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Sample records for dietary kudzu isoflavones

  1. exposure of growing and adult captive cheetahs (Acinony Jubatus) to dietary isoflavones: twenty years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary isoflavones are associated with oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic effects, and have been linked to infertility in cheetahs. This study aimed to determine the isoflavone content of commercially prepared diets consumed by captive cheetahs. Sixteen international zoological facilities provided

  2. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ... Keywords: Mineral elements, Alkaline phosphatase, Isoflavones, Bone loss, Notch pathway. This is an Open .... incubated for 3 h in 5% non-fat-milk blocking solution at ..... protect against osteopenia in ovariectomised rats.

  3. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: Forty-eight rats were assigned randomly to groups of OVX rats receiving soy isoflavones (20, 30, or 40 mg/kg of body weight daily), untreated OVX rats, or untreated intact rats. After 8 weeks, bone ...

  4. Dietary isoflavone absorption, excretion, and metabolism in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine M; Cave, Nicholas J; Ugarte, Claudia E; Waldron, Lucy A; Prasain, Jeevan K; Arabshahi, Alireza; Barnes, Stephen; Thomas, David G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary isoflavones, capable of influencing reproductive parameters in domestic cats (Felis catus), have been detected in commercial diets fed to captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). However, the absorptive and metabolic capacity of cheetahs towards isoflavones has not yet been studied. Experiments were designed to describe the plasma concentration-time curve, metabolite profile, and urinary and fecal excretion of genistein and daidzein in cheetahs following consumption of isoflavones. Four adult cheetahs were administered a single oral bolus of genistein and daidzein, and five juvenile cheetahs consuming a milk replacer formula found to contain isoflavones were also included. Urine was collected from all animals, and blood and feces were also collected from adult cheetahs following isoflavone exposure. Samples were analyzed for isoflavone metabolite concentration by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-multiple reaction ion monitoring mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Sulfate conjugates were the primary metabolites detected of both genistein and daidzein (60-80% of total isoflavones present) in the plasma and urine of cheetahs. A smaller proportion of daidzein was detected as conjugates in the urine of juvenile cheetahs, compared to adult cheetahs. Other metabolites included unconjugated genistein and daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, and dihydrodaidzein, but not equol. Only 33% of the ingested genistein dose, and 9% of daidzein, was detected in plasma from adult cheetahs. However, of the ingested dose, 67% of genistein and 45% of daidzein were detected in the feces of adults. This study revealed that cheetahs appear efficient in their conjugation of absorbed dietary isoflavones and only a small fraction of ingested dose is absorbed. However, the capacity of the cheetah to conjugate genistein and daidzein with sulfate moieties appears lower than reported in the domestic cat. This may confer greater opportunity for biologic

  5. Influence of dietary isoflavone intake on gastrointestinal symptoms in ulcerative colitis individuals in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Grudzińska, Dominika; Lech, Gustaw

    2017-08-07

    To analyse the association between isoflavone intake and ulcerative colitis motility symptoms in individuals in remission. Cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of ulcerative colitis remission individuals, in sub-groups characterised by various intestinal motility and functioning characteristics (abdominal pain, flatulence, constipations, tenesmus). Total of 56 individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission (19 males and 37 females) were recruited for the study. Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data from each patient's dietary records taken over a period of three typical, random days (2 weekdays and 1 d of the weekend). The daily isoflavone intake (daidzein, genistein, glycitein and total isoflavones) and daily isoflavone intake per 1000 kcal of diet were assessed. No correlations between isoflavone intake levels and number of bowel movements per day were observed both in the case of intake and intake per 1000 kcal of diet. In the group of individuals declaring lack of abdominal pain, the higher intakes of daidzein ( P = 0.0075), daidzein per 1000 kcal of diet ( P = 0.0358) and total isoflavone ( P = 0.0358) were stated, than in the group of individuals declaring abdominal pain. In the group of individuals declaring lack of constipations, the lower intakes of glycitein ( P = 0.0213) and glycitein per 1000 kcal of diet ( P = 0.0213) were stated, than in the group of individuals declaring presence of constipations. No differences were observed in isoflavone intake between groups of ulcerative colitis individuals declaring lack of flatulence and declaring presence of flatulence, as well as between groups declaring lack of tenesmus and declaring presence of tenesmus. The moderate dietary isoflavone intake may be beneficial for individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission, however, before including it into recommendations, further prospective studies are needed.

  6. Role of Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Manuscript s • Submitted to the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry (Feb 21, 2012) “The soy isoflavone equol may increase cancer malignancy via upregulation...29] Ko KP, Park SK, Park B et al. Isoflavones from phytoestrogens and gastric cancer risk: a nested case-control study within the Korean...Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Columba de la Parra Simental CONTRACTING

  7. Kudzu -- Goat Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Mount

    1994-01-01

    Researchers at Tuskegee University have joined together to study the impact of grazing Angora goats on kudzu (Pueraria lobata). A pilot project funded by the Southern Forest Experiment Station of the USDA Forest Service was started in 1990. The problem was to find an environmentally acceptable way to control and eradicate kudzu in forest situations...

  8. Dietary isoflavones alter regulatory behaviors, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine function in Long-Evans male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoestrogens derived from soy foods (or isoflavones have received prevalent usage due to their 'health benefits' of decreasing: a age-related diseases, b hormone-dependent cancers and c postmenopausal symptoms. However, little is known about the influence of dietary phytoestrogens on regulatory behaviors, such as food and water intake, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine parameters. This study examined important hormonal and metabolic health issues by testing the hypotheses that dietary soy-derived isoflavones influence: 1 body weight and adipose deposition, 2 food and water intake, 3 metabolic hormones (i.e., leptin, insulin, T3 and glucose levels, 4 brain neuropeptide Y (NPY levels, 5 heat production [in brown adipose tissue (BAT quantifying uncoupling protein (UCP-1 mRNA levels] and 6 core body temperature. Methods This was accomplished by conducting longitudinal studies where male Long-Evans rats were exposed (from conception to time of testing or tissue collection to a diet rich in isoflavones (at 600 micrograms/gram of diet or 600 ppm vs. a diet low in isoflavones (at approximately 10–15 micrograms/gram of diet or 10–15 ppm. Body, white adipose tissue and food intake were measured in grams and water intake in milliliters. The hormones (leptin, insulin, T3, glucose and NPY were quantified by radioimmunoassays (RIA. BAT UCP-1 mRNA levels were quantified by PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while core body temperatures were recorded by radio telemetry. The data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA (or where appropriate by repeated measures. Results Body and adipose tissue weights were decreased in Phyto-600 vs. Phyto-free fed rats. Food and water intake was greater in Phyto-600 animals, that displayed higher hypothalamic (NPY concentrations, but lower plasma leptin and insulin levels, vs. Phyto-free fed males. Higher thyroid levels (and a tendency for higher glucose levels and increased uncoupling

  9. Dietary soy and isoflavone intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the Japan public health center-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Munira; Inoue, Manami; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-08-01

    Several experimental studies have reported that the anticarcinogenic properties of dietary soy play an important role in preventing colorectal cancer. However, few epidemiologic studies have examined this association in general populations and their findings have been inconsistent. We investigated the association between dietary soy and isoflavone intake and incidence of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort study of 83,063 Japanese men and women, ages 45 to 74 years. Dietary soy and isoflavone intake was measured through a validated food frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 1998. Throughout 2004, a total of 886 cases of colorectal cancer were newly identified (291 proximal colon, 286 distal colon, and 277 rectum). The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by fitting a Cox proportional hazards model. The intake of isoflavones, miso soup, and soy food was not associated with colorectal cancer in either men or women. By colorectal cancer subsite, the risk of proximal colon cancer in men decreased with increasing consumption of isoflavones, miso soup, and soy food. Compared with men in the lowest quartiles of isoflavones, miso soup, and soy food intake, the hazard ratios in the highest quartiles were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.33-0.92), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.43-1.21), and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.30-0.87), respectively. The results showed no association for distal colon and rectal cancer in men or for subsites of colorectal cancer in women. These findings suggest that the intake of isoflavones, miso soup, and soy food has no substantial effect on the risk of colorectal cancer in Japanese men and women.

  10. Kudzu--Wonder Weed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is a high climbing, exceedingly vigorous vine with twining stems (no tendrils or aerial holdfasts). The plant, introduced from the Orient and currently found in southeastern United States, has been known to choke valuable strands of trees, short electrical wires, and even creep up the sides of high rise buildings. Although…

  11. Population versus hospital controls in the assessment of dietary intake of isoflavone for case-control studies on cancers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2013-01-01

    To assess dietary isoflavone intake between population and hospital outpatient controls and examine if cancer risks estimated for isoflavone using hospital outpatient controls would be different from those using population controls. Three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast, and colorectal cancers in China in 2009-2010 were conducted, using population and hospital outpatient controls to separately match 560 incident cases at a 1:1 ratio. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The 2 control groups had closely similar distributions of dietary isoflavone intake. Risk estimates for breast cancers were adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.31 (0.18-0.55) for daidzein, 0.35 (0.20-0.61) and 0.28 (0.16-0.52) for genistein, 0.66 (0.41-1.08) and 0.53 (0.32-0.88) for glycitein, and 0.53 (0.33-0.85) and 0.43 (0.26-0.71) for total isoflavone using hospital outpatient and population controls respectively. The study found that hospital outpatient controls were comparable to population controls in measured dietary intake of isoflavone in the Chinese hospital setting.

  12. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by dietary isoflavones: role of NO in Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Giovanni E; Rowlands, David J; Li, Francois Y L; de Winter, Patricia; Siow, Richard C M

    2007-07-15

    The endothelium plays a key role in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, and increased oxidative stress in vascular disease leads to reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of resistance vessels. Although epidemiological evidence suggests that diets containing high amounts of natural antioxidants afford protection against coronary heart disease (CHD), antioxidant supplementation trials have largely reported only marginal health benefits. There is controversy concerning the cardiovascular benefits of prolonged estrogen/progestin or soy isoflavone therapy for postmenopausal women and patients with an increased risk of CHD. Research on the potential health benefits of soy isoflavones and other polyphenols contained in red wine, green and black tea and dark chocolate developed rapidly during the 1990's, and recent clinical trials and studies in animal models and cultured endothelial cells provide important and novel insights into the mechanisms by which dietary polyphenols afford protection against oxidative stress. In this review, we highlight that NO and reactive oxygen radicals may mediate dietary polyphenol induced activation of Nrf2, which in turn triggers antioxidant response element (ARE) driven transcription of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant defense enzymes in vascular cells.

  13. Effects of dietary soybean isoflavones (SI) on reproduction in the young breeder rooster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Dai; Zhang, Tao; Tian, Ye; Yu, Shangyu; Liu, Wenbo; Xu, Kaili; Liu, Juan; Ding, Yu; Zhu, Baochang; Yang, Yanzhou; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Soybean isoflavones (SIs) are phytoestrogens that competitive with estrogens in body. Although SIs play an important role in reproduction, their role in testicular development in roosters is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of SIs on testicular development and serum reproductive hormone profiles in young breeder roosters (70-133days old). Gene expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), which are related to testosterone synthesis, in rooster testis were also evaluated after treatment with different SI doses. Although SIs had no significant effect on body weight, 5mg/kg SIs significantly increased the testis index and serum levels of reproductive hormones (gonadotropin releasing hormone, follicle- stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone).To further investigate whether SIs regulate hormone synthesis via StAR, p450scc, 3β-HSD, real time-PCR was performed to measure the mRNA levels of the corresponding genes. The results showed that 5mg/kg of SIs significantly increased StAR mRNA levels. However, there were no significant effects on p450scc or 3β-HSD mRNA levels. Moreover, the spermatogonial development and the number of germ cell layers were increased by treatment with 5mg/kg of SIs. These results suggest that SIs promote testicular growth by increasing reproductive hormone secretion, which is closely related to StAR expression, to positively regulate reproduction in young roosters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Kudzu as a Feed For Angora Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. Rhoden; A. Woldeghebriel; T. Small

    1991-01-01

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobota), a large-leaved, deep-rooted, perennial legume, favors a warm moist climate and has the ability to thrive on almost any soil. During the 1930's, the government gave an $8 per acre incentive to plant kudzu to control soil erosion in the Southeast, and the forage was subsequently used for cattle grazing. But the asset...

  15. The effects of dietary soybean isoflavones on growth, innate immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Lin, Heizhao; Ge, Xianping; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yun; Chen, Lixiong; Huang, Zhong; Yu, Wei; Tan, Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soybean isoflavones (SI) supplementation on growth performance, innate immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression and resistance to the pathogen Vibrio harveyi in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet was supplemented with SI at 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 mg kg(-1) feed for 8 weeks. Significantly maximum weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed in treatment with 40 mg kg(-1) SI supplement (P growth, non-specific immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities and HSP70 gene expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pengolahan Batang Kudzu Menjadi Bahan Baku Serat untuk Produk Kerajinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Widiastuti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKKudzu (Pueraria sp. adalah tanaman merambat yang telah dibudidaya untuk dimanfaatkan batangnya  untuk serat tenun/anyaman;  daun untuk pakan ternak; umbi untuk pangan alternatif maupun kosmetik. Potensi Kudzu di Indonesia cukup besar, daerah penghasil pengolahan kudzu adalah Sumatera Utara; Purwakarta dan Magelang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengolah serat kudzu menjadi bahan baku produk kerajinan. Penelitian yang dilakukan meliputi 2 tahap yaitu tahap  pemisahan batang kudzu menjadi serat dengan fermentasi EM4, tahap pengolahan serat kudzu meliputi pemasakan, pengelantangan, mordant  dan pencelupan dengan zat warna alam, pertenunan. Kemudian diuji ketahanan luntur warna terhadap sinar matahari. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa tenunan serat kudzu baik sekali dalam nilai penyerapan zat warna alam, ditunjukkan dengan hasil uji ketahanan luntur mencapai 5 skala abu-abu (grey scale. Nilai rendemen serat kudzu sebesar 1,4 - 1,67 % dari 1 kg batang basah kudzu menghasilkan 14 – 17 g serat kudzu. Kata kunci: produk kerajinan, serat kudzu ABSTRACTKudzu (Pueraria sp. is a vine that have been cultivated for the stem used for fiber woven / woven ; leaves for fodder ; bulbs for alternative food and cosmetics . Kudzu potential in Indonesia is quite large , kudzu processing producing areas are North Sumatra ; Purwakarta and Magelang . The research was conducted on the two phases: separation of kudzu stem into fibers with EM4 fermentation , fiber processing stage kudzu include cooking , bleaching , mordant , dyeing with natural dyes and weaving. Then tested color fastness to sunlight . The test results showed that kudzu woven fibers excellent in absorption value of natural dyes , indicated by test results fastness reach 5 gray scale . Kudzu fiber yield value of 1.4 to 1.67 % from 1 kg wet bar kudzu produces 14-17 g fiber kudzu .  Keywords: craft product, kudzu fiber

  17. Towards Biological Control of Kudzu Through an Improved Understanding of Insect-Kudzu Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, D.; Barber, G.; DeBarr, G.; Thornton, M.

    2001-08-03

    The authors evaluated various approaches to the biological control of kudzu and exotic weed that infests the SRS. A large number of native pollinators were found to be attracted to kudzu. The viability of seed was found to be low, between 2% and 11%. This is the result of native Hemiptera. The results suggest that seed feeding insects should not be targeted for importation. Both kudzu and soybeans had the same level of abundance and diversity of herbivore insects and the same levels of defoliation. No vine or root damaging species were found. Efforts should be targeted to the latter insects to control kudzu.

  18. Haemato-biochemistry of Albino rats fed African Kudzu ( Pueraria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cooked and acid-extracted kudzu seed meals on some nutritional and blood and liver biochemical parameters were investigated. Rats fed cooked kudzu meal had significantly (p<0.01) slower rates of growth than the casein control. Cooking enhanced feed efficiency (FE) but the acid-extracted meal could not ...

  19. The influence of bovine milk high or low in isoflavones on hepatic gene expression in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanild, Mette Tingleff; Nielsen, Tina Skau

    2012-01-01

    Isoflavones have generated much attention due to their potential positive effects in various diseases. Phytoestrogens especially equol can be found in bovine milk, as feed ration for dairy cows is comprised of plants containing phytoestrogens. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes...... in hepatic gene expression after dietary intake of milk high and low in isoflavones. In addition to pelleted feed female NMRI mice were offered water, water added either 17β-estradiol, equol, Tween 80, and milk high and low in isoflavone content for a week. Gene expression was analyzed using an array q......PCR kit. It was revealed that Tween 80 and 17β-estradiol upregulated both phase I and phase II genes to the same extent whereas equol alone, high and low isoflavone milk did not alter the expression of phase I genes but decreased the expression of phase II genes. This study shows that dietary isoflavones...

  20. Characterizing Specimens of Kudzu and Related Taxa with RAPD's

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.K. Jewett; C.J. Jiang; K.O. Britton; J.H. Sun; J. Tang

    2003-01-01

    Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen and Almeidal is a perennial, semi-woody, climbing legume in the tribe Phaseoleae Benth., subtribe Glycininae Benth. (Maesen 1985, Maesen and Almeida 1988, Ward 1998). It is native to China, where an abundance of natural enemies (Pemberton 1988) and its cultivation...

  1. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  2. PENGARUH PENGOLAHAN KEDELAI MENJADI TEMPE DAN PEMASAKAN TEMPE TERHADAP KADAR ISOFLAVON (EFFECTS OF SOYBEAN PROCESSING BECOMING TEMPEH AND THE COOKING OF TEMPEH ON ISOFLAVONES LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah M Utari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Research over the past two decades has provided significant clinical trial and epidemiological evidence for health benefits of the consumption of soybean-based foods. A health claim indicating that high soybean consumption is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. Compositions of nutrient and non-nutrient in soybean have been examination and give the contribution on lower risk of CHD especially on improve of lipid profile. Isoflavones is a non-nutrient that abundant in soybean. Tempeh is fermented soybean that popular as Indonesian traditional food and content of isoflavones is greater than soybean. Objective: to study effect of soybean processing becoming tempeh and the cooking of tempeh on isoflavones level. Methods: The samples of this study is raw tempeh and steamed tempeh. The analysis of isoflavones has used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: During soybean processing becoming tempeh, twice boiling of soybean produce result isoflavones 47.4 percent greater than once boiling. Steaming tempeh result minimized isoflavones reduction (13.3%. Although there is no dietary recommendation for individual isoflavones, may be great benefit in increased consumption of tempeh. [Penel Gizi Makan 2010, 33(2: 148-153]   Keywords: tempeh, processing, isoflavones

  3. Influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cateno; Privitera, Maria Giovanna; Melilli, Barbara; Incognito, Tiziana; Marano, Maria Rosa; Leggio, Gian Marco; Roxas, Matilde Amico; Drago, Filippo

    2007-09-01

    Bacterial intestinal glucosidases exert an important role in isoflavone absorption. Insoluble dietary fibers such as inulin may stimulate the growth of these bacteria in the colon and, hence, stimulate the absorption of these substances in subjects who may need isoflavone supplementation. The objective was to assess the influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations after intake of soybean isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women. Twelve healthy postmenopausal women participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. They consumed 40 mg of a conjugated form of soybean isoflavones (6 mg daidzein and 18 mg genistein as free form) with or without 3.66 g inulin twice daily in two 21-d experimental phases. Blood samples were collected 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, and 24 h after intake of isoflavones with breakfast and dinner at the end of each 21-d experimental phase. Plasma concentrations of isoflavones were assessed by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. Plasma 24-h areas under the curve indicated that the intake of soybean isoflavones with inulin for 21 d was followed by higher plasma concentrations of daidzein and genistein (38% and 91%, respectively) compared with the formulation without inulin. Furthermore, the time for the maximum concentration of daidzein and genistein appeared to be lower after the 21-d intake of soybean isoflavones, with or without inulin. However, the time for the maximum concentration of daidzein and genistein after supplementation with the inulin-containing formulation on day 21 was not significantly different from that after supplementation with the formulation without inulin. Inulin may increase the apparent plasma concentrations of the soybean isoflavones daidzein and genistein in postmenopausal women. The higher plasma concentrations of the 2 isoflavones suggests that the absorption of each was facilitated by the presence of inulin.

  4. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species: The case of kudzu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Dong, Q.; Albright, Thomas P.; Guo, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and historic records spanning thousands of years to characterize the complex relationships among kudzu, its natural enemies, and humans, and provide a synthesis and conceptual model relevant to the ecology and management of quasi-wild invasive species. We documented over 350, mostly insect, natural enemy species and their impacts on kudzu in its native East Asian range. These natural enemies play a minor role in limiting kudzu in its native range, rarely generating severe impacts on populations of wild kudzu. We identified a number of significant influences of humans including dispersal, diverse cultural selection, and facilitation through disturbances, which catalyzed the expansion and exuberance of kudzu. On the other hand, harvest by humans appears to be the major control mechanism in its native areas. Humans thus have a complex relationship with kudzu. They have acted as both friend and foe, affecting the distribution and abundance of kudzu in ways that vary across its range and over time. Our conceptual model of kudzu emphasizes the importance of multiple human dimensions in shaping the biogeography of a species and illustrates how kudzu and other quasi-wild species are more likely to be successful invaders. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.(outside the USA).

  5. Analysis of Puerarin and Chemical Compositions Changes in Kudzu Root during Growth Period

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    Yiguo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The kudzu root is one of the earliest medicinal plants listed in traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, chemical compositions changes of kudzu roots from one year old to five years old were analyzed with respect to puerarin, acid-insoluble polysaccharides, acid-soluble polysaccharides, reducing sugar, protein, free amino acids, and lipid. In addition, the puerarin content was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method. The results showed that acid-soluble polysaccharides content of kudzu root increased with each growth period. In contrast, the acid-insoluble polysaccharides decreased significantly. The contents of reducing sugar and puerarin in kudzu root decreased significantly during its growth period. Beyond that, the contents of protein, free amino acids, and lipid in kudzu root ranged from 31.8 to 45.8 g/kg, 2.21 to 4.33 g/kg, and 32.2 to 76.9 g/kg, respectively. The trend of protein content coincided with the total content of free amino acids, in contrast to lipid. This paper provides a set of data and the select of kudzu root for the processing and development of new products of kudzu root.

  6. Degree Day Requirements for Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), a Pest of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jessica I; Lamp, William O

    2018-04-02

    Understanding the phenology of a new potential pest is fundamental for the development of a management program. Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), kudzu bug, is a pest of soybeans first detected in the United States in 2009 and in Maryland in 2013. We observed the phenology of kudzu bug life stages in Maryland, created a Celsius degree-day (CDD) model for development, and characterized the difference between microhabitat and ambient temperatures of both kudzu, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae) and soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill (Fabales: Fabaceae). In 2014, low population numbers yielded limited resolution from field phenology observations. We observed kudzu bug populations persisting within Maryland; but between 2013 and 2016, populations were low compared to populations in the southeastern United States. Based on the degree-day model, kudzu bug eggs require 80 CDD at a minimum temperature of 14°C to hatch. Nymphs require 545 CDD with a minimum temperature of 16°C for development. The CDD model matches field observations when factoring a biofix date of April 1 and a minimum preoviposition period of 17 d. The model suggests two full generations per year in Maryland. Standard air temperature monitors do not affect model predictions for pest management, as microhabitat temperature differences did not show a clear trend between kudzu and soybeans. Ultimately, producers can predict the timing of kudzu bug life stages with the CDD model for the use of timing management plans in soybean fields.

  7. Treatment with soy isoflavones during early adulthood improves metabolism in early postnatally overfed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pamelli; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Prates, Kelly Valério; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Silveira, Sandra da Silva; Malta, Ananda; Lopes, Denise Alves; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Torrezan, Rosana; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2018-01-01

    The incidences of obesity and related diseases have reached epidemic proportions, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Soy isoflavones have been identified as an important dietary factor for preventing and treating metabolic dysfunction. This study examined the effects of high doses of isoflavone on glucose and fat metabolism in a model of programmed obesity and evaluated its effects on the autonomic nervous system. Litters of Wistar rats were standardized at nine pups per dam in normal litters (NL) or reduced to three pups per dam at the third day of life (P3) in small litters (SL) to induce postnatal overfeeding. Gavage with a soy bean isoflavone mixture (1 g/day) diluted in water was started at P60 and continued for 30 days. The control animals received vehicle gavage. At P90, biometric and metabolic parameters as well as direct autonomic nerve activity were measured. Increases in glycaemia and insulinaemia observed in SL rats were reduced by isoflavone treatment, which also caused lower glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. Sympathetic activity in the major splanchnic nerve was increased, while vagus nerve activity was reduced by isoflavone treatment. The dyslipidaemia induced by overfeeding in SL rats was restored by isoflavone treatment. The present study shows that treatment with isoflavone reduces adiposity and improves glucose and lipid metabolism. Collectively, these effects may depend on autonomic changes.

  8. Soy-isoflavone supplementation tends to reduce menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Wratsangka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women tend to decrease health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The present study’s objective was to determine the effect of daily supplementation of 100 mg soy isoflavones on menopausal symptoms of healthy postmenopausal women. Isoflavones are phytoestrogens abundantly found in soy beans, and several studies have demonstrated that isoflavones are the best among the phytoestrogens. Methods The study was a community-based double blind randomized controlled trial involving 60 healthy postmenopausal women, aged between 48–60 years, in the Mampang Prapatan District, South Jakarta. Participants were block-randomized to receive either 100 mg soy-isoflavone + 500 mg calcium carbonate (intervention group or 500 mg calcium carbonate only (control group. Both supplements were taken daily for 12 weeks, from January to April 2010. Menopausal symptoms (measured by Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire were assessed at baseline and after supplementation. Chi-square test was used to examine the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on menopausal symptoms. Results Fifty-six (93.3% of participants completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in the prevalence of menopausal symptoms between the isoflavone group and the control group. However, supplementation of soy isoflavones for 12 weeks tended to decrease the prevalence of menopausal symptoms in women with normal body mass index and adequate daily dietary isoflavone intake. Conclusion Daily supplementation of 100 mg soy isoflavones for 12 weeks tend to decrease the incidence of menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  9. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  10. Invasive Species Biology, Control, and Research. Part 1: Kudzu (Pueraria montana)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guertin, Patrick J; Denight, Michael L; Gebhart, Dick L; Nelson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    ..., and damage to equipment and structures. Of the 11 plant species (or groups) identified by installations as uncontrolled vegetation, six were invasive plants, of which the two invasive plants most commonly identified were Kudzu (Pueraria montana...

  11. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Jonathan E; Wu, Shiliang; Mickley, Loretta J; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2010-06-01

    The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a widespread invasive plant in the southeastern United States with physiological traits that may lead to important impacts on ecosystems and the atmosphere. Its spread has the potential to raise ozone levels in the region by increasing nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils as a consequence of increasing nitrogen (N) inputs and cycling in soils. We studied the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia in 2007 and used the results to model the effects of kudzu invasion on regional air quality. We found that rates of net N mineralization increased by up to 1,000%, and net nitrification increased by up to 500% in invaded soils in Georgia. Nitric oxide emissions from invaded soils were more than 100% higher (2.81 vs. 1.24 ng NO-N cm(-2) h(-1)). We used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate the potential impact of kudzu invasion on regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In an extreme scenario, extensive kudzu invasion leads directly to an increase in the number of high ozone events (above 70 ppb) of up to 7 days each summer in some areas, up from 10 to 20 days in a control scenario with no kudzu invasion. These results establish a quantitative link between a biological invasion and ozone formation and suggest that in this extreme scenario, kudzu invasion can overcome some of the air quality benefits of legislative control.

  12. PLANT ISOFLAVONES: BIOSYNHTESIS, DETECTION AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Naumenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological properties, chemical structures and biosynthesis pathways of plant isoflavones, especially soybean isoflavones (daidzein, genistein and glycitein are reviewed. The structures of isoflavones, and their aglicone and glucosides (glycosides forms as well as isoflavone biosynthesis pathways are described. General information about the advanced methods for the detection of isoflavones and their conjugates are considered. The importance of the profiling of isoflavones, flavonoids and their conjugates by means of analytical tools and methods to dissolve some questions in biology and medicine is discussed. The review provides data on the major isoflavone content in some vegetable crops and in the tissues of different soybean varieties. Health benefits and treatment or preventive properties of isoflavones for cancer, cardiovascular, endocrine diseases and metabolic disorders are highlighted. The mechanisms that may explain their positive biological effects are considered. The information on the application of advanced technologies to create new plant forms producing isoflavonoids with a predicted level of isoflavones, which is the most favorable for the treatment is given. The possibilities to use the metabolic engineering for the increasing of accumulation and synthesis of isoflavones at the non-legume crops such as tobacco, Arabidopsis and maize are considered. The examples how the plant tissues, which are not naturally produced of the isoflavones, can obtain potential for the synthesis of biologically active compounds via inducing of the activity of the introduced enzyme isoflavon synthase, are given. Specific biochemical pathways for increasing the synthesis of isoflavone genistein in Arabidopsis thaliana tissues are discussed. It is concluded that plant genetic engineering which is focused on modification of the secondary metabolites contain in plant tissues, enables to create the new crop varieties with improved agronomic properties and

  13. Effects of soil water depletion on the water relations in tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaucto Bellarmino de Pereira-Netto

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth., Leguminosae: Faboideae is native to the humid Southeastern Asia. Tropical kudzu has potential as a cover crop in regions subjected to dryness. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of soil water depletion on leaflet relative water content (RWC, stomatal conductance (g and temperature (T L in tropical kudzu. RWC of waterstressed plants dropped from 96 to 78%, following a reduction in SWC from 0.25 to 0.17 g (H2O.g (dry soil-1.Stomatal conductance of stressed plants decreased from 221 to 98 mmol.m-2.s-1, following the reduction in soil water content (SWC. The day after re-irrigation, g of water stressed plants was 15% lower than g of unstressed plants. Differences in T L between waterstressed and unstressed plants (deltaT L rose linearly from 0.1 to 2.2ºC following progressive water deficit. RWC and T L of waterstressed plants paralled RWC and T L of unstressed plants the day after reirrigation. The strong decrease in SWC found in this study only induced moderate water stress in tropical kudzu. In addition, tropical kudzu recover rapidly from the induced water stress after the re-irrigation.

  14. Determination of in vitro isoflavone degradation in rumen fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnková, Andrea; Šancová, Kateřina; Zapletalová, Martina; Kašparovská, Jitka; Dadáková, Kateřina; Křížová, Ludmila; Lochman, Jan; Hadrová, Sylvie; Ihnatová, Ivana; Kašparovský, Tomáš

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the degradation of dietary isoflavones in rumen fluid under 2 feeding regimens. The experiments were performed in vitro using a rumen fluid buffer system. The rumen fluid was taken from cows fed either a hay diet or a concentrate-rich diet (the diet consisted of 34.6% maize silage, 17.6% haylage, 12.8% alfalfa hay, and 35.0% supplemental mixture on a dry matter basis). As a source of isoflavones, 40% soybean extract (Biomedica, Prague, Czech Republic) at levels of 5, 25, 50, and 75 mg per 40 mL of rumen fluid was used. Samples of soybean extract were incubated in triplicate at 39°C for 0, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, and 24.0 h in incubation solution. The metabolism of daidzein and genistein was faster under concentrate-rich diet conditions. In general, production of equol started after 3 to 6 h of incubation and reached the highest rate after approximately 12 h of incubation regardless of the type of diet or concentration of extract. In most of the experiments, production of equol continued after 24 h of incubation. Generally, equol production was greater under the hay diet conditions. Furthermore, experiments with higher amounts of added soybean extract revealed possible inhibitory effects of high levels of isoflavones on the rumen microflora. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Soy isoflavones, estrogen therapy, and breast cancer risk: analysis and commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Charles E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been considerable investigation of the potential for soyfoods to reduce risk of cancer, and in particular cancer of the breast. Most interest in this relationship is because soyfoods are essentially a unique dietary source of isoflavones, compounds which bind to estrogen receptors and exhibit weak estrogen-like effects under certain experimental conditions. In recent years the relationship between soyfoods and breast cancer has become controversial because of concerns – based mostly on in vitro and rodent data – that isoflavones may stimulate the growth of existing estrogen-sensitive breast tumors. This controversy carries considerable public health significance because of the increasing popularity of soyfoods and the commercial availability of isoflavone supplements. In this analysis and commentary we attempt to outline current concerns regarding the estrogen-like effects of isoflavones in the breast focusing primarily on the clinical trial data and place these concerns in the context of recent evidence regarding estrogen therapy use in postmenopausal women. Overall, there is little clinical evidence to suggest that isoflavones will increase breast cancer risk in healthy women or worsen the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Although relatively limited research has been conducted, and the clinical trials often involved small numbers of subjects, there is no evidence that isoflavone intake increases breast tissue density in pre- or postmenopausal women or increases breast cell proliferation in postmenopausal women with or without a history of breast cancer. The epidemiologic data are generally consistent with the clinical data, showing no indication of increased risk. Furthermore, these clinical and epidemiologic data are consistent with what appears to be a low overall breast cancer risk associated with pharmacologic unopposed estrogen exposure in postmenopausal women. While more research is required to definitively

  16. Effect of Different Doses of Soy Isoflavones on Spatial Learning and Memory in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safahani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies indicate that estrogen use increase performance on some tests of cognition especially in postmenopausal women. These steroids have many side effects, thus, other estrogenic agents with fewer side effects are needed to develop alternative treatment strategies. The main objection of this study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of dietary soy meals (with or without isoflavone on spatial learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats with the exception of intact group were ovariectomized at the first line of study. Subjects were divided into six groups. The control group rats (c were gonadally intact, while the others were OVX. OVX groups received normal diet (0, treated with 10 gr soy (10, 20 gr soy (20, 10 gr isoflavone free soy (-10 or 20 gr isoflavone free soy (-20 in daily diet for four weeks. The spatial learning and memory were tested using Morris water maze. Rats were trained in water maze to find a hidden escape Platform. Rats received 6 blocks that each block consisted of 3 trials. Following acquisition trials, one probe trial were conducted in which the platform was removed. Results: Soy meal diet (with or without isoflavone in ovariectomized rats caused improvement of performance across 18 trials of Acquisition. Discussion: Our results suggest that soy consumption apart from containing isoflavone or not is a potential alternative to estrogen in the improvement of cognition.

  17. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species:the case of kudzu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenyu Li; Quan Dong; Thomas Albright; Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and...

  18. Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Verheus, Martijn; Tice, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density. PMID:22253990

  19. Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Tice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density.

  20. Soy food and isoflavone intake reduces the risk of cognitive impairment in elderly Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Mariko; Otsuka, Rei; Nishita, Yukiko; Tange, Chikako; Tomida, Makiko; Kato, Yuki; Imai, Tomoko; Sakai, Tohru; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2018-01-18

    Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 403 men and 373 women aged 60-81 years at baseline who participated in the follow-up study at least once. Bean, soy product and soy isoflavone intake was assessed using a 3-day dietary record at baseline. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). MMSE scores of ≤23 were used to define cognitive impairment. The relationship between bean, soy product and soy isoflavone intake and cognitive impairment was assessed using a generalized estimating equation. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for cognitive impairment with a 1 s.d. increase in total bean, total soybean and total soy isoflavone intakes were 0.48 (0.28-0.81; p = 0.006), 0.51 (0.32-0.83; p = 0.007), and 0.55 (0.32-0.93; p = 0.026), respectively, in women. Total soybean and soy isoflavone intake might decrease the risk of cognitive impairment in elderly Japanese women.

  1. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Hanprasertpong, Nutthiya; Teekachunhatean, Thawatchai

    2013-01-01

    Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed qual...

  2. Soy, isoflavones, and prevalence of allergic rhinitis in Japanese women: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Ohya, Yukihiro; Miyamoto, Shoichi; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Yoshida, Toshiaki; Hirota, Yoshio; Oda, Hajime

    2005-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that isoflavones reduce the risk of many chronic diseases, but there are no data on the effects of dietary soy and isoflavone consumption on allergic disorders. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between dietary soy products and isoflavone intake and the prevalence of allergic rhinitis. Study subjects were 1002 Japanese pregnant women. Allergic rhinitis (including cedar pollinosis) was defined as present if subjects had received drug treatment at some point during the previous 12 months. Adjustment was made for age; gestation; parity; cigarette smoking; passive smoking at home and at work; indoor domestic pets; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; family income; education; mite allergen level in house dust; changes in diet in the previous month; season when data were collected; and body mass index. Compared with dietary intake of total soy product, soy protein, daidzein, and genistein in the first quartile, consumption of these substances in the fourth quartile was independently associated with a reduced prevalence of allergic rhinitis, although no significant dose-response relationships were observed. A clear inverse linear trend for miso intake across quartiles was found, whereas the adjusted odds ratio for comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile was not statistically significant. Consumption of tofu, tofu products, fermented soybeans, boiled soybeans, and miso soup was not related to the prevalence of allergic rhinitis. A high intake of soy and isoflavones may be associated with a reduced prevalence of allergic rhinitis.

  3. Producing chicken eggs containing isoflavone as functional food due to feeding effect of soy sauce by-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfudz, L. D.; Sarjana, T. A.; Muryani, R.; Suthama, N.

    2018-01-01

    The present study was aimed to verify the impact of feeding soy sauce by-product in producing isoflavone-enriched chicken eggs as functional food. Experiment used 200 laying hens of 80-week old with average body weight of 1,932.75±189.50 g. Experimental diets were formulated using yellow corn, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal, meat bone meal, poultry meal, premix, CaCO3, and soy sauce by-product (SSBP). A completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replication (10 birds each), was assigned in this experiment. Inclusion levels of SSBP were the treatments, namely, none (T0), 10 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 15.0% (T3). Parameters observed were colour, index, and weight of egg yolk, and isoflavone content. Analysis of variance was applied and continued to Duncan test at 5% probability. Results indicated that yolk colour index and weight were not affected by the treatments, but isoflavone content was significantly (P<0.05) increased by feeding SSBP. Egg yolk isoflavone in T2 (0.41 mg/g) and T3 (0.47 mg/g) were higher than those in T0 (0.31 mg/g) and T1 (0.35 mg/g). In conclusion, dietary inclusion of soy sauce by-product at higher level (12.5 and 15.0%) can produce isoflavone-enriched eggs as functional food.

  4. Simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly method for the separation of isoflavones using ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjie; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Hanqiu; Zhou, Weie; Cheng, Yan; Li, Hongna; Zhang, Chuanbin; Li, Lulu; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Isoflavones are natural substances that exhibit hormone-like pharmacological activities. The separation of isoflavones remains an analytical challenge because of their similar structures. We show that ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography can be an appropriate tool to achieve the fast separation of 12 common dietary isoflavones. Among the five tested columns the Torus DEA column was found to be the most effective column for the separation of these isoflavones. The impact of individual parameters on the retention time and separation factor was evaluated. These parameters were optimized to develop a simple, rapid, and green method for the separation of the 12 target analytes. It only took 12.91 min using gradient elution with methanol as an organic modifier and formic acid as an additive. These isoflavones were determined with limit of quantitation ranging from 0.10 to 0.50 μg/mL, which was sufficient for reliable determination of various matrixes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Influence of prevastein (R), an isoflavone-rich soy product, on mammary gland development and Tumorigenesis in Tg.NK (MMTV/c-neu) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anni R.; Mortensen, Alicja; Breinholt, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    We investigated spontaneous mammary tumor development and mammary gland morphogenesis in female Tg.NK mice postnatally exposed to dietary soy isoflavones (0, 11, 39, and 130 mg aglycones/kg diet) added to a Western-style diet. Instead of preventing mammary tumorigenesis, the highest dose of isofl......We investigated spontaneous mammary tumor development and mammary gland morphogenesis in female Tg.NK mice postnatally exposed to dietary soy isoflavones (0, 11, 39, and 130 mg aglycones/kg diet) added to a Western-style diet. Instead of preventing mammary tumorigenesis, the highest dose...

  6. Collected literature on isoflavones and chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie A. Miller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are organic compounds, which have been linked to the health benefits and prevention of many diseases. Common isoflavones are genistein, daidzein, and glycitein. Genistein has been researched in regard to its effect on the reduction of menopausal symptoms and reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in osteopenic, post-menopausal women. Research on daidzein focuses on bone mineral density implications in post-menopausal women, therapeutic effects early in prostate cancer, and protection against DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis. The most recent research on daidzein has implications for its effect on cardiovascular risk reduction. Research on glycitein focuses on it bioavailability, as well as its role in angiogenesis and invasion of malignant glioma cells. The health benefits of these specific isoflavones are instrumental in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. This review of literature focuses on the effects of genistein, daidzein, and glycitein on health outcomes, such as breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and prostate cancer.

  7. The effects of soy isoflavones on obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørgaard, Anne; Jensen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    factors in the development of Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and certain cancers. Because of the lower frequency of these diseases in Asian countries, attention has been turned toward the Asian diet, which consists highly of soy and soy-based products. The health benefits...... associated with soy consumption have been linked to the content of isoflavones, the main class of the phytoestrogens. As a result of their structural similarities to endogenous estrogens, isoflavones elicit weak estrogenic effects by competing with 17beta-estradiol (E2) for binding to the intranuclear...

  8. Isoflavones enhance interleukin-17 gene expression via retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Yukimasa; Muromoto, Ryuta; Takahashi, Miki; Hirao, Toru; Takeuchi, Shinji; Jetten, Anton M.; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear receptors, RORα and RORγ, are key regulators of Th17 cell differentiation. • Isoflavones have RORα/γ agonistic activities. • Isoflavones enhance the interaction of RORα/γ with co-activator. • These compounds enhance the expression of Il17a mRNA in mouse EL4 cells. • Dietary isoflavones can act as modulators of Il17a expression via RORα/γ. - Abstract: The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα and RORγ), are key regulators of helper T (Th)17 cell differentiation, which is involved in the innate immune system and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of isoflavones on RORα/γ activity and the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17, which mediates the function of Th17 cells. In doxycycline-inducible CHO stable cell lines, we found that four isoflavones, biochanin A (BA), genistein, formononetin, and daidzein, enhanced RORα- or RORγ-mediated transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. In an activation assay of the Il17a promoter using Jurkat cells, these compounds enhanced the RORα- or RORγ-mediated activation of the Il17a promoter at concentrations of 1 × 10 −6 M to 1 × 10 −5 M. In mammalian two-hybrid assays, the four isoflavones enhanced the interaction between the RORα- or RORγ-ligand binding domain and the co-activator LXXLL peptide in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, these isoflavones potently enhanced Il17a mRNA expression in mouse T lymphoma EL4 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin, but showed slight enhancement of Il17a gene expression in RORα/γ-knockdown EL4 cells. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting assays also revealed that BA enhanced the interaction between RORγt and SRC-1, which is a co-activator for nuclear receptors. Taken together, these results suggest that the isoflavones have the ability to enhance IL-17 gene expression by stabilizing the interactions between RORα/γ and co-activators. This also

  9. Topical isoflavones provide effective photoprotection to skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Tournas, Joshua A; Burch, James A; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Zielinski, Jan

    2008-04-01

    Isoflavones, one main group of phytoestrogens, have antioxidative and photoprotective effects in cellular and mouse studies. The aim of this study is to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the isoflavone-mediated photoprotection with the pig skin model, a more human-resembling model. The pig skin was treated with five well-known isoflavone compounds (genistein, equol, daidzein, biochanin A, and formononetin) and one antioxidant combination solution of 15% vitamin C and 1% vitamin E and 0.5% ferulic acid (CEF) daily for 4 days. Skin was irradiated with solar-simulated UV irradiation, 1 to 5 minimal erythema dose (MED) at 1-MED intervals. Evaluation was carried out 24 h later by colorimeter-measured erythema and sunburn cell numbers. Topical application of 0.5% solutions of three individual phytoestrogens - genistein, daidzein, biochanin A - are better than similar solutions of equol or formononetin in protecting pig skin from solar-simulated ultraviolet (SSUV)-induced photodamage, as measured by sunburn cell formation and/or erythema. However, the protection was less than that provided by a topical combination antioxidant standard containing 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1%alpha-tocopherol, and 0.5% ferulic acid. Isoflavones provide effective photoprotection and are good candidate ingredients for protection against ultraviolet (UV) photodamage.

  10. The effects of gamma radiation on soybean isoflavones contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos R.R. de; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br, e-mail: mrramos@ipen.br; Mandarino, Jose M.G. [EMBRAPA Soybean, Londrina, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: jmarcos@cnpso.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is the most common source of isoflavones in human feeding. It was suggested that there is a correlation among antioxidant activity of flavonoids and total phenolics content. Plants use isoflavones and their derivatives as part of the plant's defensive arsenal, to ward off disease-causing pathogenic fungi and other microbes. Highly processed foods made from legumes, such as tofu, retain most of their isoflavone content, with the exception of fermented miso, which has increased levels. Little is known about the influence of oxidative stress induced by radiation on the isoflavones contents. In the present paper, the effects of gamma irradiation on soybean isoflavones contents are presented. Samples from several Brazilian soybean cultivars were gamma irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 5 e 10 kGy, dose rate about 3 kGy/h in a {sup 60}Co (Gammacell 220 - AECL). Isoflavones contents were determined after extraction with 70% ethanol containing 0.1% acetic acid by an HPLC method. The total isoflavone content remained almost unchanged with the increase of radiation dose up to 10 kGy. Although a general correlation among total isoflavone content and radiation dose was not found, some data suggest that for a few of the isoflavones from specific cultivars, the increase in the radiation dose induced a decrease in their content as for glucosyl glucosides and malonyl isoflavones, as well as an increase in their aglycone content. (author)

  11. The effects of gamma radiation on soybean isoflavones contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos R.R. de; Mastro, Nelida L. del; Mandarino, Jose M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is the most common source of isoflavones in human feeding. It was suggested that there is a correlation among antioxidant activity of flavonoids and total phenolics content. Plants use isoflavones and their derivatives as part of the plant's defensive arsenal, to ward off disease-causing pathogenic fungi and other microbes. Highly processed foods made from legumes, such as tofu, retain most of their isoflavone content, with the exception of fermented miso, which has increased levels. Little is known about the influence of oxidative stress induced by radiation on the isoflavones contents. In the present paper, the effects of gamma irradiation on soybean isoflavones contents are presented. Samples from several Brazilian soybean cultivars were gamma irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 5 e 10 kGy, dose rate about 3 kGy/h in a 60 Co (Gammacell 220 - AECL). Isoflavones contents were determined after extraction with 70% ethanol containing 0.1% acetic acid by an HPLC method. The total isoflavone content remained almost unchanged with the increase of radiation dose up to 10 kGy. Although a general correlation among total isoflavone content and radiation dose was not found, some data suggest that for a few of the isoflavones from specific cultivars, the increase in the radiation dose induced a decrease in their content as for glucosyl glucosides and malonyl isoflavones, as well as an increase in their aglycone content. (author)

  12. Soya isoflavone consumption in relation to carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese equol excretors aged 40-65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yun; Guo, Kaiping; Chen, Chaogang; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Quan; Mei, Fang; Su, Yixiang

    2012-11-14

    Previous studies have suggested that the daidzein metabolite equol rather than daidzein itself contributes to the beneficial effect of soya foods in the prevention of CVD. The aim of the present study is to examine the proportion of equol excretion in Chinese adults and compare plasma lipids and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) between equol excretors and non-excretors, and to evaluate the effect of soya isoflavone intakes on serum lipids and IMT in either equol excretors or non-excretors. Subjects (n 572; women n 362, men n 210) were recruited for the present study. An overnight urine sample was provided by each subject on their usual diet to quantify urinary concentrations of daidzein and equol. Far-wall IMT was determined by B-mode ultrasound in the right carotid at two sites, carotid bulb (CB-IMT) and common carotid artery (CCA-IMT), and fasting serum lipids were measured. Habitual dietary intakes were estimated with a FFQ, and soya isoflavone intake derived from the FFQ was assessed. Of the 572 subjects, the proportion of equol excretors on their usual diet was 25·0 % (n 143). Compared with non-excretors, equol excretors showed significantly lower serum TAG (-38·2 (95 % CI -70·4, -5·9) %, P = 0·012) and CCA-IMT (-4·9 (95 % CI -9·7, -0·3) %, P = 0·033). Equol excretors with higher daily isoflavone intakes (-5·4 mg/d) had significantly lower IMT (-16·2 %, P = 0·035) and tended to have higher HDL-cholesterol (P = 0·055) than did those with lower daily isoflavone intakes (1·5 mg/d), while no association was observed between soya isoflavone intakes and serum lipids or IMT in non-excretors. In conclusion, the benefits of soya isoflavones in preventing CVD may be apparent among equol excretors only.

  13. Dynamics of sward condition and botanical composition in mixed pastures of marandugrass, forage peanut and tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the dynamics of sward condition and botanical composition of a mixed pasture of marandugrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Mandobi and tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides, rotationally stocked at four daily forage allowance levels (6.6, 10.3, 14.3 and 17.9% of live weight. Sward condition was characterized in each stocking cycle by measuring pre- and post-grazing sward height, forage mass and percentage of bare ground. Botanical composition (grass, forage peanut, tropical kudzu and weeds was evaluated before each stocking period. Swards under smaller forage allowances presented lower height, forage mass and ground cover. This condition favored the growth of forage peanut, which constituted 21.1, 15.2, 8.4 and 3.8% of forage mass in the last quarter of the experimental period, from the lowest to the highest forage allowance, respectively. Tropical kudzu was sensitive to all forage allowance levels and its percentage in the botanical composition was strongly reduced along the experimental period, especially during the dry season (July to September. Forage peanut cv. Mandobi and marandugrass form a more balanced mixture when pre-grazing sward height is maintained shorter than 45 cm. Tropical kudzu is intolerant to intensive grazing management systems when associated to marandugrass.

  14. Productivity, utilization efficiency and sward targets for mixed pastures of marandugrass, forage peanut and tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the productivity and utilization efficiency of a mixed marandugrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Mandobi and tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides pasture, rotationally stocked at four daily forage allowance levels (6.6, 10.3, 14.3 and 17.9% of live weight, in order to define sward management targets for these mixtures. In each stocking cycle, dry matter (DM accumulation rates, defoliation intensity (%, grazing depth (% and grazed horizon (cm were evaluated. Sward targets were defined according to the sward condition that best conciliated the grass-legume balance and the equilibrium between forage production and utilization. Pastures submitted to higher forage allowance levels showed higher productivity, but were less efficiently utilized. It was not possible to establish sward management targets for marandugrass-tropical kudzu pastures. For marandugrass-forage peanut pastures the best sward state was set with forage allowance of 10.3% of live weight. Under rotational stocking, the following sward targets were suggested for these pastures in the Western Amazon: pre-grazing height of 30-35 cm (June to September or 45-50 cm (October to May and post-grazing sward height of 20-25 cm (June to September or 25-30 cm (October to May.

  15. Deglycosylation of isoflavones in isoflavone-rich soy germ flour by Aspergillus oryzae KACC 40247.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Hwa; Seo, Min-Ho; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2013-12-11

    Aspergillus oryzae KACC 40247 was selected as an efficient daidzein-producing fungus from strains of the genus Aspergillus by using 5% (w/v) soy germ flour (SGF) as an isoflavone-glycoside-rich medium. The culture conditions, including SGF concentration, agitation speed, initial pH, temperature, and time, were optimized as follows: 7% (w/v) SGF, initial pH 6.0, 33 °C, 300 rpm, and 24 h in a 100 mL baffled flask. The determined amount of isoflavone aglycons in SGF using 50% ethyl acetate was the highest among the solvent systems tested and it was 3.7-fold higher than that using 70% methanol. Under the optimized conditions, the content and concentration of daidzein were 134 mg/g of SGF and 9.4 g/L, respectively, with a productivity of 391 ± 2.8 mg/L/h, and those of isoflavone aglycons were 165 mg/g of SGF and 11.5 g/L, respectively, with a productivity of 479 mg/L/h. Optimization of culture conditions increased the content, concentration, and productivity of isoflavone aglycons by 3.1-, 3.0-, and 3.7-fold, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the highest production of isoflavone aglycons reported to date.

  16. Equol is more active than soy isoflavone itself to compete for binding to thromboxane A(2) receptor in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Yenny; Garrido, Argelia; Valladares, Luis

    2009-03-01

    Several dietary intervention studies examining the health effect of soy isoflavones allude to the importance of equol in establishing the cardiovascular response to soy protein. Although, the specific mechanism by which this action occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of soy-isoflavones and the metabolite of daidzein, equol, on agonist-induced platelet responses dependent on thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) receptor. Competitive radioligand binding assay was used to screen for affinity of these compounds to the TxA(2) receptor. The effect of equol on platelet activation, evaluate through of release of the ATP, by analogs of TxA(2) was analyzed. The effect of equol on platelet aggregation was investigated with ADP, U46619 (a TxA(2) mimic) and the calcium ionophore A23187. The data showed that aglycone isoflavones and equol bind to TxA(2) receptor in the micromol/L range, whereas their glucoside derivates had very low binding activity for this receptor. Under equilibrium conditions, the following order of the relative affinity in inhibiting [(3)H]-SQ29585 binding was: equol>genistein>daidzein>glycitein>genistin, daidzin, glycitin. Equol interaction was reversible and competitive for labeled-SQ29548 with not apparent decrease in the number of TxA(2) binding sites. In addition, from platelet activation studies, equol effectively inhibited ATP secretion elicited by the TxA(2) analog U46619. On the other hand, equol inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by U46619 and A23187, while it failed to inhibit that induced by ADP. The aglycone isoflavones from soy, and particularly equol, have been found to have biological effects attributable to thromboxane A(2) receptor antagonism. These findings may help elucidate how dietary isoflavone modulate platelet function and explain why soy-rich foods are claimed to have beneficial effects in the prevention of thrombotic events.

  17. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed quality, crop year, planting date (even in the same crop year, and planting location. Most varieties (except for Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 had significantly higher isoflavone content when planted in early rather than in late dry season. Additionally, seed viability as well as long-term storage at 10∘C or at ambient condition seemed unlikely to affect isoflavone content in Thai soybean varieties. Isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Some varieties (Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 exhibited moderately high isoflavone content regardless of sowing date. Soybeans with decreased seed viability still retained their isoflavone content.

  18. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27649166

  19. Synthesis and Secretion of Isoflavones by Field-Grown Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamazaki, Yumi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2017-09-01

    Isoflavones play important roles in rhizosphere plant-microbe interactions. Daidzein and genistein secreted by soybean roots induce the symbiotic interaction with rhizobia and may modulate rhizosphere interactions with microbes. Yet despite their important roles, little is known about the biosynthesis, secretion and fate of isoflavones in field-grown soybeans. Here, we analyzed isoflavone contents and the expression of isoflavone biosynthesis genes in field-grown soybeans. In roots, isoflavone contents and composition did not change with crop growth, but the expression of UGT4, an isoflavone-specific 7-O-glucosyltransferase, and of ICHG (isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase) was decreased during the reproductive stages. Isoflavone contents were higher in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during both vegetative and reproductive stages, and were comparable in the rhizosphere soil between these two stages. We analyzed the degradation dynamics of daidzein and its glucosides to develop a model for predicting rhizosphere isoflavone contents from the amount of isoflavones secreted in hydroponic culture. Conjugates of daidzein were degraded much faster than daidzein, with degradation rate constants of 8.51 d-1 for malonyldaidzin and 11.6 d-1 for daidzin, vs. 9.15 × 10-2 d-1 for daidzein. The model suggested that secretion of isoflavones into the rhizosphere is higher during vegetative stages than during reproductive stages in field-grown soybean. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. PENGARUH MINUMAN FUNGSIONAL MENGANDUNG TEPUNG KEDELAI KAYA ISOFLAVON DAN SERAT PANGAN LARUT TERHADAP KADAR TOTAL KOLESTEROL DAN TRIGLISERIDA SERUM TIKUS PERCOBAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Eva Nirmagustina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of functional drink that containe soybean flour rich in isoflavone, soluble dietary fiber, and other ingredients on the level of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and trigliseride in rat blood serum.  The formulation of functional drink consisted of soybean flour rich in isoflavone (0,115 g, soluble dietary fiber (fibergum (3 g, vitamine C (0,06 g; sucrosa (6,605 g; aspartam (0,02 g; and flavour (orange (0,2 g in 200 ml functional drink.  The total concentration of soybean flour rich in isoflavone, soluble dietary fiber (fibergum, and vitamine C was based on optimation of human need.  Whereas the concentration of sucrosa, aspartam, and flavour (orange based on organoleptic evaluation.  The result showed that functional drink caused a decrease the level of total blood serum rat colesterol after 1 and 2 month.  The HDL level of serum rat fed with standard ransum contain cholesterol was lower than the rat fed with sandard ransum only after 1 and 2 month because this was probably due to regulation feedback colesterol making in heart by enzim reductase HMG CoA. The functional drink caused decrease HDL level after 2 month . The functional drink also caused decrease the level of LDL and trigliseride after 2 month Keyword: functional drink, soy flour, isoflavon, soluble fiber, cholesterol, triglyseride

  1. Isoflavone pharmacokinetics and metabolism after consumption of a standardized soy and soy-almond bread in men with asymptomatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer H; Clinton, Steven K; Grainger, Elizabeth M; Riedl, Kenneth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Lee, Mei-Ling T; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Young, Gregory S; Lesinski, Gregory B; Vodovotz, Yael

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiologic associations suggest that populations consuming substantial amounts of dietary soy exhibit a lower risk of prostate cancer. A 20-week randomized, phase II, crossover trial was conducted in 32 men with asymptomatic prostate cancer. The crossover involved 8 weeks each of soy bread (SB) and soy-almond bread (SAB). The primary objective was to investigate isoflavone bioavailability and metabolite profile. Secondary objectives include safety, compliance, and assessment of biomarkers linked to prostate carcinogenesis. Two distinct SBs were formulated to deliver approximately 60 mg aglycone equivalents of isoflavones per day. The isoflavones were present as aglycones (∼78% as aglycones) in the SAB whereas in the standard SB predominantly as glucosides (18% total isoflavones as aglycones). Compliance to SB (97% ± 4%) and SAB (92% ± 18%) was excellent; toxicity was rare and limited to grade 1 gastrointestinal complaints. Pharmacokinetic studies between SB and SAB showed modest differences. Peak serum concentration time (Tmax) was significantly faster with SAB meal compared with SB in some isoflavonoids, and AUC0 to 24 h of dihydrodaidzein and O-desmethylangolensin was significantly greater after an SB meal. An exploratory cluster analysis was used to identify four isoflavone-metabolizing phenotypes. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein increased significantly by 41% (P = 0.024) with soy intervention. Findings from this study provide the necessary framework to study isoflavone-metabolizing phenotypes as a strategy for identification of individuals that might benefit or show resistance to cancer preventive strategies using dietary soy. A standardized SB used for future large-scale randomized clinical trials to affect human prostate carcinogenesis is feasible. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Isoflavones enhance interleukin-17 gene expression via retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Yukimasa; Muromoto, Ryuta; Takahashi, Miki; Hirao, Toru; Takeuchi, Shinji; Jetten, Anton M.; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2018-01-01

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα and RORγ), are key regulators of helper T (Th)17 cell differentiation, which is involved in the innate immune system and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of isoflavones on RORα/γ activity and the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17, which mediates the function of Th17 cells. In doxycycline-inducible CHO stable cell lines, we found that four isoflavones, biochanin A (BA), genistein, formononetin, and daidzein, enhanced RORα- or RORγ-mediated transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. In an activation assay of the Il17a promoter using Jurkat cells, these compounds enhanced the RORα- or RORγ-mediated activation of the Il17a promoter at concentrations of 1 × 10−6 M to 1 × 10−5 M. In mammalian two-hybrid assays, the four isoflavones enhanced the interaction between the RORα- or RORγ-ligand binding domain and the co-activator LXXLL peptide in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, these isoflavones potently enhanced Il17a mRNA expression in mouse T lymphoma EL4 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin, but showed slight enhancement of Il17a gene expression in RORα/γ-knockdown EL4 cells. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting assays also revealed that BA enhanced the interaction between RORγt and SRC-1, which is a co-activator for nuclear receptors. Taken together, these results suggest that the isoflavones have the ability to enhance IL-17 gene expression by stabilizing the interactions between RORα/γ and co-activators. This also provides the first evidence that dietary chemicals can enhance IL-17 gene expression in immune cells. PMID:25583575

  3. Bioavailability of isoflavones from soy products in equol producers and non-producers in Japanese women

    OpenAIRE

    Ayako Miura; Chitose Sugiyama; Hiroyuki Sakakibara; Kayoko Simoi; Toshinao Goda

    2016-01-01

    Background: The estimated intake of soy isoflavones from a meal has been based on the content in a food, but the health effects of soy isoflavones are possibly affected by their bioavailability. In this study we have evaluated the isoflavone bioavailability after the intake of three kinds of soy foods and a commercial soy isoflavone supplement, and examined whether the isoflavone bioavailability is different between equol producers and non-producers. Methods: Healthy female subjects (n = 2...

  4. Isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Šertović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of five Croatian soybean seed cultivars from two locations were analysed. The content of total and individual isofavones was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. For determination of antioxidant properties scavenging capacity on DPPHֹ radicals has been applied. The total phenolic content, oil and protein content in soybean cultivars were also determined. Significant differences in the content of individual isoflavones were observed within the soybean cultivars. The total phenol content in soybean cultivars ranged from 87.2 to 216.3 mg GAE/100g of soybean. The total isoflavone content in soybean seeds ranged from 80.7 to 213.6 mg/100g of soybean. The most abundant isoflavone in soybean seeds was genistein. There was statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 among two locations in total and individual isoflavone contents. The highest contents of total isoflavones were found in cultivar “os55-95”. Conversely, cultivars poor in isoflavones also showed low levels of DPPH-radical scavenging activity.

  5. [Soya isoflavones and evidences on cardiovascular protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Cañete, Natalia; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Soya isoflavones represent a group of non-nutritive, bioactive compounds, of non-steroidal phenolic nature that are present in soy bean and derived foods. They share with other compounds the capacity of binding to estrogenic receptors from different cells and tissues so that they may act as phytoestrogens. The current interest in these compounds comes from the knowledge that in Asian populations with high levels of their consumption the prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease is lower, as compared to the Western countries populations. This cardiovascular benefit would be the result not only of the modulation of plasma lipids, which is a widely studied mechanism. This paper reviews the published evidence about the beneficial effects of soya isoflavones and the different mechanisms of action that would benefit cardiovascular health and that surpass the mechanisms traditionally approached such as the modulation of plasma lipids, and that implicate the regulation of cellular and enzymatic functions in situations such as inflammation, thrombosis, and atherosclerotic progression. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Isoflavones from Calpurnia Aurea subsp. Aurea and their anticancer activity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Korir, E

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available the renal, melanoma and breast cancer cell lines tested against, with the isoflavones 2 and 5 showing the best activity of the compounds tested. These isoflavones may have a synergistic effect with other anticancer drugs. ... activity against breast (MCF7), renal (TK10) and melanoma (UACC62) human cell lines using an in house method developed at the CSIR, South Africa. Results: The isoflavones, 4′,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone (1), 7,3′- dihydroxy-5′-methoxyisoflavone (2), 7...

  7. New iodine derivatives of flavonol and isoflavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário G. de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of the flavonol 3,7,3', 4'-tetra-O-methylquercetin (1 and of the isoflavone 7,4'-di-O-methylgenistein (2 with alkaline iodine in methanol afforded four new iodine derivatives: 8-iodo-5-hydroxy-3,7,3', 4'-tetramethoxy- flavone (1a and 6-iodo-5-hydroxy-3,7,3', 4'-tetramethoxyflavone (1b from 1; 2 afforded a mixture of two compounds, identified as a racemic mixture of (±-trans-5-hydroxy-2,3,7,4'-tetramethoxy-8-iodo-isoflavanone (2a and (±-trans-5-hydroxy-2,3,7,4'-tetramethoxy-6,8-diiodo-isoflavanone (2b. The formation of these different products reveals a significant difference involving the chemical interaction between the reactive site of α, β-unsaturated ketones of flavonol and isoflavone under the tested reaction conditions (using I2/KOH/MeOH. Furthermore, the trans stereo selectivity is noteworthy in the nucleophylic addition of methanol at the isoflavone α, β-unsaturated system. The structures were identified on the basis of spectral data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectra.A reação do flavonol 3,7,3',4'-tetra-O-metilquercetina (1 e da isoflavona 7,4'-di-O-metilgenisteina (2 com iodo/KOH em metanol forneceu como produto quatro derivados iodados: 8-iodo-5-hidroxi-3,7,3',4'-tetrametoxiflavona (1a e 6-iodo-5-hidroxi-3,7,3',4'-tetrametoxiflavona (1b a partir da iodação de 1; a partir de 2 foi obtida uma mistura racêmica composta de (±-trans-5-hidroxi-2,3,7,4'-tetrametoxi-8-iodo-isoflavanona (2a e (±-trans-5-hidroxi-2,3,7,4'-tetrametoxi-6,8-diiodo-isoflavanona (2b. A formação destes diferentes produtos revela a significante diferença envolvendo a interação química entre o sitio reativo de cetonas α, β-insaturadas de flavonol e de isoflavonas nas condições experimentais testadas (usando I2/KOH/MeOH. Além disso, ressalta-se a estereosseletividade trans na adição de metanol ao sistema α, β-insaturado da isoflavona. As estruturas foram identificadas com análise nos dados espectrométricos de RMN 1D e 2D e

  8. Quantitative trait loci analysis of individual and total isoflavone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... 2Seed Management Station of Jilin Province, Changchun 130062, Jilin, ... daidzein (DC), genistein (GeC), glycitein (GlC) and total isoflavone contents (TIC) in ..... ing and height) and quality (oil and protein content) traits.

  9. Determination of 15 isoflavone isomers in soy foods and supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaka, Kaoru; Takebayashi, Jun; Matsumoto, Teruki; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2012-04-25

    Soy isoflavone is the generic name for the isoflavones found in soy. We determined the concentrations of 15 soy isoflavone species, including 3 succinyl glucosides, in 22 soy foods and isoflavone supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total isoflavone contents in 14 soy foods and 8 supplements ranged from 45 to 735 μg/g and from 1,304 to 90,224 μg/g, respectively. Higher amounts of succinyl glucosides were detected in natto, a typical fermented soy product in Japan; these ranged from 30 to 80 μg/g and comprised 4.1-10.9% of the total isoflavone content. In soy powder, 59 μg/g of succinyl glucosides were detected, equivalent to 4.6% of the total isoflavone content. These data suggest that the total isoflavone contents may be underestimated in the previous studies that have not included succinyl glucosides, especially for Bacillus subtilis -fermented soy food products.

  10. Macrocyclic trichothecenes are undetectable in kudzu (Pueraria montana) plants treated with a high-producing isolate of Myrothecium verrucaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, H K; Tak, H; Boyette, C D; Shier, W T; Jarvis, B B

    2001-09-01

    Myrothecium verrucaria was found to be an effective pathogen against kudzu grown in the greenhouse and the field. M. verrucaria produced large amounts of macrocyclic trichothecenes when cultured on solid rice medium, including epiroridin E (16.8 mg/g crude extract), epiisororidin E (1 mg/g), roridin E (8.7 mg/g), roridin H (31.3 mg/g), trichoverrin A (0.6 mg/g), trichoverrin B (0.1 mg/g), verrucarin A (37.4 mg/g), and verrucarin J (2.2 mg/g). Most of these toxins were also isolated from M. verrucaria spores and mycelia grown on potato dextrose agar medium, including epiroridin E (32.3 mg/g), epiisororidin E (28.6 mg/g), roridin E (0 mg/g), roridin H (60 mg/g), trichoverrin A (1.3 mg/g), trichoverrin B (1.8 mg/g), verrucarin A (13.8 mg/g), and verrucarin J (131 mg/g). When M. verrucaria was cultured on liquid media, the numbers but not the amounts of toxins decreased. Only epiroridin E (28.3 mg/g), epiisororidin E (29.6 mg/g), verrucarin B (195 mg/g) and verrucarin J (52.6 mg/g) were measured when the fungus was cultured on cornsteep medium. On soyflour-cornmeal broth M. verrucaria produced several toxins, including epiroridin E (58.1 mg/g), epiisororidin E (5.8 mg/g), verrucarin B (29.9 mg/g) and verrucarin J (32 mg/g). In contrast, no macrocyclic trichothecenes were detected by HPLC analysis of plant tissues of kudzu, sicklepod, and soybean treated with aqueous suspensions of M. verrucaria spores formulated with a surfactant. Chloroform-methanol extracts of kudzu leaves and stems treated with M. verrucaria spores were less cytotoxic to four cultured mammalian cell lines than the corresponding extracts from control plants. Purified macrocyclic trichothecenes (verrucarin A and T-2 toxin) were very cytotoxic to the same cell lines (< or = 2 ng/ml). These results show that neither intact macrocyclic trichothecenes nor toxic metabolites could be detected in plant tissues after treatment with M. verrucaria spores. These results argue for both safety and efficacy for the

  11. [Soy isoflavones and human health: breast cancer and puberty timing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Luis; Garrido, Argelia; Sierralta, Walter

    2012-04-01

    Accumulated exposure to high levels of estrogen is associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer. Thus, factors such as early puberty, late menopause and hormone replacement therapy are considered to be risk factors, whereas early childbirth, breastfeeding and puberty at a later age are known to consistently decrease the lifetime breast cancer risk. Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of isoflavones correlates with a lower incidence of breast cancer. Data from human intervention studies show that the effects of isoflavones on early breast cancer markers differ between pre- and post-menopausal women. The reports from experimental animals (rats and mice) on mammary tumors are variable. These results taken together with heterogeneous outcomes of human interventions, have led to a controversy surrounding the intake of isoflavones to reduce breast cancer risk. This review summarizes recent studies and analyzes factors that could explain the variability of results. In mammary tissue, from the cellular endocrine viewpoint, we analyze the effect of isoflavones on the estrogen receptor and their capacity to act as agonists or antagonists. On the issue of puberty timing, we analyze the mechanisms by which girls, but not boys, with higher prepuberal isoflavone intakes appear to enter puberty at a later age.

  12. Assessment of the impact of the egg parasitoid, Paratelenoumus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) on populations of the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kudzu bug has become a pest of economic importance ever since its introduction to the Southeastern United States from Asia in 2009. It causes serious economic damage to legume crops (soybeans, bean, pigeon pea, mung bean, velvet bean etc.) and is a nuisance to home owners. One natural egg parasi...

  13. First discovery of the family Tanaostigmatidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from China with a description of a new gall-making species utilizing kudzu leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Zhong-qi; Sun Jiang-hua; James P. Pitts

    2004-01-01

    A new species of Tanaostigmodes (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae) is described from China- Tanaostigmodes puerariae sp. nov. This is the first record of this family in China. This new species has potential as a biological control agent for control of kudzu, Pueraria lobate, in the U.S., because its...

  14. Tolerance of subzero winter cold in kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) and its implications for northward migration in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) is an important invasive species that was planted throughout southeastern North America until the mid-20th century. Winter survival is commonly assumed to control its distribution; however, its cold tolerance thresholds have not been determined. Here, we used bio...

  15. Composition variability in soy-derived dietary supplements designated for menopausal symptom prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Jane

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of soy isoflavone supplements are commercialized and many investigations are conducted to define their real impact on human health. The presence of other compounds (soyasaponins, phytosterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids… is rarely considered when discussing the bioactivity of an isoflavone-enriched product. Moreover, the process used can modify the phytochemical content and composition of the final product. This report evaluated the variability in content and composition of isoflavones as well as soyasaponins, proteins, fatty acids and α-galactooligosaccharides of 25 soy based dietary supplements. For isoflavones and soyasaponins, analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector (HPLC/UV, the ‘intra product’variability was investigated by analyzing two different lots of five of these 25 dietary supplements. Proteins were determined through the quantification of total nitrogen by an elementar analyzer, fatty acids by gaz chromatography, and α-galactooligosaccharides were analyzed using a refractive index detector. These components showed a high variability: the total isoflavone contents, expressed as aglycone equivalents, varied from 4.4 mg/g (16.7 lmol/g to 95.3 mg/g (365.6 lmol/g, and the isoflavones/ soyasaponins ratio varied from 0.9 (more saponins than isoflavones to 12.9. In the same way, the protein contents ranged from 0.4 to 42.9%, and the lipid contents from 1.6 to 20%. A high variability was also observed in the profiles of these metabolites. All these differences allowed us to distinguish two main classes of dietary supplements; the whole seed based products, with genistein occurring as the major isoflavone, and the soy germ based products, with a low genistein but high glycitein content. Soy germ and whole seed based products displayed also very contrasted profiles for the other components. An additional variability, more related to the process used, was detected

  16. Efecto de riegos presurizados sobre propiedades físicas de un suelo bananero asociado Con Kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Pablo Ernesto Villa Guerrero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar el efecto de los riegos presurizados sobre suelos bananeros se seleccionaron cuatro bloques, uno de ellos influenciado por un sistema de riego subfoliar y otro influenciado por un sistema de riego suprafoliar, completándolo condos bloques asociados con Kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth de iguales sistemas de riego. El efecto de los sistemas de riego se evaluó sobre el perfil del suelo en estratos de 10cm hasta los 50 cm de profundidad, determinando en cada estratola densidad real, porcentaje de humedad, densidad aparente, resistencia a la penetración y porcentaje de porosidad, además del índice de estabilidad estructural y el de encostramiento. Los valores obtenidos indican que para ambos sistemas de riego la capa con más influencia fue la 10-20 cm y observándose un menor efecto en los bloques asociados con Kudzu, los cuales no tuvieron índices de formación de costras superficiales. Palabras clave: Sistemas de riego, porosidad, humedad del suelo, densidad aparente, banano.

  17. Radiation-Induced Esophagitis is Mitigated by Soy Isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Fountain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy present with acute esophagitis and chronic fibrosis, as a result of radiation injury to esophageal tissues. We have shown that soy isoflavones alleviate pneumonitis and fibrosis caused by radiation toxicity to normal lung. The effect of soy isoflavones on esophagitis histopathological changes induced by radiation was investigated. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 Gy or 25 Gy single thoracic irradiation and soy isoflavones for up to 16 weeks. Damage to esophageal tissues was assessed by H&E, Masson’s Trichrome and Ki-67 staining at 1, 4, 10, 16 weeks after radiation. The effects on smooth muscle cells and leukocyte infiltration were determined by immunohistochemistry using anti-αSMA and anti-CD45 respectively. Results: Radiation caused thickening of esophageal tissue layers that was significantly reduced by soy isoflavones. Major radiation alterations included hypertrophy of basal cells in mucosal epithelium and damage to smooth muscle cells in muscularis mucosae as well as disruption of collagen fibers in lamina propria connective tissue with leukocyte infiltration. These effects were observed as early as one week after radiation and were more pronounced with a higher dose of 25 Gy. Soy isoflavones limited the extent of tissue damage induced by radiation both at 10 and 25 Gy.Conclusions: Soy isoflavones have a radioprotective effect on the esophagus, mitigating the early and late effects of radiation injury in several esophagus tissue layers. Soy could be administered with radiotherapy to decrease the incidence and severity of esophagitis in lung cancer patients receiving thoracic radiation therapy.

  18. Isoflavone profile in soymilk as affected by soybean variety, grinding, and heat-processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chang, Sam K C; Liu, Zhisheng

    2015-05-01

    Isoflavones impart health benefits and their overall content and profile in foods are greatly influenced at each step during processing. In this study, 2 soybean varieties (Prosoy and black soybean) were processed with 3 different grinding (ambient, cold, and hot grinding) and heating methods (traditional stove cooking, 1-phase UHT, and 2-phase UHT) for soymilk making. The results showed after cold, ambient, and hot grinding, the total isoflavones were 3917, 5013, and 5949 nmol/g for Prosoy; the total isoflavones were 4073, 3966, and 4284 nmol/g for black soybean. Grinding could significantly increase isoflavone extraction. The grinding process had a destructive effect on isoflavones and this effect varied with grinding temperature. Different heating methods had different effects on different isoflavone forms. Two soybean varieties showed distinct patterns with respect to the change of isoflavone profile during processing. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Optimization of soy isoflavone extraction with different solvents using the simplex-centroid mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiara, Luciane Yuri; Madeira, Tiago Bervelieri; Delaroza, Fernanda; da Silva, Josemeyre Bonifácio; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of different isoflavone forms (glycosidic, malonyl-glycosidic, aglycone and total) from defatted cotyledon soy flour using the simplex-centroid experimental design with four solvents of varying polarity (water, acetone, ethanol and acetonitrile). The obtained extracts were then analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The profile of the different soy isoflavones forms varied with different extractions solvents. Varying the solvent or mixture used, the extraction of different isoflavones was optimized using the centroid-simplex mixture design. The special cubic model best fitted to the four solvents and its combination for soy isoflavones extraction. For glycosidic isoflavones extraction, the polar ternary mixture (water, acetone and acetonitrile) achieved the best extraction; malonyl-glycosidic forms were better extracted with mixtures of water, acetone and ethanol. Aglycone isoflavones, water and acetone mixture were best extracted and total isoflavones, the best solvents were ternary mixture of water, acetone and ethanol.

  20. Effects of maternal exposure to cow´s milk high or low in isoflavones on carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis among rat offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Purup, Stig; Warri, A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether maternal exposure during pregnancy to cow's milk containing endogenous estrogens and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and either high or low levels of isoflavones from dietary legumes (HIM and LIM, respectively) affected carcinogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis....... No differences in maternal serum estradiol (P = 0.19) and IGF-1 levels (P = 0.15) at GD 19 or birth weight among the milk and water groups were seen, but estradiol, and IGF-1 levels and birth weight were numerically higher in the LIM than in the HIM group. Puberty onset occurred earlier in the LIM offspring than...... in controls (P = 0.03). Although the high isoflavone content seemed to prevent the effect on circulating estradiol and IGF-1 levels and advanced puberty onset seen in the LIM group, HIM increased DMBA-DNA adducts in the mammary gland and tended to increase mammary tumorigenesis. In contrast, offspring exposed...

  1. New isoflavones from the leaves of Vatairea guianensis Auble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ronilson Freitas de; Marinho, Victor H. S.; Silva, Geilson A. da; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da; Arruda, Mara Silvia P., E-mail: mspa@ufpa.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica; Costa-Junior, Livio M. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Chapadinha, MA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais; Silva, Joyce Kelly R. da [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biotecnologia; Bastos, Gilmara N.T. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas. Pos-Graduacao em Neurociencias e Biologia Celular

    2013-11-15

    Four isoflavones were isolated from Vatairea guianensis Auble leaves and identified as 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2{sup ,}2{sup -}dimethylpyrano-(5{sup ,}6{sup :}8,7)-isoflavone (1), 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'- methylenedioxy-8-prenyl-isoflavone (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-7-O-{beta}-glucopyranoside-8- prenyl-isoflavone (3) and derrone (4) together with five triterpenes identified in mixture, lupeol, a-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin, germanicol and betulinic acid. Substances 1-3 are novel natural products, although 1 and 2 have been cited as synthetic products. However, all these compounds are first reported from this species. Their chemical structures were elucidated based on their 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and high resolution mass spectrometry. The ethanol extract from the leaves and 1-3 were evaluated for their potential in scavenging DPPH* (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazylradical) and the results showed that the extract presented high activity (IC{sub 50} = 6.2 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g mL{sup -1}), while the isolated compounds showed low antioxidant power (IC{sub 50} {>=} 29.5 {+-} 2.5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) when compared to Trolox (IC{sub 50} = 4.5 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g mL{sup -1}). (author)

  2. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on menopausal quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent clinical trials have found an increased risk of health problems in women using menopausal hormone therapy. As a result, women are in search of alternative strategies to improve their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on quali...

  3. Extraction of isoflavone malonylglucosides from Trifolium pratense L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, A.H.; de Boer, V.; Verkleij, J.A.; Lingeman, H.; Ernst, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of isoflavone malonylglucosides from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a complicated procedure. This is due to the relatively unstable character of the thermolabile glucoside malonates as well as by action of native β-glucosidases, resulting in a rapid degradation of malonylated

  4. Extraction of isoflavone malonylglucosides from Tritolium pratense L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, A.H.; De Boer, V.; Verkleij, J.A.; Lingeman, H.; Ernst, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of isoflavone malonylglucosides from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a complicated procedure. This is due to the relatively unstable character of the thermolabile glucoside malonates as well as by action of native β-glucosidases, resulting in a rapid degradation of malonylated

  5. The potential of crude okara for isoflavone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankowiak, L.; Trifunovic, O.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the extraction of isoflavones from crude okara, a by-product from soymilk production, using industrially relevant conditions. Ethanol and water were chosen as environmentally friendly and non-toxic solvents. A wide range of ethanol concentrations was tested (0–90% ethanol) for

  6. Advances in transforming kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers 126 roots with different Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains for increasing MA fungi growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Medina Sierra

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Kudzú (P. phaseoloides and carrot (D. carota roots were transformed in this survey into different kinds of culture medium by using five different A. rhizogenes strains. These presented different behaviour both in carrot transformation by A. rhizogenes 15834, A.r.8196 and A.r.2659 strains as well as kudzu transformation by A.r.15834 and A.r.1724 strains. Transformed carrot root growth was increased in WM culture medium, whilst transformed kudzu root growth did not increase in either the same medium or in modified MS medium. Transformed carrot roots were used for G. intrarradices increase and sporulation; however, wild AMF strains, isolated from a mining area (the lower Cauca area of Antioquia, did not grow either in roots from this specie or those from kudzu, in spite of this plant having great affinity for wild AMF strains. The results represent an advance in the procedure for DNA isolation and keeping AMF collections, required for other research.

  7. Crystal structure of isoflavone reductase from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; He, Xianzhi; Lin, Jianqiao; Shao, Hui; Chang, Zhenzhan; Dixon, Richard A

    2006-05-19

    Isoflavonoids play important roles in plant defense and exhibit a range of mammalian health-promoting activities. Isoflavone reductase (IFR) specifically recognizes isoflavones and catalyzes a stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction to (3R)-isoflavanone. The crystal structure of Medicago sativa IFR with deletion of residues 39-47 has been determined at 1.6A resolution. Structural analysis, molecular modeling and docking, and comparison with the structures of other NADPH-dependent enzymes, defined the putative binding sites for co-factor and substrate and potential key residues for enzyme activity and substrate specificity. Further mutagenesis has confirmed the role of Lys144 as a catalytic residue. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the enzymatic mechanism and substrate specificity of IFRs as well as the functions of IFR-like proteins.

  8. Equol status and changes in faecal microbiota in menopausal women receiving long-term treatment for menopause symptoms with a soy-isoflavone concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltasar eMayo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge regarding the intestinal microbial types involved in isoflavone bioavailabililty and metabolism is still limited. The present work reports the influence of a treatment with isoflavones for six months on the faecal bacterial communities of 16 menopausal women, as determined by culturing and culture-independent microbial techniques. Changes in faecal communities were analysed with respect to the womenʼs equol-producing phenotype. Compared to baseline, at 1 and 3 months the counts for all microbial populations in the faeces of equol-producing women had increased strongly. In contrast, among the non-producers, the counts for all microbial populations at 1 month were similar to those at baseline, and decreased significantly by 3 and 6 months. Following isoflavone intake, major bands in the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE profiles appeared and disappeared, suggesting important changes in majority populations. In some women, increases were seen in the intensity of specific DGGE bands corresponding to microorganisms known to be involved in the metabolism of dietary phytoestrogens (Lactonifactor longoviformis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium spp., Ruminococcus spp.. Real-Time quantitative PCR revealed that the Clostridium leptum and Clostridium coccoides populations increased in equol producers, while those of bifidobacteria and enterobacteria decreased, and vice versa in the non-producers. Finally, the Atopobium population increased in both groups, but especially in the non-producers at three months. As the main findings of this study, (i variations in the microbial communities over the six-month period of isoflavone supplementation were large; (ii no changes in the faecal microbial populations that were convincingly treatment-specific were seen; and (iii the production of equol did not appear to be associated with the presence of, or increase in the population of, any of the majority bacterial types analysed.

  9. Combined effects of soy isoflavone and fish oil on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Raina; Chiba, Hiroshige; Ishimi, Yoshiko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Kim, Hyounju; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2011-07-01

    Both soy isoflavone and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to reduce the levels of bone-resorbing cytokines; however, the synergistic effects of these food ingredients have not been examined yet. This study was performed to elucidate the effect of concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil on bone mass in ovariectomized mice. Eight-week-old ddY female mice were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery, and then fed an AIN-93G with safflower oil (So) as a control lipid source, isoflavone-supplemented safflower oil (So + I), fish oil instead of safflower oil (Fo) or isoflavone-supplemented fish oil (Fo + I) for 4 weeks. Femoral bone mineral density was significantly decreased by OVX; however, this decrease was inhibited by the intake of isoflavone and/or fish oil. Histomorphometric analyses showed that bone volume and trabecular thickness in the distal femoral trabecular bone were significantly lower in the So group than in the sham group, but those were restored in the Fo + I groups. The number of osteoclasts was significantly decreased by isoflavone intake. The increased rate of bone resorption after OVX was inhibited by isoflavone and/or fish oil. The serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha was increased after OVX, but was significantly lower with the combination of isoflavone with fish oil than isoflavone or fish oil alone. The results of this study indicated that the intakes of soy isoflavone and/or fish oil might have ameliorating effects on bone loss due to OVX. Further, the concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil at a low dose showed better effects on cytokines related with bone resorption.

  10. Conversion of major soy isoflavone glucosides and aglycones in in vitro intestinal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, M.A.; Punt, A.; Spenkelink, A.; Murk, A.J.; Leeuwen, F.X.R.; Rietjens, I.

    2014-01-01

    ScopeThis study compares conversion of three major soy isoflavone glucosides and their aglycones in a series of in vitro intestinal models. Methods and resultsIn an in vitro human digestion model isoflavone glucosides were not deconjugated, whereas studies in a Caco-2 transwell model confirmed that

  11. The effects of soy milk and isoflavone supplements on cognitive performance in healthy, postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, L R; Ryan Borchers, T A; Robison, L M; Wiediger, M; Park, J S; Chew, B P; McGuire, M K; Sclar, D A; Skaer, T L; Beerman, K A

    2007-01-01

    The decline in estrogen concentrations in women after menopause can contribute to health related changes including impairments in cognition, especially memory. Because of the health concerns related to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alternative approaches to treat menopausal symptoms, such as nutritional supplements and/or diet containing isoflavones, are of interest. This study investigated whether soy isoflavones (soy milk and supplement) could improve cognitive functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women. PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTION AND DESIGN: A total of 79 postmenopausal women, 48-65 years of age, completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which they were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: cow's milk and a placebo supplement (control); soy milk and placebo supplement (soy milk, 72 mg isoflavones/day); or cow's milk and isoflavone supplement (isoflavone supplement, 70 mg isoflavones/day). Cognitive functioning was assessed using various cognitive tasks before the intervention (baseline) and after the intervention (test). In contrast to predictions, soy isoflavones did not improve selective attention (Stroop task), visual long-term memory (pattern recognition), short-term visuospatial memory (Benton Visual Retention Test), or visuo-spatial working memory (color match task). Also, the soy milk group showed a decline in verbal working memory (Digit Ordering Task) compared to the soy supplement and control groups. Soy isoflavones consumed as a food or supplement over a 16-week period did not improve or appreciably affect cognitive functioning in healthy, postmenopausal women.

  12. The effect of soy isoflavones on the development of intestinal neoplasia in Apc(Min) mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Kristiansen, Eva; Mortensen, Alicja

    1998-01-01

    Data from epidemiological studies suggest that isoflavones in soy may have a protective effect on the development of colon cancer in humans. Therefore, we have investigated whether soy isoflavones will inhibit intestinal tumour development in Apc(Min) mice. The mice were fed a Western-type high...... risk diet (high fat, low fibre and calcium) containing two different isolates of soy protein as a protein source. For the control and test groups this resulted in the administration of about 16 and 475 mg of total isoflavones per kg diet, respectively. As a positive control, a third group of mice...... was administered a low isoflavone diet supplemented with 300 ppm sulindac. No significant differences in the incidence, multiplicity, size and distribution of intestinal tumours were observed between Min mice fed low and high isoflavone-containing diets. However, a clear reduction in the number of small intestinal...

  13. Novel Soy Germ Pasta Enriched in Isoflavones Ameliorates Gastroparesis in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Kenneth D.R.; Nardi, Elisabetta; Battezzati, Pier-Maria; Asciutti, Stefania; Castellani, Danilo; Perriello, Gabriele; Clerici, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of soy germ pasta enriched in biologically active isoflavone aglycons on gastric emptying in type 2 diabetic patients with gastroparesis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared soy germ pasta with conventional pasta for effects on gastric emptying. Patients (n = 10) with delayed gastric emptying consumed one serving per day of each pasta for 8 weeks, with a 4-week washout. Gastric emptying time (t1/2) was measured using the [13C]octanoic acid breath test at baseline and after each period, and blood glucose and insulin concentrations were determined after oral glucose load. RESULTS Soy germ pasta significantly accelerated the t1/2 in these patients (161.2 ± 17.5 min at baseline vs. 112.6 ± 11.2 min after treatment, P = 0.009). Such change differed significantly (P = 0.009) from that for conventional pasta (153.6 ± 24.2 vs. 156.2 ± 27.4 min), without affecting glucose or insulin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that soy germ pasta may offer a simple dietary approach to managing diabetic gastropathy. PMID:23835688

  14. Novel soy germ pasta enriched in isoflavones ameliorates gastroparesis in type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Kenneth D R; Nardi, Elisabetta; Battezzati, Pier-Maria; Asciutti, Stefania; Castellani, Danilo; Perriello, Gabriele; Clerici, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effect of soy germ pasta enriched in biologically active isoflavone aglycons on gastric emptying in type 2 diabetic patients with gastroparesis. This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared soy germ pasta with conventional pasta for effects on gastric emptying. Patients (n = 10) with delayed gastric emptying consumed one serving per day of each pasta for 8 weeks, with a 4-week washout. Gastric emptying time (t1/2) was measured using the [(13)C]octanoic acid breath test at baseline and after each period, and blood glucose and insulin concentrations were determined after oral glucose load. Soy germ pasta significantly accelerated the t1/2 in these patients (161.2 ± 17.5 min at baseline vs. 112.6 ± 11.2 min after treatment, P = 0.009). Such change differed significantly (P = 0.009) from that for conventional pasta (153.6 ± 24.2 vs. 156.2 ± 27.4 min), without affecting glucose or insulin concentrations. These findings suggest that soy germ pasta may offer a simple dietary approach to managing diabetic gastropathy.

  15. Phosphorylation of Isoflavones by Bacillus subtilis BCRC 80517 May Represent Xenobiotic Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chen; Wu, Bo-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Chi-Fon; Chiou, Tai-Ying; Su, Nan-Wei

    2018-01-10

    The soy isoflavones daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN) have beneficial effects on human health. However, their oral bioavailability is hampered by their low aqueous solubility. Our previous study revealed two water-soluble phosphorylated conjugates of isoflavones, daidzein 7-O-phosphate and genistein 7-O-phosphate, generated via biotransformation by Bacillus subtilis BCRC80517 cultivated with isoflavones. In this study, two novel derivatives of isoflavones, daidzein 4'-O-phosphate and genistein 4'-O-phosphate, were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and 1 H, 13 C, and 31 P NMR, and their biotransformation roadmaps were proposed. Primarily, isoflavone glucosides were deglycosylated and then phosphorylated predominantly into 7-O-phosphate conjugates with traces of 4'-O-phosphate conjugates. Inevitably, trace quantities of glucosides were converted into 6″-O-succinyl glucosides. GEN was more efficiently phosphorylated than DAI. Nevertheless, the presence of GEN prolonged the time until the exponential phase of cell growth, whereas the other isoflavones showed little effect on cell growth. Our findings provide new insights into the novel microbial phosphorylation of isoflavones involved in xenobiotic metabolism.

  16. Detection of Isoflavones Content in Soybean Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kezhu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of many important biological activities, Soybean isoflavones which has great potential for exploitation is significant to practical applications. Due to the conventional methods for determination of soybean isoflavones having long detection period, used too many reagents, couldn’t be detected on-line, and other issues, we propose hyperspectral imaging technology to detect the contents of soybean isoflavones. Based on the 40 varieties of soybeans produced in Heilongjiang province, we get the spectral reflection datum of soybean samples varied from the soybean’s hyperspectral images which are collected by the hyperspectral imaging system, and apply high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method to determine the true value of the selected samples of isoflavones. The feature wavelengths for isoflavones content prediction (1516, 1572, 1691, 1716 and 1760 nm were selected based on correlation analysis. The prediction model was established by using the method of BP neural network in order to realize the prediction of soybean isoflavones content analysis. The experimental results show that, the ANN model could predict isoflavones content of soybean samples with of 0.9679, the average relative error is 0.8032 %, and the mean square error (MSE is 0.110328, which indicates the effectiveness of the proposed method and provides a theoretical basis for the applications of hyerspectral imaging in non-destructive detection for interior quality of soybean.

  17. Omega-3 versus isoflavones in the control of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S; Lilue, M; Mejia, A; Menendez, C

    2017-12-01

    Determine the efficacy and tolerability of omega-3 fatty acids versus soybean isoflavones in reducing the vasomotor symptoms (VMSs) frequency in postmenopausal women. A randomized, prospective, two-arm study was performed in healthy postmenopausal women aged 45-65. The two arms were: two capsules/day of omega-3 (425 mg of omega-3/capsule) administered orally (n = 38) and two tablets/day of soybean isoflavones (54.4 mg of isoflavones/tablet) (n = 30), over 16 weeks. The mean baseline frequency of moderate and severe VMSs per week in the omega-3 group was 24.56 and 23.90, respectively, and 19.65 and 19.51 in the isoflavone group. After 4 months, the reduction in moderate and severe hot flashes with omega-3 was significant (p Omega-3 did not demonstrate significant efficacy differences versus isoflavones over time. The use of omega-3 has a beneficial effect on hot flash reduction after 4 months of treatment. This is comparable to the benefits found with soybean isoflavones after 3-4 weeks and after 4 months in severe hot flash women, but higher than those found with soybean isoflavones in moderate symptom women.

  18. An Efficient and Versatile Synthesis of Isoflavones from 2-Methoxybenzoic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae In [Duksung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Isoflavones (3-aryl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-ones) are found naturally in soybeans and many plants of the Leguminosae family. They have attracted much attention due to their biological activities, such as their anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antifungal properties. Isoflavones intake through foods is important to human health, because they potentially regulate fatty acid metabolism and methoxy-substituted isoflavones in particular increase cell permeability. Isoflavones have also been synthesized by the coupling of 3-iodochromones with arylboronic acids. The condensation of 2'-hydroxyacetophenones with DMF dimethyl acetal formed 3-(dimethylamino)-2'-hydroxyphenylpropenones, which were cyclized using iodine to form 3-iodochromones. This process was followed by Suzuki coupling with arylboronic acids or aryl boronates to obtain isoflavones. The synthesis of isoflavones (6) from 5 was based on the formylation of the methylene group of 5 using DMF-POCl{sub 3}. Previously, the reaction of the DMF-POCl{sub 3} complex on benzyl 2-hydroxyphenyl ketones led to isoflavones, for which DMF was used as the reagent and solvent for 18 h at gentle reflux.

  19. Relationship between daily isoflavone intake and sleep in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yufei; Niu, Kaijun; Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Guan, Lei; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Guo, Hui; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2015-12-29

    Isoflavones comprise a class of phytoestrogens that resemble human estrogen in chemical structure, and have weak estrogenic effects. Because estrogen modulates sleep duration and quality, we hypothesized that isoflavones would have a beneficial effect on sleep status in a way similar to estrogen. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between daily isoflavone intake and sleep status in Japanese subjects. Our study included 1076 Japanese adults aged 20-78 years. Daily isoflavone intake was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, and sleep was evaluated using a self-reported questionnaire. The prevalence of regular sleep duration (7-8 h/day) and sufficient sleep quality were 13.3% and 56.2%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for optimal sleep duration (7-8 h) when higher isoflavone intakes (Q2-Q4) were compared with low isoflavone intake (Q1) were Q2: 0.94 (0.53-1.56); Q3: 1.28 (0.73-2.24); and Q4: 1.84 (1.06-3.18) (p for trend = 0.013). In the final adjusted model, sufficient sleep quality across categories of isoflavone intake was Q1: 1.00 (reference); Q2: 1.30 (0.91-1.84); Q3: 1.48 (1.03-2.12); and Q4: 1.78 (1.22-2.60); (p for trend = 0.002). Higher daily isoflavone intake was positively associated with optimal sleep duration and quality in a Japanese population. This finding suggests that daily isoflavone intake may have a potentially beneficial effect on sleep status.

  20. Radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal and soybean isoflavones content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos R.R. de; Mandarino, José M.G.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2012-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a well-known spectroscopic technique that detects paramagnetic centers and can detect free radicals with high sensitivity. In food, free radicals can be generated by several commonly used industrial processes, such as radiosterilization or heat treatment. EPR spectroscopy is used to detect radioinduced free radicals in food. In this work the relation between EPR signal induced by gamma irradiation treatment and soybean isoflavones content was investigated. Present results did not show correlation between total isoflavones content and the EPR signal. Nevertheless, some isoflavone contents had a negative correlation with the radiation-induced EPR signal. - Highlights: ► Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) detects free radicals. ► Ionizing radiation as free radicals inducer. ► Total soybean isoflvones do not correlate with radiation-induced EPR intensity but a soybean glucosyl glucoside isoflavone does.

  1. A study on effective extraction of isoflavones from soy germ using the electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Hoon [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Tae Beom [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Dongguk University, 3 Pildong, Chunggu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Wook [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: swkim@kaeri.re.kr; Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Kook Hyun [Department of Chemistry, Dongguk University, 3 Pildong, Chunggu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yukook@dongguk.edu

    2009-07-15

    Soy germ was irradiated with 2 MeV electron beam with different doses ranging from 1 to 20 kGy. The amount of isoflavones from irradiated soy germ was compared with those from natural soy germ by extracting with ethanol and methanol. The changed amounts of isoflavones were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with standard calibration curve. Each extract of soy germ was quantified for antioxidant activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The amount of isoflavones was found to be increased after electron-beam irradiation. Particularly ethanol extract with 15 kGy irradiated soy germ contained the maximum amount of isoflavones. Antioxidant activity of irradiated soy germ was higher than that of natural soy germ.

  2. Estrogenic effect of soy isoflavones on mammary gland morphogenesis and gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anni R.; Almstrup, Kristian; Nielsen, John E.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effect of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and soy isoflavones' exposure on morphogenesis and global gene expression in the murine mammary gland. Three exposure regimens were applied: isoflavones added to the diet throughout either the lactational period (via the dams) or the postweaning...... period and E2 administered orally during the lactational period. Whole mounts of mammary glands were evaluated both in juvenile and adult animals with respect to branching morphogenesis and terminal end bud (TEB) formation. At postnatal day (PND) 28, we observed a significant increase in branching...... isoflavone and E2 exposure was further substantiated by changes in gene expression, since the same groups of genes were up- and downregulated, particularly in the E2 and postweaning isoflavone regimen. All changes in gene expression correlated with changes in the cellular composition of the gland, i.e., more...

  3. Soy food frequency questionnaire does not correlate with baseline isoflavone levels in patients with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Jill M; Pomplun, Marcia; Havighurst, Tom; Stublaski, Jeanne; Wollmer, Barbara; Kim, KyungMann; Tangrea, Joseph A; Parnes, Howard L; House, Margaret G; Gee, Jason; Messing, Edward; Bailey, Howard H

    2015-04-01

    The isoflavone genistein, a natural soy product with receptor tyrosine kinase-inhibiting activity, as well as phytoestrogenic and other potential anticarcinogenic effects, is being studied as an anticancer agent. Since isoflavones are commonly consumed in food products containing soy proteins, a method to control for baseline isoflavone consumption is needed. HPLC was used to evaluate baseline plasma and urine concentrations of isoflavone in fifty-four participants with bladder cancer enrolled on a phase II chemoprevention study of G-2535. The soy food frequency questionnaire was used to assess participant's baseline soy intake. The association between baseline isoflavone concentrations and intakes for genistein and daidzein was assessed by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The majority of participants had no detectable genistein or daidzein in plasma at baseline. The median and range of values were 0 (0-1480) nmol/L for genistein, and 0 (0-1260) nmol/L for daidzein. In urine, the median and range of values were 91.0 (0-9030) nmol/L for genistein and 623 (0-100,000) nmol/L for daidzein. The median and range of weekly estimated genistein intake was 0 (0-236) mg/wk; the median and range of weekly estimated daidzein intake was 0 (0-114) mg/wk. There was no relationship to soy intake as measured by the food frequency questionnaire and baseline isoflavone levels in plasma or urine and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were not significant. The soy food frequency questionnaire did not correlate with plasma or urine concentrations of either isoflavone. Alternative methods for controlling for soy consumption, including measuring plasma and urine concentrations, in isoflavone chemoprevention trials should be considered. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. The Role of Colonic Bacteria in the Metabolism of the Natural Isoflavone Daidzin to Equol

    OpenAIRE

    Rafii, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavones are found in leguminous plants, especially soybeans. They have a structural similarity to natural estrogens, which enables them to bind to estrogen receptors and elicit biological activities similar to natural estrogens. They have been suggested to be beneficial for the prevention and therapy of hormone-dependent diseases. After soy products are consumed, the bacteria of the intestinal microflora metabolize isoflavones to metabolites with altered absorption, bioavailability, and e...

  5. Anti-Photoaging Effects of Soy Isoflavone Extract (Aglycone and Acetylglucoside Form from Soybean Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Hung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Soy isoflavones, found in soybean and soybean products, have been reported to possess many physiological activities such as antioxidant activity, inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, reduction of cardiovascular risk, prevention of osteoporosis and alleviation of postmenopausal syndrome. In our previous study, soy isoflavone extract ISO-1 (containing 12 soy isoflavones from soybean cake was demonstrated to prevent skin damage caused by UVB exposure. In this study, soy isoflavone extract from soybean cake was further purified and evaluated for the protective effects on UVB-induced damage. The results revealed that Fraction 3, which contains the aglycone group (daidzein, genistein and glycitein and acetylglucoside group (acetyldaidzin, acetylgenistin and acetylglycitin of soy isoflavones, could inhibit UVB-induced death of human keratinocytes and reduce the level of desquamation, transepidermal water loss (TEWL, erythema and epidermal thickness in mouse skin. Furthermore, topical application of Fraction 3 increased the activity of catalase and suppressed cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA expression in mice exposed to UVB. In addition, in comparison with ISO-1 and genistein, the Fraction 3 possessed much greater protective effects on both UVB-induced oxidative stress and keratinocyte death than other fractions. Therefore, the soy isoflavone extract Fraction 3 from soybean cake is a desirable anti-photoaging agent for skin care.

  6. Cyclic ADP-ribose and IP3 mediate abscisic acid-induced isoflavone accumulation in soybean sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Caifeng; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the roles of ABA-cADPR-Ca 2+ and ABA-IP3-Ca 2+ signaling pathways in UV-B-induced isoflavone accumulation in soybean sprouts were investigated. Results showed that abscisic acid (ABA) up regulated cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) levels in soybean sprouts under UV-B radiation. Furthermore, cADPR and IP3, as second messengers of UV-B-triggered ABA, induced isoflavone accumulation by up-regulating proteins and genes expression and activity of isoflavone biosynthetic-enzymes (chalcone synthase, CHS; isoflavone synthase, IFS). After Ca 2+ was chelated by EGTA, isoflavone content decreased. Overall, ABA-induced cADPR and IP3 up regulated isoflavone accumulation which was mediated by Ca 2+ signaling via enhancing the expression of proteins and genes participating in isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean sprouts under UV-B radiation. - Highlights: • UV-B-induced cADPR and IP3 synthesis was mediated by ABA. • cADPR and IP3 were involved in UV-B-ABA-induced isoflavone accumulation. • cADPR and IP3-induced isoflavone accumulation may be mediated by Ca 2+ . • ABA, cADPR, IP3 and Ca 2+ could activate proteins expression of CHS and IFS.

  7. Do Soy Isoflavones Provide Protection Against Prostate Cancer Via a Classical Estrogen Receptor-Alpha (Era) Independent Mechanism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lubahn, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    .... Our hypothesis is that soy isoflavones, specifically genistein and daidzein, will provide protection from development and progression of prostate cancer in mice lacking functional estrogen receptor...

  8. Effects of dietary traditional fermented soybean on reproductive hormones, lipids, and glucose among postmenopausal women in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapbamrer, Ratana; Visavarungroj, Nuwat; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    Isoflavone in soybean and its products have numerous beneficial health effects. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated that dietary soy isoflavone can relieve menopausal symptoms, lower risks of breast cancer, and lower cholesterol and glucose. Among the various effects of isoflavone, the role of cholesterol and glucose reduction seems to be well documented; however, other effects such as reproductive hormones were inconclusive and inconsistent. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of six-month dietary traditional fermented soybean intake on BMI, reproductive hormones, lipids, and glucose among postmenopausal women. Subjects were women with their last menstrual period occurring at least 12 months prior to selection by interview and health screening from Baan Tham Village, Phayao Province, Thailand. A total of 60 women were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=31) and reference group (n=29). The experimental group was permitted to continue their usual diet, and supplemented with fermented soybean for 6 months. The fermented soybean provided approximately 60 mg of isoflavone per day. The remarkable findings were that dietary fermented soybean had favorable effects on progesterone and cholesterol, but had no effects on estradiol, glucose, and triglycerides. Although estradiol and glucose in the experimental group did not change, a decrease of estradiol and an increase of glucose were found in the reference group. Our results, therefore, suggest that fermented soybean may have beneficial effects on reproductive hormones and cholesterol, and they would be warrant further detail investigations.

  9. INTERVENSI ISOFLAVON KEDELAI TIDAK BERPENGARUH TERHADAP STATUS INFLAMASI DAN IMUNITAS PADA REMAJA DENGAN KEGEMUKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Dewi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Overweight/obesity is a condition that has been proven to be interrelated with chronic inflammation and compromised immune system due to disregulation of adipocytokine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of soy isoflavone on the markers of inflammation and immunity of overweight or obese teenagers. Eighteen overweight or obese teenagers, 9 boys and 9 girls each sex were randomized to one of three  intervention groups; 0 ml, 150 ml and 300 ml soy milk, equal to 0 g, 25 g and 50 mg isoflavone everyday for 30 days. The data collected were food consumption, plasma isoflavone concentration, plasma IL6 as indicator of inflammation, and lymphocyte and NK cell count as indicator of immunity. The study showed that nutrient intake of samples were still relatively low. The soy milk intervention significantly increased plasma isoflavone concentration, but not significantly had contribution to the plasma IL6 concentration and lymphocyte and NK cell count. Several kind of food consumed by samples had contribution to the plasma isoflavone concentration, and lymphocyte count. Based on the results, it was suggested that soy isoflavone intervention does not affect the inflammation status and immunity of overweight/obese teenagers.   Key words: Overweight/obesity, teenagers, soy isoflavone, inflammation, immunity

  10. Isoflavone Malonyltransferases GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 Differently Modify Isoflavone Glucosides in Soybean (Glycine max under Various Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Z. Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Malonylated isoflavones are the major forms of isoflavonoids in soybean plants, the genes responsible for their biosyntheses are not well understood, nor their physiological functions. Here we report a new benzylalcohol O-acetyltransferase, anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase, deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase (BAHD family isoflavone glucoside malonyltransferase GmIMaT1, and GmIMaT3, which is allelic to the previously characterized GmMT7 and GmIF7MaT. Biochemical studies showed that recombinant GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 enzymes used malonyl-CoA and several isoflavone 7-O-glucosides as substrates. The Km values of GmIMaT1 for glycitin, genistin, and daidzin were 13.11, 23.04, and 36.28 μM, respectively, while these of GmIMaT3 were 12.94, 26.67, and 30.12 μM, respectively. Transgenic hairy roots overexpressing both GmIMaTs had increased levels of malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin, and contents of daidzin and glycitin increased only in GmIMaT1-overexpression lines. The increased daidzein and genistein contents were detected only in GmIMaT3-overexpression lines. Knockdown of GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 reduced malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin contents, and affected other isoflavonoids differently. GmIMaT1 is primarily localized to the endoplasmic reticulum while GmIMaT3 is primarily in the cytosol. By examining their transcript changes corresponding to the altered isoflavone metabolic profiles under various environmental and hormonal stresses, we probed the possible functions of GmIMaTs. Two GmIMaTs displayed distinct tissue expression patterns and respond differently to various factors in modifying isoflavone 7-O-glucosides under various stresses.

  11. An improved method for basic hydrolysis of isoflavone malonylglucosides and quality evaluation of Chinese soy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dan; Pan, Yingni; Chen, Yan; Uno, Toshio; Zhang, Shaohui; Kano, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    Basic hydrolysis procedure is often included in the sample preparation in order to quantify malonylglucosides or acetylglucosides of soy materials. However, it is preferable not to use NaOH as a hydrolytic reagent considering the effect of its alkalinity on the successive injection to HPLC and low acidity of soy isoflavones. This paper presents an improved method for basic hydrolysis using ammonia as a hydrolytic reagent without the additional neutralization step. Moreover, by means of HPLC and LC-MS methods, a systematic quality evaluation of natural soy materials from Chinese markets were established and discussed, inclusive of soybeans, black soybeans, defatted soy flours, as well as the distribution of isoflavones in the seed coat, hypocotyl and cotyledon. The results indicate that HPLC profiling patterns of originating various isoflavone constituents of Chinese soybeans was similar to those of Japanese ones, and those of Chinese black soybeans was similar to those of American ones. The average content level of total soy isoflavones of Chinese soybeans and black soybeans were a little lower than that of American and Japanese ones. Additionally, the thorough analysis for Semen Sojae Praeparatum, a Chinese herbal medicine made from fermented black soybeans or soybeans was done for the first time and the characteristic of its HPLC profiling patterns shows the higher content of isoflavone glucosides and aglycones than those of natural soy materials.

  12. Biotransformation and recovery of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein from industrial antibiotic fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. Mark; Reeves, Andrew R.; Seshadri, Ramya; Cernota, William H.; Gonzalez, Melissa C.; Gray, Danielle L.; Wesley, Roy K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to follow the metabolic fate of isoflavone glucosides from the soybean meal in a model industrial fermentation to determine if commercially useful isoflavones could be harvested as coproducts from the spent broth at the end of the fermentation. The isoflavone aglycones, genistein and daidzein, together make up 0.1 - 0.2% of the soybean meal by weight but serve no known function in the manufacturing process. After feeding genistein to washed cells of the erythromycin-producing organism, Saccharopolyspora erythraea, the first biotransformation product (Gbp1) was determined by x-ray crystallography to be genistein-7-O-α-rhamnoside (rhamnosylgenistein). Subsequent feeding of rhamnosylgenistein to growing cells of S. erythraea led to the production of a second biotransformation product, Gbp2. Chromatographic evidence suggested that Gbp2 accumulated in the spent broth of the erythromycin fermentation. When the spent broth was hydrolyzed with acid or industrial enzyme preparations the isoflavone biotransformation products were returned back to their parental forms, genistein and daidzein, which were then recovered as coproducts. Desirable features of this method are that it does not require modification of the erythromycin manufacturing process or genetic engineering of the producing organism to be put into practice. A preliminary investigation of five additional antibiotic fermentations of industrial importance were also found to have isoflavone coproduct potential. PMID:23604533

  13. Validation of a technique by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of total isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar A. Soledispa Cañarte

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Isoflavones may act as selective regulators in the prevention of various diseases. The most important source of isoflavones is the soy, from which different phytotherapeutics are elaborated of use in Ecuadorian population. However, its concentration varies depending on several factors, therefore quality assessment need to be carried out through out several analytical methods. Aims: To validate an analytical method by high precision liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify total isoflavones in herbal medicine. Methods: To quantify isoflavones, it was used a brand liquid chromatography with UV/VIS detector at 260 nm, C-18 column using isocratic method. The mobile phase was composed of 2% acetic acid: acetonitrile (75:25. The quantification was performed against reference standard. The parameters for the validation followed the established in the USP 33. Results: The chromatogram presented six peaks with elution between 1.557 and 18.913 min. The linearity of the system and the method got r2 equal to 0.98 and 0.99 respectively. The coefficients of variation 1.5% in the study of repetitiveness and 2% in intermediate precision. The accuracy of the adjusted lineal model exhibited r=0.95 and intercept reliable interval (-0.921; 1.743. Conclusions: The validated method was specific, accurate, precise and linear. It can be used for quality control and stability studies of isoflavones present in herbal medicine.

  14. Plasma isoflavones in Malaysian men according to vegetarianism and by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Rafidah; Kouidhi, Wided; Ali Mohd, Mustafa; Husain, Ruby

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate lower prevalences of breast and prostate cancers and cardiovascular disease in Southeast Asia where vegetarianism is popular and diets are traditionally high in phytoestrogens. This study assessed plasma isoflavones in vegetarian and non-vegetarian Malaysian men according to age. Daidzein, genistein, equol (a daidzein metabolite), formononetin, biochanin A, estrone, estradiol and testosterone were measured by validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Plasma isoflavone and sex hormone concentrations were measured in 225 subjects according to age (18-34, 35-44 and 45-67 years old). In all age groups, vegetarians had a higher concentration of circulating isoflavones compared with non-vegetarians especially in the 45-67 year age group where all isoflavones except equol, were significantly higher in vegetarians compared with omnivores. By contrast, the 18-34 year group had a significantly higher concentration of daidzein in vegetarians and significantly higher testosterone and estrone concentrations compared with non-vegetarians. In this age group there were weak correlations between estrone, estradiol and testosterone with some of the isoflavones. This human study provides the first Malaysian data for the phytoestrogen status of vegetarian and nonvegetarian men.

  15. Genetic variability of isoflavones in the USDA red clover core collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele P. Ramos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Red clover is one of the most utilized forage in agriculture and contains many of the isoflavones known for their human health benefits. The objectives of this study were: i to quantify, using HPLC analysis, isoflavones in 77 accessions from the USDA core collection and a Brazilian line; ii to verify possible relationships depending on their origin, improvement status or maturity type and; iii to verify the seasonal variation. The isoflavone mean contents were 29.27 µg g-1 of dry material for daidzein, 163.69 µg g-1 for genistein, 11353.29 µg g-1 for formononetin and 6568.8 µg g-1 for biochanin A. Clustering was mainly influenced by the total amount of isoflavones and partially due to maturity type, improvement status and geographic origin. The seasonal evaluation demonstrated an increase of concentration during winter, and decrease during spring. These results highlighted accessions that can be used to develop new varieties with low or high isoflavones concentration.

  16. Changes in the isoflavone profile and in the chemical composition of tempeh during processing and refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pires Ferreira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze changes in the isoflavone profile, determined by high performance liquid chromatography, at different processing stages and after refrigeration of tempeh. For tempeh production, clean soybean grains from cultivars BR 36 (low isoflavone content and IAS 5 (high were dehulled, and the separated cotyledons were hydrated and then cooked in boiling water for 30 min. Spores of the fungus Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus were inoculated in the cooked and cooled cotyledons, and incubated at 32ºC for 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours in perforated polypropylene bags, for fermentation. The resulting tempeh was stored at 4ºC for 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours. After 24-hour fermentation, isoflavone glucosides were 50% reduced, and the aglycone forms in the tempeh from both cultivars was increased. The malonyl forms reduced 83% after cooking. Less than 24 hours of refrigeration did not affect the isoflavone profile of tempeh from either cultivar, which is a good indicator of its quality. The tempeh maintains the high and low isoflavone content of the cultivars, which indicates that cultivar differences in this trait should be considered when processing tempeh.

  17. Preparation and characterization of solid oral dosage forms containing soy isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela R. de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soy isoflavones have been extensively used for menopausal symptoms and prevention of hormone-related cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Commercially available forms of isoflavones include supplements, capsules and tablets. However, the non-standardization of soy isoflavones extracts and different dissolution profiles of these solid dosage forms highlight the need of additional studies on the development of well characterized pharmaceutical dosage forms of isoflavones. In this work, immediate release oral tablets of soy isoflavones were obtained and evaluated. Genistein and daidzein, were the main constituents of the dried soy extract. Preparation of the tables was accomplished in a rotary tableting machine following either a dry mixture for direct compression or wet granulation with different excipients. Powder, granules and tablets were evaluated for several parameters, including flow properties, Carr and Hausner indexes, hardness, friability, disintegration time and drug release profile. Also, a fast and validated HPLC analytical method for both genistein and daidzein was developed. Formulations containing sodium croscarmellose and sodium dodecyl sulfate resulted in better flowability as indicated by the flow rate and angle of repose, faster disintegration time and immediate release dissolution profile.

  18. Release, partitioning and stability of isoflavones from enriched custards during mouth, stomach and intestine in vitro simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, T.; Luyten, J.M.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Custard desserts were enriched with a soy germ extract as source of isoflavones and the influence of the thickening agent (starch or carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)) and the presence of fat on the release, partitioning and stability of the isoflavones after mouth, stomach and small intestine in vitro

  19. An R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, GmMYB29, regulates isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean.

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    Shanshan Chu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones comprise a group of secondary metabolites produced almost exclusively by plants in the legume family, including soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.]. They play vital roles in plant defense and have many beneficial effects on human health. Isoflavone content is a complex quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes, and the genetic mechanisms underlying isoflavone biosynthesis remain largely unknown. Via a genome-wide association study (GWAS, we identified 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are significantly associated with isoflavone concentrations in soybean. One of these 28 SNPs was located in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR of an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, GmMYB29, and this gene was thus selected as a candidate gene for further analyses. A subcellular localization study confirmed that GmMYB29 was located in the nucleus. Transient reporter gene assays demonstrated that GmMYB29 activated the IFS2 (isoflavone synthase 2 and CHS8 (chalcone synthase 8 gene promoters. Overexpression and RNAi-mediated silencing of GmMYB29 in soybean hairy roots resulted in increased and decreased isoflavone content, respectively. Moreover, a candidate-gene association analysis revealed that 11 natural GmMYB29 polymorphisms were significantly associated with isoflavone contents, and regulation of GmMYB29 expression could partially contribute to the observed phenotypic variation. Taken together, these results provide important genetic insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean.

  20. Determination of isoflavones in soy and selected foods containing soy by extraction, saponification, and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, S P; Allred, M C; MacDonald, J L; Ballam, J M

    2001-01-01

    Isoflavones are biologically active compounds occurring naturally in a variety of plants, with relatively high levels found in soybeans. Twelve laboratories participated in a collaborative study to determine the aglycon isoflavone content of 8 test samples of soy and foods containing soy. The analytical method for the determination of isoflavones incorporates a mild saponification step that reduces the number of analytes measured and permits quantitation versus commercially available, stable reference standards. Test samples were extracted at 65 degrees C with methanol-water (80 + 20), saponified with dilute sodium hydroxide solution, and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection at 260 nm. Isoflavone results were reported as microg/aglycon/g or microg aglycon equivalents/g. The 8 test samples included 2 blind duplicates and 4 single test samples with total isoflavone concentrations ranging from approximately 50 to 3000 microg/g. Test samples of soy ingredients and products made with soy were distributed to collaborators with appropriate reference standards. Collaborators were asked to analyze test samples in duplicate on 2 separate days. The data were analyzed for individual isoflavone components, subtotals of daidzin-daidzein, glycitin-glycitein, and genistin-genistein, and total isoflavones. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for repeatability was 1.8-7.1%, and the RSD for reproducibility was 3.2-16.1% for total isoflavone values of 47-3099 microg/g.

  1. ANALISIS KUANTITATIF ISOFLAVON TEMPE SECARA CEPAT DAN SEDERHANA MENGGUNAKAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS- DENSITOMETRI

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    Agustina Setiawati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rapid and simple quantitative analysis isoflavones tempe using densitometric TLC has been done. The mobile phase of the system was chloroform: methanol: ethylacetate (45: 5: 0.75. Thin layer chromatography was performed on aluminium TLC plates.Ascending distance of 1 μL sample was performanced 10 cm. Then the plate was scanned at 261 nm. A linear relationship obtained at 0.08 - 2 μg/spot with r= 0.9986. The LOD and LOQ of isoflavone were 0.014 μg/spot and 0.048 μg/spot. Genistein contained in tempe was 0.151± 0.005 % b/b. Keywords: tempe, isoflavon, TLC

  2. Effects of riboflavin photosensitization on the changes of isoflavones in soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W; Chang, P-S; Lee, J H

    2008-09-01

    Effects of riboflavin photosensitization on the distribution of isoflavones in commercially available soymilk were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total isoflavones (TI) in soymilk with riboflavin (1000 ppm, w/v) under light were significantly different from those stored in the dark for 24 h (P riboflavin were not significant from each other in dark conditions (P > 0.05). To test the effects of the concentration of riboflavin on TI, soymilk was mixed with riboflavin to make 0, 100, 250, and 500 ppm (w/v) and stored under light at 25 degrees C for 24 h. TI in soymilk with 100 ppm riboflavin under light significantly decreased by 13.5% for 24 h (P 0.05). Daidzin and genistin were predominant isoflavones in soymilk, and the rate of photo degradation of genistin was higher than that of daidzin for 24 h in soymilk under riboflavin photosensitization.

  3. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis modulate soy bean derived isoflavone biotransformation in diary cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk-Zieba, I; Woclawek-Potocka, I; Piskula, M K; Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Boruszewska, D; Bah, M M; Siemieniuch, M J; Skarzynski, D J

    2011-12-01

    The present study compared the changes in isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) and their metabolite (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) concentrations in the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis after feeding with soy bean. Sixteen cows were divided into four groups: control for mastitis group, cows with induced mastitis group, control for metritis group, and cows with induced metritis group. All cows were fed a single dose of 2.5 kg of soy bean and then blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for 8 h at predetermined intervals. The concentrations of soy bean-derived isoflavones and their active metabolites were measured in the blood plasma on HPLC system. β-Glucuronidase activity in the blood plasma of cows was measured by fluorometric method. In the blood plasma of cows with induced mastitis and metritis, we found considerably higher concentrations and time-dependent increase in isoflavone metabolites (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) with reference to cyclic cows (P < 0.05). Moreover, we noticed significant decrease of genistein in the blood plasma of the cows with induced metritis compared with control cows (P < 0.05). In addition, in the blood plasma of the cows with induced metritis, we found an increase in β-glucuronidase activity compared with control cows (P < 0.05). In conclusion, health status of the females influenced the concentrations of isoflavone metabolites in the blood plasma of the cows. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis increased isoflavone absorption, biotransformation and metabolism. Therefore, we suggest that cows with induced mastitis and metritis are more exposed to active isoflavone metabolite actions than healthy cows. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The isoflavone content of two new alfalfa-derived products for instant beverage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Zarazúa, M Guadalupe; Rodrigues, Francisca; Pimentel, Filipa B; Bah, M M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2016-01-01

    The frequent use of plant-based products to promote health leads to the search for scientific information related to efficacy and safety of those products for human consumption. Two alfalfa-derived products (ADP), freeze-dried juice (FDJ) and dehydrated powder (DP), from alfalfa harvested in Mexico, are being developed as new possible nutraceuticals. To the best of our knowledge, any study reports the real composition of such products used to prepare instant beverages in what concerns isoflavone contents. Seven isoflavones (glycitein, formononetin, biochanin A, daidzein, genistein, daidzin and genistin) were assessed by HPLC-DAD analysis as well as its variation in five different batches of these products. Different solvents were tested in order to choose the best one to extract isoflavones. The results showed the presence of daidzein, genistein, genistin and daidzin in most samples while glycitein, formononetin and biochanin A were not detected. Significant differences between isoflavone contents were found with different solvent systems. Water was the best option to extract daidzein (0.40-1.08 mg per unit and 1.30-4.90 mg per unit for DP and FDJ, respectively) whereas the water-methanol-formic acid mixture was efficient to extract genistein (0.19-0.43 mg per unit and 0.15-0.72 mg per unit for DP and FDJ, respectively). In all cases, the total isoflavone content was higher in freeze-dried juices than in dehydrated powders. Genistein and daidzein were the more abundant isoflavones quantified. Further physiological and nutritional studies are needed to complete the validation of effectiveness and safety of these products.

  5. Effects of soy protein containing isoflavones in patients with chronic kidney disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zhou; Wei-Jie, Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated mixed results on the effects of soy intake in patients with CKD, and this have not been systematically analyzed. We conducted this meta-analysis to identify and evaluate the effects of soy protein intake in patients with CKD. A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed in December 2013 and updated in April 2014 for any new trials. Randomized trials designed to evaluate the effects of dietary soy in patients with CKD were collected. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated for net changes using random-effect or fixed-effect model. All statistical analysis were calculated by RevMan software 5.2 available free from the Cochrane Collaboration. 12 studies (280 participants) were included. And we found that dietary soy was associated with significant decrease of serum creatinine, serum phosphorus, CRP (C reactive protein)and proteinuria in the predialysis subgroup. The mean difference was -0.05 mg/dL (95% CI: -0.10, -0.00 mg/dL; P = 0.04) for serum creatinine, -0.13 mg/dL (95% CI: -0.26, -0.01 mg/dL; P = 0.04) for serum phosphorus, -0.98 mg/L (95% CI: -1.25, -0.71 mg/L; P protein containing isoflavones intake significantly decreased serum creatinine, serum phosphorus, CRP and proteinura in predialysis patients, while no significant change was found in creatinine clearance and glomerular filtration rate. We also found that soy protein intake could maintain the nutritional status in dialysis patients, though no significant change in CRP, BUN, and serum phosphorus was detected. Future large, long-term RCTs are still needed to clarify the effects of soy protein intake in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Aggregation of soy protein-isoflavone complexes and gel formation induced by glucono-δ-lactone in soymilk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Sheng-Yang; Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Li, Wen-Tai; Hsieh, Jung-Feng

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the glucono-δ-lactone (GDL)-induced aggregation of isoflavones and soy proteins in soymilk. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that isoflavones mixed with β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S) proteins formed 7S-isoflavone and 11S-isoflavone complexes in soymilk supernatant fraction (SSF). Most of the soy protein-isoflavone complexes then precipitated into the soymilk pellet fraction (SPF) following the addition of 4 mM GDL, whereupon the pH value of the soymilk dropped from 6.6 to 5.9. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and HPLC analysis suggest that the addition of 4 mM GDL induced the aggregation of most 7S (α’, α and β subunits), 11S acidic and 11S basic proteins as well as isoflavones, including most aglycones, including daidzein, glycitein, genistein and a portion of glucosides, including daidzin, glycitin, genistin, malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin. These results provide an important reference pertaining to the effects of GDL on the aggregation of soy protein-isoflavone complexes and could benefit future research regarding the production of tofu from soymilk.

  7. Free-Radical-Scavenging, Antityrosinase, and Cellular Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activities of Synthetic Isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tzy-Ming; Ko, Horng-Huey; Ng, Lean-Teik; Hsieh, Yen-Pin

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we examined the potential of synthetic isoflavones for application in cosmeceuticals. Twenty-five isoflavones were synthesized and their capacities of free-radical-scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition, as well as their impact on cell viability of B16F10 murine melanoma cells and HaCaT human keratinocytes were evaluated. Isoflavones that showed significant mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities were further studied on reduction of cellular melanin formation and antityrosinase activities in B16F10 melanocytes in vitro. Among the isoflavones tested, 6-hydroxydaidzein (2) was the strongest scavenger of both ABTS(.+) and DPPH(.) radicals with SC50 values of 11.3 ± 0.3 and 9.4 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Texasin (20) exhibited the most potent inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase (IC50 14.9 ± 4.5 μM), whereas retusin (17) showed the most efficient inhibition both of cellular melanin formation and antityrosinase activity in B16F10 melanocytes, respectively. In summary, both retusin (17) and texasin (20) exhibited potent free-radical-scavenging capacities as well as efficient inhibition of cellular melanogenesis, suggesting that they are valuable hit compounds with potential for advanced cosmeceutical development. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Development of NIR calibrations for isoflavone and saponin concentrations in soybeans: data collection and correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoflavones and saponins are the major unique phytochemical constituents of soybean seeds. They are essential in preserving the health of germinating seeds, and have been implicated in biochemical roles in both human and animal nutritional health. The accumulation of these compounds in developing se...

  9. Soy Isoflavones in Nutritionally Relevant Amounts Have Varied Nutrigenomic Effects on Adipose Tissue

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    Elena Giordano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy consumption has been suggested to afford protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD. Indeed, accumulated albeit controversial evidence suggests that daily consumption of ≥25 g of soy protein with its associated phytochemicals intact can improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic humans. However, the belief that soy foods and supplements positively impact human health has become increasingly controversial among the general public because of the reported estrogenic activities of soy isoflavones. In this study, we investigated the nutrigenomic actions of soy isoflavones (in nutritionally-relevant amounts with a specific focus on the adipose tissue, due to its pivotal role in cardiometabolism. Young C57BL/6 mice were maintained for eight weeks under two different diet regimes: (1 purified control diet; or (2 purified control diet supplemented with 0.45 g% soybean dry purified extract (a genistein/daidzein mix. Soy isoflavones increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations and decreased triglyceride ones. Circulating leptin levels was also increased by soy consumption. Differentially expressed genes in adipose tissue were classified according to their role(s in cellular or metabolic pathways. Our data show that soy isoflavones, administered in nutritionally-relevant amounts, have diverse nutrigenomic effects on adipose tissue. Taking into account the moderate average exposure to such molecules, their impact on cardiovascular health needs to be further investigated to resolve the issue of whether soy consumption does indeed increase or decrease cardiovascular risk.

  10. Soy isoflavones in nutritionally relevant amounts have varied nutrigenomic effects on adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Elena; Dávalos, Alberto; Crespo, Maria Carmen; Tomé-Carneiro, Joao; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Visioli, Francesco

    2015-01-30

    Soy consumption has been suggested to afford protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Indeed, accumulated albeit controversial evidence suggests that daily consumption of ≥25 g of soy protein with its associated phytochemicals intact can improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic humans. However, the belief that soy foods and supplements positively impact human health has become increasingly controversial among the general public because of the reported estrogenic activities of soy isoflavones. In this study, we investigated the nutrigenomic actions of soy isoflavones (in nutritionally-relevant amounts) with a specific focus on the adipose tissue, due to its pivotal role in cardiometabolism. Young C57BL/6 mice were maintained for eight weeks under two different diet regimes: (1) purified control diet; or (2) purified control diet supplemented with 0.45 g% soybean dry purified extract (a genistein/daidzein mix). Soy isoflavones increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations and decreased triglyceride ones. Circulating leptin levels was also increased by soy consumption. Differentially expressed genes in adipose tissue were classified according to their role(s) in cellular or metabolic pathways. Our data show that soy isoflavones, administered in nutritionally-relevant amounts, have diverse nutrigenomic effects on adipose tissue. Taking into account the moderate average exposure to such molecules, their impact on cardiovascular health needs to be further investigated to resolve the issue of whether soy consumption does indeed increase or decrease cardiovascular risk.

  11. Cellular DNA breakage by soy isoflavone genistein and its methylated structural analogue biochanin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohd Fahad; Shamim, Uzma; Hanif, Sarmad; Azmi, Asfar S; Hadi, Sheikh M

    2009-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that populations with high isoflavone intake through soy consumption have lower rates of breast, prostate, and colon cancer. The isoflavone polyphenol genistein in soybean is considered to be a potent chemopreventive agent against cancer. In order to explore the chemical basis of chemopreventive activity of genistein, in this paper we have examined the structure-activity relationship between genistein and its structural analogue biochanin A. We show that both genistein and its methylated derivative biochanin A are able to mobilize nuclear copper in human lymphocyte, leading to degradation of cellular DNA. However, the relative rate of DNA breakage was greater in the case of genistein. Further, the cellular DNA degradation was inhibited by copper chelator (neocuproine/bathocuproine) but not by compounds that specifically bind iron and zinc (desferrioxamine mesylate and histidine, respectively). We also compared the antioxidant activity of the two isoflavones against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative breakage in lymphocytes. Again genistein was found to be more effective than biochanin A in providing protection against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. It would therefore appear that the structural features of isoflavones that are important for antioxidant properties are also the ones that contribute to their pro-oxidant action through a mechanism that involves redox cycling of chromatin-bound nuclear copper.

  12. Combined red clover isoflavones and probiotics potently reduce menopausal vasomotor symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Max Norman Tandrup; Thorup, Anne Cathrine Sønderstgaard; Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben

    2017-01-01

    IU/L. Participants received either twice daily treatment with bioavailable RC extract (RCE), providing 34 mg/d isoflavones and probiotics, or masked placebo formulation for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was change in daily hot flush frequency (HFF) from baseline to 12 weeks using 24hr SC. Secondary...

  13. Effect on isoflavone of soybean seedlings by 532nm laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J.; Jin, L. H.; Li, J. M.; Shen, B. J.; Wang, C. Y.; Lu, X.; Zhao, X. L.

    2010-02-01

    We took soybeans as experimental substance to study how the 532nm laser with different power density and irradiation time affected the pullulation ratio of the soybeans, average height of seedlings and the isoflavone content of seedlings' cotyledon and laminae. The mechanism that laser pretreatment of soybean seeds could increase the isoflavone content of the seedlings was discussed in such both aspects as the efficiency of the photosynthesis and the activity of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) as an initial enzyme for synthesizing the isoflavone. The results showed that after the soybean seeds were pretreated by laser, the activity of the PAL and the resultants of the photosynthesis such as the sugar of dissolubility, the sucrose, and the amylum all increased with the soybean seeds irradiated by laser in which the effect on the soybean seeds pretreated by 15mW/mm2 laser for 5 min was the most obvious. As a result, the photosynthesis efficiency of the soybean seedlings increased after being pretreated by laser, which might offer the foundation for accumulating a large amount of isoflavone.

  14. Improvement of risk assessment by integrating toxicological and epidemiological approaches: the case of isoflavones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of risk assessment by integrating toxicological and epidemiological approaches: the case of isoflavones

    PhD-thesis Mohammed Ariful Islam

    This thesis describes the results of a research project that aimed at the improvement of

  15. Bioavailability of isoflavones from soy products in equol producers and non-producers in Japanese women

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    Ayako Miura

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The results in this study suggest that bioavailability of isoflavones are different between equol producers and non-producers, because the 24 h urinary excretion of equol in the equol producers were significantly lower than those in the equol non-producers.

  16. Food matrix and isoflavones bioavailability in early post menopausal women: A European clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chanteranne, B.; Branca, F.; Kardinaal, A.; Wahala, K.; Braesco, V.; Ladroite, P.; Brouns, F.; Coxam, V.

    2008-01-01

    The estrogenic effects of soy isoflavones (IF) on symptoms of menopause are of particular interest. The aim of the present study was to improve compliance of IF in two IF-enriched foods providing the same IF circulating levels in postmenopausal women. Forty-two healthy postmenopausal women (mean

  17. Improvement of Bone-Sparing Effect of Soy Isoflavones by Pre- and Probiotics in Postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mathey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Phytoestrogens consumption is targeted as a possible way to achieve hormonal permeation in postmenopausal women. However, their health effect could depend on their bioavailability. Objectives As phytoestrogens bioavailability could be improved by modulating intestinal microflora, the present study was undertaken to investigate whether isoflavones and pre-or probiotics may improve bone markers. Design An intervention trial (2 months was carried out on 39 postmenopausal women receiving 100 mg of IF aglycon equivalents daily, incorporated in two jelly milk and two cereal bars. After the first month, the participants were randomised into three treatment groups: soy (control group, soy + fructooligosaccharides (prebiotics group and soy + yoghurt cultures (probiotics group. Results Level of isoflavone intake was associated with a significant increase in plasma isoflavone levels from baseline to day 15 which was maintained until day 60. Probiotics consumption was associated with increased plasma equol levels at day 60. A 5% increase of bone alkaline phosphatase was elicited on day 30, compared to initial values. Pre- or probiotics did not modulate this parameter. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was slightly increased at day 60. Prebiotics and probiotics consumption improved this parameter. The effect of prebiotics was exacerbated in early compared to late postmenopausal women. Conclusion Addition of prebiotics or probiotics to a diet providing isoflavones is able to improve parameters of bone turnover in early menopause.

  18. The Role of Colonic Bacteria in the Metabolism of the Natural Isoflavone Daidzin to Equol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rafii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous plants, especially soybeans. They have a structural similarity to natural estrogens, which enables them to bind to estrogen receptors and elicit biological activities similar to natural estrogens. They have been suggested to be beneficial for the prevention and therapy of hormone-dependent diseases. After soy products are consumed, the bacteria of the intestinal microflora metabolize isoflavones to metabolites with altered absorption, bioavailability, and estrogenic characteristics. Variations in the effect of soy products have been correlated with the isoflavone metabolites found in plasma and urine samples of the individuals consuming soy products. The beneficial effects of the soy isoflavone daidzin, the glycoside of daidzein, have been reported in individuals producing equol, a reduction product of daidzein produced by specific colonic bacteria in individuals called equol producers. These individuals comprise 30% and 60% of populations consuming Western and soy-rich Asian diets, respectively. Since the higher percentage of equol producers in populations consuming soy-rich diets is correlated with a lower incidence of hormone-dependent diseases, considerable efforts have been made to detect the specific colonic bacteria involved in the metabolism of daidzein to the more estrogenic compound, equol, which should facilitate the investigation of the metabolic activities related to this compound.

  19. Adsorption of isoflavones onto PVPP in the presence of a soy matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankowiak, Lena; Avermaete, Van Ivonne; Boom, Remko; Goot, Van Der Atze Jan

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of isoflavones from an okara extract onto polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) was studied for a pH ranging from 4 to 7. In general, the affinity of aglycones to PVPP was around 10 times higher than the affinity of the glycosides. Towards lower pH, the adsorption performance improved

  20. Identification and quantification of the main isoflavones and other phytochemicals in soy based nutraceutical products by liquid chromatography-orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gutiérrez, Noelia; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Vidal, José Luis

    2014-06-27

    The specific phytochemicals composition of soy nutritional supplements is usually not labelled. Hence, 12 dietary supplements were analyzed in order to detect and identify the main phytochemicals present in these samples, using a database containing 60 compounds. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to single-stage Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS) has been used. Two consecutive extractions, using as extraction solvent a mixture of methanol:water (80:20, v/v), were employed, followed by two dilutions (10 or 100 times depending on the concentration of the components in the sample) with a mixture of an aqueous solution of ammonium acetate 30mM:methanol (50:50, v/v). The method was validated, obtaining adequate recovery and precision values. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were calculated, ranging from 2 to 150μgL(-1). Isoflavones were the predominant components present in the analyzed supplements with values higher than 93% of the total amount of phytochemicals in all cases. The aglycones (genistein, daidzein, glycitein and biochanin A) as well as their three conjugated forms, β-glucosides (genistin, daizin and glycitin) were detected and quantified, being daidzein the isoflavone detected at higher concentration in 8 out of 12 samples reported, with values ranging from 684 to 35,970mgkg(-1), whereas biochanin A was detected at very low concentrations, ranging from 18 to 50mgkg(-1). Moreover, other phytochemicals as flavones, flavonols, flavanones and phenolic acids were also detected and quantified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibitory activity of the isoflavone biochanin a on intracellular bacteria of genus Chlamydia and initial development of a buccal formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump...

  2. Combined bioavailable isoflavones and probiotics improve bone status and estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal osteopenic women: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Max Norman Tandrup; Thybo, Catrine Bundgaard; Lykkeboe, Simon

    2017-01-01

    estrogen receptor affinity show potential to prevent and treat osteoporosis while minimizing or eliminating carcinogenic side effects. Objective: In this study, we sought to determine the beneficial effects of a bioavailable isoflavone and probiotic treatment against postmenopausal osteopenia. Design: We...... used a novel red clover extract (RCE) rich in isoflavone aglycones and probiotics to concomitantly promote uptake and a favorable intestinal bacterial profile to enhance isoflavone bioavailability. This was a 12-mo, double-blind, parallel design, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial of 78...... postmenopausal osteopenic women supplemented with calcium (1200 mg/d), magnesium (550 mg/d), and calcitriol (25 mg/d) given either RCE (60 mg isoflavone aglycones/d and probiotics) or a masked placebo [control (CON)]. Results: RCE significantly attenuated bone mineral density (BMD) loss at the L2–L4 lumbar spine...

  3. Concentrations of isoflavones and their metabolites in the blood of pregnant and non-pregnant heifers fed soy bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela; Piskula, Mariusz Krzysztof; Bah, Mamadou; Siemieniuch, Marta Jolanta; Korzekwa, Anna; Brzezicka, Edyta; Skarzynski, Dariusz Jan

    2008-10-01

    The present study compared the changes in isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) and their metabolite (equol and para-ethyl-phenol) concentrations in the blood plasma of cyclic and pregnant heifers after feeding with soy bean. Twelve healthy heifers were divided into three groups: cyclic heifers (days 8-12 of the estrous cycle; control group; n=4), an early pregnancy group (2 months pregnant; n=4) and a late pregnancy group (8 months pregnant; n=4). All heifers were fed a single dose of 2.5 kg of soy bean and then blood samples were taken from the jugular vein for 8 h at predetermined intervals. The concentrations of soy bean-derived isoflavones and their active metabolites were measured in the blood plasma on an HPLC system. In the blood plasma of the early- and late-pregnant heifers, we found lower concentrations and time-dependent decreases in daidzein and genistein in comparison to cyclic heifers (P0.05). In conclusion, physiological status (cyclicity or pregnancy) of the females influenced the concentrations of isoflavone metabolites in the blood plasma of the heifers. The stage of pregnancy affects isoflavone absorption, biotransformation and metabolism differently and results in higher concentrations of active metabolites of isoflavones during early pregnancy in comparison to their lower concentrations during late pregnancy. Therefore, we surmise that cows are more sensitive to active isoflavone metabolite actions during early pregnancy than cyclic heifers and heifers in late pregnancy.

  4. Bioconversion of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones, mineral bioavailability and vitamin B complex in fermented soymilk by probiotic bacteria and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha, C R; Vijayalakshmi, G

    2010-10-01

    To study the role of β-glucosidase producing probiotic bacteria and yeast in the biotransformation of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones, mineral bioavailability and vitamin B complex in fermented soymilk. Five isolates of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus acidophilus B4496, Lactobacillus bulgaricus CFR2028, Lactobacillus casei B1922, Lactobacillus plantarum B4495 and Lactobacillus fermentum B4655 with yeast Saccharomyces boulardii were used to ferment soymilk to obtain the bioactive isoflavones, genistein and daidzein. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyse the concentration of isoflavones. Bioactive aglycones genistein and daidzein after 24 and 48 h of fermentation ranged from 97.49 to 98.49% and 62.71 to 92.31% respectively with different combinations of LAB with yeast. Increase in bioavailability of minerals and vitamin B complex were also observed in fermented soymilk. LAB in combination with yeast S. boulardii has great potential for the enrichment of bioactive isoflavones, enhancing the viability of LAB strains, decreasing the antinutrient phytic acid and increasing the mineral bioavailability in soymilk fermentation. Fermentation of soymilk with probiotic organisms improves the bioavailability of isoflavones, assists in digestion of protein, provides more soluble calcium, enhances intestinal health and supports immune system. Increased isoflavone aglycone content in fermented soymilk improves the biological functionality of soymilk. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Soy isoflavones exert beneficial effects on letrozole-induced rat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) model through anti-androgenic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ravi Kumar; M, Siva Selva Kumar; Balaji, Bhaskar

    2017-12-01

    Soy is the main source of phytoestrogens, which has long been used as traditional food. One major subtype of phytoestrogens includes isoflavones and they are scientifically validated for their beneficial actions on many hormone-dependent conditions. The present study examines the effect of soy isoflavones on letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model. PCOS was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with of 1 mg/kg letrozole, p.o. once daily for 21 consecutive days. Soy isoflavones (50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days after PCOS induction. Physical parameters (body weight, oestrous cycle determination, ovary and uterus weight) metabolic parameters (oral glucose tolerance test, total cholesterol), steroidal hormone profile (testosterone and 17β-oestradiol), steroidogenic enzymes (3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-HSD), oxidative stress and histopathology of ovary were studied. Soy isoflavones (100 mg/kg) treatment significantly altered the letrozole-induced PCOS symptoms as observed by decreased body weight gain (p PCOS rats resulted in well-developed antral follicles and normal granulosa cell layer in rat ovary. Treatment with soy isoflavones exerts beneficial effects in PCOS rats (with decreased aromatase activity) which might be due to their ability to decrease testosterone concentration in the peripheral blood. Analysis of physical, biochemical and histological evidences shows that soy isoflavones may be beneficial in PCOS.

  6. Modulating conversion of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones using crude beta-glycosidase extracts from almonds and processed soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn-Jarvis, J H; Teegarden, M D; Schwartz, S J; Lee, K; Vodovotz, Y

    2017-12-15

    Food processing alters the physicochemical state of soy which can enhance chemical and enzymatic conversion of isoflavones to their aglycone forms. This study investigated the role of β-glycosidase from processed soy-ingredient mixture (SIM) or almonds, and examined the impact of isoflavone composition in mediating conversion to aglycones. β-Glycosidase activity was quantified using p-nitrophenol-β-d-glucopyranoside and SIM isoflavone extracts. Almond β-glycosidase activity was significantly (palmonds. SIM β-glycosidase activity, however, increased, with steaming by 66% (p<0.001) and with roasting by 52% (p=0.022), compared to raw SIM. After incubation with β-glycosidase, percentage of aglycone (total aglycone/total isoflavones) in SIM isoflavone extracts increased significantly in raw (35%), fermented (48%), roasted (88%) and steamed (91%) SIM, compared to their initial (∼5%) compositions. Manipulation of β-glycosidase activity and isoflavone composition can be used to modulate aglycone content in soy food products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Higher bioavailability of isoflavones after a single ingestion of a soya-based supplement than a soya-based food in young healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Sébastien; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Potier, Mylène; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Sauvant, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Soya isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, are the focus of numerous studies investigating their potential effects on health and results remain controversial. Bioavailability is clearly a crucial factor influencing their bioefficacy and could explain these discrepancies. This study aimed at assessing: (1) the isoflavone content of sixty-nine European soya-derivative products sold on the French market; (2) the bioavailability of isoflavones comparing supplement with food. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited in a randomized two-way crossover trial and received 35 mg isoflavones equivalent aglycone either through supplements or through cheese, both containing different patterns of isoflavone conjugates and different daidzein:genistein ratios. A specific ELISA method was used to assess the plasma and urinary concentrations of isoflavones and thus the pharmacokinetic parameters, which were then normalized to mg of each isoflavone ingested. Results showed that the normalized Cmax of daidzein (P = 0.002) and similarly the normalized AUC0 --> infinity and Cmax of genistein (P = 0.002) from soya-based capsules were higher than that from soya-based cheese. In conclusion, this work completes studies on isoflavone bioavailability and presents new data regarding isoflavone concentrations in soya-derivative products. Assuming that isoflavone conjugation patterns do not influence isoflavone bioavailability, this study shows that isoflavones contained in capsules are more bioavailable than those contained in soya-based cheese. Although the supplement is more bioavailable, the relative importance of this is difficult to interpret as there is little evidence that supplements are biologically active in human subjects to date and further studies will be necessary for this specific supplement to prove its efficacy.

  8. The combined effects of soya isoflavones and resistant starch on equol production and trabecular bone loss in ovariectomised mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousen, Yuko; Matsumoto, Yu; Matsumoto, Chiho; Nishide, Yoriko; Nagahata, Yuya; Kobayashi, Isao; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-07-01

    Equol is a metabolite of the soya isoflavone (ISO) daidzein that is produced by intestinal microbiota. Equol has greater oestrogenic activity compared with other ISO, and it prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women. Resistant starch (RS), which has a prebiotic activity and is a dietary fibre, was reported to promote equol production. Conversely, the intestinal microbiota is reported to directly regulate bone health by reducing inflammatory cytokine levels and T-lymphocytes in bone. The present study evaluated the combined effects of diet supplemented with ISO and RS on intestinal microbiota, equol production, bone mineral density (BMD) and inflammatory gene expression in the bone marrow of ovariectomised (OVX) mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were either sham-operated (Sham, n 7) or OVX. OVX mice were randomly divided into the following four groups (seven per group): OVX control (OVX); OVX fed 0·05 % ISO diet (OVX+ISO); OVX fed 9 % RS diet (OVX+RS); and OVX fed 0·05 % ISO- and 9 % RS diet (OVX+ISO+RS). After 6 weeks, treatment with the combination of ISO and RS increased equol production, prevented the OVX-induced decline in trabecular BMD in the distal femur by modulating the enteric environment and altered OVX-induced inflammation-related gene expression in the bone marrow. However, there were no significant differences in bone parameters between the ISO+RS and ISO-alone groups in OVX mice. Our findings suggest that the combination of ISO and RS might alter intestinal microbiota and immune status in the bone marrow, resulting in attenuated bone resorption in OVX mice.

  9. Effects of soybean isoflavone on intestinal antioxidant capacity and cytokines in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Ma, Xian-Yong; Jiang, Zong-Yong; Hu, You-Jun; Zheng, Chun-Tian; Yang, Xue-Fen; Wang, Li; Gao, Kai-Guo

    To investigate the effect of glycitein, a synthetic soybean isoflavone (ISF), on the intestinal antioxidant capacity, morphology, and cytokine content in young piglets fed oxidized fish oil, 72 4-d-old male piglets were assigned to three treatments. The control group was fed a basal diet containing fresh fish oil, and the other two groups received the same diet except for the substitution with the same dosage of oxidized fish oil alone or with ISF (oxidized fish oil plus ISF). After 21 d of feeding, supplementation of oxidized fish oil increased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NO, and Caspase-3 in jejunal mucosa, and decreased the villous height in duodenum and the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and IL-4 in the jejunal mucosa compared with supplementation with fresh oil. The addition of oxidized fish oil plus ISF partially alleviated this negative effect. The addition of oxidized fish oil plus ISF increased the villous height and levels of sIgA and IL-4 in jejunal mucosa, but decreased the levels of IL-1β and IL-2 in jejunal mucosa (Poil. Collectively, these results show that dietary supplementation of ISF could partly alleviate the negative effect of oxidized fish oil by improving the intestinal morphology as well as the antioxidant capacity and immune function in young piglets.

  10. Isoflavones in food supplements: chemical profile, label accordance and permeability study in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I M C; Rodrigues, F; Sarmento, B; Alves, R C; Oliveira, M B P P

    2015-03-01

    Consumers nowadays are playing an active role in their health-care. A special case is the increasing number of women, who are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and are looking for complementary therapies. However, food supplements are not clearly regulated in Europe. The EFSA has only recently begun to address the issues of botanical safety and purity regulation, leading to a variability of content, standardization, dosage, and purity of available products. In this study, isoflavones (puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein, formononetin, prunetin, and biochanin A) from food supplements (n = 15) for menopausal symptoms relief are evaluated and compared with the labelled information. Only four supplements complied with the recommendations made by the EC on the tolerable thresholds. The intestinal bioavailability of these compounds was investigated using Caco-2 cells. The apparent permeability coefficients of the selected isoflavonoids across the Caco-2 cells were affected by the isoflavone concentration and product matrix.

  11. Estimation for Retention Factor of Isoflavones in Physico-Chemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ki; Row, Kyung Ho

    2003-01-01

    The estimation of retention factors by correlation equations with physico-chmical properties maybe helpful in chromatographic work. The physico-chemical properties were water solubility (S), hydrophobicity (P), total energy (Et), connectivity index 1 (1χ), hydrophilic-lipophlic balance (x) and hydrophilic surface area (h) of isoflavones. The retention factors were experimentally measured by RP-HPLC. Especially, the empirical regulations of water solubility and hydrophobicity were expressed in a linear form. The equation between retention factors and various physico-chemical properties of isoflavones was suggested as k = a0 + a 1 log S + a2 log P Q + a3 (E t ) + a4 ( 1 χ) + a5 (x) + a6 (h), and the correlation coefficients estimated were relatively higher than 0.95. The empirical equations might be successfully used for a prediction of the various chromatographic characteristics of substances, with a similar chemical structure

  12. The α' subunit of β-conglycinin and the A1-5 subunits of glycinin are not essential for many hypolipidemic actions of dietary soy proteins in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qixuan; Wood, Carla; Gagnon, Christine; Cober, Elroy R; Frégeau-Reid, Judith A; Gleddie, Stephen; Xiao, Chao Wu

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary soy protein (SP) lacking different storage protein subunits and isoflavones (ISF) on the abdominal fat, blood lipids, thyroid hormones, and enzymatic activities in rats. Weanling Sprague-Dawley rats (8 males and 8 females/group) were fed diets containing either 20 % casein without or with supplemental isoflavones or alcohol-washed SP isolate or SP concentrates (SPC) prepared from 6 different soy bean lines for 8 weeks. Feeding of diets containing SPC regardless of their subunit compositions significantly lowered relative liver weights, blood total, free, and LDL cholesterol in both genders (P Soy isoflavones were mainly responsible for the hypocholesterolemic effects and increased plasma free T3, whereas reduction in FFA, abdominal fat, liver weight and increased plasma total T3 were the effects of the soy proteins. Neither the α' subunit of β-conglycinin nor the A1-5 subunits of glycinin are essential for the hypolipidemic properties of soy proteins.

  13. Soya and isoflavone intakes associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Xu, Fenglian; Zhang, Taotao; Lei, Jun; Binns, Colin W

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain the association between soya consumption, isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk in remote north-west China, where the incidence of oesophageal cancer is known to be high. Case-control study. Information on habitual consumption of soya foods and soya milk was obtained by personal interview. The intakes of isoflavones were then estimated using the US Department of Agriculture nutrient database. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between soya consumption, isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk. Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Participants were 359 incident oesophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. The oesophageal cancer patients consumed significantly less (P soya foods (mean 57·2 (sd 119·0) g/d) and soya milk (mean 18·8 (sd 51·7) ml/d) than the controls (mean 93·3 (sd 121·5) g/d and mean 35·7 (sd 73·0) ml/d). Logistic regression analyses showed an inverse association between intake of soya products and the risk of oesophageal cancer. The adjusted odds were OR = 0·33 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·49) and OR = 0·48 (95 % CI 0·31, 0·74) for consuming at least 97 g of soya foods and 60 ml of soya milk daily (the highest tertiles of consumption), respectively, relative to the lowest tertiles of consumption. Similarly, inverse associations with apparent dose-response relationships were found between isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk. Habitual consumption of soya products appears to be associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China.

  14. Possibility of breast cancer prevention: use of soy isoflavones and fermented soy beverage produced using probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Akimitsu; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kaga, Chiaki

    2015-05-13

    The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd), and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  15. Puerariae radix isoflavones and their metabolites inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-J.; Hou, Y.C.; Lin, C.-H.; Hsu, Y.-A.; Sheu, Jim J.C.; Lai, C.-H.; Chen, B.-H.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn; Wan Lei; Tsai, F.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Puerariae radix (PR) is a popular natural herb and a traditional food in Asia, which has antithrombotic and anti-allergic properties and stimulates estrogenic activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the PR isoflavones puerarin, daidzein, and genistein on the growth of breast cancer cells. Our data revealed that after treatment with PR isoflavones, a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth occurred in HS578T, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 cell lines. Results from cell cycle distribution and apoptosis assays revealed that PR isoflavones induced cell apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway and mediated cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, we observed that the serum metabolites of PR (daidzein sulfates/glucuronides) inhibited proliferation of the breast cancer cells at a 50% cell growth inhibition (GI 50 ) concentration of 2.35 μM. These results indicate that the daidzein constituent of PR can be metabolized to daidzein sulfates or daidzein glucuronides that exhibit anticancer activities. The protein expression levels of the active forms of caspase-9 and Bax in breast cancer cells were significantly increased by treatment with PR metabolites. These metabolites also increased the protein expression levels of p53 and p21. We therefore suggest that PR may act as a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic agent against breast cancer by reducing cell viability and inducing apoptosis.

  16. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity.

  17. Endogenous isoflavone methylation correlates with the in vitro rooting phases of Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clematis, Francesca; Viglione, Serena; Beruto, Margherita; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Paola; Poncet, Christine; Curir, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae) is a perennial shrub, native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, widespread in all the Italian regions and, as a leguminous species, it has a high isoflavone content. An in vitro culture protocol was developed for this species starting from stem nodal sections of in vivo plants, and isoflavone components of the in vitro cultured tissues were studied by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analytical techniques. Two main isoflavones were detected in the S. junceum tissues during the in vitro propagation phases: Genistein (4',5,7-Trihydroxyisoflavone), already reported in this species, and its methylated form 4',5,7-Trimethoxyisoflavone, detected for the first time in this plant species (0.750 ± 0.02 mg g(-1) dry tissue). The presence of both of these compounds in S. junceum tissues was consistently detected during the in vitro multiplication phase. The absence of the methylated form within plant tissues in the early phases of the in vitro adventitious root formation was correlated with its negative effect displayed on root induction and initiation phases, while its presence in the final "root manifestation" phase influenced positively the rooting process. The unmethylated form, although detectable in tissues in the precocious rooting phases, was no longer present in the final rooting phase. Its effect on rooting, however, proved always to be beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Possibility of Breast Cancer Prevention: Use of Soy Isoflavones and Fermented Soy Beverage Produced Using Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimitsu Takagi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd, and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  19. Effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone on blood total and LDL cholesterol: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Taku

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyoko Taku1, Keizo Umegaki1, Yoshiko Ishimi2, Shaw Watanabe31Information Center, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 2Nutritional Epidemiology Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 3Nutritional Education Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: When provided concurrently with soy protein for 1–3 months, soy isoflavones exert synergistic or additive cholesterol-lowering effects. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone (not ingested concurrently with soy protein on total and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. MEDLINE (1966–2007, EMBASE (1966–2007, CENTRAL (1966–2007, ICHUSHI (1983–2008, and CNKI (1979–2007 were searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials published in English, Japanese, and Chinese, describing the changes in lipid profiles in adult humans resulting from ingestion of extracted soy isoflavones for 1–3 months. Reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses were hand-searched. Meta-analysis of 10 and 9 trials with usable information using REVMAN found that an average of 70 mg soy isoflavones/day (27–132 mg, as the aglycone form alone had a nonsignificant effect on total (0.01 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.12, 0.14]; P = 0.86 and LDL (0.03 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.11, 0.16]; P = 0.71 cholesterol in menopausal women, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion of about 70 mg extracted soy isoflavones/day alone for 1–3 months does not improve total and LDL cholesterol levels in normocholesterolemic menopausal women; further studies are needed to verify the effects of extracted soy isoflavones.Keywords: extracted soy isoflavones, lipid, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol

  20. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according...... to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid...

  1. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  2. Production of beta-glucosidase and hydrolysis of isoflavone phytoestrogens by Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, and Lactobacillus casei in soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, O N; Shah, N P

    2008-01-01

    The study determined beta-glucosidase activity of commercial probiotic organisms for hydrolysis of isoflavone to aglycones in fermenting soymilk. Soymilk made with soy protein isolate (SPI) was fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI L10, Bifidobacterium lactis LAFTI B94, and Lactobacillus casei LAFTI L26 at 37 degrees C for 48 h and the fermented soymilk was stored for 28 d at 4 degrees C. beta-Glucosidase activity of organisms was determined using rho-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside as a substrate and the hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones by these organisms was carried out. The highest level of growth occurred at 12 h for L. casei L26, 24 h for B. lactis B94, and 36 h for L. acidophilus L10 during fermentation in soymilk. Survival after storage at 4 degrees C for 28 d was 20%, 15%, and 11% greater (P < 0.05) than initial cell counts, respectively. All the bacteria produced beta-glucosidase, which hydrolyzed isoflavone beta-glycosides to isoflavone aglycones. The decrease in the concentration of beta-glycosides and the increase in the concentration of aglycones were significant (P < 0.05) in the fermented soymilk. Increased isoflavone aglycone content in fermented soymilk is likely to improve the biological functionality of soymilk.

  3. Production of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein in callus cultures of Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. var. mirifica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanha Panichajakul

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica were first established from various parts of explants with the objective of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein production. The cultures were studied on their growth and isoflavone production by various combinations of growth regulators, auxins and cytokinins at 25±2ºC. Daidzein and genistein accumulated in the cells were determined. The results revealed that callus of P. candollei var. mirifica was capable of producing high level of both isoflavones consistently. The culture temperature played an important role in the growth and isoflavone production. Over twofold of growth and threefold of isoflavone production were demonstrated at 32±2ºC. The callus established from the stems in MS medium supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-D and 0.46 µM kinetin produced the highest yield of daidzein (5.12 mg/g, DW and genistein (2.77 mg/g, DW, which was remarkably higher than the intact plants.

  4. High production of succinyl isoflavone glycosides by Bacillus licheniformis ZSP01 resting cells in aqueous miscible organic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sen; Chen, Guoguang; Chu, Jianlin; Wu, Bin; He, Bingfang

    2015-01-01

    To achieve efficient production of succinyldaidzin and succinylgenistin, resting cells of a solvent-stable strain Bacillus licheniformis ZSP01 were used to react with pure isoflavones or soybean flour extract in a reaction medium with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide. Strikingly, 0.8 mM daidzein, 0.8 mM genistein, 2.0 mM daidzin, and 2.0 mM genistin were transformed to succinyl isoflavone glycosides in 27 H (yield >90%). The soybean flour extract (6.1%, w/v) contained 0.32 mM daidzein, 0.84 mM daidzin, 0.38 mM genistein, and 1.04 mM genistin. Over 95% of total isoflavones (daidzein, daidzin, genistein, and genistin) in the soybean flour extract were converted to succinyl isoflavone glycosides after 27 H. Strain ZSP01 shows both high glycosylation and succinylation activities. These results suggest that B. licheniformis ZSP01 could be useful for the efficient production of succinyl soybean isoflavone glycosides. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Dietary Flavonoids and Gastric Cancer Risk in a Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the most common cancer among men in Korea, and dietary factors are closely associated with gastric cancer risk. We performed a case-control study using 334 cases and 334 matched controls aged 35–75 years. Significant associations were observed in total dietary flavonoids and their subclasses, with the exception of anthocyanidins and isoflavones (OR (95% CI: 0.49 (0.31–0.76, p trend = 0.007 for total flavonoids. However, these associations were not significant after further adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption (OR (95% CI: 0.62 (0.36–1.09, p trend = 0.458 for total flavonoids. Total flavonoids and their subclasses, except for isoflavones, were significantly associated with a reduced risk gastric cancer in women (OR (95% CI: 0.33 (0.15–0.73, p trend = 0.001 for total flavonoids but not in men (OR (95% CI: 0.70 (0.39–1.24, p trend = 0.393 for total flavonoids. A significant inverse association with gastric cancer risk was observed in flavones, even after additional adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption in women. No significantly different effects of flavonoids were observed between H. pylori-positive and negative subjects. In conclusion, dietary flavonoids were inversely associated with gastric cancer risk, and these protective effects of dietary flavonoids were prominent in women. No clear differences were observed in the subgroup analysis of H. pylori and smoking status.

  6. Effects of genetics and environment on isoflavone content of soybean from different regions of Brazil Efeitos da genética e do ambiente nos teores de isoflavonóides em soja de diferentes regiões do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Concórdia Carrão-Panizzi

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of genetics and environmental factors on isoflavone content of soybean (Glycine max L. cultivars grown in different locations in Brazil in 1993/94 were evaluated. Seeds of different cultivars were analised by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Paraná (PR, and Mato Grosso do Sul (MS States, a significant difference in the isoflavone total content average of the cultivars IAS 5 and FT-Abyara (163.9, 116.4 and 79.5 mg/100 g, respectively was observed. In general, IAS 5 contained higher isoflavone than FT-Abyara. Cultivars IAS 5 and FT-Abyara grown at Vacaria, RS (28°30' S latitude with temperature average of 19°C, had the highest isoflavone concentrations (218.7 and 163.8 mg/100 g, respectively. In Palotina, PR (24°27' S latitude, where temperature average was 24°C, the isoflavone concentrations were 105.9 and 86.8 mg/100 g, respectively. The lowest isoflavone contents were observed for FT-Estrela and FT-Cristalina, (27.6 and 46.5 mg/100 g, repectively at Rondonópolis, MT (16°20' S latitude, where the temperature was 27°C.Analisaram-se os efeitos da genética e de fatores ambientais nos teores de isoflavonóides em cultivares de soja (Glycine max L. provenientes de diferentes locais do Brasil, na safra 1993/94. Sementes de diferentes cultivares foram analisadas por cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho (HPLC. Nos estados do Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Paraná (PR e Mato Grosso do Sul (MS observou-se diferença significativa entre as médias do conteúdo total de isoflavonóides das cultivares IAS 5 e FT-Abyara (163,9, 116,4 e 79,5 mg/100 g, respectivamente. Em geral, IAS 5 apresentou teores mais altos de isoflavonóides que FT-Abyara. As cultivares IAS 5 e FT-Abyara provenientes de Vacaria, RS (28°30' latitude S, com temperatura média de 19°C, apresentaram concentrações mais altas de isoflavonóides (218,7 e 163,8 mg/100 g, respectivamente. Em Palotina, PR (24°27' latitude S onde a

  7. Soy isoflavone exposure through all life stages accelerates 17β-estradiol-induced mammary tumor onset and growth, yet reduces tumor burden, in ACI rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Frank Josef; Pemp, Daniela; Soukup, Sebastian T; Wende, Kathleen; Zhang, Xiajie; Zierau, Oliver; Muders, Michael H; Bosland, Maarten C; Kulling, Sabine E; Lehmann, Leane; Vollmer, Günter

    2016-08-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether the intake of soy-derived isoflavones (sISO) mediates beneficial or adverse effects with regard to breast cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated whether nutritional exposure to a sISO-enriched diet from conception until adulthood impacts on 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced carcinogenesis in the rat mammary gland (MG). August-Copenhagen-Irish (ACI) rats were exposed to dietary sISO from conception until postnatal day 285. Silastic tubes containing E2 were used to induce MG tumorigenesis. Body weight, food intake, and tumor growth were recorded weekly. At necropsy, the number, position, size, and weight of each tumor were determined. Plasma samples underwent sISO analysis, and the morphology of MG was analyzed. Tumor incidence and multiplicity were reduced by 20 and 56 %, respectively, in the sISO-exposed rats compared to the control rats. Time-to-tumor onset was shortened from 25 to 20 weeks, and larger tumors developed in the sISO-exposed rats. The histological phenotype of the MG tumors was independent of the sISO diet received, and it included both comedo and cribriform phenotypes. Morphological analyses of the whole-mounted MGs also showed no diet-dependent differences. Lifelong exposure to sISO reduced the overall incidence of MG carcinomas in ACI rats, although the time-to-tumor was significantly shortened.

  8. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and bioavailability of isoflavones in pigs fed soy bean based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Gerda; Hennig, U; Kalbe, Claudia; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Ren, M Q; Moors, S; Degen, Gisela H

    2004-08-01

    A growth trial with 38 weaners (castrated male pigs) was designed to compare the growth performance and carcass quality of pigs fed diets containing either soy bean meal or soy protein concentrate in a pair-feeding design. Soy bean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) differed in isoflavone (daidzein plus genistein) content (782 microg/g in SBM and 125 microg/g in SPC, respectively). During the experiment, all pigs were fed four-phases-diets characterized by decreasing protein concentrations with increasing age (weaner I, weaner II, grower, finisher diets). Rations of control and experimental groups were isoenergetic, isonitrogenous, and isoaminogen. The weanling pigs with an initial live weight of 8.4 +/- 1.1 kg were allotted to flat deck boxes. During the growing/finishing period (days 70-170 of age), the pigs were housed in single boxes. Both, the weaning and the grower/finishing performances (daily body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio) were similar in both groups. No differences were found between the groups in carcass composition (percentages of cuts, tissues, and protein/fat), and meat quality of pigs. Moreover, the IGF-1R mRNA expression in longissimus muscle was not influenced by the kind of soy product. However, circulating levels of isoflavones were clearly different between pigs fed SBM (genistein 239 +/- 44; daidzein 162 +/- 42; equol 12 +/- 4 ng/ml plasma) and animals fed SPC (genistein 22 +/- 9 and daidzein 8 +/- 3, and equol 10 +/- 3 ng/ml plasma). The results confirm the expected differences in the bioavailability of soy isoflavones, yet, there were no significant differences in performance of pigs fed either soy bean meal or soy protein concentrate.

  9. Antioxidative and Antitumor Effects of Isoflavones Isolated from the Leaves of Maackia fauriei .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hoon Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of Maackia fauriei have traditionally been used to treat hypertension, apoplexy, hemostasis, vaginal bleeding, and dystocia; moreover, the bark of this plant has been used as a natural dye. In the present study, activity-guided isolation of the leaves of M. fauriei yielded five isoflavones [genistein (1, pratensein (2, genistin (3, 2'-hydroxygenistein-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, and 2,3-dehydrokievitone (5]; three pterocarpans [medicarpin (6, maackiain (7, and 4-hydroxy maackiain (8]; and one flavonol [isoquercitrin (9]. To evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of these compounds, their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assays and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride (NBT superoxide scavenging assays were measured. And the anti-tumor activity against human cancer cell lines in genital system, LNCaP, PC-3,HeLa and OVCAR-3 cells were evaluated by MTT method. Furthermore, the apoptosis of the PC-3 and HeLa cells were determined by by annexin V-FITC and PI their fluorescence was analyzed by flow cytometry. The flavonol (9, isoquercitrin and pterocarpan (8, 4-hydroxymaackiain showed strong anti-oxidative activities. Besides, the isoflavones (1-5 did not showed anti-oxidative activity and the isoflavones (1-5 and pterocarpans (6-8 generally showed the potent cytotoxic activity against all of four human genital cancer cells. Especially, 2,3-dehydrokievitone (5 which had a prenyl group at C-8 position of the A-ring exhibited strong cytotoxic activity and induced apoptosis efficiently in cancer cells.

  10. Plasma isoflavones and fibrocystic breast conditions and breast cancer among women in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Johanna W; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Ray, Roberta M; Wu, Chunyuan; Li, Wenjin; Lin, Ming-Gang; Gao, Dao Li; Hu, Yongwei; Shannon, Jackilen; Stalsberg, Helge; Porter, Peggy L; Frankenfeld, Cara L; Wähälä, Kristiina; Thomas, David B

    2007-12-01

    Proliferative benign breast conditions are associated with elevated risk of breast cancer, whereas nonproliferative conditions are not strongly associated with risk. Factors acting before onset of hyperplasia might be associated with both benign conditions and breast cancer, whereas those on the proliferative disease-to-cancer pathway would be associated only with cancer. Soy isoflavone exposure may influence breast cancer risk, but little is known of its association with benign conditions. We examined possible relationships between plasma genistein and daidzein concentrations and risk of breast disease in women, in a breast self-examination trial in Shanghai, China, diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 196) or a benign breast condition (n = 304), and 1,002 age-matched controls with no known breast disease. Benign conditions were classified as nonproliferative (n = 131) or proliferative with or without atypia (n = 173). Isoflavone concentrations were inversely associated with risk of nonproliferative and proliferative benign fibrocystic conditions, as well as with breast cancer, both with and without concomitant proliferative changes in ipsilateral noncancerous mammary epithelium (P(trend) 76.95 ng/mL) were less likely to have breast cancer (odds ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.50) or benign conditions (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.70) compared with women in the lowest quartile (breast cancer with and without surrounding proliferative changes were not different, respectively, from observed risks for benign proliferative and nonproliferative conditions alone. Isoflavone exposure was inversely associated with fibrocystic breast conditions and breast cancer, and the results suggest that effects on cancer risk occur early in carcinogenesis.

  11. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of isoflavanones, isoflavones, and pterocarpans from Mucuna pruriens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendup, Tshewang; Prachyawarakorn, Vilailak; Pansanit, Acharavadee; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2014-05-01

    Three new isoflavanones (1-3) and thirteen known compounds (4-16) were isolated from the roots of Mucuna pruriens. The absolute configurations of isoflavanones 1-3 and parvisoflavanone (4), lespedeol C (5), and uncinanone C (6) were addressed by a circular dichroism technique. Isoflavanones, isoflavones, and pterocarpans of M. pruriens were found to be α-glucosidase inhibitors. Medicarpin (7) and parvisoflavone B (9) were potent α-glucosidase inhibitors (twofold less active than the standard drug acarbose). The production of bioactive metabolites in M. pruriens seems to be season-dependent. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Analytical and compositional aspects of isoflavones in food and their biological effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Kulling, Sabine E.; Schwartz, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    , age, gender, background diet, food matrix, and the chemical nature of the IFs on the metabolism of IFs are described. Potential mechanisms by which IFs may exert their actions are reviewed, and genetic polymorphism as determinants of biological response to soy IFs is discussed. The effects of IFs......This paper provides an overview of analytical techniques used to determine isoflavones (IFs) in foods and biological fluids with main emphasis on sample preparation methods. Factors influencing the content of IFs in food including processing and natural variability are summarized and an insight...

  13. Soy isoflavones inducing overt hypothyroidism in a patient with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuya; Ohsawa, Isao; Goto, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Mayumi; Oguchi, Tatsunori; Sato, Naoki; Kiuchi, Yuji; Fukumura, Motonori; Inagaki, Masahiro; Gotoh, Hiromichi

    2017-09-05

    Many people have thyroid conditions that make them susceptible to hypothyroidism. If the foods they eat may interfere with the production of thyroid hormone, which can lead to development of serious hypothyroidism. The danger of health drinks should always be noted. A 72-year-old Japanese woman was previously diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis caused by a goiter and had an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level (6.56 μIU/ml), a high anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody level (>600 IU/ml), and a high antithyroglobulin level (> 4000 IU/ml) but normal levels of free triiodothyronine (3.08 pg/ml) and thyroxine (1.18 ng/ml). She presented to our hospital with sudden-onset general malaise, edema, and hoarseness with an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (373.3 μIU/ml) level and very low triiodothyronine (Hypothyroidism might be affected by ingredients of health drinks. She discontinued consumption of the health drink immediately and began taking 12.5 μg of levothyroxine. The amount of levothyroxine was gradually increased every 3 days up to 100 μg. At day 61, her thyroid-stimulating hormone level had decreased (6.12 μIU/ml), her free triiodothyronine (2.69 pg/ml) and thyroxine (1.56 ng/ml) levels had increased, and her general condition was improved. Among risky foods lowering thyroid function, some experimental studies have revealed that isoflavones reduce thyroid function. Therefore, we measured the presence of isoflavones in the patient's frozen serum with thin-layer chromatography. After she discontinued consumption of the health drink, two components quickly disappeared, and the other three components gradually decreased. On the basis of developing solvent composition and a positive ferric chloride reaction in thin-layer chromatography experiment, the five ingredients that disappeared or decreased were highly suspected to be soy isoflavones. This case emphasizes that consuming health drinks that include soy isoflavone powder extracts

  14. Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Lou

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols represent a wide variety of compounds that occur in fruits,vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products. They aremostly derivatives and/or isomers of flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, catechins andphenolic acids, and possess diverse biological properties such as antioxidant, antiapoptosis,anti-aging, anticarcinogen, anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis, cardiovascularprotection, improvement of the endothelial function, as well as inhibition of angiogenesisand cell proliferation activity. Most of these biological actions have been attributed to theirintrinsic reducing capabilities. They may also offer indirect protection by activatingendogenous defense systems and by modulating cellular signaling processes such asnuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB activation, activator protein-1(AP-1 DNA binding,glutathione biosynthesis, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt pathway,mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK proteins [extracellular signal-regulated proteinkinase (ERK, c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and P38 ] activation, and the translocationinto the nucleus of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2. This paper covers themost recent literature on the subject, and describes the biological mechanisms of action andprotective effects of dietary polyphenols.

  15. Bacterial bioeffectors modify bioactive profile and increase isoflavone content in soybean sprouts (Glycine max var Osumi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algar, Elena; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz; García-Villaraco, Ana; Sierra, M Dolores Saco; Gómez, M Soledad Martín; Gutiérrez-Mañero, F Javier

    2013-09-01

    The effect of two bacterial strains to enhance bioactive contents (total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid compounds and isoflavones) and antioxidant activity on 3-day-old soybean sprouts were investigated. To identify bacterial determinants responsible for these effects, viable and UV-treated strains were delivered to wounded seeds at different concentration. Multivariate analysis performed with all the evaluated parameters indicated the different effectiveness of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia N5.18 and Pseudomonas fluorescens N21.4 based on different structural and metabolic determinants for each. N21.4 increased total phenolics and isoflavones from the genistein family, while N5.18 triggered biosynthesis of daidzein and genistein families coupled to a decrease in total phenolics, suggesting different molecular targets in the phenilpropanoid pathway. Only extracts from N5.18 treated seeds showed an improved antioxidant activity according to the β-carotene bleaching prevention method. In summary, bioeffectors from both bacterial strains are effective tools to improve soybean sprouts quality; structural elicitors from N5.18 also enhanced antioxidant activity, being the best alternative for further development of a biotechnological procedure.

  16. Isoflavones from green vegetable soya beans and their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taoyun; Liu, Yanli; Li, Xiaoran; Xu, Qiongming; Feng, Yulin; Yang, Shilin

    2018-03-01

    Green vegetable soya beans, known as Maodou in China, are supplied as vegetable-type fruits of the soybean plant. Previous study indicated that green vegetable soya beans exhibited antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the material basis and pharmacological activities of green soybean plant were not unravelled clearly. In this study, we investigated the chemical ingredients and their pharmacological activities. Investigation of the chemical ingredients indicated that two new isoflavones, 2'-hydroxyerythrin A (1), and daidzein-7-O-β-d-{6″-[(E)-but-2-enoyl]}glycoside (2), together with seven known ones - 7,4'-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone (3), daidzein (4), daidzin (5), genistein (6), formononetin (7), ononin (8), and isoerythrinin A (9) - were obtained. The structures of compounds 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical analysis. We evaluated the antimicrobial efficacies and free-radical scavenging potential of the isolated compounds (1-9). Compounds 1 and 9 exhibited the most pronounced efficacy against the tested bacterial strains with IC 50 values ranging from 10.6 to 22.6 μg mL -1 . The isolated compounds showed moderate radical scavenging properties with compound 6 being the most active, followed by compounds 3, 1 and 4. This study indicated that the isoflavones from soya beans could be considered as potential antioxidants or antimicrobials in the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Tepung Tempe Kaya Isoflavon Meningkatkan Kadar Kalsium, Posfor dan Estrogen Plasma Tikus Betina Normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suarsana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the effect of isoflavon-riched tempe flour on calcium (Ca, phosphate(P, and estrogen levels in plasma et normal female rats during their growth period. A level oftwenty-five 2 months old female Sprague Dawley rats with an avarage body weight of 200 g wasrandomly divided into into 5 groups: one with control group (KO: without treatment and fourtreatment groups (K1, K2, K3, K4 : animals were given tempe flour with isoflavon at 1; 2; 4; and 6 mg/200 g/bw, respectively. The treatment was conducted for two months, following this blood plasmawas collected to analyse the level of calcium, phosphor, and estrogen, respectively. The resultshowed that although the plasma level of Ca, P, and estrogen was higher in the treatment groupcompare to the control group, this was not significantly different (P>0,05. The highest plasmalevel of Ca, P, and estrogen was seen in anmal receiving tempe flour with 4 mg/ 200 g bw/dayisoflavon.

  18. Synthesis and trypanocidal activity of 7, 2'-dioxygenated isoflavones and oxypropanolamine derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Terezinha de J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: tjfaria@uel.br; Silva, Luiz G. Fonseca e; Souza Filho, Jose D. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Chiari, Egler [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia; Oliveira, Alaide B. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos

    2005-11-15

    '-Dihydroxyisoflavone was shown to be active against the bloodstream trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease. Amphiphilic derivatives of this isoflavone were synthesized aiming to obtain hydrosoluble compounds of potential use as prophylactic agents to be added to blood for transfusion. This isoflavone was obtained by demethylation of 7-hydroxy-2'-methoxyisoflavone that was synthesized via the intermediate deoxybenzoin. Its reaction with epichlorohydrin, followed by aminolysis with diethylamine, afforded the 7-oxypropanolamine which on treatment with methyl iodide gave the corresponding ammonium salt. The 7-hydroxy-2'-methoxyisoflavone was inactive in the in vitro assays, the 7-oxypropanolamine was more active than 7, 2'-dihydroxyisoflavone while the ammonium salt has not eliminated the parasite from the blood besides causing total lysis of the erythrocytes. The simple synthetic procedures described in the present paper can be used to provide gram quantities of 7, 2'-dihydroxyisoflavone and its 7-oxypropanolamine derivative that should be further investigated in in vivo murine models as potential chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of Chagas' disease. (author)

  19. Production of soybean isoflavone genistein in non-legume plants via genetically modified secondary metabolism pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongrong; Hu, Yuanlei; Li, Jialin; Lin, Zhongping

    2007-01-01

    Genetic modification of secondary metabolic pathways to produce desirable natural products is an attractive approach in plant biotechnology. In our study, we attempted to produce a typical soybean isoflavone genistein, a well-known health-promoting metabolite, in non-legume plants via genetic engineering. Both overexpression and antisense suppression strategies were used to manipulate the expression of several genes encoding key enzymes in the flavonoids/isoflavonoids pathway in transgenic tobacco, lettuce, and petunia. Introducing soybean isoflavone synthase (IFS) into these plants, which naturally do not produce isoflavonoids due to a lack of this leguminous enzyme, resulted in genistein biosynthesis in tobacco petals, petunia leaves and petals, and lettuce leaves. In tobacco, when flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) expression was suppressed by its antisense gene while soybean IFS was overexpressed at the same time, genistein yield increased prominently. In addition, overexpression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) also led to an enhanced genistein production in tobacco petals and lettuce leaves in the presence of IFS than in the plants that overexpressed only IFS.

  20. Synthesis and trypanocidal activity of 7, 2'-dioxygenated isoflavones and oxypropanolamine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Terezinha de J.; Silva, Luiz G. Fonseca e; Souza Filho, Jose D. de; Chiari, Egler; Oliveira, Alaide B. de

    2005-01-01

    7, 2'-Dihydroxyisoflavone was shown to be active against the bloodstream trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease. Amphiphilic derivatives of this isoflavone were synthesized aiming to obtain hydrosoluble compounds of potential use as prophylactic agents to be added to blood for transfusion. This isoflavone was obtained by demethylation of 7-hydroxy-2'-methoxyisoflavone that was synthesized via the intermediate deoxybenzoin. Its reaction with epichlorohydrin, followed by aminolysis with diethylamine, afforded the 7-oxypropanolamine which on treatment with methyl iodide gave the corresponding ammonium salt. The 7-hydroxy-2'-methoxyisoflavone was inactive in the in vitro assays, the 7-oxypropanolamine was more active than 7, 2'-dihydroxyisoflavone while the ammonium salt has not eliminated the parasite from the blood besides causing total lysis of the erythrocytes. The simple synthetic procedures described in the present paper can be used to provide gram quantities of 7, 2'-dihydroxyisoflavone and its 7-oxypropanolamine derivative that should be further investigated in in vivo murine models as potential chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of Chagas' disease. (author)

  1. Development of an analytical method to quantify total isoflavones in phytotherapic capsules using high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane C. C. Auwerter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones can be found in grains and leaves of soybean. Currently, these are sold in pharmacies as phytotherapic capsules. Isoflavones have been recommended by doctors, especially for women, due to their ability to relieve menopause symptoms, among other benefits. However, no method exists for the official control of isoflavone content in capsules sold in the Brazilian market. This study aims to develop an appropriate analytical method to determine the total isoflavone content (daidzin, glycitin, and genistin, and their respective aglycone forms in phytotherapic capsules purchased in pharmacies in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil, using the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (UV-HPLC. The HPLC system consisted of a quaternary pump, an autosampler, and Waters reversed-phase C18 column (5 μm × 300 mm. Analyses were carried out at 40 °C, using a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min (acetonitrile and acetic acid 0.1%, and detection was performed at 254 nm. The method was validated as required by ANVISA and showed to be reliable for the following parameters: linearity (r² >0.99, selectivity (correlation between 0.99 and 1.00, precision (relative standard derivation <1.59%, accuracy (from 80% to 111.63% intraday and from 80% to 117.88% interday recovery, and robustness.

  2. Development of an analytical method to quantify total isoflavones in phytotherapic capsules using high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane C. C. Auwerter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones can be found in grains and leaves of soybean. Currently, these are sold in pharmacies as phytotherapic capsules. Isoflavones have been recommended by doctors, especially for women, due to their ability to relieve menopause symptoms, among other benefits. However, no method exists for the official control of isoflavone content in capsules sold in the Brazilian market. This study aims to develop an appropriate analytical method to determine the total isoflavone content (daidzin, glycitin, and genistin, and their respective aglycone forms in phytotherapic capsules purchased in pharmacies in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil, using the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (UV-HPLC. The HPLC system consisted of a quaternary pump, an autosampler, and Waters reversed-phase C18 column (5 μm × 300 mm. Analyses were carried out at 40 °C, using a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min (acetonitrile and acetic acid 0.1%, and detection was performed at 254 nm. The method was validated as required by ANVISA and showed to be reliable for the following parameters: linearity (r² >0.99, selectivity (correlation between 0.99 and 1.00, precision (relative standard derivation <1.59%, accuracy (from 80% to 111.63% intraday and from 80% to 117.88% interday recovery, and robustness.

  3. protective effect of combined administration of isoflavones genistein and daidzein against irradiation -induced damage in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.M.

    2009-01-01

    The renewed interests in the search for plant-derived drugs in the field of alternative medicine necessitate further studies. the present work aimed to evaluate the efficacy of diet phyto estrogens such as diadzein and genistein on repairing oxidative damage and protecting calcium homeostatic system against radiation induced disorders in female rats. soybean isoflavones were orally administered in a dose of 9 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 and 26 days. irradiated animals received diadzein and genistein for 11 consecutive days before exposing female rats to 6 Gy gamma irradiation and continued to receive soybean isoflavones until sacrificed 10 and 15 days post irradiation . Irradiation induced significant decrease in white blood cells(WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (Ht %), glutathione (GSH), calcium (CA) and estradiol, while it induced significant elevation in serum malondialdehyde(MDA), inorganic phosphorus, thyroxine 3 (T 3 ) and thyroxine 4 (T 4 ), 10 and 15 days post -irradiation . diadzein and genistein treatment before and through irradiation accelerated the recovery of circulating WBCs and RBCs, elevated HB, Hct % GSH meanwhile hindered the depression in CA. Soy isoflavones depressed MDA and ameliorated the increase in T 3 , T 4 and elevated estradiol and phosphorus levels 10 and 15 days post irradiation. the results recommend combined treatment with genistein and daidzein to mitigate irradiation-induced damage and bon loss and suggest clinical application of these isoflavones in radiotherapy

  4. Mechanisms underlying the dualistic mode of action of major soy isoflavones in relation to cell proliferation and cancer risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Sotoca, A.M.; Vervoort, J.; Louisse, J.

    2013-01-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens that have been linked to both beneficial as well as adverse effects in relation to cell proliferation and cancer risks. The present article presents an overview of these seemingly contradicting health effects and of mechanisms that could be involved in this dualistic

  5. The Effects of Isoflavone Supplementation Plus Combined Exercise on Lipid Levels, and Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica S. Giolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effect of isoflavone supplementation in addition to combined exercise training on plasma lipid levels, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Thirty-two healthy and non-obese postmenopausal women without hormone therapy were randomly assigned to exercise + placebo (PLA; n = 15 or exercise + isoflavone supplementation (ISO; n = 17 groups. They performed 30 sessions of combined exercises (aerobic plus resistance over ten weeks and consumed 100 mg of isoflavone supplementation or placebo. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast to analyze the lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, superoxide dismutase (SOD, total antioxidant capacity (FRAP, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, before and after ten weeks of the intervention. There were no differences in the changes (pre vs. post between groups for any of the inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or lipid profile variables. However, interleukin-8 was different between pre- and post-tests (p < 0.001 in both groups (Δ = 7.61 and 5.61 pg/mL as were cholesterol levels (p < 0.05, with no interaction between groups. The combination of isoflavone supplementation and exercise training did not alter oxidative stress markers in postmenopausal women, but exercise training alone may increase IL-8 and decrease total cholesterol levels.

  6. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavon...

  7. Red clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN42940165

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Charlotte; Warren, Ruth ML; Sala, Evis; Dowsett, Mitch; Dunning, Alison M; Healey, Catherine S; Runswick, Shirley; Day, Nicholas E; Bingham, Sheila A

    2004-01-01

    Isoflavones are hypothesized to protect against breast cancer, but it is not clear whether they act as oestrogens or anti-oestrogens in breast tissue. Our aim was to determine the effects of taking a red clover-derived isoflavone supplement daily for 1 year on mammographic breast density. Effects on oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), lymphocyte tyrosine kinase activity and menopausal symptoms were also assessed. A total of 205 women (age range 49–65 years) with Wolfe P2 or DY mammographic breast patterns were randomly assigned to receive either a red clover-derived isoflavone tablet (26 mg biochanin A, 16 mg formononetin, 1 mg genistein and 0.5 mg daidzein) or placebo. Change in mammographic breast density, serum oestradiol, FSH, LH, menopausal symptoms and lymphocyte tyrosine kinase activity from baseline to 12 months were assessed. A total of 177 women completed the trial. Mammographic breast density decreased in both groups but the difference between the treatment and placebo was not statistically significant. There was a significant interaction between treatment group and oestrogen receptor (ESR1) PvuII polymorphism for the change in estimated percentage breast density (mean ± standard deviation): TT isoflavone 1.4 ± 12.3% and TT placebo -9.6 ± 14.2%; CT isoflavone -5.2 ± 12.0% and CT placebo -2.8 ± 10.3%; and CC isoflavone -3.4 ± 9.7% and CC placebo -1.1 ± 9.5%. There were no statistically significant treatment effects on oestradiol, FSH, or LH (assessed only in postmenopausal women), or on lymphocyte tyrosine kinase activity. Baseline levels of menopausal symptoms were low, and there were no statistically significant treatment effects on frequency of hot flushes or other menopausal symptoms. In contrast to studies showing that conventional hormone replacement therapies increase mammographic breast density, the isoflavone supplement did not increase mammographic breast density in this population of women

  8. Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake is Inversely Associated with Hypertension in a Cohort of Adults Living in the Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Godos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyphenols, including phytoestrogens are abundantly present in a balanced diet. Evidence for their role in preventing non-communicable diseases is emerging. Methods: We examined the association between estimated habitual intakes of dietary phytoestrogens and hypertension in a cohort study. The baseline data included 1936 men and women aged 18 years and older. Intakes of total phytoestrogens, isoflavones, and lignans were calculated from validated food frequency questionnaire. Data on the polyphenols content in foods were retrieved from the Phenol-Explorer database. Results: Individuals in the highest quartile of dietary phytoestrogens intake were less likely to be hypertensive (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.44–0.98; moreover, the association showed a significant decreasing trend. Isoflavones and lignans were not associated with lower odds of hypertension; however, some individual compounds, such as biochanin A and pinoresinol showed an independent inverse association with hypertension. Conclusions: Dietary phytoestrogens are associated with lower likelihood of hypertension in adults living in the Mediterranean area. Future studies are needed to confirm the present findings (i.e., prospective cohort studies and to better understand the mechanisms underlying such associations.

  9. Probiotic Soy Product Supplemented with Isoflavones Improves the Lipid Profile of Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cardoso Umbelino Cavallini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host’s metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an isoflavone-supplemented soy product fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 on cardiovascular risk markers in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial Setting: São Paulo State University in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Participants: 49 male healthy men with total cholesterol (TC >5.17 mmol/L and <6.21 mmol/L Intervention: The volunteers have consumed 200 mL of the probiotic soy product (group SP-1010 CFU/day, isoflavone-supplemented probiotic soy product (group ISP–probiotic plus 50 mg of total isoflavones/100 g or unfermented soy product (group USP-placebo for 42 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Main outcome measures: Lipid profile and additional cardiovascular biomarkers were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 42. Urine samples (24 h were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment so as to determine the isoflavones profile. Results: After 42 days, the ISP consumption led to improved total cholesterol, non-HDL-C (LDL + IDL + VLDL cholesterol fractions and electronegative LDL concentrations (reduction of 13.8%, 14.7% and 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.05. The ISP and SP have prevented the reduction of HDL-C level after 42 days. The C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were not improved. The equol production by the ISP group subjects was inversely correlated with electronegative LDL concentration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a regular consumption of this probiotic soy product, supplemented with isoflavones, could contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, through the an

  10. Pharmacological Intervention through Dietary Nutraceuticals in Gastrointestinal Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad F; Bhat, Showket H; Husain, Eram; Abu-Duhier, Faisel; Hadi, S M; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Ahmad, Aamir

    2016-07-03

    Neoplastic conditions associated with gastrointestinal (GI) tract are common worldwide with colorectal cancer alone accounting for the third leading rate of cancer incidence. Other GI malignancies such as esophageal carcinoma have shown an increasing trend in the last few years. The poor survival statistics of these fatal cancer diseases highlight the need for multiple alternative treatment options along with effective prophylactic strategies. Worldwide geographical variation in cancer incidence indicates a correlation between dietary habits and cancer risk. Epidemiological studies have suggested that populations with high intake of certain dietary agents in their regular meals have lower cancer rates. Thus, an impressive embodiment of evidence supports the concept that dietary factors are key modulators of cancer including those of GI origin. Preclinical studies on animal models of carcinogenesis have reflected the pharmacological significance of certain dietary agents called as nutraceuticals in the chemoprevention of GI neoplasia. These include stilbenes (from red grapes and red wine), isoflavones (from soy), carotenoids (from tomatoes), curcuminoids (from spice turmeric), catechins (from green tea), and various other small plant metabolites (from fruits, vegetables, and cereals). Pleiotropic action mechanisms have been reported for these diet-derived chemopreventive agents to retard, block, or reverse carcinogenesis. This review presents a prophylactic approach to primary prevention of GI cancers by highlighting the translational potential of plant-derived nutraceuticals from epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical studies, for the better management of these cancers through consumption of nutraceutical rich diets and their intervention in cancer therapeutics.

  11. Reducing Breast Cancer Recurrence: The Role of Dietary Polyphenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J. Braakhuis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from numerous observational and clinical studies suggest that polyphenolic phytochemicals such as phenolic acids in olive oil, flavonols in tea, chocolate and grapes, and isoflavones in soy products reduce the risk of breast cancer. A dietary food pattern naturally rich in polyphenols is the Mediterranean diet and evidence suggests those of Mediterranean descent have a lower breast cancer incidence. Whilst dietary polyphenols have been the subject of breast cancer risk-reduction, this review will focus on the clinical effects of polyphenols on reducing recurrence. Overall, we recommend breast cancer patients consume a diet naturally high in flavonol polyphenols including tea, vegetables (onion, broccoli, and fruit (apples, citrus. At least five servings of vegetables and fruit daily appear protective. Moderate soy protein consumption (5–10 g daily and the Mediterranean dietary pattern show the most promise for breast cancer patients. In this review, we present an overview of clinical trials on supplementary polyphenols of dietary patterns rich in polyphenols on breast cancer recurrence, mechanistic data, and novel delivery systems currently being researched.

  12. Isoflavone supplement composition and equol producer status affect gene expression in adipose tissue: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velpen, van der V.; Geelen, A.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Schouten, E.G.; Veer, van 't P.; Afman, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Isoflavone supplements, consumed by women experiencing menopausal symptoms, are suggested to have positive effects on menopause-related adiposity and cardiovascular disease risk profile, but discussions about their safety are still ongoing. Objective: The objective was to study the

  13. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  14. Role of Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Collection,Manas- sas, VA)weremaintained in complete culturemedium:Dulbec- co’s modified Eagle’s medium (Invitrogen) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine ...Jankowska- Anyszka, M., Stepinski, J., Darzynkiewicz, E., Jones, D. N., and Davis, R. E. (2009) Structural insights into parasite eIF4E binding

  15. Role of Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    of genistein and other flavonoids in human breast cancer cells in vitro, Nutr Cancer, 27: 31-40, 1997. 13 de la,P.C., Otero-Franqui,E., Martinez...properties of genistein and other flavonoids in human breast cancer cells in vitro, Nutr Cancer, 27: 31-40, 1997. 3 Okabe,Y., Shimazu,T. and Tanimoto,H

  16. Application of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in identification of three isoflavone glycosides and their corresponding metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiafen; Li, Xinhui; Liang, Xianrui

    2018-02-15

    Metabolites of isoflavones have attracted much attention in recent years due to their potential bioactivities. However, the complex constituents of the metabolic system and the low level of metabolites make them difficult to analyze. A mass spectrometry (MS) method was applied in our identification of metabolites and study of their fragmentation pathways due to the advantages of rapidity, sensitivity, and low level of sample consumption. Three isoflavone glycosides and their metabolites were identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS). These metabolites were obtained by anaerobically incubating three isoflavone glycosides with human intestinal flora. The characteristic fragments of isoflavone glycosides and their metabolites were used for the identification work. Two metabolites from ononin, three metabolites from irilone-4'-O-β-D-glucoside, and five metabolites from sissotrin were identified respectively by the retention time (RT), accurate mass, and mass spectral fragmentation patterns. The losses of the glucosyl group, CO from the [M+H] + ion were observed for all the three isoflavone glycosides. The characteristic retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) fragmentation patterns were used to differentiate the compounds. The metabolic pathways of the three isoflavone glycosides were proposed according to the identified chemical structures of the metabolites. A selective, sensitive and rapid method was established for detecting and identifying three isoflavone glycosides and their metabolites using UPLC/QTOF-MS. The established method can be used for further rapid structural identification studies of metabolites and natural products. Furthermore, the proposed metabolic pathways will be helpful for understanding the in vivo metabolic process of isoflavone. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Biotransformation of soy flour isoflavones by Aspergillus niger NRRL 3122 β-glucosidase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdella, Asmaa; El-Baz, Ashraf F; Ibrahim, Ibrahim A; Mahrous, Emad Eldin; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-12-11

    β-glucosidase enzyme produced from Aspergillus niger NRRL 3122 has been partially purified and characterised. Its molecular weight was 180 KDa. The optimal pH and temperature were 3.98 and 55 °C, respectively. It promoted the hydrolysis of soy flour isoflavone glycosides to their aglycone. Two-level Plackett-Burman design was applied and effective variables for genistein production were determined. Reaction time had a significant positive effect, and pH had a significant negative effect. They were further evaluated using Box-Behnken model. Accordingly, the optimal combination of the major reaction affecting factors was reaction time, 5 h and pH, 4. The concentration of genistein increased by 11.73 folds using this optimal combination. The antioxidant activity of the non-biotransformed and biotransformed soy flour extracts was determined by DPPH method. It was found that biotransformation increased the antioxidant activity by four folds.

  18. Soy isoflavone tablets reduce osteoporosis risk factors and obesity in middle-aged Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mari; Aizawa, Toru; Tokoro, Minoru; Miki, Tomohiro; Yamori, Yukio

    2004-12-01

    1. This study examines whether the supplementation of isoflavones (ISO) exerts beneficial effects on the bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). 2. Eighty-one healthy Japanese pre- and postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to the following two groups taking either ISO (100 mg) tablets (ISO group) or placebo tablets (P group) containing vitamins C (25 mg) and E (5 mg) daily for 24 weeks in a double-blind placebo controlled parallel design. 3. Seventy women completed the intervention study (34 on ISO, 36 on P), only ISO group was proven to increase significantly BMD (P osteoporosis and obesity and, thus to overall health promotion in menopausal women.

  19. Cdna cloning and expression analyses of the isoflavone reductase-like gene of dendrobium officinale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, X.; Xu, S.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The full length of the isoflavone reductase-like gene (IRL) cDNA of Dendrobium officinale was cloned by using reverse transcription (RT) PCR combined with cDNA library, the IRL function was identified by Bioinformatics and prokaryotic expression analyses, and the IRL expression levels in the organs and tissues of D. officinale plants with different ages were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The results indicated that the full length of the cDNA of D. officinale IRL, DoIRL, was 1238 bp (accession no. KJ661023). Its open reading frame (ORF) was 930 bp which encoded 309 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 34 kDa, the 5 untranslated region (UTR) was 61 bp and the 3 UTR containing a poly (A) tail was 247 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of DoIRL, DoIRL, was forecast to contain a NAD(P)H-binding motif (GGTGYIG) in the N-terminal region, two conserved N-glycosylation sites, a conserved nitrogen metabolite repression regulator (NmrA) domain and a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER) domain, to hold the nearest phylogenetic relationship with the PCBER of Striga asiatica, and to share both 73% identity with the isoflavone reductases-like (IRLs) of Cucumis sativus and Striga asiatica. In Escherichia coli 'BL21' cells, the DoIRL cDNA expression produced a protein band holding the predicted molecular mass of 34 kDa. DoIRL expressed in all organs and tissues of D. officinale plants with different ages at comparatively low levels, and the expression level in the leaves of the two-year-old plants was the highest. (author)

  20. Isoflavone formononetin from red propolis acts as a fungicide against Candida sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelline Viviane Marques das Neves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A bioassay-guided fractionation of two samples of Brazilian red propolis (from Igarassu, PE, Brazil, hereinafter propolis 1 and 2 was conducted in order to determine the components responsible for its antimicrobial activity, especially against Candida spp. Samples of both the crude powdered resin and the crude ethanolic extract of propolis from both locations inhibited the growth of all 12 tested Candida strains, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 256 µg/mL. The hexane, acetate and methanol fractions of propolis 1 also inhibited all strains with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 128 to 512 µg/mL for the six bacteria tested and from 32 to 1024 µg/mL for the yeasts. Similarly, hexane and acetate fractions of propolis sample 2 inhibited all microorganisms tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 512 µg/mL for bacteria and 32 µg/mL for yeasts. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC and their phenolic profile allowed us to identify and quantitate one phenolic acid and seven flavonoids in the crude ethanolic extract. Formononetin and pinocembrin were the major constituents amongst the identified compounds. Formononetin was detected in all extracts and fractions tested, except for the methanolic fraction of sample 2. The isolated isoflavone formononetin inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms tested, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 µg/mL for the six bacteria strains tested and 25 µg/mL for the six yeasts. Formononetin also exhibited fungicidal activity against five of the six yeasts tested. Taken together our results demonstrate that the isoflavone formononetin is implicated in the reported antimicrobial activity of red propolis.

  1. Short-term soy isoflavone intervention in patients with localized prostate cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M Hamilton-Reeves

    Full Text Available We describe the effects of soy isoflavone consumption on prostate specific antigen (PSA, hormone levels, total cholesterol, and apoptosis in men with localized prostate cancer.We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effect of soy isoflavone capsules (80 mg/d of total isoflavones, 51 mg/d aglucon units on serum and tissue biomarkers in patients with localized prostate cancer. Eighty-six men were randomized to treatment with isoflavones (n=42 or placebo (n=44 for up to six weeks prior to scheduled prostatectomy. We performed microarray analysis using a targeted cell cycle regulation and apoptosis gene chip (GEArrayTM. Changes in serum total testosterone, free testosterone, total estrogen, estradiol, PSA, and total cholesterol were analyzed at baseline, mid-point, and at the time of radical prostatectomy. In this preliminary analysis, 12 genes involved in cell cycle control and 9 genes involved in apoptosis were down-regulated in the treatment tumor tissues versus the placebo control. Changes in serum total testosterone, free testosterone, total estrogen, estradiol, PSA, and total cholesterol in the isoflavone-treated group compared to men receiving placebo were not statistically significant.These data suggest that short-term intake of soy isoflavones did not affect serum hormone levels, total cholesterol, or PSA.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00255125.

  2. DNA Repair and Cancer Therapy: Targeting APE1/Ref-1 Using Dietary Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian J. Raffoul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the cancer protective effects of dietary agents and other natural compounds isolated from fruits, soybeans, and vegetables on neoplasia. Studies have also revealed the potential for these natural products to be combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy for the more effective treatment of cancer. In this paper we discuss the potential for targeting the DNA base excision repair enzyme APE1/Ref-1 using dietary agents such as soy isoflavones, resveratrol, curcumin, and the vitamins ascorbate and α-tocopherol. We also discuss the potential role of soy isoflavones in sensitizing cancer cells to the effects of radiotherapy. A comprehensive review of the dual nature of APE1/Ref-1 in DNA repair and redox activation of cellular transcription factors, NF-κB and HIF-1α, is also discussed. Further research efforts dedicated to delineating the role of APE1/Ref-1 DNA repair versus redox activity in sensitizing cancer cells to conventional treatment are warranted.

  3. Characterization of newly isolated Lactobacillus delbrueckii-like strain MF-07 isolated from chicken and its role in isoflavone biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Farooq; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2009-02-01

    Cecal microbiota of chicken was screened for bacteria involved in the biotransformation of isoflavones. A new facultative anaerobic bacterium, capable of deglycosylation of the isoflavone genistin, was isolated and identified as a Lactobacillus delbrueckii-like strain. The isolate MF-07 was Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, catalase negative, non-spore-forming, nonmotile and a straight rod. The polyphasic taxonomic data, along with 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, demonstrated that the isolate MF-07 was most closely related to L. delbrueckii group of the Lactobacillus genus. Considerable amounts of genistein were accumulated with genistin as a substrate within the first 12 h of fermentation. Formononetin and daidzein were not metabolized. The influence of several carbon sources on the growth of the isolate MF-07 and biotransformation of genistin was also investigated. This is the first study in which an anaerobic Lactobacillus bacterium from the chicken intestinal tract that metabolizes genistin to produce its bioactive metabolite was identified and characterized.

  4. Meltlets(®) of soy isoflavones: process optimization and the effect of extrusion spheronization process parameters on antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ketkee; Amin, Purnima

    2013-07-01

    In the current research work an attempt was made to develop "Melt in mouth pellets" (Meltlets(®)) containing 40% herbal extract of soy isoflavones that served to provide antioxidants activity in menopausal women. The process of extrusion-spheronization was optimized for extruder speed, extruder screen size, spheronization speed, and time. While doing so the herbal extract incorporated in the pellet matrix was subjected to various processing conditions such as the effect of the presence of other excipients, mixing or kneading to prepare wet mass, heat generated during the process of extrusion, spheronization, and drying. Thus, the work further investigates the effect of these processing parameters on the antioxidant activity of the soy isoflavone herbal extract incorporated in the formula. Thereby, the antioxidant activity of the soya bean herbal extract, Meltlets(®) and of the placebo pellets was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and total reduction capacity.

  5. A maize gene encoding an NADPH binding enzyme highly homologous to isoflavone reductases is activated in response to sulfur starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucco, S; Bolchi, A; Foroni, C; Percudani, R; Rossi, G L; Ottonello, S

    1996-01-01

    we isolated a novel gene that is selectively induced both in roots and shoots in response to sulfur starvation. This gene encodes a cytosolic, monomeric protein of 33 kD that selectively binds NADPH. The predicted polypeptide is highly homologous ( > 70%) to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but the maize protein (IRL for isoflavone reductase-like) belongs to a novel family of proteins present in a variety of plants. Anti-IRL antibodies specifically recognize IFR polypeptides, yet the maize protein is unable to use various isoflavonoids as substrates. IRL expression is correlated closely to glutathione availability: it is persistently induced in seedlings whose glutathione content is about fourfold lower than controls, and it is down-regulated rapidly when control levels of glutathione are restored. This glutathione-dependent regulation indicates that maize IRL may play a crucial role in the establishment of a thiol-independent response to oxidative stress under glutathione shortage conditions.

  6. Isolation and Purification of Two Isoflavones from Hericium erinaceum Mycelium by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinzhe; Fan, Peng; Feng, Simin; Shao, Ping; Sun, Peilong

    2018-03-02

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used to separate and purify two isoflavones for the first time from Hericium erinaceum ( H. erinaceum ) mycelium using a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-dichloromethane-methanol-water (4:2:3:2, v / v / v / v ). These two isoflavones were identified as genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone, C 15 H 10 O₅) and daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone, C 15 H 10 O₄), using infrared spectroscopy (IR), electro-spary ionisation mass (ESI-MS), ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13 C-NMR spectra. About 23 mg genistein with 95.7% purity and 18 mg daidzein with 97.3% purity were isolated from 150 mg ethanolic extract of H. erinaceum mycelium. The results demonstrated that HSCCC was a feasible method to separate and purify genistein and daidzein from H. erinaceum mycelium.

  7. Fermentation of calcium-fortified soymilk with Lactobacillus: effects on calcium solubility, isoflavone conversion, and production of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, A L; Shah, N P; Wilcox, G; Walker, K Z; Stojanovska, L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance calcium solubility and bioavailability from calcium-fortified soymilk by fermentation with 7 strains of Lactobacillus, namely, L. acidophilus ATCC 4962, ATCC33200, ATCC 4356, ATCC 4461, L. casei ASCC 290, L. plantarum ASCC 276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. The parameters that were used are viability, pH, calcium solubility, organic acid, and biologically active isoflavone aglycone content. Calcium-fortified soymilk made from soy protein isolate was inoculated with these probiotic strains, incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C, then stored for 14 d at 4 degrees C. Soluble calcium was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). Organic acids and bioactive isoflavone aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein, were measured using HPLC. Viability of the strains in the fermented calcium-fortified soymilk was > 8.5 log(10) CFU/g after 24 h fermentation and this was maintained for 14-d storage at 4 degrees C. After 24 h, there was a significant increase (P casei ASCC 290 demonstrated the highest increase with 89.3% and 87.0% soluble calcium after 24 h, respectively. The increase in calcium solubility observed was related to lowered pH associated with production of lactic and acetic acids. Fermentation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the level of conversion of isoflavones into biologically active aglycones, including diadzein, genistein, and glycetein. Our results show that fermenting calcium-fortified soymilk with the selected probiotics can potentially enhance the calcium bioavailability of calcium-fortified soymilk due to increased calcium solubility and bioactive isoflavone aglycone enrichment.

  8. Performance of starter in yogurt supplemented with soy protein isolate and biotransformation of isoflavones during storage period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T Thuy; Shah, Nagendra P

    2009-01-01

    In this study, soy protein isolate (SPI) (4%, v/w) was supplemented to the yogurt mix to increase the amount of biologically active isoflavone in yogurt (SY). The control yogurt was without any SPI supplementation (USY). The supplementation significantly (P yogurt starter including Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 (Lb 11842) and Streptococcus thermophilus ST 1342 (ST 1342) during the fermentation process by 4.7%. The starter produced more acetic acid and less lactic acid in SY than that in USY and altered the ratio of lactic and acetic acid during the entire storage period. The viability of both Lb 11842 and ST 1342 in SY was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in USY from 14 d of the storage period, however, their concentration still remained high (8.11 to 8.84 log CFU/g). The starter transformed 72.8% of total inactive isoflavone glycosides (IG) to active isoflavone aglycones (IA), increasing the IA content from 1.35 to 15.01 mg/100 g sample. During the storage period, IA concentration slowly rose from 15.02 to 15.51 mg/100 g sample.

  9. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxiang [Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang, Wenchang, E-mail: wenchang2002@sina.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Liu, Jin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Sun, Yan [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  10. [Effects of soy bean isoflavone on inhibition of benign prostatic hyperplasia and the expressions of NO and NOS of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aiqing; Ren, Guofeng; Tang, Ling; Jiang, Weiwei

    2009-03-01

    To explore the inhibitive effect of soybean isoflavone on the prostatic hyperplasia on the expressions of nitric oxid and nitric oxide synthase in the prostatic hyperplasia rats. Subcutaneously injected testosterone propionate were to induce prostate hyperplasia in rats. The changes of prostate wet weight, prostatic index, liver index, the changes of some biochemical indexes in rat prostate tissue in the control and the treatment, the low, moderate, high dose groups of soybean isoflavone groups were observed. The prostate wet weight and prostatic index in all dose groups were merely lower than those in the treatment and the moderate groups were lowest in all dose group. There were no significant differences in liver index, urea nitrogen, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase of each group. Acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in all dose groups were merely lower than those in the treatment group. Nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase in all dose groups were merely higher than those in the treatment group. Soybean isoflavone could inhibit prostate hyperplasia and increase the expressions of nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase in rats.

  11. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchang; Liu, Jin; Sun, Yan; Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified

  12. Chronic ingestion of flavan-3-ols and isoflavones improves insulin sensitivity and lipoprotein status and attenuates estimated 10-year CVD risk in medicated postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Peter J; Sampson, Mike; Potter, John; Dhatariya, Ketan; Kroon, Paul A; Cassidy, Aedín

    2012-02-01

    To assess the effect of dietary flavonoids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes on established statin and hypoglycemic therapy. Despite being medicated, patients with type 2 diabetes have elevated CVD risk, particularly postmenopausal women. Although dietary flavonoids have been shown to reduce CVD risk factors in healthy participants, no long-term trials have examined the additional benefits of flavonoids to CVD risk in medicated postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a parallel-design, placebo-controlled trial with type 2 diabetic patients randomized to consume 27 g/day (split dose) flavonoid-enriched chocolate (containing 850 mg flavan-3-ols [90 mg epicatechin] and 100 mg isoflavones [aglycone equivalents)]/day) or matched placebo for 1 year. Ninety-three patients completed the trial, and adherence was high (flavonoid 91.3%; placebo 91.6%). Compared with the placebo group, the combined flavonoid intervention resulted in a significant reduction in estimated peripheral insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] -0.3 ± 0.2; P = 0.004) and improvement in insulin sensitivity (quantitative insulin sensitivity index [QUICKI] 0.003 ± 0.00; P = 0.04) as a result of a significant decrease in insulin levels (-0.8 ± 0.5 mU/L; P = 0.02). Significant reductions in total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (-0.2 ± 0.1; P = 0.01) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) (-0.1 ± 0.1 mmol/L; P = 0.04) were also observed. Estimated 10-year total coronary heart disease risk (derived from UK Prospective Diabetes Study algorithm) was attenuated after flavonoid intervention (flavonoid +0.1 ± 0.3 vs. placebo 1.1 ± 0.3; P = 0.02). No effect on blood pressure, HbA(1c), or glucose was observed. One-year intervention with flavan-3-ols and isoflavones improved biomarkers of CVD risk, highlighting the additional benefit of flavonoids to standard drug therapy in managing CVD risk in

  13. Association among Dietary Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ruxu; Yang, Yu; Liao, Jing; Chen, Dongsheng; Yu, Lixiu

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids or flavonoid subclasses is associated with the ovarian cancer risk, but presented controversial results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of these associations. Methods We performed a search in PubMed, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science from their inception to April 25, 2015 to select studies on the association among dietary flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and ovarian cancer risk. The information was extracted by two independent authors. We assessed the heterogeneity, sensitivity, publication bias and quality of the articles. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates. Results Five cohort studies and seven case-control studies were included in the final meta-analysis. We observed that intake of dietary flavonoids can decrease ovarian cancer risk, which was demonstrated by pooled RR (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.98). In a subgroup analysis by flavonoid subtypes, the ovarian cancer risk was also decreased for isoflavones (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50–0.92) and flavonols (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.58–0.80). While there was no compelling evidence that consumption of flavones (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.71–1.03) could decrease ovarian cancer risk, which revealed part sources of heterogeneity. The sensitivity analysis indicated stable results, and no publication bias was observed based on the results of Funnel plot analysis and Egger’s test (p = 0.26). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that consumption of dietary flavonoids and subtypes (isoflavones, flavonols) has a protective effect against ovarian cancer with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer except for flavones consumption. Nevertheless, further investigations on a larger population covering more flavonoid subclasses are warranted. PMID:26960146

  14. Association between dietary phytoestrogens intakes and prostate cancer risk in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giorgio I; Di Mauro, Marina; Regis, Federica; Reale, Giulio; Campisi, Daniele; Marranzano, Marina; Lo Giudice, Arturo; Solinas, Tatiana; Madonia, Massimo; Cimino, Sebastiano; Morgia, Giuseppe

    2018-03-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate the association between dietary phytoestrogen consumption and prostate cancer in a sample of southern Italian individuals. A population-based case-control study on the association between prostate cancer and dietary factors was conducted from January 2015 to December 2016 in a single institution of the municipality of Catania, southern Italy (Registration number: 41/2015). A total of 118 histopathological-verified prostate cancer (PCa) cases and a total of 222 controls were collected. Dietary data was collected by using two food frequency questionnaires. Patients with PCa consumed significantly higher levels of phytoestrogens. Multivariate logistic regression showed that lignans (Q[quartile]4 vs. Q1, OR [odds ratio] = 4.72; p < .05) and specifically, lariciresinol (Q4 vs. Q1, OR = 4.60; p < .05), pinoresinol (Q4 vs. Q1, OR = 5.62; p < .05), matairesinol (Q4 vs. Q1, OR = 3.63; p < .05), secoisolariciresinol (Q4 vs. Q1, OR = 4.10; p < .05) were associated with increased risk of PCa. Furthermore, we found that isoflavones (Q3 vs. Q1, OR = 0.28; p < .05) and specifically, genistein (Q4 vs. Q1, OR = 0.40; p < .05) were associated with reduced risk of PCa. We found of an inverse association between dietary isoflavone intake and PCa, while a positive association was found with lignans intake.

  15. Isoflavonas em isolados e concentrados protéicos de soja Isoflavones in soy protein isolate and soy protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Y. Lui

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolados e concentrados protéicos de soja são ingredientes largamente utilizados na indústria de panificação, confeitaria, bebidas e embutidos. As isoflavonas presentes na soja podem sofrer alterações em quantidade e perfil de distribuição dependendo das condições de processamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o balanço de massa de isoflavonas e proteína em processamento de isolados e de concentrados protéicos de soja (tratamento com ácido e com álcool. A maior parte das isoflavonas presentes na matéria-prima (farinha desengordurada de soja é perdida nos sobrenadantes de processo (90% para extração com etanol 60%, 52% para processamento de isolado protéico e 47% para extração com ácido. O teor de isoflavonas nos produtos obtidos foi de 686µg/g base seca (b.s. para isolado protéico, 871µ g/g b.s. para concentrado protéico obtido por tratamento ácido e apenas 153µg/g b.s. para concentrado protéico obtido por tratamento com álcool. Não foi observada alteração no perfil de distribuição das isoflavonas nesse último processo, enquanto que nos dois primeiros notou-se diminuição da quantidade das formas malonil glicosídeos e aumento da quantidade das formas beta-glicosiladas e gliconas.Soy protein isolate (SPI and soy protein concentrate (SPC are largely used in bakery, confectionary, meat and beverage products. Isoflavones present in soybeans products can undergo changes in quantity and profile depending on the processing conditions. The objective of this work was to conduct mass balance studies of isoflavones and protein during the processing of SPI and SPC (acid and alcohol leach. The majority of isoflavones present in the raw material is lost in the supernatants (90% for SPC treated with alcohol, 52% for SPI and 47% for SPC treated with acid. Total concentration of isoflavones was 652µg/g for SPI, 838µg/g for SPC (acid leach, and only 147µg/g for SPC (alcohol leach. There were no changes in the

  16. Accumulation of genistein and daidzein, soybean isoflavones implicated in promoting human health, is significantly elevated by irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, John O; Yu, Oliver; Heatherly, Larry G; Krishnan, Hari B

    2004-12-15

    To circumvent drought conditions persisting during seed fill in the mid-south U.S. soybean production region, researchers have developed the early soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production system (ESPS), which entails early planting of short-season varieties. Because soybean supplies a preponderance of the world's protein and oil and consumption of soy-based foods has been associated with multiple health benefits, the effects of this agronomic practice on seed quality traits such as protein, oil, and isoflavones should be investigated. Four cultivars of soybean, two from maturity group IV and two from maturity group V, were planted in April (ESPS) and May (traditional) in a two-year study at Stoneville, MS. Near-infrared analysis of soybean seed was utilized to determine the percentages of protein and oil. Dependent upon variety, the oil content of the early-planted crop was increased by 3-8%, whereas protein was not significantly changed. Visualization of protein extracts fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that early planting did not affect the relative accumulation of the major seed-storage proteins; thus, protein composition was equal to that of traditionally cultivated soybeans. Maturity group IV cultivars contained a higher percentage of oil and a lower percentage of protein than did the maturity group V cultivars, regardless of planting date. Gas chromatographic separation of fatty acids revealed that the percentages of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were not significantly altered by planting date. Methanol extracts of seed harvested from different planting dates when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography showed striking differences in isoflavone content. Dependent upon the variety, total isoflavone content was increased as much as 1.3-fold in early-planted soybeans. Irrigation enhanced the isoflavone content of both early- and

  17. Evaluation of the isoflavone and total phenolic contents of kefir-fermented soymilk storage and after the in vitro digestive system simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Sanches Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Daniele; Handa, Cintia; Guelfi, Marcela; Garcia, Sandra; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2017-08-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the isoflavone and total phenolic contents in kefir-fermented soymilk storage and after the in vitro digestive system simulation (DSS). Soymilk was fermented with kefir culture (0.02UC/L) at 25°C for 15h and stored at 4°C for 4days. After the fermentation and storage, the isoflavone and total phenolic contents were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry, respectively. The cell viability of lactic acid bacteria and yeast was evaluated. Fermentation promoted an increase of approximately 3log CFU/g cycles of the microorganisms and the storage process did not alter the aglycone isoflavones and total phenolic contents. The content of aglycone isoflavones increased 2-fold, and the total phenolic content increased 9-fold. Therefore, kefir-fermented soymilk is a good source of aglycone isoflavones and phenolics, since the content of these substances was increased significantly after the in vitro digestive system simulation of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-Term Isoflavone Intervention in the Treatment of Severe Vasomotor Symptoms after Surgical Menopause: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are soy phytoestrogens that potentially exert various favorable effects in postmenopausal women, for example, alleviating vasomotor episodes, attenuating bone loss, and stimulating vaginal epithelial maturation. There has, however, been lack of consensus regarding those therapeutic effects. Most clinical studies of isoflavones have been conducted with women who had undergone natural menopause, but not those who had undergone surgical menopause. This study reports on a 51-year-old woman who presented with severe vasomotor episodes after undergoing a hysterectomy and a bilateral oophorectomy due to hypermenorrhea secondary to myoma uteri. She refused hormone therapy due to fear of adverse drug reactions so was treated with oral soy isoflavones (two capsules twice daily, equivalent to at least 100 mg daily dose for 8 weeks. The number and severity of hot flushes and her menopause-specific quality of life dramatically improved from baseline values. The serum bone resorption marker (beta C-telopeptide decreased markedly, while vaginal epithelial maturation improved slightly, suggesting the potential of isoflavones in attenuating bone loss and stimulating vaginal maturation. The intervention did not adversely affect the hormonal profile (FSH, LH, and estradiol and liver or renal functions. Thus, isoflavones could be an option for women experiencing severe vasomotor episodes after surgical menopause.

  19. Weeding volatiles reduce leaf and seed damage to field-grown soybeans and increase seed isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiojiri, Kaori; Ozawa, Rika; Yamashita, Ken-Ichi; Uefune, Masayoshi; Matsui, Kenji; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Tokumaru, Susumu; Takabayashi, Junji

    2017-01-30

    Field experiments were conducted over 3 years (2012, 2013, and 2015), in which half of the young stage soybean plants were exposed to volatiles from cut goldenrods three times over 2-3 weeks, while the other half remained unexposed. There was a significant reduction in the level of the total leaf damage on exposed soybean plants compared with unexposed ones. In 2015, the proportion of damage to plants by Spodoptera litura larvae, a dominant herbivore, was significantly less in the exposed field plots than in the unexposed plots. Under laboratory conditions, cut goldenrod volatiles induced the direct defenses of soybean plants against S. litura larvae and at least three major compounds, α-pinene, β-myrcene, and limonene, of cut goldenrod volatiles were involved in the induction. The number of undamaged seeds from the exposed plants was significantly higher than that from unexposed ones. Concentrations of isoflavones in the seeds were significantly higher in seeds from the exposed plants than in those from the unexposed plants. Future research evaluating the utility of weeding volatiles, as a form of plant-plant communications, in pest management programs is necessary.

  20. Characterization of β-glucosidase from Aspergillus terreus and its application in the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavones* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng-ying; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-xu; Chen, Sha; Nie, Xin-zheng; Qian, Li-chun

    2016-01-01

    An extracellular β-glucosidase produced by Aspergillus terreus was identified, purified, characterized and was tested for the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with tandem time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) revealed the protein to be a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 3 with an apparent molecular mass of about 120 kDa. The purified β-glucosidase showed optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 65 °C and was very stable at 50 °C. Moreover, the enzyme exhibited good stability over pH 3.0–8.0 and possessed high tolerance towards pepsin and trypsin. The kinetic parameters K m (apparent Michaelis-Menten constant) and V max (maximal reaction velocity) for p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG) were 1.73 mmol/L and 42.37 U/mg, respectively. The K m and V max for cellobiose were 4.11 mmol/L and 5.7 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme efficiently converted isoflavone glycosides to aglycones, with a hydrolysis rate of 95.8% for daidzin, 86.7% for genistin, and 72.1% for glycitin. Meanwhile, the productivities were 1.14 mmol/(L·h) for daidzein, 0.72 mmol/(L·h) for genistein, and 0.19 mmol/(L·h) for glycitein. This is the first report on the application of A. terreus β-glucosidase for converting isoflavone glycosides to their aglycones in soybean products. PMID:27256679

  1. Characterization of β-glucosidase from Aspergillus terreus and its application in the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng-Ying; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Chen, Sha; Nie, Xin-Zheng; Qian, Li-Chun

    2016-06-01

    An extracellular β-glucosidase produced by Aspergillus terreus was identified, purified, characterized and was tested for the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with tandem time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) revealed the protein to be a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 3 with an apparent molecular mass of about 120 kDa. The purified β-glucosidase showed optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 65 °C and was very stable at 50 °C. Moreover, the enzyme exhibited good stability over pH 3.0-8.0 and possessed high tolerance towards pepsin and trypsin. The kinetic parameters Km (apparent Michaelis-Menten constant) and Vmax (maximal reaction velocity) for p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG) were 1.73 mmol/L and 42.37 U/mg, respectively. The Km and Vmax for cellobiose were 4.11 mmol/L and 5.7 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme efficiently converted isoflavone glycosides to aglycones, with a hydrolysis rate of 95.8% for daidzin, 86.7% for genistin, and 72.1% for glycitin. Meanwhile, the productivities were 1.14 mmol/(L·h) for daidzein, 0.72 mmol/(L·h) for genistein, and 0.19 mmol/(L·h) for glycitein. This is the first report on the application of A. terreus β-glucosidase for converting isoflavone glycosides to their aglycones in soybean products.

  2. Growth, bioconversion of isoflavones and probiotic properties of parent and subsequent passages of Lactobacillus upon ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Siok-Koon; Liong, Min-Tze

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVB; 90 J/m²) on growth, bioconversion of isoflavones and probiotic properties of parent and subsequent passages of L. casei FTDC 2113. UV radiation significantly enhanced (P radiation also promoted (P radiation were only prevalent in the parent cells without inheritance by first, second and third passage of cells. Although temporary, our results suggested that UV radiation could enhance the bioactive and probiotic potentials of L. casei FTDC 2113, and thus could be applied for the production of probiotic products with enhanced bioactivity.

  3. [Effects of soybean isoflavone on born metabolism and morphology in animal model of osteoporosis rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Su, Yi-xiang; Wang, Wen-wei; Li, An-le; Liu, Cun-li; Wang, Yi-long; Hu, Wan-li

    2007-07-01

    To study the effects of soybean isoflavone (SI) on born metabolism and morphology in animal model of osteoporosis rats. All 70 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 7 groups according to the levels of total cholesterol (TC) in serum: hyper-lipoid group, estrogen group, low-dose SI group, middle-dose SI group, high-dose SI group, sham group and normal control groups. Bilateral ovaries were extirpated except sham and normal control groups. Except the rats in normal control group, the other rats were fed with high fat diet. Body weight was weighted ad unam vice per week. The estrogen, different dose of SI or deionized water were fed with intragastric administration for 12 weeks. Vena caudalis serum were collected after being ovariectomized, administered for 4 w, 8 w and killed. Serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity and bone density were measured etc. To interfere of estrogen and SI might recover AKP enzyme activity after its being ovariectomized. There almost sowed no differences between high dose SI intervention and estrogen on bone density and microstructure. Bone loss due to being ovariectomized was relieved after SI intervention. SI might protect cardiocyte myofilament and mitochondrial ultramicrostructure. There was mirror image in estrogen, high dose SI group resembling the normal control group, and there was obvious damage in hyper-lipoids group. There should be effects of high dose SI on bone metabolism and morphology in animal model of osteoporosis rats. Serum AKP enzyme activity and bone density should have significantly recovered, the serum level of calcium and phosphorus were maintained after high dose intervened but no significant effects for low dose of SI.

  4. Factorial design applied to the optimization of lipid composition of topical antiherpetic nanoemulsions containing isoflavone genistein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argenta DF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Débora Fretes Argenta,1 Cristiane Bastos de Mattos,1 Fabíola Dallarosa Misturini,1 Leticia Scherer Koester,1 Valquiria Linck Bassani,1 Cláudia Maria Oliveira Simões,2 Helder Ferreira Teixeira1 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 2Programa de Pós-graduação em Farmácia da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil Abstract: The aim of this study was to optimize topical nanoemulsions containing genistein, by means of a 23 full factorial design based on physicochemical properties and skin retention. The experimental arrangement was constructed using oil type (isopropyl myristate or castor oil, phospholipid type (distearoylphosphatidylcholine [DSPC] or dioleylphosphaditylcholine [DOPC], and ionic cosurfactant type (oleic acid or oleylamine as independent variables. The analysis of variance showed effect of third order for particle size, polydispersity index, and skin retention of genistein. Nanoemulsions composed of isopropyl myristate/DOPC/oleylamine showed the smallest diameter and highest genistein amount in porcine ear skin whereas the formulation composed of isopropyl myristate/DSPC/oleylamine exhibited the lowest polydispersity index. Thus, these two formulations were selected for further studies. The formulations presented positive ζ potential values (>25 mV and genistein content close to 100% (at 1 mg/mL. The incorporation of genistein in nanoemulsions significantly increased the retention of this isoflavone in epidermis and dermis, especially when the formulation composed by isopropyl myristate/DOPC/oleylamine was used. These results were supported by confocal images. Such formulations exhibited antiherpetic activity in vitro against herpes simplex virus 1 (strain KOS and herpes simplex virus 22 (strain 333. Taken together, the results show that the genistein-loaded nanoemulsions developed in this study are promising

  5. Protection against photoaging in the hairless mouse by the isoflavone equol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Vivienne E; Widyarini, Sitarina; Domanski, Diane; Chew, Elaine; Barnes, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Topical application of the isoflavone equol immediately following solar-simulated UV (SSUV) radiation exposure has previously been demonstrated to have significant photoprotective effects. Equol reduced both the inflammatory edema and the systemic suppression of the contact hypersensitivity reaction in hairless mice. Furthermore, daily topical equol application immediately following irradiation during a 10-week chronic SSUV exposure regime also reduced photocarcinogenesis severity in the mouse. This study examines the potential for topical equol to prevent photoaging in response to chronic SSUV irradiation for up to 30 weeks. We did not find consistent expression of the characteristic markers of photoaging until 30 weeks, although moderate epidermal hyperplasia and a transient increase in dermal mast cell numbers were evident after 1 week. Daily application of 10 muM equol lotion significantly reduced these early changes. However after 30 weeks of SSUV exposure, photoaging was well developed, as shown histologically by markedly increased epidermal hyperplasia, increased dermal mast cell number, pronounced focal elastotic deposits, degraded dermal collagen and deposition of glycosaminoglycans in the lower dermis. Topical equol treatment protected significantly from each of these impairments, as demonstrated histologically and quantitatively. Additionally, equol was found to have strong antioxidant action against acute UVA (320-400 nm)-induced lipid peroxidation of mouse skin, this property accounting for its antiphotoaging mechanism. The evidence for equol's antiphotoaging activity, taken together with its anti-inflammatory, immunoprotective and anticarcinogenic efficacy against SSUV irradiation in the mouse, suggests that equol could be developed as a helpful topical photoprotective agent for daily use by humans.

  6. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  7. Production of Two Novel Methoxy-Isoflavones from Biotransformation of 8-Hydroxydaidzein by Recombinant Escherichia coli Expressing O-Methyltransferase SpOMT2884 from Streptomyces peucetius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chien-Min; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Tsai, Ya-Ting; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Biotransformation of 8-hydroxydaidzein by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing O-methyltransferase (OMT) SpOMT2884 from Streptomyces peucetius was investigated. Two metabolites were isolated and identified as 7,4′-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-isoflavone (1) and 8,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-isoflavone (2), based on mass, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C-NMR spectrophotometric analysis. The maximum production yields of compound (1) and (2) in a 5-L fermenter were 9.3 mg/L and 6.0 mg/L, respectively. The two methoxy-isoflavones showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis in cultured B16 melanoma cells under non-toxic conditions. Among the effects, compound (1) decreased melanogenesis to 63.5% of the control at 25 μM. This is the first report on the 8-O-methylation activity of OMT toward isoflavones. In addition, the present study also first identified compound (1) with potent melanogenesis inhibitory activity. PMID:26610478

  8. Biochanin A (an isoflavone produced by red clover) promotes weight gain of steers grazed in mixed grass pastures and fed dried-distillers grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochanin A (BCA) is an isoflavone produced by red clover (Trifloium pratense L.) that can inhibit hyper-ammonia producing bacteria (HAB) to reduce deamination in the rumen and increase the feed amino acids available for gastric digestion. An in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect...

  9. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  10. Soy protein containing isoflavones and mammographic density in a randomized controlled trial in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, Martijn; van Gils, Carla H.; Kreijkamp-Kaspers, Sanne; Kok, Linda; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The relatively high dietary intake of soy in Asian countries has been hypothesized to, at least partly, explain the lower breast cancer incidence patterns in these countries compared with the Western world. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of daily soy

  11. Genetic Analysis of Embryo, Cytoplasm and Maternal Effects and Their Environment Interactions for Isoflavone Content in Soybean [Glycine max(L.) Merr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soybean seed products contain isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) that display biological effects when ingested by humans and animals. These effects are species, dose and age dependent. Therefore, the content and quality of isoflavones in soybeans is a key factor to the biological effect. Our objective was to identify the genetic effects that underlie the isoflavone content in soybean seeds. A genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds in diploid plants was applied to estimate the genetic main effects and genotype × environment (GE) interaction effects for the isoflavone content (IC) of soybean seeds by using two years experimental data with an incomplete diallel mating design of six parents. Results showed that the IC of soybean seeds was simultaneously controlled by the genetic effects of maternal,embryo, and cytoplasm, of which maternal genetic effects were most important, followed by embryo and cytoplasmic genetic effects. The main effects of different genetic systems on IC trait were more important than environment interaction effects. The strong dominance effects on isoflavone from residual was made easily by environment conditions. Therefore,the improvement of the IC of soybean seeds would be more efficient when selection is based on maternal plants than that on the single seed. Maternal heritability (65.73%) was most important for IC, followed by embryo heritability (25.87%) and cytoplasmic heritability (8.39%). Based on predicated genetic effects, Yudou 29 and Zheng 90007 were better than other parents for increasing IC in the progeny and improving the quality of soybean. The significant effects of maternal and embryo dominance effects in variance show that the embryo heterosis and maternal heterosis are existent and uninfluenced by environment interaction effects.

  12. The Effect of Soy Isoflavone on the Proliferation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Chondrocytes and Expression of Collagen II and Aggrecan Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bamdadpasand Shekarsarayi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Due to the lack of blood vessels in cartilage tissue, its damage is not repairable. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soy isoflavone on proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes and expression of collagen II and aggrecan genes. Methods: In this experimental study, human subcutaneous fat was obtained during liposuction and incubated with collagenase enzyme (type 1 for the breakdown of collagen, and collagenase was deactivated by DMEM medium, and was cultured in the cell sediment after centrifugation, the cells were isolated after the third passage, were placed in chondrogenic medium for differentiate into the cartilage, and were divided into three groups, including control, treatment with TGF-β1, and treatment with soy isoflavones tablets. The tablets were dissolved in distilled water, sterilized by passing through a 0.2 um filter and were added to the culture medium. After 48 hours, cell viability was determined by MTT assay, and after 14 days, collagen II and aggrecan gene expressions were assessed by real-time PCR technique. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test using SPSS 20 and p<0.05. Results: The results of MTT assay showed a significant increase in viability in the TGF-β1 group compared to the control and soy isoflavone groups (p<0.05. The RT-PCR indicated a significant increase in the expression of collagen II and aggrecan genes in isoflavones and TGF-β1 groups compared to the control group, and also, the mean CT associated with collagen II gene had a significant increase in isoflavone and TGF-β1groups compared to the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Soy in culture medium increases the expression of collagen II and aggrecan genes and cell proliferation, but this increase is not high compared to the TGF-β1 group.

  13. Quantification of isoflavones in coffee by using solid phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Navarini, Luciano; Cortese, Manuela; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Torregiani, Elisabetta; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2016-09-01

    A new method for extracting isoflavones from espresso coffee (EC) was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the first time to analyse five isoflavones, which included both a glycosilated form, genistin and the aglycons daidzein, genistein, formononetin and biochanin A. Isoflavones were extracted from coffee samples using methanol, stored in a freezer overnight to precipitate proteic or lipidic residues and purified on SPE C18 cartridges before high-performance liquid chromatography-MS/MS analysis. The recovery percentages obtained by spiking the matrix at concentrations of 10 and 100 µg l(-1) with a standard mixture of isoflavones were in the range of 70 to 104%. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range of 0.015-0.3 µg l(-1) and 0.05-1 µg l(-1) , respectively. Once validated, the method was used to analyze the concentrations of isoflavones in six ECs and ten ground coffee samples. Only formononetin and biochanin A were found, and their respective concentrations ranged from 0.36 to 0.41 µg l(-1) and from 0.58 to 3.26 µg l(-1) in ECs and from 0.36 to 4.27 µg kg(-1) and from 0.71 to 3.95 µg kg(-1) in ground coffees. This method confirms the high specificity and selectivity of MS/MS systems for detecting bioactives in complex matrices such as coffee.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Expression of an isoflavone reductase-like gene enhanced by pollen tube growth in pistils of Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eldik, G J; Ruiter, R K; Colla, P H; van Herpen, M M; Schrauwen, J A; Wullems, G J

    1997-03-01

    Successful sexual reproduction relies on gene products delivered by the pistil to create an environment suitable for pollen tube growth. These compounds are either produced before pollination or formed during the interactions between pistil and pollen tubes. Here we describe the pollination-enhanced expression of the cp100 gene in pistils of Solanum tuberosum. Temporal analysis of gene expression revealed an enhanced expression already one hour after pollination and lasts more than 72 h. Increase in expression also occurred after touching the stigma and was not restricted to the site of touch but spread into the style. The predicted CP100 protein shows similarity to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but belongs to a family of IFR-like NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases present in various plant species.

  15. Association between Dietary Share of Ultra-Processed Foods and Urinary Concentrations of Phytoestrogens in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2017-02-28

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods and urinary phytoestrogen concentrations in the US. Participants from cross-sectional 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey aged 6+ years, selected to measure urinary phytoestrogens and with one 24-h dietary recall were evaluated (2692 participants). Food items were classified according to NOVA (a name, not an acronym), a four-group food classification based on the extent and purpose of industrial food processing. Ultra-processed foods are formulations manufactured using several ingredients and a series of processes (hence "ultra-processed"). Most of their ingredients are lower-cost industrial sources of dietary energy and nutrients, with additives used for the purpose of imitating sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods or of culinary preparations of these foods. Studied phytoestrogens included lignans (enterolactone and enterodiol) and isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, O -desmethylangolensin and equol). Gaussian regression was used to compare average urinary phytoestrogen concentrations (normalized by creatinine) across quintiles of energy share of ultra-processed foods. Models incorporated survey sample weights and were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income, and education, among other factors. Adjusted enterodiol geometric means decreased monotonically from 60.6 in the lowest quintile to 35.1 µg/g creatinine in the highest, while adjusted enterolactone geometric means dropped from 281.1 to 200.1 across the same quintiles, respectively. No significant linear trend was observed in the association between these quintiles and isoflavone concentrations. This finding reinforces the existing evidence regarding the negative impact of ultra-processed food consumption on the overall quality of the diet and expands it to include non-nutrients such as lignans.

  16. Association between Dietary Share of Ultra-Processed Foods and Urinary Concentrations of Phytoestrogens in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurídice Martínez Steele

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods and urinary phytoestrogen concentrations in the US. Participants from cross-sectional 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey aged 6+ years, selected to measure urinary phytoestrogens and with one 24-h dietary recall were evaluated (2692 participants. Food items were classified according to NOVA (a name, not an acronym, a four-group food classification based on the extent and purpose of industrial food processing. Ultra-processed foods are formulations manufactured using several ingredients and a series of processes (hence “ultra-processed”. Most of their ingredients are lower-cost industrial sources of dietary energy and nutrients, with additives used for the purpose of imitating sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods or of culinary preparations of these foods. Studied phytoestrogens included lignans (enterolactone and enterodiol and isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin and equol. Gaussian regression was used to compare average urinary phytoestrogen concentrations (normalized by creatinine across quintiles of energy share of ultra-processed foods. Models incorporated survey sample weights and were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income, and education, among other factors. Adjusted enterodiol geometric means decreased monotonically from 60.6 in the lowest quintile to 35.1 µg/g creatinine in the highest, while adjusted enterolactone geometric means dropped from 281.1 to 200.1 across the same quintiles, respectively. No significant linear trend was observed in the association between these quintiles and isoflavone concentrations. This finding reinforces the existing evidence regarding the negative impact of ultra-processed food consumption on the overall quality of the diet and expands it to include non-nutrients such as lignans.

  17. Molecular Basis of the Anti-Cancer Effects of Genistein Isoflavone in LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer is the most common form of non-skin cancer within the United States and the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Survival rates for the advanced disease remain relatively low, and conventional treatments may be accompanied by significant side effects. As a result, current research is aimed at alternative or adjuvant treatments that will target components of the signal transduction, cell-cycle and apoptosis pathways, to induce cell death with little or no toxic side effects to the patient. In this study, we investigated the effect of genistein isoflavone, a soy derivative, on expression levels of genes involved in these pathways. The mechanism of genistein-induced cell death was also investigated. The chemosensitivity of the LNCaP prostate cancer cells to genistein was investigated using ATP and MTS assays, and a caspase binding assay was used to determine apoptosis induction. Several molecular targets were determined using cDNA microarray and RT-PCR analysis.Results: The overall data revealed that genistein induces cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and regulates expression levels of several genes involved in carcinogenesis and immunity. Several cell-cycle genes were down-regulated, including the mitotic kinesins, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. Various members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptotic proteins were also affected. The DefB1 and the HLA membrane receptor genes involved in immunogenicity were also up-regulated.Conclusion: The results indicate that genistein inhibits growth of the hormone-dependent prostate cancer cells, LNCaP, via apoptosis induction through regulation of some of the genes involved in carcinogenesis of many tumors, and immunogenicity. This study augments the potential phytotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic significance of genistein isoflavone.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Novel (Isoflavone 4',7-O-diglucoside Glucosyltransferase from Pueraria lobata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pueraria lobata roots accumulate a rich source of isoflavonoid glycosides, including 7-O- and 4'-O-mono-glucosides, and 4',7-O-diglucosides, which have numerous human health benefits. Although isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosyltranferases (7-O-UGTs have been well characterized at molecular levels in legume plants, genes or enzymes that are required for isoflavonoid 4'-O- and 4',7-O-glucosylation have not been identified in P. lobata to date. Especially for the 4',7-O-di-glucosylations, the genetic control for this tailing process has never been elucidated from any plant species. Through transcriptome mining, we describe here the identification and characterization of a novel UGT (designated PlUGT2 governing the isoflavonoid 4',7-O-di-glucosylations in P. lobata. Biochemical roles of PlUGT2 were assessed by in vitro assays with PlUGT2 protein produced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for its qualitative substrate specificity. PlUGT2 was active with various (isoflavonoid acceptors, catalyzing consecutive glucosylation activities at their O-4' and O-7 positions. PlUGT2 was most active with genistein, a general isoflavone in legume plants. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PlUGT2 is preferentially transcribed in roots relative to other organs of P. lobata, which is coincident with the accumulation pattern of 4'-O-glucosides and 4',7-O-diglucosides in P. lobata. The identification of PlUGT2 would help to decipher the P. lobata isoflavonoid glucosylations in vivo and may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for an efficient biotransformation of isoflavones or other natural products for food or pharmacological purposes.

  19. Isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L. sprouts induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Ma, Hai-Rong; Gao, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Xue; Habasi, Madina; Hu, Rui; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2015-02-01

    Isoflavones are important chemical components of the seeds and sprouts of chickpeas. We systematically investigated the effects of isoflavones extracted from chickpea sprouts (ICS) on the human breast cancer cell lines SKBr3 and Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays showed that ICS (10-60 µg/mL) significantly inhibited the proliferation of both cell lines in a time-dependent and dose-dependent fashion. Wright-Giemsa staining as well as annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide (Annexin V/PI) staining showed that ICS significantly increased cytoclasis and apoptotic body formation. Quantitative Annexin V/PI assays further showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased in a dose-dependent manner following ICS treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR showed that ICS increased the expression of the apoptosis-promoting gene Bcl-2-associated X protein and decreased the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. Western blot analysis showed that treatment of SKBr3 and MCF-7 cells with ICS increased the expression of caspase 7, caspase 9, P53, and P21 in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry assays using the fluorescent probe 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide showed a dose-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential following ICS treatment. Treatment using ICS also induced a dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species production. This is the first study to demonstrate that ICS may be a chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Genetic and Dietary Determinants of Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 and IGF Binding Protein (BP)-3 Levels among Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; McCullough, Lauren E.; Qi, Ya-na; Li, Jia-yuan; Zhang, Jing; Miller, Erline; Yang, Chun-xia; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and lower IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels have been associated with higher commoncancer risk, including breast cancer. Dietary factors, genetic polymorphisms, and the combination of both may influence circulating IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 serum concentrations. Methods From September 2011 to July 2012, we collected demographic, reproductive and dietary data on 143 women (≥40 years). We genotyped IGF-1 rs1520220 and IGFBP-3 rs2854744 and measured circulating IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in serum. Covariance analyses were used to estimate the associations of serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, and the molar ratio of IGF-1to IGFBP-3 with IGF-1 rs1520220 and IGFBP-3 rs2854744 genotypes. We subsequently assessed the combined influence of genetics and diet (daily intake of protein, fat and soy isoflavones) on IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. Results Among women aged less than 50 years, circulating IGF-1 serum levels were significantly lower for those with CC genotype for IGF-1 rs1520220 than levels for those with the GC or GG genotypes (in recessive model: P = 0.007).In gene-diet analyses among these women, we found carrying CC genotype for IGF-1 rs1520220 and high soy isoflavone intake tend to be associated with lower circulating IGF-1 levels synthetically (P = 0.002). Women with GG or GC genotypes for IGF-1 rs1520220 and with low intake of soy isoflavones had the highest levels of circulating IGF-1 (geometric mean [95% CI]: 195 [37, 1021] µg/L). Comparatively, women with both the CC genotype and high soy intake had the lowest levels of circulating IGF-1 (geometric mean [95% CI]: 120 [38,378] µg/L). Conclusions IGF-1 serum levels are significantly lower among women with the CC genotype for IGF-1-rs1520220. High soy isoflavone intake may interact with carrying CC genotype for IGF-1-rs1520220 to lower women's serum IGF-1 levels more. PMID:25285521

  1. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  2. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  3. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging compounds from soybean miso and antiproliferative activity of isoflavones from soybean miso toward the cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, A; Taki, S; Kawaii, S; Yano, M; Abe, N

    2000-05-01

    Guided by their DPPH radical-scavenging activity, nine compounds were isolated from soybean miso. Of these, 8-hydroxydaidzein, 8-hydroxygenistein and syringic acid had as high DPPH radical-scavenging activity as that of alpha-tocopherol. The antiproliferative activity of four of the isolated isoflavones toward three cancer cell lines was examined. 8-Hydroxygenistein showed the highest activity (IC50=5.2 microM) toward human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60).

  4. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  5. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  6. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  7. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  8. Efeitos das isoflavonas sobre o miométrio de ratas adultas Effects of isoflavones on the adult rat myometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Mosquette

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as alterações no miométrio de ratas após o tratamento com isoflavonas, comparando-as às dos estrogênios, por técnicas histológicas e morfométricas. MÉTODOS: 28 ratas adultas castradas foram divididas, ao acaso, em quatro grupos que receberam: GPropi propilenoglicol; GExtr10 - extrato de soja (10 mg/kg por dia; GExtr300 - extrato de soja (300 mg/kg por dia e GEce - estrogênios conjugados eqüinos (Ece - 200 µg/kg por dia. Após 21 dias de tratamento, todos os animais foram sacrificados, os úteros retirados e pesados, e fragmentos dos cornos uterinos foram coletados e fixados em formol a 10% e processados para inclusão em parafina. Os cortes histológicos foram corados pela hematoxilina e eosina e examinados em microscópio acoplado a analisador de imagens para avaliação da espessura, número de vasos sanguíneos e de eosinófilos no miométrio. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA, seguida pelo teste de comparações múltiplas de Tukey-Kramer. RESULTADOS: as isoflavonas, na concentração de 300 mg/kg, induziram aumento significante na espessura do miométrio (GExtr300=25,6±5,0 mm em relação ao controle (GPropi=5,5±0,5 mm. O efeito desta alta é comparável ao efeito dos estrogênios (GEce=27,5±7,9 mm. Em doses baixas (10 mg/kg, os valores foram similares ao controle. Além disso, as isoflavonas (GExtr300 induziram aumento no número de vasos sangüíneos (GExtr300=10,2±3,6/mm²; GPropi=3,5±1,6 vasos/mm² e de eosinófilos (GExtr300=4,3±0,9; GPropi=0,15±0,01 eosinófilos/mm², igualmente comparáveis aos efeitos obtidos pelo tratamento com Ece (GEce=9,2±1,1 eosinophils/mm². CONCLUSÃO: as isoflavonas em doses altas (300 mg/kg por dia, durante 21 dias têm efeito proliferativo no miométrio de ratas, semelhante ao dos estrogênios.PURPOSE: to evaluate histomorphometric changes in the rat myometrium upon treatment with isoflavones, as compared with estrogens, using

  9. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  10. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

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    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  11. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  12. Absolute Configuration of (-)-2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid: Stereochemistry of Soy Isoflavone Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mihyang; Han, Jaehong [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    We have elucidated stereochemistry of (-)-2-HPPA. Determination of (R)-2-HPPA stereochemistry also provided stereochemical information of genistein metabolism. Considering the stereochemistry of 2-HPPA, the precursor of (R)-2-HPPA should be (R)-6'-hydroxy-O-DMA. Besides, it is clear that only (S)-dihydrogenistein is the possible precursor of (R)-6'-hydroxy-O-DMA. Therefore, genistein metabolism is suggested to follow the same stereochemical pathway like daidzein. Biotransformation of natural products by human intestinal bacteria has recently drawn a significant interest, due to the emerging strong correlation between gut microbiota and human health. Microbial metabolism of natural products by intestinal bacteria in small intestine and colon proceeds the phase I and II xenobiotic metabolisms in the liver. The metabolites were found to exhibit different biological activities, and affect human etiology. For example, many beneficial effects of dietary polyphenols in human health are attributed to the microbial metabolites produced by intestinal bacteria and the modulation of gut microbiota composition.

  13. Absolute Configuration of (-)-2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid: Stereochemistry of Soy Isoflavone Metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mihyang; Han, Jaehong

    2014-01-01

    We have elucidated stereochemistry of (-)-2-HPPA. Determination of (R)-2-HPPA stereochemistry also provided stereochemical information of genistein metabolism. Considering the stereochemistry of 2-HPPA, the precursor of (R)-2-HPPA should be (R)-6'-hydroxy-O-DMA. Besides, it is clear that only (S)-dihydrogenistein is the possible precursor of (R)-6'-hydroxy-O-DMA. Therefore, genistein metabolism is suggested to follow the same stereochemical pathway like daidzein. Biotransformation of natural products by human intestinal bacteria has recently drawn a significant interest, due to the emerging strong correlation between gut microbiota and human health. Microbial metabolism of natural products by intestinal bacteria in small intestine and colon proceeds the phase I and II xenobiotic metabolisms in the liver. The metabolites were found to exhibit different biological activities, and affect human etiology. For example, many beneficial effects of dietary polyphenols in human health are attributed to the microbial metabolites produced by intestinal bacteria and the modulation of gut microbiota composition

  14. Effects of Dietary Flavonoids on Reverse Cholesterol Transport, HDL Metabolism, and HDL Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Courtney L; Duclos, Quinn; Blesso, Christopher N

    2017-03-01

    Strong experimental evidence confirms that HDL directly alleviates atherosclerosis. HDL particles display diverse atheroprotective functions in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic processes. In certain inflammatory disease states, however, HDL particles may become dysfunctional and proatherogenic. Flavonoids show the potential to improve HDL function through their well-documented effects on cellular antioxidant status and inflammation. The aim of this review is to summarize the basic science and clinical research examining the effects of dietary flavonoids on RCT and HDL function. Based on preclinical studies that used cell culture and rodent models, it appears that many flavonoids (e.g., anthocyanidins, flavonols, and flavone subclasses) influence RCT and HDL function beyond simple HDL cholesterol concentration by regulating cellular cholesterol efflux from macrophages and hepatic paraoxonase 1 expression and activity. In clinical studies, dietary anthocyanin intake is associated with beneficial changes in serum biomarkers related to HDL function in a variety of human populations (e.g., in those who are hyperlipidemic, hypertensive, or diabetic), including increased HDL cholesterol concentration, as well as HDL antioxidant and cholesterol efflux capacities. However, clinical research on HDL functionality is lacking for some flavonoid subclasses (e.g., flavanols, flavones, flavanones, and isoflavones). Although there has been a tremendous effort to develop HDL-targeted drug therapies, more research is warranted on how the intake of foods or specific nutrients affects HDL function. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Effects of isoflavones on beany flavor and astringency of soymilk and cooked whole soybean grains Efeitos dos isoflavonóides no sabor de feijão cru e na adstringência do extrato hidrossolúvel de soja e dos grãos inteiros cozidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Concórdia Carrão-Panizzi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavor is the main limiting factor affecting soybean acceptability in the Occidental countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the effetcs of isoflavones on soybean flavor. Differences in beany flavor and astringency of soymilk and cooked whole soybean grains, prepared with cultivars IAS 5 and BR-36 (136 and 54 mg of total isoflavones /100 g of sample, respectively with pre-soaking and pre-heating of grains, were sensorially analised, by an unstructured category scale of ascending intensity. Differences in isoflavone contents for both soybean cultivars were maintained in the two products, despite the pre-treatments in the processing. Pre-soaking of grains intensified beany flavor in the soymilk, reducing the perception of astringency, which is caused by the aglucones that were developed in reduced amounts.The whole soybeans grains cooked under pressure (1.5 kgf/cm² at 127°C presented reduced levels of isoflavones malonyl-glucosides. Due to thermal instability, these compounds were converted to conjugated glucosides, genistin and daidzin. In the cooked whole soybean grains, no aglucones were formed and consequently it was not possible to detect differences in astringency. Results suggest that pre-heating of grains promote better flavor in soybean products.O sabor é o principal fator que limita a aceitabilidade da soja nos países ocidentais. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar os efeitos dos isoflavonóides sobre o sabor da soja. Diferenças no sabor de feijão cru e na adstringência do extrato hidrossolúvel de soja e dos grãos inteiros de soja cozidos, preparados com as cultivares IAS 5 e BR-36 (136 e 54 mg isoflavonóides totais /100 g de amostras, respectivamente, com pré-maceração e pré-aquecimento dos grãos, foram analisadas sensorialmente, conforme uma escala não estruturada de categoria de intensidade ascendente. As diferenças no teor dos isoflavonóides das duas cultivares foram mantidas nos dois produtos

  16. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  17. Teores de isoflavonas e capacidade antioxidante da soja e produtos derivados Isoflavone content and profile and antioxidant activity of soy and soy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Lopes Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a capacidade antioxidante, o teor e as formas de isoflavonas presentes nos produtos derivados de soja e compará-los à soja em grão. A capacidade antioxidante foi mensurada por meio do método de cooxidação do beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e pelo seqüestro de radicais livres (DPPH•. Os resultados mostraram que o conteúdo de isoflavonas nos produtos variou de 95 a 711 mg/100 g (b.s. e o teor de fenólicos totais de 101 a 413 mg equivalentes de catequina/100 g (b.s., sendo que o grão de soja apresentou um conteúdo de 110 e 200 mg/100 g (b.s., respectivamente, para isoflavonas e fenólicos totais. Em relação às formas de isoflavonas a farinha integral e sua respectiva farinha desengordurada e a farinha desengordurada de soja comercial apresentaram predominância de conjugados malonilglicosídeos ebeta-glicosídeos, similar aos grãos de soja. O suplemento à base de gérmen de soja e a farinha desengordurada de soja apresentaram a maior capacidade antioxidante por ambos os métodos (5 µmoles equivalentes de trolox/g e ~ 0,8 µmoles equivalentes de BHT/ g amostra b.s.. Os resultados demonstraram que o conteúdo total e tipo de isoflavonas e o teor de fenólicos dos produtos de soja dependem do processamento e que a capacidade antioxidante desses produtos varia significativamente.The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity and isoflavone content and type of soy seeds and soy products. The antioxidant activity was measured using beta-carotene bleaching and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH• free radical methods. The total isoflavone content of soy products varied from 95 to 711 mg/100 g DW (expressed as aglycones and total phenolics content from 101 to 413 mg equivalents of catechin/100 g DW. Soybeans presented 110 and 200 mg/100 g DW of isoflavones and total phenolics, respectively. The beta-glycosides and malonylglycosides were the main forms of the isoflavones

  18. Activity of beta-glucosidase and levels of isoflavone glucosides in soybean cultivars affected by the environment Atividade de beta-glicosidase e níveis de isoflavonóides glicosídios em cultivares de soja, influenciadas pelo ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEDES CONCÓRDIA CARRÃO-PANIZZI

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme beta-glucosidase hydrolyses the isoflavone glucosides developing aglycones, which are compounds with anticancer effects, that are also related with the astringency observed in soybean flavor. Due to the importance of this enzyme, a study was carried out to determine beta-glucosidase activity in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivars with different contents of isoflavone glucosides (enzyme substrate. The enzyme activity was determined in 51 soybean cultivars sowed in Londrina (latitude 23ºS, in Paraná State, Brazil, and in the cultivar IAS 5 from soybean production regions of different Brazilian states. Among the cultivars, a range of variability of 176.1 to 96.3 units of enzyme activity (cultivars IAC-2 and Embrapa 2, respectively was observed. A significant variability among cultivars could suggest genetic differences. In the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, the cultivar IAS 5 presented similar average of beta-glucosidase activity: 132.1, 131.9 and 132.5 units, respectively. Among locations in the states, the cultivar IAS 5 presented a variability for enzyme activity from 138.8 to 124.8 units, which were statistically different. In spite of statistics, the numerical values were not too different to assume that environmental conditions affected enzyme activity. A non-significative correlation for isoflavone glucoside concentrations and enzyme activity was observed among cultivars.

  19. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  20. Effects of the isoflavone genistein in early life stages of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis: role of the Survivin and proliferation versus apoptosis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasquete, Carmen; Úbeda-Manzanaro, María; Ortiz-Delgado, Juan B

    2018-01-17

    Phytochemical flavonoids are widely distributed in the environment and are derived from many anthropogenic activities. The isoflavone genistein is a naturally occurring compound found in soya products that are habitual constituents of the aquafeeds. This isoflavone possesses oestrogenic biological activity and also apoptotic properties. The present study has been performed to determine the effects of the genistein in the early life stages of the flatfish Senegalese sole during the first month of larval life, and it is focused especially at the metamorphosis, analysing the expression transcript levels and the immunohistochemical protein patterns implicated in the cell proliferation and apoptosis pathways (proliferation cellular/PCNA, anti-apoptosis Survivin/BIRC-5, death receptors/Fas, and Caspases). The isoflavone genistein induced some temporal disrupting effects in several pro-apoptotic signalling pathways (Fas, CASP-6) at both genistein doses (3 mg/L and 10 mg/L), with increased Fas transcripts and also decreasing CASP-6 mRNA expression levels during metamorphic and post-metamorphic stages of the Senegalese sole. On the other hand, the anti-apoptotic BIRC-5 expression levels were weakly down-regulated with both the highest and lowest doses, but all of these imbalances were stabilised to the baseline levels. In early life stages of the controls, the constitutive basal transcript levels were temporarily and differentially expressed, reaching the highest levels at the pre-metamorphosis phase, as especially in endotrophic larvae (i.e. BIRC-5 mRNA), as well as in the metamorphic (i.e. CASP-6 mRNA) and post-metamorphic stages (i.e. Fas mRNA). In general, through development, continuous and progressive increases in the protein patterns of cell proliferation-PCNA (e.g. mitotic nuclei), anti-apoptotic Survivin (e.g. haematopoietic system, brain, digestive system, gills) and CASP-2 and -6 (e.g. brain, gills, kidney, digestive system, vascular systems, among others

  1. Efeitos das isoflavonas em altas doses sobre o útero da rata Effects of high-dose isoflavones on rat uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Ferraz Carbonel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de altas doses de isoflavonas no útero de ratas adultas castradas. MÉTODOS: Ratas virgens ovariectomizadas (n = 40 foram tratadas por 30 dias consecutivos com veículo (GCtrl ou genisteína nas concentrações 42 (GES42, 125 (GES125 e 250 (GES250 µg/g de peso corporal ao dia. O extrato de soja e o veículo (propilenoglicol foram administrados por gavagem. Ao final do experimento, foi realizada dosagem sérica de 17 β-estradiol e progesterona, avaliou-se o peso dos animais e dos úteros e foi feito exame colpocitológico. Fragmentos do terço médio dos cornos uterinos foram fixados em formol a 10% e processados para inclusão em parafina para estudo histológico. Cortes de 5 µm de espessura foram corados pelo HE e destinados a estudo em microscopia de luz. Analisou-se a histomorfologia do endométrio, área endometrial, número e área ocupada pelas glândulas, assim como a concentração de eosinófilos presentes na lâmina própria. Os dados numéricos obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância complementada pelo teste de Tukey-Kramer (p GES125 do que nos outros grupos (GES250 > GES125 > GES42 = GCtrl; p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of high-dose isoflavones on the uterus of castrated adult rats. METHODS: Adult, ovariectomized virgin rats (n = 40 were treated by gavage during 30 consecutive days with vehicle (propylene glycol, group GCtrl or different doses of genistein: 42 (group GES42, 125 (GES125, or 250 (GES250 µg/g body weight per day. Animals were killed, weighed, vaginal and uterine samples were taken for cytologic evaluation, and serum levels of 17 β-estradiol and progesterone were determined. The middle third of the uterine horns was dissected, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for paraffin inclusion; 5-µm thick sections were obtained and stained with HE for further histological study under light microscopy. The endometrial morphology and area, number and area of glands, and number

  2. Consumption of soy isoflavone enriched bread in men with prostate cancer is associated with reduced proinflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Gregory B; Reville, Patrick K; Mace, Thomas A; Young, Gregory S; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer; Vodovotz, Yael; Ameen, Zeenath; Grainger, Elizabeth; Riedl, Kenneth; Schwartz, Steven; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    We hypothesized that soy phytochemicals may have immunomodulatory properties that may affect prostate carcinogenesis and progression. A randomized, phase II trial was conducted in 32 patients with prostate cancer with asymptomatic biochemical recurrence but no measurable disease on standard staging studies. Patients were randomized to two slices of soy bread (34 mg isoflavones/slice) or soy bread containing almond powder daily as a source of β-glucosidase. Flow cytometry and bioplex assays were used to measure cytokines or immune cell phenotype in blood at baseline (day 0) and following intervention (day 56). Adequate blood samples were available at enrollment and day 56 and evaluated. Multiple plasma cytokines and chemokines were significantly decreased on day 56 versus baseline. Subgroup analysis indicated reduced TH1 (P = 0.028) and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC)-associated cytokines (P = 0.035). TH2 and TH17 cytokines were not significantly altered. Phenotypic analysis revealed no change in CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cells but showed increased CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells (P = 0.038). The percentage of cells with a T regulatory cell phenotype (CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)) was significantly decreased after 56 days of soy bread (P = 0.0136). Significantly decreased monocytic (CD33(+)HLADR(neg)CD14(+)) MDSC were observed in patients consuming soy bread (P = 0.0056). These data suggest that soy bread modulates systemic soluble and cellular biomarkers consistent with limiting inflammation and suppression of MDSCs. Additional studies to elucidate impact on the carcinogenic process or as a complement to immune-based therapy are required. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Effects of genistein, a soybean-derived isoflavone, on proliferation and differentiation of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, C H; Chen, X G; Li, Y; Han, R

    1999-01-01

    Genistein, a soybean-derived isoflavone, may contribute to the lower cancer incidence in South Asian countries. In this study, the effects and molecular mechanisms of genistein on growth and differentiation of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells were investigated. Genistein suppressed the growth of these melanoma cells. The IC50 value is 15.5 microM. On the other hand, genistein induced the changes of cell shape and cytoskeletal network. The cytoskeletal filaments were induced to form a bundle along the direction of elongation of the cells. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of cytoskeleton-associated proteins decreased after the cells were exposed to 20 or 30 microM of genistein for 3 days. All these morphological and molecular changes were accompanied by appearance of the differentiated phenotypes. Genistein induced the increase of cellular melanin content, enhancement of tyrosinase activity, and decrease of colonization potentials in soft agar in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. The effective concentration was no more than 10 microM after 3 days' exposure. The tumorigenic potentials of B16-BL6 cells in C57BL/6 mouse also decreased after exposure to 20 or 30 microM of genistein for 3 days. When expressions of tumor-related genes were investigated in the differentiation-induced cells, the content of P53 dramatically increased while that of c-Myc protein decreased. Therefore, due to its ability to induce cellular and molecular changes, genistein suppressed the growth and induced differentiated phenotypes in B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

  4. Immunoproteomic tools are used to identify masked allergens: Ole e 12, an allergenic isoflavone reductase from olive (Olea europaea) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lourdes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodríguez, Julia; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-12-01

    Proteins performing important biochemical activities in the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen have been identified as allergens. One novel 37-kDa protein seems to be associated to the IgE-binding profile of a group of patients suffering allergy to peach and olive pollen. Three previously described olive pollen allergens exhibit very similar molecular mass. Our objective was to identify this allergen by using immunoproteomic approaches. After 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, peptide sequences from several IgE-binding spots, allowed identifying this new allergen, as well as cloning and DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene. The allergen, named Ole e 12, is a polymorphic isoflavone reductase-like protein of 308 amino acids showing 80% and 74% identity with birch and pear allergens, Bet v 6 and Pyr c 5, respectively. A prevalence of 33% in the selected population is in contrast to 4%-10% in groups of subjects suffering from pollinosis. Recombinant allergen was produced in Escherichia coli, and deeply characterised. Immunoblotting and ELISA detection as well as inhibition experiments were performed with polyclonal antisera and allergic patients' sera. The recombinant allergen retains the IgE reactivity of its natural counterpart. Close structural and immunological relationships between members of this protein family were supported by their IgG recognition in vegetable species. In summary, Ole e 12 is a minor olive pollen allergen, which gains relevance in patients allergic to peach with olive pollinosis. Proteomic approaches used to analyse this allergen provide useful tools to identify hidden allergens, relevant for several allergic populations and thus complete allergenic panels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  6. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  7. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  9. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  10. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  11. A Six-Month Randomized Controlled Trial of Whole Soy and Isoflavones Daidzein on Body Composition in Equol-Producing Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-min Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This paper reported the effects of commonly used whole soy foods (soy flour and purified daidzein (one of the major isoflavones and the precursor of equol on changes in anthropometric measurements and body composition in a 6-month double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial among prehypertensive postmenopausal women who are also equol producers. Methods. 270 eligible women were randomized to either one of the three treatments: 40 g soy flour (whole soy group, 40 g low-fat milk powder + 63 mg daidzein (daidzein group, or 40 g low-fat milk powder (placebo group daily each for 6 months. Anthropometric indicators and body composition were measured before and after intervention. Results. 253 subjects completed the study with good compliance. Urinary isoflavones levels suggested good compliance of subjects with supplementation. Whole soy and purified daidzein had no significant effect on body weight, body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio (WHR, body fat percentage, fat mass, and free fat mass. Conclusion. Six-month consumption of whole soy and purified daidzein at provided dosage had no improvement on body weight and composition compared with isocaloric milk placebo among prehypertensive equol-producing postmenopausal women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01270737.

  12. Molecular cloning of isoflavone reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.): evidence for a 3R-isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, N L; Sun, Y; Dixon, R A; VanEtten, H D; Hrazdina, G

    1994-08-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) reduces achiral isoflavones to chiral isoflavanones during the biosynthesis of chiral pterocarpan phytoalexins. A cDNA clone for IFR from pea (Pisum sativum) was isolated using the polymerase chain reaction and expressed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the reduction product sophorol obtained using the recombinant enzyme indicated that the isoflavanone possessed the 3R stereochemistry, in contrast to previous reports indicating a 3S-isoflavanone as the product of the pea IFR. Analysis of CD spectra of sophorol produced using enzyme extracts of CuCl2-treated pea seedlings confirmed the 3R stereochemistry. Thus, the stereochemistry of the isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis in pea is the same as that in (-)-medicarpin biosynthesis in alfalfa, although the final pterocarpans have the opposite stereochemistry. At the amino acid level the pea IFR cDNA was 91.8 and 85.2% identical to the IFRs from alfalfa and chickpea, respectively. IFR appears to be encoded by a single gene in pea. Its transcripts are highly induced in CuCl2-treated seedlings, consistent with the appearance of IFR enzyme activity and pisatin accumulation.

  13. Efficient Synthesis of Glaziovianin A Isoflavone Series from Dill and Parsley Extracts and Their in Vitro/in Vivo Antimitotic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Victor V; Tsyganov, Dmitry V; Semenova, Marina N; Chuprov-Netochin, Roman N; Raihstat, Mikhail M; Konyushkin, Leonid D; Volynchuk, Polina B; Marusich, Elena I; Nazarenko, Vera V; Leonov, Sergey V; Kiselyov, Alex S

    2016-05-27

    A concise six-step protocol for the synthesis of isoflavone glaziovianin A (GVA) and its alkoxyphenyl derivatives 9 starting with readily available plant metabolites from dill and parsley seeds was developed. The reaction sequence involved an efficient conversion of the key intermediate epoxides 7 into the respective β-ketoaldehydes 8 followed by their Cu(I)-mediated cyclization into the target series 9. The biological activity of GVA and its derivatives was evaluated using a panel of seven human cancer cell lines and an in vivo sea urchin embryo assay. Both screening platforms confirmed the antimitotic effect of the parent GVA (9cg) and its alkoxy derivatives. Structure-activity relationship studies suggested that compounds 9cd and 9cf substituted with trimethoxy- and dillapiol-derived B-rings, respectively, were less active than the parent 9cg. Of the evaluated human cancer cell lines, the A375 melanoma cell line was the most sensitive to the tested molecules. Notably, the target compounds were not cytotoxic against human peripheral blood mononuclear cells up to 10 μM concentration. Phenotypic readouts from the sea urchin assay unequivocally suggest a direct microtubule-destabilizing effect of isoflavones 9cg, 9cd, and 9cf.

  14. A versatile, stability-indicating and high-throughput ultra-fast liquid chromatography method for the determination of isoflavone aglycones in soybeans, topical formulations, and permeation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemitz, Marina C; Yatsu, Francini K J; Bidone, Juliana; Koester, Letícia S; Bassani, Valquiria L; Garcia, Cássia V; Mendez, Andreas S L; von Poser, Gilsane L; Teixeira, Helder F

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing interest in the pharmaceutical field concerning isoflavones topical delivery systems, especially with regard to their skin care properties and antiherpetic activity. In this context, the present work describes an ultra-fast liquid chromatography method (UFLC) for determining daidzein, glycitein, and genistein in different matrices during the development of topical systems containing isoflavone aglycones (IA) obtained from soybeans. The method showed to be specific, precise, accurate, and linear (0.1 to 5 µg mL(-1)) for IA determination in soybean acid extract, IA-rich fraction obtained after the purification process, IA loaded-nanoemulsions, and topical hydrogel, as well as for permeation/retention assays in porcine skin and porcine esophageal mucosa. The matrix effect was determined for all complex matrices, demonstrating low effect during the analysis. The stability indicating UFLC method was verified by submitting IA to acidic, alkaline, oxidative, and thermal stress conditions, and no interference of degradation products was detected during analysis. Mass spectrometry was performed to show the main compounds produced after acid hydrolysis of soybeans, as well as suggest the main degradation products formed after stress conditions. Besides the IA, hydroxymethylfurfural and ethoxymethylfurfural were produced and identified after acid hydrolysis of the soybean extract and well separated by the UFLC method. The method's robustness was confirmed using the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Therefore, the new method affords fast IA analysis during routine processes, extract purification, products development, and bioanalytical assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of the Authenticity of Herbal Dietary Supplements: Comparison of Chemical and DNA Barcoding Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Handy, Sara M; Cheng, Raymond; Shyong, Nicole; Grundel, Erich

    2017-07-01

    About 7 % of the U. S. population reports using botanical dietary supplements. Increased use of such supplements has led to discussions related to their authenticity and quality. Reports of adulteration with substandard materials or pharmaceuticals are of concern because such substitutions, whether inadvertent or deliberate, may reduce the efficacy of specific botanicals or lead to adverse events. Methods for verifying the identity of botanicals include macroscopic and microscopic examinations, chemical analysis, and DNA-based methods including DNA barcoding. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations may fail when a supplement consists of botanicals that have been processed beyond the ability to provide morphological characterizations. Chemical analysis of specific marker compounds encounters problems when these compounds are not distinct to a given species or when purified reference standards are not available. Recent investigations describing DNA barcoding analysis of botanical dietary supplements have raised concerns about the authenticity of the supplements themselves as well as the appropriateness of using DNA barcoding techniques with finished botanical products. We collected 112 market samples of frequently consumed botanical dietary supplements of ginkgo, soy, valerian, yohimbe, and St. John's wort and analyzed each for specific chemical markers (i.e., flavonol glycosides, total isoflavones, total valerenic acids, yohimbine, and hypericins, respectively). We used traditional DNA barcoding techniques targeting the nuclear ITS2 gene and the chloroplast gene psb A- trn H on the same samples to determine the presence of DNA of the labelled ingredient. We compared the results obtained by both methods to assess the contribution of each in determining the identity of the samples. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Effects of Isoflavone Supplementation Were Not Observed in Whole-Genome Gene Expression Profiles of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Postmenopausal, Equol-Producing Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velpen, van der V.; Geelen, A.; Schouten, E.G.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Afman, L.A.; Veer, van 't P.

    2013-01-01

    Isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) are suggested to have benefits as well as risks for human health. Approximately one-third of the Western population is able to metabolize daidzein into the more potent metabolite equol. Having little endogenous estradiol, equol-producing

  17. Long-term consumption of isoflavone-enriched foods does not affect bone mineral density, bone metabolism, or hormonal status in early postmenopausal women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.; Coxam, V.; Robins, S.; Wahala, K.; Cassidy, A.; Branca, F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a major health problem. It was hypothesized that isoflavone-containing products may be a potential alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing bone loss during the menopausal transition. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether the consumption of

  18. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  19. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  20. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  1. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  2. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  3. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  4. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  5. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  7. Soymilk residue (okara) as a natural immobilization carrier for Lactobacillus plantarum cells enhances soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiudong, Xia; Ying, Wang; Xiaoli, Liu; Ying, Li; Jianzhong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. However, artificial immobilization carriers are expensive and pose a high safety risk. Okara, a food-grade byproduct from soymilk production, is rich in prebiotics. Lactobacilli could provide health enhancing effects to the host. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of okara as a natural immobilizer for L. plantarum 70810 cells. The study also aimed to evaluate the effects of okara-immobilized L. plantarum 70810 cells (IL) on soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell resistance to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to show cells adherence to the surface of okara. Lactic acid, acetic acid and isoflavone analyses in unfermented and fermented soymilk were performed by HPLC with UV detection. Viability and growth kinetics of immobilized and free L. plantarum 70810 cells (FL) were followed during soymilk fermentation. Moreover, changes in pH, titrable acidity and viscosity were measured by conventional methods. For in vitro testing of simulated gastrointestinal resistance, fermented soymilk was inoculated with FL or IL and an aliquot incubated into acidic MRS broth which was conveniently prepared to simulate gastric, pancreatic juices and bile salts. Survival to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses was evaluated by plate count of colony forming units on MRS agar. SEM revealed that the lactobacilli cells attached and bound to the surface of okara. Compared with FL, IL exhibited a significantly higher specific growth rate, shorter lag phase of growth, higher productions of lactic and acetic acids, a faster decrease in pH and increase in titrable acidity, and a higher soymilk viscosity. Similarly, IL in soymilk showed higher productions of daizein and genistein compared with the control. Compared with FL, IL showed reinforced resistance to simulatedgastric and intestinal

  8. Soymilk residue (okara as a natural immobilization carrier for Lactobacillus plantarum cells enhances soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xiudong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. However, artificial immobilization carriers are expensive and pose a high safety risk. Okara, a food-grade byproduct from soymilk production, is rich in prebiotics. Lactobacilli could provide health enhancing effects to the host. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of okara as a natural immobilizer for L. plantarum 70810 cells. The study also aimed to evaluate the effects of okara-immobilized L. plantarum 70810 cells (IL on soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell resistance to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to show cells adherence to the surface of okara. Lactic acid, acetic acid and isoflavone analyses in unfermented and fermented soymilk were performed by HPLC with UV detection. Viability and growth kinetics of immobilized and free L. plantarum 70810 cells (FL were followed during soymilk fermentation. Moreover, changes in pH, titrable acidity and viscosity were measured by conventional methods. For in vitro testing of simulated gastrointestinal resistance, fermented soymilk was inoculated with FL or IL and an aliquot incubated into acidic MRS broth which was conveniently prepared to simulate gastric, pancreatic juices and bile salts. Survival to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses was evaluated by plate count of colony forming units on MRS agar. SEM revealed that the lactobacilli cells attached and bound to the surface of okara. Compared with FL, IL exhibited a significantly higher specific growth rate, shorter lag phase of growth, higher productions of lactic and acetic acids, a faster decrease in pH and increase in titrable acidity, and a higher soymilk viscosity. Similarly, IL in soymilk showed higher productions of daizein and genistein compared with the control. Compared with FL, IL showed reinforced resistance to simulatedgastric and

  9. Flavonoid and lignan intake in a Mediterranean population: proposal for a holistic approach in polyphenol dietary analysis, the Moli-sani Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounis, G; Di Castelnuovo, A; Bonaccio, M; Costanzo, S; Persichillo, M; Krogh, V; Donati, M B; de Gaetano, G; Iacoviello, L

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study is to extract and assess data on the dietary intake of flavonoids and lignans in a healthy free-living Mediterranean population, using newly updated harmonized European Union food composition data. This work also aimed at analyzing in a holistic way the total content of the diet in major classes of polyphenols. Six thousand nine hundred and eighty-one men and 7048 women (aged ⩾ 35 years) of the Moli-sani cohort, randomly recruited from the general population, were analyzed. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) and Nutrition-Food Frequency Questionnaire was used for dietary assessment. The polyphenol content of each food group was evaluated using Eurofir BioActive Substances in Food Information System and the United States Department of Agriculture food composition tables (FCTs), when data were missing. Flavonol, flavone, flavanone, flavanol, anthocyanin, isoflavone and lignan intakes were calculated and polyphenol antioxidant content (PAC) score (-28, 28) constructed, to assess the total content of the diet in these nutrients. Seasonal and citrus fruits, leafy, grain, pod and root vegetables, and onions and garlic accounted for different proportions (11-70%) of the total intake of different polyphenols. Within the Moli-sani population, men or older, or no/former smokers, or physically active or obese/overweight individuals presented higher consumption of flavonoids, lignans and PAC score (P for all 0, Pholistic approach in dietary analysis of polyphenol intake was proposed.

  10. Phytoestrogens dietary intake and health status of retiree from middle-notrh Slovakia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čurlej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens found in foods of plant origin presents chemical substances that possess a wide range of biochemical benefits. It has been found that they contribute in different health related problems. A wide range of commonly consumed foods contain appreciable amounts of phytoestrogens. Consumption of diet rich to phytoestrogen acts as a protective factor against many diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, post-menopausal symptoms in the context of osteoporosis, cancerous illnesses of colon, prostate and breast. Three main classes of phytoestrogens covers: isoflavones, lignans and coumestans. Selected nine major phytoestrogens had been analyzed simultaneously in the same foods. Questionnaire designed to determine intake frequency as well as amount of selected foods and the most common diseases presented in the population has been used to find relationships between dietary habits and health status. Evaluation of selected goals in the present study has been realized in cooperation with 140 respondents in retired age (divided into Males - covered by 34 individuals and Females - 106 individuals, comming from middle-north Slovakia region. On the base of collected data it can be concluded, that evaluated population is presented by high values of lignans intake and particularly secoisolariciresinol, mainly caused by relative high proportion of cereals and linseed in the diet. Furthermore, the relationship between phytoestrogens intake and eating habits as well as its contribution in protection against selected diseases was demonstrated. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  11. Comparison of Various Databases for Estimation of Dietary Polyphenol Intake in the Population of Polish Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Witkowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to estimate the consumption of polyphenols in a population of 6661 subjects aged between 20 and 74 years representing a cross-section of the Polish society, and the second objective was to compare the intakes of flavonoids calculated on the basis of the two commonly used databases. Daily food consumption data were collected in 2003–2005 using a single 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of total polyphenols was estimated using an online Phenol-Explorer database, and flavonoid intake was determined using following data sources: the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA database combined of flavonoid and isoflavone databases, and the Phenol-Explorer database. Total polyphenol intake, which was calculated with the Phenol-Explorer database, was 989 mg/day with the major contributions of phenolic acids 556 mg/day and flavonoids 403.5 mg/day. The flavonoid intake calculated on the basis of the USDA databases was 525 mg/day. This study found that tea is the primary source of polyphenols and flavonoids for the studied population, including mainly flavanols, while coffee is the most important contributor of phenolic acids, mostly hydroxycinnamic acids. Our study also demonstrated that flavonoid intakes estimated according to various databases may substantially differ. Further work should be undertaken to expand polyphenol databases to better reflect their food contents.

  12. Dietary Determinants of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Lisa W

    2005-01-01

    .... Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary factors may be important in the etiology of PCa. The objective of our research is to determine how nutritional compounds genistein, betasitosterol (STT...

  13. Efeitos benéficos das isoflavonas de soja em doencas crônicas Beneficial effects of soy isoflavones on chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Adriana ESTEVES

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante as últimas décadas, evidências científicas vêm demonstrando que as isoflavonas podem trazer benefícios no controle de doenças crônicas tais como câncer, diabetes mellitus, osteoporose e doenças cardiovasculares. Estes compostos estão amplamente distribuídos no reino vegetal e concentrações relativamente maiores são encontradas nas leguminosas, em particular, na soja (Glycne max. Além da sua atividade anti-estrogênica, possuem diversas propriedades biológicas que podem afetar muitos processos bioquímicos e fisiológicos. As evidências de que as isoflavonas protegem contra várias doenças crônicas são baseadas em estudos experimentais e epidemiológicos. Em humanos, estudos epidemiológicos mostram uma maior incidência de alguns tipos de câncer (mama, próstata e cólon e doenças cardiovasculares nas populações ocidentais expostas a limitadas quantidades de isoflavonas de soja na dieta. Evidência adicional para proteção contra o câncer e doenças cardíacas tem sido verificada em vários modelos experimentais com animais. As isoflavonas podem também prevenir a perda óssea pós-menopausa e a osteoporose. Efeitos da genisteína na regulação da secreção de insulina também têm sido demonstrados. Os mecanismos pelos quais as isoflavonas podem exercer estes efeitos parecem depender, em parte, das suas propriedades agonistas-antagonistas dos estrógenos. Outros mecanismos hipotéticos poderiam derivar de outras propriedades bioquímicas, tais como inibição da atividade enzimática e efeito antioxidante.During the last decades, scientific evidences have shown that isoflavones may have influence on chronic diseases control, such as cancer, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases. These compounds are widely found in beans, particularly in soybeans (Glycine max. In addition to their anti-estrogen activity, they have biological properties that may have impact on many biochemical and

  14. Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of the Isoflavones Formononetin and Ononin and Their in Vitro Absorption in Ussing Chamber and Caco-2 Cell Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li-Yu; Fan, Miao-Xuan; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Li, Ming-Xing; Wu, Xu; Gao, Wen-Yuan

    2018-03-21

    Formononetin and its glycoside ononin are bioactive isoflavones widely present in legumes. The present study investigated the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and in vitro absorption of formononetin and ononin. After an oral administration to rats, formononetin showed a higher systemic exposure over ononin. The oral bioavailability of formononetin and ononin were 21.8% and 7.3%, respectively. Ononin was more bioavailable than perceived, and its bioavailability reached 21.7% when its metabolite formononetin was taken into account. Both formononetin and ononin exhibited better absorption in large intestine segments than that in small intestine segments. Formononetin displayed a better permeability in all intestinal segments over ononin. Transport of formononetin across Caco-2 cell monolayer was mainly through passive diffusion, while ononin was actively pumped out by MRP2 but not P-gp. The results provide evidence for better understanding of the pharmacological actions of formononetin and ononin, which advocates more in vivo evaluations or human trials.

  15. Bioactivity of Isoflavones: Assessment through a Theoretical Model as a Way to Obtain a “Theoretical Efficacy Related to Estradiol (TERE)”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Maria da Graça R.; Matos, Miguel Pires

    2010-01-01

    The increase of human life span will have profound implications in Public Health in decades to come. By 2030, there will be an estimated 1.2 billion women in post-menopause. Hormone Replacement Therapy with synthetic hormones is still full of risks and according to the latest developments, should be used for the shortest time possible. Searching for alternative drugs is inevitable in this scenario and science must provide physicians with other substances that can be used to treat the same symptoms with less side effects. Systematic research carried out on this field of study is focusing now on isoflavones but the randomised controlled trials and reviews of meta-analysis concerning post-menopause therapy, that could have an important impact on human health, are very controversial. The aim of the present work was to establish a theoretical calculation suitable for use as a way to estimate the “Theoretical Efficacy (TE)” of a mixture with different bioactive compounds as a way to obtain a “Theoretical Efficacy Related to Estradiol (TERE)”. The theoretical calculation that we propose in this paper integrates different knowledge about this subject and sets methodological boundaries that can be used to analyse already published data. The outcome should set some consensus for new clinical trials using isoflavones (isolated or included in mixtures) that will be evaluated to assess their therapeutically activity. This theoretical method for evaluation of a possible efficacy could probably also be applied to other herbal drug extracts when a synergistic or contradictory bio-effect is not verified. In this way, it we may contribute to enlighten and to the development of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:20386649

  16. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  17. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  18. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  19. Effects of dietary genistein on GH/IGF-I axis of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2016-09-01

    There is considerable concern that isoflavones, such as genistein in fish feed composed of soybean protein, aff ects somatic growth in fish. Our previous works demonstrated that 30 and 300 μg/g dietary genistein had no significant eff ect on growth performance in Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), but the higher level of genistein (3 000 μg/g) significantly depressed growth. This study was conducted to further examine the eff ects of dietary genistein on the endocrine disruption on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis in Nile tilapia ( O. niloticus). Juvenile fish were fed by hand twice daily to satiation with one of four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, each containing either 0, 30, 300 or 3 000 μg/g genistein. Following an 8-week feeding period, plasma GH and IGF-I levels were investigated by radioimmunoassay and gene expression levels of gh, ghrelin, gnrhs, ghr, npy, npyrs, pacap, ghrs, i gf-I, igf-Ir, and igfbp3 were examined by real-time PCR. The results show that no significant change in plasma GH and IGF-I levels in fish fed with diets containing 30 μg/g and 300 μg/g genistein. mRNA expression of genes along the GH/IGF-I axis remained unaff ected, except for igf-Ir, which was stimulated by the 300 μg/g genistein diet. While in fish fed the 3 000 μg/g genistein diet, the plasma GH and IGF-I levels decreased, and mRNA expression of gh, ghr2, npyr1, igf-I, and igf-Ir were also significantly depressed. In contrast, npy and igfbp3 mRNA expression were enhanced. This study provides convincing evidence for growth impediment by genistein by disturbing the GH/IGF-I axis in Nile tilapia O. niloticus.

  20. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  1. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called “Dietary Advice on Prescription” (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish. It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and “Physical Activity on Prescription” (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish. The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  2. Isoflavones, calcium, vitamin D and inulin improve quality of life, sexual function, body composition and metabolic parameters in menopausal women: result from a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Caruso, Salvatore; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; Cianci, Stefano; Cianci, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Menopause results in metabolic changes that contribute to increase risk of cardiovascular diseases: increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides and decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL), weight gain are associated with a correspondent increase in incidence of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a preparation of isoflavones, calcium vitamin D and inulin in menopausal women. We performed a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. A total of 50 patients were randomized to receive either oral preparations of isoflavones (40 mg), calcium (500 mg) vitamin D (300 UI) and inulin (3 g) or placebo (control group). Pre- and post-treatment assessment of quality of life and sexual function were performed through Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI); evaluations of anthropometric indicators, body composition through bioelectrical impedance analyser, lumbar spine and proximal femur T-score and lipid profile were performed. After 12 months, a significant reduction in MENQOL vasomotor, physical and sexual domain scores ( p 0.05) were found in the same group. According to our data analysis, isoflavones, calcium, vitamin D and inulin may exert favourable effects on menopausal symptoms and signs.

  3. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  4. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  5. Dietary adherence in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This article describes adherence to a low-fat dietary pattern (less than 20% energy from fat, five or more fruit/vegetable and six or more grain servings daily) in Years 1 and 5 of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, which was designed to examine the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of breast and colorectal cancers and other chronic diseases in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary intervention arm (40%, n=19,542) or a usual diet control arm (60%, n=29,294). Women in the intervention arm completed 18 group sessions during the first year, followed by quarterly annual maintenance sessions. Adherence was assessed as control minus intervention (C-I) group differences in percent total energy from fat as estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Based on these self-reported dietary data, mean C-I was 10.9 percentage points of energy from fat at Year 1, decreasing to 9.0 at Year 5. Factors associated with poorer adherence were being older, being African American or Hispanic (compared with white), having low income, and being obese. Group session attendance was strongly associated with better dietary adherence. There are many limitations of self-reported dietary data, particularly related to social desirability and intervention-associated bias. Nonetheless, these data indicate that long-term dietary change was achieved in this clinical trial setting and reinforce the potential of the ongoing trial to answer questions of public health importance.

  6. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.

  7. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  8. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  9. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  10. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced Production of Two Bioactive Isoflavone Aglycones in Astragalus membranaceus Hairy Root Cultures by Combining Deglycosylation and Elicitation of Immobilized Edible Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Niu, Li-Li; Wang, Xi-Qing; Guo, Na; Zang, Yu-Ping; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2017-10-18

    A cocultivation system of Astragalus membranaceus hairy root cultures (AMHRCs) and immobilized food-grade fungi was established for the enhanced production of calycosin (CA) and formononetin (FO). The highest accumulations of CA (730.88 ± 63.72 μg/g DW) and FO (1119.42 ± 95.85 μg/g DW) were achieved in 34 day-old AMHRCs cocultured with immobilized A. niger (IAN) for 54 h, which were 7.72- and 18.78-fold higher than CA and FO in nontreated control, respectively. IAN deglycosylation could promote the formation of CA and FO by conversion of their glycoside precursors. IAN elicitation could intensify the generation of endogenous signal molecules involved in plant defense response, which contributed to the significantly up-regulated expression of genes in CA and FO biosynthetic pathway. Overall, the coupled culture of IAN and AMHRCs offered a promising and effective in vitro approach to enhance the production of two health-promoting isoflavone aglycones for possible nutraceutical and pharmaceutical uses.

  12. The Effect of Soybean-Derived Phytoestrogens on Concentrations of Plasma Isoflavones, 15-keto-13,14-dihydroprostaglandin F2α and Progesterone in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Watzková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effect of soybean-derived phytoestrogens and their metabolites on the activity of sex hormones during the oestrous cycle in multiparous lactating dairy cows. The experiment was carried out on 4 multiparous lactating Holstein cows in the form of replicated Latin square in double reversal design. The experiment in the total length of 168 days was divided into 4 periods of 42 days, each consisting of a 21-day preliminary period and a 21-day collecting period. Cows were divided into 2 groups of 2 cows. The control group (C was fed a diet based on extruded rapeseed cake while the experimental group (S was fed a diet containing extruded full-fat soya. The intake of total isoflavones was 3297 mg/d in S and 58.0 mg/d in C (P P P > 0.05. Plasma concentration of prostaglandine PGFM throughout the oestrous cycle in the experimental group (S tended to be higher (P = 0.095 than in the control group (C. No differences in the length of the oestrous cycle between the cows fed different diets were observed.

  13. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg. At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS. The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA, partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD. Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage.

  14. Preparation of Spray-Dried Soy Isoflavone-Loaded Gelatin Microspheres for Enhancement of Dissolution: Formulation, Characterization and in Vitro Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gean Pier Panizzon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most bioactive soy isoflavones (SI, daidzein (DAI and genistein (GEN have poor water solubility, which reduces their bioavailability and health benefits and limits their use in industry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a new gelatin matrix to microencapsulate DAI and GEN from soy extract (SE by spray drying, in order to obtain solid dispersions to overcome solubility problems and to allow controlled release. The influences of 1:2 (MP2 and 1:3 (MP3 SE/polymer ratios on the solid state, yield, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size distribution, release kinetics and cumulative release were evaluated. Analyses showed integral microparticles and high drug content. MP3 and MP2 yield were 43.6% and 55.9%, respectively, with similar mean size (p > 0.05, respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed the amorphous solid state of SE. In vitro release tests showed that dissolution was drastically increased. The results indicated that SE microencapsulation might offer a good system to control SI release, as an alternative to improve bioavailability and industrial applications.

  15. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to soy isoflavones and maintenance of bone mineral density (ID 1655) and reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause (ID 1654, 1704, 2140, 3093, 3154, 3590

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and maintenance of bone mineral density and reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim, soy isoflavones, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects, maintenance of bone mineral density and reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated...... with menopause, which are eligible for further assessment, are beneficial physiological effects. The proposed target populations are peri- and/or post-menopausal women. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship...... between the consumption of soy isoflavones and maintenance of bone mineral density, and between the consumption of soy isoflavones and reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause....

  17. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  18. Equol, a Dietary Daidzein Gut Metabolite Attenuates Microglial Activation and Potentiates Neuroprotection In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita Subedi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency has been well characterized in inflammatory disorders including neuroinflammation. Daidzein, a dietary alternative phytoestrogen found in soy (Glycine max as primary isoflavones, possess anti‐inflammatory activity, but the effect of its active metabolite Equol (7‐hydroxy‐3‐(4′‐hydroxyphenyl‐chroman has not been well established. In this study, we investigated the anti‐neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effect of Equol in vitro. To evaluate the potential effects of Equol, three major types of central nervous system (CNS cells, including microglia (BV‐2, astrocytes (C6, and neurons (N2a, were used. Effects of Equol on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX‐2, Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling proteins, and apoptosis‐related proteins were measured by western blot analysis. Equol inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS‐induced TLR4 activation, MAPK activation, NF‐kB‐mediated transcription of inflammatory mediators, production of nitric oxide (NO, release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE‐2, secretion of tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α and interleukin 6 (IL‐6, in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS‐activated murine microglia cells. Additionally, Equol protects neurons from neuroinflammatory injury mediated by LPS‐activated microglia through downregulation of neuronal apoptosis, increased neurite outgrowth in N2a cell and neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF production through astrocytes further supporting its neuroprotective potential. These findings provide novel insight into the anti‐neuroinflammatory effects of Equol on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in cases of neurodegeneration.

  19. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3%), flavonols (20·3%), isoflavones (18·1%), flavan-3-ols (16·2%), anthocyanidins (11·6%), flavanones (11·3%) and flavones (0·3%). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4%), vegetables (20·5%), legumes and legume products (16·2%) and beverages and alcohols (3·1%), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9%), mandarins (12·5%), tofu (11·5%), onions (9·6%) and grapes (9·0%). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans.

  20. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  1. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  2. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake

  3. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by a...

  4. Dietary Patterns and Human Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vujkovic (Marijana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 of the thesis focuses on dietary patterns and fatty acid intake in couples undergoing IVF/ICSI fertility treatment. The studies described in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 are based on the FOod Lifestyle and Fertility Outcome study (FOLFO), a prospective cohort study examining the influence

  5. Dietary reference values for riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for riboflavin. The Panel considers that the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve in relation to riboflavin intake...

  6. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  7. 9691 KNOWLEDGE OF RECOMMENDED DIETARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    and obese body weight categories. Thus, this investigation indicated an ... understand the role of dietary cholesterol in disease progression or prevention. In addition, some consumers may regard all fats ... frequency of consumption of food rich in cholesterol, and medical check-up was used as an instrument for this study.

  8. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  9. Effects of the soya isoflavone genistein in early life stages of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis: Thyroid, estrogenic and metabolic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasquete, Carmen; Úbeda-Manzanaro, Maria; Ortiz-Delgado, Juan Bosco

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the effects induced by environmentally relevant concentrations of the isoflavone genistein (3mg/L and 10mg/L) during early life stages of the Senegalese sole. Throughout the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, several neurohormonal regulatory thyroid signalling patterns (thyroglobulin/Tg, thyroid peroxidase/TPO, transthyretin/TTR, thyroid receptors/TRβ, and iodothrynonine deiodinases, Dio2 and Dio3) were analysed. Furthermore, the expression patterns of estrogen receptor ERβ and haemoprotein Cyp1a were also evaluated. In the control larvae, progressive increases of constitutive hormonal signalling pathways have been evidenced from the pre-metamorphosis phase onwards, reaching the highest expression basal levels at the metamorphosis (Tg, TPO, Dio2) and/or during post-metamorphosis (TTR, TRβ, ERβ). When the early larvae were exposed to both genistein concentrations (3mg/L and 10mg/L), a statistically significant down-regulation of TPO, TTR and Tg mRNA levels was clearly detected at the metamorphic stages. In addition, the Dio2 and Dio3 transcript expression levels were also down and up-regulated when exposed to both genistein concentrations. In the larvae exposed to genistein, no statistically significant responses were recorded for the TRβ expression patterns. Nevertheless, the ERβ and Cyp1a transcript levels were up-regulated at the middle metamorphic stage (S2, at 16 dph) in the larvae exposed to high genistein concentrations and, only the ERβ was down-regulated (S1, at 12dph) at the lower doses. Finally, all these pointed out imbalances were only temporarily disrupted by exposure to genistein, since most of the modulated transcriptional signals (i.e. up or down-regulation) were quickly restored to the baseline levels. Additionally, the control and genistein-exposed Senegalese sole specimens showed characteristic ontogenetic patterns and completely suitable for an optimal development, metamorphosis, and growth. Copyright © 2017

  10. Dietary nutraceuticals as novel radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra

    2012-01-01

    There is long standing need to protect humans from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation in the event of radiation related calamities or otherwise. Various dietary ingredients have formed an integral part of daily human diets. Most of the ingredients used in the Indian diet possess medicinal properties. However, little attention has been paid to screen the radioprotective ability of dietary ingredients. It is possible that use of dietary agents could protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations more effectively than other exotic synthetic agents simply because they are from natural biological sources, and may be more biocompatible than any other synthetic counterparts. Their acceptance for therapeutic purpose will be acceptable as they are part of daily human diets and do not have any known toxicity. This has been a stimulation to investigate the radioprotective ability of certain dietary ingredients including naringin and mangiferin in vivo and in vitro using micronuclei or survival assays. Treatment of mice with various doses of naringin or mangiferin reduced the symptoms of radiation-induced sickness including listlessness, irritability, lethargy, reduction in food and water intake, diarrhea, lacrimation, facial edema weight loss, emaciation, and epilation. Mice receiving various doses of naringin reduced the radiation-induced micronuclei formation and chromosome aberrations in bone marrow. Likewise, treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with various concentrations of mangiferin reduced the radiation-induced DNA damage. The putative mechanisms of radioprotection are free radical scavenging, increased GSH accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. The use of dietary ingredients for radioprotection shall be encouraged as they are consumed daily and toxic implications are negligible. (author)

  11. Effects of a soy-based dietary supplement compared with low-dose hormone therapy on the urogenital system: a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmignani, Lucio O; Pedro, Adriana Orcesi; Montemor, Eliana B; Arias, Victor A; Costa-Paiva, Lucia H; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of a soy-based dietary supplement, low-dose hormone therapy (HT), and placebo on the urogenital system in postmenopausal women. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 60 healthy postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years (mean time since menopause, 4.1 y) were randomized into three groups: a soy dietary supplement group (90 mg of isoflavone), a low-dose HT group (1 mg of estradiol plus 0.5 mg of norethisterone), and a placebo group. Urinary, vaginal, and sexual complaints were evaluated using the urogenital subscale of the Menopause Rating Scale. Vaginal maturation value was calculated. Transvaginal sonography was performed to evaluate endometrial thickness. Genital bleeding pattern was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using χ(2) test, Fisher's exact test, paired Student's t test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test, and analysis of variance. For intergroup comparisons, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test (followed by Mann-Whitney U test) was used. Vaginal dryness improved significantly in the soy and HT groups (P = 0.04). Urinary and sexual symptoms did not change with treatment in the three groups. After 16 weeks of treatment, there was a significant increase in maturation value only in the HT group (P < 0.01). Vaginal pH decreased only in this group (P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in endometrial thickness between the three groups, and the adverse effects evaluated were similar. This study shows that a soy-based dietary supplement used for 16 weeks fails to exert estrogenic action on the urogenital tract but improves vaginal dryness.

  12. Assessing patients' attitudes towards dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Jarosz, Mirosław; Siuba, Magdalena; Rambuszek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is currently many over the counter products on the market that exert nutritional or physiological effects on the human body. The differences between dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs are however poorly understood by the average consumer and may thus affect their expectations as to the desired effect produced on the body. To evaluate patients' knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements as compared to non-prescription drugs. Subjects were 335 patients of the Mazowiecki Voivodeship Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. The data were collected from a face-to-face interview using a single and multiple choice questionnaire with 10 questions on dietary supplements. Statistical analysis used the Chi-square (χ2) test. The majority of respondents were found to be familiar with the term 'dietary supplements', but had difficulties in classifying these products into appropriate categories. Over 55% do not consider dietary supplements to be foodstuffs and more than 40% considered such products to be drugs. Most respondents thought that the main purpose of taking dietary supplements is to improve nutrition, but over one third expected them to also treat disease. Over 70% declared taking notice to which category the non-prescription products they bought belongs to ie. whether non-prescription drugs (medicinal products) or dietary supplements. Many patients mistakenly believe that dietary supplements are drugs and can be used to treat disease and health disorders. dietary supplements, opinion on dietary supplements, nutrition, dietary supplement vs. medicinal product.

  13. Effects of UV-B radiation on the isoflavone accumulation and physiological-biochemical changes of soybean during germination: Physiological-biochemical change of germinated soybean induced by UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Wang, Pei; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the effects of UV-B radiation on the isoflavones accumulation, physiological and nutritional quality, water status, and characteristics of proteins in germinated soybeans were investigated. The results showed that isoflavones content in soybeans increased with appropriate intensity and time of UV-B radiation and decreased with excessive treatment. Fresh weight, length, free amino acids, reducing sugar contents and bulk water (T 23 ) in germinated soybeans decreased with increasing radiation time, indicating that UV-B inhibited the growth and nutrients metabolism of soybean during germination. Cell damage was detected in germinated soybeans with excessive UV-B radiation, as shown by the black spots in cotyledons and the increased intercellular water determined by LF-NMR. Germination resulted in an increase in random coil structures, while UV-B radiation induced no obvious changes in FT-IR spectrum and protein conformation of soybeans. Both UV-B radiation and germination caused the increase in soluble proteins, especially in 1.0-75.0 kDa fraction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary inadequacy in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, C G; Hernandez, M I; Hernandez, B M; Mancia, I Y

    1992-01-01

    Researchers conducted a dietary survey of 59 households selected at random in the marginal community of Peralta in San Salvador, El Salvador to ascertain nutritional needs of the families and identify factors which affect intrafamilial distribution and consumption of food. A nutritionist weighed all the food consumed by each family member in 1 day. 50% of the family members consumed just grain, sugar, oil, and/or beans. 93% of the people ate 90% of the required quantity of vitamin A. 88% ate inadequate amounts of riboflavin, 77% iron, and 40% protein. Moreover 58% of the households spent 61-100% of their income on food. No association occurred between caloric sufficiency and family size and between age and dietary adequacy. Therefore each family evenly distributed food among family members. Further poorer families consumed less food than the families of the higher socioeconomic group.

  15. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  16. Efeitos da isoflavona sobre os sintomas climatéricos e o perfil lipídico na mulher em menopausa Effects of isoflavone on menopausal symptoms and blood lipids in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aguiar Petri Nahás

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos da isoflavona, do gérmen da soja, sobre os sintomas climatéricos e o perfil lipídico na mulher em menopausa. MÉTODOS: foi conduzido estudo prospectivo, com 50 mulheres em menopausa, divididas em: G1, usuárias de isoflavona (60 mg/dia (n=25, e G2, placebo (n=25. Os critérios de inclusão foram FSH >40 mUI/mL e presença de fogachos. Foram excluídas as vegetarianas, fumantes, asiáticas, portadoras de doenças gastrointestinais e usuárias de terapia de reposição hormonal. No seguimento, de seis meses, foram obtidos o índice menopausal de Kupperman (IMK, o perfil hormonal e o lipídico. Na análise estatística, empregaram-se ANOVA, o teste t pareado e as provas não paramétricas de Wilcoxon e Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: os valores medianos do IMK, inicialmente iguais entre os grupos (IMK = 20, reduziram-se nas usuárias de isoflavona aos 2 e 4 meses (IMK = 14 e 9, respectivamente e no grupo controle, apenas aos 2 meses (IMK = 15 (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effects of soy germ isoflavone on menopausal symptoms and blood lipids in postmenopausal women. METHODS: a prospective study was performed on 50 women, randomly divided into two groups: 25 women on soy germ isoflavones (60 mg/day, capsules (G1 and 25 women on placebo (G2. Inclusion criteria: women with hot flushes and FSH >40 mIU/mL, non-vegetarian, non-smoker, non-Asiatic, not in use of hormone replacement therapy and without disease of the gastrointestinal tract. For six months, the menopausal Kupperman index (MKI and hormonal and lipid profiles were assessed. For statistical analysis, ANOVA, t test and the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used. RESULTS: the median MKI values, initially similar in both groups, decreased in G1 at two and four months (MKI = 14 and 9, respectively, and in G2 at two months (MKI = 15 (p<0.01. At six months, isoflavone was significantly superior to placebo in reducing hot flushes (44 versus 12

  17. Dietary Carcinogens and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    detected by autoradiography on X-ray film with intensifying screens at - 70 0C. Using this TLC separation system, we have observed one abundant adduct...report in Science, published earlier this year, showed that resveratrol (a phytochemical found in many plant species) inhibited both cyclooxygenase I...the dietary phytochemical resveratrol significantly inhibits PhIP-DNA adduct formation in primary cultures of human mammary epithelial cells. From

  18. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  19. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  20. Marketing dietary supplements in the United States: A review of the requirements for new dietary ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, Chris; Patrick Noonan, W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994, the marketplace for dietary supplements has experienced dramatic growth. New products have redefined the entire marketplace, and new ingredients are introduced to consumers at lightning speed. As part of this act, laws were passed to ensure the safety of new dietary ingredients introduced into the United States marketplace. But more than 11 years later, these laws are frequently misunderstood, and more frequently ignored. This article reviews the regulatory landscape of new dietary ingredients and defines the issues manufacturers must contend with to legally market dietary supplements with new dietary ingredients in the U.S

  1. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  2. The soybean peptide lunasin promotes apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells via induction of tumor suppressor PTEN: similarities and distinct actions from soy isoflavone genistein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Diet and lifestyle are major contributing factors to increased breast cancer risk. While mechanisms underlying dietary protection of mammary tumor formation are increasingly elucidated, there remains a dearth of knowledge on the nature an...

  3. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients....... Sponsorship: The data analysis was financially supported by the Health Insurance Fund. Descriptors: socioeconomic status; education; dietary habits; diet surveys, E%; fat, fruit and vegetables....

  4. Increasing the biological value of dietary cutlets

    OpenAIRE

    SYZDYKOVA L.S.; DIKHANBAYEVA F.T.; BAZYLHANOVA E.CH

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of work: meat products are the main source of the proteins, necessary for activity of the person. In this article is determined the biological value of the cutlets with dietary properties. The purpose of this work is development of the production technology of dietary cutlets in branches of public catering and determination of their biological value. As a result of work dietary cutlets with the increased biological value due to addition of oatmeal are received.

  5. Kudzu-Goat Interactions--A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Bonsi; E. Rhoden; A. Woldeghebriel; P. Mount; S. Solaiman; R. Noble; G. Paris; Charles McMahon; H. Pearson; B. Cash

    1992-01-01

    The production and processing of forest products is a major industry in the State of Alabama. Current weed management and control practices rely heavily on the use of herbicides. With the risk of soil and water pollution associated with the use of some agricultural chemicals, the continuing use of such chemicals may become hazardous to human health. The need for...

  6. The role of dietary creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Integrative Health NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says ... Thinkstock Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, Info for Patients: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements Milk Thistle ...

  8. Dietary supplement good manufacturing practices: preparing for compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, William J

    2012-01-01

    "Dietary Supplement GMP is a one-stop "how-to" road map to the final dietary supplement GMP regulations recently issued by the FDA covering the manufacture, packaging, and holding of dietary supplement...

  9. Dietary pattern and colonic diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    To assess the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. High-fiber diet does not prevent diverticulosis occurrence, and results about prevention/treatment of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still conflicting.No association was seen between nut, corn or popcorn consumption and occurrence of diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis.It seems to be a mild association between high alcohol intake and diverticulosis occurrence, whereas alcohol dependence seems to show lower risk of in-hospital mortality due to acute diverticulitis.Higher red-meat consumption shows mild increased risk of acute diverticulitis, especially when consumed as unprocessed red meat (defined as consumption of 'beef or lamb as main dish', 'pork as main dish', 'hamburger' and 'beef, pork or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish'); higher consumption of poultry (viz. white meat) was not associated with risk of acute diverticulitis.Finally, higher fish intake was associated with reduced risk of diverticulitis in age-adjusted model, but not after further adjustment for other potential confounders. Current literature data about the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still too conflicting.

  10. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  11. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  12. Diabetes and diet : managing dietary barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the barriers diabetic patients experience with their diet, and the ways they cope with these barriers. A dietary barrier is a hinderance to a person's well-being, induced by being advised a diet. First inventories were made of possible dietary barriers and ways of

  13. Dietary control of equine plasma triacylglycerols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallebeek, Johanna Maria

    2002-01-01

    The study of this thesis concerns the dietary influence on lipid metabolism in horses. The main issue is the effect of dietary medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on triacylglycerol metabolism. In certain conditions high-fat diets can be beneficial for horses. Diets rich in long-chain

  14. Usability Test of an Interactive Dietary Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee; Wong, Thomas Kwok Shing

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake methods are used to collect one's diet habit which is essential in nutrition assessment. Food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recalls are the most common dietary intake methods. However, they are not welcomed by most clients. Digital handheld devices are now readily available, and the cost of digital…

  15. Dietary fibre in foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R T

    2012-06-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods like bakery, drinks, beverages and meat products. Influence of different processing treatments (like extrusion-cooking, canning, grinding, boiling, frying) alters the physico- chemical properties of dietary fibre and improves their functionality. Dietary fibre can be determined by different methods, mainly by: enzymic gravimetric and enzymic-chemical methods. This paper presents the recent developments in the extraction, applications and functions of dietary fibre in different food products.

  16. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  17. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455

  18. Ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of isoflavones from Belamcanda chinensis and subsequent screening and isolation of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors by ultrafiltration and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Senlin; Li, Sainan; Huang, Yu; Liu, Chunming; Chen, Lina; Zhang, Yuchi

    2017-06-01

    The separation of a compound of interest from its structurally similar homologues to produce high-purity natural products is a challenging problem. This work proposes a novel method for the separation of iristectorigenin A from its structurally similar homologues by ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction and the subsequent screening and isolation of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors via ultrafiltration and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of tectorigenin, iristectorigenin A, irigenin, and irisflorentin from Belamcanda chinensis. The optimum conditions for the efficient extraction of isoflavones were determined as 1.0 M 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with extraction time of 30 min and a solvent to solid ratio of 30 mL/g. Ultrafiltration with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was applied to screen and identify α-glucosidase inhibitors from B. chinensis, followed by the application of semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography to separate and isolate the active constituents. Four major compounds including tectorigenin, iristectorigenin A, irigenin, and irisflorentin were screened and identified as α-glucosidase inhibitors, and then the four active compounds abovementioned were subsequently isolated by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (99.89, 88.97, 99.79, and 99.97% purity, respectively). The results demonstrate that ionic liquid extraction can be successfully applied to the extraction of isoflavones from B. chinensis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Intakes and sources of isoflavones, lignans, enterolignans, coumestrol and soya-containing foods in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk), from 7 d food diaries, using a newly updated database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Angela A; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Lentjes, Marleen A H; van Scheltinga, Veronica; Powell, Natasha A; McTaggart, Alison; Bhaniani, Amit; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2013-08-01

    A diet rich in phyto-oestrogens has been suggested to protect against a variety of common diseases but UK intake data on phyto-oestrogens or their food sources are sparse. The present study estimates the average intakes of isoflavones, lignans, enterolignans and coumestrol from 7 d food diaries and provides data on total isoflavone, lignan and phyto-oestrogen consumption by food group. Development of a food composition database for twelve phyto-oestrogens and analysis of soya food and phyto-oestrogen consumption in a populationbased study. Men and women, aged 40–79 years, from the general population participating in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) between 1993 and 1997, with nutrient and food data from 7 d food diaries. A subset of 20 437 participants. The median daily phyto-oestrogen intake for all men was 1199 mg (interquartile range 934–1537mg; mean 1504mg, SD 1502mg) and 888mg for all women (interquartile range 710–1135 mg; mean 1205 mg, SD 1701mg). In soya consumers, median daily intakes were higher: 2861 mg in men (interquartile range 1304–7269mg; mean 5051mg, SD 5031mg) and 3142 mg in women (interquartile range 1089–7327mg; mean 5396 mg, SD 6092 mg). In both men and women, bread made the greatest contribution to phyto-oestrogen intake – 40?8% and 35?6%, respectively. In soya consumers, vegetable dishes and soya/goat’s/sheep’s milks were the main contributors – 45?7% and 21?3% in men and 38?4% and 33?7% in women, respectively. The ability to estimate phyto-oestrogen intake in Western populations more accurately will aid investigations into their suggested effects on health.

  20. Dietary arginine and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W

    2013-01-01

    Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept......The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...... and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity...

  1. Medicines, excipients and dietary intolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Medicinal products contain not only active drugs but also other ingredients included for a variety of purposes and collectively known as excipients.(1) People who wish to avoid a specific substance because of an allergy or intolerance may ask a healthcare professional about the constituents of a medicine and whether an alternative is available. In a previous article we discussed the issues facing people who wish to avoid certain substances for religious or cultural reasons.(2) Here, we provide an overview of several dietary conditions and the pharmaceutical issues that need to be considered by healthcare professionals advising on the suitability of a medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Dietary management and genetic predisposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Holbæk; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2013-01-01

    variation, and epigenetics might identify additional genetic contributions to obesity, and the use of omics data with integration of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics will identify genetic subgroups who will benefit from specific dietary advice to optimize health and prevent disease. Keywords: Diet . Mutation...... epidemically worldwide, the investigation of genetic predisposition might help to prevent and treat obesity. Predisposition to obesity includes syndromes, such as Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), severe early-onset obesity, such as mutations in the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), and common forms of obesity......, such as genetic variation in the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO). Several studies have explored gene-diet interactions in obesity, weight loss, and regain, but there is a lack of consistency in the identified interactions. This inconsistency is most probably due to a low-moderate effect size...

  3. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac β-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of [ 3 H]dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of β-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension

  4. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  5. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  6. Dietary education must fit into everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folmann Hempler, Nana; Nicic, Sara; Ewers, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary...... that is sensitive to the attitudes, wishes, and preferences of the participants and that aims at establishing a connection to the everyday life of the participants might facilitate successful changes in dietary practices among people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest that more...

  7. Dietary patterns and prevalence of wasting among street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cross-sectional study of 36 street children in Lilongwe, Malawi, dietary practices and the prevalence of wasting were assessed to provide information on the risk of poor dietary intake and malnutrition in this population. A food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine dietary practices, ...

  8. Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary diversity and nutrient intake adequacy among women in Iwo Local Government Area, Osun State Nigeria. ... A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was used to assess the food intake of the respondents, which was converted into nutrient intake using adapted Total Dietary Assessment (TDA) software. Dietary ...

  9. Development of dietary pattern evaluation tool for adults and correlation with Dietary Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeo Do; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Misung; Cho, Yeo Jin; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES As the prevalence of chronic diseases has risen, the need for straightforward diagnostic tools for monitoring nutrition status to improve nutrition counseling and disease prevention has likewise increased. This study developed an easily usable dietary behavior pattern diagnosis checklist and investigated its correlation with dietary quality index. SUBJECTS/METHODS A draft dietary pattern evaluation tool was generated by analyzing previous studies. The draft questionnaire...

  10. 黑龙江省栽培大豆品种(系)异黄酮含量测定与主要性状相关性分析及灰色关联度分析%Analysis of Correlation and Grey Relation between Isoflavone Content and Soybean Quality from Soybean Cultivars in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海军; 李琳; 苏连泰; 翟莹; 李景文; 张鑫生; 王英; 王庆钰

    2011-01-01

    The correlation and grey relation analysis was used to analyze the relationship of the soybean isoflavone with main traits of 54 soybean in Heilongjiang province. The accuracy and reliability of the high performance liquid chromatography for determination of soybean isoflavone was valid for the method. The average content of total soybean oflavone was 2. 895 (xg/mg. The average content of Daidzin was 1. 231 fig/mg. The average content of Glycitin was 0. 268 u,g/mg. The average content of Genistin was 1. 397 jtg/mg. Five soybean varieties, in which isoflavone content exceeded 4.000 (ig/mg, were screened out. This paper provides basis for seed selection, breeding and evaluation isoflavones content in soybean.%应用相关性和灰色关联度方法分析了黑龙江省54份栽培大豆品种的异黄酮含量与主要性状的关系.经方法学验证建立的大豆异黄酮高效液相色谱法准确、可靠;初步明确了黑龙江省栽培大豆品种异黄酮及其主要成分含量的特点,大豆苷、黄豆黄苷、染料木苷及总异黄酮含量的平均值分别为:1.231,0.268,1.397,2.895 μg/mg;筛选得到异黄酮总量超过4.000 μg/mg的大豆品种5份.本研究可为大豆的选育种及异黄酮含量的评价提供依据.

  11. Dietary Quality and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Desiree; Zlatkis, Karyn; Comenge, Beatriz; García, Zoraida; Navarro, Juan F; Lorenzo, Victor; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2016-05-01

    The multiple dietary restrictions recommended to hemodialysis patients may be difficult to achieve and, at the same time, may result in nutritional deficiencies rendering a poor dietary quality. We here assess the dietary quality and adherence to renal-specific guideline recommendations among hemodialysis patients from a single center in Canary Islands, Spain. Cross-sectional study, including 91 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Clinical data and 3-day dietary records were collected. We compared patient's reported nutrients intake with guideline recommendations. We also evaluated their alignment with current American Heart Association dietary guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. Seventy-seven percent and 50% of patients consumed less than the recommended daily energy and protein, respectively. Although half of the patients met the recommendations for dietary fat intake, this was accounted by an excess of saturated fat in 92% of them. Only 22% consumed sufficient fiber. A very small proportion of patients (less than 50%) met the requirements for vitamins and other micronutrients. Insufficient dietary intake was observed in most patients for all vitamins except for cobalamin. Similarly, inadequate dietary intake was observed for many minerals, by both excess (phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium) and defect (magnesium). Most patients met the recommendations for iron and zinc in their diets. A large proportion of hemodialysis patients at our center did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The quality of the diet was considered poor and proatherogenic according to American Heart Association guidelines. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  13. Rationale for dietary antioxidant treatment of ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaet, Annelies A.J.; Maasakkers, Carlijn M.; Hermans, Nina; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing understanding arises regarding disadvantages of stimulant medication in children with ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). This review presents scientific findings supporting dietary antioxidant treatment of ADHD and describes substantial alterations in the immune system,

  14. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Dietary determinants of plasma homocysteine concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Severe hyperhomocysteinemia is typically caused by rare enzymatic defects or by renal failure. In contrast, mild to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia chiefly results from suboptimal status of nutritional factors involved in homocysteine metabolism. Low dietary intake of folate is the most important

  16. Urolithiasis: evaluation, dietary factors, and medical management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene; Andonian, Sero; Assimos, Dean

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this review was to provide current best evidence for evaluation, dietary, and medical management of patients with urolithiasis. METHODS: Literature addressing evaluation, dietary, and medical management of urolithiasis was searched. Papers were analyzed and rated according...... the life of stone-forming individuals very differently, and that evaluation and medical management should be personalized according to risk of recurrence, severity of stone disease, presence of associated medical conditions, and patient's motivation. With regard to evaluation, dietary and medical...... management of patients with urolithiasis evidence from the literature suggest that selective metabolic evaluation may lead to rational dietary and medical management. Statements based on LOE and GOR are provided to guide clinical practice. CONCLUSION: The provided evidence for evaluation of patients...

  17. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  18. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    circumstances, especially where food intake or choice is restricted. For this reason, dietary ... health hazard to all consumers.[4,12] While ... physician experienced in the treatment of obesity and familiar with this agent, on a regular basis.

  19. Introduction - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assist in the planning of the National Children's Study, investigators at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, NCI and Johns Hopkins University contracted with Westat to conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature.

  20. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information for Consumers Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... site are provided as a service to our users and do not represent FDA endorsement of these ...

  1. Dietary Regulation of PTEN Signaling and Mammary Tumor Initiating Cells: Implications for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    turmeric [37], resveratrol from grape [38], capsaicin from chili pepper [39], flavonoids such as hesperetin and naringenin in citrus fruits and tomatoes... flavonoids and citrus juices. Nutr Cancer 1996;26:167–81. [41] Tomar RS, Shiao R. Early life and adult exposure to isoflavones and breast cancer risk. J

  2. Chinese dietary composition and element ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongda

    1990-01-01

    Based on the dietary composition and results of some nutrients obtained from the second Nationwide Nutrition Survey in 1982, as well as recently published element contents in various Chinese food, the resultant dietary intake of 19 kinds of elements and 17 radionuclides for Chinese public (mainly for male adults) were estimated. This estimation might be used as basis for development of Chinese Reference Man and estimation of the public background exposure

  3. Dietary fibre in foods: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods li...

  4. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna T. Dwyer; Paul M. Coates; Michael J. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes e...

  5. Merging dietary assessment with the adolescent lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schap, T E; Zhu, F; Delp, E J; Boushey, C J

    2014-01-01

    The use of image-based dietary assessment methods shows promise for improving dietary self-report among children. The Technology Assisted Dietary Assessment (TADA) food record application is a self-administered food record specifically designed to address the burden and human error associated with conventional methods of dietary assessment. Users would take images of foods and beverages at all eating occasions using a mobile telephone or mobile device with an integrated camera [e.g. Apple iPhone, Apple iPod Touch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA); Nexus One (Google, Mountain View, CA, USA)]. Once the images are taken, the images are transferred to a back-end server for automated analysis. The first step in this process is image analysis (i.e. segmentation, feature extraction and classification), which allows for automated food identification. Portion size estimation is also automated via segmentation and geometric shape template modeling. The results of the automated food identification and volume estimation can be indexed with the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies to provide a detailed diet analysis for use in epidemiological or intervention studies. Data collected during controlled feeding studies in a camp-like setting have allowed for formative evaluation and validation of the TADA food record application. This review summarises the system design and the evidence-based development of image-based methods for dietary assessment among children. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  7. Neuroprotective Actions of Dietary Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. It is a precursor of membrane phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PC, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and via betaine, the methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. High choline intake during gestation and early postnatal development in rat and mouse models improves cognitive function in adulthood, prevents age-related memory decline, and protects the brain from the neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and neurological damage associated with epilepsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, and inherited conditions such as Down and Rett syndromes. These effects of choline are correlated with modifications in histone and DNA methylation in brain, and with alterations in the expression of genes that encode proteins important for learning and memory processing, suggesting a possible epigenomic mechanism of action. Dietary choline intake in the adult may also influence cognitive function via an effect on PC containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids; polyunsaturated species of PC whose levels are reduced in brains from AD patients, and is associated with higher memory performance, and resistance to cognitive decline.

  8. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  9. Dietary protection during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounous, G.; Le Bel, E.; Shuster, J.; Gold, P.; Tahan, W.T.; Bastin, E.; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke; Montreal General Hospital, Quebec

    1975-01-01

    Eighteen patients receiving Cobalt 60 irradiation for abdominal or pelvic malignancies were assigned at random to eat either a semi-hydrolyzed diet (Flexical: 10 g% casein hydrolsate; 14 g% triglycerides, 20% of which medium chain; 66% disaccharides) or a normal diet. There are no significant differences between these two groups with respect to age and the ratio of ideal to actual caloric intake. The patients in the control group received on the average a total of 3,900 rd and those in the Flexical group 4,040 rd. Generally, Flexical appeared to have a significant positive effect on body weight. In addition, radiation-induced diarrhea was not a problem in the Flexical group. In the latter-group, serum proteins including immunoglobulins remained essentially unchanged during therapy while a moderate but significant fall was observed in all control patients. No significant difference between the two groups was observed with respect to peripheral blood hematocrit, red and white cell counts. However, the drop in blood lymphocytes following irradiation was significantly less in the Flexical group. The mechanisms of radioprotection are discussed. These preliminary data indicate that the nutritional and perhaps the immunological status of cancer patients receiving intensive irradiation can be maintained by dietary measures. (orig.) [de

  10. Dietary polyphenols and chromatin remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gian Luigi; Vastolo, Viviana; Ciccarelli, Marco; Albano, Luigi; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Ungaro, Paola

    2017-08-13

    Polyphenols are the most abundant phytochemicals in fruits, vegetables, and plant-derived beverages. Recent findings suggest that polyphenols display the ability to reverse adverse epigenetic regulation involved in pathological conditions, such as obesity, metabolic disorder, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and various forms of cancer. Epigenetics, defined as heritable changes to the transcriptome, independent from those occurring in the genome, includes DNA methylation, histone modifications, and posttranscriptional gene regulation by noncoding RNAs. Sinergistically and cooperatively, these processes regulate gene expression by changing chromatin organization and DNA accessibility. Such induced epigenetic changes can be inherited during cell division, resulting in permanent maintenance of the acquired phenotype, but they may also occur throughout an individual life-course and may ultimately influence phenotypic outcomes (health and disease risk). In the last decade, a number of studies have shown that nutrients can affect metabolic traits by altering the structure of chromatin and directly regulate both transcription and translational processes. In this context, dietary polyphenol-targeted epigenetics becomes an attractive approach for disease prevention and intervention. Here, we will review how polyphenols, including flavonoids, curcuminoids, and stilbenes, modulate the establishment and maintenance of key epigenetic marks, thereby influencing gene expression and, hence, disease risk and health.

  11. Lessons from the war on dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas B; Parker, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Conventional dietary guidelines put forth by health care institutions and providers for the past 40 years have stressed the importance of reducing the amount of dietary fat consumed. Such a diet is purported to mitigate metabolic risk factors and optimize the ability to achieve or maintain a healthy body weight. However, over the past 35 years obesity rates in the United States have risen dramatically though the level of dietary fat consumed by U.S. adults has fallen. This review examines the potential reasons for this paradox. Various meta-analyses, controlled trials, and cohort studies have demonstrated that reducing dietary fat intake provides for very little weight loss unless accompanied by equal or greater reductions in total energy intake. Due to both psychological (e.g., the tendency for people to eat more of what they consider low fat) and physiological (e.g., the low satiety that accompanies carbohydrate intake) factors, reducing total caloric intake while simultaneously reducing fat intake is a difficult challenge. Further, reductions in total carbohydrate intake, increases in protein intake, and adoption of a Mediterranean diet seem to be more effective in inducing weight loss than reductions in fat intake. Traditional claims that simply reducing dietary fat will improve metabolic risk factors are also not borne out by research. There is some evidence that replacing dietary saturated fat with unsaturated fat may improve metabolic risk factors, but that research is not conclusive. • Over the past 40 years, Americans have decreased the percentage of calories they get from dietary fat while rates of overweight and obesity have risen dramatically. • It appears that a decrease in total dietary fat in ad libitum diets may induce a very small decrease in body weight. • Evidence suggests that reductions in total dietary fat intake often occur in conjunction with an increase in total caloric intake. • It seems reasonable to conclude that guiding the

  12. Ensaio clínico placebo-controlado com isoflavonas da soja para sintomas depressivos em mulheres no climatério Placebo-controlled clinical trial with soy isoflavones for depressive symptoms in climacteric women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilva Lopes de Sousa

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a eficácia do uso de isoflavonas da soja no tratamento de sintomas depressivos em mulheres com síndrome climatérica. MÉTODOS: estudo experimental placebo-controlado, randomizado e duplo-cego, com 84 pacientes climatéricas atendidas ambulatorialmente no Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley, em João Pessoa (PB. Na avaliação de sintomas depressivos empregou-se o Questionário de Auto-avaliação da Escala de Hamilton para Depressão (QAEH-D nas visitas pré-tratamento (VT1 e na 8ª (VT2 e na 16ª (VT3 semana pós-tratamento. O grupo experimental (GExp recebeu extrato de isoflavonas da soja, 120 mg por dia, e o controle (GCont, placebo. A comparação dos escores do QAEH-D entre os grupos em VT1, VT2 e VT3 constituiu a medida primária de eficácia (teste t, p0,05. De VT1 para VT3, evidenciou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa de 8,9% na redução dos escores entre os grupos (p=0,03. Não houve correlação da redução dos sintomas depressivos com resposta dos sintomas vasomotores (p>0,05. Houve redução das concentrações de FSH apenas no GExp (p=0,02, sem alterações do estradiol. Não ocorreram eventos adversos clinicamente relevantes. CONCLUSÕES: o efeito do extrato de isoflavonas foi superior ao do placebo, porém de pequena magnitude e apenas após 8 semanas de tratamento. Este pequeno efeito atribuído ao tratamento experimental, de boa tolerabilidade, poderá beneficiar pacientes que têm efeitos colaterais aos estrógenos ou que preferem não usar estes hormônios.PURPOSE: to evaluate the efficacy of the use of isoflavones in the treatment of depressive symptoms in climacteric women. METHODS: placebo-controlled, randomized double-blind experimental study with 84 climacteric women who were assisted at the Lauro Wanderley University Hospital Ambulatory, in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. In the evaluation of the depressive symptoms the Self-evaluation questionnare of Hamilton's rating scale for

  13. The use of HPLC identification and quantification of isoflavones content in samples obtained in pharmacies = O uso do HPLC na identificação e quantificação dos teores de isoflavonas em amostras obtidas de farmácias de manipulação = O uso do HPLC na identificação e quantificação dos teores de isoflavonas em amostras obtidas de farmácias de manipulação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mantovani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a great interest in the research and the production of functional foods, such as isoflavones. Which present proven action on the prevention of health problems, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Considering the importance of soybeansupplements standardization, this study aimed identifying and quantifying the isoflavones in products sold at different pharmacies. Isoflavones samples were acquired in six different pharmacies specialized in the production of phytotherapic medications. The isoflavones were extracted, quantified and identified in HPLC. None of the samples, from different pharmacies, presented the isoflavones content presented on the label, i.e., 20 mg. In relation to the isoflavones profile, the highest levels found were of daidzein, with up to 66.8 } 0.09 ƒÊg, being the lowest levels the ones of genistein. It is necessary, therefore, the adoption of methods for thestandardization and characterization of the raw materials used by different pharmacies. It would assure the isoflavones content, once they are essential for the effects prescribed by the professionals in the medical area.O uso do HPLC na identificacao e quantificacao dos teores de isoflavonas em amostras obtidas de farmacias de manipulacao. Atualmente ha um grande interesse na pesquisa e producao de alimentos funcionais, como as isoflavonas, que apresentam comprovada acao na prevencao de males, como o cancer e as doencas cardiovasculares. Considerando a importancia da padronizacao dos suplementos de soja,o objetivo do presente estudo foi de identificar e quantificar as isoflavonas em produtos comercializados em diferentes farmacias de manipulacao. Amostras de isoflavonas foram adquiridas em seis diferentes farmacias especializadas em manipulacao de fitoterapicos. As isoflavonas foram extraidas, identificadas e quantificadas em CLAE. Nenhuma das amostras, das diferentes farmacias de manipulacao, apresentou os teores de isoflavonas indicado no

  14. Isoflavone and protein content in soybeans grains submitted to flooding at different stages of development Teor de isoflavonas e proteínas nos grãos de soja submetida ao alagamento em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Argenta Fante

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The stress imposed on plants by soil flooding constitutes a major barrier to growth and productivity. The identification of soybean varieties that produce higher levels of isoflavones, is necessary as soybeans have been used as human food to reduce risks of chronic diseases. Thus, this study was conducted with the objective of quantifying proteins and isoflavones in soybean cultivars subjected to flooding at various stages of development. The cultivars 'BRS267', 'BRS257' and 'BRS213' were subjected to 15 days of flooding, starting at the stages V6 and V8 and 11 days under stress starting at the stage R4. The proteins in the grain were extracted and quantified and analyzed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Isoflavones were extracted, separated and quantified on HPLC. The electrophoretic analysis of the three cultivars under study revealed the same pattern of banding relative to the total protein regardless of the treatment. However, it was noted that flooding led to an increase in the total contents of isoflavones in the BRS 267 plants flooded in stage R4, remaining constant in other cultivars.O estresse imposto às plantas pelo alagamento do solo constitui uma barreira para o crescimento e produtividade destas. A identificação de cultivares de soja que possam produzir maior teor de isoflavonas torna-se necessária à medida que a soja vem sendo utilizada na alimentação humana e para redução dos riscos de doenças crônicas. Dessa forma, o presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de quantificar isoflavonas e proteínas em cultivares de soja submetidas ao alagamento em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento. As cultivares 'BRS 267', 'BRS 257' e 'BRS 213' foram submetidas a 15 dias de alagamento, nos estádios V6 e V8 e 11 dias sob estresse, no estádio R4. As proteínas no grão foram extraídas e quantificadas e analisadas as eletroforeses em SDS-PAGE. Os isoflavonóides foram extraídos, separados e quantificados por HPLC. A análise por

  15. Exploring dietary guidelines based on ecological and nutritional values: A comparison of six dietary patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dooren, C.; Marinussen, M.; Blonk, B.; Aiking, H.; Vellinga, P.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the synergies between nutritionally healthy and ecologically sustainable diets. The aim was to explore the possibilities for future integrated dietary guidelines that support consumers to make informed dietary choices based on both ecological and

  16. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on

  17. Dietary carbohydrates and triacylglycerol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, H M

    1999-02-01

    There is a growing body of scientific evidence which demonstrates that plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, especially in the postprandial state, is an important risk factor in relation to the development of CHD. Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with a number of adverse metabolic risk factors, including the preponderance of small dense LDL, low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and elevated factor VII activity. Traditionally, a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet was used to prevent CHD because it effectively reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations, but this dietary regimen increases plasma TAG concentrations and reduces HDL-cholesterol concentrations. There is substantial epidemiological evidence which demonstrates that high plasma TAG and low plasma HDL concentrations are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Thus, there is reason for concern that the adverse effects of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets on TAG and HDL may counteract or negate the beneficial effect of reducing LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Although there have been no prospective studies to investigate whether reduced fat intake has an adverse effect on CHD, there is strong epidemiological evidence that reducing total fat intake is not protective against CHD. On the other hand, high-fat diets predispose to obesity, and central obesity adversely affects TAG metabolism. There is substantial evidence that in free-living situations low-fat high-carbohydrate diets lead to weight loss, which in turn will correct insulin resistance and plasma TAG metabolism. Clearly there is a need for prospective studies to resolve the issue as to whether low-fat high-carbohydrate diets play an adverse or beneficial role in relation to the development of CHD.

  18. Quantitative determination of triterpenoids and formononetin in rhizomes of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and dietary supplements by using UPLC-UV/ELS detection and identification by UPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2009-03-01

    A UPLC-UV/ELSD method has been developed for analysis of major triterpenoids and formononetin in ACTAEA RACEMOSA L. (family Ranunculaceae) samples. The best results were obtained with an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (100 mmx2.1 mm, i. d., 1 microm) column system using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile:methanol (7:3) at a constant flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Owing to their low UV absorption, the triterpene saponins were detected by evaporative light scattering. Within 5.5 minutes, three main triterpenoid glycosides [cimiracemoside A, 23- EPI-26-deoxyactein, and actein] and an isoflavonoid, formononetin, could be separated, with detection limits of 5, 5, 10, and 0.01 microg/mL, respectively. The method was successfully used to analyze different Actaea racemosa market products as well as to distinguish between two other ACTAEA species. There was a significant variability in the amounts of the selected triterpene glycosides for the products containing black cohosh and rhizomes of black cohosh. The isoflavone formononetin was not detected in the samples analyzed. LC-MS coupled with the electrospray ionization (ESI) interface method is described for the identification of formononetin and triterpenoid glycosides in plant samples and dietary supplements that claim to contain black cohosh and different species of Actaea.

  19. Teores de isoflavonas em grãos inteiros e nos componentes dos grãos de diferentes cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill Isoflavone contents of whole soybeans and their components, obtained from different cultivars (Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido à maior concentração de isoflavonas nos hipocótilos dos grãos de soja, a indústria de alimentos tem utilizado esse componente do grão como matéria-prima. No presente trabalho, foram quantificados os teores de isoflavonas nas estruturas formadoras do grão de soja (hipocótilo, cotilédones e casca, analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Foram avaliadas quatro cultivares de sojas especiais: BRS 184, BRS 216, BRS 257 e BRS 267, desenvolvidas pela Embrapa Soja. Todas as cultivares apresentaram maior teor de isoflavonas totais no hipocótilo (média de 2029,32 mg.100 g-1. No grão inteiro (267,16 mg.100 g-1 e nos cotilédones (209,16 mg.100 g-1, os teores de isoflavonas foram cerca de dez vezes menores do que nos hipocótilos. A cultivar BRS 216 apresentou o teor maior de isoflavonas totais no hipocótilo (2583,20 mg.100 g-1. Embora a casca da soja não apresente isoflavonas, observou-se que esses compostos estavam presentes nessa parte do grão numa quantidade média de 105,58 mg.100 g-1, devido à presença de resíduos do hipocótilo e dos cotilédones provenientes do processo de descasque. Essa composição residual da casca favorece sua utilização como matéria-prima fonte de fibras, porque também fornece isoflavonas e outros compostos da soja.Due to the higher concentration of isoflavones in the soybean hypocotyls, the food industry has used this component of the bean as a raw material. This paper reports the isoflavone contents found in the different parts of the bean (hypocotyl, cotyledon and hull as analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Four special soybean cultivars, BRS 184, BRS 216, BRS 257 and BRS 267, developed by Embrapa Soybean, were evaluated. All the cultivars presented higher contents of total isoflavones in the hypocotyls (average of 2029.32 mg.100 g-1. The isoflavone contents of the whole beans (267.16 mg.100 g-1 and the cotyledons (209.16 mg.100 g-1 were about 10

  20. Evaluation of a dietary targets monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, M E J; Anderson, A S; Morrison, C; Currall, J

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate a two-page food frequency list for use as a Dietary Targets Monitor in large scale surveys to quantify consumptions of the key foods groups targeted in health promotion. Intakes of fruit and vegetables, starchy foods and fish estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were compared with a short food frequency list (the Dietary Targets Monitor) specifically designed to assess habitual frequency of consumption of foods in relation to dietary targets which form the basis of a National (Scottish) Food and Health Policy. A total of 1085 adults aged 25-64 y from the Glasgow MONICA Study. : The two questionnaires both collected data on frequencies of food consumption for fruit and vegetables, starchy foods and fish. Comparing the two questionnaires, there were consistent biases, best expressed as ratios (FFQ:Dietary Targets Monitor) between the methods for fruit and vegetables (1.33, 95% CI 1.29, 1.38) and 'starchy foods' (1.08, 95% CI 1.05, 1.12), the DTM showing systematic under-reporting by men. For fish consumption, there was essentially no bias between the methods (0.99, 95% CI 0.94, 1.03). Using calibration factors to adjust for biases, the Dietary Targets Monitor indicated that 16% of the subjects were achieving the Scottish Diet food target (400 g/day) for fruit and vegetable consumption. Nearly one-third (32%) of the subjects were eating the recommended intakes of fish (three portions per week). The Dietary Targets Monitor measure of starchy foods consumption was calibrated using FFQ data to be able to make quantitative estimates: 20% of subjects were eating six or more portions of starchy food daily. A similar estimation of total fat intake and saturated fat intake (g/day) allowed the categorization of subjects as low, moderate or high fat consumers, with broad agreement between the methods. The levels of agreement demonstrated by Bland-Altman analysis, were insufficient to permit use of the adjusted DTM to estimate quantitative

  1. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.

  2. Use of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Clair Garcez NABUCO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence and establish the profile of the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Methods: A total of 182 athletes of both genders from 20 different sports participated in this study. The athletes answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and sports-related questions and were interviewed about the consumption of dietary supplements. Results: Forty seven percent of athletes reported having consumed at least one type of dietary supplement and 38% said they use more than three different types of supplements concurrently. Whey protein was the most commonly consumed supplement, and the most frequently mentioned reason for its consumption was performance improvement. The main source of information was coaches, and individual sport athletes were the greatest consumers and the most likely to seek dietary supplement. Conclusion: Approximately half of the participants used dietary supplements, which on most occasions were recommended by coaches. The consumption profile also revealed multiple supplementation practice and showed that nutrition education is essential for this specific population.

  3. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-02-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake is assessed with considerable measurement error. We were interested in estimating the population distribution of the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), a multi-component dietary quality index involving ratios of interrelated dietary components to energy, among children aged 2-8 in the United States, using a national survey and incorporating survey weights. We developed a highly nonlinear, multivariate zero-inflated data model with measurement error to address this question. Standard nonlinear mixed model software such as SAS NLMIXED cannot handle this problem. We found that taking a Bayesian approach, and using MCMC, resolved the computational issues and doing so enabled us to provide a realistic distribution estimate for the HEI-2005 total score. While our computation and thinking in solving this problem was Bayesian, we relied on the well-known close relationship between Bayesian posterior means and maximum likelihood, the latter not computationally feasible, and thus were able to develop standard errors using balanced repeated replication, a survey-sampling approach.

  4. Usefulness of herbal and dietary supplement references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Burgunda V; Gay, Wendy E; Leady, Michelle A; Stumpf, Janice L

    2003-04-01

    To describe the usefulness of some of the most common tertiary references that healthcare professionals employ to answer requests about herbal and dietary supplements. All requests for information on herbal and dietary supplements received by the drug information service between April and September 2000 were evaluated. Each question was independently reviewed by 4 clinicians using a 4-point scale; 14 references were searched for appropriate answers. The percent of responses for each of the possible scores for each reference overall and by category of question was reported to determine the most helpful references for answering the broadest range of questions. Fifty questions regarding herbal and dietary supplements were analyzed. The electronic databases (Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, Micromedex) and the Internet site (The Natural Pharmacist) were determined to be overall the most helpful references for providing information on herbal and dietary supplements. The Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide was the most helpful book reference. These results will facilitate the retrieval of useful information on herbal and dietary supplements and enable healthcare professionals to determine appropriate allocation of resources as they build a drug information library for handling requests about these products.

  5. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  6. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  7. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  8. Dietary protein is associated with musculoskeletal health independently of dietary pattern: the Framingham Third Generation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Sahni, Shivani; Kiel, Douglas P; Tucker, Katherine L; Dufour, Alyssa B; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-03-01

    Background: Above-average dietary protein, as a single nutrient, improves musculoskeletal health. Evaluating the link between dietary protein and musculoskeletal health from a whole-diet perspective is important, as dietary guidelines focus on dietary patterns. Objective: We examined the prospective association of novel dietary protein food clusters (derived from established dietary pattern techniques) with appendicular lean mass (ALM), quadriceps strength (QS), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 2986 men and women, aged 19-72 y, from the Framingham Third Generation Study. Design: Total protein intake was estimated by food-frequency questionnaire in 2002-2005. A cluster analysis was used to classify participants into mutually exclusive groups, which were determined by using the percentage of contribution of food intake to overall protein intake. General linear modeling was used to 1 ) estimate the association between protein intake (grams per day) and BMD, ALM, appendicular lean mass normalized for height (ALM/ht 2 ), and QS (2008-2011) and to 2 ) calculate adjusted least-squares mean outcomes across quartiles of protein (grams per day) and protein food clusters. Results: The mean ± SD age of subjects was 40 ± 9 y; 82% of participants met the Recommended Daily Allowance (0.8 g · kg body weight -1 · d -1 ). The following 6 dietary protein food clusters were identified: fast food and full-fat dairy, fish, red meat, chicken, low-fat milk, and legumes. BMD was not different across quartiles of protein intake ( P -trend range = 0.32-0.82); but significant positive trends were observed for ALM, ALM/ht 2 ( P dietary protein is associated with ALM and QS but not with BMD. In this study, dietary protein food patterns do not provide further insight into beneficial protein effects on muscle outcomes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  10. Dietary patterns and trace elements intake evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    1998-01-01

    The dietary patterns and trace element contents of the integrated diets of middle income population in Gujranwala and of Islamabad have been studied and dietary intake of winter and summer are given. An overview of the elemental concentration in the two sets of integrated diets reveals similar zinc and manganese concentrations; comparatively higher nickel, selenium and potassium concentrations in Gujranwala and higher chromium, cesium, scandium, sodium and chlorine concentrations in Islamabad. These results undoubtedly reflect the difference in food selection and habits of the two populations, the influence of soil content and industrial pollution

  11. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Overcoming Consumer Inertia to Dietary Guidance12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  13. Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Coates, Paul M; Smith, Michael J

    2018-01-04

    Many of the scientific and regulatory challenges that exist in research on the safety, quality and efficacy of dietary supplements are common to all countries as the marketplace for them becomes increasingly global. This article summarizes some of the challenges in supplement science and provides a case study of research at the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, USA, along with some resources it has developed that are available to all scientists. It includes examples of some of the regulatory challenges faced and some resources for those who wish to learn more about them.

  14. Dietary shifts and implications for US agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P

    1995-06-01

    Changes to healthier dietary patterns similar to those of traditional Mediterranean diets or those of the US government's dietary guidelines and food guide pyramid would require significant changes in American agricultural practices. The volume, mix, production, and marketing of agricultural commodities would need to be modified. Because differences between actual and recommended intakes for major food groups are quite large and affect a broad range of products, adjustments in supply and demand could overshadow past experience in dealing with such changes. New food and agriculture policies may well be needed to ease and accelerate agricultural adjustments, to improve nutritional characteristics of popular foods, and to promote desirable changes in consumers' food choices.

  15. Nutritional knowledge and dietary diversity of cancer patients at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This increase is possibly attributed to change in behavior and adoption of ... factors such as increase in environmental carcinogens and unhealthy lifestyles. ... during dietary counseling of patients to enable them improve their dietary practice.

  16. Dietary quality, lifestile factors and healthy ageing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: dietary quality, dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, smoking, physical activity, elderly, mortality, Mediterranean Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, healthy ageing, self-rated health, functional status


    The contribution

  17. Dietary assessment in Africa: Integration with innovative technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate dietary intake is the basis of good health. ... clinics and hospitals, measuring dietary intake and nutritional status is one of the most efficient ... on respondents to recall types and amounts of foods consumed by populations of interest.

  18. Influence of dietary lipid sources on sensory characteristics of broiler

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of dietary lipid sources on sensory characteristics of broiler meat ... fatty acid profile of poultry products such as eggs and meat by means of dietary inclusion of ..... Designer eggs: From improvement of egg composition to functional.

  19. Effects of dietary supplement of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ross 308) to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with various levels of turmeric powder on blood constituents and antioxidant activity. The chicks were randomly assigned to eight dietary groups, which were given turmeric powder ...

  20. 5 Things To Know About Dietary Supplements and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advertised as dietary supplements for weight loss or bodybuilding. Increasingly, products sold as dietary supplements, particularly for weight loss and bodybuilding, contain ingredients that could be harmful, including prescription ...

  1. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  2. Women's dietary changes before and during pregnancy: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hillier, S.E.; Olander, E. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud dietary intake before and during pregnancy has significant health outcomes for both mother and child, including a healthy gestational weight gain. To ensure effective interventions are successfully developed to improve dietary intake during pregnancy, it is important to understand what dietary changes pregnant women make without intervention.\\ud Aims\\ud \\ud to systematically identify and review studies examining women's dietary changes before and during pregnancy and to iden...

  3. Research on Rationalization of Basketball Player Nutrition Dietary Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Junsheng Zuo; Jia Li

    2015-01-01

    Reasonable nutritional dietary pattern is the good protection which can promote hoopster fatigue restoring, enhance exercise training effect and promote sport performance. This study analyzes necessity and significance of rationalizing research of hoopster nutritional dietary pattern by the summary of hoopster nutritional dietary pattern. And it concludes insufficient and drawback which current our country hoopster nutritional dietary pattern existing. And then it generalizes the unreasonable...

  4. Evaluating Nutrition Education Programming by Using a Dietary Screener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jennifer; Litchfield, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Short dietary assessment instruments known as screeners have potential for use in evaluating nutrition education programming because detecting change in dietary intake can demonstrate movement toward program goals. Using screeners results in objective dietary intake data but involves less administrative time, training, and cost than other…

  5. The history and future of dietary guidance in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence-based dietary guidance in the US has progressed substantially since its inception over 100 years ago. This review describes the historical development and significance of dietary guidance in the US, including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and emphasizes the foundations upon which th...

  6. Dietary quality as a non-medical health input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burggraf, Christine; Teuber, Ramona; Glauben, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this inquiry is to provide a comprehensive theoretical framework, which describes the demand for dietary quality. In our dietary health investment model, we consider the health investment character of dietary choices as well as the intertemporal health-taste trade-off. Additionally, a ...

  7. Glycaemic and insulinemic response to dietary carbohydrates in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Austbø, Dag; Næsset, Jon A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary sugar and starch affect plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Little information is available about the effect of dietary fibre on plasma glucose and insulin concentration. It is hypothesized that different dietary fibre compositions will alter post-prandial glycaemic- an...

  8. Dietary practices in isovaleric acidemia: A European survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: This survey demonstrates wide differences in dietary practice in the management of IVA across European centres. It provides unique dietary data collectively representing European practices in IVA which can be used as a foundation to compare dietary management changes as a consequence of the first E-IMD IVA guidelines availability.

  9. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luévano-Contreras, Claudia; Gómez-Ojeda, Armando; Macías-Cervantes, Maciste Habacuc; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia

    2017-08-01

    This report analyzes emerging evidence about the role of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) as a cardiometabolic risk factor. Two important aspects are discussed: First, the modulation of AGE load by dietary AGEs; second, if the evidence of clinical and observational studies is enough to make dietary recommendations towards lowering AGE intake. Clinical studies in subjects with diabetes mellitus have shown that high intake of dietary AGEs increases inflammation markers, oxidative stress, and could impair endothelial function. In subjects at risk for cardiometabolic diseases (with overweight, obesity, or prediabetes), dietary AGE restriction decreases some inflammatory molecules and improves insulin sensitivity. However, studies in healthy subjects are limited, and not all of the studies have shown a decrease in circulating AGEs. Therefore, it is still unclear if dietary AGEs represent a health concern for people potentially at risk for cardiometabolic diseases. The evidence shows that dietary AGEs are bioavailable and absorbed, and the rate of excretion depends on dietary intake. The metabolic fate of most dietary AGEs remains unknown. Regardless, most studies have shown that by diminishing AGE intake, circulating levels will also decrease. Thus, dietary AGEs can modulate the AGE load at least in patients with DM, overweight, or obesity. Studies with specific clinical outcomes and large-scale observational studies are needed for a better risk assessment of dietary AGEs and to establish dietary recommendations accordingly.

  10. ADHD Is Associated with a "Western" Dietary Pattern in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Amber L.; Robinson, Monique; Smith, Grant J.; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Piek, Jan P.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and ADHD in a population-based cohort of adolescents. Method: The Raine Study is a prospective study following 2,868 live births. At the 14-year follow-up, the authors collected detailed adolescent dietary data, allowing for the determination of major dietary patterns using factor…

  11. Dietary and health biomarkers-time for an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragsted, L.O.; Gao Qizian,; Praticò, G.; Manach, Claudine; Wishart, D.S.; Scalbert, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dietary and health research area, biomarkers are extensively used for multiple purposes. These include biomarkers of dietary intake and nutrient status, biomarkers used to measure the biological effects of specific dietary components, and biomarkers to assess the effects of diet on health.

  12. Dietary fibre: new frontiers for food and health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamp, J. W. van der

    2010-01-01

    ... papers of the Dietary fibre analysis workshop and the HEALTHGRAIN Symposium Cereal grain fibre and health , both held in conjunction with DF09. This book is titled Dietary fibre- new frontiers for food and health . With the adoption - after decades of debate - of almost identical definitions of dietary fibre by Codex Alimentarius and the European Un...

  13. Possible interactions between dietary fibres and 5-aminosalicylic acid [corrected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Camilla; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potentially, a binding of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) to dietary fibres could reduce the systemic absorption and increase the intraluminal amount [corrected]. The purposes of the study were to investigate if: (1) dietary fibres can bind 5-ASA in vitro, and (2) consumption of dietary......H. The effect might be clinically relevant in patients with UC treated with 5-ASA....

  14. South African dietary total antioxidant capacity based on secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In this exploratory study, the average adult South African dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was estimated using secondary data and was evaluated against that determined for dietary intake recommendations. Design: The average adult South African dietary TAC was estimated using a report published by ...

  15. Dietary Fibre in Health and Disease | Kolawole | Nigerian Endocrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism by which dietary fibre exerts its various effects have been the subject several studies. Its ability to slow food digestion and nutrient absorption is well known. This review summarises the broader literature on what constitutes dietary fibre, mechanisms of action of dietary fibre, and its impact on some disease ...

  16. AOAC SMPR 2014.007: Authentication of selected Vaccinium species (Anthocyanins) in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for authentication of selected Vaccinium species in dietary ingredients and dietary supplements containing a single Vaccinium species using anthocyanin profiles. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to be used...

  17. Dietary and fluid adherence among haemodialysis patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparison with major infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis ... dietary and fluid adherence is of crucial importance to the quality of life and survival of ... behaviours such as medication adherence among psychiatric ... or nursing sister and introduced to one of the study personnel who .... Children per household. 61.

  18. Dietary Vitamin C in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Matthew; Eck, Peter

    Vitamin C is essential to prevent scurvy in humans and is implicated in the primary prevention of common and complex diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This chapter reviews the latest knowledge about dietary vitamin C in human health with an emphasis on studies of the molecular mechanisms of vitamin C maintenance as well as gene-nutrient interactions modifying these relationships. Epidemiological evidence indicates 5% prevalence for vitamin C deficiency and 13% prevalence for suboptimal status even in industrialized countries. The daily intake (dose) and the corresponding systemic concentrations (response) are related in a saturable relationship, and low systemic vitamin C concentrations in observational studies are associated with negative health outcomes. However, there is no evidence that vitamin C supplementation impacts the risks for all-cause mortality, impaired cognitive performance, reduced quality of life, the development of eye diseases, infections, cardiovascular disease, and cancers. This might be related to the fact that prevention would not be realized by supplementation in populations already adequately supplied through dietary sources. Recent genetic association studies indicate that the dietary intake might not be the sole determinant of systemic concentrations, since variations in genes participating in redox homeostasis and vitamin C transport had been associated with lowered plasma concentrations. However, impact sizes are generally low and these phenomena might only affect individual of suboptimal dietary supply. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Digital food photography: Dietary surveillance and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    The method used for creating a database of approximately 20,000 digital images of multiple portion sizes of foods linked to the USDA's Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) is presented. The creation of this database began in 2002, and its development has spanned 10 years. Initially...

  20. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Bottema, K.C.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and

  1. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, SC; van Dusseldorp, M; Bottema, KC; Dubois, AEJ

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allergen intoler*, and

  2. Comparison of dietary fiber methods for foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, M M; Lane, S A

    1981-11-01

    In order to evaluate several proposed dietary fiber methods, 12 food samples, representing different food classes, were analyzed by (1) neutral and acid detergent fiber methods (NDF, ADF); (2) NDF with enzyme modification (ENDF); (3) a 2-fraction enzyme method for soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber, proposed by Furda (SDF, IDF, TDF); (+) a 1-fraction enzyme method for total dietary fiber proposed by Hellendoorn (TDF). Foods included cereals, fruits, vegetables, pectin, locust bean gum, and soybean polysaccharides. Results show that TDF by Furda and Hellendoorn methods agree reasonably well with literature values by the Southgate method, but ENDF is consistently lower; that ENDF and IDF (Furda method) agree reasonably well; that except for corn corn bran fiber (insoluble) and pectin and locus bean fiber (soluble), all materials have significant fractions of both soluble and insoluble fiber. The Furda method was used on numerous food and ingredient samples and was found to be practical and informative and to have acceptable precision (RSD values of 2.65-7.05%). It is suggested that the Furda (or similar) method be given consideration for the analysis of foods for dietary fiber.

  3. 42 CFR 483.35 - Dietary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the resident call system. (3) Resident selection criteria. (i) A facility must ensure that a feeding... person to serve as the director of food service who receives frequently scheduled consultation from a... nutritional needs of residents in accordance with the recommended dietary allowances of the Food and Nutrition...

  4. Pragmatic dietary advice for diabetes during Navratris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovely Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Navratri is one of the most common religious fasts observed among Hindus. A large number of people with diabetes follow Navratris fast irrespective of its health implications, often without proper education and medical advice. The quest for the scientific research on dietary advices for Hindu fasts including Navratris shows paucity of literature comparative to the dietary advices advocated during Ramadan. The eating and physical activity patterns during different fasts vary a lot depending up on social and cultural factors. Even eating pattern is not uniform among all persons following Navratris and is modified as per their region, local culture, and religious beliefs. Dietary advice during Navratris depends upon pattern of fasting, religious beliefs, and local sociocultural factors. In this review, efforts are made to provide pragmatic dietary advice for people with diabetes, modifications in the menus and cooking practices, and timings of the meals for successful blood glucose management during Navratris. This review will also help plan diet and physical activity advice for persons observing other fasts as well.

  5. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Nørskov, Natalja; Bolvig, Anne Katrine

    2017-01-01

    are unclear, but can most likely be assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. Physiologically, it is important that soluble nonstarch polysaccharides contribute to higher viscosity in the small intestine as this may influence rate and extent of digestion...

  6. Analysis of chewing sounds for dietary monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amft, O.D.; Stäger, M.; Lukowicz, P.; Tröster, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports the results of the first stage of our work on an automatic dietary monitoring system. The work is part of a large European project on using ubiquitous systems to support healthy lifestyle and cardiovascular disease prevention. We demonstrate that sound from the user's mouth can be

  7. Energetic utilization of dietary fiber in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The energetic utilization of fermentable dietary fiber (fDF) of different fiber sources and its relation to physical activity and housing conditions was studied in three experiments. In all experiments the daily intake of digestible nutrients, nitrogen and energy balances, heat production, and

  8. Dietary fat and obesity : An epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, Jacob C.

    1998-01-01

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  9. Dietary fat and obesity : an epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  10. Prehydrolyzed dietary protein reduces gastrocnemial DNA without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prehydrolyzed dietary protein reduces gastrocnemial DNA without impairing physical capacity in the rat. Viviane Costa Silva Zaffani, Carolina Cauduro Bensabath Carneiro-Leão, Giovana Ermetice de Almeida Costa, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Emilianne Miguel Salomão, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes, ...

  11. Eclampsia despite strict dietary sodium restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delemarre, F.M.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Berendes, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The classic indication for prescribing dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy has been the prevention of eclampsia. We describe a case of intrapartum eclampsia in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman. A strongly sodium restricted diet was prescribed because of pre-eclampsia. Compliance to the diet was

  12. The potential health effects of dietary phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Louisse, Jochem; Beekmann, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived dietary compounds with structural similarity to 17-β-oestradiol (E2), the primary female sex hormone. This structural similarity to E2 enables phytoestrogens to cause (anti)oestrogenic effects by binding to the oestrogen receptors. The aim of the present review is to

  13. Effects of dietary probiotic supplementation on promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... The birds in group A received control diet during the experiment but those in ... genera displayed a growth-promoting effect that was comparable to control diet and also decreased .... Table 3. Effects of dietary probiotics on evolution of broiler weekly BW in control, Enterococcus faecium, and Bifidobacterium.

  14. Metabolic Consequences of Changing Dietary Patterns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    should be eaten well, lunch must be in one's fill, and food for dinner should be little', there has lately been a neglect of breakfast, whereas the use of fast foods and large dinners has become the trend. In the Australian Aboriginal population and in South Africa, the consequences of shifts from the hunter-gatherer dietary.

  15. Dietary sugars, not lipids, drive hypothalamic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Yuanqing; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Fleming, Thomas; Grabner, Gernot F; Foppen, Ewout; Bernhard, Wagner; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; Layritz, Clarita; Legutko, Beata; Zinser, Erwin; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Buijs, Ruud M; Woods, Stephen C; Kalsbeek, A.; Seeley, Randy J; Nawroth, Peter P; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Tschöp, Matthias H; Yi, Chun-Xia

    OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamus of hypercaloric diet-induced obese animals is featured by a significant increase of microglial reactivity and its associated cytokine production. However, the role of dietary components, in particular fat and carbohydrate, with respect to the hypothalamic inflammatory

  16. Dietary sugars, not lipids, drive hypothalamic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Yuanqing; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Fleming, Thomas; Grabner, Gernot F.; Foppen, Ewout; Bernhard, Wagner; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; Layritz, Clarita; Legutko, Beata; Zinser, Erwin; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Buijs, Ruud M.; Woods, Stephen C.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Seeley, Randy J.; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The hypothalamus of hypercaloric diet-induced obese animals is featured by a significant increase of microglial reactivity and its associated cytokine production. However, the role of dietary components, in particular fat and carbohydrate, with respect to the hypothalamic inflammatory

  17. Dietary protein and blood pressure : epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.

    2012-01-01


    Background
    Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Diet and lifestyle have a substantial impact on blood pressure, but the role of protein intake is not yet clear. This thesis focuses on total dietary protein, types of protein (i.e. plant and

  18. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); psupplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  19. Why US children use dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Thomas, Paul R.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. Methods: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Results: Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to “improve overall health” (41%), to “maintain health” (37%), for “supplementing the diet” (23%), to “prevent health problems” (20%), and to “boost immunity” (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin–mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. Conclusion: Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children. PMID:24002333

  20. PALEOLITHIC HUNTER-GATHERERS' DIETARY PATTERNS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Al-Domi

    the main aspects of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers' dietary patterns and its main long-term ... Hence, people in developing countries have been exposed to certain ... as food habits, which prompted possible negative impacts on health status leading to ... costs [5, 7]. .... Agricultural revolution with efficient production of grains,.

  1. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Lin

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI. Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI.Data were analyzed from two feeding studies with a total of 38 subjects during 94 dietary periods. DPI was carefully controlled at low, intermediate, and high levels. Plasma levels of phytosterols and cholesterol metabolites were assessed at the end of each diet period. Based on simple ordinary least squares regression analysis, the best biomarker for DPI was the ratio of plasma campesterol to the endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol (R2 = 0.785, P 0.600; P < 0.01.The ratio of plasma campesterol to the coordinately regulated endogenous cholesterol metabolite 5-α-cholestanol is a biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake. Conversely, plasma phytosterol levels alone are not ideal biomarkers of DPI because they are confounded by large inter-individual variation in absorption and turnover of non-cholesterol sterols. Further work is needed to assess the relation between non-cholesterol sterol metabolism and associated cholesterol transport in the genesis of coronary heart disease.

  2. Dietary reference values for vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    synthesis and dietary sources, can be used as a biomarker of vitamin D status in adult and children populations. The Panel notes that the evidence on the relationship between serum 25(OH)D concentration and musculoskeletal health outcomes in adults, infants and children, and adverse pregnancy-related health...

  3. DIETS/DIETARY HABITS AND CERTAIN GASTROINTESTINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiology Department, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State ... of diet and dietary habits including fibres, food additives and preservatives on the aetiology of gastric cancers ... beneficial effects on the G.I tract (Howe et al, ...... Food poisoning: Diseases due to .... Obakpite, P. O., Onuminya, J. E., Nwana, E. J..

  4. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    many years to boost, even by small margins, their strength and per- formance. ... training or competition routine, even if the rationale for using these products is not .... Dietary supplements adulterated with sibutramine, an anti-obesity agent, which do .... for weight loss and athletic performance: A meta-analysis. JAMA 2003 ...

  5. DIETARY HABITS OF A MEDITERRANEAN POPULATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    The nutrient intake of the studied population is not in line with that ... habitual cooking methods, to estimate the usual diet of individuals during the previous year. ... However, the mean intakes were below the RDA for dietary calcium, ... As shown in table 6, the population was also stratified by education level, and the intakes.

  6. Of piglets, dietary proteins, and pancreatic proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkink, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Newly weaned piglets often show digestive disorders, frequently resulting in diarrhoea. These disorders may be related to the dietary protein source, since young piglets are less capable of digesting proteins of vegetable origin than older pigs. This study was undertaken to investigate the

  7. One-to-one dietary interventions undertaken in a dental setting to change dietary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca; Gamboa, Ana; Dailey, Yvonne; Ashcroft, Angela

    2012-03-14

    The dental care setting is an appropriate place to deliver dietary assessment and advice as part of patient management. However, we do not know whether this is effective in changing dietary behaviour. To assess the effectiveness of one-to-one dietary interventions for all ages carried out in a dental care setting in changing dietary behaviour. The effectiveness of these interventions in the subsequent changing of oral and general health is also assessed. The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 24 January 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 24 January 2012), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 24 January 2012), CINAHL via EBSCO (1982 to 24 January 2012), PsycINFO via OVID (1967 to 24 January 2012), and Web of Science (1945 to 12 April 2011). We also undertook an electronic search of key conference proceedings (IADR and ORCA between 2000 and 13 July 2011). Reference lists of relevant articles, thesis publications (Dissertations Abstracts Online 1861 to 2011) were searched. The authors of eligible trials were contacted to identify any unpublished work. Randomised controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of one-to-one dietary interventions delivered in a dental care setting. Abstract screening, eligibility screening and data extraction decisions were all carried out independently and in duplicate by two review authors. Consensus between the two opinions was achieved by discussion, or involvement of a third review author. Five studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Two of these were multi-intervention studies where the dietary intervention was one component of a wider programme of prevention, but where data on dietary behaviour change were reported. One of the single intervention studies was concerned with dental caries prevention. The other two concerned general health outcomes. There were no studies

  8. Does dietary calcium interact with dietary fiber against colorectal cancer? A case?control study in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Galas, Aleksander; Augustyniak, Malgorzata; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Background An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease?s incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on ...

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. Nutritionally, two broad categories of carbohydrates can be differentiated: “glycaemic carbohydrates”, i.e. carbohydrates digested and absorbed in the human small intestine, and „dietary fibre‟, non-digestible carbohydrates passing to the large intestine. In this Opinion, dietary fibre is defined as non-digestible car...

  10. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. PMID:27184272

  11. Effect of isoflavone-enriched soybean flour, zinc (Zn and vitamin E in the ration on testosterone level and total permatogenic cell in seminiferous tubules of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment are to evaluate the effects of isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour, zinc (Zn and vitamin E on testosterone level of male rats and total spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules of rat testes as animal model. Diet was given as isonitrogen and isocaloric with 15% of dietary protein. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups and treated with isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E in different combination. Isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour (3mg/day was given by oral administration, whereas Zn and vitamin E were mixed wih the basic diet. The treatment was done for 2 month. Results indicated that complete treatment of isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E on male rats increased testosteron level and total spermatogenic cells in comparison with single treatment and the other combination. The best results showed in the group that given isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour with diet containing both Zn and vitamin E i.e; testosteron level 3.49 ± 0.31 ng/ml; while the number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, early spermatids, late spermatids, and total spermatogenic cells were 37.56 ± 4.48, 67 ± 4.72, 287.11 ± 31.75, 227.22 ± 29.78, and 618.89 ± 47.38, respectively. It was concluded that synergic interaction between isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E increased testosteron level and total spermatogenic cells of rat testes.

  12. Dietary modification of human macular pigment density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, B R; Johnson, E J; Russell, R M; Krinsky, N I; Yeum, K J; Edwards, R B; Snodderly, D M

    1997-08-01

    The retinal carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) that form the macular pigment (MP) may help to prevent neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MP density in the retina could be raised by increasing dietary intake of L and Z from foods. Macular pigment was measured psychophysically for 13 subjects. Serum concentrations of L, Z, and beta-carotene were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven subjects modified their usual daily diets by adding 60 g of spinach (10.8 mg L, 0.3 mg Z, 5 mg beta-carotene) and ten also added 150 g of corn (0.3 mg Z, 0.4 mg L); two other subjects were given only corn. Dietary modification lasted up to 15 weeks. For the subjects fed spinach or spinach and corn, three types of responses to dietary modification were identified: Eight "retinal responders" had increases in serum L (mean, 33%; SD, 22%) and in MP density (mean, 19%; SD, 11%); two "retinal nonresponders" showed substantial increases in serum L (mean, 31%) but not in MP density (mean, -11%); one "serum and retinal nonresponder" showed no changes in serum L, Z, or beta-carotene and no change in MP density. For the two subjects given only corn, serum L changed little (+11%, -6%), but in one subject serum Z increased (70%) and MP density increased (25%). Increases in MP density were obtained within 4 weeks of dietary modification for most, but not all, subjects. When MP density increased with dietary modification, it remained elevated for at least several months after resuming an unmodified diet. Augmentation of MP for both experimental and clinical investigation appears to be feasible for many persons.

  13. Evaluation of methodologies for assessing the overall diet: dietary quality scores and dietary pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, Marga C

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims to describe different approaches for studying the overall diet with advantages and limitations. Studies of the overall diet have emerged because the relationship between dietary intake and health is very complex with all kinds of interactions. These cannot be captured well by studying single dietary components. Three main approaches to study the overall diet can be distinguished. The first method is researcher-defined scores or indices of diet quality. These are usually based on guidelines for a healthy diet or on diets known to be healthy. The second approach, using principal component or cluster analysis, is driven by the underlying dietary data. In principal component analysis, scales are derived based on the underlying relationships between food groups, whereas in cluster analysis, subgroups of the population are created with people that cluster together based on their dietary intake. A third approach includes methods that are driven by a combination of biological pathways and the underlying dietary data. Reduced rank regression defines linear combinations of food intakes that maximally explain nutrient intakes or intermediate markers of disease. Decision tree analysis identifies subgroups of a population whose members share dietary characteristics that influence (intermediate markers of) disease. It is concluded that all approaches have advantages and limitations and essentially answer different questions. The third approach is still more in an exploration phase, but seems to have great potential with complementary value. More insight into the utility of conducting studies on the overall diet can be gained if more attention is given to methodological issues.

  14. [Comparison of 24 hour dietary recalls with a food frequency questionnaire in evaluating dietary fat intakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Juan; Zhuo, Qin; He, Yu-na

    2016-05-01

    To compare the difference and correlation of dietary fat intakes measures from the food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with measures from 24 hour dietary recalls (24HDRs), and provide evidence for the future research of dietary fat. A total of 511 participants, selected from Zhejiang province, were asked to complete an FFQ and 24HDRs. The consumption of energy, fat, fatty acids, the percentages of energy from fat were calculated with the FFQ and 24HDRs and the results were analyzed. There was no difference between FFQ and 24HDRs in energy, fat, fatty acids and the percentages of energy from fat. Sperman's rank correlation coefficient between the two methods were 0.51 in energy, 0.58 in fat and 0. 57 in the percentages of energy from fat. The proportion of subjects who were assigned to the same or adjacent quintile groups were 80.73% for energy, 84.81% for fat and 83. 38% for the percentages of energy from fat. An effective FFQ can evaluate dietary fat consumption and rank participants well. Selecting the simple and easy FFQ method to assess the dietary fat intake would he a good choice when research the relationship between dietary fat and chronic disease in the future.

  15. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  16. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...

  17. The Effects of Dietary Factors on Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Lawrence J

    2017-05-01

    Evidence supports that multiple dietary factors affect blood pressure (BP). Dietary changes that effectively lower BP are weight loss, reduced sodium intake, increased potassium intake, moderation of alcohol intake, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-style and vegetarian dietary patterns. In view of the increasing levels of BP in children and adults and the continuing epidemic of BP-related cardiovascular and renal diseases, efforts to reduce BP in both nonhypertensive and hypertensive individuals are warranted. The challenge to health care providers, researchers, government officials, and the general public is developing and implementing clinical and public health strategies that lead to sustained dietary changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary fibres in the regulation of appetite and food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten Møller Georg

    2011-01-01

    of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. This may be linked to increased chyme viscosity, as linseed dietary fibre has water holding capacity and intrinsic viscosity which...... it is essential to have an understanding of individual dietary fibre viscosity characteristics. The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the role of dietary fibres in appetite regulation highlighting the importance of viscosity and also include new findings on the role of linseed dietary fibre...... on appetite regulation....

  19. Dietary Guidelines should reflect new understandings about adult protein needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layman Donald K

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide nutrition advice aimed at promoting healthy dietary choices for life-long health and reducing risk of chronic diseases. With the advancing age of the population, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines confront increasing risks for age-related problems of obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, heart disease, and sarcopenia. New research demonstrates that the meal distribution and amount of protein are important in maintaining body composition, bone health and glucose homeostasis. This editorial reviews the benefits of dietary protein for adult health, addresses omissions in current nutrition guidelines, and offers concepts for improving the Dietary Guidelines.

  20. Healthy-eater self-schema and dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine, Samar; Stein, Karen

    2009-03-01

    The types and amounts of foods consumed have been shown to influence the health risks of individuals. Empirical evidence has documented a link between high dietary fat and low fiber intake and the risks for cardiovascular disease, some types of cancer, and obesity. Dietary surveys of Americans show higher fat and lower fiber intake than stipulated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, despite the noted increase in public awareness regarding the importance of adopting healthy eating habits. The lack of congruence between the availability of dietary knowledge and behavioral adherence to dietary recommendations suggests a need to further understand the predictors of dietary intake. In this study, the authors used the schema model of the self-concept to explore the role of self-beliefs in predicting dietary intake in community-dwelling, working-class, middle-aged adults.

  1. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: Synthesis of Findings across Cohorts and Relevance to Dietary Guidance1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11–28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index–mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality

  2. Effects of isoflavone-containing soya protein on ex vivo cholesterol efflux, vascular function and blood markers of CVD risk in adults with moderately elevated blood pressure: a dose-response randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Fleming, Jennifer A; Link, Christina J; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-05-01

    Emerging CVD risk factors (e.g. HDL function and central haemodynamics) may account for residual CVD risk experienced by individuals who meet LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) targets. Recent evidence suggests that these emerging risk factors can be modified by polyphenol-rich interventions such as soya, but additional research is needed. This study was designed to investigate the effects of an isoflavone-containing soya protein isolate (delivering 25 and 50 g/d soya protein) on HDL function (i.e. ex vivo cholesterol efflux), macrovascular function and blood markers of CVD risk. Middle-aged adults (n 20; mean age=51·6 (sem 6·6) years) with moderately elevated brachial BP (mean systolic BP=129 (sem 9) mmHg; mean diastolic BP=82·5 (sem 8·4) mmHg) consumed 0 (control), 25 and 50 g/d soya protein in a randomised cross-over design. Soya and control powders were consumed for 6 weeks each with a 2-week compliance break between treatment periods. Blood samples and vascular function measures were obtained at baseline and following each supplementation period. Supplementation with 50 g/d soya protein significantly reduced brachial diastolic BP (-2·3 mmHg) compared with 25 g/d soya protein (Tukey-adjusted P=0·03) but not the control. Soya supplementation did not improve ex vivo cholesterol efflux, macrovascular function or other blood markers of CVD risk compared with the carbohydrate-matched control. Additional research is needed to clarify whether effects on these CVD risk factors depend on the relative health of participants and/or equol producing capacity.

  3. Increased insulin sensitivity and changes in the expression profile of key insulin regulatory genes and beta cell transcription factors in diabetic KKAy-mice after feeding with a soy bean protein rich diet high in isoflavone content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, I; Jeppesen, P B; Hong, J; Abudula, R; Hermansen, K

    2008-06-25

    High content isoflavone soy protein (SBP) (Abalon) has been found in animal studies to possess beneficial effects on a number of the characteristic features of the insulin resistance syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SBP exerts beneficial effects on metabolism in the diabetic KKAy-mouse. Furthermore, we investigated the long-term in vivo effect of SBP on the expression profile in islets of key insulin regulatory genes. Twenty KKAy-mice, aged 5 weeks, were divided into 2 groups and treated for 9 weeks with either (A) standard chow diet (control) or (B) chow + 50% SBP. Twenty normal C57BL-mice fed with standard chow diet served as nondiabetic controls (C). Blood samples were collected and analyzed before and after intervention. Gene expression was determined in islets by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Affymetrix microarray. It was demonstrated that long-term treatment with SBP improves glucose homeostasis, increases insulin sensitivity, and lowers plasma triglycerides in diabetic KKAy-mice. SBP reduces fasting plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Furthermore, SBP markedly changes the gene expression profile of key insulin regulatory genes GLUT2, GLUT3, Ins1, Ins2, IGF1, Beta2/Neurod1, cholecystokinin, and LDLr, and proliferative genes in islets isolated from KKAy-mice. After 9 weeks of treatment with SBP, plasma glucose and insulin homeostasis was normalized compared to start levels. The results indicate that SBP improves glucose and insulin sensitivity and up-regulates the expression of key insulin regulatory genes.

  4. Isolated soya protein with standardised levels of isoflavones, cotyledon soya fibres and soya phospholipids improves plasma lipids in hypercholesterolaemia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a yoghurt formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puska, Pekka; Korpelainen, Vesa; Høie, Lars H; Skovlund, Eva; Smerud, Knut T

    2004-03-01

    The objective was to study whether a yoghurt containing isolated soya protein with standardised levels of isoflavones, cotyledon soya fibres and soya phospholipids is more effective in lowering total and LDL-cholesterol than a placebo. One hundred and forty-three subjects were randomised to the soya group (n 69) or to the placebo (n 74). The mean baseline levels were 7.6 and 5.1 mmol/l for total and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. Fasting serum lipoproteins were assessed five times during the 8-week intervention period, and 4 weeks thereafter. The results were analysed by a mixed model for unbalanced repeated measurements. During the intervention, there were highly significant differences in lipid-lowering effect in favour of the active soya intervention group compared with the control group. The significant differences were for total cholesterol (estimated mean difference 0.40 mmol/l; P<0.001), LDL-cholesterol (0.39 mmol/l; P<0.001), non-HDL-cholesterol (0.40 mmol/l; P<0.001) and for the total:HDL-cholesterol ratio (0.23; P=0.005). There was no difference in the effects on HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols or homocysteine. The lipid-lowering effect occurred within 1-2 weeks of intervention, and was not due to weight loss. The safety profile for active soya was similar to the placebo group, except for gastrointestinal symptoms, which caused a significantly higher dropout rate (fourteen v. three subjects) among the subjects taking active soya.

  5. Progress in developing analytical and label-based dietary supplement databases at the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Picciano, Mary Frances; Betz, Joseph M.; Fisher, Kenneth D.; Saldanha, Leila G.; Yetley, Elizabeth A.; Coates, Paul M.; Milner, John A.; Whitted, Jackie; Burt, Vicki; Radimer, Kathy; Wilger, Jaimie; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Holden, Joanne M.; Andrews, Karen; Roseland, Janet; Zhao, Cuiwei; Schweitzer, Amy; Harnly, James; Wolf, Wayne R.; Perry, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Although an estimated 50% of adults in the United States consume dietary supplements, analytically substantiated data on their bioactive constituents are sparse. Several programs funded by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health enhance dietary supplement database development and help to better describe the quantitative and qualitative contributions of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes. ODS, in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture, is developing a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) verified by chemical analysis. The products chosen initially for analytical verification are adult multivitamin-mineral supplements (MVMs). These products are widely used, analytical methods are available for determining key constituents, and a certified reference material is in development. Also MVMs have no standard scientific, regulatory, or marketplace definitions and have widely varying compositions, characteristics, and bioavailability. Furthermore, the extent to which actual amounts of vitamins and minerals in a product deviate from label values is not known. Ultimately, DSID will prove useful to professionals in permitting more accurate estimation of the contribution of dietary supplements to total dietary intakes of nutrients and better evaluation of the role of dietary supplements in promoting health and well-being. ODS is also collaborating with the National Center for Health Statistics to enhance the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary supplement label database. The newest ODS effort explores the feasibility and practicality of developing a database of all dietary supplement labels marketed in the US. This article describes these and supporting projects. PMID:25346570

  6. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...... of school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. Conclusions The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....

  7. Efeitos da isoflavona e dos estrogênios conjugados eqüinos sobre a qualidade de vida na pós-menopausa Effects of isoflavone and conjugated equine estrogen on the postmenopausal quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Laprano Vieira

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar os efeitos da isoflavona e do estrogênio sobre a qualidade de vida de mulheres na pós-menopausa. MÉTODOS: realizou-se estudo randomizado, duplo-cego, com 79 pacientes, amenorréia de 12 meses, idade superior a 40 anos e índice de massa corporal (IMC superior a 30 kg/m². As mulheres foram aleatoriamente divididas em dois grupos de tratamento: GECP recebeu duas cápsulas, via oral, de 12/12 horas, uma contendo 0,625 mg de estrogênios conjugados eqüinos e, a outra, placebo (n=33; GECS recebeu duas cápsulas de 150 mg de extrato de soja, com 60 mg de isoflavonas cada (n=32, por seis meses. O Questionário de Qualidade de Vida Específico para Menopausa foi empregado antes e após um, três e seis meses de tratamento. Os parâmetros do risco de câncer ginecológico foram avaliados. Para análise dos dados, aplicaram-se os testes de ANOVA e de Tukey. RESULTADOS: quanto aos parâmetros vasomotores, houve redução nos valores após seis meses de tratamento, 1,6±0,8 e 2,4±1,6, em relação aos valores antes da terapia, 4,0±2,2 e 4,2±2,3, respectivamente, nos GECP e GECS. Os aspectos psicossociais mostraram diminuição dos valores após seis meses de terapia, 2,5±1,2 e 2,9±1,4, em relação aos valores antes da terapia, 3,6±1,6 e 4,1±1,9, respectivamente, nos GECP e GECS. De forma semelhante ocorre no aspecto físico e nos sintomas sexuais. CONCLUSÕES: as isoflavonas agem positivamente na qualidade de vida de mulheres na pós-menopausa, semelhantemente aos estrogênios conjugados eqüinos.PURPOSE: to analyze the isoflavone and estrogen effects on the postmenopausal quality of life. METHODS: this is a randomized and double-blind study with 79 postmenopausal patients, 12 months of amenorrhea, 40 years old or more and body mass index (BMI above 30 kg/m². The participants were randomly divided into two treatment groups: GECP received orally two capsules, every 12 hours, one contained 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen

  8. Dietary salt reduction for control of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In developed as well as developing countries, the four main factors affecting blood pressure are high salt intake, low potassium intake, overweight, and low physical activity level. This is also true for the increase in blood pressure with advancing age, occurring in all societies. It is now accepted that excess dietary salt raises blood pressure levels, whereas dietary salt reduction reduces blood pressure and prevents vascular complications.(1 The effect of salt on blood pressure is presumably due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete large amounts of salt, as humans are evolutionary adapted to ingest and excrete less than 1 gram of salt per day.(2 In this connection it should be noted that the more important element in common salt (sodium chloride is the sodium ion, and any restrictions applying to common salt also apply to all food items that contain sodium ions, such as sodium glutamate and baking soda.

  9. Consumers' dietary patterns and desires for change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit

    of the results of a questionnaire survey (Jelsøe, Land & Lassen, 1994), so that their ways of life, age, number of children, distance to etc., were known in advance. Their dietary patterns, as revealed by the questionnaire survey, had no influence on the selection. 3. Not unexpectedly, the questionnaire survey...... living at home and where the children had left home. In order to illustrate how dietary patterns affect the various daily practices of different ways of life another important selection criterion was to choose four families within each way of life: the wage earner w life, the career way of life...... explain how Ziehe's work can be linked to changes in food consumption. 5. The in-depth interviews were analysed across the twelve families around eleven focus points: * division of labour in the family and the time available * economic resources * consumers' perception of quality * ecological products...

  10. Dietary diversity and child malnutrition in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Boadi Frempong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The health of children in Ghana has improved in recent years. However, the current prevalence rates of malnutrition remain above internationally acceptable levels. This study, therefore, revisits the determinants of child health by using Ghana’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey to investigate the effect of infant feeding practices on child health. We used the World Health Organization’s Infant and Young Children Feeding guidelines to measure dietary quality. The econometric analyses show that dietary diversity may cause improvement in children’s health in Ghana. This suggests that educational campaigns on proper infant feeding and complementary dieting could be an effective means of improving the health of children in Ghana.

  11. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.

  12. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  13. Dietary patterns as predictors of successful ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, A M; O'Dea, K; English, D R; Giles, G G; Flicker, L

    2014-03-01

    To examine associations between dietary patterns identified by factor analysis, and successful ageing. Prospective cohort study with diet measured in 1990-4, and successful ageing in 2003-7. Ordered logistic regression with outcome determined as dead/usual ageing/successful ageing was used to examine associations with quintile groups of dietary factor scores. Men and women (n=6308), without history of major illness at baseline, and aged >70 years at follow-up, or who had died before follow-up but would have been aged >70 at the commencement of follow-up, from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Frequencies of intake of 121 foods at baseline were collected in a food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry and other health and lifestyle data were collected. At follow-up, questionnaire data relating to mental health, physical function and medical history were used to define successful ageing. Four dietary factors were identified, characterized by higher loadings for (1) vegetables; (2) fruit, (3) feta, legumes, salad, olive oil, and inverse loadings for tea, margarine, cake, sweet biscuits and puddings; (4) meat, white bread, savoury pastry dishes and fried foods. In models excluding body size, the second factor 'Fruit' was positively associated with successful ageing (OR in top 20% vs lowest 20% of score 1.31, 95%CI (1.05-1.63), p trend across quintile groups 0.001); while the fourth factor 'Meat/fatty foods' was inversely associated (OR in top 20% vs lowest 20% of score 0.69, 95%CI (0.55-0.86), p trend across quintile groups 0.001). Factors 1 and 3 did not show significant associations with successful ageing. The association for 'Fruit' was little altered after adjustment for body size, while for 'Meat/fatty foods' the association was somewhat attenuated. A dietary pattern including plenty of fruit while limiting meat and fried foods may improve the likelihood of ageing successfully.

  14. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  15. Geriatric dietary meat-based products

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzelov, Aco; Agunova, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary nutrition pattern referring to different age groups of the population does not meet quantitative and qualitative requirements. In Ukraine the manufacture of geriatric meat-based dietary products is underdeveloped. Therefore, the development of healthy and functional foods is the priority objective for the food industry. The research is devoted to considering the possibility of using quail meat, wheat germ flakes and walnut oil in the production process of the sausages for ...

  16. Dietary patterns in Them and Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, P; Jørgensen, I M; Paerregaard, A

    1982-01-01

    Four-day weighing and 24-hour recall were used to record food consumption in groups of 30 men, aged 50-59 years, in 2 areas of Denmark: Them, a rural Danish community, and Copenhagen. Fat consumption was found to be higher in Them, whereas alcohol consumption was higher in Copenhagen. The absolut...... daily intake of dietary fiber was higher in Them than in Copenhagen. These observations document changes due to industrialization of food production, modern distribution, and marketing methods....

  17. Dietary sugars, not lipids, drive hypothalamic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuanqing; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Fleming, Thomas; Grabner, Gernot F.; Foppen, Ewout; Bernhard, Wagner; Guzm?n-Ruiz, Mara; Layritz, Clarita; Legutko, Beata; Zinser, Erwin; Garc?a-C?ceres, Cristina; Buijs, Ruud M.; Woods, Stephen C.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Seeley, Randy J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The hypothalamus of hypercaloric diet-induced obese animals is featured by a significant increase of microglial reactivity and its associated cytokine production. However, the role of dietary components, in particular fat and carbohydrate, with respect to the hypothalamic inflammatory response and the consequent impact on hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis is yet not clear. Methods: We dissected the different effects of high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diets and low-car...

  18. Consumer accounts of favourable dietary behaviour change and comparison with official dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Vidal, Leticia; Machín, Leandro; Moratorio, Ximena; Bandeira, Elisa; Curutchet, María Rosa; Bove, Isabel; Giménez, Ana

    2018-07-01

    The current study aimed to assess Uruguayan consumers' accounts of their own need to change their dietary patterns, their intended changes and the barriers related to doing so, and to compare the intentions and barriers with the recommendations of the national dietary guidelines. An online survey with 2381 Uruguayan employed adults, aged between 18 and 65 years, 65 % females, was conducted. Participants had to answer two open-ended questions related to changes they could make in the foods they eat and/or the way in which they eat to improve the quality of their diet and the reasons why they had not implemented those changes yet. Content analysis using inductive coding by two researchers was used to analyse the responses. Consumers mainly intended to change consumption of types of foods, particularly eating more fruits, vegetables and legumes and consuming less flour, but also intended to alter their eating patterns. Lack of time and the fact that healthy foods are perceived as being more expensive than unhealthy foods were major barriers to behaviour change. Some of the recommendations of the dietary guidelines, particularly those related to enjoying cooking and meals and engaging in it as a social activity, were not represented in consumer accounts. Accompanying policies to the dietary guidelines need to underline the importance of changes in dietary patterns, including greater enjoyment and sharing food preparation and meals in the company with others, address misconceptions about flour, and provide concrete, consumer-derived recommendations on how to enact the guidelines.

  19. Dietary fat content modulates the hypolipidemic effect of dietary inulin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Yamamoto, Aiko; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2017-08-01

    Dietary fat content (low versus high fat) may modulate the serum lipid-lowering effect of high-performance (HP)-inulin. This study investigated the effect of dietary HP-inulin on metabolism in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet. Rats were fed a diet of 5% fat with 5% cellulose or 5% HP-inulin (average degree of polymerization = 24) (low-fat diet) or of 20% fat with 5% cellulose or 5% HP-inulin (high-fat diet) for 28 days. Total, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterols, and triglyceride concentrations in the serum were measured along with total lipid content of liver and feces. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol, and fecal neutral and acidic sterol concentrations in total lipid were assessed. In addition, cecum SCFA levels and bacterial profiles were determined. The hypolipidemic effect of HP-inulin differed depending on dietary fat content (5% versus 20%). Specifically, 5% inulin instead of cellulose in a semi-purified diet significantly reduced serum lipid levels in rats fed a high-fat diet, which was strongly associated with increased total lipid and neutral sterol excretion. Dietary fat content modulates the hypolipidemic effect of dietary inulin. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Dietary practices and associated factors during pregnancy in northwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, Amanuel; Zema, Tona

    2018-05-25

    Pregnancy is the most crucial nutritionally demanding period of every woman's life. The high demand of nutrients to deposit energy in the form of new tissue, growth of existing maternal tissues such as breast and uterus and increased energy requirements for tissue synthesis makes pregnant women more vulnerable to malnutrition. Dietary practice is defined as an observable actions or behavior of dietary habit and can be classified as good dietary practices and poor dietary practices. The incidence of dietary inadequacies as a result of dietary habits and patterns in pregnancy is higher during pregnancy when compared to any other stage of the life cycle. Thus, this study aimed to assess dietary practices and associated factors during pregnancy in Bahir Dar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 1, 2016. A total of 616 pregnant women were participated in the study. All eligible pregnant women were identified through house-to-house visit with the help of health extension workers. Cluster sampling was used to select eligible pregnant women. The data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaire prepared in English and translated in to Amharic. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with dietary practices. This study has shown that 39.3% of the study participants had good dietary practices and the rest 60.7% of pregnant women reported poor dietary practices. Concerning dietary knowledge, 61.4% of the study participants had good dietary knowledge while 38.6% had poor dietary knowledge. Husband income, ownership of radio, history of disease and dietary knowledge were shown to have significant association (P < 0.05) with dietary practices. Dietary practices of pregnant women in the study area was suboptimal. Husband income, ownership of radio, history of disease