gerjan

    Background. Recent experimental findings demonstrate vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C)-mediated water-free storage of salt in the interstitium, which prevents a salt-sensitive blood pressure state. It is unknown whether this mechanism plays a role in salt homeostasis and regulation of

  13. Low lactase activity in a small-bowel biopsy specimen : Should dietary lactose intake be restricted in children with small intestinal mucosal damage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, HA; Vonk, RJ; Gonera-de Jong, GBC; Priebe, MG; Antoine, JM; Stellaard, F; Sauer, PJJ

    Objective. Small intestinal mucosal damage can result in decreased lactase activity (LA). When LA is low in a small-bowel biopsy (SBB) specimen, a reduction of dietary lactose intake is usually advised. This is often done by reducing dietary dairy products, which also reduces the intake of calcium,

  14. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Maalouf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt.

  15. Salt, Aldosterone, and Parathyroid Hormone: What Is the Relevance for Organ Damage?

    OpenAIRE

    Catena, Cristiana; Colussi, Gian Luca; Brosolo, Gabriele; Bertin, Nicole; Novello, Marileda; Palomba, Andrea; Sechi, Leonardo A.

    2017-01-01

    Structured interventions on lifestyle have been suggested as a cost-effective strategy for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that dietary salt restriction effectively decreases blood pressure, but its influence on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is still under debate. Evidence gathered from studies conducted in patients with primary aldosteronism, essential hypertension, or heart failure demonstrates that long-term exposure to elevated aldosterone ...

  16. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods. The objective ...

  17. Dietary restriction-resistant human tumors harboring the PIK3CA-activating mutation H1047R are sensitive to metformin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufí, Sílvia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni; Bonavia, Rosa; Pernas, Sonia; López, Isabel álvarez; Dorca, Joan; Martínez, Susana; López, Norberto Batista; Fernández, Severina Domínguez; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Visa, Joana; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Joven, Jorge; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Menendez, Javier A.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells expressing constitutively active phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) are proliferative regardless of the absence of insulin, and they form dietary restriction (DR)-resistant tumors in vivo. Because the binding of insulin to its receptors activates the PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade, activating mutations in the PIK3CA oncogene may determine tumor response to DR-like pharmacological strategies targeting the insulin and mTOR pathways. The anti-diabetic drug metformin is a stereotypical DR mimetic that exerts its anti-cancer activity through a dual mechanism involving insulin-related (systemic) and mTOR-related (cell-autonomous) effects. However, it remains unclear whether PIK3CA-activating mutations might preclude the anti-cancer activity of metformin in vivo. To model the oncogenic PIK3CA-driven early stages of cancer, we used the clonal breast cancer cell line MCF10DCIS.com, which harbors the gain-of-function H1047R hot-spot mutation in the catalytic domain of the PI3KCA gene and has been shown to form DR-refractory xenotumors. To model PIK3CA-activating mutations in late stages of cancer, we took advantage of the isogenic conversion of a PIK3CA-wild-type tumor into a PIK3CA H1047R-mutated tumor using the highly metastatic colorectal cancer cell line SW48. MCF10DCIS.com xenotumors, although only modestly affected by treatment with oral metformin (approximately 40% tumor growth inhibition), were highly sensitive to the intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of metformin, the anti-cancer activity of which increased in a time-dependent manner and reached >80% tumor growth inhibition by the end of the treatment. Metformin treatment via the i.p. route significantly reduced the proliferation factor mitotic activity index (MAI) and decreased tumor cellularity in MCF10DCIS.com cancer tissues. Whereas SW48-wild-type (PIK3CA+/+) cells rapidly formed metformin-refractory xenotumors in mice, ad libitum access to water containing

  18. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  19. Clinico-pathological findings in peripartum dairy cows fed anion salts lowering the dietary cation-anion difference: involvement of serum inorganic phosphorus, chloride and plasma estrogen concentrations in milk fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Naotoshi; Yamato, Osamu; Sasamoto, Yoshihiko; Mori, Fuminobu; Imoto, Seiichi; Kojima, Toshiyuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maede, Yoshimitsu

    2007-05-01

    In our previous study, it was demonstrated that the administration of anion salts, which slightly lower the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), in the prepartum period is safe and effective for preventing milk fever in multiparous cows. In the present study, several clinico-pathological constituents in serum and urine, which might be related to milk fever, were analyzed using stored samples from the previous study to identify clinico-pathological parameters for easily evaluating the efficacy of lowering DCAD and to further investigate the mechanism by which lowering DCAD prevents milk fever. Among the parameters analyzed in the present study, inorganic phosphorus (iP) was involved in milk fever because the serum concentration and urinary excretion of iP were significantly higher in the group of primiparous cows (heifer group), which did not develop hypocalcemia, than those in other groups of multiparous cows. Serum chloride concentrations in the heifer group and the group of multiparous cows fed anion salts (anion group) tended to remain higher than those in other control groups of multiparous cows suggesting that serum chloride concentration may be utilized for evaluating the status of metabolic acidosis and the efficacy of lowerng DCAD in dairy cows fed anion salts. In addition, plasma estradiol-17beta concentration in the heifer group tended to be lower at parturition compared with that in other multiparous groups suggesting that estrogen known as a potent inhibitor of bone resorption may be involved in developing milk fever.

  20. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  1. Effect of physical activity and dietary restriction interventions on weight loss and the musculoskeletal function of overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and mixed method data synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrushud, Asma S; Rushton, Alison B; Kanavaki, Archontissa M; Greig, Carolyn A

    2017-06-08

    Despite the clinical recommendation of exercise and diet for people with knee osteoarthritis (OA), there are no systematic reviews synthesising the effectiveness of combining physical activity and dietary restriction interventions on the musculoskeletal function of overweight and obese older adults with knee OA. To evaluate the effectiveness of combined physical activity and dietary restriction programmes on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and the musculoskeletal function of overweight and obese older adults with knee OA. A detailed search strategy was applied to key electronic databases (Ovid, Embase, Web of Science andCumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL)) for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English prior to 15 January 2017. Participants with BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 , aged ≥55 years of age and with radiographic evidence of knee OA. Physical activity plus dietary restriction programmes with usual care or exercise as the comparators. Primary outcome measures were body weight, BMI or musculoskeletal function. Secondary outcome measures were pain and quality of life. One pilot and two definitive trials with n=794 participants were included. Two articles reporting additional data and outcome measures for one of the RCTs were identified. All included RCTs had an unclear risk of bias. Meta-analysis was only possible to evaluate mobility (6 min walk test) at 6 months and the pooled random effect 15.05 (95% CI -11.77 to 41.87) across two trials with n=155 participants did not support the combined intervention programme. Narrative synthesis showed clear differences in favour of a reduced body weight and an increased 6 min walk in the intervention group compared with control groups. The quality of evidence of benefit of combining exercise and dietary interventions in older overweight/obese adults with knee OA is unclear. CRD42015019088 and ISRCTN, ISRCTN12906938. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  2. Spot Urine-guided Salt Reduction in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Kiyotaka; Yanai, Akane; Ishibashi, Yoshitaka

    2017-09-01

    Dietary salt restriction is important in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to reduce hypertension, cardiovascular events, progression of CKD, and mortality. However, recommending salt reduction for patients is difficult without knowing their actual sodium intake. This study evaluated the effectiveness of spot urine-guided salt reduction in CKD outpatients. A prospective cohort study was used. This study included a total of 127 adult outpatients (aged 60 ± 18 years, 80 males) with CKD. Their baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was 51.4 ± 25.1 (mL/minute/1.73 m 2 ), and 64 (50%) of them were with CKD stage 3a or 3b (both 32 [25%]). We informed the patients of their individual spot urine-estimated salt intake every time they visited the outpatient clinic. Based on the data, the nephrologist encouraged the patients to achieve their salt restriction goal. The primary outcome was the estimated salt excretion, and the secondary outcome was the urinary protein-to-Cr ratio (UPCR). Multiple regression analyses were performed to clarify the contributing factors of changes in both outcomes. Over a follow-up of 12 months, the median number of patients' visits was 7 (5-8). The estimated salt intake was significantly reduced from 7.98 ± 2.49 g/day to 6.77 ± 1.77 g/day (P intake, with borderline significance (P = .08). Providing spot urine-estimated salt intake feedback effectively motivated CKD patients to reduce their salt intake. Spot urine-guided salt reduction may slow CKD progression through decreased urinary protein excretion. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Salt and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Marija

    2010-05-01

    Besides cardiovascular disease, a high salt intake causes other adverse health effects, i.e., gastric and some other cancers, obesity (risk factor for many cancer sites), Meniere's disease, worsening of renal disease, triggering an asthma attack, osteoporosis, exacerbation of fluid retention, renal calculi, etc. Diets containing high amounts of food preserved by salting and pickling are associated with an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, nose and throat. Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer in some countries (especially in Japan), its prevention is one of the most important aspects of cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the U.S.A. and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and change in the incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors such as the intake of salt and salted food. The findings of many epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary salt intake is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer and this association was found to be strong in the presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection with atrophic gastritis. A high-salt intake strips the lining of the stomach and may make infection with H. pylori more likely or may exacerbate the infection. Salting, pickling and smoking are traditionally popular ways of preparing food in Japan and some parts of Asia. In addition to salt intake, cigarette smoking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables increase the risk of stomach cancer. However, it is not known whether it is specifically the salt in these foods or a combination of salt and other chemicals that can cause cancer. One study identified a mutagen in nitrite-treated Japanese salted fish, and chemical structure of this mutagen suggests that it is derived from methionine and that salt and nitrite are precursors for its formation. Working under conditions of heat stress greatly increased the workers

  4. Feasibility and antihypertensive effect of replacing regular salt with mineral salt -rich in magnesium and potassium- in subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkkinen Essi S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High salt intake is linked to hypertension whereas a restriction of dietary salt lowers blood pressure (BP. Substituting potassium and/or magnesium salts for sodium chloride (NaCl may enhance the feasibility of salt restriction and lower blood pressure beyond the sodium reduction alone. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and effect on blood pressure of replacing NaCl (Regular salt with a novel mineral salt [50% sodium chloride and rich in potassium chloride (25%, magnesium ammonium potassium chloride, hydrate (25%] (Smart Salt. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with an intervention period of 8-weeks in subjects (n = 45 with systolic (SBP 130-159 mmHg and/or diastolic (DBP 85-99 mmHg. During the intervention period, subjects consumed processed foods salted with either NaCl or Smart Salt. The primary endpoint was the change in SBP. Secondary endpoints were changes in DBP, daily urine excretion of sodium (24-h dU-Na, potassium (dU-K and magnesium (dU-Mg. Results 24-h dU-Na decreased significantly in the Smart Salt group (-29.8 mmol; p = 0.012 and remained unchanged in the control group: resulting in a 3.3 g difference in NaCl intake between the groups. Replacement of NaCl with Smart Salt resulted in a significant reduction in SBP over 8 weeks (-7.5 mmHg; p = 0.016. SBP increased (+3.8 mmHg, p = 0.072 slightly in the Regular salt group. The difference in the change of SBP between study groups was significant (p Conclusions The substitution of Smart Salt for Regular salt in subjects with high normal or mildly elevated BP resulted in a significant reduction in their daily sodium intake as well as a reduction in SBP. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN01739816

  5. Feasibility and antihypertensive effect of replacing regular salt with mineral salt -rich in magnesium and potassium- in subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background High salt intake is linked to hypertension whereas a restriction of dietary salt lowers blood pressure (BP). Substituting potassium and/or magnesium salts for sodium chloride (NaCl) may enhance the feasibility of salt restriction and lower blood pressure beyond the sodium reduction alone. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and effect on blood pressure of replacing NaCl (Regular salt) with a novel mineral salt [50% sodium chloride and rich in potassium chloride (25%), magnesium ammonium potassium chloride, hydrate (25%)] (Smart Salt). Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with an intervention period of 8-weeks in subjects (n = 45) with systolic (S)BP 130-159 mmHg and/or diastolic (D)BP 85-99 mmHg. During the intervention period, subjects consumed processed foods salted with either NaCl or Smart Salt. The primary endpoint was the change in SBP. Secondary endpoints were changes in DBP, daily urine excretion of sodium (24-h dU-Na), potassium (dU-K) and magnesium (dU-Mg). Results 24-h dU-Na decreased significantly in the Smart Salt group (-29.8 mmol; p = 0.012) and remained unchanged in the control group: resulting in a 3.3 g difference in NaCl intake between the groups. Replacement of NaCl with Smart Salt resulted in a significant reduction in SBP over 8 weeks (-7.5 mmHg; p = 0.016). SBP increased (+3.8 mmHg, p = 0.072) slightly in the Regular salt group. The difference in the change of SBP between study groups was significant (p < 0.002). Conclusions The substitution of Smart Salt for Regular salt in subjects with high normal or mildly elevated BP resulted in a significant reduction in their daily sodium intake as well as a reduction in SBP. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN01739816 PMID:21888642

  6. Salt reduction in China: a state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao S

    2017-02-01

    restriction has been found to contribute to the reduction of blood pressure among both the normotensives and hypertensives bringing associated reduced disease burdens and great public health benefits. With gender, ethnic, and regional variations, salt intake levels in the population in China are well above the recommended threshold and physiological need. Admittedly, excessive salt intake precipitates the high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease among the Chinese. Considering that the majority of the dietary salt is added during cooking in China, salt substitutes, salt restriction tools, and health education are the most common salt reduction initiatives with varying levels of effectiveness and acceptability among the Chinese population. Implication: Overwhelming evidence is in support of a well-coordinated nationwide salt restriction initiative as a key public health strategy for the prevention and control of hypertension and its related diseases. Orchestrated efforts from the government, industries, academia, health professionals, and the general public are required to achieve China’s long-term goal for salt reduction. Keywords: chronic disease, hypertension, salt reduction, health policy, Chinese population

  7. Supporting a population wide reduction of salt consumption in Costa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    quality of the processed and fast food supply, and trends in dietary salt intake and salt content labeling;. • measure the salt content in key processed food products and fast foods;. • identify school children's knowledge, perceptions, and behaviours on salt and its relation to food labeling and their health, to complement ...

  8. The role of obesity, salt and exercise on blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabouli, Stella; Papakatsika, Sofia; Kotsis, Vasilios

    2011-06-01

    The increasing trends of blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents pose great concern for the burden of hypertension-related cardiovascular disease. Although primary hypertension in childhood is commonly associated with obesity, it seems that other factors, such as dietary sodium and exercise, also influence BP levels in children and adolescents. Several studies support that sympathetic nervous system imbalance, impairment of the physiological mechanism of pressure natriuresis, hyperinsulinemia and early vascular changes are involved in the mechanisms causing elevated BP in obese children and adolescents. Under the current evidence on the association of salt intake and BP, dietary sodium restriction appears to be a rational step in the prevention of hypertension in genetically predisposed children and adolescents. Finally, interventional studies show that regular aerobic exercise can significantly reduce BP and restore vascular changes in obese with hypertensive pediatric patients. This article aims to summarize previous studies on the role of obesity, salt intake and exercise on BP in children and adolescents.

  9. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L

    2017-01-01

    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and

  10. The PGE(2)-EP4 receptor is necessary for stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in response to low dietary salt intake in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pöschke, Antje; Kern, Niklas; Maruyama, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    a similar attenuation of Na(+) excretion; however, diuresis and K(+) excretion were enhanced, and plasma Na(+) concentration was higher, whereas plasma K(+) concentration was lower compared with control diet. There were no significant differences between EP4(+/+) and EP4(-/-) mice in blood pressure......Increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and PGE(2) synthesis have been shown to be prerequisites for renal renin release after Na(+) deprivation. To answer the question of whether EP4 receptor type of PGE(2) mediates renin regulation under a low-salt diet, we examined renin regulation in EP4......(+/+), EP4(-/-), and in wild-type mice treated with EP4 receptor antagonist. After 2 wk of a low-salt diet (0.02% wt/wt NaCl), EP4(+/+) mice showed diminished Na(+) excretion, unchanged K(+) excretion, and reduced Ca(2+) excretion. Diuresis and plasma electrolytes remained unchanged. EP4(-/-) exhibited...

  11. Dietary salt and water pH effects on growth and Na+ fluxes of silver catfish juveniles = Efeito do sal na dieta e do pH da água no crescimento de juvenis de jundiá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Copatti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study verified the optimum dietary salt level for the growth and ion regulation of silver catfish juveniles at different water pH levels (5.5, 7.0 and 9.0. The control diet was supplemented with NaCl to yield experimental diets with 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% NaCl. Juveniles were collected at 15 and 35 days after the beginning of experiment for analyses of Na+ net fluxes. Exposure of silver catfish juveniles to alkaline or acidic water did not affect their survival. Fish fed with diets without NaCl supplementation and exposed to pH 7.0 showed significantly higher weight, length, specific growth rate and biomass per tank than those exposed to pH 5.5. Ionoregulatory disturbances of silver catfish maintained at all pH are less pronounced when fed higher dietary salt supplementation (1.0-2.0%NaCl. The increase of dietary NaCl reduced body Na+ loss and protected against the impact of acidic water on growth.Este estudo verificou o melhor nível de dieta de sal para o crescimento e regulação iônica de juvenis de jundiá em diferentes níveis de pH da água (5,5; 7,0 e 9,0. A dieta controle foi suplementada com 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0% de NaCl. Juvenis foram coletados aos 15 e 35 dias de experimento para análise dos fluxos líquidos de Na+. A exposição de juvenis de jundiá para águas ácidas ou alcalinas não afetou sua sobrevivência. Exemplares alimentados com dietas sem adição de NaCl e expostos em pH 7,0 mostraram peso, comprimento, taxade crescimento específico e biomassa/tanque significativamente maiores que aqueles expostos em pH 5,5. Distúrbios ionorregulatórios em jundiás mantidos em todos os pH são menos pronunciados quando em exemplares alimentados com dietas com maior suplmentação de sal (1,0-2,0% NaCl. O aumento de NaCl na dieta reduziu a perda de Na+corporal e protegeu contra o impacto da acidez da água no crescimento dos juvenis.

  12. Betaine improved restriction digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Keiki; Makihara, Tohru; Saito, Aya; Ohishi, Nobuya; Nagase, Takahide; Takai, Daiya

    2005-12-02

    Here we report that supplementation of a common compound betaine (1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethylmethanaminium inner salt) enhances restriction digestion of DNA molecules being resistant to digestion despite the existence of recognition sites. A previous study reported total isostabilization of DNA was achieved in the presence of 5.2M of betaine, however, we have observed the enhancement of restriction kinetics at 0.3M of betaine, therefore, it likely provided some catalytic proficiency to restriction enzymes rather than the induction of DNA conformational changes. Betaine also enhances catalytic efficiency of PCR, and our result of restriction digestion, taken together, suggests potential application of betaine in other enzymatic reactions in an aqueous solution.

  13. Metformin and dietary advice to improve insulin sensitivity and promote gestational restriction of weight among pregnant women who are overweight or obese: the GRoW Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Jodie M; Grivell, Rosalie M; Deussen, Andrea R; Dekker, Gustaaf; Louise, Jennie; Hague, William

    2016-11-21

    Obesity is a significant global health problem, with approximately 50% of women entering pregnancy having a body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m 2 . Obesity during pregnancy is associated with a well-recognised increased risk of adverse health outcomes both for the woman and her infant. Currently available data from large scale randomised trials and systematic reviews highlight only modest effects of antenatal dietary and lifestyle interventions in limiting gestational weight gain, with little impact on clinically relevant pregnancy outcomes. Further information evaluating alternative strategies is required. The aims of this randomised controlled trial are to assess whether the use of metformin as an adjunct therapy to dietary and lifestyle advice for overweight and obese women during pregnancy is effective in improving maternal, fetal and infant health outcomes. Design: Multicentre randomised, controlled trial. Women with a singleton, live gestation between 10 +0 -20 +0 weeks who are obese or overweight (defined as body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m 2 ), at the first antenatal visit. Trial Entry & Randomisation: Eligible, consenting women will be randomised between 10 +0 and 20 +0 weeks gestation using an online computer randomisation system, and randomisation schedule prepared by non-clinical research staff with balanced variable blocks. Stratification will be according to maternal BMI at trial entry, parity, and centre where planned to give birth. Treatment Schedules: Women randomised to the Metformin Group will receive a supply of 500 mg oral metformin tablets. Women randomised to the Placebo Group will receive a supply of identical appearing and tasting placebo tablets. Women will be instructed to commence taking one tablet daily for a period of one week, increasing to a maximum of two tablets twice daily over four weeks and then continuing until birth. Women, clinicians, researchers and outcome assessors will be blinded to the

  14. Salt, Aldosterone, and Parathyroid Hormone: What Is the Relevance for Organ Damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Catena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structured interventions on lifestyle have been suggested as a cost-effective strategy for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that dietary salt restriction effectively decreases blood pressure, but its influence on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is still under debate. Evidence gathered from studies conducted in patients with primary aldosteronism, essential hypertension, or heart failure demonstrates that long-term exposure to elevated aldosterone results in cardiac structural and functional changes that are independent of blood pressure. Animal experiments and initial clinical studies indicate that aldosterone damages the heart only in the context of an inappropriately elevated salt status. Recent evidence suggests that aldosterone might functionally interact with the parathyroid hormone and thereby affect calcium homeostasis with important sequelae for bone mineral density and strength. The interaction between aldosterone and parathyroid hormone might have implications also for the heart. Elevated dietary salt is associated on the one hand with increased urinary calcium excretion and, on the other hand, could facilitate the interaction between aldosterone and parathyroid hormone at the cellular level. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the contribution of salt and aldosterone to cardiovascular disease and the possible cardiac and skeletal consequences of the mutual interplay between aldosterone, parathyroid hormone, and salt.

  15. Contribution of energy restriction and macronutrient composition to changes in adipose tissue gene expression during dietary weight-loss programs in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capel, Frédéric; Viguerie, Nathalie; Vega, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hypoenergetic diets are used to reduce body fat mass and metabolic risk factors in obese subjects. The molecular changes in adipose tissue associated with weight loss and specifically related to the dietary composition are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated adipose tissue gene......,469 transcripts using DNA microarrays. Results were analyzed using dedicated statistical methods. Diet-sensitive regulations were confirmed on the other set of subjects. RESULTS: The two diets induced similar weight loss and similar changes for most of the biological variables except for components of the blood...... expression from human obese women according to energy deficit and the fat and carbohydrate content of the diet. DESIGN AND SETTING: Obese subjects recruited among eight European clinical centers were followed up 10 wk of either a low-fat (high carbohydrate) or a moderate-fat (low carbohydrate) hypoenergetic...

  16. Use of a computerized tracking system to monitor and provide feedback on dietary goals for calorie-restricted diets: the POUNDS LOST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; LeBlanc, Eric; Allen, H Raymond; Karabetian, Christy; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George; Williamson, Donald A

    2012-09-01

    The use of self-monitoring as a tool to facilitate behavioral modification is common in many lifestyle-based weight loss interventions. Electronic tracking programs, including computer-based systems and smart phone applications, have been developed to allow individuals to self-monitor their behavior digitally. These programs offer an advantage over traditional self-report modalities in that they can provide users with direct feedback about dietary and/or physical activity adherence levels and thereby assist them in real-time decision making. This article describes the use of an Internet-based computerized tracking system (CTS) that was developed specifically for the POUNDS LOST study, a 2-year randomized controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of four macronutrient diets for weight and fat reduction in healthy, overweight men and women (body mass index range = 25.0-39.9 kg/m(2)). The CTS served many functions in this study, including data collection, dietary and exercise assessment and feedback, messaging system, and report generation. Across all groups, participants with high usage of the CTS during the initial 8 weeks lost greater amounts of weight than participants with low usage (8.7% versus 5.5% of initial body weight, respectively; p < .001) at week 32. Rates of CTS utilization were highest during the first year of this 2-year intervention, and utilization of the CTS declined steadily over time. The unique features of the CTS combined with technological developments, such as smart phone applications, offer significant potential to improve the user's self-monitoring experience and adherence to health promotion programs designed specifically for individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Pilot study of dietary fat restriction and flaxseed supplementation in men with prostate cancer before surgery: exploring the effects on hormonal levels, prostate-specific antigen, and histopathologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demark-Wahnefried, W; Price, D T; Polascik, T J; Robertson, C N; Anderson, E E; Paulson, D F; Walther, P J; Gannon, M; Vollmer, R T

    2001-07-01

    Dietary fat and fiber affect hormonal levels and may influence cancer progression. Flaxseed is a rich source of lignan and omega-3 fatty acids and may thwart prostate cancer. The potential effects of flaxseed may be enhanced with concomitant fat restriction. We undertook a pilot study to explore whether a flaxseed-supplemented, fat-restricted diet could affect the biomarkers of prostatic neoplasia. Twenty-five patients with prostate cancer who were awaiting prostatectomy were instructed on a low-fat (20% of kilocalories or less), flaxseed-supplemented (30 g/day) diet. The baseline and follow-up levels of prostate-specific antigen, testosterone, free androgen index, and total serum cholesterol were determined. The tumors of diet-treated patients were compared with those of historic cases (matched by age, race, prostate-specific antigen level at diagnosis, and biopsy Gleason sum) with respect to apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase [TdT]-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling [TUNEL]) and proliferation (MIB-1). The average duration on the diet was 34 days (range 21 to 77), during which time significant decreases were observed in total serum cholesterol (201 +/- 39 mg/dL to 174 +/- 42 mg/dL), total testosterone (422 +/- 122 ng/dL to 360 +/- 128 ng/dL), and free androgen index (36.3% +/- 18.9% to 29.3% +/- 16.8%) (all P distribution of the apoptotic indexes differed significantly (P = 0.01) between groups, with most historic controls exhibiting TUNEL categorical scores of 0; diet-treated patients largely exhibited scores of 1. Both the proliferation rate and apoptosis were significantly associated with the number of days on the diet (P = 0.049 and P = 0.017, respectively). These pilot data suggest that a flaxseed-supplemented, fat-restricted diet may affect prostate cancer biology and associated biomarkers. Further study is needed to determine the benefit of this dietary regimen as either a complementary or preventive therapy.

  18. Multiresidue pesticide analysis of botanical dietary supplements using salt-out acetonitrile extraction, solid-phase extraction cleanup column, and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Douglas G; Wong, Jon W; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Kai; Lee, Nathaniel S; DiBenedetto, Alex L; Hengel, Mathew J

    2013-05-07

    Dietary supplements form an increasing part of the American diet, yet broadly applicable multiresidue pesticide methods have not been evaluated for many of these supplements. A method for the analysis of 310 pesticides, isomers, and pesticide metabolites in dried botanical dietary supplements has been developed and validated. Sample preparation involved acetonitrile:water added to the botanical along with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride for extraction, followed by cleanup with solid-phase extraction using a tandem cartridge consisting of graphitized carbon black (GCB) and primary-secondary amine sorbent (PSA). Pesticides were measured by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Accuracy and precision were evaluated through fortifications of 24 botanicals at 10, 25, 100, and 500 μg/kg. Mean pesticide recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) for all botanicals were 97%, 91%, 90%, and 90% and 15%, 10%, 8%, and 6% at 10, 25, 100, and 500 μg/kg, respectively. The method was applied to 21 incurred botanicals. Quinoxyfen was measured in hops (100-620 μg/kg). Tetraconazole (48 μg/kg), tetramethrin (15 μg/kg), methamidophos (50 μg/kg), and chlorpyrifos (93 μg/kg) were measured in licorice, mallow, tea, and tribulus, respectively. Quintozene, its metabolites and contaminants (pentachloroaniline, pentachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, and pentachlorothioanisole and hexachlorobenzene and tecnazene, respectively), with hexachlorocyclohexanes and DDT were identified in ginseng sources along with azoxystrobin, diazinon, and dimethomorph between 0.7 and 2800 μg/kg. Validation with these botanicals demonstrated the extent of this method's applicability for screening 310 pesticides in a wide array of botanical dietary supplements.

  19. SH2B1 CpG-SNP is associated with body weight reduction in obese subjects following a dietary restriction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansego, Maria Luisa; Milagro, Fermin Ignacio; Zulet, Maria Angeles; Martinez, José Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether 7 SNPs previously associated with obesity-related traits that add or remove potential sites of DNA methylation are accompanied by differential DNA methylation and subsequently affect adiposity variables or body weight reduction in WBC from obese subjects under an energy-restricted program. Anthropometric measurements were assessed in 47 volunteers recruited within the RESMENA study (Spain). At baseline, DNA from white blood cells was isolated and 7 obesity-related trait CpG-SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan-PCR. Then, methylation levels of CpG-SNP sites were quantified by MassArray® EpiTyper™ or MS-HRM approaches. Differential DNA methylation levels were observed by genotypes in all of the CpG-SNPs analyzed. The FTO and BDNF methylation levels were further correlated with baseline body weight and, BDNF mRNA levels and body weight change, respectively. Moreover, the rs7359397 (SH2B1) was associated with the body weight, body mass index, and truncal fat mass reduction. Our results reveal the interaction of epigenetic and genetic variations in CpG-SNPs, especially in BDNF and SH2B1 genes, and how allele-specific methylation may contribute to elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms as these SNPs are affecting the decrease of mRNA levels and contributing to a lower body weight reduction. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Protein restriction and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Huang, Xingguo; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-26

    Protein restriction without malnutrition is currently an effective nutritional intervention known to prevent diseases and promote health span from yeast to human. Recently, low protein diets are reported to be associated with lowered cancer incidence and mortality risk of cancers in human. In murine models, protein restriction inhibits tumor growth via mTOR signaling pathway. IGF-1, amino acid metabolic programing, FGF21, and autophagy may also serve as potential mechanisms of protein restriction mediated cancer prevention. Together, dietary intervention aimed at reducing protein intake can be beneficial and has the potential to be widely adopted and effective in preventing and treating cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pathophysiology of salt sensitivity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Dietary salt intake is the most important factor contributing to hypertension, but the salt susceptibility of blood pressure (BP) is different in individual subjects. Although the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension is heterogeneous, it is mainly attributable to an impaired renal capacity to excrete sodium (Na(+) ). We recently identified two novel mechanisms that impair renal Na(+) -excreting function and result in an increase in BP. First, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation in the kidney, which facilitates distal Na(+) reabsorption through epithelial Na(+) channel activation, causes salt-sensitive hypertension. This mechanism exists not only in models of high-aldosterone hypertension as seen in conditions of obesity or metabolic syndrome, but also in normal- or low-aldosterone type of salt-sensitive hypertension. In the latter, Rac1 activation by salt excess causes MR stimulation. Second, renospecific sympathoactivation may cause an increase in BP under conditions of salt excess. Renal beta2 adrenoceptor stimulation in the kidney leads to decreased transcription of the gene encoding WNK4, a negative regulator of Na(+) reabsorption through Na(+) -Cl (-) cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubules, resulting in salt-dependent hypertension. Abnormalities identified in these two pathways of Na(+) reabsorption in the distal nephron may present therapeutic targets for the treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  2. Using post-grazing sward height to impose dietary restrictions of varying duration in early lactation: its effects on spring-calving dairy cow production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosse, M; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Delaby, L; Ganche, E; Kennedy, E

    2015-04-01

    milk yield. The results indicate that the diet of dairy cows should not be restricted by imposing a severe PGSH for all of the first 10 weeks of lactation, cows should graze to 3.5 cm for at least 5 of these weeks.

  3. Novel Paradigms of Salt and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenguang; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Sanders, Paul W

    2017-05-01

    Salt resistance/sensitivity refers specifically to the effect of dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake on BP. Increased dietary salt intake promotes an early and uniform expansion of extracellular fluid volume and increased cardiac output. To compensate for these hemodynamic changes and maintain constant BP in salt resistance, renal and peripheral vascular resistance falls and is associated with an increase in production of nitric oxide. In contrast, the decline in peripheral vascular resistance and the increase in nitric oxide are impaired or absent in salt sensitivity, promoting an increase in BP in these individuals. Endothelial dysfunction may pose a particularly significant risk factor in the development of salt sensitivity and subsequent hypertension. Vulnerable salt-sensitive populations may have in common underlying endothelial dysfunction due to genetic or environmental influences. These individuals may be very sensitive to the hemodynamic stress of increased effective blood volume, setting in motion untoward molecular and biochemical events that lead to overproduction of TGF- β , oxidative stress, and limited bioavailable nitric oxide. Finally, chronic high-salt ingestion produces endothelial dysfunction, even in salt-resistant subjects. Thus, the complex syndrome of salt sensitivity may be a function of the endothelium, which is integrally involved in the vascular responses to high salt intake. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. The effect of dietary protein restriction on the secretory dynamics of 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone and urea in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula: a possible role for 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone in sodium retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K J; O'Toole, L B; Hazon, N

    1993-08-01

    The putative osmoregulatory role of the unique elasmobranch corticosteroid, 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone (1 alpha-OH-B), was investigated using dietary protein restriction as a means of limiting urea biosynthetic ability. Groups of dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) were adapted to either a high or a low protein diet (HPD and LPD respectively) and the secretory dynamics of urea and 1 alpha-OH-B were determined following acclimation to normal (100%), 130% and 50% sea water. In normal sea water, LPD fish showed significantly decreased blood production of urea compared with fish fed a HPD (P strategy adopted by these animals was the retention of high plasma concentrations of Na+ and Cl-, which increased plasma osmolality and tended to decrease osmotic water loss. Concomitant with the increased ion concentrations, plasma 1 alpha-OH-B concentration was also greatly elevated in LPD fish indicating that the steroid may be acting to minimize Na+ (and Cl-) excretion at osmoregulatory sites such as the rectal gland, kidney and gills. This and a previous study have also demonstrated that 1 alpha-OH-B concentration is elevated in 50% sea water. Decreases in plasma Na+ concentration are tolerated down to 75% sea water, whereafter Na+ is preferentially retained and further decreases in osmolality are achieved by reductions in plasma urea concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  6. Phosphate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many different combinations of the chemical phosphate with salts and minerals. Foods high in phosphate include dairy products, whole grain cereals, nuts, and certain meats. Phosphates found in dairy products ... People use phosphate salts for medicine. Be careful not to confuse phosphate ...

  7. Current Levels of Salt Knowledge: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Sarmugam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge.

  8. Reduced signaling of PI3K-Akt and RAS-MAPK pathways is the key target for weight-loss-induced cancer prevention by dietary calorie restriction and/or physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard, Joseph; Jiang, Yu; Yu, Miao; Su, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Zhihui; Xu, Jianteng; Chen, Jie; King, Brenee; Lu, Lizhi; Tomich, John; Baybutt, Richard; Wang, Weiqun

    2014-12-01

    Weight control through either dietary calorie restriction (DCR) or exercise has been associated with cancer prevention in animal models. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Bioinformatics using genomics, proteomics and lipidomics was employed to elucidate the molecular targets of weight control in a mouse skin cancer model. SENCAR mice were randomly assigned into four groups for 10 weeks: ad-libitum-fed sedentary control, ad-libitum-fed exercise (AE), exercise but pair-fed isocaloric amount of control (PE) and 20% DCR. Two hours after topical TPA treatment, skin epidermis was analyzed by Affymetrix for gene expression, DIGE for proteomics and lipidomics for phospholipids. Body weights were significantly reduced in both DCR and PE but not AE mice versus the control. Among 39,000 transcripts, 411, 67 and 110 genes were significantly changed in DCR, PE and AE, respectively. The expression of genes relevant to PI3K-Akt and Ras-MAPK signaling was effectively reduced by DCR and PE but not AE as measured through GenMAPP software. Proteomics analysis identified ~120 proteins, with 27 proteins significantly changed by DCR, including up-regulated apolipoprotein A-1, a key antioxidant protein that decreases Ras-MAPK activity. Of the total 338 phospholipids analyzed by lipidomics, 57 decreased by PE including 5 phophatidylinositol species that serve as PI3K substrates. Although a full impact has not been determined yet, it appears that the reduction of both Ras-MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways is a cancer preventive target that has been consistently demonstrated by three bioinformatics approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be mistaken for a condition called constrictive pericarditis. This condition causes the sac-like membrane around ... inflamed and thickened. Surgery can usually correct constrictive pericarditis. On the other hand, restrictive cardiomyopathy cannot be ...

  10. High and Low Salt Intake during Pregnancy: Impact on Cardiac and Renal Structure in Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seravalli, Priscila; de Oliveira, Ivone Braga; Zago, Breno Calazans; de Castro, Isac; Veras, Mariana Matera; Alves-Rodrigues, Edson Nogueira; Heimann, Joel C

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that dietary salt overload and salt restriction during pregnancy were associated with cardiac and renal structural and/or functional alterations in adult offspring. The present study evaluated renal and cardiac structure and the local renin-angiotensin system in newborns from dams fed high-, normal- or low-salt diets during pregnancy. Female Wistar rats were fed low- (LS, 0.15% NaCl), normal- (NS, 1.3% NaCl) or high- (HS, 8% NaCl) salt diets during pregnancy. Kidneys and hearts were collected from newborns (n = 6-8/group) during the first 24 hours after birth to evaluate possible changes in structure using stereology. Protein expression of renin-angiotensin system components was evaluated using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No differences between groups were observed in total renal volume, volume of renal compartments or number of glomeruli. The transverse diameter of the nuclei of cardiomyocytes was greater in HS than NS males in the left and right ventricles. Protein expression of the AT1 receptor was lower in the kidneys of the LS than in those of the NS and HS males but not females. Protein expression of the AT2 receptor was lower in the kidneys of the LS males and females than in those of the NS males and females. High salt intake during pregnancy induced left and right ventricular hypertrophy in male newborns. Salt restriction during pregnancy reduced the expression of renal angiotensin II receptors in newborns.

  11. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  12. Effect of Salt Intake on Serum Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Levels in Normotensive Salt-Sensitive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ling Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Excess dietary salt is a critical risk factor of salt-sensitive hypertension. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 , a gut incretin hormone, conferring benefits for blood pressure by natriuresis and diuresis. We implemented a randomized trial to verify the effect of altered salt intake on serum GLP-1 level in human beings. Methods: The 38 subjects were recruited from a rural community of Northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained a baseline diet period for 3 days, a low-salt diet period for 7 days (3.0g/day of NaCl , and a high-salt diet period for additional 7 days (18.0g/day of NaCl. Results: Serum GLP-1 level increased significantly with the change from the baseline period to the low-salt diet period and decreased with the change from the low-salt to high-salt diet in normotensive salt-sensitive (SS but not salt-resistant (SR individuals. There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum GLP-1 level and the MAP in SS subjects. Inverse correlation between the serum GLP-1 level and 24-h urinary sodium excretion was also found among different dietary interventions in SS subjects. Conclusions: Our study indicates that variations in dietary salt intake affect the serum GLP-1 level in normotensive salt-sensitive Chinese adults.

  13. Effect of prenatal exposure to different salt concentration on the third month's weight and blood pressure in wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fereidoun, H.

    2009-01-01

    In utero alterations in fluid and electrolyte endocrine systems may result in permanent effects on offspring. A low sodium intake during prenatal life jeopardizes growth in young rats, prenatal high-salt diet in Sprague-Dawley rats caused an increase in MAP at postnatal day 30. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prenatal exposure to different salt concentrations on the third month's weight and blood pressure in Wistar rat. This study was performed at the Department of Physiology, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran, over a period from 1998 to 2003. Six groups of rat, 1 male and 5 female in each group were exposed to 0.5, 1, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2 percent of salt concentrations during pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation period, another test group consumed distilled water and control group used Isfahan tap water, other living conditions for all groups were similar. Exposure to different salt concentrations on the third month's weight and blood pressure was evaluated. Prenatal exposure to 0.5 and 1% salt concentrations gives birth to more alive and healthy infants, and third month's weight increased significantly, but blood pressure was not influenced significantly. Salt concentrations higher than 1% increased the maternal and infant mortality rate and blood pressure significantly, but some concentrations decreased third month's weight significantly. Level of dietary salt during intrauterine development can influence on the number of alive and healthy infants, birth weight, third month' weight and blood pressure significantly. There is no need to introduce a salt restricted diet in prenatal care, a balanced diet in sodium during pregnancy is recommended, high salt diet creates harmful effect. (author)

  14. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  15. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get the same high, and feel withdrawal symptoms when they stop. People who abuse bath salts may feel driven to do whatever they can to keep getting high, including taking risks. Users can also develop what is called "excited delirium." When this happens, people get dehydrated , their muscle ...

  16. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and vegetables Dietary fiber adds bulk to ...

  17. Salt-Sensitive Hypertension: Perspectives on Intrarenal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Dewan S.A.; Prieto, Minolfa C.; Navar, L Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Salt sensitive hypertension is characterized by increases in blood pressure in response to increases in dietary salt intake and is associated with an enhanced risk of cardiovascular and renal morbidity. Although researchers have sought for decades to understand how salt sensitivity develops in humans, the mechanisms responsible for the increases in blood pressure in response to high salt intake are complex and only partially understood. Until now, scientists have been unable to explain why some individuals are salt sensitive and others are salt resistant. Although a central role for the kidneys in the development of salt sensitivity and hypertension has been generally accepted, it is also recognized that hypertension is of multifactorial origin and a variety of factors can induce, or prevent, blood pressure responsiveness to the manipulation of salt intake. Excess salt intake in susceptible persons may also induce inappropriate central and sympathetic nervous system responses and increase the production of intrarenal angiotensin II, catecholamines and other factors such as oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. One key factor is the concomitant inappropriate or paradoxical activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, by high salt intake. This is reflected by the increases in urinary angiotensinogen during high salt intake in salt sensitive models. A complex interaction between neuroendocrine factors and the kidney may underlie the propensity for some individuals to retain salt and develop salt-dependent hypertension. In this review, we focus mainly on the renal contributions that provide the mechanistic link between chronic salt intake and the development of hypertension. PMID:26028244

  18. Aging, adiposity, and calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Klein, Samuel

    2007-03-07

    Excessive calorie intake and subsequent obesity increases the risk of developing chronic disease and decreases life expectancy. In rodent models, calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake decreases the risk of developing chronic disease and extends maximum life span. To evaluate the physiological and clinical implications of calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake. Search of PubMed (1966-December 2006) using terms encompassing various aspects of calorie restriction, dietary restriction, aging, longevity, life span, adiposity, and obesity; hand search of journals that focus on obesity, geriatrics, or aging; and search of reference lists of pertinent research and review articles and books. Reviewed reports (both basic science and clinical) included epidemiologic studies, case-control studies, and randomized controlled trials, with quality of data assessed by taking into account publication in a peer-reviewed journal, number of animals or individuals studied, objectivity of measurements, and techniques used to minimize bias. It is not known whether calorie restriction extends maximum life span or life expectancy in lean humans. However, calorie restriction in adult men and women causes many of the same metabolic adaptations that occur in calorie-restricted rodents and monkeys, including decreased metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and possibly cancer. Excessive calorie restriction causes malnutrition and has adverse clinical effects. Calorie restriction in adult men and women causes beneficial metabolic, hormonal, and functional changes, but the precise amount of calorie intake or body fat mass associated with optimal health and maximum longevity in humans is not known. In addition, it is possible that even moderate calorie restriction may be harmful in specific patient populations, such as lean persons who have minimal amounts of body fat.

  19. Effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt-sensitive versus salt-resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after 1 week of high salt (200 mmol per day sodium) and 1 week of low salt (10 mmol per day sodium) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure>15 mm Hg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% women; 16% blacks; body mass index, 28.5±4.2 kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mm Hg) as compared with high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mm Hg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dL; 10.8±7.3 mIU/L; 2.6±1.9) as compared with high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dL; 9.4±5.8 mIU/L; 2.1±1.4; Psalt-sensitive (n=193) versus salt-resistant (n=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in homeostasis model assessment on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt-sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt-resistant subjects (P=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in homeostasis model assessment after including age, body mass index, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone, and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Post-tonsillectomy dietary advice: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millington, A J F; Gaunt, A C; Phillips, J S

    2016-10-01

    To determine if there is evidence that post-tonsillectomy dietary advice affects post-operative morbidity. A systematic review was conducted of Embase, Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PsycInfo, to November 2014. Seventeen articles were included; their heterogeneous nature prevented meta-analysis. Of these, all three small, randomised studies showed no statistical difference in morbidity between restricted and non-restricted diets. Most post-tonsillectomy dietary advice is based on historical anecdotes and not rigorous scientific testing. The existing small-scale, randomised studies show no statistical difference in morbidity between non-restricted and restricted diets.

  1. Effect of "no added salt diet" on blood pressure control and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion in mild to moderate hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Rahim

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of Hypertension as a major cardiovascular threat is increasing. The best known diet for hypertensives is 'no added salt diet'. In this study we evaluated the effect of 'no added salt diet' on a hypertensive population with high dietary sodium intake by measuring 24 hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods In this single center randomized study 80 patients (60 cases and 20 controls not on any drug therapy for hypertension with mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled. 24 hour holter monitoring of BP and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion were measured before and after 6 weeks of 'no added salt diet'. Results There was no statistically significant difference between age, weight, sex, Hyperlipidemia, family history of hypertension, mean systolic and diastolic BP during the day and at night and mean urinary sodium excretion in 24 hour urine of case and control groups. Seventy eight percent of all patients had moderate to high salt intake. After 6 week of 'no added salt diet' systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased during the day (mean decrease: 12.1/6.8 mmhg and at night (mean decrease: 11.1/5.9 mmhg which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (P 0.001 and 0.01. Urinary sodium excretion of 24 hour urine decreased by 37.1 meq/d ± 39,67 mg/dl in case group which is statistically significant in comparison to control group (p: 0.001. Only 36% of the patients, after no added salt diet, reached the pretreatment goal of 24 hour urinary sodium excretion of below 100 meq/dl (P:0.001. Conclusion Despite modest effect on dietary sodium restriction, no added salt diet significantly decreased systolic and diastolic BP and so it should be advised to every hypertensive patient. Trial Registration Clinicaltrial.govnumber NCT00491881

  2. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private/public spaces...

  3. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  4. Draft Mercury Aquatic Wildlife Benchmarks for Great Salt Lake ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the EPA Region 8's rationale for selecting aquatic wildlife dietary and tissue mercury benchmarks for use in interpreting available data collected from the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands. EPA Region 8 has conducted a literature review to update and refine the aquatic wildlife dietary and tissue benchmarks for mercury that may be used for data assessment until water quality criteria can be derived. The document describes how aquatic wildlife dietary and tissue benchmarks for mercury have been compiled for existing literature sources and the approach for how they will be used to evaluate whether the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands meet its designated use for aquatic wildlife.

  5. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely used...

  6. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  7. First salt making in Europe: an overview from Neolithic times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Weller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the origin of salt production and discusses different approaches ranging from technology, ethnoarchaeology and paleoenvironmental studies to chemical analyses. Starting from the current research on the Neolithic exploitation of salt in Europe, we examine the types and nature of the salt resources (sea water, salt springs, soil or rock, the diversity of archaeological evidence of forms of salt working. We also scrutinize the types of production for these early forms of salt exploitation, with or without the use of crudely fired clay vessels (briquetage. Finally, we contextualise the socio-economic dimensions and highlight both the diversity of salt products and their characteristics, which go well beyond dietary roles.

  8. A Review of the DASH Diet as an Optimal Dietary Plan for Symptomatic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Luay; Silver, Marc A

    2016-01-01

    Despite tremendous focus, effort, drug and device development and resources dedicated to the care of patients at risk for and with heart failure (HF), the epidemic continues. The HF patient presents with a widely deranged physiology and typically at the same time is malnourished adding to the disease complexity and therapeutic challenges. Most nutritional approaches for patients with HF focus on dietary restrictions (of salt and water) and lack uniformity or clarity or focus on meeting nutritional needs, barriers and deficits of the patient with HF. Finally, it seems reasonable to anticipate that any dietary program recommendation should contribute in a positive way toward HF management goals and at its foundation positively contribute to the deranged physiology. In many ways the "Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension" (DASH) dietary program fulfills these needs and early evidence supports the notion that the DASH diet may be optimal for patients with HF. This brief review examines some of this evidence and provides recommendations for the HF community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic Regulation of Methionine Restriction in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Li, Yuying; Han, Hui; Gao, Jing; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Tiejun; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-30

    Although the effects of dietary methionine restriction have been investigated in the physiology of aging and diseases related to oxidative stress, the relationship between methionine restriction and the development of metabolic disorders has not been explored extensively. This review summarizes studies of the possible involvement of dietary methionine restriction in improving insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, the pentose phosphate pathway, and inflammation, with an emphasis on the fibroblast growth factor 21 and protein phosphatase 2A signals and autophagy in diabetes. Diets deficient in methionine may be a useful nutritional strategy in patients with diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary treatment of nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Meschi, Tiziana; Guerra, Angela; Allegri, Franca; Prati, Beatrice; Borghi, Loris

    2008-05-01

    The prevalence of idiopathic nephrolithiasis is increasing in rich countries. Dietary manipulation could contribute to the prevention of both its first appearance and the recurrence of the disease. The target of dietary treatment is to decrease the "urinary lithogenic risk factors" such as low urine volume, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hyperphosphaturia, hypocitraturia, hypomagnesuria and excessively alkaline or acid urinary pH. Due to the lack of randomized controlled trials focused on this problem, there is not ample evidence to confidently recommend dietary changes. Despite this, numerous recent and past experiences support modification of diet as having a primary role in the prevention of nephrolithiasis. In particular, it is recommended to limit animal protein and salt intake, to consume milk and derivatives in amounts corresponding to calcium intake of about 1200 mg/day and to assume fiber (40 g/day), vegetables and fruit daily avoiding foods with high oxalate content. Furthermore, vitamin C intake not exceeding 1500 mg/day plays a protective role as well as avoiding vitamin B6 deficiency and abstaining, if possible, from vitamin D supplements. Lastly, it is recommended to drink enough water to bring the urinary volume up to at least 2 L/day and, as much as possible, to use fresh or frozen products rather than prepacked or precooked foods which are often too rich in sodium chloride.

  11. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Results: Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidencebased guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. Conclusions: General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. Hypercalciuria: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of

  12. Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Goffe

    Full Text Available To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving.Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes, amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty, time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s, and individual serving.Controlled, laboratory, conditions.A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women aged 18-59 years.Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers.Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD of 7.86g (4.54 per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22. The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001. This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (pssalt shakers have the potential to reduce the salt content of takeaway food, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers' salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake.

  13. Dietary Approach to Recurrent or Chronic Hyperkalaemia in Patients with Decreased Kidney Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamasco Cupisti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the adequate intake of potassium is relatively high in healthy adults, i.e., 4.7 g per day, a dietary potassium restriction of usually less than 3 g per day is recommended in the management of patients with reduced kidney function, especially those who tend to develop hyperkalaemia including patients who are treated with angiotensin pathway modulators. Most potassium-rich foods are considered heart-healthy nutrients with high fibre, high anti-oxidant vitamins and high alkali content such as fresh fruits and vegetables; hence, the main challenge of dietary potassium management is to maintain high fibre intake and a low net fixed-acid load, because constipation and metabolic acidosis are per se major risk factors for hyperkalaemia. To achieve a careful reduction of dietary potassium load without a decrease in alkali or fibre intake, we recommend the implementation of certain pragmatic dietary interventions as follows: Improving knowledge and education about the type of foods with excess potassium (per serving or per unit of weight; identifying foods that are needed for healthy nutrition in renal patients; classification of foods based on their potassium content normalized per unit of dietary fibre; education about the use of cooking procedures (such as boiling in order to achieve effective potassium reduction before eating; and attention to hidden sources of potassium, in particular additives in preserved foods and low-sodium salt substitutes. The present paper aims to review dietary potassium handling and gives information about practical approaches to limit potassium load in chronic kidney disease patients at risk of hyperkalaemia.

  14. Patient Experiences of Dietary Management in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jaimon T; Campbell, Katrina L; Hoffmann, Tammy; Reidlinger, Dianne P

    2017-11-14

    People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) contend with complex dietary recommendations. The challenge in practice is for clinicians to provide individualized support with the frequency and consistency required to sustain dietary changes. This study aimed to describe the experiences of patients with managing dietary recommendations, including their perspectives on the potential to use telehealth to support dietary management in CKD. Focus group study. Twenty-one adult patients with CKD (nondialysis) and 3 caregivers (total N = 24) purposively sampled to achieve diverse demographic and clinical characteristics, from two nephrology units in Queensland, Australia. Five focus groups were conducted, audio recorded, and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis drawing on the principles of grounded theory. Themes aligned with the research question. We identified five themes: exasperating stagnancy (patronized by redundant advice, confused and unprepared for dietary change, inevitability of failure, and barriers to accessing dietetic services); supporting and sustaining change (receiving regular feedback, incremental and comprehendible modification, practical guidance on food, flexibility in monitoring schedule, and valuing peer advice); fostering ownership (seeking kidney diet information, enacting behavior change, making reminders, and tracking progress against targets); motivators and positive learning instruction (relying on reassurance, positive reinforcement, focusing on allowable foods, and involving family); threats and ambiguities of risk (sugar as the culprit, ubiquity of salt, illegible food labeling, avoiding processed foods, and questioning credibility of sources). Patients with CKD desire a preventative approach to CKD progression and maintaining their health, however, are stymied by dietary restrictions and a lack of reliable dietetic advice. Easy-to-use telehealth options have the potential to overcome the shortcomings in current

  15. Influences of dietary vitamin D restriction on bone strength, body composition and muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of mRNA expression of MyoD in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Yuno; Tanabe, Rieko; Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Hoshino, Ayumi; Haraikawa, Mayu; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation and development. The present study investigated the influences of vitamin D restriction on the body composition, bone and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats (11weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet (Cont.), a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction (DR), a high-fat diet (F) and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction (FDR). At 28days after starting the experimental diets, the visceral fat mass was significantly increased in the F group compared with Cont. group, and the muscle mass tended to decrease in the DR group compared with Cont. group. The total volume of the femur was significantly lower in the DR group compared with Cont. group, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was significantly lower in the FDR group compared with F group. MyoD is one of the muscle-specific transcription factors. The levels of mRNA expression of MyoD of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from the DR group were reduced markedly compared with those from the Cont. group. In conclusion, our findings revealed the influences of a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet on the bone strength, body composition and muscle. Further studies on vitamin D insufficiency in the regulation of muscle as well as fat and bone metabolism would provide valuable data for the prevention of lifestyle-related disorders, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Responses of Cymbopogon schoenanthus to salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-27

    Mar 27, 2012 ... Responses of Cymbopogon schoenanthus to salt stress. Ayda Khadhri1*, Ridha El Mokni2, Khaled Mguis3, Mohamed Neffati4 and Samira Smiti1. 1Research Unit of ... medium (Garg et al., 2002; Moinuddin et al., 2005), and measures their ..... The ability of a plant to survive under restrictive environmental.

  17. Dietary habits of Wroclaw Medical University students (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilow, Rafał; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Różańska, Dorota

    The World Health Organization considers an unhealthy diet to be related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases development. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary habits among Wroclaw Medical University students with a view towards the nutritional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The study was conducted between the years 2004-2012. The study group consisted of 892 women and 276 men. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire based on the principles outlined in “The Polish food-based dietary guidelines”. There were numerous eating habits not in compliance with the recommendations. Men failed to take ≥ 3 meals/ day (10.1% vs 6.3%) at a significantly higher frequency than women. Food products exhibiting a high glycaemic index (GI) were preferred over low GI, especially among men. About 62% of women and 75% of men failed to consume ≥ 5 portions of fruits and vegetables per day. Women chose low-fat dairy products and meat significantly more frequently than men. 73% of women and 67% of men declared that they consumed vegetable oils on an irregular basis. About 8% of women and 11% of men used salt without restrictions, while 58% and 64% respectively, used sugar to sweeten beverages. Improper nutritional habits were observed in a high part of the studied students, especially among men. It is therefore strongly suggested that the rules of proper nutrition be promoted among this group.

  18. Late gestational hypoxia and a postnatal high salt diet programs endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Sarah L; Singh, Reetu R; Tan, Tiffany; Paravicini, Tamara M; Moritz, Karen M

    2016-03-01

    Gestational hypoxia and high dietary salt intake have both been associated with impaired vascular function in adulthood. Using a mouse model of prenatal hypoxia, we examined whether a chronic high salt diet had an additive effect in promoting vascular dysfunction in offspring. Pregnant CD1 dams were placed in a hypoxic chamber (12% O2) or housed under normal conditions (21% O2) from embryonic day 14.5 until birth. Gestational hypoxia resulted in a reduced body weight for both male and female offspring at birth. This restriction in body weight persisted until weaning, after which the animals underwent catch-up growth. At 10 weeks of age, a subset of offspring was placed on a high salt diet (5% NaCl). Pressurized myography of mesenteric resistance arteries at 12 months of age showed that both male and female offspring exposed to maternal hypoxia had significantly impaired endothelial function, as demonstrated by impaired vasodilatation to ACh but not sodium nitroprusside. Endothelial dysfunction caused by prenatal hypoxia was not exacerbated by postnatal consumption of a high salt diet. Prenatal hypoxia increased microvascular stiffness in male offspring. The combination of prenatal hypoxia and a postnatal high salt diet caused a leftward shift in the stress-strain relationship in both sexes. Histopathological analysis of aortic sections revealed a loss of elastin integrity and increased collagen, consistent with increased vascular stiffness. These results demonstrate that prenatal hypoxia programs endothelial dysfunction in both sexes. A chronic high salt diet in postnatal life had an additive deleterious effect on vascular mechanics and structural characteristics in both sexes. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  19. Dietary Fibre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, van der J.W.; Asp, N.G.; Miller Jones, J.; Schaafsma, G.

    2004-01-01

    In this book invited expert scientists of leading research groups all over the world will address the following issues: Definitions, health claims and new challenges, Analytical tools, technological aspects and applications, Health Benefits of dietary fibre, including both authoritative generic

  20. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Audience For Women Dietary Supplements: Tips for Women Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  1. Salt-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in Dahl salt-sensitive rats is dependent on elevated blood pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Mu, J.J.; Liu, F.Q.; Ren, K.Y.; Xiao, H.Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Medical College, First Affiliated Hospital, Cardiovascular Department, Xi' an, China, Cardiovascular Department, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an, China, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education, Xi' an (China); Yang, Z. [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Medical College, First Affiliated Hospital, Department of Pathology, Xi' an, China, Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Yuan, Z.Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Medical College, First Affiliated Hospital, Cardiovascular Department, Xi' an, China, Cardiovascular Department, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi' an, China, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education, Xi' an (China)

    2014-03-03

    Dietary salt intake has been linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence has indicated that salt-sensitive individuals on high salt intake are more likely to develop renal fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the development and progression of renal fibrosis in humans and animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a high-salt diet on EMT in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Twenty-four male SS and consomic SS-13{sup BN} rats were randomized to a normal diet or a high-salt diet. After 4 weeks, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and albuminuria were analyzed, and renal fibrosis was histopathologically evaluated. Tubular EMT was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR with E-cadherin and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). After 4 weeks, SBP and albuminuria were significantly increased in the SS high-salt group compared with the normal diet group. Dietary salt intake induced renal fibrosis and tubular EMT as identified by reduced expression of E-cadherin and enhanced expression of α-SMA in SS rats. Both blood pressure and renal interstitial fibrosis were negatively correlated with E-cadherin but positively correlated with α-SMA. Salt intake induced tubular EMT and renal injury in SS rats, and this relationship might depend on the increase in blood pressure.

  2. Salt-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in Dahl salt-sensitive rats is dependent on elevated blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Mu, J.J.; Liu, F.Q.; Ren, K.Y.; Xiao, H.Y.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, Z.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary salt intake has been linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence has indicated that salt-sensitive individuals on high salt intake are more likely to develop renal fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the development and progression of renal fibrosis in humans and animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a high-salt diet on EMT in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Twenty-four male SS and consomic SS-13 BN rats were randomized to a normal diet or a high-salt diet. After 4 weeks, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and albuminuria were analyzed, and renal fibrosis was histopathologically evaluated. Tubular EMT was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR with E-cadherin and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). After 4 weeks, SBP and albuminuria were significantly increased in the SS high-salt group compared with the normal diet group. Dietary salt intake induced renal fibrosis and tubular EMT as identified by reduced expression of E-cadherin and enhanced expression of α-SMA in SS rats. Both blood pressure and renal interstitial fibrosis were negatively correlated with E-cadherin but positively correlated with α-SMA. Salt intake induced tubular EMT and renal injury in SS rats, and this relationship might depend on the increase in blood pressure

  3. Preferential role restrictions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We extend the Description Logic ALC with preferential role restrictions as class constructs, and argue that preferential universal restriction represents a defeasible version of standard universal restriction. The resulting DL is more expressive...

  4. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  5. Drop the Salt! Assessing the impact of a public health advocacy strategy on Australian government policy on salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Dunford, Elizabeth; Kennington, Sarah; Neal, Bruce; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 the Australian Division of World Action on Salt and Health (AWASH) launched a campaign to encourage the Australian government to take action to reduce population salt intake. The objective of the present research was to assess the impact of the Drop the Salt! campaign on government policy. A review of government activities related to salt reduction was conducted and an advocacy strategy implemented to increase government action on salt. Advocacy actions were documented and the resulting outcomes identified. An analysis of stakeholder views on the effectiveness of the advocacy strategy was also undertaken. Settings Advocacy activities were coordinated through AWASH at the George Institute for Global Health in Sydney. All relevant State and Federal government statements and actions were reviewed and thirteen stakeholders with known interests or responsibilities regarding dietary salt, including food industry, government and health organisations, were interviewed. Stakeholder analysis affirmed that AWASH influenced the government's agenda on salt reduction and four key outputs were attributed to the campaign: (i) the Food Regulation Standing Committee discussions on salt, (ii) the Food and Health Dialogue salt targets, (iii) National Health and Medical Research Council partnership funding and (iv) the New South Wales Premier's Forum on Fast Foods. While it is not possible to definitively attribute changes in government policy to one organisation, stakeholder research indicated that the AWASH campaign increased the priority of salt reduction on the government's agenda. However, a coordinated government strategy on salt reduction is still required to ensure that the potential health benefits are fully realised.

  6. Just add a pinch of salt!--current directions for the use of salt in recipes in Australian magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Dunford, Elizabeth; Barzi, Federica; Neal, Bruce

    2010-02-01

    Australians currently consume too much salt causing adverse consequences for health. The media play an important role in the provision of nutrition advice to consumers. Previous research shows that many foods advertized in consumer magazines are high in salt, but little research has examined magazine recipes in this context. The aim of this project was to summarize directions for salt use in recipes in leading Australian magazines. In August 2007 and 2008, the top 10 magazines by circulation that included at least five recipes, were examined. Standardized information was collected about directions for salt use in recipes. Three hundred and thirty recipes were identified in 2007 and 417 in 2008. About 68% of recipes included high-salt ingredients, 37% instructed to season with salt, 10% instructed to add a specific quantity of salt and 15% recommended selection of low-salt ingredients. There was substantial variability in directions for salt use in recipes between magazines, but no clear differences between 2007 and 2008. Many recipes advised to add salt in direct contradiction to national dietary guidelines. There is clear potential for editorial guidelines on salt use in recipes to play a role in advancing public health efforts in Australia and other such nations.

  7. Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bouhlal

    Full Text Available Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g, not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002, and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

  8. The science of salt: A regularly updated systematic review of salt and health outcomes (December 2015-March 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle M Y; Arcand, JoAnne; Leung, Alexander A; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Campbell, Norm R C; Webster, Jacqui

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify, summarize, and critically appraise studies on dietary salt relating to health outcomes that were published from December 2015 to March 2016. The search strategy was adapted from a previous systematic review on dietary salt and health. Overall, 13 studies were included in the review: one study assessed cardiovascular events, nine studies assessed prevalence or incidence of blood pressure or hypertension, one study assessed kidney disease, and two studies assessed other health outcomes (obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease). Four studies were selected for detailed appraisal and commentary. One study met the minimum methodologic criteria and found an increased risk associated with lower sodium intake in patients with heart failure. All other studies identified in this review demonstrated positive associations between dietary salt and adverse health outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sacks, Gary; Brinsden, Hannah; Hawkes, Corinna; Barquera, Simón; Lobstein, Tim; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 – by civil society groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, other United Nations (UN) organizations, philanthropic institutions and transnational industries – to help decrease the prevalence of obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases among young people. By providing relevant technical and policy guidance and tools to Member States, WHO and other UN organizations have helped protect young people from the marketing of branded food and beverage products that are high in fat, sugar and/or salt. The progress achieved by the other actors we investigated appears variable and generally less robust. We suggest that the progress being made towards the full implementation of Resolution WHA63.14 would be accelerated by further restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products and by investing in the promotion of nutrient-dense products. This should help young people meet government-recommended dietary targets. Any effective strategies and actions should align with the goal of WHO to reduce premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by 25% by 2025 and the aim of the UN to ensure healthy lives for all by 2030. PMID:27429493

  10. Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Vivica I; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sacks, Gary; Brinsden, Hannah; Hawkes, Corinna; Barquera, Simón; Lobstein, Tim; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2016-07-01

    In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 - by civil society groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, other United Nations (UN) organizations, philanthropic institutions and transnational industries - to help decrease the prevalence of obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases among young people. By providing relevant technical and policy guidance and tools to Member States, WHO and other UN organizations have helped protect young people from the marketing of branded food and beverage products that are high in fat, sugar and/or salt. The progress achieved by the other actors we investigated appears variable and generally less robust. We suggest that the progress being made towards the full implementation of Resolution WHA63.14 would be accelerated by further restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products and by investing in the promotion of nutrient-dense products. This should help young people meet government-recommended dietary targets. Any effective strategies and actions should align with the goal of WHO to reduce premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by 25% by 2025 and the aim of the UN to ensure healthy lives for all by 2030.

  11. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, Domenico; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Lotti, Tullio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Borghi, Loris; Caione, Paolo; Carini, Marco; Caudarella, Renata; Ferraro, Manuel; Gambaro, Giovanni; Gelosa, Marco; Guttilla, Andrea; Illiano, Ester; Martino, Marangella; Meschi, Tiziana; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miano, Roberto; Napodano, Giorgio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Rendina, Domenico; Rocco, Francesco; Rosa, Marco; Sanseverino, Roberto; Salerno, Annamaria; Spatafora, Sebastiano; Tasca, Andrea; Ticinesi, Andrea; Travaglini, Fabrizio; Trinchieri, Alberto; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-07-07

    Diet interventions may reduce the risk of urinary stone formation and its recurrence, but there is no conclusive consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of dietary interventions and recommendations about specific diets for patients with urinary calculi. The aim of this study was to review the studies reporting the effects of different dietary interventions for the modification of urinary risk factors in patients with urinary stone disease. A systematic search of the Pubmed database literature up to July 1, 2014 for studies on dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for urinary stone formation was conducted according to a methodology developed a priori. Studies were screened by titles and abstracts for eligibility. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of evidence was assessed. Evidence from the selected studies were used to form evidence-based guideline statements. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional statements were developed as expert opinions. General measures: Each patient with nephrolithiasis should undertake appropriate evaluation according to the knowledge of the calculus composition. Regardless of the underlying cause of the stone disease, a mainstay of conservative management is the forced increase in fluid intake to achieve a daily urine output of 2 liters. HYPERCALCIURIA: Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone formers with nephrolithiasis. Diets with a calcium content ≥ 1 g/day (and low protein-low sodium) could be protective against the risk of stone formation in hypercalciuric stone forming adults. Moderate dietary salt restriction is useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion and thus may be helpful for primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. A low-normal protein intake decrease calciuria and could be useful in stone prevention and preservation of bone mass. Omega-3 fatty acids and bran of different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary

  12. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  13. A High Salt Diet Inhibits Obesity and Delays Puberty in the Female Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitynski-Miller, Dori; Ross, Micah; Schmill, Margaret; Schambow, Rachel; Fuller, Teresa; Flynn, Francis W.; Skinner, Donal C.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives Processed foods are considered major contributors to the worldwide obesity epidemic. In addition to high sugar and fat contents, processed foods contain large amounts of salt. Due to correlations with rising adiposity, salt has recently been proposed to be obesogenic. This study investigated three hypotheses: i) high salt contributes to weight gain and adiposity in juvenile female rats, ii) puberty onset would be altered because salt is known to affect neuronal systems involved in activating the reproductive system, and iii) enhanced adiposity will act synergistically with salt to drive early puberty onset. Design Female weanling rats (post-natal day 21, n=105) were fed a low fat/low salt diet, low fat/high salt diet, high fat/low salt diet, or a high salt/high fat diet for 24 days. Metabolic measures, including weight gain, food intake, fecal output, activity, and temperature were recorded in subsets of animals. Results Body weight, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pad weight, and adipocyte size were all lower in animals fed high fat/high salt compared to animals fed high fat alone. Leptin levels were reduced in high fat/high salt fed animals compared to high fat/low salt fed animals. Daily calorie intake was higher initially but declined with adjusted food intake and was not different among groups after 5 days. Osmolality and corticosterone were not different among groups. Fecal analysis showed excess fat excretion and a decreased digestive efficiency in animals fed high fat/low salt but not in animals fed high fat/high salt. Although respiratory exchange ratio was reduced by high dietary fat or salt, aerobic resting metabolic rate was not affected by diet. High salt delayed puberty onset, regardless of dietary fat content. Conclusions Salt delays puberty and prevents the obesogenic effect of a high fat diet. The reduced weight gain evident in high salt fed animals is not due to differences in food intake or digestive efficiency. PMID

  14. Dietary phosphorus and kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    High serum phosphate is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Therefore, maintenance of normal serum phosphate levels is a major concern in the clinical care of this population with dietary phosphorus restriction and/or use of oral phosphate binders considered to be the best corrective care. This review discusses (1) evidence for an association between serum phosphate levels and bone and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients as well as progression of kidney disease itself; (2) the relationship between serum phosphate and dietary phosphorus intake; and (3) implications from these data for future research. Increasing our understanding of the relationship between altered phosphorus metabolism and disease in CKD patients may clarify the potential role of excess dietary phosphorus as a risk factor for disease in the general population. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Donald J

    2014-05-01

    In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions.

  16. Dietary effects on canine and feline behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, Katherine A; Zicker, Steven

    2003-03-01

    The effects of dietary deficiency, including both malnutrition and deficiency of specific vitamins, on behavior is discussed with special emphasis on the growing kitten and puppy. The effect of caloric restriction on behavior is reviewed so that owners can be advised what to expect when their dog is placed on a reducing diet. The evidence for influence of dietary protein and tryptophan on canine aggression is presented. The effect of special diets on canine cognitive dysfunction is reviewed.

  17. Effect of Genetic Information Regarding Salt-Sensitive Hypertension on the Intent to Maintain a Reduced Salt Diet: Implications for Health Communication in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Keiko; Iwakuma, Miho; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-03-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between the awareness of dietary salt and genetics and the intent to maintain a low-salt diet. In particular, they assessed whether hypothetical genetic information regarding salt-sensitive hypertension motivates the intent to reduce dietary salt for communicating the health benefits of lower salt consumption to citizens. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with 2500 randomly sampled residents aged 30 to 69 years living in Nagahama, Japan. Genetic information regarding higher salt sensitivity increased motivation to reduce salt intake for both those who agreed that genes cause hypertension and those who did not. Less than 50% of those who agreed that genes cause hypertension lost their intention to lower their salt consumption when they found they did not possess the susceptibility gene. Communicating genetic information positively affected motivation to reduce salt intake. The present study clarifies the difficulty in changing the behavioral intent of those who have significantly less incentive to reduce salt intake. Therefore, a multidimensional approach is crucial to reduce salt consumption. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dietary interventions for phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poustie, Vanessa J; Wildgoose, Joanne

    2010-01-20

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease treated with dietary restriction of the amino acid phenylalanine. The diet is initiated in the neonatal period to prevent mental handicap; however, it is restrictive and can be difficult to follow. Whether the diet can be relaxed or discontinued during adolescence or should be continued for life remains a controversial issue, which we aim to address in this review. To assess the effects of a low-phenylalanine diet commenced early in life for people with phenylketonuria. To assess the possible effects of relaxation or termination of the diet on intelligence, neuropsychological outcomes and mortality, growth, nutritional status, eating behaviour and quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search of the Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 05 March 2009. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing a low-phenylalanine diet to relaxation or termination of dietary restrictions in people with phenylketonuria. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and methodological quality, and subsequently extracted the data. We included four studies in this review (251 participants), and found few significant differences between treatment and comparison groups for the outcomes of interest. Blood phenylalanine levels were significantly lower in participants with phenylketonuria following a low-phenylalanine diet compared to those on a less restricted diet, mean difference (MD) at three months -698.67 (95% confidence interval (CI) -869.44 to -527.89). Intelligence quotient was significantly higher in participants who continued the diet than in those who stopped the diet, MD after 12 months 5.00 (95% CI 0.40 to 9.60). However, these results came from a single study. The results

  19. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is designated... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155...

  20. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  1. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidelines are issued regularly in most developed countries. In almost all cases they are concerned solely with the nutritional aspects of food and eating and are based on an understanding of food exclusively as a source of nutrients. In recent years, however, a growing number of proposals...... in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in relation...... to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors involved...

  2. Implementation of a Population-wide Program to Reduce Salt and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research team will provide scientific evidence to identify the main dietary sources of salt/sodium in the Costa Rican diet. They will also report on students' knowledge, perceptions, and behaviuors related to salt/sodium, food labeling, and health. The evidence will serve as an evaluation baseline for the National Plan for ...

  3. The food choice at work study: effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions on dietary behaviours and diet-related disease risk - study protocol for a clustered controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary behaviour interventions have the potential to reduce diet-related disease. Ample opportunity exists to implement these interventions in the workplace. The overall aim is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of complex dietary interventions focused on environmental dietary modification alone or in combination with nutrition education in large manufacturing workplace settings. Methods/design A clustered controlled trial involving four large multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork will be conducted. The complex intervention design has been developed using the Medical Research Council’s framework and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines and will be reported using the TREND statement for the transparent reporting of evaluations with non-randomized designs. It will draw on a soft paternalistic “nudge” theoretical perspective. Nutrition education will include three elements: group presentations, individual nutrition consultations and detailed nutrition information. Environmental dietary modification will consist of five elements: (a) restriction of fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt, (b) increase in fibre, fruit and vegetables, (c) price discounts for whole fresh fruit, (d) strategic positioning of healthier alternatives and (e) portion size control. No intervention will be offered in workplace A (control). Workplace B will receive nutrition education. Workplace C will receive nutrition education and environmental dietary modification. Workplace D will receive environmental dietary modification alone. A total of 448 participants aged 18 to 64 years will be selected randomly. All permanent, full-time employees, purchasing at least one main meal in the workplace daily, will be eligible. Changes in dietary behaviours, nutrition knowledge, health status with measurements obtained at baseline and at intervals of 3 to 4 months, 7 to 9 months and 13 to 16 months will be recorded. A process

  4. The food choice at work study: effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions on dietary behaviours and diet-related disease risk - study protocol for a clustered controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaney, Fiona; Scotto Di Marrazzo, Jessica; Kelly, Clare; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Harrington, Janas M; Kirby, Ann; McKenzie, Ken; Greiner, Birgit; Perry, Ivan J

    2013-11-06

    Dietary behaviour interventions have the potential to reduce diet-related disease. Ample opportunity exists to implement these interventions in the workplace. The overall aim is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of complex dietary interventions focused on environmental dietary modification alone or in combination with nutrition education in large manufacturing workplace settings. A clustered controlled trial involving four large multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork will be conducted. The complex intervention design has been developed using the Medical Research Council's framework and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines and will be reported using the TREND statement for the transparent reporting of evaluations with non-randomized designs. It will draw on a soft paternalistic 'nudge' theoretical perspective. It will draw on a soft paternalistic "nudge" theoretical perspective. Nutrition education will include three elements: group presentations, individual nutrition consultations and detailed nutrition information. Environmental dietary modification will consist of five elements: (a) restriction of fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt, (b) increase in fibre, fruit and vegetables, (c) price discounts for whole fresh fruit, (d) strategic positioning of healthier alternatives and (e) portion size control. No intervention will be offered in workplace A (control). Workplace B will receive nutrition education. Workplace C will receive nutrition education and environmental dietary modification. Workplace D will receive environmental dietary modification alone. A total of 448 participants aged 18 to 64 years will be selected randomly. All permanent, full-time employees, purchasing at least one main meal in the workplace daily, will be eligible. Changes in dietary behaviours, nutrition knowledge, health status with measurements obtained at baseline and at intervals of 3 to 4 months, 7 to 9 months and 13 to 16

  5. Salinization of the Upper Colorado River - Fingerprinting Geologic Salt Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Salt in the upper Colorado River is of concern for a number of political and socioeconomic reasons. Salinity limits in the 1974 U.S. agreement with Mexico require the United States to deliver Colorado River water of a particular quality to the border. Irrigation of crops, protection of wildlife habitat, and treatment for municipal water along the course of the river also place restrictions on the river's salt content. Most of the salt in the upper Colorado River at Cisco, Utah, comes from interactions of water with rock formations, their derived soil, and alluvium. Half of the salt comes from the Mancos Shale and the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Anthropogenic activities in the river basin (for example, mining, farming, petroleum exploration, and urban development) can greatly accelerate the release of constituents from these geologic materials, thus increasing the salt load of nearby streams and rivers. Evaporative concentration further concentrates these salts in several watersheds where agricultural land is extensively irrigated. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate show the greatest promise for fingerprinting the geologic sources of salts to the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries and estimating the relative contribution from each geologic formation. Knowing the salt source, its contribution, and whether the salt is released during natural weathering or during anthropogenic activities, such as irrigation and urban development, will facilitate efforts to lower the salt content of the upper Colorado River.

  6. Dietary iodine intake in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hai Xia; Li, Jian Wen; Mao, Wei Feng; Zhu, Jiang Hui; He, Yu Na; Song, Xiao Yu; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Sa Na; Liu, Zhao Ping; Li, Feng Qin

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate dietary iodine intake and its potential risks among the Chinese population. Individual dietary iodine intake was calculated using food consumption data multiplying by iodine concentration in foods, table salt and drinking water, followed by summing, and then compared with the corresponding age-specific reference values, including Upper Intake Level (UL) and Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). In areas with water iodine concentration (WI) lower than 150 μg/L, 80.8% of residents had iodine intake between the RNI and UL, 5.8% higher than UL, and the remaining (13.4%) lower than RNI if iodized salt was consumed. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.0% of residents between RNI and UL, 1.4% higher than UL, and a large part of residents (97.6%) lower than RNI. In areas with WI higher than 150 μg/L, all residents had iodine intake between RNI and UL if iodized salt was consumed, except 10.5% and 24.9% of residents higher than UL in areas with WI at 150-300 μg/L and higher than 300 μg/L respectively. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.5% and 1.7% of residents had higher iodine intake than UL respectively. The findings suggested that in general, the dietary iodine intake by the Chinese population was appropriate and safe at the present stage. People in areas with WI lower than 150 μg/L were more likely to have iodine deficiency. While people in areas with WI higher than 150 μg/L were more likely to have excessive iodine intake if iodized salt was consumed. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Salt craving: the psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-08-06

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate--an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors.

  8. Impact of Salt Intake on the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Petra; Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2017-01-01

    Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown. Various mechanisms for salt-dependent hypertension have been put forward including volume expansion, modified renal functions and disorders in sodium balance, impaired reaction of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system and the associated receptors, central stimulation of the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, and possibly also inflammatory processes.Not every person reacts to changes in dietary salt intake with alterations in blood pressure, dividing people in salt sensitive and insensitive groups. It is estimated that about 50-60 % of hypertensives are salt sensitive. In addition to genetic polymorphisms, salt sensitivity is increased in aging, in black people, and in persons with metabolic syndrome or obesity. However, although mechanisms of salt-dependent hypertensive effects are increasingly known, more research on measurement, storage and kinetics of sodium, on physiological properties, and genetic determinants of salt sensitivity are necessary to harden the basis for salt reduction recommendations.Currently estimated dietary intake of salt is about 9-12 g per day in most countries of the world. These amounts are significantly above the WHO recommended level of less than 5 g salt per day. According to recent research results a moderate reduction of daily salt intake from current intakes to 5-6 g can reduce

  9. Molecular interactions between bile salts, phospholipids and cholesterol : relevance to bile formation, cholesterol crystallization and bile salt toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Cholesterol is a nonpolar lipid dietary constituent, absorbed from the small intestine, transported in blood and taken up by the liver. In bile, the sterol is solubilized in mixed micelles by bile salts and phospholipids. In case of supersaturation, cholesterol is kept in vesicles with phospholipid

  10. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  11. Dietary therapy in NIDDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G C; Wales, J K

    1988-05-01

    Clearly the dietary treatment of the NIDDM patient remains an act of faith bearing in mind the poor compliance of the patient to dietary advice, and the lack of long-term studies confirming the efficacy of diets (old or new) in the prevention of diabetic vascular complications. Few of the newer recommended diets seem to have been tested in the hurly-burly of the busy, understaffed diabetic clinic. Perhaps another major hurdle has been the attitude of patients and doctors in failing to regard diet therapy as a form of treatment, akin to tablets. The phrase 'I eat my diet, doctor, then I have my usual meal' sums up the problem. There needs to be a change in attitude to diet by both doctors and patients so that the dietary changes suggested should be eating habits which would become second nature to patients--the so called 'healthy eating'--more fibre, less refined carbohydrate, less total and saturated fat and more polyunsaturated fats. It seems difficult for a majority of NIDDM patients to add onto 'healthy eating' calorie restriction to achieve weight loss. This difficulty also applies to non-diabetic obese subjects with similar poor results. One cannot help but feel that NIDDM patients should benefit from the general change in attitude of the general population towards nutrition, but reinforced education concerning diet goals for NIDDM patients is an urgent requirement and needs closer examination by the diabetic health care team as to how it may be delivered to the individual NIDDM patients. Perhaps dietitians in particular should become more critical in their approach to diet strategies and should investigate and report on the results of this treatment.

  12. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  13. A maternal high salt diet disturbs cardiac and vascular function of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kana; Kagota, Satomi; Van Vliet, Bruce N; Wakuda, Hirokazu; Shinozuka, Kazumasa

    2015-09-01

    High salt intake is an environmental factor that promotes increased blood pressure. We previously demonstrated that high salt diet causes aggravation of hypertension and impaired vasodilation in response to nitric oxide (NO) in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which exhibit low sensitivity to salt in adulthood. Changes in offspring blood pressure and cardiovascular structures have been reported. However, it remains unclear to what extent a maternal high salt intake may affect cardiac and/or vascular function in offspring. Therefore, we investigated influence of exposure to a maternal high salt diet during gestation and lactation on offspring's cardiac and arterial functions in SHR. SHR dams were fed either a high salt diet or a control diet. After weaning, the offspring were fed the high salt diet or control diet for 8weeks. Compared with offspring of control diet-fed dams, at 12weeks of age, offspring of the high-salt diet-fed dams had lower blood pressure, heart rate, indices of both left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, and a decreased aortic vasodilation response to NO. Postnatal high salt intake did not affect blood pressure, vasodilatory response, or cardiac function in offspring of high-salt diet-fed dams. Neither maternal nor postnatal dietary salt altered levels of lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase, or angiotensinogen mRNA in serum and ventricle of the offspring. Exposure to high maternal dietary salt induces cardiac and vascular dysfunction in offspring. These results point to the possible importance of avoiding excess dietary salt during gestation and lactation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  15. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... much do we know about dietary supplements for diabetes? Many studies have investigated dietary supplements, including vitamins, ...

  16. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z Using Dietary Supplements Wisely Share: On This Page Key Points About ... help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Dietary Supplements Dietary supplements were defined in a law passed ...

  17. Dietary sodium and health: more than just blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, William B; Edwards, David G; Jurkovitz, Claudine T; Weintraub, William S

    2015-03-17

    Sodium is essential for cellular homeostasis and physiological function. Excess dietary sodium has been linked to elevations in blood pressure (BP). Salt sensitivity of BP varies widely, but certain subgroups tend to be more salt sensitive. The mechanisms underlying sodium-induced increases in BP are not completely understood but may involve alterations in renal function, fluid volume, fluid-regulatory hormones, the vasculature, cardiac function, and the autonomic nervous system. Recent pre-clinical and clinical data support that even in the absence of an increase in BP, excess dietary sodium can adversely affect target organs, including the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and brain. In this review, the investigators review these issues and the epidemiological research relating dietary sodium to BP and cardiovascular health outcomes, addressing recent controversies. They also provide information and strategies for reducing dietary sodium. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Resveratrol vs. calorie restriction: data from rodents to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Y; Peterson, Courtney M; Ravussin, Eric

    2013-10-01

    Calorie restriction extends lifespan and confers metabolic benefits similar to the effect of lifestyle interventions. Poor compliance to long-term dietary restriction, however, hinders the success of this approach. Evidence is now persuasive for a role of resveratrol supplementation (a polyphenol in red grapes) as potential alternative to calorie restriction. This review summarizes the latest literature on the effects and the molecular mechanisms by which calorie restriction and resveratrol confer health benefits. Resveratrol activates SIRT1 and the associated improvement in energy utilization and insulin sensitivity closely resembles the benefits of calorie restriction. Current data largely support resveratrol as a potential calorie restriction mimetic to improve metabolic and probably functional health. Future studies which characterize the bioavailability and efficacy of resveratrol supplementation are critical to provide evidence for its long-term health benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lifelong dietary intervention does not affect hematopoietic stem cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazare, Seka; Ausema, Albertina; Reijne, Aaffien C; van Dijk, Gertjan; van Os, Ronald; de Haan, Gerald

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo a profound functional decline during normal aging. Because caloric or dietary restriction has been shown to delay multiple aspects of the aging process in many species, we explored the consequences of lifelong caloric restriction, or conversely, lifelong

  20. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

  1. Salt-dependent properties of proteins from extremely halophilic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    Based on information concerning the interaction of salts and macromolecules the literature of the enzymes of halophilic bacteria and their constituents is examined. Although in halophilic systems the salt requirement of enzyme activity is variable the enzymes investigated show a time-dependent inactivation at lower salt concentrations especially in the absence of salt. The studies described show that in some halophilic systems the effect of salt may be restricted to a small region on the protein molecule. The concept of the hydrophobic bond to consider certain solvent-dependent phenomena is introduced. It is shown that some halophilic enzymes are unable to maintain their structure without the involvement of hydrophobic interactions that are usually not supported by water. A table lists indices of hydrophobicity and polarity for various halophilic and nonhalophilic proteins.

  2. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  3. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))

    1988-08-01

    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  4. Restricting wolves risks escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Ballard, Warren; Bangs, Ed; Ream, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Implementing the proposal set forth by Licht and colleagues (BioScience 60: 147–153) requires restricting wolves to tiny "islands," areas that are magnitudes smaller than the ranges of most wolf populations. Wolves naturally have large ranges; restricting their spatial needs increases the risk of wolves escaping, exacerbating public relations and political and legal problems.

  5. Fasting or caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-10-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  7. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    side effects comparable with those seen in many drugs. Here we present 12 points of evidence supporting the use of low-carbohydrate diets as the first approach to treating type 2 diabetes and as the most effective adjunct to pharmacology in type 1. They represent the best-documented, least...

  8. Can restricting calories help you to live longer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James E

    2014-03-01

    Excess calorie consumption is associated with metabolic disorders and increased incidence of morbidity. Restricting calorie content, either by daily calorie restriction or intermittent fasting periods, has multiple benefits including weight loss and improved body composition. Previous research has shown that restricting calories in this way can increase longevity and slow the ageing process in laboratory animals, although only sparse data exist in human populations. This review critically evaluates the benefits of these dietary interventions on age-related decline and longevity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Association of dietary pattern and body weight with blood pressure in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.; Boonstra, A.; Pan, X.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, B.; Dai, Yue; Zhou, M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Shi, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background To identify risk factors, associations between dietary patterns, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension in a Chinese population. Methods Dietary intake was assessed in 2518 adults by a 3-day 24 h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Salt and oil intake was assessed by weighing

  10. Consumer awareness of salt and sodium reduction and sodium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2012-09-01

    Reduction of dietary sodium by reduction of sodium in foods is a current industry target. Quantitative information on consumer knowledge of sodium and reduction of dietary sodium is limited. The objectives of this study were to characterize consumer knowledge and awareness of sodium and salt reduction in foods. Consumers (n = 489) participated in a quantitative internet survey designed to gather knowledge and attitudes towards dietary sodium, sodium in foods, and health. Eating habits and food consumption characteristics, knowledge of salt and sodium, and interest in health and wellness were probed. Saltiness believe and sodium knowledge indices were calculated based on correct responses to salt levels in food products. Kano analysis was conducted to determine the role of nutrition labels and satisfaction/dissatisfaction of foods. Consumers were aware of the presence of sodium in "salty" foods, and that sodium was part of salt. People who had a family history of certain diseases associated with a higher intake of dietary sodium did not necessarily have more knowledge of the relationship between sodium intake and a specific disease compared to consumers with no family history. Sodium content on the food label panel did not influence consumer dissatisfaction; however, sodium content did not necessarily increase consumer product satisfaction either. The addition of a healthy nutrient (that is, whole grain, fiber) into a current food product was appealing to consumers. For nutrient labeling, a "reduced" claim was more appealing to consumers than a "free" claim for "unhealthy" nutrients such as fat, sodium, and sugar. This study demonstrated the current state of consumer knowledge on sodium and salt reduction, and consumer perception of the relationship between diets high in sodium and many chronic diseases. Information that may contribute to consumer satisfaction on nutrition panel labeling was also determined. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. A pilot study to validate a standardized one-week salt estimation method evaluating salt intake and its sources for family members in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Puhong; Gao, Jianmei; Liu, Caixia; He, Feng J; Lin, Ching-Ping

    2015-01-22

    The objective of this study was to develop a new method named the "one-week salt estimation method" that could estimate an individual's salt intake and the sources of salt in the diet, and to evaluate this new method with a 24-h urine collection. The new method estimates salt intake from: (1) household cooking by weighing the family salt container and other high-salt condiments or sauces at the beginning and end of a week; (2) processed food according to established China food composition figures; and (3) cafeteria or restaurant meals using the results of previous studies. Consumption of salt additives and major salt contained foods and salt intake related eating habits were collected using a structured simple seven-day questionnaire. In order to validate the method, we studied 37 individuals from 11 families using the new method and 26 of these participants collected seven concurrent 24-h urine samples. The average salt intake for the 26 participants was 15.6±5.5 g/person/day (mean±standard deviation) by the 24-h urine collection and 13.7±6.5 g/person/day by the new method. The difference was 1.8±4.2 g/day/person (p=0.037). The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.762 (psalt intake came from household cooking (33.5% from cooking salt, 10.2% from other condiments and sauces), 12.9% from processed food, and 43.4% from eating out. In conclusion, despite its limitations of underestimating salt intake, the "one-week salt estimation method" is easier for people to implement and is likely to provide useful information that highlights the excessively high intake of salt and its sources, and in turn is helpful in guiding dietary salt reduction.

  12. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  13. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  14. Salt in bread in Europe: potential benefits of reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilez, Joan; Salas-Salvado, Jordi

    2012-11-01

    Bread is widely considered to be the foodstuff that provides the most dietary salt to the diet. As such, it is one of the key public health targets for a salt reduction policy. In this respect, it has been shown that a reduction in the salt content of bread is possible, and an alternative approach involves partial replacement with other, mainly potassium-based salts, which also counteract the effects of sodium. This replacement should be undertaken on the basis of criteria that maintain the product's sensory profile, and it tends to be more successful in breads with more naturally flavorful taste. The present review was conducted to examine salt intake in Europe and the health problems associated with its excessive consumption; particular focus is placed on the salt content of bread and the effects of its possible reduction and/or correction. The beneficial effects of such changes are highlighted by way of a theoretical calculation in baguette-type wheat bread. European legislation in the field of nutrition and health claims allows the positive aspects of such salt reduction and replacement methods to be stated. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  15. 5C.01: LITTLE DIFFERENCE IN SALT INTAKE CRUCIALLY AFFECTS FUTURE BLOOD PRESSURE LEVELS IN THE GENERAL POPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, S; Takase, H; Sugiura, T; Yamashita, S; Ohte, N; Dohi, Y

    2015-06-01

    A causal relationship between salt and hypertension has been argued for a long time. Epidemiological cross-sectional studies demonstrated higher incidence of hypertension in populations with higher dietary salt than in those with lower dietary salt and interventional studies investigated the effects of drastic changes in dietary salt in individuals. However, there is not sufficient evidence proving that individuals with relatively high salt intakes show an accelerated increase in blood pressure compared to those with a relatively low salt intakes over a long period of observation. Thus, the present observational study was designed to investigate whether individual levels of dietary salt affect future increases in blood pressure in the general population. Individual salt intake was estimated by calculating 24-hour urinary salt excretion using a spot urine in normotensive 6,249 participants in our physical check-up program (53.3 ± 11.4 year-old). After baseline examination, they were followed up for the median of 1,089 days with the endpoint being the development of hypertension. During the follow-up period, hypertension developed in 1,027 participants (73.0 per 1,000 person-years) with the incidence being more frequent in male than female participants. After adjustment for possible risk factors, the hazard ratio of incident hypertension in participants with salt intake higher than the target recommended by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (male, <9.0 g/day; female, <7.5 g/day) was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.50). In multivariate Cox hazards regression analysis, baseline salt intake and the yearly change in salt intake during the follow-up period (as continuous variables) correlated with the incidence of hypertension. Furthermore, both the yearly increase in salt intake and baseline salt intake showed significant correlations with the yearly increase in systolic blood pressure in multivariate regression analysis after

  16. Dietary strategies to reduce metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Catherine J; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemias, hypertension, high fasting glucose, chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. This condition has become an increasing problem in our society where about 34 % of adults are diagnosed with MetS. In parallel with the adult situation, a significant number of children present lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance, which can be used as markers of MetS in the pediatric population. Changes in lifestyle including healthy dietary regimens and increased physical activity should be the first lines of therapy to decrease MetS. In this article, we present the most recent information on successful dietary modifications that can reduce the parameters associated with MetS. Successful dietary strategies include energy restriction and weight loss, manipulation of dietary macronutrients--either through restriction of carbohydrates, fat, or enrichment in beneficial fatty acids, incorporation of functional foods and bioactive nutrients, and adherence to dietary and lifestyle patterns such the Mediterranean diet and diet/exercise regimens. Together, the recent findings presented in this review serve as evidence to support the therapeutic treatment of MetS through diet.

  17. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... and Addiction Drug Overdoses in Youth Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) and Drug Use Real Questions from Real ...

  18. Counting Calories in Drosophila Diet Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Flatt, Thomas; Kulaots, Indrek; Tatar, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The extension of life span by diet restriction in Drosophila has been argued to occur without limiting calories. Here we directly measure the calories assimilated by flies when maintained on full- and restricted-diets. We find that caloric intake is reduced on all diets that extend life span. Flies on low-yeast diet are long-lived and consume about half the calories of flies on high yeast diets, regardless of the energetic content of the diet itself. Since caloric intake correlates with yeast concentration and thus with the intake of every metabolite in this dietary component, it is premature to conclude for Drosophila that calories do not explain extension of life span. PMID:17125951

  19. Aggregation enhanced emission (AEE) in organic salt: A structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    their solid state compared to that in their solution state. Single crystal structure of the salt of 9-anthracene carboxylic acid i.e., His-anthracene revealed that restricted intramolecular rotation of the fluorphoric moiety. (anthracene) was responsible for such radiative pathway leading to enhanced emission. Keywords. AIE; AEE ...

  20. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  1. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  2. Energy restriction and potential energy restriction mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolai, Sibylle; Pallauf, Kathrin; Huebbe, Patricia; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Energy restriction (ER; also known as caloric restriction) is the only nutritional intervention that has repeatedly been shown to increase lifespan in model organisms and may delay ageing in humans. In the present review we discuss current scientific literature on ER and its molecular, metabolic and hormonal effects. Moreover, criteria for the classification of substances that might induce positive ER-like changes without having to reduce energy intake are summarised. Additionally, the putative ER mimetics (ERM) 2-deoxy-d-glucose, metformin, rapamycin, resveratrol, spermidine and lipoic acid and their suggested molecular targets are discussed. While there are reports on these ERM candidates that describe lifespan extension in model organisms, data on longevity-inducing effects in higher organisms such as mice remain controversial or are missing. Furthermore, some of these candidates produce detrimental side effects such as immunosuppression or lactic acidosis, or have not been tested for safety in long-term studies. Up to now, there are no known ERM that could be recommended without limitations for use in humans.

  3. Added sugar and dietary sodium intake from purchased fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, males and females consumed on average three times the recommended daily intake of added sugar, and more than half of the recommended daily salt intake from these purchased foods alone. These dietary patterns during adolescence may exacerbate the risk of obesity and hypertension in later adult life.

  4. [Scientific statement] Report of the Salt Reduction Committee of the Japanese Society of Hypertension (3) Assessment and application of salt intake in the management of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Kai, Hisashi; Kusaka, Miho; Kawamura, Minoru; Matsuura, Hideo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ando, Katsuyuki; Maruyama, Satomi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Takagi, Yoko; Nakahigashi, Norie; Sato, Toshiko; Kawano, Yuhei

    2013-12-01

    Salt-reduction guidance to hypertensive patients should be performed by evaluating salt intake of the individuals. However, each method to assess salt intake has both merits and limitations. Therefore, evaluation methods must be selected in accordance with the subject and facility's environment. In special facilities for hypertension treatment, measurement of sodium (Na) excretion with 24-h pooled urine or a survey on dietary contents by dietitians is recommended. In medical facilities in general, measurement of the levels of Na and creatinine (Cr) using second urine samples after waking-up or spot urine samples is recommended. The reliability of this method improves by using formulae including a formula to estimate 24-h Cr excretion. A method to estimate salt intake based on the Na excretion per gram Cr using the Na/Cr ratio in spot urine is simple, but not reliable. The method to estimate the daily excretion of salt from nighttime urine using an electronic salt sensor installed with a formula is recommended to hypertensive patients. Although its reliability is not high, patients themselves can measure this parameter simply at home and thus useful for monitoring salt intake and may intensify consciousness regarding salt reduction. Using these methods, salt intake (excretion) should be evaluated, and salt-reduction guidance targeting hypertension.

  5. How strict is galactose restriction in adults with galactosaemia? International practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, Siddig Momin; Akroyd, R.; Bernabei, S.; Bollhalder, S.; Boocock, S.; Burlina, A.; Coote, T.; Corthouts, K.; Dalmau, Judith; Dawson, S.; Defourny, S.; Meyer, A.; Desloovere, A.; Devlin, Y.; Diels, M.; Dokoupil, K.; Donald, S.; Evans, S.; Fasan, I.; Ferguson, C.; Ford, S.; Forga, M.; Gallo, G.; Grünert, S.C.; Heddrich-Ellerbrok, M.; Heidenborg, C.; Jonkers, C.F.; Lefebure, K.; Luyten, K.; MacDonald, A.; Meyer, U.; Micciche, A.; Müller, E.; Portnoi, P.; Ripley, S.; Robert, C.M.; Robertson, L.V.; Rosenbaum-Fabian, S.; Sahm, K.; Schultz, Erica S; Singleton, K.; Sjöqvist, E.; Stoelen, L.; Terry, A.; Thompson, S.; Timmer, C.; Vande Kerckhove, K.; van den Ploeg, L.; Van Driessche, M.; van Rijn, M.; van Teeffelen-Heithoff, A.; Vitoria, I.; Voillot, C.; Wenz, J.; Westbrook, M.; Wildgoose, J.; Zweers, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary management of 418 adult patients with galactosaemia (from 39 centres/12 countries) was compared. All centres advised lactose restriction, 6 restricted galactose from galactosides. ±. fruits and vegetables and 12 offal. 38% (n. =. 15) relaxed diet by: 1) allowing traces of lactose in

  6. How strict is galactose restriction in adults with galactosaemia? International practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, S.; Akroyd, R.; Bernabei, S.; Bollhalder, S.; Boocock, S.; Burlina, A.; Coote, T.; Corthouts, K.; Dalmau, J.; Dawson, S.; Defourny, S.; de Meyer, A.; Desloovere, A.; Devlin, Y.; Diels, M.; Dokoupil, K.; Donald, S.; Evans, S.; Fasan, I.; Ferguson, C.; Ford, S.; Forga, M.; Gallo, G.; Grünert, S. C.; Heddrich-Ellerbrok, M.; Heidenborg, C.; Jonkers, C.; Lefebure, K.; Luyten, K.; Macdonald, A.; Meyer, U.; Micciche, A.; Müller, E.; Portnoi, P.; Ripley, S.; Robert, M.; Robertson, L. V.; Rosenbaum-Fabian, S.; Sahm, K.; Schultz, S.; Singleton, K.; Sjöqvist, E.; Stoelen, L.; Terry, A.; Thompson, S.; Timmer, C.; Vande Kerckhove, K.; van der Ploeg, L.; van Driessche, M.; van Rijn, M.; van Teeffelen-Heithoff, A.; Vitoria, I.; Voillot, C.; Wenz, J.; Westbrook, M.; Wildgoose, J.; Zweers, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary management of 418 adult patients with galactosaemia (from 39 centres/12 countries) was compared. All centres advised lactose restriction, 6 restricted galactose from galactosides +/- fruits and vegetables and 12 offal. 38% (n = 15) relaxed diet by: 1) allowing traces of lactose in

  7. How strict is galactose restriction in adults with galactosaemia? International practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, S.; Akroyd, R.; Bernabei, S.; Bollhalder, S.; Boocock, S.; Burlina, A.; Coote, T.; Corthouts, K.; Dalmau, J.; Dawson, S.; Defourny, S.; Meijer, A; Desloovere, A.; Devlin, Y.; Diels, M.; Dokoupil, K.; Donald, S.; Evans, S.; Fasan, I.; Ferguson, C.; Ford, S.; Forga, M.; Gallo, G.; Grunert, S.C.; Heddrich-Ellerbrok, M.; Heidenborg, C.; Jonkers, C.; Lefebure, K.; Luyten, K.; Macdonald, A.; Meyer, U.; Micciche, A.; Muller, E.; Portnoi, P.; Ripley, S.; Robert, M.; Robertson, L.V.; Rosenbaum-Fabian, S.; Sahm, K.; Schultz, S.; Singleton, K.; Sjoqvist, E.; Stoelen, L.; Terry, A.; Thompson, S.; Timmer, C.; Kerckhove, K. Vande; Ploeg, L. van der; Driessche, M. Van; Rijn, M. van de; Teeffelen-Heithoff, A. van; Vitoria, I.; Voillot, C.; Wenz, J.; Westbrook, M.; Wildgoose, J.; Zweers, H.E.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary management of 418 adult patients with galactosaemia (from 39 centres/12 countries) was compared. All centres advised lactose restriction, 6 restricted galactose from galactosides +/- fruits and vegetables and 12 offal. 38% (n=15) relaxed diet by: 1) allowing traces of lactose in manufactured

  8. How strict is galactose restriction in adults with galactosaemia? International practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, S.; Akroyd, R.; Bernabei, S.; Bollhalder, S.; Boocock, S.; Burlina, A.; Coote, T.; Corthouts, K.; Dalmau, J.; Dawson, S.; Defourny, S.; De Meyer, A.; Desloovere, A.; Devlin, Y.; Diels, M.; Dokoupil, K.; Donald, S.; Evans, S.; Fasan, I.; Ferguson, C.; Ford, S.; Forga, M.; Gallo, G.; Gruenert, S. C.; Heddrich-Ellerbrok, M.; Heidenborg, C.; Jonkers, C.; Lefebure, K.; Luyten, K.; MacDonald, A.; Meyer, U.; Micciche, A.; Mueller, E.; Portnoi, P.; Ripley, S.; Robert, M.; Robertson, L. V.; Rosenbaum-Fabian, S.; Sahm, K.; Schultz, S.; Singleton, K.; Sjoqvist, E.; Stoelen, L.; Terry, A.; Thompson, S.; Timmer, C.; Vande Kerckhove, K.; van der Ploeg, L.; Van Driessche, M.; van Rijn, M.; van Teeffelen-Heithoff, A.; Vitoria, I.; Voillot, C.; Wenz, J.; Westbrook, M.; Wildgoose, J.; Zweers, H.

    Dietary management of 418 adult patients with galactosaemia (from 39 centres/12 countries) was compared. All centres advised lactose restriction, 6 restricted galactose from galactosides +/- fruits and vegetables and 12 offal. 38% (n = 15) relaxed diet by: 1) allowing traces of lactose in

  9. Impact of Light Salt Substitution for Regular Salt on Blood Pressure of Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lôbo de Almeida Barros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown sodium restriction to have a beneficial effect on blood pressure (BP of hypertensive patients. Objective: To evaluate the impact of light salt substitution for regular salt on BP of hypertensive patients. Methods: Uncontrolled hypertensive patients of both sexes, 20 to 65 years-old, on stable doses of antihypertensive drugs were randomized into Intervention Group (IG - receiving light salt and Control Group (CG - receiving regular salt. Systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were analyzed by using casual BP measurements and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring (HBPM, and sodium and potassium excretion was assessed on 24-hour urine samples. The patients received 3 g of salt for daily consumption for 4 weeks. Results: The study evaluated 35 patients (65.7% women, 19 allocated to the IG and 16 to the CG. The mean age was 55.5 ± 7.4 years. Most participants had completed the Brazilian middle school (up to the 8th grade; n = 28; 80.0%, had a family income of up to US$ 600 (n = 17; 48.6% and practiced regular physical activity (n = 19; 54.3%. Two patients (5.7% were smokers and 40.0% consumed alcohol regularly (n = 14. The IG showed a significant reduction in both SBP and DBP on the casual measurements and HBPM (p < 0.05 and in sodium excretion (p = 0.016. The CG showed a significant reduction only in casual SBP (p = 0.032. Conclusions: The light salt substitution for regular salt significantly reduced BP of hypertensive patients.

  10. [Hungarian national dietary survey, 2003-2004. Micronutrients: mineral salts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biró, Lajos; Zajkás, Gábor; Greiner, Erika; Szórád, Ildikó; Varga, Anna; Domonkos, Andrea; Agoston, Helga; Balázs, Anikó; Mozsáry, Erzsébet; Vitrai, József; Hermann, Dóra; Boros, Julianna; Németh, Renáta; Kéki, Zsuzsanna; Martos, Eva

    2007-04-15

    In the course of the 3rd national nutritional survey data were collected in 2003, and the paper on the energy and nutrition intake of a sample group consisting of 1179 people all aged above 19, was published in the Hungarian Medical Journal (Vol. 146, No. 34, 2005). The present paper focuses on one group of micronutrients, namely the minerals' intake. The authors evaluated the results mainly in comparison with the data of the two previous Hungarian national surveys, and the international and national recommendations. The average magnesium intake was considered adequate in both sexes, while iron, zinc and copper intakes also met the recommended level in men. On the other hand, the insufficient calcium and the excessive phosphorus intakes, as well as the disproportionate calcium-phosphorus ratio in both sexes are unfavourable facts. The adverse results include insufficient iron, zinc and copper intake in women and the excessive sodium intake in both sexes, as well. The authors emphasize the importance of spreading the principles of healthy nutrition as well as co-operating with the food industry in order to prevent the occurrence of mineral nutrients deficiency.

  11. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  12. Communication restriction in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda; Van Dulm, Ondene; Robb, Michael P; Ormond, Tika

    2015-07-01

    This study explored communication restriction in adults with stuttering (AWS) by means of typical language measures obtained using the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts - New Zealand (SALT-NZ) software, as well as systemic functional linguistics (SFL) analyses. The areas of language productivity and complexity, modality (i.e. linguistic politeness) and the language of appraisal were compared between AWS and typically fluent speakers (adults with no stuttering (AWNS)). Ten-minute conversational samples were obtained from 20 AWS and 20 age- and sex-matched AWNS. Transcripts were analysed for quantity and complexity of verbal output, and frequency of use of modality and appraisal resource subtypes. Means comparison and correlation analyses were conducted using grouped data. AWS produced less language and less complex language than AWNS, measured by SALT-NZ and SFL indices. AWS also differed from AWNS in their use of modality resources to express politeness - they produced fewer modal operators and more comment adjuncts than AWNS. A smaller proportion of their language expressed the explicit appreciation of things. The linguistic patterns identified in the conversational language of AWS suggested a reduced openness to interpersonal engagement within communication exchanges, which may restrict opportunities for and the experience of such exchanges. The value of SFL to this area of research is discussed.

  13. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  14. Main Sources, Socio-Demographic and Anthropometric Correlates of Salt Intake in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Hasenegger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive salt intake is known to increase blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, salt intake exceeds the recommendations in most countries. To face this problem, it is important to identify high consumers as well as the main contributors of salt intake. Overall, data of 2018 adults between 18 and 64 years were analysed to determine the main sources, socio-demographic and anthropometric correlates of salt intake. Dietary intake was assessed from 24-h-recalls, information on socio-demographic characteristics was obtained using a questionnaire and anthropometric data were measured. Salt intake was significantly higher in males than in females. There was a significant positive association between salt intake and body mass index. No significant differences in salt intake were observed for other variables including affluence, educational level, smoking status and physical activity. The main contributor to salt intake were condiments including table salt (32.6%, followed by cereals and cereal products (27.0%, meat and meat products (16.1% and dairy products (14.0%. These results highlight that specific population groups need to be targeted by public health initiatives and that a reduction in salt intake can only be achieved in tandem with the food producers by the reduction of salt in processed foods.

  15. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Milena Sia; Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. Sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption), 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108). Elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. The data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  16. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Sia Perin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHOD: sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption, 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108. RESULTS: elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. CONCLUSION: the data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  17. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-07-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) 'cut-point' approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. © 2013 The Authors. Physiologia Plantarum published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Assessment of iodine content in Brazilian duplicate portion diets and in table salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Moura, P.L.C.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Excess dietary intake may increase the risk for the hyperthyroidism in the elderly. This study investigated iodine dietary intake by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) analyzing duplicate portion diet and fortified table salt samples. Duplicate diet samples were obtained from a group of twenty-five steel mill workers from the city of Sao Paulo, over a 3-day period. The samples were freeze dried, mixed and homogenized. Fortified table salt brands were collected from the market and were analyzed with no pre-treatment. Assays for the iodine concentration in the table salt samples revealed values between 24 to 65 mg/kg. The average iodine daily intake for the worker's diets was 813 μg/day, ranging from 402 to 1363 μg/day. In some cases daily intakes were around 10 times higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) value (150 μg/day). (author)

  19. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...... metabolite and hormone concentrations in restricted ewes suggest that maternal tissues were being mobilised. Despite the ewes' adaptations their lambs weighed significantly less at birth. Furthermore, colostrum and milk yields were markedly reduced up until the latest measurement at 3 weeks post partum...... despite adlibitum access to feed. Reduced milk yields coincided with reduced plasma IGF-1 concentration pre partum in nutrient restricted ewes indicating, that mammary gland development may have been compromised. The present data suggest that leptin is not involved in the regulation of early lactation...

  20. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  1. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  2. The comparative effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Rat on oxidative stress parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Nurina Tyagita; Taufiqurrachman Nasihun; Titiek Sumarawati

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting, like Islamic Ramadan Fasting, has been associated with health benefits. Islamic Ramadan fasting, a form of caloric restriction (CR) or alternate day fasting that. Studies suggest a comparable effect of ADF and caloric restriction. Despite the fact that fasting can be considered as a form of dietary restriction, fasters tend to have difficulty to reduce their food intake during non-fasting period by overeating leading to the excessive calorie intake. To compare the effec...

  3. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  4. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  5. Impaired sodium excretion and salt-sensitive hypertension in corin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shen, Jianzhong; Cui, Yujie; Jiang, Jingjing; Chen, Shenghan; Peng, Jianhao; Wu, Qingyu

    2012-07-01

    Corin is a protease that activates atrial natriuretic peptide, a cardiac hormone important in the control of blood pressure and salt-water balance. Here we examined the role of corin in regulating blood pressure and sodium homeostasis upon dietary salt challenge. Radiotelemetry-tracked blood pressure in corin knockout mice on a high-salt diet (4% sodium chloride) was significantly increased; however, there was no such change in similarly treated wild-type mice. In the knockout mice on the high-salt diet there was an impairment of urinary sodium excretion and an increase in body weight, but no elevation of plasma renin or serum aldosterone levels. When the knockout mice on the high-salt diet were treated with amiloride, an epithelial sodium channel blocker that inhibits renal sodium reabsorption, the impaired urinary sodium excretion and increased body weight were normalized. Amiloride treatment also reduced high blood pressure caused by the high-salt diet in these mice. Thus, the lack of corin in mice impairs their adaptive renal response to high dietary salt, suggesting that corin deficiency may represent an important mechanism underlying salt-sensitive hypertension.

  6. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  7. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  8. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...

  9. Hydrochlorothiazide-induced 131I excretion facilitated by salt and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, K.H. Jr.; Fehr, D.M.; Gelarden, R.T.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M.; Vesell, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs

  10. Hydrochlorothiazide-induced /sup 131/I excretion facilitated by salt and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, K.H. Jr.; Fehr, D.M.; Gelarden, R.T.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M.; Vesell, E.S.

    Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs.

  11. The Importance of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4 (GRK4 in Pathogenesis of Salt Sensitivity, Salt Sensitive Hypertension and Response to Antihypertensive Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Rayner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt sensitivity is probably caused by either a hereditary or acquired defect of salt excretion by the kidney, and it is reasonable to consider that this is the basis for differences in hypertension between black and white people. Dopamine acts in an autocrine/paracrine fashion to promote natriuresis in the proximal tubule and thick ascending loop of Henle. G-protein receptor kinases (or GRKs are serine and threonine kinases that phosphorylate G protein-coupled receptors in response to agonist stimulation and uncouple the dopamine receptor from its G protein. This results in a desensitisation process that protects the cell from repeated agonist exposure. GRK4 activity is increased in spontaneously hypertensive rats, and infusion of GRK4 antisense oligonucleotides attenuates the increase in blood pressure (BP. This functional defect is replicated in the proximal tubule by expression of GRK4 variants namely p.Arg65Leu, p.Ala142Val and p.Val486Ala, in cell lines, with the p.Ala142Val showing the most activity. In humans, GRK4 polymorphisms were shown to be associated with essential hypertension in Australia, BP regulation in young adults, low renin hypertension in Japan and impaired stress-induced Na excretion in normotensive black men. In South Africa, GRK4 polymorphisms are more common in people of African descent, associated with impaired Na excretion in normotensive African people, and predict blood pressure response to Na restriction in African patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. The therapeutic importance of the GRK4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was emphasised in the African American Study of Kidney Disease (AASK where African-Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis were randomised to receive amlodipine, ramipril or metoprolol. Men with the p.Ala142Val genotype were less likely to respond to metoprolol, especially if they also had the p.Arg65Leu variant. Furthermore, in the analysis of response to treatment in

  12. National approaches to monitoring population salt intake: a trade-off between accuracy and practicality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna; Webster, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    There is strong evidence that diets high in salt are bad for health and that salt reduction strategies are cost effective. However, whilst it is clear that most people are eating too much salt, obtaining an accurate assessment of population salt intake is not straightforward, particularly in resource poor settings. The objective of this study is to identify what approaches governments are taking to monitoring salt intake, with the ultimate goal of identifying what actions are needed to address challenges to monitoring salt intake, especially in low and middle-income countries. A written survey was issued to governments to establish the details of their monitoring methods. Of the 30 countries that reported conducting formal government salt monitoring activities, 73% were high income countries. Less than half of the 30 countries, used the most accurate assessment of salt through 24 hour urine, and only two of these were developing countries. The remainder mainly relied on estimates through dietary surveys. The study identified a strong need to establish more practical ways of assessing salt intake as well as technical support and advice to ensure that low and middle income countries can implement salt monitoring activities effectively.

  13. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined with Caloric Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-I in Premenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    ...) to support her development as a breast cancer researcher, and to conduct a study to test whether a program of moderate aerobic exercise that is combined with a moderate level of dietary restriction...

  14. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  15. Crossing the Salt Barrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fry. RIVER. To cross the salt barrier is, therefore, an obligatory part of every amphihaline fish cycle. Figure 2a. Life Cycle of. Salmon. Adult salmon migrate from sea towards the river. After reaching their hatching ground, the eggs are laid in the gravel. The spawned fishes are called kelts. Alevin is a stage from hatching to fry.

  16. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  17. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. Dokumentet over linket er selve leveringen til ministeriet med følgebrev. Viden om forbrugernes holdning til og købsintention for saltreducerede fødevarer er central, i forhold til industriens udvikling af nye produkter og...... af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt...

  18. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  19. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  20. Roles of Caloric Restriction, Ketogenic Diet and Intermittent Fasting during Initiation, Progression and Metastasis of Cancer in Animal Models: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Mengmeng; Zhu, Xingya; Wang, Hao; Wang, Feng; Guan, Wenxian

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of dietary restriction regimens such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting in development of cancers has been detected via abundant preclinical experiments. However, the conclusions are controversial. We aim to review the relevant animal studies systematically and provide assistance for further clinical studies. Methods Literatures on associations between dietary restriction and cancer published in PubMed in recent twenty years were comprehensivel...

  1. Metals removal from spent salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  2. Actinide removal from spent salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  3. Should we eat less salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaye, François

    2013-05-01

    High blood pressure is a major cardiovascular risk factor. There is overwhelming evidence that high salt consumption is a major cause of increased blood pressure. There is also a link between high salt consumption and risk of stroke, left ventricular hypertrophy, renal disease, obesity, renal stones and stomach cancer. Reducing salt consumption leads to a decrease in blood pressure and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. There are no deleterious effects associated with reducing salt consumption and it is also very cost-effective. Many organizations and state governments have issued recommendations regarding the suitable amount of salt consumption. In France, the objective is a salt consumptionsalt comes from manufactured products in developed countries, reduction of salt consumption requires the participation of the food industry. The other tool is consumer information and education. Salt consumption has already decreased in France in recent years, but efforts must continue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Mean population salt consumption in India: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Claire; Praveen, Devarsetty; Pope, Alun; Raj, Thout S; Pillai, Rakesh N; Land, Mary Anne; Neal, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Member states of the WHO, including India, have adopted a target 30% reduction in mean population salt consumption by 2025 to prevent noncommunicable diseases. Our aim was to support this initiative by summarizing existing data that describe mean salt consumption in India. Electronic databases - MEDLINE via Ovid, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - were searched up to November 2015 for studies that reported mean or median dietary salt intake in Indian adults aged 19 years and older. Random effects meta-analysis was used to obtain summary estimates of salt intake. Of 1201 abstracts identified, 90 were reviewed in full text and 21 were included: 18 cross-sectional surveys (n = 225 024), two randomized trials (n = 255) and one case-control study (n = 270). Data were collected between 1986 and 2014, and reported mean salt consumption levels were between 5.22 and 42.30 g/day. With an extreme outlier excluded, overall mean weighted salt intake was 10.98 g/day (95% confidence interval 8.57-13.40). There was significant heterogeneity between the estimates for contributing studies (I = 99.97%) (P homogeneity ≤0.001), which was likely attributable to the different measurement methods used and the different populations studied. There was no evidence of a change in intake over time (P trend = 0.08). The available data leave some uncertainty about exact mean salt consumption in India but there is little doubt that population salt consumption far exceeds the WHO-recommended maximum of 5 g per person per day.

  5. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  6. Common variants in epithelial sodium channel genes contribute to salt sensitivity of blood pressure: The GenSalt study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Gu, Dongfeng; Hixson, James E; Liu, De-Pei; Rao, Dabeeru C; Jaquish, Cashell E; Kelly, Tanika N; Lu, Fanghong; Ma, Jixiang; Mu, Jianjun; Shimmin, Lawrence C; Chen, Jichun; Mei, Hao; Hamm, L Lee; He, Jiang

    2011-08-01

    Rare mutations of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) lead to mendelian forms of salt-sensitive hypertension or salt-wasting hypotension. We aimed to examine the association between common variants in the ENaC genes and salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP). A total of 1906 Han Chinese participated in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) study, which includes a 7-day low-sodium intake (51.3 mmol sodium/d) followed by a 7-day high-sodium intake (307.8 mmol sodium/d). Nine BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each intervention period using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both tagging and functional, from the 3 ENaC subunits, α, β, and γ (SCNN1A, SCNN1B, and SCNN1G), were genotyped. Multiple common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in SCNN1G were significantly associated with BP response to low-sodium intervention (rs4073930, P=1.7×10(-5); rs4073291, P=1.1×10(-5); rs7404408, P=1.9×10(-5); rs5735, P=3.0×10(-4); rs4299163, P=0.004; and rs4499238, P=0.002) even after correcting for multiple testing. For example, under an additive model, the minor allele G of SNP rs4073291 was associated with 1.33 mm Hg lower systolic BP reduction during low-sodium intervention. This large dietary sodium intervention study indicates that common variants of ENaC subunits may contribute to the variation of BP response to dietary sodium intake. Future studies are warranted to confirm these findings in an independent population and to identify functional variants for salt sensitivity. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00721721.

  7. Restricted and quasi-toral restricted Lie-Rinehart algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Bing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the definition of restrictable Lie-Rinehart algebras, the concept of restrictability is by far more tractable than that of a restricted Lie-Rinehart algebra. Moreover, we obtain some properties of p-mappings and restrictable Lie-Rinehart algebras. Finally, we give some sufficient conditions for the commutativity of quasi-toral restricted Lie-Rinehart algebras and study how a quasi-toral restricted Lie-Rinehart algebra with zero center and of minimal dimension should be.

  8. The SALT HRS Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, Luke Martin Graham

    2012-05-01

    SALT HRS (Southern African Large Telescope High Resolution Échelle Spectrograph) is a high-resolution, high-efficiency spectrograph for the 11m SALT telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. The initial optical design work was performed at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Revisions to the concept, the mechanical design, manufacture, assembly and testing have been handled by the Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, at Durham University in the United Kingdom. SALT HRS is a fibre-fed échelle grating spectrograph with four operational modes: low-, medium- and high-resolution and high-stability modes, having spectral resolutions of R≈16000, 37000, 67000 and 67000 respectively over a wavelength range of 370-890nm. The instrument is of a dual channel, 'white pupil' design, in which the primary mirror acts to collimate light onto a single R4 échelle grating, and also to focus dispersed light to an intermediate focus. A dichroic beam-splitter separates the dispersed light into two separate spectral channels. Spherical pupil mirrors transfer the separated beams via a fold mirror to two wavelength-specific volume-phase holographic gratings (VPHGs) used as cross-dispersers. Cross-dispersed spectra are then imaged by two fully dioptric camera systems onto optimized CCD detectors. This thesis presents the results of the laboratory testing and specification of several critical sub-systems of SALT HRS, as well as the development of key software tools for the design verification and operation at the telescope. In Chapter 1 we first review the technical development of high-resolution spectroscopy and its specific implementation in SALT HRS. In Chapter 2 we develop a comprehensive throughput model of the entire system based on a combination of as-built performance and specific throughput measurements in the laboratory. This is used to make some specific predictions for the on-sky performance of SALT HRS and the magnitude limits for science targets. We also present a

  9. Dietary factors and stomach cancer mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoan, L T; Mizoue, T; Fujino, Y; Tokui, N; Yoshimura, T

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between stomach cancer and the low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables and/or a high intake of pickled, preserved or salted foods and frequent use of cooking oil. During 139?390 person?year of follow-up of over 13?000 subjects, 116 died from stomach cancer. Using a Cox proportional hazards?regression analysis of relative risk (RR, 95% CI) controlling for age, sex, smoking and other dietary factors, a significant decline was found with a high consum...

  10. Bone Density and High Salt Diets in a Space Flight Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, S. B.; Navidi, M.; Liang, M. T. C.; Wolinsky, I.

    1999-01-01

    High salt diets accelerate bone loss with aging in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis except when calcium supplementation is provided. We have observed that the decrease in mineral content of growing femurs in juvenile rats, exposed to a space flight model which unloads the hind limbs , is substantially less in animals fed excess salt. To determine whether excess dietary salt has the same effect on the skeleton of the mature animal whose response to unloading is increased resorption and bone loss rather than impaired growth, we carried out a metabolic study in mature rats with hindlimbs unloaded by tailsuspension.

  11. Urinary exosome miRNome analysis and its applications to salt sensitivity of blood pressure☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J.; Carlson, Julia M.; Schoeffel, Cynthia D.; Carey, Robert M.; Felder, Robin A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate microRNAs (miRNAs) in urinary exosomes and their association with an individual’s blood pressure response to dietary salt intake. Design and methods Human urinary exosomal miRNome was examined by microarray. Results Of 1898 probes tested, 194 miRNAs were found in all subjects tested. 45 miRNAs had significant associations with salt sensitivity or inverse salt sensitivity. Conclusion The expression of 45 urinary exosomal miRNAs associates with an individual’s blood pressure response to sodium. PMID:23726803

  12. Urinary exosome miRNome analysis and its applications to salt sensitivity of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Carlson, Julia M; Schoeffel, Cynthia D; Carey, Robert M; Felder, Robin A

    2013-08-01

    To investigate microRNAs (miRNAs) in urinary exosomes and their association with an individual's blood pressure response to dietary salt intake. Human urinary exosomal miRNome was examined by microarray. Of 1898 probes tested, 194 miRNAs were found in all subjects tested. 45 miRNAs had significant associations with salt sensitivity or inverse salt sensitivity. The expression of 45 urinary exosomal miRNAs associates with an individual's blood pressure response to sodium. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Maintenance Phase Kidney Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimaru, N; Nakazawa, S; Yamanaka, K; Kakuta, Y; Abe, T; Kaimori, J-Y; Imamura, R; Nonomura, N; Takahara, S

    2016-04-01

    Current adherence to dietary recommendations for chronic kidney disease was evaluated in kidney transplant patients in the maintenance phase. A total of 268 maintenance phase kidney transplant patients were included in the study. Estimated daily intakes of oral protein and salt were calculated from 24-h urinary excretion of nitrogen and sodium, respectively. Dietary recommendations for chronic kidney disease, as issued in 2014 by the Japanese Society of Nephrology, were used as the basis for assessing diet. The study included 114 female patients and 154 male patients. The mean age, posttransplantation years, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and 24-h urinary excretion of protein were 56.3 years, 11.2 years, 22.0 kg/m(2), 42.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 321 mg/d, respectively. Estimated daily protein and salt intakes were 0.98 ± 0.26 g/kg/d and 9.3 ± 3.9 g/d. Only 47 patients (17.5%) in the case of salt intake and 105 patients (39.2%) in the case of protein intake were within reference values. The 24-h urinary protein excretion of the daily salt intake-adherent group (adherence rate to dietary recommendations for chronic kidney disease in kidney transplant patients was low. The 24-h urinary protein excretion of the daily salt intake-adherent group was significantly less than that of the nonadherent group. Dietary therapy for these patients may have the potential to improve kidney graft function and survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of a complex workplace dietary intervention: an economic evaluation of the Food Choice at Work study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Murphy, Aileen; Kirby, Ann; Geaney, Fiona; Perry, Ivan J

    2018-03-03

    To evaluate the costs, benefits and cost-effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions, involving nutrition education and system-level dietary modification, from the perspective of healthcare providers and employers. Single-study economic evaluation of a cluster-controlled trial (Food Choice at Work (FCW) study) with 1-year follow-up. Four multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork, Ireland. 517 randomly selected employees (18-65 years) from four workplaces. Cost data were obtained from the FCW study. Nutrition education included individual nutrition consultations, nutrition information (traffic light menu labelling, posters, leaflets and emails) and presentations. System-level dietary modification included menu modification (restriction of fat, sugar and salt), increase in fibre, fruit discounts, strategic positioning of healthier alternatives and portion size control. The combined intervention included nutrition education and system-level dietary modification. No intervention was implemented in the control. The primary outcome was an improvement in health-related quality of life, measured using the EuroQoL 5 Dimensions 5 Levels questionnaire. The secondary outcome measure was reduction in absenteeism, which is measured in monetary amounts. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (Monte Carlo simulation) assessed parameter uncertainty. The system-level intervention dominated the education and combined interventions. When compared with the control, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (€101.37/quality-adjusted life-year) is less than the nationally accepted ceiling ratio, so the system-level intervention can be considered cost-effective. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve indicates there is some decision uncertainty surrounding this, arising from uncertainty surrounding the differences in effectiveness. These results are reiterated when the secondary outcome measure is considered in a cost-benefit analysis, whereby the system

  15. Dietary Composition Independent of Weight Loss in the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eslamparast, Tannaz; Tandon, Puneeta; Raman, Maitreyi

    2017-01-01

    Poor dietary composition is an important factor in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The majority of NAFLD patients follow diets with overconsumption of simple carbohydrates, total and saturated fat, with reduced intake of dietary fiber and omega-3 rich foods. Although lifestyle modifications including weight loss and exercise remain the keystone of NAFLD management, modifying dietary composition with or without a calorie-restricted diet may also be a feasible and ...

  16. On the evolution of bile salts and the farnesoid X receptor in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Kim; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, our knowledge of bile salts has undergone a vast development, and bile salts are now known not only for their detergent properties that aid in the absorption of dietary lipids but also for their interaction with specific nuclear and membrane receptors. In particular, it has bee......, a better understanding of the evolution of bile salts and the FXR may expand our knowledge of their function in health and disease, including their function outside the gastrointestinal tract, and aid in the development of new strategies for treatment.......In recent decades, our knowledge of bile salts has undergone a vast development, and bile salts are now known not only for their detergent properties that aid in the absorption of dietary lipids but also for their interaction with specific nuclear and membrane receptors. In particular, it has been...... for treatment of, for example, cholestatic liver diseases, diabetes, and colorectal cancer. Previously, interest in the structure and chemistry of bile salts has focused on their cellular toxicity and involvement in digestion. However, insight into the extensive variation in the structure of bile salts...

  17. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P salt. Proteinuria of the S rats was three times that of the R rats, suggesting kidney damage in the S rats. Low plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  18. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  19. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... nutrients. However, little is known about the development of dietary patterns in childhood both in relation to possible indicators and to obesity related outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to make exploratory analyses of dietary patterns in childhood using the method principal component...... of the complexity in child nutrition both in observational and intervention designs as well as for investigating development of dietary patterns over time. Explorative analyses of indicators for dietary patterns showed that parental, household and child characteristics are associated with dietary patterns in early...

  20. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Restrictions of anthelmintic usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup

    2009-01-01

    in 1966. The province of Quebec in Canada, and an increasing number of European countries, have implemented prescription-only restrictions on anthelmintic drugs. Denmark introduced this legislation ten years ago, and some evidence has been generated describing potential consequences. It is without dispute...... that Danish veterinarians are now deeply involved with parasite management in equine establishments. However, little is known about the impact on levels of anthelmintic resistance and the risk of parasitic disease under these circumstances. In addition, the legislation makes huge demands on diagnosis...

  2. Dietary determinants of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarized the mechanisms and influences of several major dietary determinants of weight change, with a focus on their potential in the prevention of weight gain or regain. We discussed the intake of fat, p...

  3. High salt reduces the activation of IL-4- and IL-13-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binger, Katrina J; Gebhardt, Matthias; Heinig, Matthias; Rintisch, Carola; Schroeder, Agnes; Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Hilgers, Karl; Manzel, Arndt; Schwartz, Christian; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Voelkl, Jakob; Schatz, Valentin; Linker, Ralf A; Lang, Florian; Voehringer, David; Wright, Mark D; Hubner, Norbert; Dechend, Ralf; Jantsch, Jonathan; Titze, Jens; Müller, Dominik N

    2015-11-02

    A high intake of dietary salt (NaCl) has been implicated in the development of hypertension, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. We have recently shown that salt has a proinflammatory effect and boosts the activation of Th17 cells and the activation of classical, LPS-induced macrophages (M1). Here, we examined how the activation of alternative (M2) macrophages is affected by salt. In stark contrast to Th17 cells and M1 macrophages, high salt blunted the alternative activation of BM-derived mouse macrophages stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13, M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages. Salt-induced reduction of M(IL-4+IL-13) activation was not associated with increased polarization toward a proinflammatory M1 phenotype. In vitro, high salt decreased the ability of M(IL-4+IL-13) macrophages to suppress effector T cell proliferation. Moreover, mice fed a high salt diet exhibited reduced M2 activation following chitin injection and delayed wound healing compared with control animals. We further identified a high salt-induced reduction in glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolic output, coupled with blunted AKT and mTOR signaling, which indicates a mechanism by which NaCl inhibits full M2 macrophage activation. Collectively, this study provides evidence that high salt reduces noninflammatory innate immune cell activation and may thus lead to an overall imbalance in immune homeostasis.

  4. Measuring salt consumption to guide behavior change in applied settings: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkington, Sandra R; Roussos, Stergios

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the accuracy of salt consumption measurement can enhance future dietary sodium interventions. A review of the measures of salt consumption was conducted with a focus on the measurement that may facilitate behavior modification. Measures were critiqued for factors known to threaten the validity of behavioral measurement in applied settings. The review included observational, interventional, and measurement studies that used at least one measure of behavior indicative of salt consumption. Eighteen articles were retrieved by examining their definitions of salt consumption to ensure a measurement of behavior and a discussion of factors known to influence behavior and its measurement. Articles meeting the above criteria were critically reviewed for factors related to a valid measurement of behavior: participant and setting characteristics, measurement definitions, and measurement procedures. The results indicate that imprecise definitions of salt consumption and insensitive measurement tools limit valid measurement of salt-eating behaviors. Further research is needed to improve the specificity of measures of behaviors that are indicative of salt consumption and to produce tools that clinicians and patients may use for more accurate, and possibly real-time, salt consumption measurement. The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease in the aging U.S. population demands better methods to assess and subsequently control salt consumption in applied settings.

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SALT INTAKE AND GNRI IN ELDERLY DIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Ozeki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While the recommended salt intake in dialysis patients is no more than 5 g/day in the KDOQI guideline, and 6 g/day in the JSH 2009 guideline, reducing salt consumption is difficult on the traditional Japanese diet. If a patient is malnourished, a low-salt diet poses a risk of aggravating the nutritional deficiency. Since elderly dialysis patients have nutritional deficiencies underlying their condition, the recommended low-salt diet may prevent these patients from receiving adequate nutrition. In the present study, factors associated with nutritional status in the elderly were assessed using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI, which is considered to correlate with predictor of mortality among dialysis patients. Participating patients were anuric, had been maintained on dialysis for at least 2 years, and were 65 years of age or older. Factors assessed for their possible correlations with GNRI were primary disease, presence of spouse, presence of cohabiting family, weight gain, and estimated salt intake. We analyzed 36 patients (age 74.3±5.4 years, 50% males. GNRI was 90.9±7.7, and salt intake (8.02±1.94 correlated with GNRI (r=0.41, P=0.02. No correlations were detected for the presence of spouse or cohabiting family, which would have contributed to nutrition. In conclusion, the higher the salt intake, the better GNRI tended to be. This raised the possibility that it would be advantageous to avoid excessive salt restriction in nutritional training.

  6. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate...

  7. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...... sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Klodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir...

  8. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the establishment of dietary treatment. Design: Women, aged 19 to 30 years, with both restricting and binge purge types of AN, participating in an ecological momentary assessment study, completed three nonc...

  9. A Pilot Study to Validate a Standardized One-Week Salt Estimation Method Evaluating Salt Intake and Its Sources for Family Members in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a new method named the “one-week salt estimation method” that could estimate an individual’s salt intake and the sources of salt in the diet, and to evaluate this new method with a 24-h urine collection. The new method estimates salt intake from: (1 household cooking by weighing the family salt container and other high-salt condiments or sauces at the beginning and end of a week; (2 processed food according to established China food composition figures; and (3 cafeteria or restaurant meals using the results of previous studies. Consumption of salt additives and major salt contained foods and salt intake related eating habits were collected using a structured simple seven-day questionnaire. In order to validate the method, we studied 37 individuals from 11 families using the new method and 26 of these participants collected seven concurrent 24-h urine samples. The average salt intake for the 26 participants was 15.6 ± 5.5 g/person/day (mean ± standard deviation by the 24-h urine collection and 13.7 ± 6.5 g/person/day by the new method. The difference was 1.8 ± 4.2 g/day/person (p = 0.037. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.762 (p < 0.001 and the partial correlation coefficient was 0.771 (p < 0.001 when adjusted for family code. Bland-Altman Plot showed the average of the difference between the two methods was −1.83, with 95% limits of −10.1 to 6.5 g/person/day. The new method showed that 43.7% of salt intake came from household cooking (33.5% from cooking salt, 10.2% from other condiments and sauces, 12.9% from processed food, and 43.4% from eating out. In conclusion, despite its limitations of underestimating salt intake, the “one-week salt estimation method” is easier for people to implement and is likely to provide useful information that highlights the excessively high intake of salt and its sources, and in turn is helpful in guiding dietary salt reduction.

  10. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  11. Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Beware of Fraudulent Dietary Supplements Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... at 1-800-FDA-1088 or online . Dietary Supplements and FDA Dietary supplements, in general, are not ...

  12. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Office of Dietary Supplements Health Professional Other Resources Botanical Dietary Supplements Background Information Have a question? Ask ... on botanical dietary supplements? Disclaimer What is a botanical? A botanical is a plant or plant part ...

  13. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans

    OpenAIRE

    Holla, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  14. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  15. Dahl salt-sensitive rats develop hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism when fed a standard diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Cephas, Stacy; Sayavongsa, Phouyong; Doherty, Akins; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S), a model for salt-sensitive hypertension, excretes protein-bound 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) into urine when fed a low salt diet. Urinary 25-OHD increases during high salt intake. We tested the hypothesis that continuous loss of 25-OHD into urine would result in low plasma 25-OHD concentration in mature S rats raised on a standard diet. Dahl S and salt-resistant (R) male rats were raised to maturity (12-month-old) on a commercial rat diet (1% salt) and switched to 0.3% (low) or 2% (high) salt diets 3 weeks before euthanasia. Urine (24 h) was collected at the end of the dietary treatments. Urinary 25-OHD and urinary 25-OHD binding activity of S rats were three times that of R rats, resulting in lower plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in S rats than in R rats (P rats were twice that of R rats. S rats fed 2% salt had higher plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations than those fed 0.3% salt (P = 0.002). S rats excreted more calcium into urine than R rats (P rats was three times that of the R rats, suggesting kidney damage in the S rats. Low plasma 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations seen in the mature S rats have also been reported for elderly patients with low-renin (salt-induced) hypertension. An implication of this study is that low vitamin D status may occur with age in salt-sensitive individuals, even when salt intake is normal.

  16. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…