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Sample records for dietary elevated sucrose

  1. Dietary elevated sucrose modulation of diesel-induced genotoxicity in the colon and liver of Big Blue rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, L.; Moller, P.; Hansen, Max

    2003-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that sucrose possesses either co-carcinogenic or tumor-promoter effects in colon carcinogenesis induced by genotoxic carcinogens. In this study we investigated the role of sucrose on diesel exhaust particle (DEP)-induced genotoxicity in the colonic mucosa and liver......-breaks and DNA adducts in liver. DEP and sucrose treatment did not have any effect on mutation frequency in colon and liver. Oxidative DNA damage detected as 8-oxodG (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) and endonuclease III or formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sensitive sites was unaltered in colon and liver....... The mRNA expression levels of the DNA repair enzymes N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG), 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and ERCC1 (part of the nucleotide excision repair complex) measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were increased in liver by DEP feeding. In colon...

  2. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root architecture and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee-Ho, E.; Walton, L.J.; Reid, D.M.; Yeung, E.C.; Kurepin, L.V.

    2007-01-01

    Plant root growth is known to be influenced by higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Roots of some species grown in hydroponics under elevated CO 2 concentrations may be more competitive sinks for photosynthetic assimilates than roots grown under lower CO 2 conditions. Root branching patterns may also be influenced by elevated CO 2 concentrations. Studies have also shown that factors such as soil compaction, salinity and the availability of nitrate, phosphorous, oxygen and water also influence root growth, and the effects of higher CO 2 on roots can be confounded by such environmental factors. This study evaluated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root growth, morphology, and architecture. Both ambient and elevated CO 2 levels were used along with various sucrose concentrations. The study revealed that A. thaliana plants grown on a phytagar medium in small chambers with elevated CO 2 had longer roots, more lateral root growth than plants grown in ambient CO 2 . Roots in elevated CO 2 were found to have wider root diameters, and more secondary growth. The addition of sucrose to the media closely resembled the effects of elevated CO 2 . In addition, the increase in sucrose concentration had a bigger effect on root morphology under ambient, than elevated CO 2 . Therefore, both elevated CO 2 and increased sucrose concentrations promote root growth by increasing their number, length, and diameter. The dichotomy branching index (DBI) also dropped resulting in a more dichotomous branching pattern. 34 refs., 5 figs

  3. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root architecture and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee-Ho, E.; Walton, L.J.; Reid, D.M.; Yeung, E.C.; Kurepin, L.V. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2007-03-15

    Plant root growth is known to be influenced by higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Roots of some species grown in hydroponics under elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations may be more competitive sinks for photosynthetic assimilates than roots grown under lower CO{sub 2} conditions. Root branching patterns may also be influenced by elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations. Studies have also shown that factors such as soil compaction, salinity and the availability of nitrate, phosphorous, oxygen and water also influence root growth, and the effects of higher CO{sub 2} on roots can be confounded by such environmental factors. This study evaluated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root growth, morphology, and architecture. Both ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} levels were used along with various sucrose concentrations. The study revealed that A. thaliana plants grown on a phytagar medium in small chambers with elevated CO{sub 2} had longer roots, more lateral root growth than plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. Roots in elevated CO{sub 2} were found to have wider root diameters, and more secondary growth. The addition of sucrose to the media closely resembled the effects of elevated CO{sub 2}. In addition, the increase in sucrose concentration had a bigger effect on root morphology under ambient, than elevated CO{sub 2}. Therefore, both elevated CO{sub 2} and increased sucrose concentrations promote root growth by increasing their number, length, and diameter. The dichotomy branching index (DBI) also dropped resulting in a more dichotomous branching pattern. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Dietary sucrose and starch affect dysplastic characteristics in carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderni, G; Lancioni, L; Luceri, C; Giannini, A; Lodovici, M; Biggeri, A; Dolara, P

    1997-03-19

    To study whether dietary carbohydrates affect dysplasia in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), rats treated with 1,2-dimethilhydrazine (DMH) were fed for three months with diets containing 46% sucrose or corn starch. The number of ACF/colon in the two dietary groups was similar (P = 0.58), but ACF were smaller in the starch than in sucrose group (P colon carcinogenesis while sucrose in the diet is detrimental, promoting the dysplasia of preneoplastic lesions like ACF.

  5. Up-regulation of sucrose metabolizing enzymes in Oncidium goldiana grown under elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Run Li; Sun, W.Q.; Choy Sin Hew [National Univ. of Singapore. dept. of Biological Sciences (Singapore)

    2001-07-01

    Experiments were conducted in controlled growth chambers to evaluate how increase in CO{sub 2} concentration affected sucrose metabolizing enzymes, especially sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13), as well as carbon metabolism and partitioning in a tropical epiphytic orchid species (Oncidium goldiana). Response of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) to elevated CO{sub 2} was determined along with dry mass production, photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content, total nitrogen and total soluble protein content. After 60 days of growth, there was a 80% and 150% increase in dry mass production in plants grown at 750 and 1100 {mu} l{sup -}1 CO{sub 2}, respectively, compared with those grown at ambient CO{sub 2} (about 370 {mu} l{sup -}1). A similar increase in photosynthesis rate was detected throughout the growth period when measured under growth CO{sub 2} conditions. Concomitantly, there was a decline in leaf Rubisco activity in plants in elevated CO{sub 2} after 10 days of growth. Over the growth period, leaf SPS and SS activities were up-regulated by an average of 20% and 40% for plants grown at 750 and 1100 {mu} l{sup -}1 CO{sub 2}, respectively. Leaf sucrose content and starch content were significantly higher throughout the growth period in plants grown at elevated CO{sub 2} than those at ambient CO{sub 2}. The partitioning of photosynthetically fixed carbon between sucrose and starch appeared to be unaffected by the 750 {mu} l{sup -}1 CO{sub 2} treatment, but it was favored into starch under the 1100 {mu} l{sup -}1 CO{sub 2} condition. The activities of SPS and SS in leaf extracts were closely associated with photosynthetic rates and with partitioning of carbon between starch and sucrose in leaves. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the up-regulation of leaf SPS and SS might be an acclimation response to optimize the utilization and export of organic carbon with the

  6. Sucrose Sensitivity of Honey Bees Is Differently Affected by Dietary Protein and a Neonicotinoid Pesticide.

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    Fabien J Démares

    Full Text Available Over a decade, declines in honey bee colonies have raised worldwide concerns. Several potentially contributing factors have been investigated, e.g. parasites, diseases, and pesticides. Neonicotinoid pesticides have received much attention due to their intensive use in crop protection, and their adverse effects on many levels of honey bee physiology led the European Union to ban these compounds. Due to their neuronal target, a receptor expressed throughout the insect nervous system, studies have focused mainly on neuroscience and behaviour. Through the Geometric Framework of nutrition, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on survival, food consumption and sucrose sensitivity of honey bees (Apis mellifera. Thiamethoxam did not affect protein and carbohydrate intake, but decreased responses to high concentrations of sucrose. Interestingly, when bees ate fixed unbalanced diets, dietary protein facilitated better sucrose detection. Both thiamethoxam and dietary protein influenced survival. These findings suggest that, in the presence of a pesticide and unbalanced food, honey bee health may be severely challenged. Consequences for foraging efficiency and colony activity, cornerstones of honey bee health, are also discussed.

  7. Interaction of dietary sucrose and fiber on serum lipids in healthy young men fed high carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M J; Ullrich, I H

    1986-03-01

    High sucrose diets may cause increased serum triglycerides and decreased high density lipoprotein concentration. To determine whether dietary fiber protects against these effects, four groups of six healthy young men were assigned to one of four very high carbohydrate diets providing 0, 18, 36, or 52% of calories as sucrose. Each diet was fed in both low (less than 14 g) and high (greater than 34 g) levels of dietary fiber for 10 days each. Triglycerides increased during the 36 and 52% sucrose diets compared to 0 and 18% sucrose diets, and fiber protected partially against this rise. Serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were lower during the 0 and 18% sucrose diets than the 36 or 52% sucrose diets but fiber had no effect. HDL cholesterol decreased during all low fat diets, with a trend toward a greater decrease during the high sucrose diets. The results suggest that fiber protects against carbohydrate-induced lipemia but has no effect on cholesterol during very high carbohydrate diets.

  8. Nucleus accumbens inflammation mediates anxiodepressive behavior and compulsive sucrose seeking elicited by saturated dietary fat

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    Léa Décarie-Spain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The incidence of depression is significantly compounded by obesity. Obesity arising from excessive intake of high-fat food provokes anxiodepressive behavior and elicits molecular adaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, a region well-implicated in the hedonic deficits associated with depression and in the control of food-motivated behavior. To determine the etiology of diet-induced depression, we studied the impact of different dietary lipids on anxiodepressive behavior and metabolic and immune outcomes and the contribution of NAc immune activity. Methods: Adult C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to isocaloric high-fat/high-sucrose diets (HFD, enriched in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, or a control low-fat diet (LFD. Metabolic responses, anxiodepressive behavior, and plasma and NAc inflammatory markers were assessed after 12 weeks. In separate experiments, an adenoviral construct inhibiting IKKβ, an upstream component of the nuclear factor kappa-b (NFkB pathway, was a priori injected into the NAc. Results: Both HFDs resulted in obesity and hyperleptinemia; however, the saturated HFD uniquely triggered anxiety-like behavior, behavioral despair, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, peripheral inflammation, and multiple pro-inflammatory signs in the NAc, including reactive gliosis, increased expression of cytokines, antigen-presenting markers and NFкB transcriptional activity. Selective NAc IKKβ inhibition reversed the upregulated expression of inflammatory markers, prevented anxiodepressive behavior and blunted compulsive sucrose-seeking in mice fed the saturated HFD. Conclusions: Metabolic inflammation and NFкB-mediated neuroinflammatory responses in the NAc contribute to the expression of anxiodepressive behavior and heightened food cravings caused by a diet high in saturated fat and sugar. Keywords: Diet-induced obesity, Dietary fatty acids, Nuclear factor kappa-b, Neuroinflammation, Depression, Anxiety, Food reward

  9. Inhibition by natural dietary substances of gastrointestinal absorption of starch and sucrose in rats and pigs: 1. Acute studies.

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    Preuss, Harry G; Echard, Bobby; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney

    2007-08-06

    Rapid gastrointestinal absorption of refined carbohydrates (CHO) is linked to perturbed glucose-insulin metabolism that is, in turn, associated with many chronic health disorders. We assessed the ability of various natural substances, commonly referred to as "CHO blockers," to influence starch and sucrose absorption in vivo in ninety-six rats and two pigs. These natural enzyme inhibitors of amylase/sucrase reportedly lessen breakdown of starches and sucrose in the gastrointestinal tract, limiting their absorption. To estimate absorption, groups of nine SD rats were gavaged with water or water plus rice starch and/or sucrose; and circulating glucose was measured at timed intervals thereafter. For each variation in the protocol a total of at least nine different rats were studied with an equal number of internal controls on three different occasions. The pigs rapidly drank CHO and inhibitors in their drinking water. In rats, glucose elevations above baseline over four hours following rice starch challenge as estimated by area-under-curve (AUC) were 40%, 27%, and 85% of their internal control after ingesting bean extract, hibiscus extract, and l-arabinose respectively in addition to the rice starch. The former two were significantly different from control. L-Arabinose virtually eliminated the rising circulating glucose levels after sucrose challenge, whereas hibiscus and bean extracts were associated with lesser decreases than l-arabinose that were still significantly lower than control. The glucose elevations above baseline over four hours in rats receiving sucrose (AUC) were 51%, 43% and 2% of control for bean extract, hibiscus extract, and L-arabinose, respectively. Evidence for dose-response of bean and hibiscus extracts is reported. Giving the natural substances minus CHO challenge caused no significant changes in circulating glucose concentrations, indicating no major effects on overall metabolism. A formula combining these natural products significantly

  10. The effects of selected dietary bioflavonoid supplementation on dental caries in young rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

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    Wood, Nelson

    2007-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that certain bioflavonoids reduce dental caries and cariogenic bacteria incidence. The present study evaluates two separate, but related, dietary trials -- trial 1, 0.09%, 0.18%, 0.36%, and 0.72% dietary naringenin (NAR) supplementation; and trial 2, 0.57% dietary rutin (R), quercetin (Q), and naringin (N) supplementation-on dental caries formation in 40 different male albino rats, at the expense of dextrose, for periods of 42 days. All rats were fed 40% sucrose. In dietary trial 1, rats were evaluated for dental caries, dental plaque accumulation, and saliva flow rates using oneway analysis of variance, post hoc Tukey's test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman's correlations. In dietary trial 2, rats were evaluated for occlusal dental caries only using a Kruskal-Wallis H test and analysis of variance. A 5% level of statistical significance was adopted throughout. In dietary trial 1, NAR showed a statistically significant effect on dental caries, plaque, and saliva flow rate reduction compared with the control group (P < .05-.01). An inverse dose-dependent relationship was established among the NAR experimental groups and control group. Dietary NAR supplementation significantly reduced dental caries formation, possibly because of reduced dental plaque accumulation. In dietary trial 2, statistically significant reductions in occlusal caries were observed for R, Q, and N in the maxillary molars and for Q and N in the mandibular molars compared with the control group (P < .05). Significant associations were observed among the experimental groups and maxillary (P < .05) and mandibular (P < .01) occlusal dental caries. Hence, selected bioflavonoids may show promise as an alternative means of reducing dental caries.

  11. Endothelial mechanotransduction proteins and vascular function are altered by dietary sucrose supplementation in healthy young male subjects.

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    Gliemann, Lasse; Rytter, Nicolai; Lindskrog, Mads; Slingsby, Martina H Lundberg; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Sylow, Lykke; Richter, Erik A; Hellsten, Ylva

    2017-08-15

    response to passive movement (by 17 ± 2%) and to 12 W of active exercise (by 9 ± 1%), indicating impaired vascular function. A reduced flow response to passive and active exercise was paralleled by a significant up-regulation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase and the Rho family GTPase Rac1 protein expression in the muscle tissue, as well as an increased basal phosphorylation status of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and a reduced phosphorylation status of PECAM-1. The phosphorylation status was not acutely altered with passive leg movement. These findings indicate that a regular intake of high levels of sucrose can impair vascular mechanotransduction and increase the oxidative stress potential, and suggest that dietary excessive sugar intake may contribute to the development of vascular disease. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  12. Effect of increasing dietary nonfiber carbohydrate with starch, sucrose, or lactose on rumen fermentation and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate effects of increasing dietary nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) with starch, sucrose, or lactose on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (141 ± 50 d in milk; 614 ± 53 kg of body weight) including 8 ruminally cannulated cows were used in this study. Cows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. The treatments were control [27% starch and 4% sugar on a dry matter (DM) basis], a high-NFC diet by increasing dietary starch content (STA; 32% starch and 4% sugar on a DM basis), and 2 more high-NFC diets by increasing dietary sugar content (27% starch and 9% sugar on a DM basis) in which sucrose (SUC) or lactose (LAC) was supplemented. Dry matter intake was greater for cows fed high-NFC diets compared with control diet (27.1 vs. 26.3 kg/d), but rumen pH and milk production did not differ between cows fed control and high-NFC diets. However, cows fed high-disaccharide diets had lower mean rumen pH than those fed STA diet (6.19 vs. 6.32). Although molar proportion of butyrate was greater for high-disaccharide treatments than STA treatment (15.2 vs. 13.7 mol/100 mol), absorption rate of volatile fatty acid in the rumen was not affected by treatment. In addition, cows fed high-disaccharide diets had higher energy-corrected milk yield than cows fed STA diet (39.6 vs. 38.0 kg/d). Dry matter intake did not differ between cows fed 2 high-disaccharide diets. Although cows fed the SUC diet had lower molar proportion of butyrate in the rumen compared with those fed the LAC diet (14.4 vs. 15.9 mol/100 mol), the SUC diet did not decrease rumen pH. In addition, cows fed the SUC diet had lower nutrient digestibility of organic matter than did those fed the LAC diet (59.7 vs. 64.4%), but milk component yields did not differ between the 2 high-disaccharide diet treatments. The results of the

  13. Dietary low-dose sucrose modulation of IQ-induced genotoxicity in the colon and liver of Big Blue((TM)) rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Hansen, Max; Autrup, H.

    2003-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that sucrose increases 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced aberrant crypt foci in the colon. In this study, we investigated the role of sucrose in IQ-induced genotoxicity of the colon mucosa and liver. Big Blue(TM) rats were fed with IQ (20 ppm...... in feed) and/or sucrose (3.45 or 6.85 wt.% in feed) for 3 weeks. IQ increased DNA strand breaks in the colon, whereas the mutation frequency was increased in the liver. The level of IQ-induced DNA adducts was elevated in both colon mucosa cells and liver. In the liver, high sucrose intake increased...... the level of DNA adducts above that of IQ and low sucrose intake. Oxidative DNA damage detected in terms of 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine by HPLC-EC, or endonuclease HI or formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sensitive sites were unaltered in the colon and liver. Expression of ERCC1 and OGG1 mRNA levels...

  14. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaumontet, C.; Even, P.C.; Schwarz, Jessica; Simonin-Foucault, A.; Piedcoq, J.; Fromentin, G.; Tomé, D.; Azzout-Marniche, D.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the

  15. Endothelial mechanotransduction proteins and vascular function are altered by dietary sucrose supplementation in healthy young male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Rytter, Nicolai; Lindskrog, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular...... by ultrasound doppler. A muscle biopsy was obtained from the thigh muscle before and after acute passive leg movement, to asses the protein amount and phosphorylation status of mechanosensory proteins and NADPH oxidase. The sucrose intervention led to a reduced flow response to passive movement (by 17 ± 2...... %) and to 12 watts of active exercise (by 9 ± 1 %), indicating impaired vascular function. Reduced flow response to passive and active exercise was paralleled by a significant upregulation of Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase and the Rho...

  16. Effects of dietary inulin, statin, and their co-treatment on hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis and changes in drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet

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    Sugatani Junko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (HF diet develop hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia. There are several reports that a change in nutritional status affects hepatic levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Synthetic inulin is a dietary component that completely evades glucide digestion. Supplementing a HF diet with inulin ameliorates hypertriglycemia and hepatic steatosis, but not hypercholesterolemia. This study aimed at distinguishing the effects of synthetic inulin and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin, which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. Methods We examined effects of co-treatment with synthetic inulin (5% and fluvastatin (0, 4, and 8 mg/kg, per os on body weight, epidydimal white adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, and hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP mRNA and protein profiles in rats fed a standard diet or a HF diet for 3 weeks. Results Treatment with the synthetic inulin (5% or fluvastatin at 4 mg/kg (lethal dose in rats fed the HF diet, 8 mg/kg ameliorated the elevation in hepatic triacylglycerol and total cholesterol levels in rats fed the HF diet. Whereas co-treatment with the inulin (5% and fluvastatin (4 mg/kg had a tendency to more strongly suppress the elevation in serum levels of very low density lipoprotein triacylglycerol than either treatment alone, no additive or synergistic effect was found in decrease in hepatic lipid levels. Hepatic levels of CYP1A1/2 and CYP2E1 mRNA and protein and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities were reduced in rats fed the HF diet. The synthetic inulin alleviated the reduction in hepatic levels of CYP1A1/2 and CYP2E1 mRNA and protein more strongly than fluvastatin, and no synergistic effects were observed on co-treatment. Furthermore, hepatic levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor mRNA were decreased in rats fed the HF diet and recovered to near normal values with the intake of dietary inulin

  17. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Lee S.; Lukyanova, Elena M.; Kundiev, Yuri I.; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A.; Chislovska, Nataliya V.; Mucha, Amy; Zvinchuk, Alexander V.; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25μg/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21μg/L (range=0.11-0.42μg/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21μg/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries

  18. Traditional dietary pattern is associated with elevated cholesterol among the Inuit of Nunavik.

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    Labonté, Marie-Ève; Dewailly, Eric; Lucas, Michel; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2014-08-01

    Our cross-sectional study assessed the associations between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Nunavik Inuit. This study was conducted as part of the 2004 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey, which included the collection of clinical measurements, plasma samples, and diet information from a food frequency questionnaire. A sample of 666 Inuit aged 18 years and older was included in our analyses. Dietary patterns were generated by principal component analysis. Multivariate general linear models adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, and other potential confounders were used to examine associations between dietary patterns and CVD risk factors. Four distinct patterns were identified, namely the traditional, Western, nutrient-poor food, and healthy patterns. The traditional pattern showed positive associations with plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B100, LDL peak particle diameter, and oxidized LDL (all P values for trend≤0.04), but showed no association with the total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio or with inflammatory biomarkers (all P values for trend ≥0.19). The nutrient-poor food pattern was positively associated with oxidized LDL (P=0.04), but inversely associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (PInuit is not associated with important changes in CVD risk factors, with the exception of a slight elevation in cholesterol concentrations, most likely attributable to increased n-3 fatty acid intake. Dietary patterns reflecting the recent introduction of market foods in the Inuit diet appear to exert a trivial influence on CVD risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Dietary Intake of Avocado Oil and Olive Oil on Biochemical Markers of Liver Function in Sucrose-Fed Rats

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    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted, compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet, a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α-amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α-amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil.

  20. Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and lipid synthesis from glucose in adipose tissue of rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Lisiane G; Rieger, Débora K; Hansen, Fernanda; Silveira, Simone L; Martins, Tiago L; Lulhier, Francisco; da Silva, Roselis S; Souza, Diogo O; Perry, Marcos L S; de Assis, Adriano M

    2013-12-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) have hypolipidemic effects and modulate intermediary metabolism to prevent or reverse insulin resistance in a way that is not completely elucidated. Here, effects of these fatty acids on the lipid profile, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, lipid synthesis from glucose in epididymal adipose tissue (Ep-AT) and liver were investigated. Male rats were fed a high-sucrose diet (SU diet), containing either sunflower oil or a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (SU-FO diet), and the control group was fed a standard diet. After 13 weeks, liver, adipose tissue and blood were harvested and analysed. The dietary n-3 LCPUFAs prevented sucrose-induced increase in adiposity and serum free fat acids, serum and hepatic triacylglycerol and insulin levels. Furthermore, these n-3 LCPUFAs decreased lipid synthesis from glucose and increased PEPCK activity in the Ep-AT of rats fed the SU-FO diet compared to those fed the SU diet, besides reducing lipid synthesis from glucose in hepatic tissue. Thus, the inclusion of n-3 LCPUFAs in the diet may be beneficial for the prevention or attenuation of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and for reducing the risk of related chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for elevated aminotransferase in men independently of body mass index, dietary habits, and physical activity.

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    Yoo, Ki Deok; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Hang Lak; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon

    2015-04-01

    Aminotransferase activity is a surrogate marker of liver injury showing strong correlations with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, elevated aminotransferase activity is not uncommon in non-obese and non-alcoholic patients in clinical practice. To examine the relationship between sarcopenia and aminotransferase activity in a large population-based cohort. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examinations were used. A total of 13,431 subjects were included. A whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed on each patient to measure total and regional muscle mass. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass indices were also obtained. The prevalence of sarcopenia was significantly higher in the group with elevated aminotransferase levels than in the normal liver enzyme group (males: 26.5% vs. 16.9%; females: 38.3% vs. 22.1%, plevels. The frequency of elevated aminotransferase increased in male patients with sarcopenia after adjusting for potential confounding factors including age, body mass index, fasting glucose level, dietary, and exercise habits. However, the correlation was no longer observed in women after adjusting for body mass index. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for elevated aminotransferase in men, independently of body mass index, dietary habits, and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Sucrose reward promotes rats' motivation for cocaine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Qing; LE, Qiu-Min; Yu, Xiang-Chen; Ma, Lan; Wang, Fei-Fei

    2016-06-25

    Caloric diet, such as fat and sugar intake, has rewarding effects, and has been indicated to affect the responses to addictive substances in animal experiments. However, the possible association between sucrose reward and the motivation for addictive drugs remains to be elucidated. Thus, we carried out behavioral tests after sucrose self-administration training to determine the effects of sucrose experience on rats' motivation for cocaine, locomotor sensitivity to cocaine, basal locomotor activity, anxiety level, and associative learning ability. The sucrose-experienced (sucrose) group exhibited higher lever press, cocaine infusion and break point, as well as upshift of cocaine dose-response curve in cocaine self-administration test, as compared with the control (chow) group. Additionally, despite similar locomotor activity in open field test and comparable score in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, the sucrose group showed higher cocaine-induced locomotor sensitivity as compared with the chow group. The anxiety level and the performance in vocal-cue induced fear memory were similar between these two groups in elevated plus maze and fear conditioning tests, respectively. Taken together, our work indicates that sucrose experience promotes the rats' motivation for cocaine.

  3. High dietary fat and sucrose results in an extensive and time-dependent deterioration in health of multiple physiological systems in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, James G; Kebede, Melkam A; Meoli, Christopher C; Stöckli, Jacqueline; Whitworth, P Tess; Wright, Amanda L; Hoffman, Nolan J; Minard, Annabel Y; Ma, Xiuquan; Krycer, James R; Nelson, Marin E; Tan, Shi-Xiong; Yau, Belinda; Thomas, Kristen C; Wee, Natalie K Y; Khor, Ee-Cheng; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Vissel, Bryce; Biden, Trevor J; Baldock, Paul A; Hoehn, Kyle L; Cantley, James; Cooney, Gregory J; James, David E; Fazakerley, Daniel J

    2018-04-13

    Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and with disorders such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and neurodegeneration. Typically, these pathologies are examined in discrete model systems and with limited temporal resolution, and whether these disorders co-occur is therefore unclear. To address this question, here we examined multiple physiological systems in male C57BL/6J mice following prolonged exposure to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHSD). HFHSD-fed mice rapidly exhibited metabolic alterations, including obesity, hyperleptinemia, physical inactivity, glucose intolerance, peripheral insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycemia, ectopic lipid deposition, and bone deterioration. Prolonged exposure to HFHSD resulted in morbid obesity, ectopic triglyceride deposition in liver and muscle, extensive bone loss, sarcopenia, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired short-term memory. Although many of these defects are typically associated with aging, HFHSD did not alter telomere length in white blood cells, indicating that this diet did not generally promote all aspects of aging. Strikingly, glucose homeostasis was highly dynamic. Glucose intolerance was evident in HFHSD-fed mice after 1 week and was maintained for 24 weeks. Beyond 24 weeks, however, glucose tolerance improved in HFHSD-fed mice, and by 60 weeks, it was indistinguishable from that of chow-fed mice. This improvement coincided with adaptive β-cell hyperplasia and hyperinsulinemia, without changes in insulin sensitivity in muscle or adipose tissue. Assessment of insulin secretion in isolated islets revealed that leptin, which inhibited insulin secretion in the chow-fed mice, potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the HFHSD-fed mice after 60 weeks. Overall, the excessive calorie intake was accompanied by deteriorating function of numerous physiological systems. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Acute effects of feeding fructose, glucose and sucrose on blood lipid levels and systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Faizan; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L

    2014-12-16

    Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between fructose consumption and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Mechanisms by which dietary fructose mediates metabolic changes are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of fructose, glucose and sucrose consumption on post-postprandial lipemia and low grade inflammation measured as hs-CRP. This was a randomized, single blinded, cross-over trial involving healthy subjects (n=14). After an overnight fast, participants were given one of 3 different isocaloric drinks, containing 50 g of either fructose or glucose or sucrose dissolved in water. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30, 60 and 120 minutes post intervention for the analysis of blood lipids, glucose, insulin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Glucose and sucrose supplementation initially resulted in a significant increase in glucose and insulin levels compared to fructose supplementation and returned to near baseline values within 2 hours. Change in plasma cholesterol, LDL and HDL-cholesterol (measured as area under curve, AUC) was significantly higher when participants consumed fructose compared with glucose or sucrose (PAUC for plasma triglyceride levels however remained unchanged regardless of the dietary intervention. Change in AUC for hs-CRP was also significantly higher in subjects consuming fructose compared with those consuming glucose (P<0.05), but not sucrose (P=0.07). This study demonstrates that fructose as a sole source of energy modulates plasma lipids and hsCRP levels in healthy individuals. The significance of increase in HDL-cholesterol with a concurrent increase in LDL-cholesterol and elevated hs-CRP levels remains to be delineated when considering health effects of feeding fructose-rich diets. ACTRN12614000431628.

  5. The Search for Dietary Supplements to Elevate or Activate Circulating Paraoxonases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1 have been associated with the development of several pathological conditions, whereas high levels have been shown to be anti-atherosclerotic in mouse models. These findings suggest that PON1 could be a good surrogate biomarker. The other members of the family, namely PON2 and PON3, the role of which has been much less studied, deserve more attention. This paper provides a systematic review of current evidence concerning dietary supplements in that regard. Preliminary studies indicate that the response to dietary supplements may have a nutrigenetic aspect that will need to be considered in large population studies or in clinical trials. A wide range of plant preparations have been found to have a positive action, with pomegranate and some of its components being the best characterized and Aronia melanocarpa one of the most active. Flavonoids are found in the composition of all active extracts, with catechins and genistein being the most promising agents for increasing PON1 activity. However, some caveats regarding the dose, length of treatment, bioavailability, and stability of these compounds in formulations still need to be addressed. Once these issues have been resolved, these compounds could be included as nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of increasing PON1 activity, thereby helping with the long-term prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic ailments.

  6. The Search for Dietary Supplements to Elevate or Activate Circulating Paraoxonases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) have been associated with the development of several pathological conditions, whereas high levels have been shown to be anti-atherosclerotic in mouse models. These findings suggest that PON1 could be a good surrogate biomarker. The other members of the family, namely PON2 and PON3, the role of which has been much less studied, deserve more attention. This paper provides a systematic review of current evidence concerning dietary supplements in that regard. Preliminary studies indicate that the response to dietary supplements may have a nutrigenetic aspect that will need to be considered in large population studies or in clinical trials. A wide range of plant preparations have been found to have a positive action, with pomegranate and some of its components being the best characterized and Aronia melanocarpa one of the most active. Flavonoids are found in the composition of all active extracts, with catechins and genistein being the most promising agents for increasing PON1 activity. However, some caveats regarding the dose, length of treatment, bioavailability, and stability of these compounds in formulations still need to be addressed. Once these issues have been resolved, these compounds could be included as nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of increasing PON1 activity, thereby helping with the long-term prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic ailments. PMID:28212288

  7. Dietary sodium restriction reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Kristen L.; Racine, Matthew L.; Geolfos, Candace J.; Gates, Phillip E.; Chonchol, Michel; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We determined the efficacy of dietary sodium restriction (DSR) for improving vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged/older adults with moderately elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP; 130–159 mmHg) and the associated physiological mechanisms. Background Vascular endothelial dysfunction develops with advancing age and elevated SBP, contributing to increased cardiovascular risk. DSR lowers BP, but its effect on vascular endothelial function and mechanisms involved are unknown. Methods Seventeen subjects (11M/6F; 62±7 yrs, mean±S.D.) completed a randomized, crossover study of 4 weeks of both low and normal sodium intake. Vascular endothelial function (endothelium-dependent dilation; EDD), nitric oxide (NO)/tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) bioavailability and oxidative stress-associated mechanisms were assessed following each condition. Results Urinary sodium excretion was reduced by ~50% (to 70±30 mmol/day), and conduit (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMDBA]) and resistance (forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine [FBFACh]) artery EDD were 68% and 42% (peak FBFACh) higher following the low sodium diet (psodium markedly enhanced NO- mediated EDD (greater ΔFBFACh with endothelial NO synthase [eNOS] inhibition) without changing eNOS expression/activation (Ser1177 phosphorylation), restored BH4 bioactivity (less ΔFMDBA with acute BH4), abolished tonic superoxide suppression of EDD (less ΔFMDBA and ΔFBFACh with ascorbic acid infusion), and increased circulating superoxide dismutase activity (p<0.05). These effects were independent of ΔSBP. Other subject characteristics/dietary factors and endothelium-independent dilation were unchanged. Conclusions DSR largely reverses both macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction by enhancing NO and BH4 bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress. Our findings support the emerging concept that DSR induces “vascular protection” beyond that attributable to its BP-lowering effects. PMID

  8. Dietary gossypol suppressed postprandial TOR signaling and elevated ER stress pathways in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Fuyun; Jiang, Haowen; Man, Mingsan; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; He, Gen

    2017-01-01

    Gossypol is known to be a polyphenolic compound toxic to animals. However, its molecular targets are far from fully characterized. To evaluate the physiological and molecular effects of gossypol, we chose turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish, as our model species. Juvenile turbots (7.83 ± 0.02 g) were fed diets containing gradient levels of gossypol at 0 (G0), 600 (G1), and 1,200 (G2) mg/kg diets for 11 wk. After the feeding trial, fish growth, body protein, and fat contents were significantly reduced in the G2 group compared with those of the G0 group (P TOR) signaling and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in both the feeding experiment and cell cultures. Our results demonstrated that gossypol inhibited TOR signaling and elevated ER stress pathways both in vivo and in vitro, thus providing new mechanism of action of gossypol in nutritional physiology. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake is Not Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure in US Adults with No Prior History of Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailendra; McFann, Kim; Chonchol, Michel; Kendrick, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake with elevated blood pressure (BP) levels is unclear. We examined the association between dietary sodium and potassium intake and BP levels in 6985 adults 18 years of age or older with no prior history of hypertension who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001–2006). After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, diabetes and eGFR, there was no association between higher quartiles of sodium or potassium intake with the risk of a BP >140/90 mmHg or >130/80 mmHg. There was also no relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake with BP when systolic and diastolic BP were measured as continuous outcomes (p=0.68 and p=0.74, respectively). Furthermore, no association was found between combinations of sodium and potassium intake with elevated BP. In the US adult population without hypertension, increased dietary sodium or low potassium intake was not associated with elevated BP levels. PMID:24720647

  10. Sucrose assimilation and the role of sucrose transporters in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (25), pp. ... Review. Sucrose assimilation and the role of sucrose transporters in plant wound response. Omodele ... Key words: Sucrose transporters, Plasma membrane, carbohydrate, sieve element, source-sink. ... pathogens (Paul et al., 2000) and results in a severe.

  11. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: Influence of elevated dietary iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, Raymond W.M.; Andres, Jose A.; Niyogi, Som

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine > kidney > stomach > liver > gill > carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish.

  12. Effects of dietary cadmium exposure on tissue-specific cadmium accumulation, iron status and expression of iron-handling and stress-inducible genes in rainbow trout: Influence of elevated dietary iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, Raymond W.M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Andres, Jose A. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Niyogi, Som, E-mail: som.niyogi@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Recent evidences suggest that dietary cadmium (Cd) uptake likely occurs via the dietary iron (Fe) uptake pathway in freshwater fish, at least in part. The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary Cd and Fe in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were treated for four weeks with four different diets: normal Fe, high Fe, normal Fe plus Cd, and high Fe plus Cd. Physiological parameters, tissue-specific Fe and Cd level, plasma Fe status, and tissue-specific mRNA expression of transferrin, metallothioneins (MT-A and MT-B) and heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70a and HSP70b) were analyzed. Exposure to dietary Cd increased Cd burden in the following order: intestine > kidney > stomach > liver > gill > carcass. Interestingly, high dietary Fe reduced Cd accumulation in the stomach and intestine as well as in the wholebody of fish. Dietary Cd increased hepatic transferrin mRNA expression and total Fe binding capacity in the plasma, indicating the effect of Cd on Fe handling in fish. The mRNA expression of MTs and HSP70s was also increased in various tissues following dietary Cd exposure, however the response profile of different MT and HSP70 genes was not consistent among different tissues. In general, MT-A was more responsive to Cd exposure in the intestine and liver, whereas MT-B was more responsive in the kidney. Similarly, HSP70a expression was more sensitive to Cd exposure than HSP70b, particularly in the intestine. Interestingly, high Fe diet suppressed Cd-induced induction of transferrin, MT and HSP70 genes in various tissues. Overall, our study suggests that elevated dietary Fe can reduce Cd accumulation and ameliorate Cd-induced stress responses in freshwater fish.

  13. Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and mice, and induces weight gain and inflammation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvheim, Anita R.; Torstensen, Bente E.; Lin, Yu Hong

    2013-01-01

    , arachidonic acid (AA), decreased EPA and DHA, elevated the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), and increased TAG accumulation in the salmon liver. In mice, the SO salmon diet increased LA and AA and decreased EPA and DHA in the liver and erythrocyte phospholipids, and elevated......Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) has increased dramatically during the twentieth century and is associated with a greater prevalence of obesity. Vegetable oils are recognised as suitable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) but introduce high amounts of LA......-inflammatory properties of EPA and DHA in mice....

  14. Oligosaccharides Derived from Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsan, Pierre F.; Ouarné, Francois

    Sucrose is a non-reducing disaccharide, consisting of an α-D-glucopyranosyl residue and a β-D-fructofuranosyl residue linked covalently by their respective anomeric carbons (α-D-glucopyranosyl-1,2-β-D-fructofuranoside). It is not just a simple disaccharide, among others: in fact, the energy of its glycosidic bond is higher than that of a usual glycosidic bond. It is equal to 27.6 kJ/mol, which is similar to the energy of a nucleotide-sugar bond as in UDP-glucose or ADP-glucose. This means that sucrose is a protected and activated form of D-glucose (as well as of D-fructose), which plays a key role in the metabolism of plants, for a wide variety of synthesis reactions.

  15. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletti Luiz C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. Results We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Conclusion Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by

  16. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badotti, Fernanda; Dário, Marcelo G; Alves, Sergio L; Cordioli, Maria Luiza A; Miletti, Luiz C; de Araujo, Pedro S; Stambuk, Boris U

    2008-02-27

    Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L) initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by effectively reducing sucrose uptake by the yeast cells

  17. Sucrose Phosphate Synthase and Sucrose Accumulation at Low Temperature 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Charles L.; Huber, Joan L. A.; Huber, Steven C.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of growth temperature on the free sugar and sucrose phosphate synthase content and activity of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaf tissue was studied. When plants were grown at 25°C for 3 weeks and then transferred to a constant 5°C, sucrose, glucose, and fructose accumulated to high levels during a 14-d period. Predawn sugar levels increased from 14- to 20-fold over the levels present at the outset of the low-temperature treatment. Sucrose was the most abundant free sugar before, during, and after exposure to 5°C. Leaf sucrose phosphate synthase activity was significantly increased by the low-temperature treatment, whereas sucrose synthase and invertases were not. Synthesis of the sucrose phosphate synthase subunit was increased during and after low-temperature exposure and paralleled an increase in the steady-state level of the subunit. The increases in sucrose and its primary biosynthetic enzyme, sucrose phosphate synthase, are discussed in relation to adjustment of metabolism to low nonfreezing temperature and freezing stress tolerance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16652990

  18. A sucrose-rich diet induces mutations in the rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L.O.; Daneshvar, B.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    A sucrose-rich diet has repeatedly been observed to have cocarcinogenic actions in the colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate whether sucrose-rich diets might directly increase the genotoxic response in the rat colon or liver, we have...... or in blood plasma. We conclude that a sucrose-rich diet directly or indirectly increases the mutation frequency in rat colon in a dose-dependent manner and concomitantly decreases the level of background DNA adducts, without a direct effect on the expression of major DNA repair enzyme systems. We also...... conclude that an oxidative mechanism for this effect of sucrose is unlikely. This is the first demonstration of a genotoxic action of increased dietary sucrose in vivo. Both sucrose intake and colon cancer rates are high in the Western world, and our present results call for an examination of a possible...

  19. Sugar industry sponsorship of germ-free rodent studies linking sucrose to hyperlipidemia and cancer: An historical analysis of internal documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristin E Kearns

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD. SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose's CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planning, funding, and internal evaluation of an SRF-funded research project titled "Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats," led by Dr. W.F.R. Pover at the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, between 1967 and 1971. A narrative case study method was used to assess SRF Project 259 from 1967 to 1971 based on sugar industry internal documents. Project 259 found a statistically significant decrease in serum triglycerides in germ-free rats fed a high sugar diet compared to conventional rats fed a basic PRM diet (a pelleted diet containing cereal meals, soybean meals, whitefish meal, and dried yeast, fortified with a balanced vitamin supplement and trace element mixture. The results suggested to SRF that gut microbiota have a causal role in carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia. A study comparing conventional rats fed a high-sugar diet to those fed a high-starch diet suggested that sucrose consumption might be associated with elevated levels of beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme previously associated with bladder cancer in humans. SRF terminated Project 259 without publishing the results. The sugar industry did not disclose evidence of harm from animal studies that would have (1 strengthened the case that the CHD risk of sucrose is greater than starch and (2 caused sucrose to be scrutinized as a potential carcinogen. The influence of the gut microbiota in the differential effects of sucrose and starch on blood lipids, as well as the influence of carbohydrate quality on beta-glucuronidase and cancer activity, deserve further scrutiny.

  20. Sugar industry sponsorship of germ-free rodent studies linking sucrose to hyperlipidemia and cancer: An historical analysis of internal documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Cristin E; Apollonio, Dorie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-11-01

    In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD). SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose's CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planning, funding, and internal evaluation of an SRF-funded research project titled "Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats," led by Dr. W.F.R. Pover at the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, between 1967 and 1971. A narrative case study method was used to assess SRF Project 259 from 1967 to 1971 based on sugar industry internal documents. Project 259 found a statistically significant decrease in serum triglycerides in germ-free rats fed a high sugar diet compared to conventional rats fed a basic PRM diet (a pelleted diet containing cereal meals, soybean meals, whitefish meal, and dried yeast, fortified with a balanced vitamin supplement and trace element mixture). The results suggested to SRF that gut microbiota have a causal role in carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia. A study comparing conventional rats fed a high-sugar diet to those fed a high-starch diet suggested that sucrose consumption might be associated with elevated levels of beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme previously associated with bladder cancer in humans. SRF terminated Project 259 without publishing the results. The sugar industry did not disclose evidence of harm from animal studies that would have (1) strengthened the case that the CHD risk of sucrose is greater than starch and (2) caused sucrose to be scrutinized as a potential carcinogen. The influence of the gut microbiota in the differential effects of sucrose and starch on blood lipids, as well as the influence of carbohydrate quality on beta-glucuronidase and cancer activity, deserve further scrutiny.

  1. Sucrose or sucrose and caffeine differentially impact memory and anxiety-like behaviours, and alter hippocampal parvalbumin and doublecortin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tanya J; Reichelt, Amy C

    2018-04-11

    Caffeinated sugar-sweetened "energy" drinks are a subset of soft drinks that are popular among young people worldwide. High sucrose diets impair cognition and alter aspects of emotional behaviour in rats, however, little is known about sucrose combined with caffeine. Rats were allocated to 2 h/day 10% sucrose (Suc), 10% sucrose plus 0.04% caffeine (CafSuc) or control (water) conditions. The addition of caffeine to sucrose appeared to increase the rewarding aspect of sucrose, as the CafSuc group consumed more solution than the Suc group. After 14 days of intermittent Suc or CafSuc access, anxiety was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) prior to their daily solution access, whereby CafSuc and Suc rats spent more time in the closed arms, indicative of increased anxiety. Following daily solution access, CafSuc, but not Suc, rats showed reduced anxiety-like behaviour in the open-field. Control and CafSuc rats displayed intact place and long-term object memory, while Suc showed impaired memory performance. Sucrose reduced parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, but no differences were observed between Control and CafSuc conditions. Parvalbumin reactivity in the basolateral amygdala did not differ between conditions. Reduced doublecortin immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus relative to controls was seen in the CafSuc, but not Suc, treatment conditions. These findings indicate that the addition of caffeine to sucrose attenuated cognitive deficits. However, the addition of caffeine to sucrose evoked anxiety-like responses under certain testing conditions, suggesting that frequent consumption of caffeinated energy drinks may promote emotional alterations and brain changes compared to standard soft drinks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Drinking sucrose enhances quinpirole-induced yawning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; Thomas, Yvonne M; France, Charles P

    2011-12-01

    Food and drugs can activate brain dopamine systems and sensitivity to the effects of drugs acting on those systems is influenced by amount and content of food consumed. This study examined the effects of drinking sucrose on behavioral effects of the direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6/group) had free access to water or 10% sucrose and quinpirole dose-response curves (yawning and hypothermia) were generated weekly for 8 weeks. Subsequently, all rats drank water for 8 weeks with quinpirole dose-response curves determined on weeks 9, 10, and 16. In rats drinking sucrose, the ascending (D3 receptor-mediated), but not descending (D2 receptor-mediated), limb of the yawning dose-response curve shifted leftward. The D3 receptor-selective antagonist PG01037 shifted the ascending limb of the dose-response curve to the right in all rats. When rats that previously drank sucrose drank water, their sensitivity to quinpirole did not return to normal. Quinpirole-induced hypothermia was not different between groups. These data show that drinking sucrose increases sensitivity to a dopamine D3, but not D2, receptor-mediated effect and that this change is long lasting. Dopamine receptors mediate the effects of many drugs and the actions of those drugs are likely impacted by dietary factors.

  3. Elevated dietary magnesium during pregnancy and postnatal life prevents ectopic mineralization in Enpp1asj mice, a model for generalized arterial calcification of infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingman, Joshua; Uitto, Jouni; Li, Qiaoli

    2017-06-13

    Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ENPP1 gene. It is characterized by mineralization of the arterial blood vessels, often diagnosed prenatally, and associated with death in early childhood. There is no effective treatment for this devastating disorder. We previously characterized the Enpp1asjmutant mouse as a model of GACI, and we have now explored the effect of elevated dietary magnesium (five-fold) in pregnant mothers and continuing for the first 14 weeks of postnatal life. The mothers were kept on either control diet or experimental diet supplemented with magnesium. Upon weaning at 4 weeks of age the pups were placed either on control diet or high magnesium diet. The degree of mineralization was assessed at 14 weeks of age by histopathology and a chemical calcium assay in muzzle skin, kidney and aorta. Mice placed on high magnesium diet showed little, if any, evidence of mineralization when their corresponding mothers were also placed on diet enriched with magnesium during pregnancy and nursing. The reduced ectopic mineralization in these mice was accompanied by increased calcium and magnesium content in the urine, suggesting that magnesium competes calcium-phosphate binding thereby preventing the mineral deposition. These results have implications for dietary management of pregnancies in which the fetus is suspected of having GACI. Moreover, augmenting a diet with high magnesium may be beneficial for other ectopic mineralization diseases, including nephrocalcinosis.

  4. High-fat but not sucrose intake is essential for induction of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Højland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Rolin, Bidda

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia are closely related. Diet plays an important role in the progression of these diseases, but the role of specific dietary components is not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of dietary sucrose and fat....../cholesterol on the development of dyslipidemia and NAFLD. Methods Seventy female guinea pigs were block-randomized (based on weight) into five groups and fed a normal chow diet (control: 4 % fat), a very high-sucrose diet (vHS: 4 % fat, 25 % sucrose), a high-fat diet (HF: 20 % fat, 0.35 % cholesterol), a high......-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHS: 20 % fat, 15 % sucrose, 0.35 % cholesterol) or a high-fat/very high-sucrose diet (HFvHS: 20 % fat, 25 % sucrose, 0.35 % cholesterol) for 16 and 25 weeks. Results All three high-fat diets induced dyslipidemia with increased concentrations of plasma cholesterol (p 

  5. A sucrose-rich diet induces mutations in the rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars O.; Daneshvar, Bahram; Vogel, Ulla

    2002-01-01

    A sucrose-rich diet has repeatedly been observed to have cocarcinogenic actions in the colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate whether sucrose-rich diets might directly increase the genotoxic response in the rat colon or liver, we have...... added sucrose to the diet of Big Blue rats, a strain of Fischer rats carrying 40 copies of the lambda-phage on chromosome 4. Dietary sucrose was provided to the rats for 3 weeks at four dose levels including the background level in the purified diet [3.4% (control), 6.9%, 13.8%, or 34.5%] without...... of a sucrose-rich diet. No significant increase in mutations was observed in the liver. To seek an explanation for this finding, a variety of parameters were examined representing different mechanisms, including increased oxidative stress, changes in oxidative defense, effects on DNA repair, or changes...

  6. Dietary restriction causes chronic elevation of corticosterone and enhances stress response in red-legged kittiwake chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, John F.

    2001-01-01

    Release of corticosterone in hungry kittiwake chicks facilitates begging and allows them to restore depleted energy reserves by increasing parental food provisioning. However, in order to avoid detrimental effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone, chicks might suppress adrenocortical activity in response to prolonged food shortages. In this study we examined temporal dynamics of corticosterone release in red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) chicks exposed to prolonged restrictions in energy content and/or nutritional quality (low versus high lipid content) of their food. Starting at the age of 15 days, chicks were fed either high- or low-lipid fish at 40%, 65%, and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. Body mass measurements and baseline plasma samples were taken on a weekly basis after beginning of the treatment. After 3 weeks of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where in addition to a baseline sample, three plasma samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. We found that food-restricted chicks had lower body mass, chronically (during 2-3 weeks) elevated baseline and higher acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. Low lipid content of food further exacerbated these effects. An increase in baseline levels of corticosterone was observed within a week after energy requirements of food-restricted chicks exceeded their daily energy intake. A tendency for suppression of adrenocortical activity was observed in treatments fed low-lipid diets only at the end of the experiment. We suggest that nest-bound chicks, if food-stressed, might suffer deleterious effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone.

  7. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph

    OpenAIRE

    A Kumar; R Hedge; U Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on saliv...

  8. Sugar industry sponsorship of germ-free rodent studies linking sucrose to hyperlipidemia and cancer: An historical analysis of internal documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Cristin E.; Apollonio, Dorie

    2017-01-01

    In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD). SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose’s CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planning, funding, and internal evaluation of an SRF-funded research project titled “Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats,” led by Dr. W.F.R. Pover at the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, between 1967 and 1971. A narrative case study method was used to assess SRF Project 259 from 1967 to 1971 based on sugar industry internal documents. Project 259 found a statistically significant decrease in serum triglycerides in germ-free rats fed a high sugar diet compared to conventional rats fed a basic PRM diet (a pelleted diet containing cereal meals, soybean meals, whitefish meal, and dried yeast, fortified with a balanced vitamin supplement and trace element mixture). The results suggested to SRF that gut microbiota have a causal role in carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia. A study comparing conventional rats fed a high-sugar diet to those fed a high-starch diet suggested that sucrose consumption might be associated with elevated levels of beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme previously associated with bladder cancer in humans. SRF terminated Project 259 without publishing the results. The sugar industry did not disclose evidence of harm from animal studies that would have (1) strengthened the case that the CHD risk of sucrose is greater than starch and (2) caused sucrose to be scrutinized as a potential carcinogen. The influence of the gut microbiota in the differential effects of sucrose and starch on blood lipids, as well as the influence of carbohydrate quality on beta-glucuronidase and cancer activity, deserve further scrutiny. PMID:29161267

  9. Spatial, Temporal, and Dietary Variables Associated with Elevated Mercury Exposure in Peruvian Riverine Communities Upstream and Downstream of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Wyatt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the relationship between environmental and human mercury exposure, how exposure has changed over time, and risk factors beyond fish consumption are not well understood in ASGM settings. In Peruvian riverine communities (n = 12, where ASGM has increased 4–6 fold over the past decade, we provide a large-scale assessment of the connection between environmental and human mercury exposure by comparing total mercury contents in human hair (2-cm segment, n = 231 to locally caught fish tissue, analyzing temporal exposure in women of child bearing age (WCBA, 15–49 years, n = 46 over one year, and evaluating general mercury exposure risks including fish and non-fish dietary items through household surveys and linear mixed models. Calculations of an individual’s oral reference dose using the total mercury content in locally-sourced fish underestimated the observed mercury exposure for individuals in many communities. This discrepancy was particularly evident in communities upstream of ASGM, where mercury levels in river fish, water, and sediment measurements from a previous study were low, yet hair mercury was chronically elevated. Hair from 86% of individuals and 77% of children exceeded a USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provisional level (1.2 µg/g that could result in child developmental impairment. Chronically elevated mercury exposure was observed in the temporal analysis in WCBA. If the most recent exposure exceeded the USEPA level, there was a 97% probability that the individual exceeded that level 8–10 months of the previous year. Frequent household consumption of some fruits (tomato, banana and grains (quinoa was significantly associated with 29–75% reductions in hair mercury

  10. Spatial, Temporal, and Dietary Variables Associated with Elevated Mercury Exposure in Peruvian Riverine Communities Upstream and Downstream of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Lauren; Ortiz, Ernesto J; Feingold, Beth; Berky, Axel; Diringer, Sarah; Morales, Ana Maria; Jurado, Elvis Rojas; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Pan, William

    2017-12-15

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the relationship between environmental and human mercury exposure, how exposure has changed over time, and risk factors beyond fish consumption are not well understood in ASGM settings. In Peruvian riverine communities ( n = 12), where ASGM has increased 4-6 fold over the past decade, we provide a large-scale assessment of the connection between environmental and human mercury exposure by comparing total mercury contents in human hair (2-cm segment, n = 231) to locally caught fish tissue, analyzing temporal exposure in women of child bearing age (WCBA, 15-49 years, n = 46) over one year, and evaluating general mercury exposure risks including fish and non-fish dietary items through household surveys and linear mixed models. Calculations of an individual's oral reference dose using the total mercury content in locally-sourced fish underestimated the observed mercury exposure for individuals in many communities. This discrepancy was particularly evident in communities upstream of ASGM, where mercury levels in river fish, water, and sediment measurements from a previous study were low, yet hair mercury was chronically elevated. Hair from 86% of individuals and 77% of children exceeded a USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) provisional level (1.2 µg/g) that could result in child developmental impairment. Chronically elevated mercury exposure was observed in the temporal analysis in WCBA. If the most recent exposure exceeded the USEPA level, there was a 97% probability that the individual exceeded that level 8-10 months of the previous year. Frequent household consumption of some fruits (tomato, banana) and grains (quinoa) was significantly associated with 29-75% reductions in hair mercury. Collectively, these

  11. EFFECT OF THE LEVEL AND TYPE OF DIETARY FAT ON THE METABOLISM OF CHOLESTEROL AND BETA LIPOPROTEINS IN THE CEBUS MONKEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Oscar W.; Hegsted, D. Mark; Stare, Fredrick J.; Bruno, Dorothy; Murphy, Robert; Sinisterra, Leonardo

    1956-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the effect of the level and type of dietary fat on the concentration of cholesterol and beta lipoproteins in the sera of Cebus monkeys. Three groups of monkeys were fed isocaloric diets containing a fixed ratio of alpha protein and cholesterol to calories but with different amounts of corn oil and sucrose. Corn oil provided 10, 32, and 45 per cent of the calories in the three diets, and the level of sucrose was varied inversely. After 8 weeks the serum cholesterol and Sf 12 to 100 beta lipoprotein concentrations were significantly greater in the medium and high fat groups. When corn oil was decreased from 45 to 10 per cent of dietary calories and sucrose was increased, the serum cholesterol fell in all cases, and when the reverse change was made, the concentration of serum cholesterol increased. Variation in dietary sucrose had no specific effect. Substitution of starch for sucrose with diets otherwise constant did not cause significant change in the concentration of serum cholesterol. When monkeys fed corn oil diets at any of three levels were changed to hydrogenated cottonseed oil diets at the same level, the serum cholesterol and Sf 12 to 100 beta lipoproteins rose. However, hydrogenated cottonseed oil had no greater hypercholesteremic effect than did corn oil in the absence of dietary cholesterol. Diets containing lard with cholesterol also produced strikingly greater serum lipide responses than did diets based on corn oil and cholesterol. Hydrogenated cottonseed oil had a greater hypercholesteremic effect than an unhydrogenated cottonseed oil from the same lot. Preliminary studies indicated that the saturated fats (hydrogenated cottonseed oil) produced the most striking elevation of serum cholesterol values (above controls fed corn oil) when casein was the dietary protein. PMID:13376806

  12. Steroid hormone excretion is enhanced by sucrose feeding to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, T.C.; Hsu, H.; Saunders, J.P.; Kim, S.S.; Given-Proctor, J.; Ahrens, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that feeding rats sucrose rather than invert sugar (50:50 mixture of glucose and fructose) or cornstarch would result in a more rapid excretion of intravenously injected 1,2- 3 H aldosterone or 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol. The three carbohydrate sources provided 45% of dietary energy when fed, respectively, to one of three groups of 10 male, Sprague Dawley rats. After 4 or 8 weeks of ad lib feeding of the three diets 5 μCI of 3 H-labeled hormones were injected intravenously and % recovery in urine and feces was measured for 4 days by liquid scintillation counting. Nearly 90% of the 3 H injected as 1,2- 3 H aldosterone was recovered over 4 days in the excreta of the sucrose fed rats. This recovery of 3 H from aldosterone was significantly greater (P 3 H from intravenously injected 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol followed a similar pattern. The authors anticipate that the excretion of all metabolic end products and xenobiotics excreted as glucuronides would be enhanced by sucrose feeding. Oxocarbonium ions from the glucose portion of sucrose digestion in the mammalian small intestine are thought to compete with oxocarbonium ions from the glucuronic acid portion of glucuronide hydrolysis. Such competition may slow glucuronide hydrolysis and promote glucuronide excretion, including the glucuronides derived from aldosterone and cortisol

  13. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from...

  14. SYNTHESIS OF HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL FROM SUCROSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from sucrose was investigated in the ... It was concluded that IL 1-(3-sulfonic acid)-propyl-3- ... imidazolium chloride was also used as both solvent and catalyst for the reactions of fructose and.

  15. Sucrose ingestion causes opioid analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. Segato

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The intake of saccharin solutions for relatively long periods of time causes analgesia in rats, as measured in the hot-plate test, an experimental procedure involving supraspinal components. In order to investigate the effects of sweet substance intake on pain modulation using a different model, male albino Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g received either tap water or sucrose solutions (250 g/l for 1 day or 14 days as their only source of liquid. Each rat consumed an average of 15.6 g sucrose/day. Their tail withdrawal latencies in the tail-flick test (probably a spinal reflex were measured immediately before and after this treatment. An analgesia index was calculated from the withdrawal latencies before and after treatment. The indexes (mean ± SEM, N = 12 for the groups receiving tap water for 1 day or 14 days, and sucrose solution for 1 day or 14 days were 0.09 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0.15 ± 0.08 and 0.49 ± 0.07, respectively. One-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference (F(3,47 = 9.521, P<0.001 and the Tukey multiple comparison test (P<0.05 showed that the analgesia index of the 14-day sucrose-treated animals differed from all other groups. Naloxone-treated rats (N = 7 receiving sucrose exhibited an analgesia index of 0.20 ± 0.10 while rats receiving only sucrose (N = 7 had an index of 0.68 ± 0.11 (t = 0.254, 10 degrees of freedom, P<0.03. This result indicates that the analgesic effect of sucrose depends on the time during which the solution is consumed and extends the analgesic effects of sweet substance intake, such as saccharin, to a model other than the hot-plate test, with similar results. Endogenous opioids may be involved in the central regulation of the sweet substance-produced analgesia.

  16. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristianne R M Frazier

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  17. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Cristianne R M; Mason, Peggy; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Beeler, Jeff A

    2008-09-17

    The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  18. Release of Hormones from Conjugates: Chloroplast Expression of β-Glucosidase Results in Elevated Phytohormone Levels Associated with Significant Increase in Biomass and Protection from Aphids or Whiteflies Conferred by Sucrose Esters1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Verma, Dheeraj; Lange, Theo; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing β-glucosidase (Bgl-1) show modified development. They flower 1 month earlier with an increase in biomass (1.9-fold), height (1.5-fold), and leaf area (1.6-fold) than untransformed plants. Trichome density on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of BGL-1 plants increase by 10- and 7-fold, respectively, harboring 5-fold more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants. Gibberellin (GA) levels were investigated because it is a known regulator of flowering time, plant height, and trichome development. Both GA1 and GA4 levels are 2-fold higher in BGL-1 leaves than in untransformed plants but do not increase in other organs. In addition, elevated levels of other plant hormones, including zeatin and indole-3-acetic acid, are observed in BGL-1 lines. Protoplasts from BGL-1 lines divide and form calli without exogenous hormones. Cell division in protoplasts is enhanced 7-fold in the presence of exogenously applied zeatin-O-glucoside conjugate, indicating the release of active hormones from their conjugates. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations in control plants are 18 and 15 times higher than in transplastomic lines, respectively. Lethal dose to kill 50% of the test population values of 26.3 and 39.2 μg per whitefly and 23.1 and 35.2 μg per aphid for BGL-1 and untransformed control exudates, respectively, confirm the enhanced toxicity of transplastomic exudates. These data indicate that increase in sugar ester levels in BGL-1 lines might function as an effective biopesticide. This study provides a novel strategy for designing plants for enhanced biomass production and insect control by releasing plant hormones or sugar esters from their conjugates stored within their chloroplasts. PMID:21068365

  19. Release of hormones from conjugates: chloroplast expression of β-glucosidase results in elevated phytohormone levels associated with significant increase in biomass and protection from aphids or whiteflies conferred by sucrose esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Verma, Dheeraj; Lange, Theo; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing β-glucosidase (Bgl-1) show modified development. They flower 1 month earlier with an increase in biomass (1.9-fold), height (1.5-fold), and leaf area (1.6-fold) than untransformed plants. Trichome density on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of BGL-1 plants increase by 10- and 7-fold, respectively, harboring 5-fold more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants. Gibberellin (GA) levels were investigated because it is a known regulator of flowering time, plant height, and trichome development. Both GA(1) and GA(4) levels are 2-fold higher in BGL-1 leaves than in untransformed plants but do not increase in other organs. In addition, elevated levels of other plant hormones, including zeatin and indole-3-acetic acid, are observed in BGL-1 lines. Protoplasts from BGL-1 lines divide and form calli without exogenous hormones. Cell division in protoplasts is enhanced 7-fold in the presence of exogenously applied zeatin-O-glucoside conjugate, indicating the release of active hormones from their conjugates. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations in control plants are 18 and 15 times higher than in transplastomic lines, respectively. Lethal dose to kill 50% of the test population values of 26.3 and 39.2 μg per whitefly and 23.1 and 35.2 μg per aphid for BGL-1 and untransformed control exudates, respectively, confirm the enhanced toxicity of transplastomic exudates. These data indicate that increase in sugar ester levels in BGL-1 lines might function as an effective biopesticide. This study provides a novel strategy for designing plants for enhanced biomass production and insect control by releasing plant hormones or sugar esters from their conjugates stored within their chloroplasts.

  20. Dietary supplementation of branched-chain amino acids increases muscle net amino acid fluxes through elevating their substrate availability and intramuscular catabolism in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liufeng; Zuo, Fangrui; Zhao, Shengjun; He, Pingli; Wei, Hongkui; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have been clearly demonstrated to have anabolic effects on muscle protein synthesis. However, little is known about their roles in the regulation of net AA fluxes across skeletal muscle in vivo. This study was aimed to investigate the effect and related mechanisms of dietary supplementation of BCAA on muscle net amino acid (AA) fluxes using the hindlimb flux model. In all fourteen 4-week-old barrows were fed reduced-protein diets with or without supplemental BCAA for 28 d. Pigs were implanted with carotid arterial, femoral arterial and venous catheters, and fed once hourly with intraarterial infusion of p-amino hippurate. Arterial and venous plasma and muscle samples were obtained for the measurement of AA, branched-chain α-keto acids (BCKA) and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH). Metabolomes of venous plasma were determined by HPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight-MS. BCAA-supplemented group showed elevated muscle net fluxes of total essential AA, non-essential AA and AA. As for individual AA, muscle net fluxes of each BCAA and their metabolites (alanine, glutamate and glutamine), along with those of histidine, methionine and several functional non-essential AA (glycine, proline and serine), were increased by BCAA supplementation. The elevated muscle net AA fluxes were associated with the increase in arterial and intramuscular concentrations of BCAA and venous metabolites including BCKA and free fatty acids, and were also related to the decrease in the intramuscular concentration of 3-MH. Correlation analysis indicated that muscle net AA fluxes are highly and positively correlated with arterial BCAA concentrations and muscle net BCKA production. In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diet increases the arterial concentrations and intramuscular catabolism of BCAA, both of which would contribute to an increase of muscle net AA fluxes in young pigs.

  1. Effect of short-term vs. long-term elevation of dietary protein intake on responsiveness of rat thick ascending limbs to peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David L; Plaga, Kimberly

    2002-10-01

    We compared the renal responses of rats on three diet regimens. Rats received either 8% protein food (low-protein, LP) for 10 weeks following weaning, 8% protein for 9 weeks followed by 1 week on 30% protein (short-term high-protein, SHP), or 30% protein for 10 weeks (high-protein, HP). Kidneys from HP rats were enlarged by approximately 50%, or 20% when corrected for body mass. Most of this hypertrophy resulted from enlargement of the inner stripe of the outer medulla, site of the thick ascending limbs (TAL), and TAL from HP rats were larger in diameter. SHP rats had TAL diameters similar to HP rats, but changes in renal mass or height of renal zones did not reach statistical significance. The activity of adenylyl cyclase (AC) in TAL, measured from the accumulation of cAMP in isolated tubules, increased with dose of both arginine vasopressin (AVP) and glucagon in all rats. However, HP rats had significantly higher hormone-induced AC activity than LP or SHP rats, which were not different from each other. Our results suggest that tubule hypertrophy may precede up-regulation of hormone-sensitive AC activity during the progression of renal response to elevated dietary protein.

  2. X-ray diffraction studies of sucrose and sucrose irradiated with γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Mahendra

    1981-01-01

    In order to understand and solve numerous problems related to sugar quality and its storage life, X-ray diffraction studies of sucrose and sucrose irradiated with γ-radiation have been made. It is observed that the interplanar spacing 'd' in irradiated sucrose is reduced indicating the partial damage of sucrose lattice. (author)

  3. Effect of sucrose ingestion on the performance of wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) females (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontellas, Tania M.L.; Zucoloto, Fernando S.

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for insects and the lack of these nutrients in the diet can cause serious damage to the biology of these arthropods. In order to better understand the effect of sucrose on the performance and dietary selection of adult Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), the following experiments were carried out: 1) effect of different amount of sucrose on diet ingestion, longevity and egg production; 2) dietary selection that contains different amounts of sucrose, and 3) discrimination threshold for sucrose in adult individuals deprived or not of carbohydrates. The control diet showed the best results in relation to ingestion, longevity and egg production for these species, probably due to the fact that it presents an optimal nutritional balance between sucrose and yeast. The control diet was also the preferred diet of females, indicating a positive correlation between the nutritional value of a diet and chemical perception by A. obliqua. Sucrose-deprived females were able to perceive lower carbohydrate quantity than non-deprived females. This characteristic might represent a biological advantage since it reduces the food foraging time for these insects. (author)

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database, starch and sucrose metabolism (147, 2.40% constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS, both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  5. Magnetostructural study of iron sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Lucia; Puerto Morales, Maria del; Jose Lazaro, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic and structural analyses have been performed on an iron sucrose complex used as a haematinic agent. The system contains two-line ferrihydrite particles of about 5 nm that are superparamagnetic above approximately 50 K. The observed low-temperature magnetic dynamics of this compound is closer to simple models than in the case of other iron-containing drugs for intravenous use like iron dextran

  6. The catalytic effect of honey on formation of reducing sugars during sucrose hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Mirjana N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In commercial apiculture, beekepers usually remove honey from hives and replenish food reserves with sugar syrup. When honeybees use sugar syrup (sucrose solution, they break down sucrose into glucose and fructose. These processes exhaust and weaken bees. In order to prevent bee exhaustion resulting from this processing, bees should preferably be supplied with ready made food before winter, i.e., with syrup in which sucrose has already been inverted. Feeding with inverted syrups is the most popular way of honeybee feeding. Beekeepers usually prepare inverted syrups by adding a weak organic acid (citric, oxalic, acetic or lactic acid to sucrose solution at elevated temperatures. Inverted syrup production under uncontrolled pH, temperature and time conditions can cause the formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF, a compound harmful to bees. High quality inverted syrup can be obtained through the hydrolytic decomposition of sucrose by the enzyme invertase. Due to its invertase content, honey can be used as a biocatalyst for sucrose inversion. Invertase activity depends on the type, method and time of honey storage. This study evaluates the catalytic effect of acacia honey on formation of reducing sugars during hydrolysis of 50 wt.% sucrose solution. The ratio of reducing sugars and sucrose at 40°C, after 5 days of hydrolysis at a concentration of honey and 10 wt.% was 0.30 g reducing sugars/g of sucrose. The highest content of reducing sugars was achieved at a temperature of 35°C, after 48 h of invertion. In all samples of hydrolysates obtained at different temperatures (35–65°C, HMF was detected at concentrations of less than 4.32 mg kg–1. A high degree of negative correlation (coefficient of linearity –0.94 was established between parameters of volumetric and polarimetric measurements during the hydrolysis of sucrose. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 46010

  7. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed

  8. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T. [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1986-03-15

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed.

  9. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breisha, Gaber Z.

    2010-01-01

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g -1 of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l -1 together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l -1 led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm 3 min -1 m 3 of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production.

  10. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breisha, Gaber Z. [Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    2010-08-15

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g{sup -1} of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l{sup -1} together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l{sup -1} led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm{sup 3} min{sup -1} m{sup 3} of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production. (author)

  11. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Hedge, R; Dixit, U

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on salivary pH, following sucrose clearance. Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A Digital MHOS pH meter estimated the salivary pH. Presence of plaque increased the salivary sucrose clearance time and decreased the salivary pH at various time intervals. The microbial etiology of dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and pH lowering, and the cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  12. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on salivary pH, following sucrose clearance. Materials and Methods: Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A Digital MHOS pH meter estimated the salivary pH. Results: Presence of plaque increased the salivary sucrose clearance time and decreased the salivary pH at various time intervals. Conclusions: The microbial etiology of dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and pH lowering, and the cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  13. Chronic variable stress improves glucose tolerance in rats with sucrose-induced prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Amy E. B.; Ghosal, Sriparna; Herman, James P.; Woods, Stephen C.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of type-2 diabetes (T2D) and the burden it places on individuals, as well as society as a whole, compels research into the causes, factors and progression of this disease. Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic stress exposure may contribute to the development and progression of T2D in human patients. To address the interaction between chronic stress and the progression of T2D, we developed a dietary model of the prediabetic state in rats utilizing unlimited access to 30% sucrose solution (in addition to unlimited access to normal chow and water), which led to impaired glucose tolerance despite elevated insulin levels. We then investigated the effects of a chronic variable stress paradigm (CVS; twice daily exposure to an unpredictable stressor for 2 weeks) on metabolic outcomes in this prediabetic model. Chronic stress improved glucose tolerance in prediabetic rats following a glucose challenge. Importantly, pair-fed control groups revealed that the beneficial effect of chronic stress did not result from the decreased food intake or body weight gain that occurred during chronic stress. The present work suggests that chronic stress in rodents can ameliorate the progression of diet-induced prediabetic disease independent of chronic stress-induced decreases in food intake and body weight. PMID:25001967

  14. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. PMID:20303371

  15. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; Martin, Corby K; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A

    2010-08-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. 19 healthy lean (BMI=20.0-24.9) and 12 obese (BMI=30.0-39.9) individuals 18-50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290kcal), aspartame (290kcal), or sucrose (493kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20min after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290kcal vs. 493kcal), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia=301kcal, paspartame=330kcal, paspartame and sucrose preloads (paspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Interaction between dietary marine-derived n-3 fatty acids intake and J-point elevation on the risk of cardiac death: a 24-year follow-up of Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamatsu, Takashi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miyagawa, Naoko; Kadota, Aya; Takashima, Naoyuki; Okuda, Nagako; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Yoshita, Katsushi; Kita, Yoshikuni; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Horie, Minoru; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2013-07-01

    Higher marine-derived n-3 fatty acids (MDn3FAs) intake reduces the risk of sudden cardiac death via antiarrhythmic effects. The article evaluates whether MDn3FAs intake attenuates the increased risk of cardiac death associated with J-point elevation (JPE), characterised by an elevation of QRS-ST junction (J-point) ≥0.1 mV on electrocardiography. A prospective population-based cohort study. The National Survey on Circulatory Disorders and the National Nutrition Survey of Japan. A total of 4348 community-dwelling men (mean age 49.3 years), without cardiovascular diseases at baseline, from randomly selected areas across Japan. Cardiac death (200 men) during the 24-year follow-up. Dietary MDn3FAs intake was assessed using a dietary method to estimate individual intake of household-based weighed food records for 3 days. Cox models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs adjusted for possible confounding factors. JPE was present in 340 participants (7.8%). The median daily intake of MDn3FAs was 0.35%kcal (0.92 g/day). The risk of cardiac death was significantly higher in participants with JPE than in those without JPE in the low intake group (death was statistically significant (p=0.006). The increased risk of cardiac death associated with JPE may be attenuated by higher dietary MDn3FAs intake.

  17. Dietary saccharides and sweet tastants have differential effects on colonization of Drosophila oocytes by Wolbachia endosymbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Camacho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia bacteria are widespread, maternally transmitted endosymbionts of insects. Maintenance of sufficient Wolbachia titer in maternal germline cells is required for transmission efficacy. The mechanisms that regulate Wolbachia titer are not well understood; however, dietary sucrose was reported to elevate oocyte Wolbachia titer in Drosophila melanogaster whereas dietary yeast decreased oocyte titer. To further investigate how oocyte Wolbachia titer is controlled, this study analyzed the response of wMel Wolbachia to diets enriched in an array of natural sugars and other sweet tastants. Confocal imaging of D. melanogaster oocytes showed that food enriched in dietary galactose, lactose, maltose and trehalose elevated Wolbachia titer. However, oocyte Wolbachia titers were unaffected by exposure to the sweet tastants lactulose, erythritol, xylitol, aspartame and saccharin as compared to the control. Oocyte size was generally non-responsive to the nutrient-altered diets. Ovary size, however, was consistently smaller in response to all sugar- and sweetener-enriched diets. Furthermore, most dietary sugars administered in tandem with dietary yeast conferred complete rescue of oocyte titer suppression by yeast. All diets dually enriched in yeast and sugar also rescued yeast-associated ovary volume changes. This indicates oocyte colonization by Wolbachia to be a nutritionally sensitive process regulated by multiple mechanistic inputs.

  18. Glycaemic, uricaemic and blood pressure response to beverages with partial fructose replacement of sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Natasha; Peng, Mei; Oey, Indrawati; Venn, Bernard Joseph

    2018-03-20

    The European Food Safety Authority approved a health claim (ID558) relating to lowered postprandial glycaemia when fructose replaces 30% of sucrose in foods and beverages. We assessed the effects of partial replacement of sucrose with fructose on serum glucose, uric acid and blood pressure. A randomised, crossover, double blind trial of 12 normoglycaemic participants consuming beverages containing 50 g blends of fructose and sucrose in proportions; 67% sucrose/33% fructose (67%S:33%F); 50% each (50%S:50%F) and 33%S:67%F; a 100% sucrose reference beverage was tested twice. Serum glucose and uric acid concentrations were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min and incremental area-under-the-curve (iAUC) calculated. The geometric mean (95% CI) glycaemic iAUC following the 100% sucrose, 67%S:33%F, 50%S:50%F and 33%S:67%F blended beverages were 96 (63,145), 71 (46,109), 60 (39, 93) and 39 (12, 86) mmol/L min, respectively. At 33% fructose replacement, the proportionally lower iAUC of -28.5% (95% CI: -62.1, 5.2) mmol/L min was not different to sucrose alone. The response was lowered by fructose replacement of 50 and 67% and overall there was an inverse association (p beverages were 1320 (393, 2248), 3062 (1553, 4570), 3646 (2446, 4847), 3623 (2020, 5226) µmol/L min. Uric acid concentration was raised by all fructose-containing beverages with 33% fructose replacement causing an increase of 1741 (95% CI: 655, 2829) µmol/L min compared with sucrose alone. Blood pressure was not different among beverages. Reduced postprandial glycaemia was achieved by the substitution of sucrose with fructose although elevated uricaemic responses should be cautioned.

  19. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  20. Moderate high fat diet increases sucrose self-administration in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlewicz, Dianne P; Jay, Jennifer L; Acheson, Molly A; Magrisso, Irwin J; West, Constance H; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C; Davis, Jon F

    2013-02-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However, AGRP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly elevated. We demonstrated that increased activation of AGRP neurons is associated with motivated behavior, and that exogenous (third cerebroventricular) AGRP administration resulted in significantly increased motivation for sucrose. These observations suggest that increased expression and activity of AGRP in the medial hypothalamus may underlie the increased responding for sucrose caused by the high fat diet intervention. Finally, we compared motivation for sucrose in pubertal vs. adult rats and observed increased motivation for sucrose in the pubertal rats, which is consistent with previous reports that young animals and humans have an increased preference for sweet taste, compared with adults. Together, our studies suggest that background diet plays a strong modulatory role in motivation for sweet taste in adolescent animals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid-induced generation of liver lipid peroxides is not suppressed further by elevated levels of glutathione in ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Seiji; Kubo, Kazuhiro; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Saito, Morio

    2006-04-01

    We examined the effects of ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH; experiment 1) and of GSH in acetaminophen-fed rats (experiment 2) on dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-induced tissue lipid peroxidation. In experiment 1, AsA-requiring Osteogenic Disorder Shionogi/Shi-od/od (ODS) rats were fed soybean protein diets containing DHA (10.0% total energy) and AsA at 50 (low) or 300 (normal) mg/kg without (low) or with (normal) methionine at 2 g/kg for 32 d. In experiment 2, ODS rats were fed diets containing DHA (7.8% total energy) and acetaminophen (4 g/kg) with different levels of dietary methionine (low, moderate, high, and excessive at 0, 3, 6, and 9 g/kg, respectively) for 30 d. Tissue lipid peroxides and antioxidant levels were determined. In experiment 1, liver lipid peroxide levels in the low-AsA group were lower than those in the normal-AsA group, but kidney and testis lipid peroxide levels in the low-AsA group were higher than those in the normal-AsA group. Dietary methionine tended to decrease tissue lipid peroxide levels but did not decrease vitamin E (VE) consumption. In experiment 2, a high level of methionine (6 g/kg) decreased liver lipid peroxide levels and VE consumption. However, generation of tissue lipid peroxides and VE consumption were not decreased further by a higher dose of methionine (9 g/kg). Higher than normal levels of dietary methionine are not necessarily associated with decreased dietary DHA-induced generation of tissue lipid peroxides and VE consumption except that the GSH requirement is increased in a condition such as acetaminophen feeding.

  2. Enamel and dentine demineralization by a combination of starch and sucrose in a biofilm – caries model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nunes BOTELHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sucrose is the most cariogenic dietary carbohydrate and starch is considered non-cariogenic for enamel and moderately cariogenic for dentine. However, the cariogenicity of the combination of starch and sucrose remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this combination on Streptococcus mutans biofilm composition and enamel and dentine demineralization. Biofilms of S. mutans UA159 were grown on saliva-coated enamel and dentine slabs in culture medium containing 10% saliva. They were exposed (8 times/day to one of the following treatments: 0.9% NaCl (negative control, 1% starch, 10% sucrose, or 1% starch and 10% sucrose (starch + sucrose. To simulate the effect of human salivary amylase on the starch metabolization, the biofilms were pretreated with saliva before each treatment and saliva was also added to the culture medium. Acidogenicity of the biofilm was estimated by evaluating (2 times/day the culture medium pH. After 4 (dentine or 5 (enamel days of growth, biofilms (n = 9 were individually collected, and the biomass, viable microorganism count, and polysaccharide content were quantified. Dentine and enamel demineralization was assessed by determining the percentage of surface hardness loss. Biofilms exposed to starch + sucrose were more acidogenic and caused higher demineralization (p < 0.0001 on either enamel or dentine than those exposed to each carbohydrate alone. The findings suggest that starch increases the cariogenic potential of sucrose.

  3. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev

    2003-06-01

    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one.

  4. Sucrose, Its Proprieties and the New Sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Monique Manhani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to review the literature on sucrose, commonly known as table sugar; to report as it appeared in Brazil and in the world; to discuss the differences between crystal and refined sucrose; to show the harmful effects of overconsumption; and to list their main sweeteners. Sucrose appeared over 7000 years ago and since then it has actively participated in the creation of new forms of food consumption, in the development of societies and in the social and political relations. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body and considering that they are present in different foods, their consumption in excess can cause diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The amount of processed products with sucrose in its composition is uncountable and overconsumption has caused concern in the medical field. The manufacture of sugar is a process that involves a series of operations to obtain the final product. There are several kinds of sucrose that are available according to its use (domestic and industrial. The sweeteners can be used to sweeten, and may replace sucrose. Some of these compounds are known as intense sweeteners, being used in very small quantities, are indicated to people who have a disorder in the metabolism of sugars (diabetics or consumers who are in search of products of low calorific value.

  5. Minimization of sucrose losses in sugar industry by pH and temperature optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panpae, Kornvalai; Jaturonrusmee, Wasna; Mingvanish, Withawat; Santudrob, Kittisak; Triphanpitak, Siriphan

    2008-01-01

    Invert sugar has several disadvantage properties that play an important role in many food applications. It has a high affinity for water and is the cause of making products retain moisture. Invert sugar also affects the carmelization process, producing a browning effect. In this study, the possibility of minimization of sucrose inversion during the industrial production of sugar cane was investigated by the variation of the important parameters, i.e. temperature and pH of sugar cane juice for each of samples. The amounts of sucrose and reducing sugar alerting during the sucrose inversion process were determined by the values of % Pol and % reducing sugar (% RS), respectively. Starting with the study of temperature and pH effects of the sucrose solution with the concentration of 16 Brix, used as a sample model, it was found that no change in amounts of reducing sugar and sucrose was observed at room temperature (34 degree Celsius) in the pH range of 5-11. At pH 3, the amounts of reducing sugar increased and the amount of sucrose decreased as the time increased. These indicated that the process of sucrose inversion should better occur in more acidic solutions. Compared to the room temperature, it was found that the increment of temperature led to enhance the process of sucrose inversion. This was depicted by higher values of % RS and lower value of % Pol as the temperatures were elevated. The experiments were also done with real sugar cane juice, i.e. first, last, and mixed juice. The tendency of changes of the amounts of reducing sugar and sucrose in sugar cane samples by varying temperature and pH were found to resemble to those for the sample model. The increment of temperatures have also affected on a reduction of amounts of sucrose in each sugar cane juice. In addition, it could be concluded that the acidity of the solution affects sucrose easier to be broken down to glucose and fructose molecules. (author)

  6. Sucrose metabolic pathways in sweetgum and pecan seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.S. Sung; P.P. Kormanik; D.P. Xu; C.C. Black

    1989-01-01

    Sucrose metabolism and glycolysis were studied in one- to two-year-old seedlings of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch). The sucrose synthase pathway was identified as the dominant sucrose metabolic activity in sucrose sink tissues such as terminal buds and the root cambial...

  7. HYPERPHAGIA INDUCED BY SUCROSE: RELATION TO CIRCULATING AND CSF GLUCOSE AND CORTICOSTERONE AND OREXIGENIC PEPTIDES IN THE ARCUATE NUCLEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysinskaya, V. A.; Karatayev, O.; Shuluk, J.; Leibowitz, S. F.

    2010-01-01

    Sucrose-rich diets compared to starch-rich diets are known to stimulate overeating under chronic conditions. The present study in normal-weight rats established an acute “preload-to-test meal” paradigm for demonstrating sucrose-induced hyperphagia and investigating possible mechanisms that mediate this behavioral phenomenon. In this acute paradigm, the rats were first given a small (15 kcals) sucrose preload (30% sucrose) for 30 min compared to an equicaloric, starch preload (25% starch with 5% sucrose) and then allowed to freely consume a subsequent test meal of lab chow. The sucrose preload, when compared to a starch preload equal in energy density and palatability, consistently increased food intake in the subsequent test meal occurring between 60–120 min after the end of the preload. Measurements of hormones, metabolites and hypothalamic peptides immediately preceding this hyperphagia revealed marked differences between the sucrose vs starch groups that could contribute to the increase in food intake. Whereas the sucrose group compared to starch group immediately after the preload (at 10 min) had elevated levels of glucose in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) along with reduced expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the subsequent effects (at 30–60 min) just preceding the test meal hyperphagia were the reverse. Along with lower levels of glucose, they included markedly elevated serum and CSF levels of corticosterone and mRNA levels of NPY and AgRP in the ARC. In addition to establishing an animal model for sucrose-induced hyperphagia, these results demonstrate peripheral and central mechanisms that may mediate this behavioral phenomenon. PMID:21036188

  8. Structural rearrangements of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis during sucrose conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Sprogøe, Desiree

    2006-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BiSP) was studied by site-directed mutagenesis and x-ray crystallography. An inactive mutant of BiSP (E232Q) was co-crystallized with sucrose. The structure revealed a substrate-binding mode comparable with that se...

  9. Trans-generational desensitization and within-generational resensitization of a sucrose-best neuron in the polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Ma; Jingjing Li; Qingbo Tang; Xuening Zhang; Xincheng Zhao; Fengming Yan; Joop J. A. van Loon

    2016-01-01

    Dietary exposure of insects to a feeding deterrent substance for hours to days can induce habituation and concomitant desensitization of the response of peripheral gustatory neurons to such a substance. In the present study, larvae of the herbivore Helicoverpa armigera were fed on diets containing either a high, medium or low concentration of sucrose, a major feeding stimulant. The responsiveness of the sucrose-best neuron in the lateral sensilla styloconica on the galea was quantified. Resul...

  10. Trans-generational desensitization and within-generational resensitization of a sucrose-best neuron in the polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Tang, Qingbo; Zhang, Xuening; Zhao, Xincheng; Yan, Fengming; van Loon, Joop J A

    2016-12-14

    Dietary exposure of insects to a feeding deterrent substance for hours to days can induce habituation and concomitant desensitization of the response of peripheral gustatory neurons to such a substance. In the present study, larvae of the herbivore Helicoverpa armigera were fed on diets containing either a high, medium or low concentration of sucrose, a major feeding stimulant. The responsiveness of the sucrose-best neuron in the lateral sensilla styloconica on the galea was quantified. Results showed the response of the sucrose-best neuron exposed to high-sucrose diets decreased gradually over successive generations, resulting in complete desensitization in the 5 th and subsequent generations. However, the sensitivity was completely restored in the ninth generation after neonate larvae were exposed to low-sucrose diet. These findings demonstrate phenotypic plasticity and exclude inadvertent artificial selection for low sensitivity to sucrose. No significant changes were found in the sensitivity of caterpillars which experienced low- or medium-sucrose diets over the same generations. Such desensitization versus re-sensitization did not generalise to the phagosimulant myo-inositol-sensitive neuron or the feeding deterrent-sensitive neuron. Our results demonstrate that under conditions of high sucrose availability trans-generational desensitization of a neuron sensitive to this feeding stimulant becomes more pronounced whereas re-sensitization occurs within one generation.

  11. Effect of exogenous phytohormones and sucrose on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of exogenous phytohormones and sucrose on micropropagation and microtuberization from nodal cuttings of Manihot esculenta was studied. Direct and indirect organogeneses were established from these explants. When nodal cuttings were cultured in the presence of 0.01 to 0.1 mg.L-1 of BAP or NAA there was ...

  12. Mondo/ChREBP-Mlx-Regulated Transcriptional Network Is Essential for Dietary Sugar Tolerance in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havula, Essi; Teesalu, Mari; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Seppälä, Heini; Hasygar, Kiran; Auvinen, Petri; Orešič, Matej; Sandmann, Thomas; Hietakangas, Ville

    2013-01-01

    Sugars are important nutrients for many animals, but are also proposed to contribute to overnutrition-derived metabolic diseases in humans. Understanding the genetic factors governing dietary sugar tolerance therefore has profound biological and medical significance. Paralogous Mondo transcription factors ChREBP and MondoA, with their common binding partner Mlx, are key sensors of intracellular glucose flux in mammals. Here we report analysis of the in vivo function of Drosophila melanogaster Mlx and its binding partner Mondo (ChREBP) in respect to tolerance to dietary sugars. Larvae lacking mlx or having reduced mondo expression show strikingly reduced survival on a diet with moderate or high levels of sucrose, glucose, and fructose. mlx null mutants display widespread changes in lipid and phospholipid profiles, signs of amino acid catabolism, as well as strongly elevated circulating glucose levels. Systematic loss-of-function analysis of Mlx target genes reveals that circulating glucose levels and dietary sugar tolerance can be genetically uncoupled: Krüppel-like transcription factor Cabut and carbonyl detoxifying enzyme Aldehyde dehydrogenase type III are essential for dietary sugar tolerance, but display no influence on circulating glucose levels. On the other hand, Phosphofructokinase 2, a regulator of the glycolysis pathway, is needed for both dietary sugar tolerance and maintenance of circulating glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we show evidence that fatty acid synthesis, which is a highly conserved Mondo-Mlx-regulated process, does not promote dietary sugar tolerance. In contrast, survival of larvae with reduced fatty acid synthase expression is sugar-dependent. Our data demonstrate that the transcriptional network regulated by Mondo-Mlx is a critical determinant of the healthful dietary spectrum allowing Drosophila to exploit sugar-rich nutrient sources. PMID:23593032

  13. Determining sucrose recovery in Saccarrum officinarum L. using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation for sucrose content on single factor basis was caused by tillers, therefore, this character was the most important to increase overall sucrose of S. officinarum L. However, second variable model exhibited that tillers and internodal length were important traits for increasing overall sucrose in sugarcane.

  14. Metabolic activity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and gene expression during exposure to xylitol and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Eva-Maria; Klein, Christian; Schwindt, Dimitri; von Ohle, Christiane

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse Streptococcus mutans biofilms grown under different dietary conditions by using multifaceted methodological approaches to gain deeper insight into the cariogenic impact of carbohydrates. S. mutans biofilms were generated during a period of 24 h in the following media: Schaedler broth as a control medium containing endogenous glucose, Schaedler broth with an additional 5% sucrose, and Schaedler broth supplemented with 1% xylitol. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)-based analyses of the microbial vitality, respiratory activity (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride, CTC) and production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were performed separately in the inner, middle and outer biofilm layers. In addition to the microbiological sample testing, the glucose/sucrose consumption of the biofilm bacteria was quantified, and the expression of glucosyltransferases and other biofilm-associated genes was investigated. Xylitol exposure did not inhibit the viability of S. mutans biofilms, as monitored by the following experimental parameters: culture growth, vitality, CTC activity and EPS production. However, xylitol exposure caused a difference in gene expression compared to the control. GtfC was upregulated only in the presence of xylitol. Under xylitol exposure, gtfB was upregulated by a factor of 6, while under sucrose exposure, it was upregulated by a factor of three. Compared with glucose and xylitol, sucrose increased cell vitality in all biofilm layers. In all nutrient media, the intrinsic glucose was almost completely consumed by the cells of the S. mutans biofilm within 24 h. After 24 h of biofilm formation, the multiparametric measurements showed that xylitol in the presence of glucose caused predominantly genotypic differences but did not induce metabolic differences compared to the control. Thus, the availability of dietary carbohydrates in either a pure or combined form seems to affect the

  15. Metabolic activity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and gene expression during exposure to xylitol and sucrose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva-Maria Decker; Christian Klein; Dimitri Schwindt; Christiane von Ohle

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse Streptococcus mutans biofilms grown under different dietary conditions by using multifaceted methodological approaches to gain deeper insight into the cariogenic impact of carbohydrates. S. mutans biofilms were generated during a period of 24 h in the following media:Schaedler broth as a control medium containing endogenous glucose, Schaedler broth with an additional 5%sucrose, and Schaedler broth supplemented with 1%xylitol. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)-based analyses of the microbial vitality, respiratory activity (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride, CTC) and production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were performed separately in the inner, middle and outer biofilm layers. In addition to the microbiological sample testing, the glucose/sucrose consumption of the biofilm bacteria was quantified, and the expression of glucosyltransferases and other biofilm-associated genes was investigated. Xylitol exposure did not inhibit the viability of S. mutans biofilms, as monitored by the following experimental parameters:culture growth, vitality, CTC activity and EPS production. However, xylitol exposure caused a difference in gene expression compared to the control. GtfC was upregulated only in the presence of xylitol. Under xylitol exposure, gtfB was upregulated by a factor of 6, while under sucrose exposure, it was upregulated by a factor of three. Compared with glucose and xylitol, sucrose increased cell vitality in all biofilm layers. In all nutrient media, the intrinsic glucose was almost completely consumed by the cells of the S. mutans biofilm within 24 h. After 24 h of biofilm formation, the multiparametric measurements showed that xylitol in the presence of glucose caused predominantly genotypic differences but did not induce metabolic differences compared to the control. Thus, the availability of dietary carbohydrates in either a pure or combined form seems to affect the cariogenic potential

  16. Structural basis for the roles of starch and sucrose in homo-exopolysaccharide formation by Lactobacillus reuteri 35-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuxiang; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; van der Kaaij, Rachel M; Gerwig, Gerrit J; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2016-10-20

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) that are important for biofilm formation in the mammalian oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Sucrose is a well-known substrate for homo-EPS formation by Lactobacillus reuteri glucansucrases (GS). Starch is the main fermentable carbohydrate in the human diet, and often consumed simultaneously with sucrose. Recently we have characterized L. reuteri strains that also possess 4,6-α-glucanotransferases (4,6-α-GTases) that act on starch yielding isomalto-/malto-polysaccharides. In this study we have characterized the EPS formed by L. reuteri 35-5 cells and enzymes from sucrose plus starch. The data show that both in vivo and in vitro the L. reuteri 35-5 GS and 4,6-α-GTase enzymes, incubated with sucrose plus starch, cross-react and contribute to synthesis of the final hybrid EPS products. This may have strong effects on the EPS functional properties, influence biofilm formation, and affect the relationship between dietary intake of sucrose and starch, and dental caries formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates high-safflower oil-induced fatty liver in ddy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Nakamori, Akiko; Sasaki, Eriko; Wada, Satoshi; Ezaki, Osamu

    2007-12-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). We analyzed the effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver induced by sucrose, safflower oil, and butter in ddY mice. In experiment I, mice were fed a high-starch diet [70 energy% (en%) starch] plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in the drinking water or fed a high-safflower oil diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Fish oil (10 en%) was either supplemented or not. Mice supplemented with sucrose or fed safflower oil showed a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold increased liver triglyceride content, respectively, compared with that of control mice. Fish oil completely prevented sucrose-induced fatty liver, whereas it exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver. Sucrose increased SREBP-1c and target gene messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and fish oil completely inhibited these increases. In experiment II, mice were fed a high-safflower oil or a high-butter diet, with or without fish oil supplementation. Fish oil exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver but did not affect butter-induced fatty liver. Fish oil increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and target CD36 mRNA in safflower oil-fed mice. These increases were not observed in sucrose-supplemented or butter-fed mice. The effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver differ according to the cause of fatty liver; fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates safflower oil-induced fatty liver. The exacerbation of fatty liver may be due, at least in part, to increased expression of liver PPARgamma.

  18. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  19. Analysis of sucrose-induced small RNAs in Streptococcus mutans in the presence of different sucrose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan Shan; Zhu, Wen Hui; Zhi, Qing Hui; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yan; Lin, Huan Cai

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the major pathogen contributing to dental caries. Sucrose is an important carbohydrate source for S. mutans and is crucial for dental caries. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are key post-transcriptional regulators of stress adaptation and virulence in bacteria. Here, for the first time, we created three replicate RNA libraries exposed to either 1 or 5% sucrose. The expression levels of sRNAs and target genes (gtfB, gtfC, and spaP) related to virulence were assessed. In addition, some phenotypic traits were evaluated. We obtained 2125 sRNA candidates with at least 100 average reads in 1% sucrose or 5% sucrose. Of these candidates, 2 were upregulated and 20 were downregulated in 1% sucrose. Six of these 22 differentially expressed sRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The expression level of target gene gtfB was higher in 1% sucrose. The adherence ratio of S. mutans was higher in 1% sucrose than in 5% sucrose. The synthesis of water-insoluble glucans (WIGs) was significantly higher in 5% sucrose than in 1% sucrose. These data suggest that a series of sRNAs can be induced in response to sucrose, and that some sRNAs might be involved in the regulation of phenotypes, providing new insight into the prevention of caries.

  20. Sucrose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking hexose transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Anderson S; Miletti, Luiz C; Stambuk, Boris U

    2004-01-01

    Sucrose is the major carbon source used by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during production of baker's yeast, fuel ethanol and several distilled beverages. It is generally accepted that sucrose fermentation proceeds through extracellular hydrolysis of the sugar, mediated by the periplasmic invertase, producing glucose and fructose that are transported into the cells and metabolized. In the present work we analyzed the contribution to sucrose fermentation of a poorly characterized pathway of sucrose utilization by S. cerevisiae cells, the active transport of the sugar through the plasma membrane and its intracellular hydrolysis. A yeast strain that lacks the major hexose transporters (hxt1-hxt7 and gal2) is incapable of growing on or fermenting glucose or fructose. Our results show that this hxt-null strain is still able to ferment sucrose due to direct uptake of the sugar into the cells. Deletion of the AGT1 gene, which encodes a high-affinity sucrose-H(+) symporter, rendered cells incapable of sucrose fermentation. Since sucrose is not an inducer of the permease, expression of the AGT1 must be constitutive in order to allow growth of the hxt-null strain on sucrose. The molecular characterization of active sucrose transport and fermentation by S. cerevisiae cells opens new opportunities to optimize yeasts for sugarcane-based industrial processes.

  1. Sucrose and warmth for analgesia in healthy newborns: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Larry; Garza, Elizabeth; Zageris, Danielle; Heilman, Keri J; Porges, Stephen W

    2015-03-01

    Increasing data suggest that neonatal pain has long-term consequences. Nonpharmacologic techniques (sucrose taste, pacifier suckling, breastfeeding) are effective and now widely used to combat minor neonatal pain. This study examined the analgesic effect of sucrose combined with radiant warmth compared with the taste of sucrose alone during a painful procedure in healthy full-term newborns. A randomized, controlled trial included 29 healthy, full-term newborns born at the University of Chicago Hospital. Both groups of infants were given 1.0 mL of 25% sucrose solution 2 minutes before the vaccination, and 1 group additionally was given radiant warmth from an infant warmer before the vaccination. We assessed pain by comparing differences in cry, grimace, heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia), and heart rate between the groups. The sucrose plus warmer group cried and grimaced for 50% less time after the vaccination than the sucrose alone group (P < .05, respectively). The sucrose plus warmer group had lower heart rate and heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia) responses compared with the sucrose alone group (P < .01), reflecting a greater ability to physiologically regulate in response to the painful vaccination. The combination of sucrose and radiant warmth is an effective analgesic in newborns and reduces pain better than sucrose alone. The ready availability of this practical nonpharmacologic technique has the potential to reduce the burden of newborn pain. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Sucrose accumulation in watermelon fruits: genetic variation and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yativ, Merav; Harary, Idan; Wolf, Shmuel

    2010-05-15

    Sugar accumulation, the key process determining fruit quality, is controlled by both the translocation of sugars and their metabolism in developing fruits. Sugar composition in watermelon, as in all cucurbit fruits, includes sucrose, fructose and glucose. The proportions of these three sugars are determined primarily by three enzyme families: invertases, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs). The goal of the present research was to explore the process of sugar metabolism in watermelon fruits. Crosses between the domestic watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and three wild species provided a wide germplasm to explore genetic variability in sugar composition and metabolism. This survey demonstrated great genetic variability in sugar content and in the proportions of sucrose, glucose and fructose in mature fruits. Genotypes accumulating high and low percentage of sucrose provided an experimental system to study sugar metabolism in developing fruits. Insoluble invertase activity was high and constant throughout fruit development in control lines and in genotypes accumulating low levels of sucrose, while in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose, activity declined sharply 4 weeks after pollination. Soluble acid invertase activity was significantly lower in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose than in low-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. Conversely, activities of SuSy and SPS were higher in the high-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. The present results establish that, within the genus Citrullus, there are genotypes that accumulate a high percentage of sucrose in the fruit, while others accumulate high percentages of glucose and fructose. The significant negative correlation between insoluble invertase activity and fruit sucrose level suggests that sucrose accumulation is affected by both phloem unloading and sugar metabolism. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  4. Analysis and protease-catalysed synthesis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the presented research were to develop quantifiable methods for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers and to investigate the activity and regioisomeric distribution in the biocatalytic esterification of sucrose with vinyl laur...... in the reaction mixture appeared to be catalysed by the presence of aluminosilicate molecular sieves in the reaction medium. Mass spectrometry analysis of sucrose laurate product confirmed the molecular mass.......The aims of the presented research were to develop quantifiable methods for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers and to investigate the activity and regioisomeric distribution in the biocatalytic esterification of sucrose with vinyl...... laurate in DMF using serine proteases and a metalloprotease. A broad range of elution strategies for the chromatographic analysis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers was systematically investigated using design of experiments strategies and statistical and multivariate analysis and modelling. Efficiency...

  5. Ameliorative Effect of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus in Alcohol- and Sucrose-Induced Hypertension in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidemi J. Akindele

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension remains a major health problem worldwide considering the prevalence of morbidity and mortality. Plants remain a reliable source of efficacious and better tolerated drugs and botanicals. This study was designed to investigate the effect of the chemo-profiled hydroethanolic leaf extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus in ethanol- and sucrose-induced hypertension. Groups of rats were treated orally (p.o. with distilled water (10 ml/kg, ethanol (35%; 3 g/kg, sucrose (5-7%, and B. coccineus (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, and nifedipine together with ethanol and sucrose separately for 8 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, blood pressure and heart rate of rats were determined. Blood was collected for serum biochemical parameters and lipid profile assessment, and the liver, aorta, kidney, and heart were harvested for estimation of in vivo antioxidants and malondialdehyde (MDA. Results obtained in this study showed that B. coccineus at the various doses administered reduced the systolic, diastolic, and arterial blood pressure elevated by ethanol and sucrose. Also, the extract reversed the reduction in catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD induced by ethanol and sucrose. The level of MDA was reduced compared to the ethanol- and sucrose-induced hypertensive group. With respect to lipid profile, administration of B. coccineus at the various doses reduced the levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, cholesterol, and atherogenic indices, compared to the ethanol and sucrose groups. In conclusion the hydroethanolic leaf extract of B. coccineus exerted significant antihypertensive effect and this is probably related to the antioxidant property and improvement of lipid profile observed in this study.

  6. Formulation of Hydrocolloid-Agar, Sucrose, and Acidulant on Jam Leather Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Ramadhan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tallying agar powder as a texturizer in guava single sheet jam instigate the product more convenience to consumed. The aims of this research were to determine the best concentration of sucrose, citric acid and agar powder to form a good quality guava jam slice. The research method are optimization and formulationof sucrose, citric acid and agar-agar on making guava jam single sheets product. Physochemical and sensory tests were performed to reveal the best formulation of guava jam slice and the Bayes method used to determine the optimization of the selected formula. Based on the results of formulation and analysis, itwas obtained that  the guava jam slice with Acidulant concentration (0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06%, sucrose (70%, 80%, 90%, 100% and agar powder (0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%, 1.0%, 1.1%, 1.2% had pH 3.63-3.90, sugar content 34.68 g/100 g – 35.76 g/100 g, color intensity L*, a*, b* with ΔE* value was 37,88-53,97, fiber content 1.01%-1.59%, and water activity 0.852-0.893. Rheology properties for texture profile (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, adhesive force, and gumminess also showed significant value with agar powder formulation. Based on the Bayes test and hedonic test, it was found that the best formula was for guava jam slices with the addition of 90% sucrose, citric acid 0.04% and agar powder 0.9%. From the best formula, it was found the shelf life prediction model of Arrhenius formula was ln k = 20.222-6660.6(1/T and the nutrition facts contribute total energy 45 kcal, fat 0%, carbohydrate 9%, protein 2% and dietary fiber 3%.

  7. Functional characterization of sucrose phosphorylase and scrR, a regulator of sucrose metabolism in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Januana S; Abdi, Reihaneh; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri harbours alternative enzymes for sucrose metabolism, sucrose phosphorylase, fructansucrases, and glucansucrases. Sucrose phosphorylase and fructansucrases additionally contribute to raffinose metabolism. Glucansucrases and fructansucrases produce exopolysaccharides as alternative to sucrose hydrolysis. L. reuteri LTH5448 expresses a levansucrase (ftfA) and sucrose phosphorylase (scrP), both are inducible by sucrose. This study determined the contribution of scrP to sucrose and raffinose metabolism in L. reuteri LTH5448, and elucidated the role of scrR in regulation sucrose metabolism. Disruption of scrP and scrR was achieved by double crossover mutagenesis. L. reuteri LTH5448, LTH5448ΔscrP and LTH5448ΔscrR were characterized with respect to growth and metabolite formation with glucose, sucrose, or raffinose as sole carbon source. Inactivation of scrR led to constitutive transcription of scrP and ftfA, demonstrating that scrR is negative regulator. L. reuteri LTH5448 and the LTH5448ΔscrP or LTH5448ΔscrR mutant strains did not differ with respect to glucose, sucrose or raffinose utilization. However, L. reuteri LTH5448ΔscrP produced more levan, indicating that the lack of sucrose phosphorylase is compensated by an increased metabolic flux through levansucrase. In conclusion, the presence of alternate pathways for sucrose and raffinose metabolism and their regulation indicate that these substrates, which are abundant in plants, are preferred carbohydrate sources for L. reuteri. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sucrose transport and phloem unloading in stem of Vicia faba: possible involvement of a sucrose carrier and osmotic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloni, B.; Wyse, R.E.; Griffith, S.

    1986-01-01

    After pulse labeling of a source leaf with 14 CO 2 , stem sections of Vicia faba plants were cut and the efflux characteristics of 14 C-labeled sugars into various buffered solutions were determined. Radiolabeled sucrose was shown to remain localized in the phloem and adjacent phloem parenchyma tissues after a 2-hour chase. Therefore, sucrose leakage from stem segments prepared following a 75-minute chase period was assumed to be characteristic of phloem unloading. The efflux of 14 C assimilates from the phloem was enhanced by 1 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) and by 5 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenly hydrazone (CCCP). However, PCMBS inhibited and CCCP enhanced general leakage of nonradioactive sugars from the stem segments. Sucrose at concentrations of 50 millimolar in the free space increased efflux of [ 14 C]sucrose, presumably through an exchange mechanism. This exchange was inhibited by PCMBS and abolished by 0.2 molar mannitol. Increasing the osmotic concentration of the efflux medium with mannitol reduced [ 14 C]sucrose efflux. However, this inhibition seems not to be specific to sucrose unloading since leakage of total sugars, nonlabeled sucrose, glucose, and amino acids from the bulk of the tissue was reduced in a similar manner. The data suggest that phloem unloading in cut stem segments is consistent with passive efflux of sucrose from the phloem to the apoplast and that sucrose exchange via a membrane carrier may be involved

  9. Compartmentation of sucrose during radial transfer in mature sorghum culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vietor Donald M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sucrose that accumulates in the culm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and other large tropical andropogonoid grasses can be of commercial value, and can buffer assimilate supply during development. Previous study conducted with intact plants showed that sucrose can be radially transferred to the intracellular compartment of mature ripening sorghum internode without being hydrolysed. In this study, culm-infused radiolabelled sucrose was traced between cellular compartments and among related metabolites to determine if the compartmental path of sucrose during radial transfer in culm tissue was symplasmic or included an apoplasmic step. This transfer path was evaluated for elongating and ripening culm tissue of intact plants of two semidwarf grain sorghums. The metabolic path in elongating internode tissue was also evaluated. Results On the day after culm infusion of the tracer sucrose, the specific radioactivity of sucrose recovered from the intracellular compartment of growing axillary-branch tissue was greater (nearly twice than that in the free space, indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through symplasmic routes. In contrast, the sucrose specific radioactivity in the intracellular compartment of the mature (ripening culm tissue was probably less (about 3/4's than that in free space indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through routes that included an apoplasmic step. In growing internodes of the axillary branch of sorghum, the tritium label initially provided in the fructose moiety of sucrose molecules was largely (81% recovered in the fructose moiety, indicating that a large portion of sucrose molecules is not hydrolysed and resynthesized during radial transfer. Conclusion During radial transfer of sucrose in ripening internodes of intact sorghum plants, much of the sucrose is transferred intact (without hydrolysis and resynthesis and primarily through a path that includes an

  10. Sequence analysis of cereal sucrose synthase genes and isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... sequencing of sucrose synthase gene fragment from sor- ghum using primers designed at their conserved exons. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Multiple sequence alignment. Sucrose synthase gene sequences of various cereals like rice, maize, and barley were accessed from NCBI Genbank database.

  11. Comparative Sucrose Responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana Foragers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Kuang, Haiou; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenhong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zachary Y.; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources. PMID:24194958

  12. Comparative sucrose responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Kuang, Haiou; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenhong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zachary Y; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources.

  13. Comparative sucrose responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana foragers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Yang

    Full Text Available In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources.

  14. Functionality of Inulin as a Sucrose Replacer in Cookie Baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin was evaluated as a sucrose replacer for healthy cookie production with benefits of low glycemic impact and prebiotic soluble fiber. Sucrose (as a reference) and three inulin products of different concentrations (as soluble fibers) were used to explore the effects of sugar-replacer type on so...

  15. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of sucrose esters on the physicochemical properties of wheat starch. Methods: Sucrose ester was mixed with wheat starch extracted from normal soft wheat cultivars and heated. Change in starch properties arising from the interaction between were assessed for starch blue value, viscosity ...

  16. Sucrose and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a relationship most sweet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Raghavendran, Vijayendran; Stambuk, Boris Ugarte; Gombert, Andreas Karoly

    2016-02-01

    Sucrose is an abundant, readily available and inexpensive substrate for industrial biotechnology processes and its use is demonstrated with much success in the production of fuel ethanol in Brazil. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which naturally evolved to efficiently consume sugars such as sucrose, is one of the most important cell factories due to its robustness, stress tolerance, genetic accessibility, simple nutrient requirements and long history as an industrial workhorse. This minireview is focused on sucrose metabolism in S. cerevisiae, a rather unexplored subject in the scientific literature. An analysis of sucrose availability in nature and yeast sugar metabolism was performed, in order to understand the molecular background that makes S. cerevisiae consume this sugar efficiently. A historical overview on the use of sucrose and S. cerevisiae by humans is also presented considering sugarcane and sugarbeet as the main sources of this carbohydrate. Physiological aspects of sucrose consumption are compared with those concerning other economically relevant sugars. Also, metabolic engineering efforts to alter sucrose catabolism are presented in a chronological manner. In spite of its extensive use in yeast-based industries, a lot of basic and applied research on sucrose metabolism is imperative, mainly in fields such as genetics, physiology and metabolic engineering. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Citrate increases glass transition temperature of vitrified sucrose preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.; Lipelaar, P.J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Vromans, H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium citrate on the properties of dried amorphous sucrose glasses. Addition of sodium citrate to a sucrose solution followed by freeze-drying or convective drying resulted in a glass transition temperature (T-g) that was higher than the

  18. Sucrose Treated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Yarns and Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Consolidated carbon nanotube or graphene yarns and woven sheets are consolidated through the formation of a carbon binder formed from the dehydration of sucrose. The resulting materials, on a macro-scale are lightweight and of a high specific modulus and/or strength. Sucrose is relatively inexpensive and readily available, and the process is therefore cost-effective.

  19. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To understand the role of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system in the biomineralization process, we have tested the influence of different concentration of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin (BSA) on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. The CaCO3 crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscope ...

  20. Kestose:sucrose fructosyl transfer - a potential problem in the investigation of fructan and sucrose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanabus, J.; Carpita, N.C.; Housley, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    Wheat leaves can be induced by excision to produce fructans. Fructose residues of newly made oligofructans in leaves labeled in vivo with 14 CO 2 are not equally labeled. We report here on a fructosyl transferase activity in wheat leaves catalyzing the reaction: G * -F * + G-F-F = G * -F * -F + G-F. This activity, described previously in J. artichoke was attributed to fructan:fructan fructosyl transferase (FFT). The rate of this reaction in vitro is much higher than that of net kestose synthesis by SST. Hence, appearance of labeled 1-kestose from sucrose may not be an accurate measure of SST, but a curious reshuffling of hexoses between pools of 1-kestose and sucrose

  1. Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup-, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L; Griffen, Steven C; Bair, Brandi R; Swarbrick, Michael M; Keim, Nancy L; Havel, Peter J

    2008-05-01

    We have reported that, compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the predominant sweetener in beverages in the United States. We compared the metabolic/endocrine effects of HFCS with sucrose and, in a subset of subjects, with pure fructose and glucose. Thirty-four men and women consumed 3 isocaloric meals with either sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened beverages, and blood samples were collected over 24 h. Eight of the male subjects were also studied when fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages were consumed. In 34 subjects, 24-h glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and TG profiles were similar between days that sucrose or HFCS was consumed. Postprandial TG excursions after HFCS or sucrose were larger in men than in women. In the men in whom the effects of 4 sweeteners were compared, the 24-h glucose and insulin responses induced by HFCS and sucrose were intermediate between the lower responses during consumption of fructose and the higher responses during glucose. Unexpectedly, postprandial TG profiles after HFCS or sucrose were not intermediate but comparably high as after pure fructose. Sucrose and HFCS do not have substantially different short-term endocrine/metabolic effects. In male subjects, short-term consumption of sucrose and HFCS resulted in postprandial TG responses comparable to those induced by fructose.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Dietary Counseling in the Prevention and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunbodede

    Volume 2 Numbers 1 & 2 2006: 26-36. Http://www.ajoh. ... In this paper, the scientific basis for dietary counseling in oral health and the role of sucrose in ..... Fish. 16. Agbara oti. 4. Organ meat. (Liver, Kidney). 17. Milk. 5. Pork. 18. Soyamilk. 6. Snail. 19. Yoghurt /. Ice-cream. 7. Egg. 20. Cheese. 8. Beans/Akidi/. Fiofio. 9. Ukwa.

  3. Effect of an avocado oil-enhanced diet (Persea americana) on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Toro-Equihua, Mario; Velasco-Rodríguez, Raymundo; López-Ascencio, Raúl; Vásquez, Clemente

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetable oils with varying percentages of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin resistance. However, there is no report on the effect of avocado oil on this pathologic condition. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of avocado oil on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats. An experimental study was carried out on Wistar rats that were randomly assigned into six groups. Each group received a different diet over an 8-week period (n = 11 in each group): the control group was given a standard diet, and the other five groups were given the standard feed plus sucrose with the addition of avocado oil at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. Variables were compared using Student t test and analysis of variance. Statistically significant difference was considered when p avocado oil showed lower insulin resistance (p = 0.022 and p = 0.024, respectively). Similar insulin resistance responses were observed in the control and 30% avocado oil addition groups (p = 0.85). Addition of 5-30% avocado oil lowered high sucrose diet-induced body weight gain in Wistar rats. It was thus concluded that glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by high sucrose diet in Wistar rats can be reduced by the dietary addition of 5-20% avocado oil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Gibberellin overproduction promotes sucrose synthase expression and secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Bai

    Full Text Available Bioactive gibberellins (GAs comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression.

  5. A review of sugar consumption from nationally representative dietary surveys across the world

    OpenAIRE

    Newens, K. J.; Walton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Government and health organisations worldwide have recently reviewed the evidence on the role of dietary sugars in relation to health outcomes. Hence, it is timely to review current intakes of dietary sugars with respect to this guidance and as a benchmark for future surveillance. Methods This review collates data from nationally representative dietary surveys across the world and reports estimates of intakes of total and added sugars, and sucrose in different population s...

  6. Effects of sucrose, glucose and fructose on peripheral and central appetite signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Andreas; Baelemans, Annemie; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2008-10-09

    In the Western world, consumption of soft drinks has increased the last three decades and is partly responsible for the epidemic-like increase in obesity. Soft drinks, originally sweetened by sucrose, are now sweetened by other caloric sweeteners, such as fructose. In this study, we investigated the short-term effect of sucrose, glucose or fructose solutions on food intake and body weight in rats, and on peripheral and central appetite signals. Rats received water containing either of the sugars and standard rat chow for two weeks. Rats receiving water alone and standard chow were controls. All rats offered the sugar solutions increased their total caloric intake. The increased caloric intake occurred despite the fact that the rats offered either of the sugar solutions consumed less chow. As a consequence of the increased caloric intake, the sugar-drinking rats had elevated serum levels of free fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol. In addition, consuming sugar solutions resulted in increased serum leptin, decreased serum PYY and down-regulated hypothalamic NPY mRNA. Serum ghrelin was increased in rats receiving fructose solution. Moreover, consumption of sucrose or fructose solution resulted in up-regulated hypothalamic CB1 mRNA. Hypothalamic POMC mRNA was down-regulated in rats receiving glucose or fructose. In conclusion, consumption of glucose, sucrose or fructose solution results in caloric overconsumption and body weight gain through activation of hunger signals and depression of satiety signals as well as activation of reward components. The weight-promoting effect of these sugar solutions may possibly be ameliorated by the down-regulation of NPY mRNA and increased serum leptin.

  7. Gelling ability of kefiran in the presence of sucrose and fructose and physicochemical characterization of the resulting cryogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Lucía; Roberti, Paula; Piermaria, Judith A; Abraham, Analía G

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the influence of sucrose and fructose on the gel-forming capacity of kefiran was investigated as well as the physicochemical characteristics of the resulting gels. The addition of sugar to gel-forming solutions did not alter the pseudoplastic flow properties of kefiran solutions and after one freeze-thaw cycle translucent gels with high water-holding capability were obtained. A highly porous matrix was revealed by microscopy whose pore size varied with sugar concentration. Sucrose and fructose had different effects on the rheological characteristics of sugar-kefiran gels. An increment in the strength of the gels with progressive concentrations of sucrose was evidenced by an increase in the elastic modulus (G'), indicating that sucrose reinforces the binding interactions between the polymer molecules (p ≤ 0.05). A drastic reduction in elastic modulus occurred, however, when 50.0 % w/w sucrose was added to kefiran gels, resulting in less elasticity. In contrast, when fructose was added to kefiran gels, elastic modulus decreased slightly with progressive sugar concentrations up to 10 %, thereafter increasing up to 50 % (p ≤ 0.05). Supplementation with up to 30 % sugar contributed to water retention and increased the viscous modulus. The relative increment in the elastic and viscous moduli elevated the loss tangent (tanδ) depending on the type and concentration of sugar. Sugars (sucrose, fructose) present in the matrix of the polysaccharide networks modified water-polymer and polymer-polymer interactions and consequently changed the gels' physicochemical characteristics, thus allowing the possibility of selecting the appropriate formulation through tailor-made kefiran cryogels.

  8. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at approximately 20-25% of energy over a 4- to 6-wk period, dietary fructose caused significant increases in fasting TG and LDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas dietary glucose did not, but dietary glucose did increase serum glucose and insulin concentrations in the postprandial state whereas dietary fructose did not. When fructose at 30-60 g ( approximately 4-12% of energy) was added to the diet in the free-living state, there were no significant effects on lipid or glucose biomarkers. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose and no metabolic differences between them have been noted. Controlled feeding studies at more physiologic dietary intakes of fructose and glucose need to be conducted. In our view, to decrease the current high prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes, the focus should be on restricting the intake of excess energy, sucrose, HFCS, and animal and trans fats and increasing exercise and the intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, fish, fruit, whole grains, and fiber.

  9. Physical, bioactive and sensory quality parameters of reduced sugar chocolates formulated with natural sweeteners as sucrose alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Dujmović, Marko; Karlović, Sven; Biškić, Matija; Brnčić, Mladen; Ježek, Damir

    2015-01-15

    In this study, sugar alcohols, dietary fibers, syrups and natural sweeteners were used as sucrose alternatives in the production of reduced sugar chocolates (50% of cocoa parts) with enhanced bioactive profile. Formulated chocolates were evaluated for their physical (particle size distribution, texture) and sensory properties, sugar composition, polyphenolic compounds content and antioxidant capacity. All produced reduced sugar chocolates ensured >20% lower calorific value than conventional chocolate (prepared with sucrose). Formulated chocolates containing stevia leaves and peppermint exhibited the best sensory properties (especially with regard to mouthfeel, sweetness and herbal aroma), as well as the highest polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Particle size and hardness of chocolates increased in comparison to conventional chocolate, in particular when the combination of fructose and isomalt or lactitol was used. The bioactive profile of produced chocolates was enriched with phenolic acids, flavone (luteolin and apigenin) and flavonol (quercetin) derivatives, which were not identified in control chocolate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal chocolate and sucrose soft drink intake induces hepatic steatosis in rat offspring associated with altered lipid gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Maj; Nilsson, C.; Rosendal, A.

    2014-01-01

    weight gain and adiposity in offspring born to chow-fed dams. Conclusion: Our results suggest that supplementation of chocolate and soft drink during gestation and lactation contributes to early onset of hepatic steatosis associated with changes in hepatic gene expression and lipid handling....... until weaning, giving four dietary groups. Results: At postnatal day 1, offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams were heavier and had increased hepatic triglycerides (TG), hepatic glycogen, blood glucose and plasma insulin compared with offspring from chow-fed dams. Hepatic genes involved in lipid...... oxidation, VLDL transport and insulin receptor were down-regulated, whereas FGF21 expression was up-regulated. Independent of postnatal litter size, offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams aged 21 days had still increased hepatic TG and up-regulated FGF21 expression, while plasma insulin started...

  11. Data Elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-29

    Data Elevator: Efficient Asynchronous Data Movement in Hierarchical Storage Systems Multi-layer storage subsystems, including SSD-based burst buffers and disk-based parallel file systems (PFS), are becoming part of HPC systems. However, software for this storage hierarchy is still in its infancy. Applications may have to explicitly move data among the storage layers. We propose Data Elevator for transparently and efficiently moving data between a burst buffer and a PFS. Users specify the final destination for their data, typically on PFS, Data Elevator intercepts the I/O calls, stages data on burst buffer, and then asynchronously transfers the data to their final destination in the background. This system allows extensive optimizations, such as overlapping read and write operations, choosing I/O modes, and aligning buffer boundaries. In tests with large-scale scientific applications, Data Elevator is as much as 4.2X faster than Cray DataWarp, the start-of-art software for burst buffer, and 4X faster than directly writing to PFS. The Data Elevator library uses HDF5's Virtual Object Layer (VOL) for intercepting parallel I/O calls that write data to PFS. The intercepted calls are redirected to the Data Elevator, which provides a handle to write the file in a faster and intermediate burst buffer system. Once the application finishes writing the data to the burst buffer, the Data Elevator job uses HDF5 to move the data to final destination in an asynchronous manner. Hence, using the Data Elevator library is currently useful for applications that call HDF5 for writing data files. Also, the Data Elevator depends on the HDF5 VOL functionality.

  12. Characterization of Sucrose Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Iconaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose is a natural osmolyte accumulated in the cells of organisms as they adapt to environmental stress. In vitro sucrose increases protein stability and forces partially unfolded structures to refold. Thin films of sucrose (C12H22O11 were deposited on thin cut glass substrates by the thermal evaporation technique (P∼10−5 torr. Characteristics of thin films were put into evidence by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG/DTA. The experimental results confirm a uniform deposition of an adherent layer. In this paper we present a part of the characteristics of sucrose thin films deposited on glass in medium vacuum conditions, as a part of a culture medium for osteoblast cells. Osteoblast cells were used to determine proliferation, viability, and cytotoxicity interactions with sucrose powder and sucrose thin films. The osteoblast cells have been provided from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC Centre. The outcome of this study demonstrated the effectiveness of sucrose thin films as a possible nontoxic agent for biomedical applications.

  13. Sucrose and IQ induced mutations in rat colon by independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Hald, M. T.; Autrup, H.

    2004-01-01

    Sucrose-rich diets have repeatedly been observed to have co-carcinogenic actions in colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate a possible interaction between sucrose and IQ...... on the genotoxicity in rat liver and colon, we gave Big Blue rats(TM) a diet containing sucrose (0%, 3.45% or 13.4% w/w) and/or IQ (70 ppm) for a period of 3 weeks. Sucrose and IQ increased the mutation frequency in the colon. The effect of combined treatments with IQ and sucrose on the mutation frequencies...... was additive indicating that sucrose and IQ act independently. This was supported by the mutation spectra where sucrose expands the background mutations in the colon, whereas IQ, in other studies, more specifically has induced G:C --> T:A transversions. In the liver IQ increased the mutation frequency, whereas...

  14. Adolescent exposure to Bisphenol-A increases anxiety and sucrose preference but impairs spatial memory in rats independent of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Weinstein, Samantha; Villafane, Joseph J; Juliano, Nicole; Bowman, Rachel E

    2013-09-05

    The endocrine disruptor Bisphenol-A (BPA) has been shown to modulate estrogenic, androgenic, and anti-androgenic effects. The effects of BPA exposure during early organizational periods of development have been well documented. The current study focuses on the effects of short term, low-dose BPA exposure on anxiety, spatial memory and sucrose preference in adolescent rats. Seven week old Sprague Dawley rats (n=18 male, n=18 female) received daily subcutaneous injections (40 µg/kg body weight) of BPA or vehicle for 12 days. Starting on day 6 of injections, subjects were tested on the elevated plus maze which provides a measure of anxiety, the open field test which provides a measure of anxiety and locomotor activity, and object placement, a measure of spatial memory. On the twelfth day of BPA administration, sucrose preference was tested using a standard two-bottle choice (tap versus sucrose solution). All rats gained weight during the study; there was a main effect of sex, but not BPA treatment on body weight. The results indicate that BPA exposure, regardless of sex, increased anxiety on both the elevated plus maze and open field. Spatial memory was impaired on the object recognition task with BPA animals spending significant less time with the object in the novel location than controls. Finally, a significant increase in sucrose consumption for both male and female subjects exposed to BPA was observed. The current data shows that short term BPA exposure, below the current reference safe daily limit of 50 µg/kg day set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, during adolescent development increases anxiety, impairs spatial memory, and increases sucrose consumption independent of sex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sucrose tricarboxylate by sonocatalysed TEMPO-mediated oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, S; Thomazeau, C; Joannard, D; Trombotto, S; Descotes, G; Bouchu, A; Queneau, Y

    2000-06-16

    Oxidation of sucrose by the NaOCl/TEMPO system provided sucrose tricarboxylate without the addition of sodium bromide as co-catalyst when high-frequency (500 kHz) ultrasound was applied, in contrast to very limited conversion without sonication. In the presence of sodium bromide, sonication also caused acceleration of the oxidation. The rate increase due to sonication of the oxidant system prior to sucrose addition suggests that ultrasound acts at the level of the formation of the nitrosonium ion, the active oxidising species in the catalytic cycle.

  16. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loginovskiy, V.I.; Medinger, N.V.; Rasskazov, V.A.; Solonitsyn, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body, spring loaded cams and a shut-off ring. To increase the reliability of the elevator by eliminating the possibility of spontaneous shifting of the shut-off ring, the latter is equipped with handles hinged to it and is made with evolvent grooves. The cams are equipped with rollers installed in the evolvent grooves of the shut off ring, where the body is made with grooves for the handles.

  17. Characteristics of Sucrose Transport through the Sucrose-Specific Porin ScrY Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping eSun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose-specific porin (ScrY is a transmembrane protein that allows for the uptake of sucrose under growth-limiting conditions. The crystal structure of ScrY was resolved before by X-ray crystallography, both in its uncomplexed form and with bound sucrose. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of the transport mechanism of ScrY. To date, there has not yet been any clear demonstration for sucrose transport through the ScrY.Here, the dynamics of the ScrY trimer embedded in a phospholipid bilayer as well as the characteristics of sucrose translocation were investigated by means of atomistic molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The potential of mean force (PMF for sucrose translocation through the pore showed two main energy barriers within the constriction region of ScrY. Energy decomposition allowed to pinpoint three aspartic acids as key residues opposing the passage of sucrose, all located within the L3 loop. Mutation of two aspartic acids to uncharged residues resulted in an accordingly modified electrostatics and decreased PMF barrier. The chosen methodology and results will aid in the design of porins with modified transport specificities.

  18. Molecular motions in sucrose-PVP and sucrose-sorbitol dispersions-II. Implications of annealing on secondary relaxations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sisir; Bhardwaj, Sunny P; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2014-10-01

    To determine the effect of annealing on the two secondary relaxations in amorphous sucrose and in sucrose solid dispersions. Sucrose was co-lyophilized with either PVP or sorbitol, annealed for different time periods and analyzed by dielectric spectroscopy. In an earlier investigation, we had documented the effect of PVP and sorbitol on the primary and the two secondary relaxations in amorphous sucrose solid dispersions (1). Here we investigated the effect of annealing on local motions, both in amorphous sucrose and in the dispersions. The average relaxation time of the local motion (irrespective of origin) in sucrose, decreased upon annealing. However, the heterogeneity in relaxation time distribution as well as the dielectric strength decreased only for β1- (the slower relaxation) but not for β2-relaxations. The effect of annealing on β2-relaxation times was neutralized by sorbitol while PVP negated the effect of annealing on both β1- and β2-relaxations. An increase in local mobility of sucrose brought about by annealing could be negated with an additive.

  19. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  20. Consumption of sucrose, but not high fructose corn syrup, leads to increased adiposity and dyslipidaemia in the pregnant and lactating rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toop, C R; Muhlhausler, B S; O'Dea, K; Gentili, S

    2015-02-01

    Excess consumption of added sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55), have been implicated in the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate and compare the impact of maternal consumption of sucrose or HFCS-55 during pregnancy and lactation on the metabolic health of the dam and her offspring at birth. Female Albino Wistar rats were given access to chow and water, in addition to a sucrose or HFCS-55 beverage (10% w/v) before, and during pregnancy and lactation. Maternal glucose tolerance was determined throughout the study, and a postmortem was conducted on dams following lactation, and on offspring within 24 h of birth. Sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased total energy intake compared with controls, however the increase from sucrose consumption was accompanied by a compensatory decrease in chow consumption. There was no effect of sucrose or HFCS-55 consumption on body weight, however sucrose consumption resulted in increased adiposity and elevated total plasma cholesterol in the dam, while HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased plasma insulin and decreased plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Maternal HFCS-55 consumption was associated with decreased relative liver weight and plasma NEFA in the offspring at birth. There was no effect of either treatment on pup weight at birth. These findings suggest that both sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption during pregnancy and lactation have the potential to impact negatively on maternal metabolic health, which may have adverse consequences for the long-term health of the offspring.

  1. EFFECTS OF SUCROSE AND VEGETABLE OIL ON PROPERTIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nindjin.c

    diameter) to minimize the formation of air bubbles included in the film. ..... polymeric chains was more difficult to make due to the molecule structure of ... observed during storage, due to sucrose addition to cassava starch-xanthan gum films,.

  2. Effects of salinity on sucrose metabolism during tomato fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... (fructose and glucose) accumulated to higher levels and the content of ... But the effects of salinity treatment on sucrose phosphate synthase activities were ... analysis. Sink strength was expressed as the dry matter accumu-.

  3. Effects of salinity on sucrose metabolism during tomato fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... But the effects of salinity treatment on sucrose phosphate synthase activities were weak under the ... The growth of different sink organs depends firstly on the use of ..... isoforms, location and regulatory mechanisms by endo-.

  4. Sucrose effect on broomrape (Orobanche crenata) development on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Key words: Sucrose, Orobanche crenata, Vicia narbonensis and broomrape control. INTRODUCTION ... and forage legume used for livestock feed in the .... the yield of faba bean significantly (Kukula and Masri, 1984). More-.

  5. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in .... 24, 701–713. Bate N. and Twell D. 1998 Functional architecture of a late pollen .... Manzara T. and Gruissem W. 1988 Organization and expression.

  6. Cloning and expression of pineapple sucrose- phosphate synthase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... phosphate; EDTA, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid; Ivr, invertase; SS .... phenolics, tannins and artifacts due to differences of tissue composition ..... Banana sucrose-phosphate synthase gene expression during fruit ripening.

  7. Sucrose Improves Insecticide Activity Against Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Richard S; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Loeb, Gregory M; Elsensohn, Johanna E; Hesler, Steven P

    2015-04-01

    The addition of sucrose to insecticides targeting spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), enhanced lethality in laboratory, semifield, and field tests. In the laboratory, 0.1% sucrose added to a spray solution enhanced spotted wing drosophila feeding. Flies died 120 min earlier when exposed to spinosad residues at label rates enhanced with sucrose. Added sucrose reduced the LC50 for dried acetamiprid residues from 82 to 41 ppm in the spray solution. Laboratory bioassays of spotted wing drosophila mortality followed exposure to grape and blueberry foliage and/or fruit sprayed and aged in the field. On grape foliage, the addition of 2.4 g/liter of sugar with insecticide sprays resulted in an 11 and 6% increase of spotted wing drosophila mortality at 1 and 2 d exposures to residues, respectively, averaged over seven insecticides with three concentrations. In a separate experiment, spinetoram and cyantraniliprole reduced by 95-100% the larval infestation of blueberries, relative to the untreated control, 7 d after application at labeled rates when applied with 1.2 g/liter sucrose in a spray mixture, irrespective of rainfall; without sucrose infestation was reduced by 46-91%. Adding sugar to the organically acceptable spinosyn, Entrust, reduced larval infestation of strawberries by >50% relative to without sugar for five of the six sample dates during a season-long field trial. In a small-plot field test with blueberries, weekly applications in alternating sprays of sucrose plus reduced-risk insecticides, spinetoram or acetamiprid, reduced larval infestation relative to the untreated control by 76%; alternating bifenthrin and phosmet (without sucrose) reduced infestation by 65%. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Evaluation and comparison of antinociceptive activity of aspartame with sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Seema; Gupta, Mahesh C

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are low-calorie substances used to sweeten a wide variety of foods. At present they are used increasingly not only by diabetics, but also by the general public as a mean of controlling the weight. This study was carried out to evaluate and compare antinociceptive activity of the artificial sweeteners, aspartame and sucrose and to study the mechanisms involved in this analgesic activity. Forty eight white albino Wistar rats were divided into two groups of 24 rats each. Group 1 received sucrose and group 2 received aspartame solution ad libitum for 14 days as their only source of liquid. On 14(th) day, both groups of rats were divided into 3 subgroups having 8 rats each. Group Ia and IIa served as control. Group Ib and IIb were given naloxone and Ic and IIc received ketanserin, the opioid and serotonergic receptor antagonists, respectively. Tail withdrawal latencies (tail flick analgesiometer) and paw licking/jumping latencies (Eddy's hot plate method) were increased significantly in both aspartame and sucrose group. The analgesia produced by aspartame was comparable with sucrose. The opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the 5-HT(2A/2C) serotonergic receptor antagonist ketanserin partly reversed the antinociceptive effect of these sweeteners. Thus, the artificial sweetening agent aspartame showed antinociceptive activity like sucrose in rats. Reduction in antinociceptive activity of aspartame and sucrose by opioid and serotoninergic antagonists demonstrate the involvement of both opioid and serotonergic system.

  9. Anti-obesity effect of Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 in high-sucrose diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kang

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 (BNR17, a probiotic strain isolated from human breast milk, inhibited increases in body weight and adipocyte tissue weight in high-sucrose diet-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and reduced glucose levels in type 2 diabetes mice. In the current study, we conducted further experiments to extend these observations and elucidate the mechanism involved. C57BL/6J mice received a normal diet, high-sucrose diet or high-sucrose diet containing L. gasseri BNR17 (10(9 or 10(10 CFU for 10 weeks. The administration of L. gasseri BNR17 significantly reduced the body weight and white adipose tissue weight regardless of the dose administered. In BNR17-fed groups, mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes (ACO, CPT1, PPARα, PPARδ were significantly higher and those of fatty acid synthesis-related genes (SREBP-1c, ACC were lower compared to the high-sucrose-diet group. The expression of GLUT4, main glucose transporter-4, was elevated in BNR17-fed groups. L. gasseri BNR17 also reduced the levels of leptin and insulin in serum. These results suggest that the anti-obesity actions of L. gasseri BNR17 can be attributed to elevated expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and reduced levels of leptin. Additionally, data suggested the anti-diabetes activity of L. gasseri BNR17 may be to due elevated GLUT4 and reduced insulin levels.

  10. Effect of Diets Containing Sucrose vs. D-tagatose in Hypercholesterolemic Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Police, S.; Harris, J; Lodder, R; Cassis, L

    2008-01-01

    Effects of functional sweeteners on the development of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis are unknown. The objective was to compare the effect of dietary carbohydrate in the form of sucrose (SUCR) to D-tagatose (TAG; an isomer of fructose currently used as a low-calorie sweetener) on body weight, blood cholesterol concentrations, hyperglycemia, and atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr-/-) mice. LDLr-/- male and female mice were fed either standard murine diet or a diet enriched with TAG or SUCR as carbohydrate sources for 16 weeks. TAG and SUCR diets contained equivalent amounts (g/kg) of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. We measured food intake, body weight, adipocyte diameter, serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations, and aortic atherosclerosis. Macrophage immunostaining and collagen content were examined in aortic root lesions. CONTROL and TAG-fed mice exhibited similar energy intake, body weights and blood glucose and insulin concentrations, but SUCR-fed mice exhibited increased energy intake and became obese and hyperglycemic. Adipocyte diameter increased in female SUCR-fed mice compared to TAG and CONTROL. Male and female SUCR-fed mice had increased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared to TAG and CONTROL. Atherosclerosis was increased in SUCR-fed mice of both genders compared to TAG and CONTROL. Lesions from SUCR-fed mice exhibited pronounced macrophage immunostaining and reductions in collagen content compared to TAG and CONTROL mice. These results demonstrate that in comparison to sucrose, equivalent substitution of TAG as dietary carbohydrate does not result in the same extent of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis.

  11. Effect of diets containing sucrose vs. D-tagatose in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Police, Sara B; Harris, J Clay; Lodder, Robert A; Cassis, Lisa A

    2009-02-01

    Effects of functional sweeteners on the development of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis are unknown. The objective was to compare the effect of dietary carbohydrate in the form of sucrose (SUCR) to D-tagatose (TAG; an isomer of fructose currently used as a low-calorie sweetener) on body weight, blood cholesterol concentrations, hyperglycemia, and atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice. LDLr(-/-) male and female mice were fed either standard murine diet or a diet enriched with TAG or SUCR as carbohydrate sources for 16 weeks. TAG and SUCR diets contained equivalent amounts (g/kg) of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. We measured food intake, body weight, adipocyte diameter, serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations, and aortic atherosclerosis. Macrophage immunostaining and collagen content were examined in aortic root lesions. CONTROL and TAG-fed mice exhibited similar energy intake, body weights and blood glucose and insulin concentrations, but SUCR-fed mice exhibited increased energy intake and became obese and hyperglycemic. Adipocyte diameter increased in female SUCR-fed mice compared to TAG and CONTROL. Male and female SUCR-fed mice had increased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared to TAG and CONTROL. Atherosclerosis was increased in SUCR-fed mice of both genders compared to TAG and CONTROL. Lesions from SUCR-fed mice exhibited pronounced macrophage immunostaining and reductions in collagen content compared to TAG and CONTROL mice. These results demonstrate that in comparison to sucrose, equivalent substitution of TAG as dietary carbohydrate does not result in the same extent of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis.

  12. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effects of sucrose concentration and wheel-running reinforcer duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Hancock, Stephanie D

    2003-03-01

    Six male albino rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed-interval 30-s schedule of lever pressing that produced either a drop of sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for a fixed duration as reinforcers. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. In Experiment 1, the duration of running was held constant at 15 s while the concentration of sucrose solution was varied across values of 0, 2.5. 5, 10, and 15%. As concentration decreased, postreinforcement pause duration increased and local rates decreased in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. Consequently, the difference between responding in the presence of stimuli signaling wheel-running and sucrose reinforcers diminished, and at 2.5%, response functions for the two reinforcers were similar. In Experiment 2, the concentration of sucrose solution was held constant at 15% while the duration of the opportunity to run was first varied across values of 15, 45, and 90 s then subsequently across values of 5, 10, and 15 s. As run duration increased, postreinforcement pause duration in the presence of the wheel-running stimulus increased and local rates increased then decreased. In summary, inhibitory aftereffects of previous reinforcers occurred when both sucrose concentration and run duration varied; changes in responding were attributable to changes in the excitatory value of the stimuli signaling the two reinforcers.

  13. Long-term safety and efficacy of a cholesterol-lowering diet in children with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol : Seven-year results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obarzanek, E; Kimm, SYS; Barton, BA; Van Horn, L; Kwiterovich, PO; Simons-Morton, DG; Hunsberger, SA; Lasser, NL; Robson, AM; Franklin, FA; Lauer, RM; Stevens, VJ; Friedman, LA; Dorgan, JF; Greenlick, MR

    Objective. Diets reduced in fat and cholesterol are recommended for children over 2 years of age, yet long-term safety and efficacy are unknown. This study tests the long-term efficacy and safety of a cholesterol-lowering dietary intervention in children. Methods. Six hundred sixty-three children 8

  14. Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Bonnie; Yamada, Janet; Ohlsson, Arne; Haliburton, Sarah; Shorkey, Allyson

    2016-07-16

    Administration of oral sucrose with and without non-nutritive sucking is the most frequently studied non-pharmacological intervention for procedural pain relief in neonates. To determine the efficacy, effect of dose, method of administration and safety of sucrose for relieving procedural pain in neonates as assessed by validated composite pain scores, physiological pain indicators (heart rate, respiratory rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen in the blood, transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide (gas exchange measured across the skin - TcpO2, TcpCO2), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), electroencephalogram (EEG), or behavioural pain indicators (cry duration, proportion of time crying, proportion of time facial actions (e.g. grimace) are present), or a combination of these and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal. We performed electronic and manual literature searches in February 2016 for published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2016), MEDLINE (1950 to 2016), EMBASE (1980 to 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 2016). We did not impose language restrictions. RCTs in which term or preterm neonates (postnatal age maximum of 28 days after reaching 40 weeks' postmenstrual age), or both, received sucrose for procedural pain. Control interventions included no treatment, water, glucose, breast milk, breastfeeding, local anaesthetic, pacifier, positioning/containing or acupuncture. Our main outcome measures were composite pain scores (including a combination of behavioural, physiological and contextual indicators). Secondary outcomes included separate physiological and behavioural pain indicators. We reported a mean difference (MD) or weighted MD (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the fixed-effect model for continuous outcome measures. For categorical data we used risk ratio (RR) and risk difference. We assessed

  15. Effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup consumption on spatial memory function and hippocampal neuroinflammation in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ted M; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Taing, Lilly; Usui, Ryan; Kayser, Brandon D; Goran, Michael I; Kanoski, Scott E

    2015-02-01

    Excessive consumption of added sugars negatively impacts metabolic systems; however, effects on cognitive function are poorly understood. Also unknown is whether negative outcomes associated with consumption of different sugars are exacerbated during critical periods of development (e.g., adolescence). Here we examined the effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) intake during adolescence or adulthood on cognitive and metabolic outcomes. Adolescent or adult male rats were given 30-day access to chow, water, and either (1) 11% sucrose solution, (2) 11% HFCS-55 solution, or (3) an extra bottle of water (control). In adolescent rats, HFCS-55 intake impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in a Barne's maze, with moderate learning impairment also observed for the sucrose group. The learning and memory impairment is unlikely based on nonspecific behavioral effects as adolescent HFCS-55 consumption did not impact anxiety in the zero maze or performance in a non-spatial response learning task using the same mildly aversive stimuli as the Barne's maze. Protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6, interleukin 1β) was increased in the dorsal hippocampus for the adolescent HFCS-55 group relative to controls with no significant effect in the sucrose group, whereas liver interleukin 1β and plasma insulin levels were elevated for both adolescent-exposed sugar groups. In contrast, intake of HFCS-55 or sucrose in adults did not impact spatial learning, glucose tolerance, anxiety, or neuroinflammatory markers. These data show that consumption of added sugars, particularly HFCS-55, negatively impacts hippocampal function, metabolic outcomes, and neuroinflammation when consumed in excess during the adolescent period of development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Elevator wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhornik, V.I.; Cherkov, Ye.M.; Simonov, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    An elevator wheel is suggested for unloading a sunken product from a bath of a heavy-average separator including discs of a bucket with inner walls, and covering sheets hinged to the buckets. In order to improve the degree of dehydration of the removed product, the inner wall of each bucket is made of sheets installed in steps with gaps of one in relation to the other.

  17. SUCROSE SYNTHASE: ELUCIDATION OF COMPLEX POST-TRANSLATIONAL REGULATORY MECHANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven C. Huber

    2009-05-12

    Studies have focused on the enzyme sucrose synthase, which plays an important role in the metabolism of sucrose in seeds and tubers. There are three isoforms of SUS in maize, referred to as SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2. SUS is generally considered to be tetrameric protein but recent evidence suggests that SUS can also occur as a dimeric protein. The formation of tetrameric SUS is regulated by sucrose concentration in vitro and this could also be an important factor in the cellular localization of the protein. We found that high sucrose concentrations, which promote tetramer formation, also inhibit the binding of SUS1 to actin filaments in vitro. Previously, high sucrose concentrations were shown to promote SUS association with the plasma membrane. The specific regions of the SUS molecule involved in oligomerization are not known, but we identified a region of the SUS1 moelcule by bioinformatic analysis that was predicted to form a coiled coil. We demonstrated that this sequence could, in fact, self-associate as predicted for a coiled coil, but truncation analysis with the full-length recombinant protein suggested that it was not responsible for formation of dimers or tetramers. However, the coiled coil may function in binding of other proteins to SUS1. Overall, sugar availability may differentially influence the binding of SUS to cellular structures, and these effects may be mediated by changes in the oligomeric nature of the enzyme.

  18. Impact of perinatal exposure to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) on adiposity and hepatic lipid composition in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toop, Carla R; Muhlhausler, Beverly S; O'Dea, Kerin; Gentili, Sheridan

    2017-07-01

    Fructose-containing sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), have been implicated in the epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Few studies have evaluated the impact of perinatal exposure to these sugars on metabolic and physiological outcomes in the offspring. Using a rat model, offspring exposed to a maternal sucrose or HFCS diet during the prenatal and/or suckling periods were found to have altered adiposity and liver fat content and composition at weaning. Plasma levels of free fatty acids remained elevated in young adulthood, but consumption of a control diet following weaning appeared to ameliorate most other effects of perinatal exposure to a maternal high-sugar diet. Guidelines for maternal nutrition should advise limiting consumption of fructose-containing sugars, and it is particularly important that these recommendations include maternal nutrition during lactation. Perinatal exposure to excess maternal intake of added sugars, including fructose and sucrose, is associated with an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adult life. However, it is unknown to what extent the type of sugar and the timing of exposure affect these outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of exposure to maternal consumption of a 10% (w/v) beverage containing sucrose or high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) during the prenatal and/or suckling periods on offspring at 3 and 12 weeks, utilising a cross-fostering approach in a rodent model. Perinatal sucrose exposure decreased plasma glucose concentrations in offspring at 3 weeks, but did not alter glucose tolerance. Increased adiposity was observed in 3-week-old offspring exposed to sucrose or HFCS-55 during suckling, with increased hepatic fat content in HFCS-55-exposed offspring. In terms of specific fatty acids, hepatic monounsaturated (omega-7 and -9) fatty acid content was elevated at weaning, and was most pronounced in sucrose offspring exposed during both the prenatal and

  19. Deregulation of sucrose-controlled translation of a bZIP-type transcription factor results in sucrose accumulation in leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Thalor

    Full Text Available Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S--stands for small basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT. It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open reading frame (SC-uORF found in the AtbZIP11 transcript. The SIRT is reported for 4 other genes belonging to the group of S bZIP in Arabidopsis. Tobacco tbz17 is phylogenetically closely related to AtbZIP11 and carries a putative SC-uORF in its 5'-leader region. Here we demonstrate that tbz17 exhibits SIRT mediated by its SC-uORF in a manner similar to genes belonging to the S bZIP group of the Arabidopsis genus. Furthermore, constitutive transgenic expression of tbz17 lacking its 5'-leader region containing the SC-uORF leads to production of tobacco plants with thicker leaves composed of enlarged cells with 3-4 times higher sucrose content compared to wild type plants. Our finding provides a novel strategy to generate plants with high sucrose content.

  20. Deregulation of sucrose-controlled translation of a bZIP-type transcription factor results in sucrose accumulation in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalor, Sunil Kumar; Berberich, Thomas; Lee, Sung Shin; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhu, Xujun; Imai, Ryozo; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S--stands for small) basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT). It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open reading frame (SC-uORF) found in the AtbZIP11 transcript. The SIRT is reported for 4 other genes belonging to the group of S bZIP in Arabidopsis. Tobacco tbz17 is phylogenetically closely related to AtbZIP11 and carries a putative SC-uORF in its 5'-leader region. Here we demonstrate that tbz17 exhibits SIRT mediated by its SC-uORF in a manner similar to genes belonging to the S bZIP group of the Arabidopsis genus. Furthermore, constitutive transgenic expression of tbz17 lacking its 5'-leader region containing the SC-uORF leads to production of tobacco plants with thicker leaves composed of enlarged cells with 3-4 times higher sucrose content compared to wild type plants. Our finding provides a novel strategy to generate plants with high sucrose content.

  1. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, A.S.; Peshkov, L.P.; Rozin, M.M.; Shestov, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body, a flap, a lock with a catch and a spring-loaded shut-off clamp in the form of upper and lower horizontal levers which are connected by a handle and an axle and one end of which is made in the form of an eccentric cam. The size of the eccentricity of the cam of the levers is increased toward the handle of the clamp in order to increase the operational reliability and to extend the service life.

  2. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastorguyev, M.A.; Maloyarovslavtesv, D.A.; Prokopov, O.I.; Tukayev, Sh.V.; Zanilov, I.F.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body with a turning collar locking device and a rod with longitudinal grooves, which are flexibly linked with jaws positioned in grooves in the body. To increase safety through ensuring automatic locking of the jaws in the closed position, the locking device is made in the form of head on wedges, spring loaded relative to the collar and made with cams and positioned with the capability of interacting with the grooves of the rod and through the cams with the collar.

  3. Anharmonicity and hydrogen bonding in electrooptic sucrose crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, M. M.; Giermańska, J.

    1990-03-01

    The polarized absorption spectra of the sucrose crystal in the 5300 - 7300 cm -1 region have been measured. The assignments of all the eight OH stretching overtones are proposed and their mechanical anharmonicities are estimated. The discrepancies from the oriented gas model (OGM) in the observed relative band intensities, especially of the -CH vibrations, are assumed to be connected with vibronic couplings enhanced by the helical arrangement of molecules joined by hydrogen bondings. It seems that this kind of interactions might be important for the second harmonic generation (SHG) by the sucrose crystal.

  4. Relation of dietary carbohydrates to lipid metabolism and the status of zinc and chromium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moersen, T J; Borgman, R F

    1984-06-01

    Rabbits were fed a purified ration known to produce alterations in lipid metabolism and cholelithiasis. During a 14-week period, group 1 was fed sucrose as the sole dietary carbohydrate, whereas group 2 was fed corn starch; the rations were equicaloric and the carbohydrate provided 43% of the calories. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations increased when the purified rations were fed, and these concentrations were often greater (toward the end of the trial) in rabbits fed the sucrose than in rabbits fed corn starch. Liver weight was increased by the sucrose feeding, but there were no differences as to concentrations of lipid, cholesterol, Cr, or Zn between treatments. The aortas of the sucrose group contained more lipid, and the cholesterol concentrations tended to be greater; but dietary carbohydrate had no effect on concentrations of Cr or Zn. A reduction in hair Cr concentration was noticed over time in the rabbits fed sucrose, but changes were not noticed in the Zn concentrations. Cholelithiasis tended to be more severe in rabbits fed sucrose.

  5. Bucket elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Chromek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je návrh svislého korečkového elevátoru, který má sloužit k dopravě obilovin s dopravní výškou 19 m a dopravovaným množstvím 100 t/hod. Práce se skládá z popisu korečkového elevátoru a jeho hlavních částí, zmiňující se v úvodní rešerši. Tato práce je zaměřena na funkční a kapacitní výpočet, určení pohonu a napínacího zařízení. Další výpočet je kontrolní, skládající se z pevnostní kontroly hnacího hřídele, výpočtu pera, životnosti ložisek a výpočtu napínacího zaříze...

  6. Maternal obesity in the rat programs male offspring exploratory, learning and motivation behavior: prevention by dietary intervention pre-gestation or in gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Reyes-Castro, L A; Ibáñez, C; Ramírez, A; Chavira, R; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-04-01

    We studied the effects of maternal high fat diet (HFD, 25% calories from fat administered before and during pregnancy and lactation) and dietary intervention (switching dams from HFD to control diet) at different periconceptional periods on male offspring anxiety related behavior, exploration, learning, and motivation. From weaning at postnatal day (PND) 21, female subjects produced to be the mothers in the study received either control diet (CTR - 5% calories from fat), HFD through pregnancy and lactation (MO), HFD during PNDs 21-90 followed by CTR diet (pre-gestation (PG) intervention) or HFD from PND 21 to 120 followed by CTR diet (gestation and lactation (G) intervention) and bred at PND 120. At 19 days of gestation maternal serum corticosterone was increased in MO and the PG and G dams showed partial recovery with intermediate levels. In offspring, no effects were found in the elevated plus maze test. In the open field test, MO and G offspring showed increase zone entries, displaying less thigmotaxis; PG offspring showed partial recuperation of this behavior. During initial operant conditioning MO, PG and G offspring displayed decreased approach behavior with subsequent learning impairment during the acquisition of FR-1 and FR-5 operant conditioning for sucrose reinforcement. Motivation during the progressive ratio test increased in MO offspring; PG and G intervention recuperated this behavior. We conclude that dietary intervention can reverse negative effects of maternal HFD and offspring outcomes are potentially due to elevated maternal corticosterone. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal-aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    At various times after pulse labeling Vicia faba L. leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents whereas those from rinsed peels contained only cytoplastic contents. Sucrose specific radioactivity peaked in palisade cells, 111 GBq{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and sucrose specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO{sub 2} incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum sucrose specific radioactivity and a high sucrose influx rate. These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple sucrose pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived sucrose in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by {approximately} 4 {micro}m. Factors expected to enhance sucrose accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic sucrose concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll-sucrose efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal-aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  8. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  9. Variability in Phytochemicals, Á-Galactosides, Sucrose Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro protein digestibility varied significantly (P <0.05) among the bean varieties and had a positive significant correlation with sucrose content and negative correlations with trypsin inhibitors, tannins, lectins, á-galactosides and saponins. The correlation matrix indicated that variability in á-galactosides, the protein ...

  10. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-16

    Sep 16, 2015 ... serine residue for phosphorylation by Ser/Thr protein kinase is indicated by a red star. The characteristic sucrose synthase domain (single underline) and a glycosyltransferases domain (double underline) were identified by the Interproscan algorithm (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/ pfa/iprscan/). 464. Journal of ...

  11. Sucrose Responsiveness, Learning Success, and Task Specialization in Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Margot; Rolland, Uther; Giurfa,, Martin; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Social insects possess remarkable learning capabilities, which are crucial for their ecological success. They also exhibit interindividual differences in responsiveness to environmental stimuli, which underlie task specialization and division of labor. Here we investigated for the first time the relationships between sucrose responsiveness,…

  12. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the structure and thermodynamic properties of the modified starch were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: The properties of wheat starch changed greatly by adding different sucrose esters to their ...

  13. Radiation effect on sucrose content of inverted sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podadera, Priscilla; Sabato, Susy F.

    2007-01-01

    Inverted sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose used as an ingredient in the food and beverage industry. During production there are points of contamination by microorganisms that can modify the sugar properties and reduce shelf life. This work aims to consider one efficient technique in the sanitization of this ingredient with minimum alterations in the sugar ratios. Irradiation with Cobalt 60 is a technique with proven efficacy in the reduction of microorganisms. Samples of inverted sugar had been radiated with Cobalt 60, Gammacell type, at the CTR-IPEN, with doses of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 kGy, and dose rate of 3.88 kGy/h. The content of sucrose was determined by the Fehling method. The sample irradiated at highest dose presented the most intense reduction in the concentration of sucrose: 13% in comparison to the control. Irradiated samples up to 30 kGy did not presented statistical difference in relation to the control (p<0.05), indicating that radiation can be applied to the inverted sugar without significant alterations in the concentration of sucrose. (author)

  14. Radiation effect on sucrose content of inverted sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podadera, Priscilla; Sabato, Susy F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mails: ppodadera@yahoo.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Inverted sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose used as an ingredient in the food and beverage industry. During production there are points of contamination by microorganisms that can modify the sugar properties and reduce shelf life. This work aims to consider one efficient technique in the sanitization of this ingredient with minimum alterations in the sugar ratios. Irradiation with Cobalt 60 is a technique with proven efficacy in the reduction of microorganisms. Samples of inverted sugar had been radiated with Cobalt 60, Gammacell type, at the CTR-IPEN, with doses of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 kGy, and dose rate of 3.88 kGy/h. The content of sucrose was determined by the Fehling method. The sample irradiated at highest dose presented the most intense reduction in the concentration of sucrose: 13% in comparison to the control. Irradiated samples up to 30 kGy did not presented statistical difference in relation to the control (p<0.05), indicating that radiation can be applied to the inverted sugar without significant alterations in the concentration of sucrose. (author)

  15. Diverse expression of sucrose transporter gene family in Zea mays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-03-04

    Mar 4, 2015 ... In this study, we identified four sucrose transporter genes. (ZmSUT1 .... strand synthesis was done with forward and reverse primers designed at .... Qazi H. A., Paranjpe S. and Bhargava S. 2012 Stem sugar accu- mulation in ...

  16. Synthesis of Fructooligosaccharides from Sucrose Using Inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maugeri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructooligosaccharides (FOS from sucrose, new alternative sweeteners with functional properties, also called soluble fibers, have a number of desirable characteristics such as low calories, no cariogenicity, and safety for diabetics and Bifidus stimulating factor. Fructooligosaccharides are also known as prebiotics, since they stimulate probiotic organisms. The production, as well as the application of food-grade fructooligosaccharides, has increased rapidly during last years. In this work, experimental factorial design has been applied to optimize the fructooligosaccharide synthesis conditions by inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus var. bulgaricus. The studied variables were: temperature, pH, sucrose and enzyme concentrations. According to the results, only temperature and sucrose concentrations have shown to be significant parameters. The syntheses of the fructooligosaccharides were carried out on stirred reactor and packed bed reactors, using free and immobilized enzymes, with the best conditions obtained from the experimental design. It has been shown that there is no significant difference between these processes. The final sugar concentrations can be tailor made by varying residence time in the reactor to cope with the different standard needs in food industries. A typical solution product consists of a mixture of fructose (155 g/L, glucose (155 g/L, sucrose (132 g/L and fructooligosaccharides (50 g/L. These concentrations are suitable for applications in most food industries, in products such as sweets, candies, chocolates and yogurts. Besides, the prebiotic function of fructooligosaccharides as stimulants of the beneficial intestinal flora will give the product a functional and differentiated feature.

  17. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    stereo-chemical, and structural interactions at the ... are considered to play a principal role in biominer- alization, but their function is still ... men powders were prepared for SEM analysis by coating each .... mixture of two components and micro-absorption ef- fects are ... With the addition of the BSA, protein–sucrose com-.

  18. Transitions in aqueous solutions of sucrose at subzero temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sikora, Antonín; Dupanov, V. O.; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Zámečník, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2007), s. 71-85 ISSN 0022-2348 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/04/0384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : aqueous sucrose solutions * subzero temperature * glass transitions Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.809, year: 2007

  19. The Applicability of a Short-term Test for Detection of Modifying Effects of Dietary Factors in Rodent Colon Carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Eva

    The present studies were initiated to develop a short-term rodent model to assess the influence of different dietary components on the development of colon cancer. Diets with different dietary components, i.e. dietary fibre, fat, sucrose, and starches were tested in male rats initiated with DMH-2......HCl or AOM for their modulating effect on the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Furthermore the heterocyclic amines IQ and PhIP were introduced in the assay as inducers of ACF in mice and rats and their role in colon carcinogenesis in mice was investigated. ACF were found to be induced...... in rodent colon by the colon carcinogens DMH-2HC1, AOM, IQ, and PhIP and it was shown that the incidence of the induced ACF could be modulated by dietary components such as sucrose, dietary fibre, and starch....

  20. Sucrose substitutes affect the cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, S C; Vieira, L M; Cruz, J N S; Azevedo, C S; Rodrigues, P H; Simionato, M R L

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and contributes significantly to the virulence of dental plaque, especially in the presence of sucrose. To avoid the role of sucrose on the virulence factors of S. mutans, sugar substitutes are commonly consumed because they lead to lower or no production of acids and interfere with biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of sugar substitutes in the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, in the presence of sucrose, glucose, sucralose and sorbitol, the biofilm mass was quantified up to 96 h, the pH of the spent culture media was measured, the expression of biofilm-related genes was determined, and demineralization challenge experiments were conduct in enamel fragments. The presence of sugars or sugar substitutes profoundly affected the expression of spaP, gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, ftf, vicR and vicX in either biofilm or planktonic cells. The substitution of sucrose induced a down-regulation of most genes involved in sucrose-dependent colonization in biofilm cells. When the ratio between the expression of biofilm and planktonic cells was considered, most of those genes were down-regulated in biofilm cells in the presence of sugars and up-regulated in the presence of sugar substitutes. However, sucralose but not sorbitol fulfilled the purpose of reducing the cariogenic potential of the diet since it induced the biofilm formation with the lowest biomass, did not change the pH of the medium and led to the lowest lesion depth in the cariogenic challenge.

  1. Relationship Between Circulating Fatty Acids and Fatty Acid Ethanolamide Levels After a Single 2-h Dietary Fat Feeding in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats : Elevated levels of oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide, linoleoylethanolamide, arachidonoylethanolamide and docosahexanoylethanolamide after a single 2 h dietary fat feeding in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatinsu, Anthonia O; Sihag, Jyoti; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies show that long term variations in dietary fat consumption impact circulating fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE) concentrations, however, few studies have investigated short term effects of dietary fat feeding on FAE levels. The trial's objective was to explore the effect of acute feeding of varying amounts of dietary n-9 and n-3 fatty acids on plasma and organ levels of FAE. Sixty-four rats were assigned to four groups fed meals containing 40% of energy as either safflower oil (control), canola oil (CO), or DHA rich oil (DRO), each consumed as a bolus within a 2-h window. Plasma and tissue FAE levels were measured at 3, 6, 12 and 24 h following the bolus. FAE profiles over time exhibited patterns that were specific both to FAE and to dietary fat type provided. At 3 h, plasma and liver OEA levels were higher (p < 0.05) in the 95% CO:5% DRO compared with other groups. At 12 h, plasma PEA levels were lower (p < 0.05) in the 50% CO:50% DRO group compared to the 95% CO group. Plasma DEA levels showed an increase (p < 0.05) only after 24 h of feeding. All four dietary groups manifested increased DEA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Data demonstrate that a single meal feeding of diets with different ratios of fat types impacts tissue levels of FAE within a short time frame, which could further influence the physiological roles of FAE on appetite regulation and energy expenditure.

  2. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XIX. The Identification of Sucrose Phosphate in Sugar Beet Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, J. G.

    1952-09-01

    The recognition and characterization of a sucrose phosphate as an intermediate in sucrose by synthesis by green plants is described. A tentative structure for this phosphate is proposed and its mode of formation suggested.

  3. Single, but not multiple pairings of sucrose and corticosterone enhance memory for sucrose drinking and amplify remote reward relativity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecoraro, Norman; Gomez, Francisca; La Fleur, Susanne; Roy, Monica; Dallman, Mary F.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested whether pre-training pairings of ingestion of a 32% sucrose solution and injection(s) of corticosterone (B) would enhance later ingestion in the absence of B, and whether these effects would carry over into later contrast-like effects when animals were subsequently shifted to 4%

  4. Process control of an ethanol fermentation with an enzyme thermistor as a sucrose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandenius, C F; Danielsson, B; Mattiasson, B

    1981-01-01

    An enzyme thermistor was used to monitor and control the sucrose concentration in a conversion of sucrose to EtOH with immobilized yeast. A continuous stirred tank reactor containing Ca alginate-immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. The enzyme thermistor continuously measured the sucrose concentration in the fermentor with an online arrangement giving stable and reproducible heat signals. The control of the sucrose concentration level was performed with an analog P1-controller.

  5. Reinforcement Value and Substitutability of Sucrose and Wheel Running: Implications for Activity Anorexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W.; Duncan, Ian D.; Pierce, W. David

    2006-01-01

    Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior…

  6. Complete Sucrose Metabolism Requires Fructose Phosphotransferase Activity in Corynebacterium glutamicum To Ensure Phosphorylation of Liberated Fructose

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, H.; Lindley, N. D.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose uptake by Corynebacterium glutamicum involves a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sucrose phosphotransferase (PTS), but in the absence of fructokinase, further metabolism of the liberated fructose requires efflux of the fructose and reassimilation via the fructose PTS. Mutant strains lacking detectable fructose-transporting PTS activity accumulated fructose extracellularly but consumed sucrose at rates comparable to those of the wild-type strain.

  7. Reduced permeation of 14C-sucrose, 3H-mannitol and 3H-inulin across blood-brain barrier in nephrectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, E.; Haas, N.; Allen, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine if changes in the concentration-time profile of a blood-borne radiotracer such as 14 C-sucrose would spuriously alter measurements of its permeation across the blood-brain barrier (permeability-area product, PA) based on a 2-compartment (plasma/brain) simple diffusion model. Anesthetized rats which were bilaterally nephrectomized and given a standard intravenous bolus injection of 14 C-sucrose, 3 H-mannitol or 3 H-inulin exhibited an elevated plasma tracer concentration compared to control animals. However, tracer concentration measured in brain parenchyma after 30 min was not proportionally elevated, and PA calculated from the ratio, parenchymal tracer concentration: plasma concentration-time integral, was significantly reduced below control values. In control rats, distortion and elevation of the plasma 14 C-sucrose profile by continuous intravenous infusion did not result in lowered PA values. This suggested that the lowering of PA by nephrectomy reflected reduced cerebrovascular permeability or area or other cerebral influence rather than a deficiency in the 2-compartment model for PA measurement

  8. Characterization of Sugar Contents and Sucrose Metabolizing Enzymes in Developing Leaves of Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinheng Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in plant leaves have hitherto been investigated mainly in temperate plants, and rarely conducted in tandem with gene expression and sugar analysis. Here, we investigated the sugar content, gene expression, and the activity of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in the leaves of Hevea brasiliensis, a tropical tree widely cultivated for natural rubber. Sucrose, fructose and glucose were the major sugars detected in Hevea leaves at four developmental stages (I to IV, with starch and quebrachitol as minor saccharides. Fructose and glucose contents increased until stage III, but decreased strongly at stage IV (mature leaves. On the other hand, sucrose increased continuously throughout leaf development. Activities of all sucrose-cleaving enzymes decreased markedly at maturation, consistent with transcript decline for most of their encoding genes. Activity of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS was low in spite of its high transcript levels at maturation. Hence, the high sucrose content in mature leaves was not due to increased sucrose-synthesizing activity, but more to the decline in sucrose cleavage. Gene expression and activities of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in Hevea leaves showed striking differences compared with other plants. Unlike in most other species where vacuolar invertase predominates in sucrose cleavage in developing leaves, cytoplasmic invertase and sucrose synthase (cleavage direction also featured prominently in Hevea. Whereas SPS is normally responsible for sucrose synthesis in plant leaves, sucrose synthase (synthesis direction was comparable or higher than that of SPS in Hevea leaves. Mature Hevea leaves had an unusually high sucrose:starch ratio of about 11, the highest reported to date in plants.

  9. Modifications of Western-type diet regarding protein, fat and sucrose levels as modulators of steroid metabolism and activity in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyńska, Agata; Herman, Andrzej P; Antushevich, Hanna; Bochenek, Joanna; Dziendzikowska, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Alina; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the modification of the Western-type diet (high-fat, high-sucrose diet rich in saturated fatty acids) considering macronutrients content would influence hepatic metabolism and activity of steroids. For 3 weeks Wistar rat were fed the Western-type diet (21% fat, 35% sucrose, 19% protein, lard) and its modifications regarding dietary protein (10 and 19%), fat (5 and 21%) and sucrose (0 and 35%) levels. The steroid 5α-reductase type 1 (Srd5a1) and androgen receptor (Ar) gene expression as well as testosterone (T) conversion towards 5α-reduced derivatives in liver were positively correlated with body weight gain. The Western-type diets with decreased protein content regardless of the sucrose level exerted the most negative effect on the antioxidant system decreasing catalase (Cat), sodium dismutase (Sod1) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx1) gene expression as well as Cat and Gpx activity and total antioxidant status, simultaneously intensifying lipid peroxidation. The impaired antioxidant system was accompanied by decreased level of hepatic T metabolism towards estrogens: 17β-estradiol (E2) and estriol, and increased estrogen receptor type 1 (Esr1) gene expression. Liver Esr1 mRNA level was differently correlated with T (positively) and E2 (negatively) plasma levels. Whereas the fat reduction in Western-type diet restored the plasma proportion between T and E2. In conclusion it could be stated that Western-type diet modification relating to protein, sucrose and fat content can influence hepatic steroid metabolism and activity; however the estrogens and androgens metabolism in liver would be connected with impairment of liver function or catabolic activity, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A pooled analysis of dietary sugar/carbohydrate intake and esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma incidence and survival in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Petrick, Jessica L; Steck, Susan E; Bradshaw, Patrick T; McClain, Kathleen M; Niehoff, Nicole M; Engel, Lawrence S; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Risch, Harvey A; Vaughan, Thomas L; Wu, Anna H; Gammon, Marilie D

    2017-12-01

    During the past 40 years, esophageal/gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (EA/GCA) incidence increased in Westernized countries, but survival remained low. A parallel increase in sugar intake, which may facilitate carcinogenesis by promoting hyperglycaemia, led us to examine sugar/carbohydrate intake in association with EA/GCA incidence and survival. We pooled 500 EA cases, 529 GCA cases and 2027 controls from two US population-based case-control studies with cases followed for vital status. Dietary intake, assessed by study-specific food frequency questionnaires, was harmonized and pooled to estimate 12 measures of sugar/carbohydrate intake. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] were calculated using multinomial logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression, respectively. EA incidence was increased by 51-58% in association with sucrose (ORQ5vs.Q1 = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.01-2.27), sweetened desserts/beverages (ORQ5vs.Q1 = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.06-2.27) and the dietary glycaemic index (ORQ5vs.Q1 = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.13-2.21). Body mass index (BMI) and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) modified these associations (Pmultiplicative-interaction ≤ 0.05). For associations with sucrose and sweetened desserts/beverages, respectively, the OR was elevated for BMI desserts/beverages, and foods that contribute to a high glycaemic index, may be plausible EA risk reduction strategies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  11. Sucrose synthase: A unique glycosyltransferase for biocatalytic glycosylation process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmölzer, Katharina; Gutmann, Alexander; Diricks, Margo; Desmet, Tom; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) is a glycosyltransferase (GT) long known from plants and more recently discovered in bacteria. The enzyme catalyzes the reversible transfer of a glucosyl moiety between fructose and a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) (sucrose+NDP↔NDP-glucose+fructose). The equilibrium for sucrose conversion is pH dependent, and pH values between 5.5 and 7.5 promote NDP-glucose formation. The conversion of a bulk chemical to high-priced NDP-glucose in a one-step reaction provides the key aspect for industrial interest. NDP-sugars are important as such and as key intermediates for glycosylation reactions by highly selective Leloir GTs. SuSy has gained renewed interest as industrially attractive biocatalyst, due to substantial scientific progresses achieved in the last few years. These include biochemical characterization of bacterial SuSys, overproduction of recombinant SuSys, structural information useful for design of tailor-made catalysts, and development of one-pot SuSy-GT cascade reactions for production of several relevant glycosides. These advances could pave the way for the application of Leloir GTs to be used in cost-effective processes. This review provides a framework for application requirements, focusing on catalytic properties, heterologous enzyme production and reaction engineering. The potential of SuSy biocatalysis will be presented based on various biotechnological applications: NDP-sugar synthesis; sucrose analog synthesis; glycoside synthesis by SuSy-GT cascade reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alveolar wound healing in rats fed on high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, María A; Rocamundi, Marina R; Viotto, Javier O; Ferreyra, Ruth S

    2013-01-01

    The potential for bone repair is influenced by various biochemical, biomechanical, hormonal, and pathological mechanisms and factors such as diet and its components, all of which govern the behavior and function of the cells responsible for forming new bone. Several authors suggest that a high sucrose diet could change the calcium balance and bone composition in animals, altering hard tissue mineralization. The mechanism by which it occurs is unclear. Alveolar healing following tooth extraction has certain characteristics making this type of wound unique, in both animals and humans. The general aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the biological response during alveolar healing following tooth extraction in rats fed on high sucrose diets, by means of osteocyte lacunae histomorphometry, counting empty lacunae and measuring areas of bone quiescence, formation and resorption. Forty-two Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into two groups: an experimental group fed on modified Stephan Harris diet (43% sucrose) and a control group fed on standard balanced diet. The animals were anesthetized and their left and right lower molars extracted. They were killed at 0 hours, 14, 28, 60 and 120 days. Samples were fixed, decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin to prepare sections for optical microscopy which were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant differences in the size of osteocyte lacunae between groups at 28 and 60 days, with the experimental group having larger lacunae. There were more empty lacunae in the experimental group at 14 days, and no significant difference in the areas of bone activity. A high sucrose diet could modify the morphology and quality of bone tissue formed in the alveolus following tooth extraction.

  13. Sucrose polyesters from poultry fat as non-ionic emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Mohamed G.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry fats are rich in palmitic and oleic acids are produced as by-products from poultry industries. These fats can be utilized in the preparation of emulsifiers. Sucrose esters of poultry fat are prepared from low-cost poultry fat and sucrose by esterification. The yield of sucrose esters prepared in this work exceeds than 85%. The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB, surface tension, interfacial tension and stability index (SI were evaluated and compared with standard emulsifiers prepared from pure palmitate and oleate esters. Concerning the stability of emulsions, the values of interfacial tension and HLB were higher for the sucrose esters of poultry fat.Las grasas de aves de corral son ricas en ácidos palmítico y oleico y son producidas como subproductos de las industrias avícolas. Estas grasas pueden ser utilizadas en la preparación de emulsionantes. Los ésteres de sacarosa de grasas de aves de corral fueron preparadas a partir de grasas de bajo coste y sacarosa por esterificación. El rendimiento de los ésteres de sacarosa preparados en este trabajo superó el 85%. El balance hidrofílicolipofílico (HLB, tensión superficial, tensión interfacial e índice de estabilidad (SI fueron evaluados y comparados con emulsionantes estandar preparados de ésteres de palmitato y oleato puros. Los valores de tensión interfacial y el HLB fueron más altos en los poliésteres de sacarosa de las grasas de aves de corral.

  14. Structural analyses of sucrose laurate regioisomers by mass spectrometry techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Aleksander; Stensballe, Allan; Pedersen, Lars Haastrup

    2015-01-01

    6- And 6′-O-lauroyl sucrose were isolated and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), Orbitrap high-resolution (HR) MS, and electrospray-ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The analyses aimed to explore the physic......6- And 6′-O-lauroyl sucrose were isolated and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), Orbitrap high-resolution (HR) MS, and electrospray-ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The analyses aimed to explore.......8, respectively, and Orbitrap HRMS confirmed the mass of [M+Na]+ (m/z 547.2712). ESI-MS/MS on the precursor ion [M+Na]+ resulted in product ion mass spectra showing two high-intensity signals for each sample. 6-O-Lauroyl sucrose produced signals located at m/z 547.27 and m/z 385.21, corresponding to the 6-O...

  15. Effect of heavy ion irradiation on sucrose radical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Sato, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    We investigated sucrose radicals produced by heavy-ion irradiation with various LETs (linear energy transfer) and the possibility for a sucrose ESR (electron spin resonance) dosimeter. The obtained spectral pattern was the same as that for helium (He) ions, carbon (C) ions, neon (Ne) ions, argon (Ar) ions, and iron (Fe) ions. Identical spectra were measured after one year, but the initial intensities decreased by a few percent when the samples were kept in ESR tubes with the caps at ambient temperature. The total spin concentration obtained by heavy-ion irradiation had a linear relation with the absorbed dose, and correlated logarithmically with the LET. Qualitative ESR analyses showed that the production of sucrose radicals depended on both the particle identity and the LET at the same dose. The production of spin concentration by He ions was the most sensitive to LET. Empirical relations between the LET and the spin yield for various particles imply that the LET at a certain dose can be estimated by the spin concentration. (authors)

  16. Effects of radiochemical impurities on measurements of transfer constants for [14C]sucrose permeation of normal and injured blood-brain barrier of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, E; Foster, D O; Mills, P A

    1998-01-01

    Radiolabeled sucrose is often used to assess blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury in the rat, but published transfer constants (K[i]s) for sucrose permeation of the intact BBB (control K[i]s) are highly discrepant. A potential problem with the commonly used tracer, [14C(U)]sucrose, is radiolytic generation, preuse, of radiocontaminants that might readily penetrate the BBB. How such contaminants might affect measurements of sucrose K(i)s was examined for both the intact and the ischemically injured BBB. Three stocks of [14C(U)]sucrose were studied: newly purchased ("new"), 4-year-old, and 7-year-old. A high purity (99.9%) "new" and a 2-year-old stock of [3H(fructose-1)]sucrose were also tested. Pentobarbital-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected i.v. with each tracer separately (six to eight rats) and K(i)s in five brain regions were measured by the multiple-time graphical method. The "new" 14C-, "new" 3H-, and 2-year-old 3H-sucrose yielded comparable K(i)s , ranging from 1.2 +/- 0.1 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 nl x g(-1) x s(-1) (mean +/- SE) across the regions. The two old stocks of 14C-sucrose yielded significantly higher regional K(i)s : 5.1-6.3 (4-year-old) and 8.4-9.7 (7-year-old). Thin-layer chromatography of the three 14C-tracers revealed that each contained radioimpurities (ca. 2% in both the "new" and 4-year-old, and 9% in the 7-year-old), but that the old stocks contained larger amounts of relatively mobile (more lipophilic) impurities, which can be suspected as the main cause of the elevated K(i)s obtained. Additional rats were subjected to 10 min of cerebral ischemia, which effects a delayed BBB injury, and 6 h later the "new" 3H- and the 4-year-old 14C-sucrose were injected together. The K(i)s for both tracers were elevated by like, absolute amounts (deltaK[i]s), but by very different percentages, over their disparate baseline values in uninjured rats (for striatum and hippocampus, the most injured regions, deltaK(i)s were 3.9 to 4.4 nl x g[-1] x s[-1

  17. Metabolic engineering to expand the substrate spectrum of Pseudomonas putida toward sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Hannes; Schmauder, Lukas; Hobmeier, Karina; Kremling, Andreas; Pflüger-Grau, Katharina

    2017-08-01

    Sucrose is an important disaccharide used as a substrate in many industrial applications. It is a major component of molasses, a cheap by-product of the sugar industry. Unfortunately, not all industrially relevant organisms, among them Pseudomonas putida, are capable of metabolizing sucrose. We chose a metabolic engineering approach to circumvent this blockage and equip P. putida with the activities necessary to consume sucrose. Therefore, we constructed a pair of broad-host range mini-transposons (pSST - sucrose splitting transposon), carrying either cscA, encoding an invertase able to split sucrose into glucose and fructose, or additionally cscB, encoding a sucrose permease. Introduction of cscA was sufficient to convey sucrose consumption and the additional presence of cscB had no further effect, though the sucrose permease was built and localized to the membrane. Sucrose was split extracellularly by the activity of the invertase CscA leaking out of the cell. The transposons were also used to confer sucrose consumption to Cupriavidus necator. Interestingly, in this strain, CscB acted as a glucose transporter, such that C. necator also gained the ability to grow on glucose. Thus, the pSST transposons are functional tools to extend the substrate spectrum of Gram-negative bacterial strains toward sucrose. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Photocatalytic properties of hierarchical ZnO flowers synthesized by a sucrose-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Wei [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Wei Bo [Center for Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Xu Lingling, E-mail: xulingling_hit@163.com [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China) and Center for Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhao Yan, E-mail: zhaoyan516@126.com [Department of Physics, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Gao Hong; Liu Jia [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hierarchical ZnO flowers were synthesized via a sucrose-assisted urea hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sucrose added ZnO flowers showed improved activity mainly due to the improved crystallinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of sucrose content was studied and optimized. - Abstract: In this work, hierarchical ZnO flowers were synthesized via a sucrose-assisted urea hydrothermal method. The thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) showed that sucrose acted as a complexing agent in the synthesis process and assisted combustion during annealing. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated using the degradation of organic dye methyl orange. The sucrose added ZnO flowers showed improved activity, which was mainly attributed to the better crystallinity as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The effect of sucrose amount on photocatalytic activity was also studied.

  19. The genes and enzymes of sucrose metabolism in moderately thermophilic methanotroph Methylocaldum szegediense O12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    But, Sergey Y; Solntseva, Natalia P; Egorova, Svetlana V; Mustakhimov, Ildar I; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Reshetnikov, Alexander; Trotsenko, Yuri A

    2018-05-01

    Four enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism: sucrose phosphate synthase (Sps), sucrose phosphate phosphatase (Spp), sucrose synthase (Sus) and fructokinase (FruK), were obtained as his-tagged proteins from the moderately thermophilic methanotroph Methylocaldum szegediense O12. Sps, Spp, FruK and Sus demonstrated biochemical properties similar to those of other bacterial counterparts, but the translated amino acid sequences of Sps and Spp displayed high divergence from the respective microbial enzymes. The Sus of M. szegediense O12 catalyzed the reversible reaction of sucrose cleavage in the presence of ADP or UDP and preferred ADP as a substrate, thus implying a connection between sucrose and glycogen metabolism. Sus-like genes were found only in a few methanotrophs, whereas amylosucrase was generally used in sucrose cleavage in this group of bacteria. Like other microbial fructokinases, FruK of M. szegediense O12 showed a high specificity to fructose.

  20. Enzymatic assays for detecting lactose and sucrose in urine to reveal intravenous drug abuse with emphasis on buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltanen, T; Mariottini, C; Walta, A M; Rahikainen, A L; Ojanperä, I

    2017-06-01

    Buprenorphine and methadone are commonly used medications for opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), using sublingual and oral administration, respectively. Although beneficial for OMT, these drugs can also be abused by intravenous administration. In intravenous abuse cases, the adjuvants lactose and sucrose are excreted in urine without hydrolysis to monosaccharides, since there are no disaccharidases in the blood. We validated enzymatic methods for the analysis of lactose and sucrose in urine. The analytical performance of both assays was considered appropriate for detecting intravenous drug abuse. The principle was proven by analyzing 93 postmortem (PM) urine samples for lactose, following comprehensive toxicological drug screening. In addition, 32 clinical urine samples from potential drug abusers were analyzed to assess the effect of PM changes on the assay. The mean level of lactose was low in clinical samples and relatively low in PM samples in which no drugs were found. Markedly elevated levels were seen in many of the buprenorphine positive samples, suggesting intravenous administration. Enzymatic methods could provide a simple and cost effective way to assess the intravenous administration of OMT drugs or drugs of abuse. Very high levels of glucose in urine may interfere with the assays. Furthermore, other causes for elevated urine disaccharides, such as hypolactasia and increased intestinal permeability, need to be considered in the interpretation of the results. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of [14C] and [13C]Sucrose as Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammad K; Chowdhury, Ekram A; Bickel, Ulrich; Mehvar, Reza

    2017-06-01

    Nonspecific quantitation of [ 14 C]sucrose in blood and brain has been routinely used as a quantitative measure of the in vivo blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. However, the reported apparent brain uptake clearance (K in ) of the marker varies widely (∼100-fold). We investigated the accuracy of the use of the marker in comparison with a stable isotope of sucrose ([ 13 C]sucrose) measured by a specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Rats received single doses of each marker, and the K in values were determined. Surprisingly, the K in value of [ 13 C]sucrose was 6- to 7-fold lower than that of [ 14 C]sucrose. Chromatographic fractionation after in vivo administration of [ 14 C]sucrose indicated that the majority of the brain content of radioactivity belonged to compounds other than the intact [ 14 C]sucrose. However, mechanistic studies failed to reveal any substantial metabolism of the marker. The octanol:water partition coefficient of [ 14 C]sucrose was >2-fold higher than that of [ 13 C]sucrose, indicating the presence of lipid-soluble impurities in the [ 14 C]sucrose solution. Our data indicate that [ 14 C]sucrose overestimates the true BBB permeability to sucrose. We suggest that specific quantitation of the stable isotope ( 13 C) of sucrose is a more accurate alternative to the current widespread use of the radioactive sucrose as a BBB marker. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pontine and Thalamic Influences on Fluid Rewards: I. Operant Responding for Sucrose and Corn Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Freet, Christopher S.; Grigson, Patricia S; Norgren, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The reward strength of orosensory sucrose and corn oil was measured using fixed and progressive ratio operant schedules. Because the orosensory effects of the stimuli were of interest, Experiment 1 compared operant responses for sucrose in sham and real feeding rats. The results demonstrated that rats would work for sucrose solutions without the accompanying postingestive effects. Furthermore, the break points for high concentrations of sucrose (1.0 M or 2.0 M) were significantly higher in sham feeding rats than in real feeding controls. Experiment 2 investigated the role of the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and of the thalamic orosensory area (TOA) in sucrose and corn oil reward. During free access, rats with PBN lesions (PBNx) licked significantly less sucrose solution than their controls, but both groups ingested a similar volume of corn oil emulsion. When an operant was imposed, these same PBNx rats failed to respond for sucrose and continued only modestly for corn oil. In contrast, the TOA lesioned rats (TOAx) showed no impairment in responding for sucrose or corn oil during either the free access or operant sessions. Furthermore, rats with TOA lesions demonstrated significantly higher break points for sucrose than did their controls. Together, the data imply that the PBN but not the TOA is critical for the perception of, or responding to the reward value of sucrose and corn oil. PMID:21703290

  3. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels predict an enhanced anti-hypertensive and anti-proteinuric benefit of dietary sodium restriction and diuretics, but not angiotensin receptor blockade, in proteinuric renal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagman, Maartje C J; Waanders, Femke; Vogt, Liffert; Damman, Kevin; Hemmelder, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Laverman, Gozewijn D

    2012-03-01

    Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade only partly reduces blood pressure, proteinuria and renal and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) but often requires sodium targeting [i.e. low sodium diet (LS) and/or diuretics] for optimal efficacy. However, both under- and overtitration of sodium targeting can easily occur. We evaluated whether N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a biomarker of volume expansion, predicts the benefits of sodium targeting in CKD patients. In a cross-over randomized controlled trial, 33 non-diabetic CKD patients (proteinuria 3.8 ± 0.4 g/24 h, blood pressure 143/86 ± 3/2 mmHg, creatinine clearance 89 ± 5 mL/min) were treated during 6-week periods with placebo, angiotensin receptor blockade (ARB; losartan 100 mg/day) and ARB plus diuretics (losartan 100 mg/day plus hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg/day), combined with LS (93 ± 52 mmol Na(+)/24 h) and regular sodium diet (RS; 193 ± 62 mmol Na(+)/24 h, P diuretics and was normalized by ARB + diuretic + LS [39 (26-59) pg/mL, P = 0.65 versus controls]. NT-proBNP levels above the upper limit of normal (>125 pg/mL) predicted a larger reduction of blood pressure and proteinuria by LS and diuretics but not by ARB, during all steps of the titration regimen. Elevated NT-proBNP levels predict an enhanced anti-hypertensive and anti-proteinuric benefit of sodium targeting, but not RAAS blockade, in proteinuric CKD patients. Importantly, this applies to the untreated condition, as well as to the subsequent treatment steps, consisting of RAAS blockade and even RAAS blockade combined with diuretics. NT-proBNP can be a useful tool to identify CKD patients in whom sodium targeting can improve blood pressure and proteinuria.

  4. National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The 7.5-minute elevation...

  5. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  6. Crystal structure of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Desiree; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Mirza, Osman

    2004-01-01

    phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BiSP) refined at 1.77 A resolution. It represents the first 3D structure of a sucrose phosphorylase and is the first structure of a phosphate-dependent enzyme from the glycoside hydrolase family 13. The structure of BiSP is composed of the four domains A, B, B...... binding and reduces the size of the substrate access channel compared to other family 13 members, underlining the role of this domain in modulating the function of these enzymes. It is remarkable that the fold of the C domain is not observed in any other known hydrolases of family 13. BiSP was found...

  7. Dietary protein and blood pressure : epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.

    2012-01-01


    Background
    Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Diet and lifestyle have a substantial impact on blood pressure, but the role of protein intake is not yet clear. This thesis focuses on total dietary protein, types of protein (i.e. plant and

  8. Differential blood-brain barrier permeabilities to [14C]sucrose and [3H]inulin after osmotic opening in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziylan, Y.Z.; Robinson, P.J.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (B-BB) in 3-month-old rats was opened unilaterally by infusing 1.8 m L(+)arabinose in water into the internal carotid artery through a catheter in the external carotid. Two poorly penetrating uncharged test radiotracers of differing molecular weight and size, [ 14 C]sucrose (340 daltons, radius 5 A) and [ 3 H]inulin (5500 daltons, radius 15 A), were simultaneously injected i.v. in untreated rats, or rats at 1, 30, or 50 min after infusion of hypertonic arabinose solution. Evans-blue solution was injected 5 min prior to osmotic treatment as a visual indicator of barrier integrity. In regions of uninfused control brains, the [ 14 C]sucrose permeability-surface area (PA) product approximated 10(-5) s-1, whereas PA was not measurable for [ 3 H]inulin. In arabinose-infused animals, PA products on the ipsilateral hemisphere for both [ 14 C]sucrose and [ 3 H]inulin were markedly elevated 6 min after infusion, but decreased by 35 and 55 min. In nearly all regions, statistically significant differences were not found between 6-min [ 14 C]sucrose- and [ 3 H]inulin-PA values (P greater than 0.05). However, at 35 and 55 min in most regions, the PA for [ 3 H]inulin was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than PA for [ 14 C]sucrose. The results indicated that the B-BB closed more rapidly to larger than to smaller molecules after osmotic treatment and were consistent with a pore model for osmotic B-BB opening

  9. The Effect of Normally Consumed Amounts of Sucrose or High Fructose Corn Syrup on Lipid Profiles, Body Composition and Related Parameters in Overweight/Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS, the principal sources of added dietary sugars, are consumed at levels typical of the general population. Sixty five overweight and obese individuals were placed on a eucaloric (weight stable diet for 10-weeks, which incorporated sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 10% or 20% of calories in a randomized, double-blinded study. All groups responded similarly (interaction p > 0.05. There was no change in body weight in any of the groups over the 10-week study, or in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, there were no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or apolipoprotein B (Apo B. We conclude that (1 when consumed as part of a eucaloric diet fructose—when given with glucose (as normally consumed does not promote weight gain or an atherogenic lipid profile even when consumed at two to four times the level recently recommended by the AHA. (2 There were no differences between HFCS and sucrose on these parameters.

  10. The effect of normally consumed amounts of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on lipid profiles, body composition and related parameters in overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von T; Melanson, Kathleen J; Yu, Zhiping; Lowther, Britte E; Rippe, James M

    2014-03-17

    The American Heart Association (AHA) has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS), the principal sources of added dietary sugars, are consumed at levels typical of the general population. Sixty five overweight and obese individuals were placed on a eucaloric (weight stable) diet for 10-weeks, which incorporated sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 10% or 20% of calories in a randomized, double-blinded study. All groups responded similarly (interaction p > 0.05). There was no change in body weight in any of the groups over the 10-week study, or in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, there were no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or apolipoprotein B (Apo B). We conclude that (1) when consumed as part of a eucaloric diet fructose--when given with glucose (as normally consumed) does not promote weight gain or an atherogenic lipid profile even when consumed at two to four times the level recently recommended by the AHA. (2) There were no differences between HFCS and sucrose on these parameters.

  11. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts.

  12. Mechanisms of Sucrose and Non-Nutritive Sucking in Procedural Pain Management in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn Gibbins

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The administration of sucrose with and without non-nutritive sucking (NNS has been examined for relieving procedural pain in newborn infants. The calming and pain-relieving effects of sucrose are thought to be mediated by endogenous opioid pathways activated by sweet taste. The orogustatory effects of sucrose have been demonstrated in animal newborns, and in preterm and full term human infants during painful procedures. In contrast to sucrose, the analgesic effects of NNS are hypothesized to be activated through nonopioid pathways by stimulation of orotactile and mechanoreceptor mechanisms. Although there is uncertainty as to whether the effects of sucrose and NNS are synergistic or additive, there is sufficient evidence to support the efficacy of combining the two interventions for procedural pain relief in infants. In this review article, the underlying mechanisms of sucrose and NNS, separately and in combination for relieving procedural pain in preterm and full term infants, are examined. Clinical and research implications are addressed.

  13. Penambahan xylitol dalam glukosa, sukrosa terhadap pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans (in vitro (The Additional xylitol in glucose and sucrose on growth of Mutans Streptococci (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Susilowati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Xylitol is a sugar alcohol group consisting of five-carbon chain and the sugar substitutes are recommended to prevent caries. Dietary sugars known as a good substrate for the growth of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Two types of sugar, xylitol and dietary sugars have different effects on the growth of S.mutans. Purpose: The objective of this study were to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of xylitol on the growth of S.mutans and to determine the addition of xylitol in glucose and sucrose in the growth of S. mutans in vitro. Methods: The samples were divided into 3 groups: xylitol group, xylitol and sucrose combination group, and xylitol and glucose combination group . In all groups were tested against S.mutans growth in various concentrations. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration against S.mutans xylitol was equal to 0.625%. The addition of xylitol in sucrose the inhibition of S.mutans growth occurred at concentrations of 0.625 % and 2.5%. The addition of xylitol in glucose inhibited the growth of S.mutans at all concentrations. Conclusion: This study showed that the combination of xylitol with dietary sugars could inhibit the growth of S.mutans.Latar belakang: Xylitol adalah golongan gula alkohol yang terdiri dari lima rantai karbon dan merupakan sugar substitutes yang dianjurkan untuk mencegah terjadinya karies. Dietary sugars diketahui sebagai substrat yang baik untuk pertumbuhan bakteri rongga mulut salah satunya Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Dua jenis gula yaitu xylitol dan dietary sugars memiliki pengaruh yang berbeda pada pertumbuhan S. mutans. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah meneliti konsentrasi hambat minimal (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration/ MIC xylitol terhadap pertumbuhan S mutans dan meneliti pengaruh penambahan xylitol dalam glukosa dan dalam sukrosa terhadap pertumbuhan S. mutans secara in vitro. Metode: Sampel dibagi dalam 3 kelompok: kelompok xylitol, kelompok kombinasi

  14. Study on the preparation and characterization of sucrose-LDPE sheet for radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Yup Kim; Hwang, In Ra; Kyung, Young Lee

    2008-01-01

    To improve the dosimetry performance of sucrose, we investigated the possibility of a radiation detector with the sucrose/polymer composite. For this purpose we manufactured the sucrose/polyethylene composite for dosimetry system and investigated the suitable manufacture conditions of that. The possibility of sample for dosimetry system was measured by EPR and chemiluminescence. The sample had a possibility of dosimetry system from the experimental results. (author)

  15. Varietal performance of potato on induction and development of microtuber in response to sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sadek Hossain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue culture techniques are the most momentous and extensively method to produce disease-free quality plantlets and microtubers in potato. In spite of this, there has been a lack of research information into in vitro microtuberization for seed tuber production program in Bangladesh. In this experiment, we assessed the appropriateness of different concentrations of sucrose with especial accent on their effects for induction and development of microtuber in potato varieties. In vitro plantlets of three potato varieties; Asterix, Granola, and Diamant were treated with eight level of sucrose as 0, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14% for 70 days of incubation producing microtuber. Asterix induces microtuber after 10.69 days, it was statistically shorter duration than other two varieties. Tuberization did not occur without sucrose and were required a minimum (8.92 days with 8% sucrose, while it delayed with either increasing or decreasing rate of sucrose concentration. A single number of microtuber was not formed in absence of sucrose after 28 days of incubation. Microtuber plantlet−1 was the highest more or less in all varieties at harvest with 8% sucrose concentration. Hundred percent of microtuber below 250 mg induced in 3% sucrose concentration and from then the microtuber grade induction decreased with the increase of sucrose concentration. >500 mg grade microtuber produced by Granola (47.95% with 10% sucrose while Diamant produced 50.15% above 500 mg grade microtuber with 14% sucrose. It is also noticeable by Astrerix variety where >500 mg microtuber were produced about 46.95% with 8% sucrose.

  16. Dimerization effect of sucrose octasulfate on rat FGF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulahin, N.; Kiselyov, V.; Kochoyan, A.; Kristensen, O.; Kastrup, Jette S.; Berezin, V.; Bock, E.; Gajhede, M.

    2008-01-01

    The work describes the sucrose octasulfate-mediated dimerization of rat FGF1 by gel-filtration experiments and crystal structure determination. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a family of at least 23 structurally related heparin-binding proteins that are involved in regulation of cell growth, survival, differentiation and migration. Sucrose octasulfate (SOS), a chemical analogue of heparin, has been demonstrated to activate FGF signalling pathways. The structure of rat FGF1 crystallized in the presence of SOS has been determined at 2.2 Å resolution. SOS-mediated dimerization of FGF1 was observed, which was further supported by gel-filtration experiments. The major contributors to the sulfate-binding sites in rat FGF1 are Lys113, Lys118, Arg122 and Lys128. An arginine at position 116 is a consensus residue in mammalian FGF molecules; however, it is a serine in rat FGF1. This difference may be important for SOS-mediated FGF1 dimerization in rat

  17. Consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup does not increase liver fat or ectopic fat deposition in muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Stephen; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2013-06-01

    It has been postulated that fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis is augmented when accompanied by glucose. Chronic elevations could lead to excess fat accumulation in the liver and ectopic fat deposition in muscles, which in turn could contribute to the induction of abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the addition of commonly consumed fructose- and (or) glucose-containing sugars in the usual diet on liver fat content and intramuscular adipose tissue. For 10 weeks, 64 individuals (mean age, 42.16 ± 11.66 years) consumed low-fat milk sweetened with either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose; the added sugar matched consumption levels of fructose in the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the population. The fat content of the liver was measured with unenhanced computed tomography imaging, and the fat content of muscle was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. When the 6 HFCS and sucrose groups were averaged, there was no change over the course of 10 weeks in the fat content of the liver (13.32% ± 10.49% vs. 13.21% ± 10.75%; p > 0.05), vastus lateralis muscle (3.07 ± 0.74 g per 100 mL vs. 3.15 ± 0.84 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05), or gluteus maximus muscle (4.08 ± 1.50 g per 100 mL vs. 4.24 ± 1.42 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05). Group assignment did not affect the result (interaction > 0.05). These data suggest that when fructose is consumed as part of a typical diet in normally consumed sweeteners, such as sucrose or HFCS, ectopic fat storage in the liver or muscles is not promoted.

  18. Biosynthesis of sucrose and mannitol as a function of leaf age in celery (Apium graveolens L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.M.; Fellman, J.K.; Loescher, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    In celery (Apium graveolens L.), the two major translocated carbohydrates are sucrose and the acyclic polyol mannitol. Their metabolism, however, is different and their specific functions are uncertain. To compare their roles in carbon partitioning and sink-source transitions, developmental changes in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling, pool sizes, and key enzyme activities in leaf tissues were examined. The proportion of label in mannitol increased dramatically with leaf maturation whereas that in sucrose remained fairly constant. Mannitol content, however, was high in all leaves and sucrose content increased as leaves developed. Activities of mannose-6-P reductase, cytoplasmic and chloroplastic fructose-1,6-bis-phosphatases, sucrose phosphate synthase, and sucrose synthase increased with leaf maturation and decreased as leaves senesced. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and nonreversible glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase activities rose as leaves developed but did not decrease. Thus, sucrose is produced in all photosynthetically active leaves whereas mannitol is synthesized primarily in mature leaves and stored in all leaves. Onset of sucrose export in celery may result from sucrose accumulation in expanding leaves, but mannitol export is clearly unrelated to mannitol concentration. Mannitol export, however, appears to coincide with increased mannitol biosynthesis. Although mannitol and sucrose arise from a common precursor in celery, subsequent metabolism and transport must be regulated separately.

  19. Body weight manipulation, reinforcement value and choice between sucrose and wheel running: a behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2009-02-01

    Twelve female Long-Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable (VR) ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement (Sucrose VR 10 Wheel VR 10; Sucrose VR 5 Wheel VR 20; Sucrose VR 20 Wheel VR 5) with predetermined budgets (number of responses). The allocation of lever pressing to the sucrose and wheel-running alternatives was assessed at high and low body weights. Results showed that wheel-running rate and lever-pressing rates for sucrose and wheel running increased, but the choice of wheel running decreased at the low body weight. A regression analysis of relative consumption as a function of relative price showed that consumption shifted toward sucrose and interacted with price differences in a manner consistent with increased substitutability. Demand curves showed that demand for sucrose became less elastic while demand for wheel running became more elastic at the low body weight. These findings reflect an increase in the difference in relative value of sucrose and wheel running as body weight decreased. Discussion focuses on the limitations of response rates as measures of reinforcement value. In addition, we address the commonalities between matching and demand curve equations for the analysis of changes in relative reinforcement value.

  20. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

  1. [14C]sucrose uptake and labeling of starch in developing grains of normal segl barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.; Peterson, D.M.; Nelson, O.E.

    1984-01-01

    Previous work showed that the segl mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare o Betzes) did not differ from normal Betzes in plant growth, photosynthesis, or fertility, but it produced only shrunken seeds regardless of pollen source. To determine whether defects in sucrose uptake or starch synthesis resulted in the shrunken condition, developing grains of Betzes and segl were cultured in [ 14 C]sucrose solutions after slicing transversely to expose the endosperm cavity and free space. In both young grains (before genotypes differed in dry weight) and older grains (17 days after anthesis, when segl grains were smaller than Betzes), sucrose uptake and starch synthesis were similar in both genotypes on a dry weight basis. To determine if sucrose was hydrolyzed during uptake, spikes of Betzes and segl were allowed to take up [fructose-U- 14 C]sucrose 14 days after anthesis and the radioactivity of endosperm sugars was examined during 3 hours of incubation. Whereas less total radioactivity entered the endosperm and the endosperm cavity (free space) of segl, in both genotypes over 96% of the label of endosperm sugars was in sucrose, and there was no apparent initial or progressive randomization of label among hexose moieties of sucrose as compared to the free space sampled after 1 hour of incubation. The authors conclude that segl endosperms are capable of normal sucrose uptake and starch synthesis and that hydrolysis of sucrose is not required for uptake in either genotype. Evidence suggests abnormal development of grain tissue of maternal origin during growth of segl grains

  2. Sucrose delays senescence and preserves functional compounds in Asparagus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Me-Hea

    2016-11-11

    The high metabolic rate of harvested asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.) causes rapid deterioration. To extend shelf life, we investigated the effect of sucrose treatment on asparagus during storage. Asparagus spears were treated with 3%, 5%, and 10% sucrose and stored at 2 °C for 20 h. Cellular respiration decreased, but other processes were unaltered by exogenous sucrose. The overall appearance of asparagus treated with 3% sucrose and stored at 2 °C for 18 days was rated as good and excellent, unlike that of untreated spears. Asparagus treated with sucrose maintained firmness for 15 days, while untreated spears lost firmness and showed increased water-soluble pectin content during storage. Carbohydrate levels were also higher in sucrose-treated than in control samples. Transcript levels of cell-wall-related genes, including xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET)1, XET2, and peroxidase (prx)1, prx2, and prx3 were upregulated by sucrose. Cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside and rutin levels immediately increased upon addition of sucrose and remained high relative to the control during storage. Thus, sucrose modulates asparagus cell wall components and maintains the functionality of important compounds during storage, thus effectively prolonging shelf life. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Does dietary inulin affect biological activity of a grapefruit flavonoid-rich extract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Kowalska, Karolina; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2012-04-11

    The aim of the study was to verify that the concomitant presence of grapefruit flavonoid extract with inulin in a Western-type diet may provide synergistic effects to the hindgut metabolism, as well as blood lipid and mineral profiles. Forty male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups and fed for 28 days with diets rich in fat, cholesterol and protein. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was applied to assess the effects of inulin (v. sucrose, 5% of the diet), the addition of dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract (diets without or with 0.3% of an extract from hard parts of grapefruit) and the interaction between these two dietary factors. When compared to the control sucrose-containing diet, the diet enriched with inulin led to typical changes within the caecum, the main part of hindgut fermentation in rats, such as acidification of the digesta, support of bifidobacteria growth and increase of propionate and butyrate production. The dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract without inulin increased the bulk and pH value of caecal digesta, whereas short-chain fatty acid concentration and the bifidobacteria population were lowered compared to the extract-free diets. Simultaneous dietary addition of both tested components decreased slightly the pH value and increased somewhat the bifidobacteria number and the propionate concentration, however to the level observed with the control sucrose-containing diet. With regard to blood lipids, dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract decreased the triglyceride concentration regardless of the dietary carbohydrate type. Inulin does not provide any additional benefit to the blood lipid profile caused by the dietary application of grapefruit flavonoid extract and it does not counteract clearly detrimental effects of the extract in the hindgut. Adding grapefruit extract to the diet must be performed with caution due to possible adverse hindgut responses with overdoses.

  4. Does dietary inulin affect biological activity of a grapefruit flavonoid-rich extract?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgoński Adam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to verify that the concomitant presence of grapefruit flavonoid extract with inulin in a Western-type diet may provide synergistic effects to the hindgut metabolism, as well as blood lipid and mineral profiles. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups and fed for 28 days with diets rich in fat, cholesterol and protein. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was applied to assess the effects of inulin (v. sucrose, 5% of the diet, the addition of dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract (diets without or with 0.3% of an extract from hard parts of grapefruit and the interaction between these two dietary factors. Results When compared to the control sucrose-containing diet, the diet enriched with inulin led to typical changes within the caecum, the main part of hindgut fermentation in rats, such as acidification of the digesta, support of bifidobacteria growth and increase of propionate and butyrate production. The dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract without inulin increased the bulk and pH value of caecal digesta, whereas short-chain fatty acid concentration and the bifidobacteria population were lowered compared to the extract-free diets. Simultaneous dietary addition of both tested components decreased slightly the pH value and increased somewhat the bifidobacteria number and the propionate concentration, however to the level observed with the control sucrose-containing diet. With regard to blood lipids, dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract decreased the triglyceride concentration regardless of the dietary carbohydrate type. Conclusion Inulin does not provide any additional benefit to the blood lipid profile caused by the dietary application of grapefruit flavonoid extract and it does not counteract clearly detrimental effects of the extract in the hindgut. Adding grapefruit extract to the diet must be performed with caution due to possible adverse hindgut responses with overdoses.

  5. Encoding of Sucrose's Palatability in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell and Its Modulation by Exteroceptive Auditory Cues

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    Miguel Villavicencio

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the palatability of sucrose is the primary reason for why it is over consumed, it is not well understood how it is encoded in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh, a brain region involved in reward, feeding, and sensory/motor transformations. Similarly, untouched are issues regarding how an external auditory stimulus affects sucrose palatability and, in the NAcSh, the neuronal correlates of this behavior. To address these questions in behaving rats, we investigated how food-related auditory cues modulate sucrose's palatability. The goals are to determine whether NAcSh neuronal responses would track sucrose's palatability (as measured by the increase in hedonically positive oromotor responses lick rate, sucrose concentration, and how it processes auditory information. Using brief-access tests, we found that sucrose's palatability was enhanced by exteroceptive auditory cues that signal the start and the end of a reward epoch. With only the start cue the rejection of water was accelerated, and the sucrose/water ratio was enhanced, indicating greater palatability. However, the start cue also fragmented licking patterns and decreased caloric intake. In the presence of both start and stop cues, the animals fed continuously and increased their caloric intake. Analysis of the licking microstructure confirmed that auditory cues (either signaling the start alone or start/stop enhanced sucrose's oromotor-palatability responses. Recordings of extracellular single-unit activity identified several distinct populations of NAcSh responses that tracked either the sucrose palatability responses or the sucrose concentrations by increasing or decreasing their activity. Another neural population fired synchronously with licking and exhibited an enhancement in their coherence with increasing sucrose concentrations. The population of NAcSh's Palatability-related and Lick-Inactive neurons were the most important for decoding sucrose's palatability. Only the Lick

  6. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  7. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  8. Inverse pH regulation of plant and fungal sucrose transporters: a mechanism to regulate competition for sucrose at the host/pathogen interface?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Wippel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant sucrose transporter activities were shown to respond to changes in the extracellular pH and redox status, and oxidizing compounds like glutathione (GSSG or H(2O(2 were reported to effect the subcellular targeting of these proteins. We hypothesized that changes in both parameters might be used to modulate the activities of competing sucrose transporters at a plant/pathogen interface. We, therefore, compared the effects of redox-active compounds and of extracellular pH on the sucrose transporters UmSRT1 and ZmSUT1 known to compete for extracellular sucrose in the Ustilago maydis (corn smut/Zea mays (maize pathosystem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present functional analyses of the U. maydis sucrose transporter UmSRT1 and of the plant sucrose transporters ZmSUT1 and StSUT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or in Xenopus laevis oocytes in the presence of different extracellular pH-values and redox systems, and study the possible effects of these treatments on the subcellular targeting. We observed an inverse regulation of host and pathogen sucrose transporters by changes in the apoplastic pH. Under none of the conditions analyzed, we could confirm the reported effects of redox-active compounds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that changes in the extracellular pH but not of the extracellular redox status might be used to oppositely adjust the transport activities of plant and fungal sucrose transporters at the host/pathogen interface.

  9. Natural honey lowers plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and blood lipids in healthy, diabetic, and hyperlipidemic subjects: comparison with dextrose and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waili, Noori S

    2004-01-01

    This study included the following experiments: (1) effects of dextrose solution (250 mL of water containing 75 g of dextrose) or honey solution (250 mL of water containing 75 g of natural honey) on plasma glucose level (PGL), plasma insulin, and plasma C-peptide (eight subjects); (2) effects of dextrose, honey, or artificial honey (250 mL of water containing 35 g of dextrose and 40 g of fructose) on cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) (nine subjects); (3) effects of honey solution, administered for 15 days, on PGL, blood lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), and homocysteine (eight subjects); (4) effects of honey or artificial honey on cholesterol and TG in six patients with hypercholesterolemia and five patients with hypertriglyceridemia; (5) effects of honey for 15 days on blood lipid and CRP in five patients with elevated cholesterol and CRP; (6) effects of 70 g of dextrose or 90 g of honey on PGL in seven patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; and (7) effects of 30 g of sucrose or 30 g of honey on PGL, plasma insulin, and plasma C-peptide in five diabetic patients. In healthy subjects, dextrose elevated PGL at 1 (53%) and 2 (3%) hours, and decreased PGL after 3 hours (20%). Honey elevated PGL after 1 hour (14%) and decreased it after 3 hours (10%). Elevation of insulin and C-peptide was significantly higher after dextrose than after honey. Dextrose slightly reduced cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) after 1 hour and significantly after 2 hours, and increased TG after 1, 2, and 3 hours. Artificial honey slightly decreased cholesterol and LDL-C and elevated TG. Honey reduced cholesterol, LDL-C, and TG and slightly elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Honey consumed for 15 days decreased cholesterol (7%), LDL-C (1%), TG (2%), CRP (7%), homocysteine (6%), and PGL (6%), and increased HDL-C (2%). In patients with hypertriglyceridemia, artificial honey increased TG, while honey decreased TG. In patients with hyperlipidemia

  10. Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; Fuchs, Cas J.; Beelen, Milou; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; Cermak, Naomi M.; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g·min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co-ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co-ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g·min−1 of glucose (GLU), 1.2 g·min−1 glucose + 0.6 g·min−1 fructose (GLU + FRU), 0.6 g·min−1 glucose + 1.2 g·min−1 sucrose (GLU + SUC), or water (WAT). Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g·min−1, respectively, p = 0.999), but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g·min−1: p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g·min−1, respectively, p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. PMID:28230742

  11. Sucrose Synthase Is Associated with the Cell Wall of Tobacco Pollen Tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persia, D.; Cai, G.; Casino, C.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Cresti, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus; EC 2.4.1.13) is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism in plant cells, providing carbon for respiration and for the synthesis of cell wall polymers and starch. Since Sus is important for plant cell growth, insights into its structure, localization, and features are useful for

  12. Increased sink strength offsets the inhibitory effect of sucrose on sugarcane photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael V; Machado, Eduardo C; Magalhães Filho, José R; Lobo, Ana Karla M; Martins, Márcio O; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Spraying sucrose inhibits photosynthesis by impairing Rubisco activity and stomatal conductance (g s ), whereas increasing sink demand by partially darkening the plant stimulates sugarcane photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the stimulatory effect of darkness can offset the inhibitory effect of exogenous sucrose on photosynthesis. Source-sink relationship was perturbed in two sugarcane cultivars by imposing partial darkness, spraying a sucrose solution (50mM) and their combination. Five days after the onset of the treatments, the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (V cmax ) and the initial slope of A-C i curve (k) were estimated by measuring leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. Photosynthesis was inhibited by sucrose spraying in both genotypes, through decreases in V cmax , k, g s and ATP production driven by electron transport (J atp ). Photosynthesis of plants subjected to the combination of partial darkness and sucrose spraying was similar to photosynthesis of reference plants for both genotypes. Significant increases in V cmax , g s and J atp and marginal increases in k were noticed when combining partial darkness and sucrose spraying compared with sucrose spraying alone. Our data also revealed that increases in sink strength due to partial darkness offset the inhibition of sugarcane photosynthesis caused by sucrose spraying, enhancing the knowledge on endogenous regulation of sugarcane photosynthesis through the source-sink relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactions between co-expressed Arabidopsis sucrose transporters in the split-ubiquitin system

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    Lalonde Sylvie

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis genome contains nine sucrose transporter paralogs falling into three clades: SUT1-like, SUT2 and SUT4. The carriers differ in their kinetic properties. Many transport proteins are known to exist as oligomers. The yeast-based split ubiquitin system can be used to analyze the ability of membrane proteins to interact. Results Promoter-GUS fusions were used to analyze the cellular expression of the three transporter genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. All three fusion genes are co-expressed in companion cells. Protein-protein interactions between Arabidopsis sucrose transporters were tested using the split ubiquitin system. Three paralogous sucrose transporters are capable of interacting as either homo- or heteromers. The interactions are specific, since a potassium channel and a glucose transporter did not show interaction with sucrose transporters. Also the biosynthetic and metabolizing enzymes, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and sucrose synthase, which were found to be at least in part bound to the plasma membrane, did not specifically interact with sucrose transporters. Conclusions The split-ubiquitin system provides a powerful tool to detect potential interactions between plant membrane proteins by heterologous expression in yeast, and can be used to screen for interactions with membrane proteins as baits. Like other membrane proteins, the Arabidopsis sucrose transporters are able to form oligomers. The biochemical approaches are required to confirm the in planta interaction.

  14. Coordination of sucrose uptake and respiration in the yeast Debaryomyces yamadae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaliterna, J.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Castrillo, J.I.; Dijken, van J.P.; Pronk, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    Screening in batch cultures identified Debaryomyces yamadae as a yeast that exhibits the Kluyver effect for sucrose: this disaccharide can be respired but, even under oxygen-limited conditions, alcoholic fermentation of sucrose does not occur. Ethanol, glycerol and arabitol were the main

  15. Influence of concentration of sucrose on the acetone-butanol fermentation by different strains of Clostridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadue, K; Saroj, K K

    1959-01-01

    To culture media containing (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (0.34 g) and MgSO/sub 4/ (0.16 g), were added 5, 10, and 20% sucrose, respectively; the pH was adjusted to 6.4 with KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/-NaOH buffer; the volume of each medium was made up to 200 ml. The media were sterilized. After cooling, the media at the 5, 10, 20% sucrose levels were inoculated separately with C. butyricum, C. butyricum 6084, C. acetobutylicum NRRL B-527, C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598, C. butylicus NRRL B-592, and C. pasteurianum ATCC 6013. The cultures were incubated for 20 days at 35 degrees. For maximum butanol yield the 5% sucrose level was optimum for all the strains tested. At the 10% sucrose level great increase in sugar consumption occurred with C. butyricum Frolund, C. pasteurianum ATCC-6013, and C. butylicus IAL 15-152. Twice as much sucrose was consumed with C. acetobutylicum ATCC 6013, and NRRL B-572, and C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598. The increased sucrose consumption did not result in increased production of butanol or acetone. No acetone or butanol was formed with C. butyricum Frolund when the sucrose concentration was increased from 5 to 10%. With the increase in sucrose concentration, the formation of butanol and acetone decreased; acid formation was also inhibited.

  16. Influence of concentration of sucrose on the acetone-butanol fermentation by different strains of Clostridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, K; Saroj, K K

    1959-01-01

    To culture media containing (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (0.34 g) and MgSO/sub 4/ (0.16 g), were added 5, 10, and 20% sucrose, respectively; the pH was adjusted to 6.4 with KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/-NaOH buffer; the volume of each medium was made up to 200 ml. The media were sterilized. After cooling, the media at the 5, 10, 20% sucrose levels were inoculated separately with C. butyricum, C. butyricum 6084, C. acetobutylicum NRRL B-527, C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598, C. butylicus NRRL B-592, nd C. pasteurianum ATCC 6013. The cultures were incubated for 20 days at 35/sup 0/. For maximum BuOH yield the 5% sucrose level was optimum for all the strains tested. At the 10% sucrose level great increase in sugar consumption occurred with C. butyricum Frolund, C. pasteurianum ATCC-6013, and C. butylicus IAL 15-152. Twice as much sucrose was consumed with C. acetobutylicum ATCC 10132, and NRRL B-572, and C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598. The increased sucrose consumption did not result in increased production of BuOH or acetone. No acetone or BuOH was formed with C. butyricum Frolund when the sucrose concentration was increased from 5 to 10%. With the increase in sucrose concentration, the formation of BuH and acetone decreased; acid formation was also inhibited.

  17. Effect of gel texture and sucrose spatial distribution on sweetness perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Velde, van de F.; Bult, J.H.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Stieger, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Layered gels differing in mechanical and breakdown properties (soft, medium and hard gels) and in the distribution of sucrose in the matrix (homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions) were used to investigate the effects of texture and spatial distribution of sucrose on sweetness perception.

  18. Oxytocin differentially affects sucrose taking and seeking in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M

    2015-04-15

    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycling female rats received vehicle or oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3mg/kg, IP) injections before behavioral tests designed to assess general motor activity, as well as sucrose self-administration and seeking. Lower doses of oxytocin decreased motor activity in a novel environment in females relative to males. Likewise, lower doses of oxytocin in females decreased responding for sucrose during maintenance of sucrose self-administration and reinstatement to sucrose-conditioned cues. However, sucrose seeking in response to a sucrose prime was only decreased by the highest oxytocin dose in both sexes. In general, oxytocin had similar effects in both sexes. However, females were more sensitive to lower doses of oxytocin than males. These findings are consistent with the notion that oxytocin regulates many of the same behaviors in males and females, but that the effects are typically more profound in females. Therapeutic use of oxytocin should include sex as a factor in determining dose regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence for the presence of a sucrose carrier in immature sugar-beet roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, R.; Daie, J.; Wyse, R.

    1987-01-01

    Unlike in mature sugar-beet roots, sucrose is assumed to be hydrolyzed by a wall-bound invertase prior to uptake by immature roots. To test this hypothesis, they used a sucrose analog, 1'fluorosucrose which is recognized by the carrier but is a poor substrate for invertases. Asymmetrically labeled sucrose ( 3 H-fructose) 1'fluorosucrose ( 14 C-glucose) were applied at 10 mM ( 3 H/ 14 C=1) to an attached source leaf. After 6 h, sugars from plant parts in the translocation path were separated on HPLC. 14 C-1'fluorosucrose was translocated and accumulated in the root at a higher rate than 3 H-sucrose due to greater metabolism of 3 H-sucrose in the shoot (indicated by the presence of 3 H in hexose fractions and loss of asymmetry). In the root 25% of the 3 H-sucrose was hydrolyzed to hexoses whereas no 14 C was detected in hexose fractions. The data indicate that despite high cell-wall invertase and cytoplasmic sucrose synthase activities, young sugar-beet roots import and store sucrose without hydrolysis. Therefore, the function of a group translocator at the tonoplast is unclear

  20. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa sucrose transporter gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In higher plants, sugars (mainly sucrose are produced by photosynthetically assimilated carbon in mesophyll cells of leaves and translocated to heterotrophic organs to ensure plant growth and development. Sucrose transporters, or sucrose carriers (SUCs, play an important role in the long-distance transportation of sucrose from source organs to sink organs, thereby affecting crop yield and quality. The identification, characterization, and molecular function analysis of sucrose transporter genes have been reported for monocot and dicot plants. However, no relevant study has been reported on sucrose transporter genes in Brassica rapa var. rapa, a cruciferous root crop used mainly as vegetables and fodder. We identified and cloned 12 sucrose transporter genes from turnips, named BrrSUC1.1 to BrrSUC6.2 according to the SUC gene sequences of B. rapa pekinensis. We constructed a phylogenetic tree and analyzed conserved motifs for all 12 sucrose transporter genes identified. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was conducted to understand the expression levels of SUC genes in different tissues and developmental phases of the turnip. These findings add to our understanding of the genetics and physiology of sugar transport during taproot formation in turnips.

  1. Dextran-induced depletion flocculation in oil-water emulsions in the presence of sucrose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Zoet, F.D.; Vliet, van T.; Linden, van der E.; Aken, van G.A.

    2004-01-01

    The phase behaviour and mechanical properties of 10 wt% oil-in-water emulsions, stabilised by ß-lactoglobulin (ß-lg) and flocculated by the polysaccharide dextran were studied as a function of sucrose concentration. The sucrose concentration affected neither the polysaccharide concentration above

  2. Rats' preferences for high fructose corn syrup vs. sucrose and sugar mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2011-03-28

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose in many food products, which has prompted research comparing these two sweeteners in rodents. The present study examined the relative palatability of HFCS and sucrose for rats, offering 11% carbohydrate solutions to match the content of common beverages for human consumption. The animals initially preferred HFCS to sucrose but after separate experience with each solution they switched to sucrose preference. Approximating the composition of HFCS with a mixture of fructose and glucose (55:45) yielded a solution that was less attractive than sucrose or HFCS. However, HFCS contains a small amount of glucose polymers, which are very attractive to rats. A 55:42:3 mixture of fructose, glucose and glucose polymers (Polycose) was equally preferred to HFCS and was treated similarly to HFCS in comparisons vs. sucrose. Post-oral effects of sucrose, which is 50% fructose and 50% glucose, may be responsible for the shift in preference with experience. This shift, and the relatively small magnitude of differences in preference for HFCS and sucrose, suggest that palatability factors probably do not contribute to any possible difference in weight gain responses to these sweeteners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation, Fractionation, and Identification of Sucrose Esters from Various Oriental Tobaccos Employing Supercritical Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf-Khorassani M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation, fractionation, and identification of sucrose esters from aged oriental tobacco employing supercritical fluids have been completed. Underivatized sucrose ester-rich extracts were obtained using supercritical CO2 at densities greater than 0.73 g/mL. Lower density CO2 provided extracts with notable amounts of tobacco derived material; yet, no detectable sucrose ester content. Preparative supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC provided for an additional purification of the sucrose ester-enriched fraction after column optimization. Structural assignments of the SFC fractions were facilitated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS accompanied by N, O-bis(trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide-dimethylformamide (BSTFA-DMF derivatization of the free hydroxyl groups and high performance-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS. From a relative quantitative perspective regardless of tobacco type, sucrose esters having an acetyl group on C6 of the glucose function (Group III were in higher concentration compared to both the concentration observed for sucrose ester of Group I (acetyl group on C3 of fructose and sucrose ester of Group II (no acetyl group on either glucose or fructose. Saturated fatty acid constituents were found to range from a maximum total of 18 carbons to a minimum total of 13 carbons. Unsaturated and isomeric fatty acid homologues were detected within the Group II sucrose ester.

  4. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Virulent Yersinia enterocolitica Strains Unable To Ferment Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiyoule, Annie; Guinet, Françoise; Martin, Liliane; Benoit, Catherine; Desplaces, Nicole; Carniel, Elisabeth

    1998-01-01

    Several atypical sucrose-negative Yersinia strains, isolated from clinical samples and sometimes associated with symptoms, proved to have full virulence potential in in vitro and in vivo testings. DNA-relatedness studies revealed that they were authentic Yersinia enterocolitica strains. Therefore, atypical sucrose-negative Yersinia isolates should be analyzed for their virulence potential. PMID:9705424

  5. Pronounced Phenotypic Changes in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Overexpressing Sucrose Synthase May Reveal a Novel Sugar Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Anh; Luan, Sheng; Wi, Seung G.; Bae, Hanhong; Lee, Dae-Seok; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Soluble sugars not only serve as nutrients, but also act as signals for plant growth and development, but how sugar signals are perceived and translated into physiological responses in plants remains unclear. We manipulated sugar levels in transgenic plants by overexpressing sucrose synthase (SuSy), which is a key enzyme believed to have reversible sucrose synthesis and sucrose degradation functions. The ectopically expressed SuSy protein exhibited sucrose-degrading activity, which may change the flux of sucrose demand from photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic cells, and trigger an unknown sucrose signaling pathway that lead to increased sucrose content in the transgenic plants. An experiment on the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth demonstrated the existence of a novel sucrose signaling pathway, which stimulated photosynthesis, and enhanced photosynthetic synthesis of sucrose, which was the direct cause or the sucrose increase. In addition, a light/dark time treatment experiment, using different day length ranges for photosynthesis/respiration showed the carbohydrate pattern within a 24-h day and consolidated the role of sucrose signaling pathway as a way to maintain sucrose demand, and indicated the relationships between increased sucrose and upregulation of genes controlling development of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). As a result, transgenic plants featured a higher biomass and a shorter time required to switch to reproduction compared to those of control plants, indicating altered phylotaxis and more rapid advancement of developmental stages in the transgenic plants. PMID:26793204

  6. Frequency of sucrose exposure on the cariogenicity of a biofilm-caries model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Garrido, Natalia; Lozano, Carla; Giacaman, Rodrigo A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although sucrose is considered the most cariogenic carbohydrate in the human diet, the question of how many exposures are needed to induce damage on the hard dental tissues remains unclear. To approach this question, different frequencies of daily sucrose exposure were tested on a relevant biological caries model. Materials and Methods: Biofilms of the Streptococcus mutans were formed on enamel slabs and exposed to cariogenic challenges with 10% sucrose for 5 min at 0, 1, 3, 5, 8, or 10 times per day. After 5 days, biofilms were retrieved to analyze biomass, protein content, viable bacteria, and polysaccharide formation. Enamel demineralization was evaluated by percentage of microhardness loss (percentage surface hardness loss [%SHL]). Results: Biomass, protein content, polysaccharide production, acidogenicity of the biofilm, and %SHL proportionally increased with the number of daily exposures to sucrose (P 0.05). Conclusions: Higher sucrose exposure seems to increase cariogenicity, in a frequency-dependent manner, by the modification of bacterial virulent properties. PMID:27403051

  7. EPR response of sucrose and microcrystalline cellulose to measure high doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torijano, E.; Cruz, L.; Gutierrez, G.; Azorin, J.; Aguirre, F.; Cruz Z, E.

    2015-10-01

    Solid dosimeters of sucrose and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel Ph-102) were prepared, following the same process, in order to compare their EPR response against that of the l-alanine dosimeters considered as reference. All lots of dosimeters were irradiated with gamma radiation in Gamma beam irradiator with 8 kGy/h of the Nuclear Sciences Institute of UNAM. Doses ranged from 1 to 10 kGy respectively. We found that both the response of sucrose as microcrystalline cellulose were linear; however, the response intensity was, on average, twenty times more for sucrose. Comparing this against the EPR response of l-alanine in the range of doses, it was found that the response to sucrose is a third part; and microcrystalline cellulose is a sixtieth, approximately. The results agree with those found in the literature for sucrose, leaving open the possibility of investigating other dosage ranges for cellulose. (Author)

  8. Additional synthesis of starch from sucrose in leaves of arabidopsis in the light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keerberg, O.; Ivanova, H.; Keerberg, H.; Paernik, T.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Accumulating during daytime starch is converted in the night into sucrose and consumed in respiratory, biosynthetic and transport processes. However in the light the degradation and conversion of starch are blocked. In pulse chase experiments with wild type plants and starchless mutants pgm or adg1 of arabidopsis an increase of starch radioactivity during chase in nonradioactive medium in the light was detected. These findings suggest that starch was additionally synthesized from labeled cytosolic soluble photosynthates, preferentially from sucrose. Radiogasometric studies of gas exchange have revealed that sucrose is consumed also in photorespiratory decarboxylations. To be involved in photorespiration the products of sucrose degradation must be transported from cytosol into chloroplast. We presume that derived from sucrose hexoses are transported into chloroplast by hexose transporter and phosphorylated there in hexokinase reaction. The phosphorylated hexoses may be consumed either for additional synthesis of starch or incorporated into the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and, via this cycle, into the glycolate cycle. (author)

  9. Aroma volatility from aqueous sucrose solutions at low and subzero temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias-Cervantes, Marco; Champion, Dominique; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Voilley, Andrée

    2004-11-17

    The gas-liquid partition coefficients of ethyl acetate and ethyl hexanoate have been measured in water and aqueous sucrose solutions from 25 to -10 degrees C by dynamic headspace. Experiments were carried out on sucrose solutions at temperatures where no ice formation was possible. Results showed that when sucrose concentration increased, aroma volatility increased except for ethyl hexanoate and in the highest sucrose concentration solution (57.5%). A quasi-linear temperature decrease on aroma volatility was observed in sucrose solutions from 25 to around 4 and 0 degrees C. Then, from 0 to -10 degrees C, aroma volatility did not decrease: ethyl acetate volatility remained constant but that of ethyl hexanoate increased. Enthalpy of vaporization and activity coefficients of the aroma compounds were calculated.

  10. Effectiveness of sucrose during the frozen storage of arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc. Vaugh pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Johanna Silva-Bustos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sucrose on the quality of frozen arazá pulp were investigated. Five levels of sucrose (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30% were evaluated in combination with freezing at low speed, storage during one month, and thawing at two different speeds. Sensory quality and water loss after centrifugation (WLAC were evaluated in the samples. Before freezing sucrose addition (5-30% to the pulp did not affect the sensory quality of the samples, but a negative effect on WLAC at 5-10% sucrose was observed. Furthermore, addition of 20-30% sucrose to arazá pulp, in combination with low speed-freezing, frozen storage, and low-speed-thawing, can be a useful technique to preserve the texture of arazá pulp. The described treatment gave results comparable to those obtained for the fresh pulp and much better than those obtained when freezing was done at high speed

  11. [14C]-Sucrose uptake by guard cell protoplasts of pisum sativum, argenteum mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrig, K.; Raschke, K.

    1991-01-01

    Guard cells rely on import for their supply with reduced carbon. The authors tested by silicone oil centrifugation the ability of guard cell protoplasts to accumulated [ 14 C]-sucrose. Uptake rates were corrected after measurement of 14 C-sorbitol and 3 H 2 O spaces. Sucrose uptake followed biphasic kinetics, with a high-affinity component below 1 mM external sucrose (apparent K m 0.8 mM at 25C) and a low-affinity nonsaturable component above. Uptake depended on pH (optimum at pH 5.0). Variations in the concentrations of external KCl, CCCP, and valinomycin indicated that about one-half of the sucrose uptake rate could be related to an electrochemical gradient across the plasmalemma. Total uptake rates measured at 5 mM external sucrose seem to be sufficient to replenish emptied plastids with starch within a few hours

  12. Hypocaloric high-protein diet improves fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia in sucrose-fed obese rats via two pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebanso, Takashi; Taketani, Yutaka; Fukaya, Makiko; Sato, Kazusa; Takei, Yuichiro; Sato, Tadatoshi; Sawada, Naoki; Amo, Kikuko; Harada, Nagakatsu; Arai, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    The mechanism by which replacement of some dietary carbohydrates with protein during weight loss favors lipid metabolism remains obscure. In this study, we investigated the effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet on lipid metabolism in obese rats. High-sucrose-induced obese rats were assigned randomly to one of two energy-restricted dietary interventions: a carbohydrate-based control diet (CD) or a high-protein diet (HPD). Lean rats of the same age were assigned as normal control. There was significantly greater improvement in fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia with the HPD diet relative to the CD diet. Expression of genes regulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) and involved in liver lipolysis and lipid utilitization, such as lipase and acyl-CoA oxidase, increased in obese rats fed the HPD. Furthermore, there was an inverse correlation between levels of FGF21 gene expression (regulated by glucagon/insulin balance) and increased triglyceride concentrations in liver from obese rats. Expression of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), regulated primarily by the dietary carbohydrate, was also markedly reduced in the HPD group (similar to plasma triglyceride levels in fasting animals) relative to the CD group. In conclusion, a hypocaloric high-protein diet improves fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia effectively relative to a carbohydrate diet. The two cellular pathways at work behind these benefits include stimulation of hepatic lipolysis and lipid utilization mediated by FGF21 and reduction of hepatic VLDL-TG production by SCD1 regulation.

  13. Metabolic effects of dietary fructose and surcose in types I and II diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bantle, J.P.; Laine, D.C.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    To learn more about the metabolic effects of dietary fructose and sucrose, 12 type 1 and 12 type II diabetic subjects were fed three isocaloric (or isoenergic) diets for eight days each according to a randomized, crossover design. The three diets provided, respectively, 21% of the energy as fructose, 23% of the energy as sucrose, and almost all carbohydrate energy as starch. The fructose diet resulted in significantly lower one- and two-hour postprandial plasma glucose levels, overall mean plasma glucose levels, and urinary glucose excretion in both type I and type II subjects than did the starch diet. There were no significant differences between the sucrose and starch diets in any of the measures of glycemic control in either subject group. The fructose and sucrose diets did not significantly increase serum triglyceride values when compared with the starch diet, but both increased postprandial serum lactate levels. The authors conclude that short-term replacement of other carbohydrate sources in the diabetic diet with fructose will improve glycemic control, whereas replacement with sucrose will not aggravate glycemic control

  14. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  15. Carbon source-sink relationship in Arabidopsis thaliana: the role of sucrose transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Mickaël; Mainson, Dany; Porcheron, Benoît; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi; Pourtau, Nathalie

    2018-03-01

    The regulation of source-to-sink sucrose transport is associated with AtSUC and AtSWEET sucrose transporters' gene expression changes in plants grown hydroponically under different physiological conditions. Source-to-sink transport of sucrose is one of the major determinants of plant growth. Whole-plant carbohydrates' partitioning requires the specific activity of membrane sugar transporters. In Arabidopsis thaliana plants, two families of transporters are involved in sucrose transport: AtSUCs and AtSWEETs. This study is focused on the comparison of sucrose transporter gene expression, soluble sugar and starch levels and long distance sucrose transport, in leaves and sink organs (mainly roots) in different physiological conditions (along the plant life cycle, during a diel cycle, and during an osmotic stress) in plants grown hydroponically. In leaves, the AtSUC2, AtSWEET11, and 12 genes known to be involved in phloem loading were highly expressed when sucrose export was high and reduced during osmotic stress. In roots, AtSUC1 was highly expressed and its expression profile in the different conditions tested suggests that it may play a role in sucrose unloading in roots and in root growth. The SWEET transporter genes AtSWEET12, 13, and 15 were found expressed in all organs at all stages studied, while differential expression was noticed for AtSWEET14 in roots, stems, and siliques and AtSWEET9, 10 expressions were only detected in stems and siliques. A role for these transporters in carbohydrate partitioning in different source-sink status is proposed, with a specific attention on carbon demand in roots. During development, despite trophic competition with others sinks, roots remained a significant sink, but during osmotic stress, the amount of translocated [U- 14 C]-sucrose decreased for rosettes and roots. Altogether, these results suggest that source-sink relationship may be linked with the regulation of sucrose transporter gene expression.

  16. Diurnal fluctuations in cotton leaf carbon export, carbohydrate content, and sucrose synthesizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, D L; Huber, S C

    1986-06-01

    In fully expanded leaves of greenhouse-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., cv Coker 100) plants, carbon export, starch accumulation rate, and carbon exchange rate exhibited different behavior during the light period. Starch accumulation rates were relatively constant during the light period, whereas carbon export rate was greater in the afternoon than in the morning even though the carbon exchange rate peaked about noon. Sucrose levels increased throughout the light period and dropped sharply with the onset of darkness; hexose levels were relatively constant except for a slight peak in the early morning. Sucrose synthase, usually thought to be a degradative enzyme, was found in unusually high activities in cotton leaf. Both sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthetase activities were found to fluctuate diurnally in cotton leaves but with different rhythms. Diurnal fluctuations in the rate of sucrose export were generally aligned with sucrose phosphate synthase activity during the light period but not with sucrose synthase activity; neither enzyme activity correlated with carbon export during the dark. Cotton leaf sucrose phosphate synthase activity was sufficient to account for the observed carbon export rates; there is no need to invoke sucrose synthase as a synthetic enzyme in mature cotton leaves. During the dark a significant correlation was found between starch degradation rate and leaf carbon export. These results indicate that carbon partitioning in cotton leaf is somewhat independent of the carbon exchange rate and that leaf carbon export rate may be linked to sucrose formation and content during the light period and to starch breakdown in the dark.

  17. Sucrose transporters in two members of the Scrophulariaceae with different types of transport sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, C; Voitsekhovskaja, O; Lohaus, G

    2001-05-01

    In order to study differences between sugar transport in oligosaccharide-translocating and sucrose-translocating species, two members of the Scrophulariaceae, Asarina barclaiana Pennell and Alonsoa meridionalis O. Kuntze, were analysed regarding minor-vein anatomy, sugar concentrations in leaves and phloem sap, and expression of sucrose transporters. The minor veins of Asarina barclaiana possess mainly transfer cells and modified intermediary cells and those of Alonsoa meridionalis have intermediary cells and ordinary companion cells. Phloem sap from these plants was collected by the laser-aphid-stylet technique. The main carbon transport forms in Asarina were sucrose and in Alonsoa raffinose and stachyose. The sum of the carbohydrate concentrations in the phloem sap of both species was as high as that in apoplastic phloem loaders. In Asarina the ratio of the sucrose concentration in the phloem to that in the cytosol of source cells was about 35 and the corresponding ratio in Alonsoa was about two. Sucrose transporter cDNAs were isolated from leaves of both species. By means of semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sucrose transporter mRNA was detected in different organs and also in the phloem sap. This is the first time that sucrose transporters have been found in oligosaccharide-translocating species and that the mRNA of these sucrose transporters has been localized directly in the phloem sap. Taken together, our observations indicate that Asarina is an apoplastic phloem loader, while the results for Alonsoa are ambiguous: some properties are typical of the symplastic phloem-loading mechanism, but probably a sucrose transporter is involved in loading and/or retrieval of sucrose into the phloem.

  18. Effect of Sucrose and Growth Regulator’s Level on Ginger Micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resham Babu Amgai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginger is most important cash crop of the hilly region of Nepal. However, availability of disease free planting material (rhizome is the major problem faced by Nepalese farmers. Tissue culture is the only option to produce disease free rhizome of ginger. Suitable culture media combination is most important for the production of planting material in ginger through tissue culture. Therefore, effect of different level of sucrose and growth regulators on micro-propagation of ginger was studied using local collection ‘Kaski Local’. Early stage bud was used as explant. MS basal media with different level of sucrose and growth regulators was used as tissue culture media. 30 g/L sucrose, 30 g/L sucrose+5mg/L BA, 30 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA+0.5 mg/L NAA, 60 g/L sucrose+5mg/L BA, 60 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA+0.5mg/L NAA, 90 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA was used in this study. The explants were surface sterilized, cultured and incubated at 25±2°C, 90-95% relative humidity and 14:10 hours light:dark photoperiod for 8 weeks. Increased level of the sucrose increased the rhizome weight, however, addition of NAA produced more positive effect for this. MS basal media with 60 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA+0.5 mg/L NAA produced higher rhizome weight.

  19. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  20. Fructose acute effects on glucose, insulin, and triglyceride after a solid meal compared with sucralose and sucrose in a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Clare; Keogh, Jennifer B; Pedersen, Eva; Clifton, Peter M

    2016-06-01

    Fructose, which is a sweetener with a low glycemic index, has been shown to elevate postprandial triglyceride compared with glucose. There are limited data on the effect of fructose in a solid mixed meal containing starch and protein. We determined the effects of sucrose, fructose, and sucralose on triglyceride, glucose, and insulin in an acute study in healthy, overweight, and obese individuals. The study had a randomized crossover design. Twenty-seven participants with a mean age of 44 y and a mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26 completed the study. Fructose (52 g), sucrose (65 g), and sucralose (0.1 g) were delivered as sweet-taste-balanced muffins with a total fat load (66 g). Blood samples were taken at baseline and every 30 min for 4-h glucose, triglyceride, and insulin concentrations, and the area under the curve (AUC) and the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) were analyzed. No significant difference was shown between the 3 sweeteners for triglyceride and glucose concentrations and the AUC. The glucose iAUC was lower for fructose than for sucrose and sucralose (P triglyceride compared with sucrose or sucralose and lowered the glucose iAUC. These results indicate that these sweeteners, at an equivalent sweetness, can be used in normal solid meals. Fructose showed a lower insulin response, which may be beneficial in the long term in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12615000279527. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. CHEMOENZYMATIC SYNTHESIS OF BIODEGRADABLE POLY(1′-O-VINYLADIPOYL-SUCROSE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Des-hui Lu; Qi Wu; Xian-fu Lin

    2002-01-01

    A novel polymer containing the sucrose group was synthesized by radical polymerization from an enzymaticallyprepared monomer, 1′-O-vinyladipoyl-sucrose (VAS). Transesterification reaction of sucrose with divinyl adipate inanhydrous pyridine catalyzed by an alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis at 60℃ for 7 days gave VAS (yield 55%) withoutany blocking/deblocking steps. The vinyl sucrose ester could be polymerized with potassium persulfate and H2O2 as initiatorto give poly(1′-O-vinyladipoyl-sucrose) with Mn = 33,000 and Mw = 53,200, Mw/Mn = 1.61. The polymer was biodegradable.After 6 days in aqueous buffer (pH 7), this alkaline protease could degrade poly(1′-O-vinyladipoyl-sucrose) to Mn of ca.1080, Mw/Mn = 3.30 (37℃), and Mn of ca. 5200, Mw/Mn = 2.44 (4℃). The polymer containing the sucrose branch would be afunctional material in various application fields.

  2. Family history of alcoholism and the human brain response to oral sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiler, William J A; Dzemidzic, Mario; Soeurt, Christina M; Carron, Claire R; Oberlin, Brandon G; Considine, Robert V; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Kareken, David A

    2018-01-01

    A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP) or negative (FHN) for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men) rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during oral delivery of water, 0.83 M, and 0.10 M sucrose. Sucrose compared to water produced robust activation in primary gustatory cortex, ventral insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum. FHP subjects displayed greater bilateral amygdala activation than FHN subjects in the low sucrose concentration (0.10 M). In secondary analyses, the right amygdala response to the 0.10 M sucrose was greatest in FHP women. When accounting for group differences in drinks per week, the family history groups remained significantly different in their right amygdala response to 0.10 M sucrose. Our findings suggest that the brain response to oral sucrose differs with a family history of alcoholism, and that this response to a mildly reinforcing primary reward might be an endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.

  3. Family history of alcoholism and the human brain response to oral sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.A. Eiler, II

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP or negative (FHN for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during oral delivery of water, 0.83 M, and 0.10 M sucrose. Sucrose compared to water produced robust activation in primary gustatory cortex, ventral insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum. FHP subjects displayed greater bilateral amygdala activation than FHN subjects in the low sucrose concentration (0.10 M. In secondary analyses, the right amygdala response to the 0.10 M sucrose was greatest in FHP women. When accounting for group differences in drinks per week, the family history groups remained significantly different in their right amygdala response to 0.10 M sucrose. Our findings suggest that the brain response to oral sucrose differs with a family history of alcoholism, and that this response to a mildly reinforcing primary reward might be an endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.

  4. Physical properties and consumer liking of cookies prepared by replacing sucrose with tagatose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T P; Fasina, O; Bell, L N

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of tagatose, a minimally absorbed prebiotic monosaccharide, as a replacement for sucrose in cookies. A sucrose-containing cookie recipe was prepared as the control. Sucrose was replaced with tagatose at various levels ranging from 25% to 100%. Cookies containing fructose were also prepared for comparison due to the structural similarities between tagatose and fructose. The rheological properties of the dough were measured using texture profile analysis. The baked cookies were evaluated for spread, color, and hardness. For tagatose-containing cookies, the extent of likeness was evaluated by 53 untrained panelists using a 9-point hedonic scale. When sucrose was replaced by tagatose, doughs with similar rheological properties to the control resulted. The tagatose-containing cookies were harder and darker with a lower spread than the control. Sensory data indicated that panelists liked the brown color of the 100% tagatose cookies better than the control, but disliked their sweetness. Overall likeness scores of the control and cookies made by replacing half of the sucrose with tagatose were the same. Tagatose appears to be suitable as a partial replacer for sucrose in cookies based on similar dough properties, cookie properties, and likeness scores. Using tagatose to replace sucrose in foods would reduce the amount of metabolizeable sugars in the diet as well as provide the desirable prebiotic effect.

  5. Oral sucrose for heel lance increases adenosine triphosphate use and oxidative stress in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmerom, Yayesh; Slater, Laurel; Boskovic, Danilo S; Bahjri, Khaled; Holden, Megan S; Phillips, Raylene; Deming, Douglas; Ashwal, Stephen; Fayard, Elba; Angeles, Danilyn M

    2013-07-01

    To examine the effects of sucrose on pain and biochemical markers of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) degradation and oxidative stress in preterm neonates experiencing a clinically required heel lance. Preterm neonates that met study criteria (n = 131) were randomized into 3 groups: (1) control; (2) heel lance treated with placebo and non-nutritive sucking; and (3) heel lance treated with sucrose and non-nutritive sucking. Plasma markers of ATP degradation (hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid) and oxidative stress (allantoin) were measured before and after the heel lance. Pain was measured with the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Data were analyzed by the use of repeated-measures ANOVA and Spearman rho. We found significant increases in plasma hypoxanthine and uric acid over time in neonates who received sucrose. We also found a significant negative correlation between pain scores and plasma allantoin concentration in a subgroup of neonates who received sucrose. A single dose of oral sucrose, given before heel lance, significantly increased ATP use and oxidative stress in premature neonates. Because neonates are given multiple doses of sucrose per day, randomized trials are needed to examine the effects of repeated sucrose administration on ATP degradation, oxidative stress, and cell injury. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced infant response to a routine care procedure after sucrose analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddio, Anna; Shah, Vibhuti; Katz, Joel

    2009-03-01

    Sucrose has analgesic and calming effects in newborns. To date, it is not known whether the beneficial effects extend to caregiving procedures that are performed after painful procedures. Our objective was to determine the effect of sucrose analgesia for procedural pain on infant pain responses during a subsequent caregiving procedure. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Healthy neonates within 2 strata (normal infants and infants of diabetic mothers) were randomly assigned to a sucrose or placebo water group before all needle procedures after birth. Pain response during a diaper change performed after venipuncture for the newborn screening test was determined by using a validated multidimensional measure, the Premature Infant Pain Profile. The study was conducted between September 15, 2003, and July 27, 2004. Altogether, 412 parents were approached; 263 consented. Twenty-three infants were not assigned, leaving 240 for participation (n = 120 per group), with an equal number in each infant strata. Of those, 186 (78%) completed the study. There were no significant differences in birth characteristics between groups. During diaper change, sucrose-treated infants had lower pain scores than placebo-treated infants. The relative risk of having pain, defined as a Premature Infant Pain Profile score of >/=6, was 0.64 with sucrose compared with placebo. This study demonstrates that when used to manage pain, sucrose reduces the pain response to a subsequent routine caregiving procedure. Therefore, the benefits of sucrose analgesia extend beyond the painful event to other aversive and potentially painful procedures.

  7. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eClouard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow (CBF changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e. pleasure evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation.

  8. Role of maltase in the utilization of sucrose by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, P R; Huber, M A; Bennett, J E

    1993-01-01

    Two isoenzymes of maltase (EC 3.2.1.20) were purified to homogeneity from Candida albicans. Isoenzymes I and II were found to have apparent molecular masses of 63 and 66 kDa on SDS/PAGE with isoelectric points of 5.0 and 4.6 respectively. Both isoenzymes resembled each other in similar N-terminal sequence, specificity for the alpha(1-->4) glycosidic linkage and immune cross-reactivity on Western blots using a maltase II antigen-purified rabbit antibody. Maltase was induced by growth on sucrose whereas beta-fructofuranosidase activity could not be detected under similar conditions. Maltase I and II were shown to be unglycosylated enzymes by neutral sugar assay, and more than 90% of alpha-glucosidase activity was recoverable from spheroplasts. These data, in combination with other results from this laboratory [Geber, Williamson, Rex, Sweeney and Bennett (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 6992-6996] showing lack of a plausible leader sequence in genomic or mRNA transcripts, suggest an intracellular localization of the enzyme. To establish further the mechanism of sucrose assimilation by maltase, the existence of a sucrose-inducible H+/sucrose syn-transporter was demonstrated by (1) the kinetics of sucrose-induced [14C]sucrose uptake, (2) recovery of intact [14C]sucrose from ground cells by t.l.c. and (3) transport of 0.83 mol of H+/mol of [14C]sucrose. In total, the above is consistent with a mechanism whereby sucrose is transported into C. albicans to be hydrolysed by an intracellular maltase. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8489504

  9. Sucrose-Metabolizing Enzymes in Transport Tissues and Adjacent Sink Structures in Developing Citrus Fruit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Cadance A.; Tomlinson, Patricia T.; Koch, Karen E.

    1989-01-01

    Juice tissues of citrus lack phloem; therefore, photosynthates enroute to juice sacs exit the vascular system on the surface of each segment. Areas of extensive phloem unloading and transport (vascular bundles + segment epidermis) can thus be separated from those of assimilate storage (juice sacs) and adjacent tissues where both processes occur (peel). Sugar composition, dry weight accumulation, and activities of four sucrose-metabolizing enzymes (soluble and cell-wall-bound acid invertase, alkaline invertase, sucrose synthase, and sucrose phosphate synthase) were measured in these transport and sink tissues of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) to determine more clearly whether a given enzyme appeared to be more directly associated with assimilate transport versus deposition or utilization. Results were compared at three developmental stages. Activity of sucrose (per gram fresh weight and per milligram protein) extracted from zones of extensive phloem unloading and transport was significantly greater than from adjacent sink tissues during the stages (II and III) when juice sacs grow most rapidly. In stage II fruit, activity of sucrose synthase also significantly surpassed that of all other sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in extracts from the transport tissues (vascular bundles + segment epidermis). In contrast, sucrose phosphate synthase and alkaline invertase at this stage of growth were the most active enzymes from adjacent, rapidly growing, phloem-free sink tissues (juice sacs). Activity of these two enzymes in extracts from juice sacs was significantly greater than that form the transport tissues (vascular bundles + segment epidermis). Soluble acid invertase was the most active enzyme in extracts from all tissues of very young fruit (stage I), including nonvascular regions, but nearly disappeared prior to the onset of juice sac sugar accumulation. The physiological function of high sucrose synthase activity in the transport tissues during rapid sucrose import

  10. Chronic high-sucrose diet increases fibroblast growth factor 21 production and energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Ryuya; Seino, Yusuke; Ogata, Hidetada; Murase, Masatoshi; Iida, Atsushi; Hosokawa, Kaori; Joo, Erina; Harada, Norio; Tsunekawa, Shin; Hamada, Yoji; Oiso, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Excess carbohydrate intake causes obesity in humans. On the other hand, acute administration of fructose, glucose or sucrose in experimental animals has been shown to increase the plasma concentration of anti-obesity hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which contribute to reducing body weight. However, the secretion and action of GLP-1 and FGF21 in mice chronically fed a high-sucrose diet has not been investigated. To address the role of anti-obesity hormones in response to increased sucrose intake, we analyzed mice fed a high-sucrose diet, a high-starch diet or a normal diet for 15 weeks. Mice fed a high-sucrose diet showed resistance to body weight gain, in comparison with mice fed a high-starch diet or control diet, due to increased energy expenditure. Plasma FGF21 levels were highest among the three groups in mice fed a high-sucrose diet, whereas no significant difference in GLP-1 levels was observed. Expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), FGF receptor 1c (FGFR1c) and β-klotho (KLB) mRNA in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in high sucrose-fed mice, suggesting increases in FGF21 sensitivity and energy expenditure. Expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) mRNA in liver and brown adipose tissue was also increased in high sucrose-fed mice. These results indicate that FGF21 production in liver and brown adipose tissue is increased in high-sucrose diet and participates in resistance to weight gain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A threshold for low-protein-diet-induced elevations in parathyroid hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerstetter, J E; Svastisalee, C M; Caseria, D M

    2000-01-01

    We reported previously that lowering dietary protein intake in young healthy women to 0.7 g/kg depressed intestinal calcium absorption and was accompanied by elevations in parathyroid hormone (PTH). Moderate amounts of dietary protein (1.0 g/kg) did not appear to perturb calcium homeostasis....

  12. Enhanced Sucrose Loading Improves Rice Yield by Increasing Grain Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Lu, Congming

    2015-12-01

    Yield in cereals is a function of grain number and size. Sucrose (Suc), the main carbohydrate product of photosynthesis in higher plants, is transported long distances from source leaves to sink organs such as seeds and roots. Here, we report that transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa) expressing the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phloem-specific Suc transporter (AtSUC2), which loads Suc into the phloem under control of the phloem protein2 promoter (pPP2), showed an increase in grain yield of up to 16% relative to wild-type plants in field trials. Compared with wild-type plants, pPP2::AtSUC2 plants had larger spikelet hulls and larger and heavier grains. Grain filling was accelerated in the transgenic plants, and more photoassimilate was transported from the leaves to the grain. In addition, microarray analyses revealed that carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was enhanced in the leaves and grain of pPP2::AtSUC2 plants. Thus, enhancing Suc loading represents a promising strategy to improve rice yield to feed the global population. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Feasibility study of sucrose and fat replacement using inulin and rebaudioside A in cake formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Mohammadi, Mahshid; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2018-02-20

    Cake is a popular food around the world, however, it is considered as unhealthy due to its high fat and sucrose content. To satisfy customers' demand for a low fat and sucrose cake, in this research both sucrose and fat content of the cake were reduced by using rebaudioside A (Reb A; as a natural sucrose replacer) and inulin (as a natural fat replacer) at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The water content of different formulation was adjusted to obtain a constant batter viscosity similar to the control (3,757 cP). By reducing sucrose and fat content up to 50%, water activity increased and the cakes became more asymmetrical. However, other physical properties including baking weight loss, height, volume, crust color, and texture were similar to those of the control. Higher levels of replacement (75% and 100%) resulted in remarkable loss of different quality attributes. These samples showed higher water activity and baking loss, lower volume, harder texture, darker color, and highly asymmetrical shape. Thus, successful reduction of both fat and sucrose in cakes is possible by using inulin and Reb A at replacement levels no more than 50%. Customers' demand for healthy and yet tasty and high-quality foods is increasing around the world. Therefore, finding applicable and safe methods to produce such products is of great interest in the food manufacturing to satisfy customers. Health conscious customers avoid consumption of cakes because it contains high sucrose and fat content. Many studies have been performed to reduce either fat or sucrose content, while a few studies are available to show the reduction of both fat and sucrose in the same product. This study indicates the results of an applicable method to reduce fat and sucrose content of cakes simultaneously. Using rebaudioside A (as a natural sucrose replacer) and inulin (as a natural fat replacer) up to 50% of sucrose and fat content of cakes were reduced and the resulting cake had very similar physical properties to

  14. Forced-flow bioreactor for sucrose inversion using ceramic membrane activated by silanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, M; Watanabe, A; Jimbo, N; Nishizawa, K; Nakao, S

    1989-02-20

    A forced-flow enzyme membrane reactor system for sucrose inversion was investigated using three ceramic membranes having different pore sizes. Invertase was immobilized chemically to the inner surface of a ceramic membrane activated by a silane-glutaraldehyde technique. With the cross-flow filtration of sucrose solution, the reaction rate was a function of the permeate flux, easily controlled by pressure. Using 0.5 microm support pore size of membrane, the volumetric productivity obtained was 10 times higher than that in a reported immobilized enzyme column reactor, with a short residence time of 5 s and 100% conversion of the sucrose inversion.

  15. The effect of ethylene on sucrose-uptake by senescing petunia flowers.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The influence of sucrose as an important factor in the vase-life of cut flowers has been dually noted. Sucrose is actively transported across the cell membrane via a symport system and the membrane-imbedded ATPase enzyme generates the required energy and proton gradient for the process. The activity of this enzyme decreases during the senescence of Petunia petals, concomitant with a decrease in sucrose-uptake in the post-climacteric phase. However, ATP does not appear to be limiting, indicati...

  16. Consumption of baked nuts or seeds reduces dental plaque acidogenicity after sucrose challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Cheng, Chuoyue; Ge, Chunling; Wang, Bing; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2016-06-01

    To assess the acidogenic potential of eight different types of baked nuts or seeds eaten alone and after a sucrose challenge using in-dwelling electrode telemetry. Six participants wearing a mandibular partial prosthesis incorporated with a miniature glass pH electrode were enrolled. The plaque pH was measured after 5 or 6 days of plaque accumulation. To establish a control, the subjects were instructed to rinse with sucrose, without any subsequent treatment, at the first visit. At each subsequent test visit, the subjects were asked to chew sugar free xylitol gum or consume 10 g of baked (180 degrees C, 5 minutes) peanuts, walnuts, pistachios, cashews, almonds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, or watermelon seeds alone and 10 minutes after a sucrose rinse. The minimum plaque pH value and area of plaque pH curve under 5.7 (AUC5.7) during and after nut/seed consumption or gum chewing alone, the plaque pH value at 10 minutes after the sucrose rinse, the time required for the pH to return to >5.7 and AUC5.7 after the sucrose rinse with or without nut/seed consumption or gum chewing were calculated from the telemetric curves. The sucrose rinse induced a rapid decrease in the plaque pH to 4.32 +/- 0.17 at 10 minutes; this value remained below 5.7 for the measurement period. The AUC5.7 values were 34.58 +/- 7.27 and 63.55 +/- 15.17 for 40 and 60 minutes after the sucrose challenge, respectively. With the exception of cashews and pumpkin seeds (minimum pH, 5.42 and 5.63 respectively), the nuts or seeds did not decrease the plaque pH to below 5.7 when consumed alone, with the AUC5.7 values during and after consumption (total 40 minutes) ranging from 0.24 to 2.5 (8.44 for cashews), which were significantly lower than those after the sucrose challenge. Furthermore, nut/seed consumption or gum chewing after the sucrose challenge significantly reversed the sucrose-induced decrease in the plaque pH, and the time required for the pH to return to >5.7 and the AUC5.7 values for 60

  17. The apo structure of sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris shows an open active-site groove

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Champion, Elise; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Skov, Lars Kobberøe

    2009-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH-13) mainly contains starch-degrading or starch-modifying enzymes. Sucrose hydrolases utilize sucrose instead of amylose as the primary glucosyl donor. Here, the catalytic properties and X-ray structure of sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris...... of GH-13. Comparisons with structures of the highly similar sucrose hydrolase from X. axonopodis pv. glycines most notably showed that residues Arg516 and Asp138, which form a salt bridge in the X. axonopodis sucrose complex and define part of the subsite -1 glucosyl-binding determinants...

  18. Overexpression of a Grapevine Sucrose Transporter (VvSUC27 in Tobacco Improves Plant Growth Rate in the Presence of Sucrose In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeng Cai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The import of sugar from source leaves and it further accumulation in grape berries are considerably high during ripening, and this process is mediated via sucrose transporters. In this study, a grape sucrose transporter (SUT gene, VvSUC27, located at the plasma membrane, was transferred to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum. The transformants were more sensitive to sucrose and showed more rapid development, especially roots, when cultured on MS agar medium containing sucrose, considering that the shoot/root dry weight ratio was only half that of the control. Moreover, all transformed plants exhibited light-colored leaves throughout their development, which indicated chlorosis and an associated reduction in photosynthesis. The total sugar content in the roots and stems of transformants was higher than that in control plants. No significant difference was observed in the leaves between the transformants and control plants. The levels of growth-promoting hormones were increased, and those of stress-mediating hormones were reduced in transgenic tobacco plants. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of VvSUC27 was 1,000 times higher than that of the autologous tobacco sucrose transporter, which suggested that the markedly increased growth rate of transformants was because of the heterogeneously expressed gene. The transgenic tobacco plants showed resistance to abiotic stresses. Strikingly, the overexpression of VvSUC27 leaded to the up regulation of most reactive oxygen species scavengers and abscisic acid-related genes that might enable transgenic plants to overcome abiotic stress. Taken together, these results revealed an important role of VvSUC27 in plant growth and response to abiotic stresses, especially in the presence of sucrose in vitro.

  19. De stille elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Det er blevet en afgørende samværskompetence i uddannelsessystemet at stå aktivt frem og deltage verbalt i skoleklassens liv både fagligt og socialt. Men ikke alle elever deltager lige villigt verbalt i plenum. Artiklen handler om de stille elever og konsekvenserne af stillehed i skolen. Det...... foreslås at skolesystemet sanktionerer ældre elever hårdere for stillehed end yngre elever og det forklares med at skolelivet også er en kultivering henimod elevhed som social identitet og denne er der forventning om at eleverne mestrer i udskolingen....

  20. Sucrose in Cyanobacteria: From a Salt-Response Molecule to Play a Key Role in Nitrogen Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Kolman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the biosphere, sucrose is mainly synthesized in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, green algae and land plants, as part of the carbon dioxide assimilation pathway. Even though its central position in the functional biology of plants is well documented, much less is known about the role of sucrose in cyanobacteria. In those prokaryotes, sucrose accumulation has been associated with salt acclimation, and considered as a compatible solute in low-salt tolerant strains. In the last years, functional characterizations of sucrose metabolizing enzymes, metabolic control analysis, cellular localization of gene expressions, and reverse genetic experiments have revealed that sucrose metabolism is crucial in the diazotrophic growth of heterocystic strains, and besides, that it can be connected to glycogen synthesis. This article briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge of sucrose physiological functions in modern cyanobacteria and how they might have evolved taking into account the phylogenetic analyses of sucrose enzymes.

  1. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Badotti, Fernanda; Dário, Marcelo G; Alves, Sergio L; Cordioli, Maria Luiza A; Miletti, Luiz C; de Araujo, Pedro S; Stambuk, Boris U

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucro...

  2. Starch and sucrose synthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris as affected by light, CO2, and abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkey, T.D.; Berry, J.A.; Raschke, K.

    1985-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. leaves were subjected to various light, CO 2 , and O 2 levels and abscisic acid, then given a 10 minute pulse of 14 CO 2 followed by a 5 minute chase with unlabeled CO 2 . After the chase period, very little label remained in the ionic fractions except at low CO 2 partial pressure. Most label was found in the neutral, alcohol soluble fraction or in the insoluble fraction digestable by amyloglucosidase. Sucrose formation was linearly related to assimilation rate. Starch formation increased linearly with assimilation rate, but did not occur if the assimilation rate was below 4 micromoles per square meter per second. Neither abscisic acid, nor high CO 2 in combination with low O 2 caused significant perturbations of the sucrose/starch formation ratio. These studies indicate that the pathways for starch and sucrose synthesis both are controlled by the rate of net CO 2 assimilation, with sucrose the preferred product at very low assimilation rates

  3. Production of Viscous Dextran-Containing Whey-Sucrose Broths by Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 14935

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Robert D.; Bodie, Elizabeth A.

    1984-01-01

    Viscous broths were produced by growing Leuconostoc mesenteroides on a medium containing whey supplemented with sucrose. When combined with similarly produced xanthan-containing broths, a synergistic increase in viscosity was observed.

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SUCROSE SYNTHASE 2 GENE (Sus2 IN DURUM WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa eVolpicella

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, represents a key enzyme in the control of the flow of carbon into starch biosynthesis. In the present study the genomic identification and characterization of the Sus2-2A and Sus2-2B genes coding for sucrose synthase in durum wheat (cultivars Ciccio and Svevo is reported. The genes were analyzed for their expression in different tissues and at different seed maturation stages, in four tetraploid wheat genotypes (Svevo, Ciccio, Primadur and 5-BIL42. The activity of the encoded proteins was evaluated by specific activity assays on endosperm extracts and their structure established by modelling approaches. The combined results of SUS2 expression and activity levels were then considered in the light of their possible involvement in starch yield.

  5. The effect of nicotine pre-exposure on demand for cocaine and sucrose in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lindsay P; Kearns, David N; Silberberg, Alan

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine how nicotine pre-exposure affects the elasticity of demand for intravenous cocaine and for sucrose pellets in adult male rats. In Experiment 1, demand for cocaine was assessed in rats that had nicotine in their drinking water. Nicotine pre-exposure significantly decreased rats' willingness to defend cocaine consumption as the price (measured as the number of responses per cocaine infusion) increased compared with a control group with no nicotine pre-exposure. That is, nicotine increased the elasticity of demand for cocaine infusions. Experiment 2 repeated the first experiment, but with rats working for sucrose pellets instead of cocaine. Nicotine pre-exposure had no effect on the elasticity of demand for sucrose. This pattern of results suggests that nicotine pre-exposure can reduce the reinforcing effects of cocaine, but not sucrose, in adult male rats.

  6. Improvement of Fructanohydrolase Production in Aspergillus niger SL-09 by Sucrose Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yang Ge

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and the addition of sucrose ester on fructanohydrolase production was investigated. The enzyme production varied depending on the carbon source. Apart from that, it was found that the enzyme activities formed by Aspergillus niger SL-09 were enhanced dramatically by the addition of sucrose ester S-770 to the medium. The effect of sucrose ester on enzyme production was also studied on molecular level, and it was confirmed that the transcription was activated by the addition of sucrose ester to the medium. The response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the composition for the production of fructanohydrolase, and the enzyme activities were enhanced more than 7-fold than those obtained in the basal medium.

  7. Diverse Exopolysaccharide Producing Bacteria Isolated from Milled Sugarcane: Implications for Cane Spoilage and Sucrose Yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton Hector

    Full Text Available Bacterial deterioration of sugarcane during harvesting and processing is correlated with significant loss of sucrose yield and the accumulation of bacterial polysaccharides. Dextran, a homoglucan produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, has been cited as the primary polysaccharide associated with sugarcane deterioration. A culture-based approach was used to isolate extracellular polysaccharide (EPS producing bacterial strains from milled sugarcane stalks. Ribosomal RNA sequencing analysis grouped 25 isolates into 4 genera. This study identified 2 bacterial genera not previously associated with EPS production or sucrose degradation. All isolates produced polysaccharide when grown in the presence of sucrose. Monosaccharide analysis of purified polymers by Gas Chromatography revealed 17 EPSs consisting solely of glucose (homoglucans, while the remainder contained traces of mannose or fructose. Dextranase treatment of polysaccharides yielded full digestion profiles for only 11 extracts. Incomplete hydrolysis profiles of the remaining polysaccharides suggest the release of longer oligosaccharides which may interfere with sucrose crystal formation.

  8. Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mei; Ma, Jiantao; Patel, Kamal; Berger, Samantha; Lau, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    Concerns have been raised about the concurrent temporal trend between simple sugar intakes, especially of fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States. We examined the effect of different amounts and forms of dietary fructose on the incidence or prevalence of NAFLD and indexes of liver health in humans. We conducted a systematic review of English-language, human studies of any design in children and adults with low to no alcohol intake and that reported at least one predetermined measure of liver health. The strength of the evidence was evaluated by considering risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Six observational studies and 21 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall strength of evidence for observational studies was rated insufficient because of high risk of biases and inconsistent study findings. Of 21 intervention studies, 19 studies were in adults without NAFLD (predominantly healthy, young men) and 1 study each in adults or children with NAFLD. We found a low level of evidence that a hypercaloric fructose diet (supplemented by pure fructose) increases liver fat and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in healthy men compared with the consumption of a weight-maintenance diet. In addition, there was a low level of evidence that hypercaloric fructose and glucose diets have similar effects on liver fat and liver enzymes in healthy adults. There was insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion for effects of HFCS or sucrose on NAFLD. On the basis of indirect comparisons across study findings, the apparent association between indexes of liver health (ie, liver fat, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, alanine aminotransferase, AST, and γ-glutamyl transpeptase) and fructose or sucrose intake appear to be confounded by excessive energy intake. Overall, the available evidence is not sufficiently robust to draw conclusions regarding effects of fructose

  9. Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mei; Ma, Jiantao; Patel, Kamal; Berger, Samantha; Lau, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been raised about the concurrent temporal trend between simple sugar intakes, especially of fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States. Objective: We examined the effect of different amounts and forms of dietary fructose on the incidence or prevalence of NAFLD and indexes of liver health in humans. Design: We conducted a systematic review of English-language, human studies of any design in children and adults with low to no alcohol intake and that reported at least one predetermined measure of liver health. The strength of the evidence was evaluated by considering risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Results: Six observational studies and 21 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall strength of evidence for observational studies was rated insufficient because of high risk of biases and inconsistent study findings. Of 21 intervention studies, 19 studies were in adults without NAFLD (predominantly healthy, young men) and 1 study each in adults or children with NAFLD. We found a low level of evidence that a hypercaloric fructose diet (supplemented by pure fructose) increases liver fat and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in healthy men compared with the consumption of a weight-maintenance diet. In addition, there was a low level of evidence that hypercaloric fructose and glucose diets have similar effects on liver fat and liver enzymes in healthy adults. There was insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion for effects of HFCS or sucrose on NAFLD. Conclusions: On the basis of indirect comparisons across study findings, the apparent association between indexes of liver health (ie, liver fat, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, alanine aminotransferase, AST, and γ-glutamyl transpeptase) and fructose or sucrose intake appear to be confounded by excessive energy intake. Overall, the available evidence is not sufficiently robust

  10. Heat capacity and transition behavior of sucrose by standard, fast scanning and temperature-modulated calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoń, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland); Wurm, A.; Schick, C. [Department of Physics, University of Rostock, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Pangloli, Ph.; Zivanovic, S. [Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Skotnicki, M. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Pyda, M., E-mail: mpyda@utk.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • Experimental, apparent heat capacity of sucrose was investigated by advanced thermal analysis. • Vibrational heat capacity of solid state was linked with a low temperature experimental heat capacity of sucrose. • Equilibrium melting parameters of sucrose were determined. • Decomposition, superheating of crystalline sucrose during melting process were presented. • TGA, DSC, TMDSC, and FSC are useful tools for characterization of sucrose. - Abstract: The heat capacity (C{sub p}) of crystalline and amorphous sucrose was determined using standard and quasi-isothermal temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry. The results were combined with the published data determined by adiabatic calorimetry, and the C{sub p} values are now reported for the wide 5–600 K range. The experimental C{sub p} of solid sucrose at 5–300 K was used to calculate the vibrational, solid C{sub p} based on the vibrational molecular motions. The calculated solid and liquid C{sub p} together with the transition parameters for equilibrium conditions were used as references for detailed quantitative thermal analysis of crystalline and amorphous sucrose. Melting temperature (T{sub m}) of the crystalline sucrose was identified in a broad 442–465 K range with a heat of fusion of 40–46 J/mol determined at heating rates 0.5–20 K/min, respectively. The equilibrium T{sub m} and heat of fusion of crystalline sucrose were estimated at zero heating rate as T{sup o}{sub m} = 424.4 K and ΔH{sup o}{sub f} = 32 kJ/mol, respectively. The glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of amorphous sucrose was at 331 K with a change in C{sub p} of 267 J/(mol K) as it was estimated from reversing heat capacity by quasi-isothermal TMDSC on cooling. At heating rates less than 30 K/min, thermal decomposition occurred during melting, while at extreme rate of 1000 K/s, degradation was not observed. Data obtained by fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) at 1000 K/s, showed that T{sub m} was

  11. A sucrose-derived scaffold for multimerization of bioactive peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Venkataramanarao; Alleti, Ramesh; Xu, Liping; Tafreshi, Narges K; Morse, David L; Gillies, Robert J; Mash, Eugene A

    2011-11-01

    A spherical molecular scaffold bearing eight terminal alkyne groups was synthesized in one step from sucrose. One or more copies of a tetrapeptide azide, either N(3)(CH(2))(5)(CO)-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2) (MSH4) or N(3)(CH(2))(5)(CO)-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH(2) (CCK4), were attached to the scaffold via the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Competitive binding assays using Eu-labeled probes based on the superpotent ligands Ser-Tyr-Ser-Nle-Glu-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val-NH(2) (NDP-α-MSH) and Asp-Tyr-Met-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH(2) (CCK8) were used to study the interactions of monovalent and multivalent MSH4 and CCK4 constructs with Hek293 cells engineered to overexpress MC4R and CCK2R. All of the monovalent and multivalent MSH4 constructs exhibited binding comparable to that of the parental ligand, suggesting that either the ligand spacing was inappropriate for multivalent binding, or MSH4 is too weak a binder for a second 'anchoring' binding event to occur before the monovalently-bound construct is released from the cell surface. In contrast with this behavior, monovalent CCK4 constructs were significantly less potent than the parental ligand, while multivalent CCK4 constructs were as or more potent than the parental ligand. These results are suggestive of multivalent binding, which may be due to increased residence times for monovalently bound CCK4 constructs on the cell surface relative to MSH4 constructs, the greater residence time being necessary for the establishment of multivalent binding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Moderate High Fat Diet Increases Sucrose Self-Administration In Young Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Jay, Jennifer L.; Acheson, Molly A.; Magrisso, Irwin J.; West, Constance H.; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C.; Davis, Jon F.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However...

  13. A mouse model for binge-like sucrose overconsumption: Contribution of enhanced motivation for sweetener consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasoshima, Yasunobu; Shimura, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral and neural features of binge-like sugar overconsumption have been studied using rat models. However, few mouse models are available to examine the interaction between neural and genetic underpinnings of bingeing. In the present study, we first aim to establish a simple mouse model of binge-like sucrose overconsumption using daytime limited access training in food-restricted male mice. Trained mice received 4-h limited access to both 0.5M sucrose solution and chow for 10 days. Three control groups received (1) 4-h sucrose and 20-h chow access, (2) 20-h sucrose and 4-h, or (3) 20-h chow access, respectively. Only the trained group showed progressively increased sucrose consumption during brief periods of time and developed binge-like excessive behavior. Next, we examined whether the present mouse model mimicked a human feature of binge eating known as "eating when not physically hungry." Trained mice consumed significantly more sucrose or non-caloric sweetener (saccharin) during post-training days even after they nocturnally consumed substantial chow prior to daytime sweetener access. In other trained groups, both a systemic administration of glucose and substantial chow consumption prior to the daytime limited sucrose access failed to reduce binge-like sucrose overconsumption. Our results suggest that even when caloric consumption is not necessarily required, limited access training shapes and triggers binge-like overconsumption of sweetened solution in trained mice. The binge-like behavior in trained mice may be mainly due to enhanced hedonic motivation for the sweetener's taste. The present study suggests that our mouse model for binge-like sugar overconsumption may mimic some human features of binge eating and can be used to investigate the roles of neural and genetic mechanisms in binge-like overconsumption of sweetened substances in the absence of physical hunger. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of 6,6,1',1',6',6'-hexadeutero sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouy, Marie-Hélène; Danel, Mathieu; Gayral, Maud; Bouchu, Alain; Queneau, Yves

    2007-11-05

    The preparation of 6,6,1',1',6',6'-hexadeutero sucrose is reported. The synthesis is based on a triple oxidation of a protected sucrose 6,1',6'-triol to the corresponding 6,1',6'-tricarboxylic acid or ester, followed by reduction with lithium aluminium deuteride. This triple oxidation could be achieved either using cat. TEMPO-NaOCl (to the acid) or PDC-Ac(2)O-t-BuOH (to the t-butyl carboxylic ester).

  15. Possible consequences of the sucrose replacement by a fructose-glucose syrup

    OpenAIRE

    Judit Süli; Ingrid Hamarová; Anna Sobeková

    2017-01-01

    The fructose-glucose syrup is currently used instead of sucrose in bakery products for economic and technological reasons. The authors investigated the extent to which this change affects the formation of non-enzymatic browning products (Advanced Glycation End - AGE-Products and melanoidins). Formation of these products in model systems - mixtures of various sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose - concentration 6%) with glycine (concentration 0.7%) or/and lysine (concentration 0.3%), heat-treate...

  16. Sucrose Fermentation by Brazilian Ethanol Production Yeasts in Media Containing Structurally Complex Nitrogen Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Junior, Messias [UNESP; Batistote, Margareth [UNESP; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud [UNESP; Ernandes, Jose Roberto [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Four Saccharomyces cerevisiae Brazilian industrial ethanol production strains were grown, under shaken and static conditions, in media containing 22% (w/v) sucrose supplemented with nitrogen sources varying from a single ammonium salt (ammonium sulfate) to free amino acids (casamino acids) and peptides (peptone). Sucrose fermentations by Brazilian industrial ethanol production yeasts strains were strongly affected by both the structural complexity of the nitrogen source and the availability o...

  17. Oxytocin Differentially Affects Sucrose Taking and Seeking in Male and Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycl...

  18. Investigation of melt agglomeration process with a hydrophobic binder in combination with sucrose stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Wong, Tin Wui; Cheong, Wai See

    2003-08-01

    The melt agglomeration process of lactose powder with hydrogenated cottonseed oil (HCO) as the hydrophobic meltable binder was investigated by studying the physicochemical properties of molten HCO modified by sucrose stearates S170, S770 and S1570. The size, size distribution, micromeritic and adhesion properties of agglomerates as well as surface tension, contact angle, viscosity and specific volume of molten HCO, with and without sucrose stearates, were examined. The viscosity, specific volume and surface tension of molten HCO were found to be modified to varying extents by sucrose stearates which are available in different HLB values and melt properties. The growth of melt agglomerates was promoted predominantly by an increase in viscosity, an increase in specific volume or a decrease in surface tension of the molten binding liquid. The agglomerate growth propensity was higher with an increase in inter-particulate binding strength, agglomerate surface wetness and extent of agglomerate consolidation which enhanced the liquid migration from agglomerate core to periphery leading to an increased surface plasticity for coalescence. The inclusion of high concentrations of completely meltable sucrose stearate S170 greatly induced the growth of agglomerates through increased specific volume and viscosity of the molten binding liquid. On the other hand, the inclusion of incompletely meltable sucrose stearates S770 and S1570 promoted the agglomeration mainly via the reduction in surface tension of the molten binding liquid with declining agglomerate growth propensity at high sucrose stearate concentrations. In addition to being an agglomeration modifier, sucrose stearate demonstrated anti-adherent property in melt agglomeration process. The properties of molten HCO and melt agglomerates were dependent on the type and concentration of sucrose stearate added.

  19. Monitoring and control of enzymic sucrose hydrolysis using on-line biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandenius, C F; Buelow, L; Danielsson, B; Mosbach, K

    1985-02-01

    Previously reported flow microcalorimeter devices for enzymic reaction heat measurement, enzyme thermistors, have here been extended with systems for on-line sample treatment. Glucose analysis was performed by intermittent flow injection of 50 ..mu..l samples through such an enzyme thermistor device containing immobilized glucose oxidase and catalase. Sucrose analysis was performed by allowing diluted samples to continuously pass through an additional enzyme thermistor containing immobilized invertase. The reaction heats were recorded as temperature changes in the order of 10-50 m degrees C for concentration of 0.05-0.30 M glucose or sucrose present in the original non-diluted samples. The performance of this system was investigated by its ability to follow concentration changes obtained from a gradient mixer. The system was applied to monitoring and controlling the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose in a plug-flow reactor with immobilized invertase. The reactor was continuously fed by a flow of sucrose of up to 0.3 M (100 g/l). Glucose and remaining sucrose were monitored in the effluent of the column. By using flow rate controlled feed pumps for sucrose and diluent the influent concentration of sucrose was varied while the overall flow rate remained constant. On-line control of the effluent concentration of glucose and sucrose was achieved by a proportional and integral regulator implemented on a microcomputer. Present concentration of glucose in the effluent could be maintained over an extended period of time despite changes in the overall capacity of the invertase reactor. Long delay times in the sensor system and the enzyme column made it necessary to carefully tune the control parameters. Changes of set-point value and temperature disturbances were used to verify accuracy of controlling performance. 32 references.

  20. Tocopherol deficiency reduces sucrose export from salt-stressed potato leaves independently of oxidative stress and symplastic obstruction by callose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensi-Fabado, María Amparo; Ammon, Alexandra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Voll, Lars M.

    2015-01-01

    Tocopherol cyclase, encoded by the gene SUCROSE EXPORT DEFECTIVE1, catalyses the second step in the synthesis of the antioxidant tocopherol. Depletion of SXD1 activity in maize and potato leaves leads to tocopherol deficiency and a ‘sugar export block’ phenotype that comprises massive starch accumulation and obstruction of plasmodesmata in paraveinal tissue by callose. We grew two transgenic StSXD1:RNAi potato lines with severe tocopherol deficiency under moderate light conditions and subjected them to salt stress. After three weeks of salt exposure, we observed a strongly reduced sugar exudation rate and a lack of starch mobilization in leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants, but not in wild-type plants. However, callose accumulation in the vasculature declined upon salt stress in all genotypes, indicating that callose plugging of plasmodesmata was not the sole cause of the sugar export block phenotype in tocopherol-deficient leaves. Based on comprehensive gene expression analyses, we propose that enhanced responsiveness of SnRK1 target genes in mesophyll cells and altered redox regulation of phloem loading by SUT1 contribute to the attenuation of sucrose export from salt-stressed SXD:RNAi source leaves. Furthermore, we could not find any indication that elevated oxidative stress may have served as a trigger for the salt-induced carbohydrate phenotype of SXD1:RNAi transgenic plants. In leaves of the SXD1:RNAi plants, sodium accumulation was diminished, while proline accumulation and pools of soluble antioxidants were increased. As supported by phytohormone contents, these differences seem to increase longevity and prevent senescence of SXD:RNAi leaves under salt stress. PMID:25428995

  1. A combination of l-arabinose and chromium lowers circulating glucose and insulin levels after an acute oral sucrose challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perricone Nicholas V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that elevated circulating levels of glucose and insulin accelerate risk factors for a wide range of disorders. Low-risk interventions that could suppress glucose without raising insulin levels could offer significant long-term health benefits. Methods To address this issue, we conducted two sequential studies, the first with two phases. In the first phase of Study 1, baseline fasting blood glucose was measured in 20 subjects who consumed 70 grams of sucrose in water and subsequently completed capillary glucose measurements at 30, 45, 60 and 90 minutes (Control. On day-2 the same procedure was followed, but with subjects simultaneously consuming a novel formula containing l-arabinose and a trivalent patented food source of chromium (LA-Cr (Treatment. The presence or absence of the LA-Cr was blinded to the subjects and testing technician. Comparisons of changes from baseline were made between Control and Treatment periods. In the second phase of Study 1, 10 subjects selected from the original 20 competed baseline measures of body composition (DXA, a 43-blood chemistry panel and a Quality of Life Inventory. These subjects subsequently took LA-Cr daily for 4 weeks completing daily tracking forms and repeating the baseline capillary tests at the end of each of the four weeks. In Study 2, the same procedures used in the first phase were repeated for 50 subjects, but with added circulating insulin measurements at 30 and 60 minutes from baseline. Results In both studies, as compared to Control, the Treatment group had significantly lower glucose responses for all four testing times (AUC = P P = Conclusions As compared to a placebo control, consumption of a LA-Cr formula after a 70-gram sucrose challenge was effective in safely lowering both circulating glucose and insulin levels. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov, NCT0110743

  2. Sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) in soybean seeds as influenced by genotype and growing location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita; Goyal, Lokesh; Dixit, Amit Kumar; Manjaya, J G; Dev, Jai; Swamy, M

    2010-04-28

    Sucrose content in soybean seeds is desired to be high because as a sweetness-imparting component, it helps in wider acceptance of soy-derived food products. Conversely, galactosyl derivatives of sucrose, that is, raffinose and stachyose, which are flatulence-inducing components, need to be in low concentration in soybean seeds not only for augmenting utilization of the crop in food uses but also for delivering soy meal with improved metabolizable energy for monogastric animals. In the present study, analysis of 148 soybean genotypes for sucrose and total raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) contents revealed a higher variation (4.80-fold) for sucrose than for RFOs content (2.63-fold). High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed ranges of 0.64-2.53 and 2.09-7.1 mmol/100 g for raffinose and stachyose contents, respectively. As information concerning the environmental effects on the sucrose and RFOs content in soybean seeds is not available, we also investigated a set of seven genotypes raised at widely different geographical locations for these quality traits. Sucrose content was found to be significantly higher at cooler location (Palampur); however, differences observed for raffinose and stachyose contents across the growing locations were genotype-dependent. The results suggest that soybean genotypes grown at cooler locations may be better suited for processing soy food products with improved taste and flavor.

  3. Carbon particle induced foaming of molten sucrose for the preparation of carbon foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimman, R.; Vijayan, Sujith; Prabhakaran, K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An easy method for the preparation of carbon foam from sucrose is presented. • Wood derived activated carbon particles are used to stabilize the molten sucrose foam. • The carbon foams show relatively good mechanical strength. • The carbon foams show excellent CO 2 adsorption and oil absorption properties. • The process could be scaled up for the preparation of large foam bodies. - Abstract: Activated carbon powder was used as a foaming and foam setting agent for the preparation of carbon foams with a hierarchical pore structure from molten sucrose. The rheological measurements revealed the interruption of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in molten sucrose by the carbon particles. The carbon particles stabilized the bubbles in molten sucrose by adsorbing on the molten sucrose–gas interface. The carbon foams obtained at the activated carbon powder to sucrose weight ratios in the range of 0–0.25 had a compressive strength in the range of 1.35–0.31 MPa. The produced carbon foams adsorb 2.59–3.04 mmol/g of CO 2 at 760 mmHg at 273 K and absorb oil from oil–water mixtures and surfactant stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with very good selectivity and recyclability

  4. Nitrate Activation of Cytosolic Protein Kinases Diverts Photosynthetic Carbon from Sucrose to Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champigny, Marie-Louise; Foyer, Christine

    1992-01-01

    The regulation of carbon partitioning between carbohydrates (principally sucrose) and amino acids has been only poorly characterized in higher plants. The hypothesis that the pathway of sucrose and amino acid biosynthesis compete for carbon skeletons and energy is widely accepted. In this review, we suggest a mechanism involving the regulation of cytosolic protein kinases whereby the flow of carbon is regulated at the level of partitioning between the pathways of carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism via the covalent modulation of component enzymes. The addition of nitrate to wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum) grown in the absence of exogenous nitrogen has a dramatic, if transient, impact on sucrose formation and on the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (which is inactivated) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (which is activated). The activities of these two enzymes are modulated by protein phosphorylation in response to the addition of nitrate, but they respond in an inverse fashion. Sucrose phosphate synthase in inactivated and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is activated. Nitrate functions as a signal metabolite activating the cytosolic protein kinase, thereby modulating the activities of at least two of the key enzymes in assimilate partitioning and redirecting the flow of carbon away from sucrose biosynthesis toward amino acid synthesis. PMID:16653003

  5. Pontine and Thalamic Influences on Fluid Rewards: III. Anticipatory Contrast for Sucrose and Corn Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Norgren, Ralph; Grigson, Patricia S

    2011-01-01

    An anticipatory contrast effect (ACE) occurs when, across daily trials, an animal comes to respond less than normally to a first stimulus when it is followed shortly by a second, more preferred solution. Classically, ACE is studied using a low (L) concentration of saccharin or sucrose, followed by access to a higher (H) concentration of sucrose. Subjects in the control condition have two bouts of access to the weaker solution presented on the same schedule. The ACE is measured by the difference in intake of the first bout low solution between subjects in the low-low (L-L) vs. the low-high (L-H) conditions. Here we used this paradigm with sham feeding rats and determined that nutritional feedback was unnecessary for the development of ACE with two concentrations of sucrose or with two concentrations of corn oil. Next we showed that ibotenic acid lesions centered in the orosensory thalamus spared ACEs for both sucrose and corn oil. In contrast, lesions of the pontine parabrachial nuclei (PBN), the second central relay for taste in the rat, disrupted ACEs for both sucrose and corn oil. Although the sensory modalities needed for the oral detection of fats remain controversial, it appears that the PBN is involved in processing the comparison of disparate concentrations of sucrose and oil reward. PMID:21703289

  6. Oral sucrose for heel lance enhances adenosine triphosphate use in preterm neonates with respiratory distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, Danilyn M; Asmerom, Yayesh; Boskovic, Danilo S; Slater, Laurel; Bacot-Carter, Sharon; Bahjri, Khaled; Mukasa, Joseph; Holden, Megan; Fayard, Elba

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effects of oral sucrose on procedural pain, and on biochemical markers of adenosine triphosphate utilization and oxidative stress in preterm neonates with mild to moderate respiratory distress. Preterm neonates with a clinically required heel lance that met study criteria (n = 49) were randomized into three groups: (1) control (n = 24), (2) heel lance treated with placebo and non-nutritive sucking (n = 15) and (3) heel lance treated with sucrose and non-nutritive sucking (n = 10). Plasma markers of adenosine triphosphate degradation (hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid) and oxidative stress (allantoin) were measured before and after the heel lance. Pain was measured using the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance, chi-square and one-way analysis of variance. We found that in preterm neonates who were intubated and/or were receiving ⩾30% FiO2, a single dose of oral sucrose given before a heel lance significantly increased markers of adenosine triphosphate use. We found that oral sucrose enhanced adenosine triphosphate use in neonates who were intubated and/or were receiving ⩾30% FiO2. Although oral sucrose decreased pain scores, our data suggest that it also increased energy use as evidenced by increased plasma markers of adenosine triphosphate utilization. These effects of sucrose, specifically the fructose component, on adenosine triphosphate metabolism warrant further investigation.

  7. Analgesic effect of breast milk versus sucrose for analgesia during heel lance in late preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonse, Eva; Mulder, Paul G H; van Beek, Ron H T

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this trial was to investigate whether breast milk (either breastfed or bottle-fed) has a better analgesic effect than sucrose in newborns born at a postmenstrual age between 32 and 37 weeks. We conducted a randomized controlled trial at a secondary care neonatal unit in the Netherlands on 71 preterm neonates (postmenstrual age at birth 32-37 weeks), undergoing heel lance with an automated piercing device. Newborns were randomly assigned to breast milk (either breastfed or bottle-fed) administered during heel lance or oral sucrose administered before heel lance. We assessed the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score (range, 0-21) to investigate whether there was a difference in pain score between neonates receiving breast milk and those receiving sucrose solution. There was no significant difference in mean PIPP score between neonates receiving breast milk (6.1) and those receiving sucrose (5.5), with a mean difference of 0.6 (95% confidence interval -1.6 to 2.8; P = .58). From this study, it cannot be concluded that breast milk has a better analgesic effect than sucrose in late preterm infants. From the results, it follows with 95% confidence that the analgesic effect of breast milk is not >1.6 points better and not > 2.8 points worse on the PIPP scale (SD 3.7) than the analgesic effect of sucrose in late preterm infants.

  8. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpace, P.J.; Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the β-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the β-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and β-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. β-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed β 1 - and β 2 -type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in β-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the β 1 -adrenergic subtype. This BAT β-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial β-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability

  9. Effects of sucrose reduction on the structural characteristics of sponge cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Souza Cavalcante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe consumption of reduced-calorie cakes has been increasing, however this has presented challenges to be overcome concerning the formation of their structure when the sucrose is substituted by alternative sweeteners, gums or thickening agents. The present study evaluated the internal characteristics of cakes with a reduction in sucrose, and the effects of its substitution on starch gelatinisation. Starting with a pre-established formulation, the sucrose was gradually substituted by a 1.0% mixture of sucralose in a 1.5% xanthan gum solution. In the substituted cake mix, the apparent viscosity and its thermal properties were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Specific volume (SV and cell count (CC were evaluated in the cakes. As the sucrose content decreased (52.17 to 10.00%, the specific volume (1.94 to 0.7 mL/g, cell count (36.2 to 4.0 cell/cm2 and the apparent viscosity of the batter (337.56 to 631.40 cP were also reduced. The results showed that substituting the sucrose contributed greatly to the formation of defects in the cake structure (holes. From the data obtained, and thermograms of standard cake batters and those with a reduction in sucrose, it can be concluded that sucralose reduced the temperature of starch gelatinisation, speeding the process and causing compaction of the cake structure during baking, favouring the formation of bubbles throughout the batter.

  10. A study on alfalfa-dodder relationships by 14C-sucrose incorporation in their tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsenova, M.

    1975-01-01

    Plant-parasite relationships between lesser-dodder (Cuscuta epithymum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) are investigated. 14 C-sucrose was incorporated via the cut stems of host and parasite into their tissues and the content of the free sugars, keto acids and free amino acids are determined. 14 C-sucrose was introduced also in lesser-dodder previously taken from the host-plant and immersed directly into radioactive sucrose. It is shown that the parasite intensively absorbs sucrose from the host-plant tissues using it as a source of energy and as a substrat for different synthetic processes. In the case when the parasite was previously taken away from the host-plant 14 C-sucrose taken up directly from the solution was used for the synthesis of various compounds (carbohydrates, amino- and keto acids). The suggestion was made that the respective enzyme systems are present in dodder tissues. The 14 C-glucose and 14 C-fructose content is an evidence for high invertase hydrolytic activity. The presence of 14 C-keto acids shows that the 14 C-sucrose incorporated in lesser-dodder tissues without the mediation of the host-plant was used as a respiratory substrate by the degradation following Krebs cycle. (author)

  11. Nectar secretion requires sucrose phosphate synthases and the sugar transporter SWEET9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I Winnie; Sosso, Davide; Chen, Li-Qing; Gase, Klaus; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Kessler, Danny; Klinkenberg, Peter M; Gorder, Molly K; Hou, Bi-Huei; Qu, Xiao-Qing; Carter, Clay J; Baldwin, Ian T; Frommer, Wolf B

    2014-04-24

    Angiosperms developed floral nectaries that reward pollinating insects. Although nectar function and composition have been characterized, the mechanism of nectar secretion has remained unclear. Here we identify SWEET9 as a nectary-specific sugar transporter in three eudicot species: Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica rapa (extrastaminal nectaries) and Nicotiana attenuata (gynoecial nectaries). We show that SWEET9 is essential for nectar production and can function as an efflux transporter. We also show that sucrose phosphate synthase genes, encoding key enzymes for sucrose biosynthesis, are highly expressed in nectaries and that their expression is also essential for nectar secretion. Together these data are consistent with a model in which sucrose is synthesized in the nectary parenchyma and subsequently secreted into the extracellular space via SWEET9, where sucrose is hydrolysed by an apoplasmic invertase to produce a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose. The recruitment of SWEET9 for sucrose export may have been a key innovation, and could have coincided with the evolution of core eudicots and contributed to the evolution of nectar secretion to reward pollinators.

  12. Bimodal Porous Scaffolds by Sequential Electro spinning of Poly(glycolic acid) with Sucrose Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulkersdorfer, B.; Kao, K.K.; Agopian, V.G.; Ahn, A.; Dunn, J.C.; Wu, B.M.; Stelzner, M.; Kao, K.K.; Agopian, K.J.; Dunn, J.C.; Wu, B.M.; Stelzner, M.; Dunn, J.C.; Wu, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Electro spinning is a method to produce fine, bio polymer mesh with a three-dimensional architecture that mimics native extra-cellular matrix. Due to the small fiber diameter created in this process, conventional electro spun scaffolds have pore sizes smaller than the diameter of most cells. These scaffolds have limited application in tissue engineering due to poor cell penetration. We developed a hybrid electro spinning/particulate leaching technique to create scaffolds with increased porosity and improved cellular ingrowth. Poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) and a sucrose-ethanol suspension were electro spun in equal, alternating sequences at intervals of one, two, and ten minutes each. The scaffolds revealed fiber mesh with micropores of 10 μm and uniformly distributed sucrose particles. Particulate leaching of sucrose from the one- or two-minute scaffolds revealed honeycomb structures with interconnected macro pores between 50 and 250 μm. Sucrose leaching from the ten-minute scaffolds resulted in laminated structures with isolated macro pores between 200 and 350 μm. Macro pore size was directly proportional to the duration of the sucrose spinning interval. After 24 hours of cell culture, conventionally spun scaffolds demonstrated no cellular penetration. Conversely, the PGA/sucrose scaffolds demonstrated deep cellular penetration. This hybrid technique represents a novel method of generating electro spun scaffolds with interconnected pores suitable for cellular ingrowth.

  13. Sucrose-induced anthocyanin accumulation in vegetative tissue of Petunia plants requires anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Trinh Ngoc; Naing, Aung Htay; Arun, Muthukrishnan; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Chang Kil

    2016-11-01

    The effects of three different sucrose concentrations on plant growth and anthocyanin accumulation were examined in non-transgenic (NT) and transgenic (T 2 ) specimens of the Petunia hybrida cultivar 'Mirage rose' that carried the anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors B-Peru+mPAP1 or RsMYB1. Anthocyanin accumulation was not observed in NT plants in any treatments, whereas a range of anthocyanin accumulation was observed in transgenic plants. The anthocyanin content detected in transgenic plants expressing the anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors (B-Peru+mPAP1 or RsMYB1) was higher than that in NT plants. In addition, increasing sucrose concentration strongly enhanced anthocyanin content as shown by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, wherein increased concentrations of sucrose enhanced transcript levels of the transcription factors that are responsible for the induction of biosynthetic genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis; this pattern was not observed in NT plants. In addition, sucrose affected plant growth, although the effects were different between NT and transgenic plants. Taken together, the application of sucrose could enhance anthocyanin production in vegetative tissue of transgenic Petunia carrying anthocyanin regulatory transcription factors, and this study provides insights about interactive effects of sucrose and transcription factors in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the transgenic plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of acid-induced lung injury by hyperosmolar sucrose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Zeenat; Yiming, Maimiti; Grunig, Gabriele; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2005-10-15

    Acid aspiration causes acute lung injury (ALI). Recently, we showed that a brief intravascular infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose, given concurrently with airway acid instillation, effectively blocks the ensuing ALI. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which intravascular infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose might protect against acid-induced ALI when given either before or after acid instillation. Our studies were conducted in anesthetized rats and in isolated, blood-perfused rat lungs. We instilled HCl through the airway, and we quantified lung injury in terms of the extravascular lung water (EVLW) content, filtration coefficient (Kfc), and cell counts and protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage. We infused hyperosmolar sucrose via the femoral vein. In anesthetized rats, airway HCl instillation induced ALI as indicated by a 52% increase of EVLW and a threefold increase in Kfc. However, a 15-min intravenous infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose given up to 1 h before or 30 min after acid instillation markedly blunted the increases in EVLW, as well as the increases in cell count, and in protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Hyperosmolar pretreatment also blocked the acid-induced increase of Kfc. Studies in isolated perfused lungs indicated that the protective effect of hyperosmolar sucrose was leukocyte independent. We conclude that a brief period of vascular hyperosmolarity protects against acid-induced ALI when the infusion is administered shortly before, or shortly after, acid instillation in the airway. The potential applicability of hyperosmolar sucrose in therapy for ALI requires consideration.

  15. Undervisning af tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen fremdrager hovedresultaterne fra Virginia P. Collier's og Wayne P. Thomas's længdeundersøgelser af tosprogede elever i USA, som formentlig er de mest omfattende undersøgelser af undervisningen af tosprogede elever overhovedet. Resultaterne diskuteres i relation til udviklingen af en...

  16. Effects of elevated CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Sha; Yang, Xiaomei; Liu, Guobin; Gai, Lingtong; Zhang, Changsheng; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Elevated CO2 and drought are key consequences of climate change and affect soil processes and plant growth. This study investigated the effects of elevated CO2 and drought on the microbial biomass and enzymatic activities in the rhizospheres of Bothriochloa ischaemum and

  17. Nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) protects from metabolic endotoxemia by modifying gut microbiota in obese rats fed high fat/sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Pérez-Cruz, Claudia; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Wang, Mei; Donovan, Sharon M; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe

    2017-07-05

    Current efforts are directed to reducing the gut dysbiosis and inflammation produced by obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether consuming nopal, a vegetable rich in dietary fibre, vitamin C, and polyphenols can reduce the metabolic consequences of obesity by modifying the gut microbiota and preventing metabolic endotoxemia in rats fed a high fat and sucrose diet. With this aim, rats were fed a high fat diet with 5% sucrose in the drinking water (HFS) for 7 months and then were fed for 1 month with HFS + 5% nopal (HFS + N). The composition of gut microbiota was assessed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Nopal modified gut microbiota and increased intestinal occludin-1 in the HFS + N group. This was associated with a decrease in metabolic endotoxemia, glucose insulinotropic peptide, glucose intolerance, lipogenesis, and metabolic inflexibility. These changes were accompanied by reduced hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in adipose tissue and brain, and improved cognitive function, associated with an increase in B. fragilis. This study supports the use of nopal as a functional food and prebiotic for its ability to modify gut microbiota and to reduce metabolic endotoxemia and other obesity-related biochemical abnormalities.

  18. Maternal and post-weaning high-fat, high-sucrose diet modulates glucose homeostasis and hypothalamic POMC promoter methylation in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2015-10-01

    Substantial evidence demonstrated that maternal dietary nutrients can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing metabolic disorders in the offspring. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the later-life effects of maternal and postweaning diets interaction on epigenetic modification of the central nervous system in the offspring. We examined the effects of dams fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (FS) diet during pregnancy and lactation and weaned to FS diet continuously until 32 weeks of age. Then, DNA methylation and gene expressions of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) were determined in the offspring. Offspring of FS diet had heavier body weight, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity and higher serum leptin level at 32-week age (p diet during gestation, lactation and into 32-week age (p diet offspring (p fat diet predisposes the offspring for obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in later life. Our findings can advance our thinking around the DNA methylation status of the promoter of the POMC and MC4R genes between long-term high-fat, high-sucrose diet and glucose homeostasis in mouse.

  19. Elevator and hydraulics; Elevator to yuatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, I. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-15

    A hydraulic type elevator is installed in relatively lower buildings as compared with a rope type elevator, but the ratio in the number of installation of the former elevator is increasing. This paper explains from its construction and features to especially various control systems for the riding comfort and safety. A direct push-up system with hydraulic jacks arranged beneath a car, and an indirect push-up system that has hydraulic jacks arranged on flank of a car and transmits the movement of a plunger via a rope are available. The latter system eliminates the need of large holes to embed hydraulic jacks. While the speed is controlled by controlling flow rates of high-pressure oil, the speed, position, acceleration and even time differential calculus of the acceleration must be controlled severely. The system uses two-step control for the through-speed and the landing speed. Different systems that have been realized may include compensation for temperatures in flow rate control valves, load pressures, and oil viscosity, from learning control to fuzzy control for psychological effects, or control of inverters in motors. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Expression Patterns, Activities and Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Regulation of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase and Neutral Invertase in Pineapple Fruit during Development and Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Wei; Du, Li-Qing; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Yao, Yan-Li; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion. PMID:22949808

  1. Elevators or stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin; O’Byrne, Michael; Wilson, Merne; Wilson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Staff in hospitals frequently travel between floors and choose between taking the stairs or elevator. We compared the time savings with these two options. Methods: Four people aged 26–67 years completed 14 trips ranging from one to six floors, both ascending and descending. We compared the amount of time per floor travelled by stairs and by two banks of elevators. Participants reported their fatigue levels using a modified Borg scale. We performed two-way analysis of variance to compare the log-transformed data, with participant and time of day as independent variables. Results: The mean time taken to travel between each floor was 13.1 (standard deviation [SD] 1.7) seconds by stairs and 37.5 (SD 19.0) and 35.6 (SD 23.1) seconds by the two elevators (F = 8.61, p elevator equaled about 15 minutes a day. Self-reported fatigue was less than 13 (out of 20) on the Borg scale for all participants, and they all stated that they were able to continue their duties without resting. The extra time associated with elevator use was because of waiting for its arrival. There was a difference in the amount of time taken to travel by elevator depending on the time of day and day of the week. Interpretation: Taking the stairs rather than the elevator saved about 15 minutes each workday. This 3% savings per workday could translate into improved productivity as well as increased fitness. PMID:22159365

  2. Effects of dietary carbohydrates on glucose and lipid metabolism in golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim-Karakas, S E; Vriend, H; Almario, R; Chow, L C; Goodman, M N

    1996-08-01

    Frequent coexistence of insulin resistance, central obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in the same individual suggests an underlying common pathogenesis. Insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia can be induced by carbohydrate feeding in rats. Golden Syrian hamsters are believed to be resistant to the metabolic effects of dietary carbohydrates. We investigated the effects of diets containing 60% fructose or sucrose on glucose and lipid metabolism in hamsters, both in the fasting state and during an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Fructose caused obesity (weight after treatment: 131 +/- 7 gm in the control group, 155 +/- 5 gm in the fructose group, 136 +/- 7 gm in sucrose group, p < 0.04). Fructose also reduced glucose disappearance rate (KG: 2.69% +/- 0.39% in the control group, 1.45% +/- 0.18% in the fructose group, p < 0.02). Sucrose caused a marginal decrease in glucose disappearance (KG: 1.93% +/- 0.21%, p = 0.08 vs the control group). Only fructose feeding increased fasting plasma nonesterified fatty acids (0.645 +/- 0.087 mEq/L in the control group, 1.035 +/- 0.083 mEq/L in the fructose group, 0.606 +/- 0.061 mEq/L in the sucrose group, p < 0.002), plasma triglycerides (84 +/- 6 mg/dl in the control group, 270 +/- 65 mg/dl in the fructose group, 94 +/- 16 mg/dl in the sucrose group, p < 0.0002), and liver triglycerides (1.88 +/- 0.38 mg/gm liver weight in the control group, 2.35 =/- 0.24 mg/gm in the fructose group, 1.41 +/- 0.13 mg/gm in the sucrose group, p < 0.04). Previous studies in the rat have suggested that dietary carbohydrates induce insulin resistance by increasing plasma nonesterified fatty acids and triglycerides, which are preferentially used by the muscles. The present report shows that sucrose also can cause some decrease in glucose disappearance in the hamster without causing hypertriglyceridemia or increasing plasma nonesterified fatty acids. Thus other mechanisms may also contribute to the insulin resistance in the hamster. These

  3. Sucrose-enhanced biosynthesis of medicinally important antioxidant secondary metabolites in cell suspension cultures of Artemisia absinthium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Syed Shujait; Ali, Shahid; Ali, Gul Shad

    2016-12-01

    Natural products are gaining tremendous importance in pharmaceutical industry and attention has been focused on the applications of in vitro technologies to enhance yield and productivity of such products. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of biomass and antioxidant secondary metabolites in response to different carbohydrate sources (sucrose, maltose, fructose and glucose) and sucrose concentrations (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 %). Moreover, the effects of 3 % repeated sucrose feeding (day-12, -18 and -24) were also investigated. The results showed the superiority of disaccharides over monosaccharides for maximum biomass and secondary metabolites accumulation. Comparable profiles for maximum biomass were observed in response to sucrose and maltose and initial sucrose concentrations of 3 and 5 %. Maximum total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were displayed by cultures treated with sucrose and maltose; however, initial sucrose concentrations of 5 and 7 % were optimum for both classes of metabolites, respectively. Following 3 % extra sucrose feeding, cultures fed on day-24 (late-log phase) showed higher biomass, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents as compared to control cultures. Highest antioxidant activity was exhibited by maltose-treated cultures. Moreover, sucrose-treated cultures displayed positive correlation of antioxidant activity with total phenolics and total flavonoids production. This work describes the stimulatory role of disaccharides and sucrose feeding strategy for higher accumulation of phenolics and flavonoids, which could be potentially scaled up to bioreactor level for the bulk production of these metabolites in suspension cultures of A. absinthium.

  4. ZINC-INDUCED HYPERLEPTINEMIA IN RATS RELATED TO THE AMELIORATION OF SUCROSE-INDUCED OBESITY WITH ZINC REPLETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEIBASHY, M.I.; EL-NAHLA, A.M.; ASHOUR, I.; SALEH, SH.Y.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty adult albino rats (Rattus rattus) at 6 weeks of age were divided into three groups (ten for each). The first group was fed a standard laboratory diet for 8 weeks (control). The second group was made obese by giving them 32% sucrose solution in addition to the standard laboratory diet .The third group was received zinc supplementation (50 mg zinc acetate/ litre) with their sucrose solution. Body weight of all rats was measured weekly for 8 weeks. At 14 weeks of age, rats were killed and fasting blood samples were obtained. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α and zinc were measured.Results showed remarkable changes in body weights in sucrose fed rats only when compared to control and supplemented zinc rats group. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in sucrose fed rats than both control and sucrose with zinc group. Serum leptin showed significant increase in sucrose fed rats than control and also showed higher significant value in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc comparing with sucrose fed rats and control ones. Tumour necrosis factor-? did not show any significant difference between all groups. Serum zinc concentration was decreased significantly in sucrose fed rats as compared to control. On the other hand, it was increased significantly in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc than other both groups. It could be concluded that zinc supplementation induced hyperleptinemia caused ameliorating effects in obese rats

  5. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  6. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  7. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  8. Effects of dietary anticarcinogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on rat gastrointestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logt, E.M.J. van der; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Lieshout, E.M.M. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary compounds or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce cancer rates. Elevation of phase II detoxification enzymes might be one of the mechanisms leading to cancer prevention. We investigated the effects of dietary anticarcinogens and NSAIDs on rat gastrointestinal

  9. Increase in the activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in cytosol affects sugar partitioning and increases the lateral shoots in tobacco plants at elevated CO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamoi, Masahiro; Hiramatsu, Yoshie; Nedachi, Shigeki; Otori, Kumi; Tanabe, Noriaki; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    We generated transgenic tobacco plants with high levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase expressing cyanobacterialfructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in the cytosol. At ambient CO(2) levels (360 ppm), growth, photosynthetic activity, and fresh weight were unchanged but the sucrose/hexose/starch ratio was slightly altered in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. At elevated CO(2) levels (1200 ppm), lateral shoot, leaf number, and fresh weight were significantly increased in the transgenic plants. Photosynthetic activity was also increased. Hexose accumulated in the upper leaves in the wild-type plants, while sucrose and starch accumulated in the lower leaves and lateral shoots in the transgenic plants. These findings suggest that cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase contributes to the efficient conversion of hexose into sucrose, and that the change in carbon partitioning affects photosynthetic capacity and morphogenesis at elevated CO(2) levels.

  10. CHANGES OF SUCROSE CONTENT AND INVERTASE ACTIVITY DURING SUGARCANE STEM STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Agus Siswoyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Invertases (beta-D-fructofuranosidase, E.C. 3.2.1.26 are the key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in sugarcane plants. They are highly correlated with sucrose and reducing sugar contents during plant growth. The sugarcane plants have two kinds of invertases, namely neutral invertase (NI and acid invertase (AI. They have different function in sucrose accumulation. The research aimed to study the role of AI and NI in accumulation of reducing sugar during storage of sugarcane stems. Plant materials of 18-month-old field grown sugarcane of the commercial variety R-579 (wet-land and M 442-51 (dry-land were used. Three internodes were sampled to represent immature (internode 1-8/F1, maturing (internode 9-16/F2, and mature (internode 17-24/F3 stem tissues. All tissues were stored for 0-9 days at room temperature (28-32oC and each day, the samplewas extracted to determine invertase activity, total soluble protein, and sugar contents. This observation was valid for invertase activity expressed on a protein basis. At the initiateharvested (0-3 days, NI had a higher specific activity than AI in the sucrose-accumulating region of the sugarcane stems. Negative significant correlation was found between NI specific activity and sucrose accumulation (r2 = 0.41, P < 0.05. AI showed a higher specific activity after 4 days harvested and had negative correlation with sucrose accumulation (r2 = 0.40, P < 0.05. These results showed that NI could be more  responsible in sucrose hydrolisis than AI at early storage of sugarcane stems.

  11. Short-term effects of glucose and sucrose on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; van de Rest, Ondine; Kessels, Roy P C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2014-01-01

    In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with self-reported memory complaints were included. Drinks consisted of 250 ml with dissolved glucose (50 g), sucrose (100 g), or a mixture of artificial sweeteners (placebo). Multiple neuropsychological tests were performed and were combined by means of z scores into four cognitive domains: episodic memory, working memory, attention and information (processing speed), and executive functioning. Mood was assessed with the short Profile of Mood Status (s-POMS) questionnaire. Blood glucose concentrations were measured at five time points to divide participants into those with a better or poorer blood glucose recovery. Performance on the domain of attention and information processing speed was significantly better after consuming the sucrose drink (domain score of 0.06, SD = 0.91) than after the placebo drink (-0.08, SD = 0.92, p = .04). Sucrose had no effect on the other three domains, and glucose had no effect on any of the domains compared to the placebo. When dividing participants into poorer or better glucose recoverers, the beneficial effect of sucrose on attention and information processing speed was only seen in participants with a poorer recovery. After sucrose consumption, depressive feelings and tension were slightly higher than after the placebo. To conclude, 100 g sucrose, but not 50 g glucose, optimized attention and information processing speed in the short term in this study in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints.

  12. Social defeat-induced anhedonia: effects on operant sucrose-seeking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danai eRiga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reduced capacity to experience pleasure, also known as anhedonia, is a key feature of the depressive state and is associated with poor disease prognosis and treatment outcome. Various behavioral readouts (e.g. reduced sucrose intake have been employed in animal models of depression as a measure of anhedonia. However, several aspects of anhedonia are poorly represented within the repertoire of current preclinical assessments. We recently adopted the social defeat-induced persistent stress (SDPS paradigm that models a maintained depressive-like state in the rat, including social withdrawal and deficits in short-term spatial memory. Here we investigated whether SDPS elicited persistent deficits in natural reward evaluation, as part of anhedonia. We examined cue-paired operant sucrose self-administration, enabling us to study acquisition, motivation, extinction and relapse to sucrose seeking following SDPS. Furthermore, we addressed whether guanfacine, an α2-adrenergic agonist that reduces stress-triggered maladaptive behavioral responses to drugs of abuse, could relief from SDPS-induced anhedonia. SDPS, consisting of 5 social defeat episodes followed by prolonged (≥8 weeks social isolation, did not affect sucrose consumption during acquisition of self-administration. However, it strongly enhanced the motivational drive to acquire a sucrose reward in progressive ratio training. Moreover, SDPS induced initial resilience to extinction and rendered animals more sensitive to cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking. Guanfacine treatment attenuated SDPS-induced motivational overdrive and limited reinstatement of sucrose seeking, normalizing behavior to control levels. Together, our data indicate that long after the termination of stress exposure, SDPS induces guanfacine-reversible deficits in evaluation of a natural reward. Importantly, the SDPS-triggered anhedonia reflects many aspects of the human phenotype, including impaired motivation and

  13. A Precision Microbiome Approach Using Sucrose for Selective Augmentation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Fermentation against Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2 and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne.

  14. Trial of Music, Sucrose, and Combination Therapy for Pain Relief during Heel Prick Procedures in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Swapnil R; Kadage, Shahajahan; Sinn, John

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of music, oral sucrose, and combination therapy for pain relief in neonates undergoing a heel prick procedure. This randomized, controlled, blinded crossover clinical trial included stable neonates >32 weeks of postmenstrual age. Each neonate crossed over to all 3 interventions in random order during consecutive heel pricks. A video camera on mute mode recorded facial expressions, starting 2 minutes before until 7 minutes after the heel prick. The videos were later analyzed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R) scale once per minute by 2 independent assessors, blinded to the intervention. The PIPP-R scores were compared between treatment groups using Friedman test. For the 35 participants, the postmenstrual age was 35 weeks (SD, 2.3) with an average weight of 2210 g (SD, 710). The overall median PIPP-R scores following heel prick over 6 minutes were 4 (IQR 0-6), 3 (IQR 0-6), and 1 (IQR 0-3) for the music, sucrose, and combination therapy interventions, respectively. The PIPP-R scores were significantly lower at all time points after combination therapy compared with the groups given music or sucrose alone. There was no difference in PIPP-R scores between the music and sucrose groups. In relatively stable and mature neonates, the combination of music therapy with sucrose provided better pain relief during heel prick than when sucrose or music was used alone. Recorded music in isolation had a similar effect to the current gold standard of oral sucrose. www.anzctr.org.au ACTRN12615000271505. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sucrose-induced analgesia during early life modulates adulthood learning and memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alabwaini, Jehad; Khabour, Omar F; Kassab, Manal I

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at examining the long-term effects of chronic pain during early life (postnatal day 0 to 8weeks), and intervention using sucrose, on cognitive functions during adulthood in rats. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution or paracetamol was administered for analgesia before the paw prick. Control groups include tactile stimulation to account for handling and touching the paws, and sucrose alone was used. All treatments were started on day one of birth and continued for 8weeks. At the end of the treatments, behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), as well as pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate apparatus. Additionally, the hippocampus was dissected, and blood was collected. Levels of neurotrophins (BDNF, IGF-1 and NT-3) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. The results show that chronic noxious stimulation resulted in comparable foot-withdrawal latency between noxious and tactile groups. On the other hand, pretreatment with sucrose or paracetamol increased pain threshold significantly both in naive rats and noxiously stimulated rats (Pmemory, and sucrose treatment prevented such impairment (Pmemory impairment, and pretreatment with sucrose prevented this impairment via mechanisms that seem to involve BDNF. As evident in the results, sucrose, whether alone or in the presence of pre-noxious stimulation, increases pain threshold in such circumstances; most likely via a mechanism that involves an increase in endogenous opioids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated temperature fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.

    1979-01-01

    The application of fracture mechanics concepts to cracks at elevated temperatures is examined. Particular consideration is given to the characterisation of crack tip stress-strain fields and parameters controlling crack extension under static and cyclic loads. (author)

  17. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  18. Indsatser for tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dines; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Fagligt set klarer tosprogede elever sig dårligere i skolen og det videre uddannelsessystem end ’danske’ elever. Kommuner og folkeskoler har derfor sat en række tiltag i værk, som sigter mod at forbedre de tosprogede elevers skole- og uddannelsessituation. Rapporten kortlægger og analyserer...... af klasseundervisningen. Analysen viser, at de elever, der bliver taget ud af klassen for at få ekstra undervisning i dansk som andetsprog, klarer sig dårligere end elever, der modtager ekstraundervisningen i klassen eller uden for skoletid. Undersøgelsen er baseret på spørgeskemaundersøgelser blandt...... kommunale forvaltningschefer, skoleledere, lærere og forældre til børn i 2. klasse samt lærere til og elever i 9. klasse, SFI’s forløbsundersøgelse af årgang 1995 og registerdata. Undersøgelsen er via Ministeriet for Børn og Undervisning betalt med midler fra satspuljeaftalen 2009 om integration....

  19. Effect of Incubation Time and Sucrose Addition on the Characteristics of Cheese Whey Yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Nursiwi, A.; Sari, A. M.; Widowati, E.; Sanjaya, A. P.; Esnadewi, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of incubation time and concentration of sucrose addition on the characteristics of cheese whey yogurt (lactic acid content, pH, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, viscosity) and sensory characteristics (color, odor, flavor, consistency, and overalls) were investigated. The cheese whey yogurt fermentation process was carried out for 24h and 36h with the addition of sucrose 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) of total solid, respectively. The results showed that the lactic acid content, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and viscosity of cheese whey yogurt were affected by the incubation time and sucrose addition. The level of pH of yogurt which was incubated at 24h and 36h were relatively in the same levels, which were 4.51 up to 4.63. Due the sensory characteristic of cheese whey yogurt the panellists gave the high score for the cheese whey yogurt which was incubated at 24h and sucrose addition 12% (w/w) of total solid. The cheese whey yogurt has 0.41% lactic acid content; pH 4.51; 7.09 log total lactic acid bacteria cells / ml; 5.78% antioxidant activity; and 5.97 cP viscosity. The best sensory and physico-chemical characteristic of cheese whey yogurt was achieved by 24h incubation time and 12% concentration of sucrose addition.

  20. Cryopreservation at -75 °C of Agaricus subrufescens on wheat grains with sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienine Luiz Zaghi Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Agaricus subrufescens is a basidiomycete which is studied because of its medicinal and gastronomic importance; however, less attention has been paid to its preservation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sucrose addition to substrate and cryotube on the viability of Agaricus subrufescens cryopreserved at -20 °C and at -75 °C for one and two years. Zero, 10% or 20% sucrose was added to potato dextrose agar or wheat grain. The mycelia were cryopreserved in the absence of cryoprotectant or with sucrose solutions at 15%, 30% or 45%. After one or two years at -75 °C or at -20 °C, mycelia were thawed and evaluated about viability, initial time of growth, colony diameter and genomic stability. Cryopreservation at -20 °C is not effective to keep mycelial viability of this fungus. Cryopreservation at -75 °C is effective when sucrose is used in substrates and/or cryotubes. Without sucrose, cryopreservation at -75 °C is effective only when wheat grains are used. Physiological characteristic as mycelial colony diameter is negatively affected when potato dextrose agar is used and unaffected when wheat grain is used after two-year cryopreservation at -75 °C. The fungus genome does not show alteration after two-year cryopreservation at -75 °C.

  1. Antisense repression of sucrose phosphate synthase in transgenic muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hongmei; Ma, Leyuan; Zhao, Cong; Hao, Hui; Gong, Biao; Yu, Xiyan; Wang, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    To unravel the roles of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), we reduced its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, an 830 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon sucrose phosphate synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the plant height and stem diameter were obviously shorter and thinner. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the membrane degradation of chloroplast happened in transgenic leaves and the numbers of grana and grana lamella in the chloroplast were significantly less, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of transgenic plants may be due to the damage of the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn results in the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration and levels of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in transgenic mature fruit, and the fruit size was smaller than the control fruit. Together, our results suggest that sucrose phosphate synthase may play an important role in regulating the muskmelon plant growth and fruit development.

  2. EPR and UV spectrometry investigation of sucrose irradiated with carbon particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakirova, Yordanka; Yordanov, Nicola D.

    2010-01-01

    Solid state/EPR (SS/EPR) dosimeters of carbon ions irradiated sucrose are studied with EPR, and their water solutions - with UV spectroscopy. Doses between 20 and 200 Gy are used with linear energy transfer (LET) values for carbon ions of 63, 77, 96 and 230 keV μm -1 . After irradiation all samples show typical for irradiated sucrose EPR and UV spectra. The obtained data are compared with those previously reported for nitrogen particles and gamma rays irradiated sucrose. The identical shape of both the EPR and UV spectra of irradiated with various type radiation samples suggests that generated free radicals are not influenced by the nature of radiation. The lack of difference in the line width of the separate lines or the whole EPR spectrum, obtained for gamma and heavy particles irradiation, suggests negligible spin-spin interaction among the radiation-generated free radicals in the samples. The linear dependence of the EPR response on the absorbed dose radiation is found to be higher when generated by gamma rays, than by the same absorbed dose of heavy particles. In addition, the EPR response for carbon ions is higher than that for nitrogen ions. Water solutions of irradiated sucrose exhibit UV spectrum with absorption maximum at 267 nm, attributed to the recombination products of free radicals. The UV band intensity depends on the absorbed dose radiation. The UV spectra obtained for carbon, nitrogen and gamma rays irradiated sucrose are also compared.

  3. Heavy-ion-induced sucrose radicals investigated using EPR and UV spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Karakirova, Yordanka; Yordanov, Nicola D.

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of a sucrose dosimeter for estimating both linear energy transfer (LET) and the absorbed dose of heavy ion and X-ray radiation was investigated. The stable free radicals were produced when sucrose was irradiated with heavy ions, such as helium, carbon, silicon and neon ions, and when the X-ray radiation was similar to the obtained electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, which were ∼7 mT wide and composed of several hyperfine structures. In addition, the total spin concentration resulting from heavy-ion irradiation increased linearly as the absorbed dose increased, and decreased logarithmically as the LET increased. These empirical relations imply that the LET at a certain dose can be determined from the spin concentration. For sucrose and alanine, both cross-sections following C-ion irradiation with a 50 Gy dose were ∼1.3 × 10−12 [μm2], taking into account the molecular size of the samples. The values of these cross-sections imply that multiple ionizing particles were involved in the production of stable radicals. Furthermore, UV absorbance at 267 nm of an aqueous solution of irradiated sucrose was found to linearly increase with increasing absorbed dose. Therefore, the EPR and UV results suggest that sucrose can be a useful dosimeter for heavy-ion irradiation. PMID:25480828

  4. Milk iron content in breast-feeding mothers after administration of intravenous iron sucrose complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breymann, Christian; von Seefried, Bettina; Stahel, Michele; Geisser, Peter; Canclini, Camillo

    2007-01-01

    To study the transfer of parenteral iron sucrose into maternal milk in the postpartum period. Ten healthy lactating mothers with functional iron deficiency 2-3 days after delivery received 100 mg intravenous iron sucrose and were observed together with a control group (n=5) without iron treatment during four days. Milk samples were taken before the treatment and every day afterwards. Mean milk iron levels at baseline were 0.43 and 0.46 mg/kg in the treatment and control group and decreased until the end of observation in both groups by 0.11 mg/kg. No significant difference between the groups was found on any study day as well as in the mean change from baseline over all four days. We could not show transfer of iron-sucrose into maternal milk for the given dosage. Since parenteral iron sucrose is widely used in obstetrics, the results provide information about safety of parenteral iron sucrose in the lactation period. The findings are also in agreement with other reports on active biological mammary gland regulation of milk iron concentration.

  5. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of pre-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2006-01-10

    Six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 15% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. To assess the effect of pre-running, animals were allowed to run for 1h prior to a session of responding for sucrose and running. Results showed that, after pre-running, response rates in the later segments of the 30-s schedule decreased in the presence of a wheel-running stimulus and increased in the presence of a sucrose stimulus. Wheel-running rates were not affected. Analysis of mean post-reinforcement pauses (PRP) broken down by transitions between successive reinforcers revealed that pre-running lengthened pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling wheel running and shortened pauses in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. No effect was observed on local response rates. Changes in pausing in the presence of stimuli signaling the two reinforcers were consistent with a decrease in the reinforcing efficacy of wheel running and an increase in the reinforcing efficacy of sucrose. Pre-running decreased motivation to respond for running, but increased motivation to work for food.

  6. Biosynthesis of inulin from sucrose using inulosucrase from Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 20604.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Dawei; Zhu, Yingying; Xu, Wei; Bai, Yuxiang; Zhang, Tao; Mu, Wanmeng

    2018-04-01

    Inulin is composed of fructose residues connected by β-(2, 1) glycosidic linkages with many promising physiochemical and physiological properties. In this study, an inulin-producing inulosucrase gene from Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 20604 was cloned, expressed and purified. SDS-PAGE and gel filtration found that the recombinant inulosucrase is a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of 63KDa. The optimal pH for its sucrose hydrolysis and transfructosylation activities was pH 5.5. The optimal temperatures were measured to be 45, 25, and 35°C for sucrose hydrolysis, transfructosylation, and total activity, respectively. Biosynthesis studies showed that the optimal enzyme dosage was 4.5U/g sucrose. Higher sucrose concentrations immensely contributed to inulin biosynthesis; the inulin yield reached its maximum after 1.5h of reaction. Structural analyses of the polysaccharide produced by the recombinant enzyme from sucrose revealed that it is an inulin-type fructan with a molecular weight of 5.858×10 6 Da. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cloning and characterization of a Candida albicans maltase gene involved in sucrose utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, A; Williamson, P R; Rex, J H; Sweeney, E C; Bennett, J E

    1992-01-01

    In order to isolate the structural gene involved in sucrose utilization, we screened a sucrose-induced Candida albicans cDNA library for clones expressing alpha-glucosidase activity. The C. albicans maltase structural gene (CAMAL2) was isolated. No other clones expressing alpha-glucosidase activity. were detected. A genomic CAMAL2 clone was obtained by screening a size-selected genomic library with the cDNA clone. DNA sequence analysis reveals that CAMAL2 encodes a 570-amino-acid protein which shares 50% identity with the maltase structural gene (MAL62) of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. The substrate specificity of the recombinant protein purified from Escherichia coli identifies the enzyme as a maltase. Northern (RNA) analysis reveals that transcription of CAMAL2 is induced by maltose and sucrose and repressed by glucose. These results suggest that assimilation of sucrose in C. albicans relies on an inducible maltase enzyme. The family of genes controlling sucrose utilization in C. albicans shares similarities with the MAL gene family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and provides a model system for studying gene regulation in this pathogenic yeast. Images PMID:1400249

  8. Electrical stimulation of the lateral habenula produces an inhibitory effect on sucrose self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alexander; Lax, Elad; Dikshtein, Yahav; Abraham, Lital; Flaumenhaft, Yakov; Sudai, Einav; Ben-Tzion, Moshe; Yadid, Gal

    2011-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) plays a role in prediction of negative reinforcement, punishment and aversive responses. In the current study, we examined the role that the LHb plays in regulation of negative reward responses and aversion. First, we tested the effect of intervention in LHb activity on sucrose reinforcing behavior. An electrode was implanted into the LHb and rats were trained to self-administer sucrose (20%; 16 days) until at least three days of stable performance were achieved (as represented by the number of active lever presses in self-administration cages). Rats subsequently received deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the LHb, which significantly reduced sucrose self-administration levels. In contrast, lesion of the LHb increased sucrose-seeking behavior, as demonstrated by a delayed extinction response to substitution of sucrose with water. Furthermore, in a modified non-rewarding conditioned-place-preference paradigm, DBS of the LHb led to aversion to the context associated with stimulation of this brain region. We postulate that electrical stimulation of the LHb attenuates positive reward-associated reinforcement by natural substances. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ESR investigation of L-α-alanine and sucrose radicals produced by heavy-ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, K.; Sato, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated sucrose and L-α-alanine radicals produced by heavy (particle) ion irradiation with various LETs (linear energy transfer). The impact of the heavy ions on the samples produced stable free radicals, which were analyzed by ESR (electron spin resonance). Identical spectra were measured after one year. The obtained spectral patterns were the same as those for helium (He), carbon (C), and neon (Ne) ions irradiation. The absorbed dose dependences for the irradiated sucrose and alanine samples were examined. The ESR response has a linear relation with the absorbed dose. The ESR response at 60 Gy was slightly lower than a linear line for sucrose; however, the response showed good linearity for the alanine. In addition, the total spin concentration obtained by heavy-ion irradiation correlated logarithmically with the LET. Qualitative ESR analyse showed that the production of sucrose and alanine radicals depended on both different particle irradiation and the LET under the same dose. Thus, the present ESR results imply that sucrose together with L-α-alanine can be used to monitor LET as well as the number of ionizing particle for the production of stable free radicals. (author)

  10. The effects of sucrose on the mechanical properties of acid milk proteins-kappa-carrageenan gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sabadini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties have been widely correlated with textural characteristics to determine the interactions during the process formation of dairy gel. These interactions are strongly affected by process conditions and system composition. In the present study, the rheological of acid-induced protein dairy gels with (2(7-3 and without (2(6-2 sucrose and subjected to small and large deformations were studied using an experimental design. The independent variables were the sodium caseinate, whey protein concentrate (WPC, carrageenan and sucrose concentrations as well as stirring speed and heat treatment time and temperature. Mechanical deformation tests were performed at 0.1, 1, 5, and 9 mm/s up to 80% of initial height. A heavy dependence of rupture stress on increasing crosshead speed and the formation of harder gels with the addition of sucrose were observed. Moreover the elastic and viscous moduli, obtained by fitting the Maxwell model to stress relaxation data, increased with increasing addition of sucrose. These results can be explained by preferential hydration of the casein with sucrose, causing an induction of casein-polysaccharide and casein-casein interactions.

  11. Antisense repression of sucrose phosphate synthase in transgenic muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hongmei; Ma, Leyuan; Zhao, Cong; Hao, Hui; Gong, Biao [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China); Yu, Xiyan, E-mail: yuxiyan@sdau.edu.cn [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China); Wang, Xiufeng, E-mail: xfwang@sdau.edu.cn [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China)

    2010-03-12

    To unravel the roles of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), we reduced its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, an 830 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon sucrose phosphate synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the plant height and stem diameter were obviously shorter and thinner. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the membrane degradation of chloroplast happened in transgenic leaves and the numbers of grana and grana lamella in the chloroplast were significantly less, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of transgenic plants may be due to the damage of the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn results in the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration and levels of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in transgenic mature fruit, and the fruit size was smaller than the control fruit. Together, our results suggest that sucrose phosphate synthase may play an important role in regulating the muskmelon plant growth and fruit development.

  12. Evaluation of the risk of fungal spoilage when substituting sucrose with commercial purified Stevia glycosides in sweetened bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Magan, Naresh; Medina, Angel

    2016-08-16

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effect of different Stevia-based sugar substitutes (S1-S3), sucrose alone and a mixture of sucrose+S1 on: (a) humectant properties, (b) relative colonisation rates of sponge cake slices at 0.90 aw by strains of Aspergillus flavus, Eurotium amstelodami, Fusarium graminearum and Penicillium verrucosum at 20 and 25°C and (c) shelf-life periods in days prior to visible growth. Results showed that sucrose, S1 commercial sugar substitute and the mixture of sucrose+S1 in water solutions were able to reach water activity levels similar to those of glycerol and glucose mixtures. The S2 and S3 commercial sugar substitutes were unable to reduce aw levels significantly. At 25°C, colonisation of sponge cake slices by E. amstelodami, A. flavus and P. verrucosum occurred in all the treatments. Growth of F. graminearum only occurred on sponge cake slices containing S2 and S3 Stevia-based products at both temperatures. The best control of growth (30days) was achieved in cake slices modified with sucrose or S1 Stevia treatments inoculated with A. flavus and in the sucrose treatment for E. amstelodami at 20°C. F. graminearum growth was completely inhibited when sucrose alone, S1 or sucrose+S1 treatments were used at both temperatures. This study suggests that, as part of a hurdle technology approach, replacing sucrose with low calorie sugar substitutes based on Stevia glycosides needs to be done with care. This is because different products may have variable humectant properties and bulking agents which may shorten the potential shelf-life of intermediate moisture bakery products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Partitioning and transport of the translocates mannitol and sucrose in the light and dark in celery (Apium Graveolens L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.M.; Loescher, W.H.

    1987-04-01

    Sucrose and mannitol are major photosynthetic products and translocates in celery. Assimilate partitioning and transport were studied by pulse-labeling leaves with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ followed by different length chases in ambient air. After a 2 h chase in the light there was more /sup 14/C in sucrose than mannitol in source leaves and their petioles. In contrast after a 2 h dark chase leaves contained more /sup 14/C in mannitol than sucrose but petioles had more /sup 14/C in sucrose than mannitol. After a 15 h chase (6 h light; 9 h dark) labeled sucrose was higher in source petiole vascular bundles than in adjacent parenchyma tissue but label in glucose and fructose was higher in the parenchyma tissue. After the 15 h chase most of the /sup 14/C remaining in developing sink leaves and their petioles was in mannitol. Although in the light mannitol:sucrose ratios are the same in leaf and petiole tissues, in the dark sucrose is initially the major translocate with mannitol becoming more important as leaf sucrose pools are depleted. When synthesized, sucrose is rapidly transported and then metabolized to hexose sugars whereas mannitol is used both for transport and storage.

  14. Characterization of sucrose-negative Pasteurella multocida variants, including isolates from large-cat bite wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Grimmig; Bisgaard, Magne; Angen, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    To validate the identification of Pasteurella multocida-like bacteria negative for acid formation from sucrose, including isolates from bite wounds caused by large cats, 17 strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of partially sequenced rpoB and infB genes...... showed the monophyly of the strains characterized and the reference strains of P. multocida. The sucrose-negative strains formed two groups, one related to reference strains of P. multocida and the other related to a separate species-like group (taxon 45 of Bisgaard). DNA-DNA hybridization further...... and the reference strains of P. multocida. Two strains isolated from leopard bite wounds were related to the type strain of P. dagmatis; however, they represented a new taxon (taxon 46 of Bisgaard), in accordance with their distinct phenotypic and genotypic identifications. The present study documents that sucrose-negative...

  15. Impact of sucrose contents and cooking time on cowpea prices in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mb.D Faye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An alternative approach to traditional consumer behaviour and demand theory is characteristics theory, which assumes that a consumer’s utility function is generated by the characteristics, or attributes, that goods and services possess. Instead of a utility being a function of a product, it becomes a function of the attributes provided by these products. In this paper a hedonic pricing model is used to investigate the influence of sucrose level and cooking time on cowpea prices in Senegal.  Cooking time has a significant impact on price only at Tilene market in Dakar, while the sucrose contents tend to provide a premium throughout. Further investigation shows that the local varieties, AW, Matam and Ndiassiw have higher sucrose contents than the other cowpea varieties.

  16. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) from Halothermothrix orenii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Frederick; Tan, Tien-Chye; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Patel, Bharat K. C.

    2004-01-01

    The first crystallographic study of a sucrose phosphate synthase from H. orenii, an organism that is both thermophilic and halophilic, is reported. The protein crystal diffracts X-rays to 3.01 Å. This is the first report of the crystallization of a sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14). It also constitutes the first study of a sucrose phosphate synthase from a non-photosynthetic thermohalophilic anaerobic bacterium, Halothermothrix orenii. The purified recombinant spsA protein has been crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 154.2, b = 47.9, c = 72.3 Å, β = 103.16°, using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal diffracts X-rays to a resolution limit of 3.01 Å. Heavy-metal and halide-soaking trials are currently in progress to solve the structure

  17. Sucrose, glucose and fructose have similar genotoxicity in the rat colon and affect the metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Baunsgaard, D.; Autrup, H.

    2008-01-01

    We have shown previously that a high sucrose intake increases the background level of somatic mutations and the level of bulky DNA adducts in the colon epithelium of rats. The mechanism may involve either glucose or fructose formed by hydrolysis of sucrose. Male Big Blue (R) rats were fed 30......% sucrose, glucose, fructose or potato starch as part of the diet. Mutation rates and bulky DNA adduct levels were determined in colon and liver. The concentration of short-chain fatty acids and pH were deter-mined in caecum, C-peptide was determined in plasma, biomarkers for oxidative damage....... The metabonomic studies indicated disturbed amino acid metabolism and decrease in plasma and urinary acetate as a common feature for all sugars and confirmed triglyceridemic effects of fructose. In conclusion, the genotoxicity may be related to the altered chemical environment in the caecum and thereby also...

  18. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay of immunoglobulins G, A and M: applicability in analysis of sucrose gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, E F; Danielsen, H [Aarhus Kommunehospital (Denmark). Medical Department C; Johansen, A S [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Institute of Medical Biochemistry; Larsson, L I [Unit of Histochemistry, University Institute of Pathology, Copenhagen, Denmark

    1984-01-01

    A simple and sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of immunoglobulins G, A and M in sucrose gradients is described. The solid-phase consisted of immunoglobulins adsorbed to polystyrene tubes. Using buffers without detergent and /sup 125/I-labeled sheep anti-rabbit IgA as radioligand, the assay was able to detect 0.8 ng per tube in the IgG assay and 1.6 ng per tube in the IgA and IgM assays. Standard curves with antigen dissolved in 10% and 32% sucrose were superimposable and did not deviate from standard curves with antigen dissolved in buffer without sucrose. Using these techniques on ultracentrifugation samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Schoenlein-Henoch nephritis and IgA glorulonephritis is was possible to detect both immunoglobulin fragments and immunoglobulin aggregates at the same time without prior dialysis of the samples.

  19. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  20. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  1. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  2. Changes in Nutritional Metabolites of Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe in Response to Elevated Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase of atmospheric CO2 due to global climate change or horticultural practices has direct and indirect effects on food crop quality. One question that needs to be asked, is whether CO2 enrichment affects the nutritional quality of Malaysian young ginger plants. Responses of total carbohydrate, fructose, glucose, sucrose, protein, soluble amino acids and antinutrients to either ambient (400 μmol/mol and elevated (800 μmol/mol CO2 treatments were determined in the leaf and rhizome of two ginger varieties namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Increasing of CO2 level from ambient to elevated resulted in increased content of total carbohydrate, sucrose, glucose, and fructose in the leaf and rhizome of ginger varieties. Sucrose was the major sugar followed by glucose and fructose in the leaf and rhizome extract of both varieties. Elevated CO2 resulted in a reduction of total protein content in the leaf (H. Bentong: 38.0%; H. Bara: 35.4% and rhizome (H. Bentong: 29.0%; H. Bara: 46.2%. In addition, under CO2 enrichment, the concentration of amino acids increased by approximately 14.5% and 98.9% in H. Bentong and 12.0% and 110.3% in H. Bara leaf and rhizome, respectively. The antinutrient contents (cyanide and tannin except phytic acid were influenced significantly (P ≤ 0.05 by CO2 concentration. Leaf extract of H. Bara exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited highest content of cyanide (336.1 mg HCN/kg DW, while, highest content of tannin (27.5 g/kg DW and phytic acid (54.1 g/kg DW were recorded from H.Bara rhizome grown under elevated CO2. These results demonstrate that the CO2 enrichment technique could improve content of some amino acids and antinutrients of ginger as a food crop by enhancing its nutritional and health-promoting properties.

  3. Dietary sodium and health: more than just blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, William B; Edwards, David G; Jurkovitz, Claudine T; Weintraub, William S

    2015-03-17

    Sodium is essential for cellular homeostasis and physiological function. Excess dietary sodium has been linked to elevations in blood pressure (BP). Salt sensitivity of BP varies widely, but certain subgroups tend to be more salt sensitive. The mechanisms underlying sodium-induced increases in BP are not completely understood but may involve alterations in renal function, fluid volume, fluid-regulatory hormones, the vasculature, cardiac function, and the autonomic nervous system. Recent pre-clinical and clinical data support that even in the absence of an increase in BP, excess dietary sodium can adversely affect target organs, including the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and brain. In this review, the investigators review these issues and the epidemiological research relating dietary sodium to BP and cardiovascular health outcomes, addressing recent controversies. They also provide information and strategies for reducing dietary sodium. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Arg188 in rice sucrose transporter OsSUT1 is crucial for substrate transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Ye

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs are H+/sucrose symporters related to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS. SUTs are essential for plant growth but little is known about their transport mechanism. Recent work identified several conserved, charged amino acids within transmembrane spans (TMS in SUTs that are essential for transport activity. Here we further evaluated the role of one of these positions, R188 in the fourth TMS of OsSUT1, a type II SUT. Results The OsSUT1(R188K mutant, studied by expression in plants, yeast, and Xenopus oocytes, did not transport sucrose but showed a H+ leak that was blocked by sucrose. The H+ leak was also blocked by β-phenyl glucoside which is not translocated by OsSUT1. Replacing the corresponding Arg in type I and type III SUTs, AtSUC1(R163K and LjSUT4(R169K, respectively, also resulted in loss of sucrose transport activity. Fluorination at the glucosyl 3 and 4 positions of α-phenyl glucoside greatly decreased transport by wild type OsSUT1 but did not affect the ability to block H+ leak in the R188K mutant. Conclusion OsSUT1 R188 appears to be essential for sucrose translocation but not for substrate interaction that blocks H+ leak. Therefore, we propose that an additional binding site functions in the initial recognition of substrates. The corresponding Arg in type I and III SUTs are equally important. We propose that R188 interacts with glucosyl 3-OH and 4-OH during translocation.

  5. Ketoprofen and antinociception in hypo-oestrogenic Wistar rats fed on a high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-05

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of pain. However, no studies have evaluated the analgesic response to ketoprofen in conditions of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyse the time course of nociceptive pain in Wistar rats with and without hypo-oestrogenism on a high sucrose diet and to compare the antinociceptive response using ketoprofen. Hypo-oestrogenic and naïve rats received a hyper caloric diet (30% sucrose) or water ad libitum for 17 weeks, the thermal nociception ("plantar test" method) and body weight were tested during this period. A biphasic response was observed: thermal latency decreased in the 4th week (hyperalgesia), while from 12th to 17th week, thermal latency increased (hypoalgesia) in hypo-oestrogenic rats fed with high sucrose diet compared with the hypo-oestrogenic control group. At 4th and 17th weeks, different doses of ketoprofen (1.8-100mg/kg p.o.), were evaluated in all groups. The administration of ketoprofen at 4th and 17th weeks showed dose-dependent effects in the all groups; however, a greater pharmacological efficacy was observed in the 4th week in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that received sucrose. Nevertheless, in all the groups significantly diminish the antinociceptive effects in the 17th week. Our data showed that nociception was altered in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that were fed sucrose (hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia). Ketoprofen showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect at both time points. However, hypo-oestrogenism plus high-sucrose diet modifies the antinociceptive effect of ketoprofen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of sucrose concentrations on Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni tissue culture and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, T; Kahrizi, D; Saeidi, M; Arji, I

    2017-08-30

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni is known as sweet plant which it contains a high level of steviol glycosides in the leaves.  This plant has been used from centuries ago as a sweetener for tea. One of the most important steviol glycosides is stevioside that is attractive for diabetic persons. Tissue culture is the only rapid process for the mass propagation of stevia. One of the most important factors in the medium is sucrose that is a necessary for plant growth. In the present study, we use nodal segments of the stem as explants in mediums with different sucrose concentration (50 mM, 100mM and 150mM). Several morphological traits were measured in a 28 day period. Results analysis showed a significant variation between treatments. The highest growth rate, rooting and leaf production was obtained in medium with 100mM sucrose. The correlation between measured traits was significant at the 0.01 level. To investigation of UGT74G1, UGT76G1, UGT85C2 and KS genes expression that are involved in the synthesis of SGs, RT- PCR was done with the housekeeping gene of as internal control. There were significant differences between all media. The results showed thatsucrose 100 mM containing media was more desirable than others for expression of UGT76G1 and UGT85C2 genes. Whereas, the best medium for expression of UGT74G1 was sucrose 150 mM and sucrose 50 mM for KS gene. Totally, it seems that sucrose at a concentration of 100 mMprovides the best condition for stevia growth and steviol glycosides production.

  7. Operant licking for intragastric sugar infusions: differential reinforcing actions of glucose, sucrose and fructose in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Intragastric (IG) flavor conditioning studies in rodents indicate that isocaloric sugar infusions differ in their reinforcing actions, with glucose and sucrose more potent than fructose. Here we determined if the sugars also differ in their ability to maintain operant self-administration by licking an empty spout for IG infusions. Food-restricted C57BL/6J mice were trained 1 h/day to lick a food-baited spout, which triggered IG infusions of 16% sucrose. In testing, the mice licked an empty spout, which triggered IG infusions of different sugars. Mice shifted from sucrose to 16% glucose increased dry licking, whereas mice shifted to 16% fructose rapidly reduced licking to low levels. Other mice shifted from sucrose to IG water reduced licking more slowly but reached the same low levels. Thus IG fructose, like water, is not reinforcing to hungry mice. The more rapid decline in licking induced by fructose may be due to the sugar's satiating effects. Further tests revealed that the Glucose mice increased their dry licking when shifted from 16% to 8% glucose, and reduced their dry licking when shifted to 32% glucose. This may reflect caloric regulation and/or differences in satiation. The Glucose mice did not maintain caloric intake when tested with different sugars. They self-infused less sugar when shifted from 16% glucose to 16% sucrose, and even more so when shifted to 16% fructose. Reduced sucrose self-administration may occur because the fructose component of the disaccharide reduces its reinforcing potency. FVB mice also reduced operant licking when tested with 16% fructose, yet learned to prefer a flavor paired with IG fructose. These data indicate that sugars differ substantially in their ability to support IG self-administration and flavor preference learning. The same post-oral reinforcement process appears to mediate operant licking and flavor learning, although flavor learning provides a more sensitive measure of sugar reinforcement. PMID:26485294

  8. National Elevation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  9. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk, Maria; Sparre, Anita Belza; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) has been associated with obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders in observational and short-term intervention studies. Too few long-term intervention studies in humans have examined the effects of soft drinks.......The consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) has been associated with obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders in observational and short-term intervention studies. Too few long-term intervention studies in humans have examined the effects of soft drinks....

  10. Sucrose modulates insulin amyloid-like fibril formation: effect on the aggregation mechanism and fibril morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marasini, Carlotta; Foderà, Vito; Vestergaard, Bente

    2017-01-01

    the protein self-assembly pathways. Using a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation circular dichroism and transmission electron microscopy, we study the kinetics of formation and structural properties of human insulin fibrils in the presence of sucrose. The presence of sucrose results...... in a delay of the onset of fibrillation. Moreover, it leads to a dramatic change in both the morphology and overall amount of fibrils. Our results emphasize that the detailed composition of protein surroundings likely influences not only the fibrillation kinetics but also the balance between different...

  11. Mortality of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (sternorrhyncha: aleyrodidae adults by aliphatic and aromatic synthetic sucrose esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The B-strain of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius is a key pest of several crops and chemical control is the main control method used by growers, although reduction in efficacy due to insecticide resistance has already been reported. The aim of this work was to investigate the insecticidal effect of an array of synthetic sucrose esters with the aliphatic and aromatic groups on whitefly adults. Sucrose butyrate, caprate, octanoate, palmitate, oleate, octaacetate, phthalate, benzoate, and sucrose diacetate hexaisobutyrate were tested. The solutions were prepared and applied on the adults caught on yellow sticky traps using the Potter spray tower. Long-chains sucrose aliphatic esters were more effective against the silverleaf whiteflies and the highest mortality was obtained with sucrose oleate and sucrose octanoate. Since these compounds were tensoactive, sodium dodecylsulphate was also tested for the comparison but no effect was observed. Sucrose butyrate and other aliphatic and aromatic sucrose polyesters showed negligible effect on the silverleaf whiteflies.O biótipo B de B. tabaci Gennadius tem se destacado como uma praga-chave de diversas culturas. O controle químico tem sido a principal tática de controle utilizada, embora já se tenha observado redução na eficiência dos produtos devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diversos ésteres de sacarose com grupos alifáticos ou aromáticos sobre adultos de mosca-branca. Butirato de sacarose, caprato, octanoato, palmitato, oleato, actaacetato, ftlato, benzoato e diacetato hexaisobutirato de sacarose foram testados. Soluções de éster de sacarose foram preparadas e aplicadas sobre adultos capturados em armadilhas adesivas utilizando Torre de Potter. Ésteres alifáticos de sacarose com longas cadeias foram mais efetivos contra mosca-branca e as maiores taxas de mortalidade foram obtidas com oleato e octanoato de sacarose. Uma vez que

  12. In vivo survival of [14C]sucrose-loaded porcine carrier erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Porcine carrier erythrocyte survival was measured in adult pigs. [14C]Sucrose-loaded erythrocytes had a biphasic survival curve, with as much as 50% of the cells removed from circulation in the first 24 hours. The remaining cells had a 35-day half-life. Encapsulation values were measured for porcine erythrocytes and entrapment of [14C]sucrose was greater than 45%. Addition of inosine and glucose to the dialyzed cells and to the final wash buffer before reinjection of autologous cells did not improve their survival

  13. Activity of enzymes that hydrolyze sucrose and raffinose in the first stages of germination of Lactuca sativa cv. Grand rapids. [Invertase, alpha-galactosidose, and sucrose synthetase were observed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slabnik, E.; Calderon, P.; Diaz, H.

    1981-01-01

    The activities of enzymes capable of metabolizing raffinose and sucrose on achenes of lettuce were studied. During the first stages of germination, evidence was obtained for the occurrence of invertase in the endosperm and embryonic axis. Alpha-galactosidase was localized in the endosperm and cotyledons. Sucrose synthetase was present in the dry seed.

  14. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte F.; Otzen, Elsebeth

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  15. Udeskole og elevers handlekompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Elever elsker at komme væk fra undervisningen i skolen. Er det positivt eller negativt? Og hvad har betydning for, at eleverne får mest muligt ud af oplevelserne uden for skolen? Forskellige former for udeskole giver nogle oplagte muligheder, så eleverne udvikler sig som engagerede borgere i et...

  16. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte; Otzen, Elsebeth

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  17. Adiponectin gene therapy ameliorates high-fat, high-sucrose diet-induced metabolic perturbations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, A D; Sung, M M; Boisvenue, J J; Barr, A J; Dyck, J R B

    2012-09-10

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted primarily from adipose tissue that can influence circulating plasma glucose and lipid levels through multiple mechanisms involving a variety of organs. In humans, reduced plasma adiponectin levels induced by obesity are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, suggesting that low adiponectin levels may contribute the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether gene therapy designed to elevate circulating adiponectin levels is a viable strategy for ameliorating insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet. Electroporation-mediated gene transfer of mouse adiponectin plasmid DNA into gastrocnemius muscle resulted in elevated serum levels of globular and high-molecular weight adiponectin compared with control mice treated with empty plasmid. In comparison to HFHS-fed mice receiving empty plasmid, mice receiving adiponectin gene therapy displayed significantly decreased weight gain following 13 weeks of HFHS diet associated with reduced fat accumulation, and exhibited increased oxygen consumption and locomotor activity as measured by indirect calorimetry, suggesting increased energy expenditure in these mice. Consistent with improved whole-body metabolism, mice receiving adiponectin gene therapy also had lower blood glucose and insulin levels, improved glucose tolerance and reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis compared with control mice. Furthermore, immunoblot analysis of livers from mice receiving adiponectin gene therapy showed an increase in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins. Based on these data, we conclude that adiponectin gene therapy ameliorates the metabolic abnormalities caused by feeding mice a HFHS diet and may be a potential therapeutic strategy to improve obesity-mediated impairments in insulin sensitivity.

  18. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  19. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, dietary promotion of insulin resistance, and colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaugh, Maureen A; Sweeney, Carol; Ma, Khe-Ni; Potter, John D; Caan, Bette J; Wolff, Roger K; Slattery, Martha L

    2006-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors in colorectal cancer etiology and their interactions with genetic susceptibility are of particular interest. Functional vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms may influence carcinogenesis through modification of cell growth, protection from oxidative stress, cell-cell matrix effects, or insulin and insulin-like growth factor pathways. We investigated interactions between foods (dairy products, red and processed meat, and whole and refined grains) and dietary patterns (sucrose-to-fiber ratio and glycemic index) associated with insulin resistance with the FokI polymorphism of the VDR gene and colon and rectal cancer risk. Data (diet, anthropometrics, and lifestyle) and DNA came from case-control studies of colon (1,698 cases and 1,861 controls) and rectal cancer (752 cases and 960 controls) in northern California, Utah, and the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota (colon cancer study only). Unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for smoking, race, sex, age, body mass index, physical activity, energy intake, dietary fiber, and calcium. The lowest colon cancer risk was observed with the Ff/ff FokI genotypes and a low sucrose-to-fiber ratio. Rectal cancer risk decreased with greater consumption of dairy products and increased with red or processed meat consumption and the FF genotype. Modifiable dietary risk factors may be differentially important among individuals by VDR genotype and may act through the insulin pathway to affect colon cancer risk and through fat, calcium, or other means to influence rectal cancer risk.

  20. Dietary modification of human macular pigment density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, B R; Johnson, E J; Russell, R M; Krinsky, N I; Yeum, K J; Edwards, R B; Snodderly, D M

    1997-08-01

    The retinal carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) that form the macular pigment (MP) may help to prevent neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MP density in the retina could be raised by increasing dietary intake of L and Z from foods. Macular pigment was measured psychophysically for 13 subjects. Serum concentrations of L, Z, and beta-carotene were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven subjects modified their usual daily diets by adding 60 g of spinach (10.8 mg L, 0.3 mg Z, 5 mg beta-carotene) and ten also added 150 g of corn (0.3 mg Z, 0.4 mg L); two other subjects were given only corn. Dietary modification lasted up to 15 weeks. For the subjects fed spinach or spinach and corn, three types of responses to dietary modification were identified: Eight "retinal responders" had increases in serum L (mean, 33%; SD, 22%) and in MP density (mean, 19%; SD, 11%); two "retinal nonresponders" showed substantial increases in serum L (mean, 31%) but not in MP density (mean, -11%); one "serum and retinal nonresponder" showed no changes in serum L, Z, or beta-carotene and no change in MP density. For the two subjects given only corn, serum L changed little (+11%, -6%), but in one subject serum Z increased (70%) and MP density increased (25%). Increases in MP density were obtained within 4 weeks of dietary modification for most, but not all, subjects. When MP density increased with dietary modification, it remained elevated for at least several months after resuming an unmodified diet. Augmentation of MP for both experimental and clinical investigation appears to be feasible for many persons.

  1. [Effect of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under salt stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Licorice seedlings were taken as experimental materials, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under NaCl stress conditions. The results of this study showed that under salt stress conditions, after adding a certain concentration of exogenous sucrose, the licorice seedlings day of relative growth rate was increasing, and this stress can be a significant weakening effect, indicating that exogenous sucrose salt stress-relieving effect. The total flavonoids and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased, the exogenous sucrose can mitigated the seedling roots under salt stress, the licorice flavonoid content in the enhanced growth was largely due to the activity of PAL an increased, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose wae 10 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity reaching a maximum, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose was 15 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity turned into a downward trend, the results indicating that this mitigation has concentration effect. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sugar, the contents of liquiritin changes with the change of flavonoids content was similar. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sucrose, the content of licorice acid under salt stress was higher than the levels were not reached during salt stress, the impact of exogenous sucrose concentration gradient of licorice acid accumulation was not obvious.

  2. The non-metabolizable sucrose analog sucralose is a potent inhibitor of hormogonium differentiation in the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitt, Samantha D; Risser, Douglas D

    2016-03-01

    Nostoc punctiforme is a filamentous cyanobacterium which forms nitrogen-fixing symbioses with several different plants and fungi. Establishment of these symbioses requires the formation of motile hormogonium filaments. Once infected, the plant partner is thought to supply a hormogonium-repressing factor (HRF) to maintain the cyanobacteria in a vegetative, nitrogen-fixing state. Evidence implies that sucrose may serve as a HRF. Here, we tested the effects of sucralose, a non-metabolizable sucrose analog, on hormogonium differentiation. Sucralose inhibited hormogonium differentiation at a concentration approximately one-tenth that of sucrose. This result implies that: (1) sucrose, not a sucrose catabolite, is perceived by the cell and (2) inhibition is not due to a more general osmolarity-dependent effect. Additionally, both sucrose and sucralose induced the accrual of a polysaccharide sheath which bound specifically to the lectin ConA, indicating the presence of α-D-mannose and/or α-D-glucose. A ConA-specific polysaccharide was also found to be expressed in N. punctiforme colonies from tissue sections of the symbiotically grown hornwort Anthoceros punctatus. These findings imply that plant-derived sucrose or sucrose analogs may have multiple effects on N. punctiforme, including both repression of hormogonia and the induction of a polysaccharide sheath that may be essential to establish and maintain the symbiotic state.

  3. Daily Access to Sucrose Impairs Aspects of Spatial Memory Tasks Reliant on Pattern Separation and Neural Proliferation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C.; Morris, Margaret J.; Westbrook, Reginald Frederick

    2016-01-01

    High sugar diets reduce hippocampal neurogenesis, which is required for minimizing interference between memories, a process that involves "pattern separation." We provided rats with 2 h daily access to a sucrose solution for 28 d and assessed their performance on a spatial memory task. Sucrose consuming rats discriminated between objects…

  4. Examining the side effects of sucrose for pain relief in preterm infants: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B.M. Linhares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose solution is recommended as relevant pain relief management in neonates during acute painful procedures; however, only a few studies have analyzed the potentially adverse effects of sucrose administration to preterm neonates. The goal of this study was to examine the potential side effects of sucrose for pain relief in preterm infants, assessing feeding and weight gain during hospitalization and their feeding patterns postdischarge. The study sample consisted of 43 preterm neonates divided into two groups: a sucrose group (SG, n=18 and a control group (CG, n=25 in which no sucrose was administered. The SG received 0.5 mL/kg 25% oral sucrose for 2 min prior to all acute painful procedures during three consecutive days. A prospective review of medical charts was performed for all samples. The study was done prior to implementation of the institutional sucrose guidelines as a routine service, and followed all ethical requirements. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of weight gain, length of stay with orogastric tubes, and parenteral feeding. Postdischarge, infant nutritional intake included feeding human milk to 67% of the SG and 74% of the CG. There were no statistically significant differences between groups regarding human milk feeding patterns postdischarge. Neonate feeding patterns and weight gain were unaffected following the short-term use of sucrose for pain relief.

  5. Transport and metabolism of a sucrose analog (1'-fluorosucrose) into Zea mays L. Endosperm without invertase hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalstig, J.G.; Hitz, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    1'-fluorosucrose (FS), a sucrose analog resistant to hydrolysis by invertase, was transported from husk leaves into maize (Zea mays L.) kernels with the same magnitude and kinetics as sucrose. 14 C-Label from [ 14 C]FS and [ 14 C]sucrose in separate experiments was distributed similarly between the pedicel, endosperm, and embryo with time. FS passed through maternal tissue and was adsorbed intact into the endosperm where it was metabolized and used in synthesis of sucrose and methanol-chloroform-water insolubles. Accumulation of [ 14 C]sucrose from supplied [ 14 C]glucosyl-FS indicated that the glucose moiety from the breakdown of sucrose (here FS), which normally occurs in the process of starch synthesis in maize endosperm, was available to the pool of substrates for resynthesis of sucrose. Uptake of FS into maize endosperm without hydrolysis suggest that despite the presence of invertase in maternal tissues and the hydrolysis of a large percentage of sucrose unloaded form the phloem, hexoses are not specifically needed for uptake into maize endosperm

  6. Chronic sucrose intake decreases concentrations of n6 fatty acids, but not docosahexaenoic acid in the rat brain phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašek, Tomislav; Starčević, Kristina

    2017-07-13

    We investigated the influence of high sucrose intake, administered in drinking water, on the lipid profile of the brain and on the expression of SREBP1c and Δ-desaturase genes. Adult male rats received 30% sucrose solution for 20 weeks (Sucrose group), or plain water (Control group). After the 20th week of sucrose treatment, the Sucrose group showed permanent hyperglycemia. Sucrose treatment also increased the amount of total lipids and fatty acids in the brain. The brain fatty acid profile of total lipids as well as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin of the Sucrose group was extensively changed. The most interesting change was a significant decrease in n6 fatty acids, including the important arachidonic acid, whereas the content of oleic and docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. RT-qPCR revealed an increase in Δ-5-desaturase and SREBP1c gene expression. In conclusion, high sucrose intake via drinking water extensively changes rat brain fatty acid profile by decreasing n6 fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. In contrast, the content of docosahexaenoic acid remains constant in the brain total lipids as well as in phospholipids. Changes in the brain fatty acid profile reflect changes in the lipid metabolism of the rat lipogenic tissues and concentrations in the circulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A possible link between food and mood: dietary impact on gut microbiota and behavior in BALB/c mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Pyndt Jørgensen

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder is a debilitating disease in the Western World. A western diet high in saturated fat and refined sugar seems to play an important part in disease development. Therefore, this study is aimed at investigating whether saturated fat or sucrose predisposes mice to develop behavioral symptoms which can be interpreted as depression-like, and the possible influence of the gut microbiota (GM in this. Fourty-two mice were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets, a high-fat, a high-sucrose or a control diet for thirteen weeks. Mice on high-fat diet gained more weight (p = 0.00009, displayed significantly less burrowing behavior than the control mice (p = 0.034, and showed decreased memory in the Morris water maze test compared to mice on high-sucrose diet (p = 0.031. Mice on high-sucrose diet burrowed less goal-oriented, showed greater latency to first bout of immobility in the forced swim test when compared to control mice (p = 0.039 and high-fat fed mice (p = 0.013, and displayed less anxiety than mice on high-fat diet in the triple test (p = 0.009. Behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant change in GM composition of mice fed a high-fat diet, while no difference between diet groups was observed for sucrose preferences, LPS, cholesterol, HbA1c, BDNF and the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12(p70, IL-17 and TNF-α. A series of correlations was found between GM, behavior, BDNF and inflammatory mediators. In conclusion, the study shows that dietary fat and sucrose affect behavior, sometimes in opposite directions, and suggests a possible association between GM and behavior.

  8. Retention of Viability of Salmonella in Sucrose as Affected by Type of Inoculum, Water Activity, and Storage Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A; Kelly, Christine A; Ortega, Ynes R

    2017-09-01

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with consumption of high-sugar, low-water activity (a w ) foods. The study reported here was focused on determining the effect of storage temperature (5 and 25°C) on survival of initially high and low levels of Salmonella in dry-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.26 ± 0.01 to 0.54 ± 0.01) and wet-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.24 ± 0.01 to 0.44 ± 0.04) over a 52-week period. With the exception of dry-inoculated sucrose at a w 0.26, Salmonella survived for 52 weeks in dry- and wet-inoculated sucrose stored at 5 and 25°C. Retention of viability was clearly favored in sucrose stored at 5°C compared with 25°C, regardless of level or type of inoculum or a w . Survival at 5°C was not affected by a w . Initial high-inoculum counts of 5.18 and 5.25 log CFU/g of dry-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.26 and 0.54, respectively) stored for 52 weeks at 5°C decreased by 0.56 and 0.53 log CFU/g; counts decreased by >4.18 and >4.25 log CFU/g in samples stored at 25°C. Inactivation rates in wet-inoculated sucrose were similar to those in dry-inoculated sucrose; however, a trend toward higher persistence of Salmonella in dry- versus wet-inoculated sucrose suggests there was a higher proportion of cells in the wet inoculum with low tolerance to osmotic stress. Survival patterns were similar in sucrose initially containing a low level of Salmonella (2.26 to 2.91 log CFU/g). The pathogen was recovered from low-inoculated sucrose stored at 5°C for 52 weeks regardless of type of inoculum or a w and from dry-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.54) and wet-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.24) stored at 25°C for 12 and 26 weeks, respectively. Results emphasize the importance of preventing contamination of sucrose intended for use as an ingredient in foods not subjected to a treatment that would be lethal to Salmonella.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Hexavalent Chromium Adsorption Characteristics of Aluminum- and Sucrose-Incorporated Tobermorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguang Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobermorites were synthesized from the lime-quartz slurries with incorporations of aluminum and sucrose under hydrothermal conditions, and then used for adsorption of Cr(VI. The chemical components, and structural and morphological properties of tobermorite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS and N2 adsorption–desorption measurements. The formation and crystallinity of tobermorite could be largely enhanced by adding 2.3 wt.% aluminum hydroxide or 13.3 wt.% sucrose. Sucrose also played a significantly positive role in increasing the surface area. The adsorption performances for Cr(VI were tested using a batch method taking into account the effects of pH, the adsorption kinetics, and the adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacities of the aluminum- and sucrose-incorporated tobermorites reached up to 31.65 mg/g and 28.92 mg/g, respectively. Thus, the synthesized tobermorites showed good adsorption properties for removal of Cr(VI, making this material a promising candidate for efficient bulk wastewater treatment.

  10. 78 FR 66743 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2007-D-0369] Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Iron Sucrose; Availability AGENCY... guidance, FDA recommended an in vivo fasting BE study with pharmacokinetic endpoints and in vitro studies...

  11. Biocatalytic Process for Production of α-Glucosylglycerol Using Sucrose Phosphorylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Luley-Goedl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylglycerols are powerful osmolytes, produced by various plants, algae and bacteria in adaptation to salt stress and drought. Among them, glucosylglycerol (2-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol; GG has attracted special attention for its promising application as a moisturizing agent in cosmetics. A biocatalytic process for the synthesis of GG as industrial fine chemical is described in which sucrose phosphorylase (from Leuconostoc mesenteroides catalyzes regioselective glucosylation of glycerol using sucrose as the donor substrate. The overall enzymatic conversion, therefore, is sucrose+glycerol→GG+D-fructose. Using a twofold molar excess of glycerol acceptor in highly concentrated substrate solution, GG yield was 90 % based on ≥250 g/L of converted sucrose. Enzymatic GG production was implemented on a multihundred kg-per-year manufacturing scale, and a commercial product for cosmetic applications is distributed on the market under the name Glycoin®. Technical features of the biotransformation that were decisive for a successful process development are elaborated. Stabilization of proteins is another interesting field of application for GG.

  12. Semiautomated system for the production and analysis of sucrose density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, C.S.; Liberman, D.F.

    1974-01-01

    A semiautomated system in DNA damage studies permitting considerable accuracy, speed, and reproducibility in the making and fractionation of sucrose density gradients is described. The system consists of a modified Beckman gradient forming device that makes six gradients simultaneously and delivers them into six 12.5 ml polyallomer centrifuge tubes in such a manner that new material is continuously added to the meniscus of the gradient. The gradients are fractionated three at a time and up to 100 fractions per gradient can be collected automatically directly into scintillation vials with a choice of drop counting or time mode with rinse and automatic addition of scintillation fluid to each vial. The system can process up to six gradients per hour but centrifugation time is usually the limiting factor. With neutral sucrose gradients, sharp, reproducible, monodisperse peaks containing up to 100 percent of the gradient radioactivity are usually obtained but a smaller monodisperse peak containing as little as 3.5 percent of the gradient radioactivity can be detected under conditions where some pairs of molecules might tangle or dimerize. The resolution and reproducibility of this system when used with neutral sucrose gradients is at least the equal if not superior to that commonly claimed for alkaline sucrose gradients. (U.S.)

  13. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-tao Hu

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora.

  14. Continuous production of glycerol by catalytic high pressure hydrogenolysis of sucrose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ling, Gerrit; Driessen, Alfons J.; Piet, Arie C.; Vlugter, Jozef C.

    1970-01-01

    Several continuous reactor systems have been discussed for the catalytic high pressure hydrogenolysis of sucrose to glycerol. Theoretically and actually, continuous reactors lead to lower glycerol yields than in a batch process. Two continuous stirred tank reactors in cascade constitute a reasonable

  15. Effects of glucose and sucrose on mood: a systematic review of interventional studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2018-01-01

    Context: Glucose is the main energy source for the brain, and as such, manipulation of glucose supply may affect brain function. It has been suggested that a change in blood glucose may influence mood. Objective: The aim of this review was to investigate the potential effects of glucose and sucrose,

  16. Application of diffusion ordered-1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify sucrose in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ruge; Nonaka, Airi; Komura, Fusae; Matsui, Toshiro

    2015-03-15

    This work focuses on a quantitative analysis of sucrose using diffusion ordered-quantitative (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY-qNMR), where an analyte can be isolated from interference based on its characteristic diffusion coefficient (D) in gradient magnetic fields. The D value of sucrose in deuterium oxide at 30°C was 4.9 × 10(-10)m(2)/s at field gradient pulse from 5.0 × 10(-2) to 3.0 × 10(-1)T/m, separated from other carbohydrates (glucose and fructose). Good linearity (r(2)=0.9999) was obtained between sucrose (0.5-20.0 g/L) and the resonance area of target glucopyranosyl-α-C1 proton normalised to that of cellobiose C1 proton (100.0 g/L, as an internal standard) in 1D sliced DOSY spectrum. The DOSY-qNMR method was successfully applied to quantify sucrose in orange juice (36.1 ± 0.5 g/L), pineapple juice (53.5 ± 1.1g/L) and a sports drink (24.7 ± 0.6g/L), in good agreement with the results obtained by an F-kit method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of the Protaminobacter rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravaud, Stéphanie; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2005-01-01

    The P. rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA, a key enzyme in the industrial production of isomaltulose, was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.95 Å resolution. Palatinose (isomaltulose, α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-d-fructofuranose), a nutritional and acariogenic reducing sugar, is industrially obtained from sucrose by using immobilized cells of Protaminobacter rubrum that produce the sucrose isomerase SmuA. The isomerization of sucrose catalyzed by this enzyme also results in the formation of trehalulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-d-fructofuranose) in smaller amounts and glucose, fructose and eventually isomaltose as by-products, which lower the yield of the reaction and complicate the recovery of palatinose. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of SmuA will provide a basis for rational protein-engineering studies in order to optimize the industrial production of palatinose. A recombinant form of the 67.3 kDa SmuA enzyme has been crystallized in the native state by the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 61.6, b = 81.4, c = 135.6 Å, and diffract to 1.95 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source

  18. Measurement of Enzyme Kinetics by Use of a Blood Glucometer: Hydrolysis of Sucrose and Lactose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzerling, Peter; Schrader, Frank; Schanze, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    An alternative analytical method for measuring the kinetic parameters of the enzymes invertase and lactase is described. Invertase hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose and lactase hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose. In most enzyme kinetics studies, photometric methods or test strips are used to quantify the derivates of the…

  19. Social defeat-induced anhedonia: effects on operant sucrose-seeking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riga, D.; Theijs, J.T.; de Vries, T.J.; Smit, A.B.; Spijker, S.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced capacity to experience pleasure, also known as anhedonia, is a key feature of the depressive state and is associated with poor disease prognosis and treatment outcome. Various behavioral readouts (e.g., reduced sucrose intake) have been employed in animal models of depression as a measure of

  20. Sensory and physicochemical evaluation of acerola nectar sweetened with sucrose and different sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Borges de Lima Dutra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics, sensory acceptance, and purchase intent of acerola nectar sweetened with sucrose and other sweeteners (neotame, sucralose and stevia extracts with 40%, 60%, 80%, and 95% rebaudioside A. The analyses were carried out for pH, soluble solids, total titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, and colorimetry (L*a*b. The acceptance test was performed by 120 consumers who evaluated the appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall impression of the samples using a 9-cm unstructured hedonic scale. Furthermore, the consumers were asked to rate overall purchase intent along the scale anchored with (1 "would definitely not purchase" to (5 "would definitely purchase." The results were evaluated using analysis of variance/Tukey test and the internal preference mapping technique. The acerola nectar samples did not differ significantly (p>0.05 between themselves in terms of vitamin C content and total titratable acidity. As for appearance and aroma, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 between the samples, and as for flavor and overall impression, the most accepted samples were those with sucrose and sucralose. The internal preference mapping indicated that the most accepted samples were those with sucrose, sucralose, and neotame were. The highest frequency of positive purchase intent scores was observed for sucrose and sucralose.

  1. Impact of Adolescent Sucrose Access on Cognitive Control, Recognition Memory, and Parvalbumin Immunoreactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C.; Killcross, Simon; Hambly, Luke D.; Morris, Margaret J.; Westbrook, R. Fred

    2015-01-01

    In this study we sought to determine the effect of daily sucrose consumption in young rats on their subsequent performance in tasks that involve the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. High levels of sugar consumption have been associated with the development of obesity, however less is known about how sugar consumption influences behavioral…

  2. Effect of sucrose concentration on the products of Kombucha fermentation on molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbaša, R; Lončar, E; Djurić, M; Došenović, I

    2008-06-01

    Fermentation of 1.5g/l of Indian black tea, sweetened with adequate quantities of molasses (containing approx. 70g/l, 50g/l and 35g/l of sucrose), was conducted using domestic Kombucha. Inoculation was performed with 10% of fermentation broth from a previous process. The fermentation in cylindrical vessels containing 2l of liquid phase, was carried out at 22±1°C for 14 days, with periodical sampling, to measure pH, content of acids (total, acetic and l-lactic), content of remaining sucrose, and the yield of biomass at the end of fermentation. A product with 70g/l sucrose from molasses corresponds to an optimal concentration of carbon source, which provided metabolites with high pH, a low content of less desired acetic acid, a high content of highly desired l-lactic acid, an acceptable content of total acids and the highest possible level of utilisation of sucrose. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Injectable Colloidal Gold in a Sucrose Acetate Isobutyrate Gelating Matrix with Potential Use in Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Binderup, Tina; Hansen, Anders Elias

    2014-01-01

    and sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) with improved properties compared to current solid fiducial markers. The developed nanogel is investigated in vitro and subsequently evaluated in vivo in immunocompetent NMRI mice. The nanogel shows high CT-contrast and excellent stability in vivo over a period of 12...

  4. Dextran synthesized by Leuconostoc mesenteroides BD1710 in tomato juice supplemented with sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin; Hang, Feng; Guo, Benheng; Liu, Zhenmin; You, Chunpin; Wu, Zhengjun

    2014-11-04

    The characteristics of the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides BD1710 and the synthesis of dextran in tomato juice supplemented with 15% sucrose were assayed. L. mesenteroides BD1710 could synthesize approximately 32 g L(-1) dextran in the tomato-juice-sucrose medium when cultured at 28 °C for 48 h, which was on the same level as the dextran yield in a chemically defined medium. The viscosity of the cultured tomato-juice-sucrose medium with various dextran contents was also measured. The results of the monosaccharide composition, molecular-weight distribution, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR) showed that the polysaccharide synthesized by L. mesenteroides BD1710 in the tomato-juice-sucrose medium was dextran with a peak molecular weight of 6.35 × 10(5)Da, a linear backbone composed of consecutive α-(1 → 6)-linked d-glucopyranosyl units and approximately 6% α-(1 → 3) branches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Leaves Of Cut Rose Flower Convert Exogenously Applied Glucose To Sucrose And Translocate It To Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horibe Takanori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand the role that the leaves play in the translocation of soluble carbohydrates in cut rose flowers, we first evaluated the effect of leaf removal on flower quality and the sugar content in petals. Cut rose flowers with leaves had higher soluble sugar content in petals compared with cut flower without leaves. Next, we treated cut flowers with radioactive glucose to clarify translocation routes of exogenously applied sugar. There was no significant difference between the specific radioactivity of sucrose and glucose in leaves, but specific radioactivity of sucrose in petals was much higher than that of glucose. These results suggested that most of the exogenously applied glucose first moved to the leaves, where it was converted into sucrose and then the synthesised sucrose was translocated to the petals. Our results showed that the leaves of cut rose flowers play an important role in the metabolism and transportation of exogenously applied soluble carbohydrates toward the petals, thus contributing to sustaining the post-harvest quality.

  6. Comparative determination of sucrose content in sugar beet by polarimetric and isotope dilution methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malec, K; Szuchnik, A [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Rydel, S; Walerianaczyk, E [Instytut Przemyslu Cukrowniczego, Warsaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    The comparative determination of sucrose content in sugar beets has been investigated by following methods: polarimetric, direct isotope dilution and double carrier-isotope dilution analysis. Basing upon the obtained results it has been ascertained, that in the case of worse quality beets the polarimetric determinations differ greatly from isotopic data.

  7. Composition of dental plaque formed in the presence of sucrose and after its interruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cury Jaime Aparecido

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since dental plaque reservoirs of fluoride (F, calcium (Ca and inorganic phosphorus (Pi are susceptible to decreases in pH, this in situ crossover study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the low concentration of these ions in plaque, formed in the presence of sucrose, could be attributed merely to the fermentation of this sugar. Eleven volunteers wore palatal appliances containing 6 human enamel blocks during two stages. In each stage, the treatments were either 20% sucrose solution or distilled deionized water, which were dripped onto the blocks 8 times a day. After 28 days, in each stage, the dental plaque formed on two blocks was collected, the treatment was inverted and after a further 24 and 48 h, the biofilm formed was collected from the other blocks. The concentration of acid-soluble F, Ca and Pi, and the concentration of insoluble polysaccharide (IP were determined in the dental plaque. Statistically lower concentrations of F, Ca and Pi, and a higher concentration of IP were found in the 28-day biofilm formed in the presence of sucrose than in its absence; after the treatment inversion the change in F, Ca and Pi was not statistically significant, but the IP concentration changed significantly. The hypothesis was rejected because change in concentration of F, Ca and Pi is not due to fermentation of the sucrose.

  8. Sugar-Mediated Acclimation: The Importance of Sucrose Metabolism in Meristems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, S.C.; Vertommen, A.; Swennen, R.; Witters, E.; Fortes, C.; Souza, M.T.; Panis, B.

    2010-01-01

    We have designed an in vitro experimental setup to study the role of sucrose in sugar-mediated acclimation of banana meristems using established highly proliferating meristem cultures. It is a first step toward the systems biology of a meristem and the understanding of how it can survive severe

  9. Short-term effects of glucose and sucrose on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Rest, O. van de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, C.P.G.M. de

    2014-01-01

    In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with

  10. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  11. Sucrose fatty esters from underutilized seed oil of Terminalia catappa as potential steel corrosion inhibitor in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of metals is a common problem which requires definite attention. In response to this, the oil was extracted from the seed of Terminalia catappa and used to synthesize sucrose fatty esters via simple reaction mechanism which was considered eco-friendly and sustainable. The corrosion inhibition capacity of sucrose fatty esters for mild steel in 1 M HCl was studied using the weight loss method. It was shown that sucrose fatty ester inhibited corrosion process of mild steel and obeyed Langmuir isotherm. Corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency of sucrose fatty esters were found to reduce with increase of immersion time. The study presented sucrose fatty ester as a promising inhibitor of mild steel corrosion in acidic medium.

  12. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-tao; Zheng, Jin-xin; Yu, Zhi-jian; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Pan, Wei-guang; Yang, Wei-zhi; Wang, Hong-yan; Deng, Qi-wen; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2015-04-01

    Sucrose gel was used to treat bacterial vaginosis in a phase III clinical trial. However, the changes of vaginal flora after treatment were only examined by Nugent score in that clinical trial, While the vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques is characterized by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, few lactobacilli, and pH levels above 4.6, similar to the microbiota of patients with bacterial vaginosis. This study is aimed to investigate the change of the vaginal microbiota of rehsus macaques after topical use of sucrose gel to reveal more precisely the bacterial population shift after the topical application of sucrose gel. Sixteen rhesus macaques were treated with 0.5 g sucrose gel vaginally and three with 0.5 g of placebo gel. Vaginal swabs were collected daily following treatment. Vaginal pH levels and Nugent scores were recorded. The composition of the vaginal micotbiota was tested by V3∼V4 16S rDNA metagenomic sequencing. Dynamic changes in the Lactobacillus genus were analyzed by qPCR. The vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques are dominated by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, with few lactobacilli and high pH levels above 4.6. After five days' treatment with topical sucrose gel, the component percentage of Lactobacillus in vaginal microbiota increased from 1.31% to 81.59%, while the component percentage of Porphyromonas decreased from 18.60% to 0.43%, Sneathia decreased from 15.09% to 0.89%, Mobiluncus decreased from 8.23% to 0.12%, etc.. The average vaginal pH values of 16 rhesus macaques of the sucrose gel group decreased from 5.4 to 3.89. There were no significant changes in microbiota and vaginal pH observed in the placebo group. Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  13. Effect of sucrose concentration and gamma irradiation on growth and essential oil composition of spearmint plant through tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharnouby, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    In vitro culture of spearmint plant (Mentha spicata L) using different sucrose concentrations and different gamma irradiation treatments was investigated. The shoot tips of spearmint plant were cultured on MS medium without hormones and supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose (10, 20, 30 and 40 g/l) then exposed to different gamma irradiation treatments (2,4,6 and 8 Krad) to determine their effects on growth and chemical composition in different sub-culturing media . The data showed that culturing shoots of Mentha spicata on MS medium containing 10 g/l sucrose produced the highest values of callus than other treatments and the maximum number of shoots was produced on MS medium supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose. Irradiation of spearmint shoots at 8 Krad when cultured on MS medium containing 30 or 40 g/l sucrose caused minimum number of shoots, whereas the longest shoots were produced with MS medium containing 20 g/l sucrose after irradiation at 60 Gy gamma dose. Treating shoots of Mentha spicata by gamma irradiation at 8 Krad and culturing on MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose produced all sub-cultures in shortest length of shoots. Moreover, adding 40 g/l of sucrose in MS medium gave the highest number of leaves than other treatments. Exposing shoots of spearmint plant to gamma irradiation at 8 Krad decreased the number of leaves when culturing on MS medium containing 10 or 30 g/l sucrose. Furthermore, the selected samples showed many differences on spearmint oil composition and proline content regarding sucrose levels and gamma irradiation doses

  14. Skuldertesten "Kombineret Elevation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Overkær, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Formål: At udarbejde en testprotokol for testen Kombineret Elevation (KE) og undersøge test-retest variationen ved test af elite svømmere, samt diskutere testens relevans og validitet. Materiale og Metode: 9 elite og 10 sub-elite svømmere, heraf var 11 mænd og 8 kvinder, gennemførte testen KE 2...

  15. Rheological and sensory performance of a protein-based sweetener (MNEI), sucrose, and aspartame in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Nicoletta A; Cabisidan, Erliza K; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Leone, Serena; Masi, Paolo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Cavella, Silvana

    2017-12-01

    Sweeteners and flavors are generally added to yogurt to make them more palatable. However, the addition of these ingredients may affect the fermentation process of yogurt as well as its physical and sensory characteristics. Consumers prioritize yogurt products that are "natural." A modified single-chain form of the natural sweet protein monellin extracted from the fruit of Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii, called MNEI, could be a useful alternative to artificial sweeteners. The aim of the present work was to evaluate new rapid sensory methods in combination with rheology to assess the viability of using MNEI to develop sweetened yogurts without the calories of sugar. We studied the gelation and cooling kinetics of 4 yogurt samples (unsweetened or sweetened with MNEI, aspartame, or sucrose) by using a rheometer. Furthermore, the 4 yogurts, with and without addition of a flavoring agent, were characterized from a sensory perspective using a combination of 2 rapid sensory methods, ultra flash profile and flash profile. Rheological results showed that, when added at typical usage levels, aspartame, sucrose, and MNEI did not generally affect the yogurt fermentation process or its rheological properties. Sensory results demonstrated that texture attributes of yogurts with aspartame and sucrose were strongly linked to sweetness and flavor perception, but this was not true for MNEI-sweetened yogurts. In contrast to results obtained from samples sweetened with sucrose and aspartame, MNEI protein did not sweeten the yogurt when added before fermentation. This study highlights the enhancing effect of flavor on sweetness perception, supporting previous reports that noted synergistic effects between sucrose or aspartame and flavors. Hence, future studies should be conducted to determine how sweet proteins behave in yogurt when added after fermentation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of sucrose concentration and water deprivation on Pavlovian conditioning and responding for conditioned reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Rayane I; Maddux, Jean-Marie N; Beharry, Priscilla F; Iannuzzi, Jessica; Chaudhri, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    An appetitive Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) can predict an unconditioned stimulus (US) and acquire incentive salience. We tested the hypothesis that US intensity and motivational state of the subject would influence Pavlovian learning and impact the attribution of incentive salience to an appetitive Pavlovian CS. To this end, we examined the effects of sucrose concentration and water deprivation on the acquisition of Pavlovian conditioning and responding for a conditioned reinforcer. Male Long-Evans rats (Harlan; 220-240 g) receiving 3% (3S) or 20% (20S) sucrose were either non-water deprived or given water for 1 hr per day. During Pavlovian conditioning sessions, half the rats in each concentration and deprivation condition received a 10-s CS paired with 0.2 ml of sucrose (16 trials/session; 3.2 ml/session). The remainder received unpaired CS and US presentations. Entries into a port where sucrose was delivered were recorded. Next, responding for conditioned reinforcement was tested, wherein pressing an active lever produced the CS and pressing an inactive lever had no consequences. CS-elicited port entries increased, and latency to the first CS-elicited port entry decreased across sessions in paired groups. Water deprivation augmented these effects, whereas sucrose concentration had no significant impact on behavior. Responding for conditioned reinforcement was observed in the 20S water-deprived, paired group. Thus, water deprivation can facilitate the acquisition of Pavlovian conditioning, potentially by enhancing motivational state, and a high-intensity US and a high motivational state can interact to heighten the attribution of incentive salience to an appetitive Pavlovian CS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Intragastric Gelation of Heated Soy Protein Isolate-Alginate Mixtures and Its Effect on Sucrose Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaozhi; Gruen, Ingolf; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2018-06-15

    The goal of our study was to investigate the effect of alginate on in vitro gastric digestion and sucrose release of soy protein isolate (SPI) in model beverages. Model beverages containing 5% w/w SPI, 0% to 0.20% w/w alginate, and 10% w/w sucrose were prepared by heating the mixtures at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 6.0 or 7.0. Characterizations of beverages included determination of zeta potential, particle size and rheological properties. Digestion patterns and sucrose release profiles were determined during 2 hr in vitro gastric digestion using SDS-PAGE and HPLC analysis, respectively. Increasing alginate concentration led to increased negative surface charge, particle size, as well as viscosity and pseudoplastic behavior; however, no phase separation was observed. SPI beverages formed intragastric gel during in vitro gastric digestion when the formulations contained alginate or at pH 6.0 without alginate. Formation of the intragastric gel led to delayed protein digestion and release of sucrose. Higher resistance to digestion and a slower sucrose release rate were exhibited at increased alginate concentration, and to a lesser extent, at pH 6.0. This suggests that electrostatic interaction between SPI and alginate that occurred when the beverages were under gastric condition could be responsible for the intragastric gelation. These results could potentially lead to the formulation of SPI beverages with functionality to lower postprandial glycemic response. The results could be used to design beverages or semi solid food products with altered digestion properties and lowered or slower glucose release. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Kinetically Determined Hygroscopicity and Efflorescence of Sucrose-Ammonium Sulfate Aerosol Droplets under Lower Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Na; Cai, Chen; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2017-09-14

    Organic aerosols will likely form in semisolid, glassy, and high viscous state in the atmosphere, which show nonequilibrium kinetic characteristics at low relative humidity (RH) conditions. In this study, we applied optical tweezers to investigate the water transport in a sucrose/(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplet with high organic to inorganic mole ratio (OIR). The characteristic time ratio between the droplet radius and the RH was used to describe the water mass transfer difference dependent on RH. For OIR greater than 1:1 in sucrose/(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplets, the characteristic time ratio at low RH (∼60%). We also coupled vacuum FTIR spectrometer and a high-speed photography to study the efflorescence process in sucrose/(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplets with low OIR. The crystalline fraction of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 was used to understand efflorescence behavior when the RH was linearly decreasing with a velocity of 1.2% RH min -1 . Because of suppression of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 nucleation by addition of sucrose, the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 decrease from the range of ∼48.2% to ∼36.1% for pure (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplets to from ∼44.7% to ∼25.4%, from ∼43.2% to ∼21.2%, and from ∼41.7% to ∼21.1% for the mixed droplets with OIR of 1:4, 1:3, and 1:2, respectively. No crystallization was observed when the OIR is higher than 1:1. Suppression of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 crystal growth was also observed under high viscous sucrose/(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplets at lower RH.

  19. Structural insights into the cubic-hexagonal phase transition kinetics of monoolein modulated by sucrose solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Caleb W; Strango, Zachariah I; Dell, Zachary R; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Harper, Paul E

    2015-04-14

    Using DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), we measure the kinetics of the cubic-HII phase transition of monoolein in bulk sucrose solutions. We find that the transition temperature is dramatically lowered, with each 1 mol kg(-1) of sucrose concentration dropping the transition by 20 °C. The kinetics of this transition also slow greatly with increasing sucrose concentration. For low sucrose concentrations, the kinetics are asymmetric, with the cooling (HII-cubic) transition taking twice as long as the heating (cubic-HII) transition. This asymmetry in transition times is reduced for higher sucrose concentrations. The cooling transition exhibits Avrami exponents in the range of 2 to 2.5 and the heating transition shows Avrami exponents ranging from 1 to 3. A classical Avrami interpretation would be that these processes occur via a one or two dimensional pathway with variable nucleation rates. A non-classical perspective would suggest that these exponents reflect the time dependence of pore formation (cooling) and destruction (heating). New density measurements of monoolein show that the currently accepted value is about 5% too low; this has substantial implications for electron density modeling. Structural calculations indicate that the head group area and lipid length in the cubic-HII transition shrink by about 12% and 4% respectively; this reduction is practically the same as that seen in a lipid with a very different molecular structure (rac-di-12:0 β-GlcDAG) that makes the same transition. Thermodynamic considerations suggest there is a hydration shell about one water molecule thick in front of the lipid head groups in both the cubic and HII phases.

  20. Production of 5-ketofructose from fructose or sucrose using genetically modified Gluconobacter oxydans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemen, Anna; Kosciow, Konrad; Schweiger, Paul; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2018-02-01

    The growing consumer demand for low-calorie, sugar-free foodstuff motivated us to search for alternative non-nutritive sweeteners. A promising sweet-tasting compound is 5-keto-D-fructose (5-KF), which is formed by membrane-bound fructose dehydrogenases (Fdh) in some Gluconobacter strains. The plasmid-based expression of the fdh genes in Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans resulted in a much higher Fdh activity in comparison to the native host G. japonicus. Growth experiments with G. oxydans fdh in fructose-containing media indicated that 5-KF was rapidly formed with a conversion efficiency of 90%. 5-KF production from fructose was also observed using resting cells with a yield of about 100%. In addition, a new approach was tested for the production of the sweetener 5-KF by using sucrose as a substrate. To this end, a two-strain system composed of the fdh-expressing strain and a G. oxydans strain that produced the sucrose hydrolyzing SacC was developed. The strains were co-cultured in sucrose medium and converted 92.5% of the available fructose units into 5-KF. The glucose moiety of sucrose was converted to 2-ketogluconate and acetate. With regard to the development of a sustainable and resource-saving process for the production of 5-KF, sugar beet extract was used as substrate for the two-strain system. Fructose as product from sucrose cleavage was mainly oxidized to 5-KF which was detected in a concentration of over 200 mM at the end of the fermentation process. In summary, the two-strain system was able to convert fructose units of sugar beet extract to 5-KF with an efficiency of 82 ± 5%.

  1. Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

  2. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  3. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  4. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  5. Surplus dietary tryptophan reduces plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations and enhances recovery after social stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, S.J.; Ruis, M.A.W.; Dekker, R.A.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Korte, S.M.; Mroz, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Social stress occurs in intensive pig farming due to aggressive behavior. This stress may be reduced at elevated dietary levels of tryptophan (TRP). In this study, we compared the effects of high (13.2%) vs. normal (3.4%) dietary TRP to large neutral amino acid (LNAA) ratios on behavior and stress

  6. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  7. Effect of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana as a Substitute for Sugar on Physicochemical, Rheological and Sensory Properties of Dietary Saffron Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years production and usage of functional food and drinks is one of the public and scientist’s interest. Since carbohydrates have been recognizedas the major calorie source in many food baskets, most attention has been focused on substitution of sucrose with non-caloric sweeteners. Although both natural and synthetic sweeteners have been used in the formulation of food stuffs, deep concern is raised regarding safety aspects of synthetic ones. Stevia is a natural suitable sweetener that is currently being used as a substitute for sugar in many dietary and functional foods and drinks. In the present study the effect of using stevia sugar as a replacement for sucrose in the preparation of saffron beverages was investigated. Accordingly, saffron syrup was prepared with 5 treatments in which100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0% of stevia sugar replaced sucrose. Then, the physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties of saffron functional syrup were investigated. The results indicated that by increasing stevia brix level, density and viscosity increased but the syrups’ pH decreases. The best treatment was the sample containing 25% steviaand 75% sucrose that compared to other samples regarding sensory characteristics had a higher acceptance by consumer and regarding physicochemical and rheological characteristics more similar to the control sample.

  8. A spider elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butylkin, A.V.; Butylkin, V.A.; Izosimov, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A spider elevator is proposed which contains a body, a wedge clamp with wedges hinged to each other, a subassembly for holding the wedge clamp in the open and closed positions and a mechanism for changing the wedge clamp, which is made in the form of levers with ears for cleats and installed in the body with the capability of turning. To increase reliability in the operational mode through using the external force for clamping the pipe, the free ends of the levers are hinged with the body by a power cylinder.

  9. Elevator Control Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ceder, Frederick; Nordin, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate if it is eective to switch strategies for elevators during one day in an oce building. This essay describes some of the strategies in use today, followed by a comparison and analysis of two of the strategies described. We have also implemented optimizations to one of these strategies. From our test results we can conclude that our optimized strategy worked and produced better results on average waiting time and total traveling time than the two stra...

  10. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  11. Urinary fructose: a potential biomarker for dietary fructose intake in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, S A; Libuda, L; Shi, L; Retzlaff, A; Joslowski, G; Remer, T

    2010-11-01

    Recently, urinary fructose and sucrose excretion in 24-h urine have been established experimentally as new biomarkers for dietary sugar intake in adults. Our objective was to investigate 1) whether the fructose biomarker is also applicable in free-living children and 2) for what kind of sugar it is standing for. Intakes of added and total sugar (including additional sugar from fruit and fruit juices) were assessed by 3-day weighed dietary records in 114 healthy prepubertal children; corresponding 24-h urinary fructose excretion was measured photometrically. The associations between dietary sugar intakes and urinary fructose excretion were examined using linear regression models. To determine whether one of the two sugar variables may be better associated with the urinary biomarker, the statistical Pitman's test was used. Added and total sugar correlated significantly with urinary fructose, but the linear regression indicated a weak association between intake of added sugar and urinary log-fructose excretion (β=0.0026, R(2)=0.055, P=0.01). The association between total sugar intake and log-urinary fructose (β=0.0040, R(2)=0.181, Pestimation of total sugar intake than for the estimation of added dietary sugar intake in children. However, as excreted fructose stems almost exclusively from the diet (both from food-intrinsic and added intakes), it can be assumed that urinary fructose represents a potential biomarker for total dietary fructose intake, irrespective of its source.

  12. The effect of early-life stress and chronic high-sucrose diet on metabolic outcomes in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher P; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress affects metabolic outcomes and choice of diet influences the development of metabolic disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic sugar intake exacerbates metabolic deficits induced by early-life stress. Early-life stress was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats using limited nesting material in early lactation (LN, postnatal days 2-9), and siblings were given chow alone or with additional sucrose post weaning (n = 9-17 per group). Female control and LN siblings had unlimited access to either chow plus water, or chow and water plus 25% sucrose solution (Sucrose), from 3-15 weeks of age. Weekly body weight and food intake were measured. Glucose and insulin tolerance were tested at 13 and 14 weeks of age, respectively. Rats were killed at 15 weeks. Hepatic triglyceride and markers of lipid synthesis - fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha and oxidation - and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (Pgc-1α) were examined. Mediators of hepatic glucocorticoid metabolism, specifically 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11βHSD-1), 5-α reductase, and glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNAs were also measured. Sucrose increased caloric intake in both groups, but overall energy intake was not altered by LN exposure. LN exposure had no further impact on sucrose-induced glucose intolerance and increased plasma and liver triglycerides. Hepatic markers of fat synthesis and oxidation were concomitantly activated and 11βHSD-1 mRNA expression was increased by 53% in LN-Sucrose versus Con-Sucrose rats. Adiposity was increased by 26% in LN-Sucrose versus Con-Sucrose rats. Thus, LN exposure had minimal adverse metabolic effects despite high-sugar diet postweaning.

  13. Automatic pipe elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, K.M.; Willis, C.A.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes an elevator adapted for use with a power swivel for supporting a drilling or production tubular, the elevator comprising: at least two jaws, each jaw having a clamping surface; a connector member for supporting the jaws, the connector member comprising an upper end, a lower end, means for coupling the upper end to the power swivel, means for coupling the lower end to a tubular. The member also comprises means for defining a passageway extending from the upper end to the lower end through the connector member to allow drilling mud to be passed from the power swivel through the bore, into the tubular; and linkage means mounted between the connector member and the jaws for coupling the jaws to the connector member and for maintaining the clamping surfaces of the jaws in clamping engagement with the tubular when the connector member and the tubular are urged apart relative to one another. The linkage means is configured such that the force by which the clamping surfaces clamp the tubular increases as the force urging the connector member and the tubular apart increases.

  14. Elevation data for floodplain mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Elevation Data for Floodplain Mapping shows that there is sufficient two-dimensional base map imagery to meet FEMA's flood map modernization goals, but that the three-dimensional base elevation data...

  15. Lactose and sucrose aqueous solutions for high-dose dosimetry with 10-MeV electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amraei, R.; Kheirkhah, M.; Raisali, G.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, dosimetric characterisation of aqueous solutions of lactose and sucrose was analysed by UV spectrometry following irradiation using 10-MeV electron beam at doses between 0.5 and 10.5 kGy. As a dosimetric index, absorbance is selected at 256 and 264 nm for lactose and sucrose aqueous solutions, respectively. The intensity of absorbance for irradiated solutions depends on the pre-irradiation concentration of lactose and sucrose. The post-irradiation stability of both solutions was investigated at room temperature for a measurement period of 22 d. (authors)

  16. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  17. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  18. Sucrose mimics the light induction of Arabidopsis nitrate reductase gene transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Acedo, Gregoria N; Kristensen, Michael

    1992-01-01

    can replace light in eliciting an increase of nitrate reductase mRNA accumulation in dark-adapted green Arabidopsis plants. We show further that sucrose alone is sufficient for the full expression of nitrate reductase genes in etiolated Arabidopsis plants. Finally, using a reporter gene, we show......Nitrate reductase, the first enzyme in nitrate assimilation, is located at the crossroad of two energy-consuming pathways: nitrate assimilation and carbon fixation. Light, which regulates the expression of many higher-plant carbon fixation genes, also regulates nitrate reductase gene expression....... Located in the cytosol, nitrate reductase obtains its reductant not from photosynthesis but from carbohydrate catabolism. This relationship prompted us to investigate the indirect role that light might play, via photosynthesis, in the regulation of nitrate reductase gene expression. We show that sucrose...

  19. Preparation of synaptic plasma membrane and postsynaptic density proteins using a discontinuous sucrose gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Marie Kristel; Milenkovic, Marija; Salahpour, Ali; Ramsey, Amy J

    2014-09-03

    Neuronal subcellular fractionation techniques allow the quantification of proteins that are trafficked to and from the synapse. As originally described in the late 1960's, proteins associated with the synaptic plasma membrane can be isolated by ultracentrifugation on a sucrose density gradient. Once synaptic membranes are isolated, the macromolecular complex known as the post-synaptic density can be subsequently isolated due to its detergent insolubility. The techniques used to isolate synaptic plasma membranes and post-synaptic density proteins remain essentially the same after 40 years, and are widely used in current neuroscience research. This article details the fractionation of proteins associated with the synaptic plasma membrane and post-synaptic density using a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Resulting protein preparations are suitable for western blotting or 2D DIGE analysis.

  20. Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E

    2014-07-17

    Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture.

  1. Cloning and sequence analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase gene from varieties of Pennisetum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H C; Lu, H B; Yang, F Y; Liu, S J; Bai, C J; Zhang, Y W

    2015-03-31

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is an enzyme used by higher plants for sucrose synthesis. In this study, three primer sets were designed on the basis of known SPS sequences from maize (GenBank: NM_001112224.1) and sugarcane (GenBank: JN584485.1), and five novel SPS genes were identified by RT-PCR from the genomes of Pennisetum spp (the hybrid P. americanum x P. purpureum, P. purpureum Schum., P. purpureum Schum. cv. Red, P. purpureum Schum. cv. Taiwan, and P. purpureum Schum. cv. Mott). The cloned sequences showed 99.9% identity and 80-88% similarity to the SPS sequences of other plants. The SPS gene of hybrid Pennisetum had one nucleotide and four amino acid polymorphisms compared to the other four germplasms, and cluster analysis was performed to assess genetic diversity in this species. Additional characterization of the SPS gene product can potentially allow Pennisetum to be exploited as a biofuel source.

  2. Pilot scale anaerobic acidification of waste water containing sucrose and lactate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoetemeyer, R J; Borgerding, P H; Van den Heuvel, J C; Cohen, A; Boelhouwer, C

    1982-07-01

    The waste water from a sugar refinery, containing principally sucrose, lactate and ethanol as organic impurities, was anaerobically acidified at a pH of approximately 5.8 and an average temperature of 29 degrees C in a 1 meter cubed upflow reactor. The residence time was decreased, in steps, from 7.2 to 1.7 h. Sucrose was effectively metabolized in all cases, whereas lactate was only decomposed at longer residence times. Ethanol was not converted. The volume activity, and the sludge activity, could be increased to 250 kg/ cubic meters/d, and 14 kg/kg/d, respectively. Results indicated that in order to operate an acidification reactor at its maximum efficiency attention should be paid to the mixing system and to maintaining a constant pH. (Refs. 18).

  3. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Balmeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. PMID:26904639

  4. Comparing the effects of sucrose and glucose on functional properties of pregelatinized maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Sara; Shahidi, Fakhri; Koocheki, Arash; Farahnaky, Asgar; Majzoobi, Mahsa

    2016-07-01

    Pregelatinized (PG) starches are extensively used in food products which are processed at low temperature, to increase viscosity and offer a desirable texture. The functional properties of PG starch can be influenced by other constituents used in food matrices. Therefore the main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of sucrose and glucose (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of dry starch weight basis) as two common sweeteners on drum dried pregelatinized maize starch. Samples were characterized by light microscopy, water absorption, syneresis, cold paste viscosity, texture and turbidity measurements. The results indicated that the amount of leached glucose chains to the aqueous phase, water absorption, viscosity and mechanical properties increased when increasing the sugar concentration while, syneresis and turbidity decreased. However, these effects were more obvious in samples containing sucrose than those with glucose. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effect of sucrose and potassium metabisulphite on the physicochemical and microbial analysis of apricot pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, M.; Durrani, T.; Zeb, A.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of different concentration of sucrose and potassium metabisulphite on the apricot pulp was studied fortnightly for 90 days through physicochemical and microbial analysis. No significant change in total soluble solids (TSS) of apricot pulp was observed during the storage. Acidity and non-reducing sugar significantly (p<0.05) decreased, while pH and reducing sugars significantly (p<0.05) increased during the storage. Samples with added 20% sucrose and 0.2% potassium metabisulphite, packed in plastic and glass containers, had negligible microbial population maintained maximum nutrients and the best sensory characteristics during the storage. Storage duration and treatments had significant (p<0.05) effect on pH, acidity, non reducing sugars and total fungal count, while on TSS (total soluble solids) and reducing sugar, the effect of treatments was nonsignificant (p<0.05). (author)

  6. Sugars, sucrose and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka colorectal cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Morita, Makiko; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2014-05-01

    A diet high in sugars may promote colorectal carcinogenesis, but it remains uncertain whether high intake of sugars or sucrose confers increased risk of colorectal cancer. The authors investigated the associations of sugars and sucrose intake with colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study in Japan. The study subjects comprised 816 incident cases of colorectal cancer and 815 community controls. Consumption frequencies and portion sizes of 148 food and beverage items were ascertained by a computer-assisted interview. The authors used the consumption of 29 food items to estimate sugars and sucrose intake. The odds ratios of colorectal cancer risk according to intake categories were obtained using a logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Overall, intakes of sugars and sucrose were not related to colorectal cancer risk either in men or women. The association between sugars intake and colorectal cancer risk differed by smoking status and alcohol use in men, but not in women. In men, sugars intake tended to be associated with colorectal cancer risk inversely among never-smokers and positively among male ever-smokers (interaction p=0.01). Sugars intake was associated with an increased risk among men with no alcohol consumption, but was unrelated to the risk among male alcohol drinkers (interaction p=0.02). Body mass index did not modify the association with sugars intake in either men or women. Sugars intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer among smokers and non-alcohol drinkers in men selectively.

  7. Sensation and perception of sucrose and fat stimuli predict the reinforcing value of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek-Scarborough, Leah M; Dewey, Amber M; Temple, Jennifer L

    2012-03-20

    Chronic overeating can lead to weight gain and obesity. Sensory system function may play a role in the types of foods people select and the amount of food people eat. Several studies have shown that the orosensory components of eating play a strong role in driving food intake and food selection. In addition, previous work has shown that motivation to get food, or the reinforcing value of food, is a predictor of energy intake. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that higher detection thresholds and lower suprathreshold intensity ratings of sweet and fat stimuli are associated with greater reinforcing value of food. In addition, we sought to determine if the sensory ratings of the stimuli would differ depending on whether they were expectorated or swallowed. The reinforcing value of food was measured by having participants perform operant responses for food on progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. Taste detection thresholds and suprathresholds for solutions containing varied concentrations of sucrose and fat were also measured in two different Experiments. In Experiment 1, we found that sucrose, but not fat, detection predicted the reinforcing value of food with the reinforcing value of food increasing as sucrose detection threshold increased (indicating poorer detection). In Experiment 2, we found that lower suprathreshold ratings of expectorated fat and sucrose predicted greater reinforcing value of food. In addition, higher detection thresholds for fat stimuli (indicating poorer detection) were associated with greater reinforcing value of food. When taken together, these studies suggest that there is a relationship between taste detection and perception and reinforcing value of food and that these relationships vary based on whether the stimulus is swallowed or expectorated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. INFLUENCE VARIOUS REAGENTS ON THE MOLECULAR DIFFUSION INDEX OF SUCROSE FROM BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food products from vegetable raw materials play a special role in the food industry. Sugar is one of the strategically important products. The significance of its is great due to its wide use in confectionery, bakery, liquor, canning, biochemical, pharmaceutical and other branches of human activity. Effective development of the domestic sugar industry depends on the terms of competition with European partners. Production of granulated sugar includes a significant amount of energy-intensive and technologically complex operations, one of which is the extraction of sucrose from beet chips by means of hot countercurrent extraction. The most important criterion for the extraction process efficiency evaluation is the coefficient of molecular diffusion. The efficiency of using of beet chips thermo chemical processing before extraction depending on the quality of processed beet was investigated. It was found out that when using a low quality beet the diffusion coefficient decreases compared to healthy beet. The use of solutio ns of some salts for beet chips heat treatment has an overall positive effect on the diffusion coefficient. A method for recovering sucrose from beet with the use of compounds of Al2(SO4, Ca(SO4, and (NH42SO4 as the extractants was proposed. It was found out that beet samples treatment with solutions of proposed salts provides a sucrose smooth transition from the pores of sugar beet tissue into the extractant due to intense convective washout. It is caused by the high degree of tissue cells plasmolysis achieved in its processing with solutions of proposed reagents. The results obtained indicate a significant increase of the sucrose diffusion coefficient in the ammonium sulfate solution used as the extractant.

  9. Sucrose dependent mineral phosphate solubilization in Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 by heterologous overexpression of periplasmic invertases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chanchal; Wagh, Jitendra; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2016-12-01

    Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 solubilizes mineral phosphates in the presence of glucose by the secretion of gluconic acid generated by the action of a periplasmic pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase. In order to achieve mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype in the presence of sucrose, plasmids pCNK4 and pCNK5 containing genes encoding the invertase enzyme of Zymomonas mobilis (invB) and of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (suc2) under constitutive promoters were constructed with malE signal sequence (in case of invB alone as the suc2 is secreted natively). When introduced into E. asburiae PSI3, E. a. (pCNK4) and E. a. (pCNK5) transformants secreted 21.65 ± 0.94 and 22 ± 1.3 mM gluconic acid, respectively, in the presence of 75 mM sucrose and they also solubilized 180 ± 4.3 and 438 ± 7.3 µM P from the rock phosphate. In the presence of a mixture of 50 mM sucrose and 25 mM glucose, E. a. (pCNK5) secreted 34 ± 2.3 mM gluconic acid and released 479 ± 8.1 µM P. Moreover, in the presence of a mixture of eight sugars (10 mM each) in the medium, E. a. (pCNK5) released 414 ± 5.3 µM P in the buffered medium. Thus, this study demonstrates incorporation of periplasmic invertase imparted P solubilization ability to E. asburiae PSI3 in the presence of sucrose and mixture of sugars.

  10. The influence of sucrose and maltose on Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Ponomareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on the influence of fermentable carbohydrates concentration on yeast multiplication are widely represented in the literature. This study presents the results of experiments showing an influence of sucrose and maltose concentration on Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast multiplication. The objects of this research are bakery, beer, wine and alcohol yeast that are widely used in fermentation industry. Beet molasses and malt wort were chosen as nutrient medium for yeast breeding. Their basic sugars are mainly represented by sucrose and maltose. The concentration of sugars was 9, 12, 16 and 20%. The intensity of yeast multiplication was evaluated based on yeast cells concentration during their cultivation and the specific growth rate. Sugar concentrations causing an intensive accumulation of examined yeast strains were determined. This paper presents the experimental data that were received describing the influence of sucrose and maltose concentration on the duration of a lag phase period for different yeast strains. Specific growth rates of researched strains were determined for nutrient mediums with different glucose and maltose concentrations. It was found that the Crabtree effect, that is caused by high carbohydrates concentration in culture medium, is most pronounced when yeast cells grow on a sucrose medium. Brewer’s and baker's yeast are more adapted to high concentrations of carbohydrates. The obtained experimental data could be utilized to develop flow charts of growing a pure culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast to use at fermentation plants, including low power ones.

  11. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Kai-tao; Zheng, Jin-xin; Yu, Zhi-jian; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Pan, Wei-guang; Yang, Wei-zhi; Wang, Hong-yan; Deng, Qi-wen; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Sucrose gel was used to treat bacterial vaginosis in a phase III clinical trial. However, the changes of vaginal flora after treatment were only examined by Nugent score in that clinical trial, While the vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques is characterized by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, few lactobacilli, and pH levels above 4.6, similar to the microbiota of patients with bacterial vaginosis. This study is aimed to investigate the change of the vaginal microbiota of rehsus...

  12. Acoustic and volumetric properties of betaine hydrochloride drug in aqueous D(+)-glucose and sucrose solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshetti, Suresh; Gupta, Akash; Tangeda, Savitha Jyostna; Gardas, Ramesh L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Density and speed of sound are measured for B.HCl drug in aq. D(+)-glucose and sucrose. • Solvation behavior of B.HCl drug studied in aqueous D(+)-glucose and sucrose. • Cosphere overlap model is used to understand the transfer partial molar volume. • Hepler’s constant indicated structure making ability of B.HCl drug in studied systems. - Abstract: The densities (ρ) and speeds of sound (u) of betaine hydrochloride (B.HCl) drug (0.01 to 0.06) mol · kg −1 in (0.10, 0.20 and 0.30) mol · kg −1 aqueous D(+)-glucose and sucrose solutions are reported as a function of temperature at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The values of density (ρ) and speed of sound (u) are obtained with high precision. These values have been used to estimate the apparent molar volume (V 2,ϕ ), partial molar volume (V 2 ∞ ), transfer partial molar volume (Δ t V 2 ∞ ), apparent molar isentropic compressibility (K s,2,ϕ ), partial molar isentropic compressibility (K s,2 ∞ ), transfer partial molar compressibility (Δ t K s,2 ∞ ), hydration number (N H ), partial molar expansion (E 2 ∞ ) and Hepler’s constant (∂ 2 V 2 ∞ /∂T 2 ) P . Furthermore, pair (V AB and K AB ) and triplet (V ABB and K ABB ) interaction coefficients have been computed from the values of Δ t V 2 ∞ and Δ t K s,2 ∞ . The co-sphere overlap model is used to understand the values of Δ t V 2 ∞ and Δ t K s,2 ∞ . The positive values of (∂ 2 V 2 ∞ /∂T 2 ) P indicate structure making ability of betaine hydrochloride in aqueous D(+)-glucose and sucrose solutions at the temperatures and compositions investigated

  13. Optimization of soymilk, mango nectar and sucrose solution mixes for better quality of soymilk based beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getu, Rahel; Tola, Yetenayet B; Neela, Satheesh

    2017-01-01

    Soy milk-based beverages play an important role as a healthy food alternative for human consumption. However, the ‘beany’ flavor and chalky mouth feel of soy milk often makes it unpalatable to consumers. The objective of the present study is to optimize a blend of soy milk, mango nectar and sucrose solution for the best quality soy milk-based beverage. This study was designed to develop a soy milk blended beverage, with mango nectar and sucrose solutions, with the best physicochemical and sensory properties. Fourteen combinations of formulations were determined by D-optimal mixture simplex lattice design, by using Design expert. The blended beverages were prepared by mixing the three basic ingredients with the range of 60−100% soy milk, 0–25% mango nectar and 0–15% sucrose solution. The prepared blended beverage was analyzed for selected physicochemical and sensory properties. The statistical significance of the terms in the regression equations were examined by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for each response and the significance test level was set at 5% (p nectar and sucrose solution increased, total color change, total soluble solid, gross energy, titratable acidity, and beta-carotene contents increased but with a decrease in moisture , ash, protein, ether extract, minerals and phytic acid contents was observed. Fi- nally, numerical optimization determined that 81% soy milk, 16% Mango nectar and 3% sugar solution will give by a soy milk blended beverage with the best physicochemical and sensory properties, with a desirability of 0.564. Blending soy milk with fruit juice such as mango is beneficial, as it improves sensory as well as selected nutritional parameters.

  14. Desiccation and freezing tolerance of embryonic axes from Citrus sinensis [L.] osb. pretreated with sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Izulmé R I; Stushnoff, Cecil

    2003-01-01

    Embryonic axes of Citrus sinensis L. were successfully cryopreserved. While fully hydrated unfrozen axes germinated 100%, survival decreased as axes water content dropped, and total loss of viability was observed when the water content dropped to 0.04 and 0.10 mg H2O/mg dry mass, for axes without and with sucrose preculture, respectively. Fully hydrated axes did not survive exposure to liquid nitrogen. Highest seedling recovery (93-100%) for untreated axes was observed at 0.26 to 0.15 mg H2O/mg dry mass. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed the presence of broad melting peaks in fully hydrated embryonic axes. The size of the melting peak diminished as water was removed by desiccation. Minimum melting of water was observed at the point axes survived cryopreservation. Occurrence of a glass transition upon warming was not a condition for axes to survive liquid nitrogen exposure. In untreated axes, glucose, increased with desiccation to 0.2 mg H2O/mg dry mass, and decreased as the axes were desiccated to lower water contents. Fructose and sucrose levels did not increase when untreated samples were desiccated for the same periods of time. Raffinose and stachyose levels decreased as untreated and precultured embryonic axes were desiccated. In sucrose precultured axes, sucrose and fructose levels increased when they were dehydrated, reaching maximum levels at 0.2 mg H2O/mg dry mass. Tissue glucose did not change significantly with desiccation. Raffinose and stachyose levels dropped as precultured embryonic axes were dried.

  15. Possible consequences of the sucrose replacement by a fructose-glucose syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Süli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fructose-glucose syrup is currently used instead of sucrose in bakery products for economic and technological reasons. The authors investigated the extent to which this change affects the formation of non-enzymatic browning products (Advanced Glycation End - AGE-Products and melanoidins. Formation of these products in model systems - mixtures of various sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose - concentration 6% with glycine (concentration 0.7% or/and lysine (concentration 0.3%, heat-treated 60 - 100 °C for 15, 30, 45 and 60 min, was studied. The formation of AGE products and melanoidins was determined on the basis of absorption at 294 nm (AGE-products and 420 nm (melanoidins, respectively. The results pointed out notable difference in the AGE-products and also melanoidins formation for a variety of sugars. The reactivity of sucrose was low even at 100 °C/60 min. Fructose and glucose originated a significantly increasing of the non-enzymatic browning products formation. The reactivity of fructose was in the caramelisation and also in Maillard reactions the highest in any combination of composition. Lysine is the most reactive amino acid which takes part in Maillard reactions even if it is bound to protein. The non-enzymatic browning reactions result in the formation of non-digestible cross-linked proteins. Lysine is also the limiting essential amino acid of most cereals. Due to the lysine properties, reduction in protein quality is the most important nutritional effect of Maillard reactions in food. The sucrose replacement by fructose-glucose syrup in bakery products leads to more extensive non-enzymatic browning reactions, i.e. caramelisation and also Maillard reactions, while changes are in the Maillard reaction more pronounced.

  16. Influence of sucrose ingestion on brainstem and hypothalamic intrinsic oscillations in lean and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Coveleskie, Kristen; Connolly, Lynn; Labus, Jennifer S; Ebrat, Bahar; Stains, Jean; Jiang, Zhiguo; Suyenobu, Brandall Y; Raybould, Helen E; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A

    2014-05-01

    The study of intrinsic fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging can provide insight into the effect of physiologic states on brain processes. In an effort to better understand the brain-gut communication induced by the absorption and metabolism of nutrients in healthy lean and obese individuals, we investigated whether ingestion of nutritive and non-nutritive sweetened beverages differentially engages the hypothalamus and brainstem vagal pathways in lean and obese women. In a 2-day, double-blind crossover study, 11 lean and 11 obese healthy women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans after ingestion of 2 beverages of different sucrose content, but identical sweetness. During scans, subjects rested with eyes closed. Blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations demonstrated significantly greater power in the highest frequency band (slow-3: 0.073-0.198 Hz) after ingestion of high-sucrose compared with low-sucrose beverages in the nucleus tractus solitarius for both groups. Obese women had greater connectivity between the right lateral hypothalamus and a reward-related brain region and weaker connectivity with homeostasis and gustatory-related brain regions than lean women. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we observed sucrose-related changes in oscillatory dynamics of blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in brainstem and hypothalamus in lean and obese women. The observed frequency changes are consistent with a rapid vagally mediated mechanism due to nutrient absorption, rather than sweet taste receptor activation. These findings provide support for altered interaction between homeostatic and reward networks in obese individuals. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An elevator wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhornik, V.I.; Cherkov, Ye.M.; Simonov, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    This invention deals with mineral enrichment and is primarily for unloading submerged products of enrichment during separation in heavy mediums. An elevator wheel is proposed for unloading the submerged product from the bath of a heavy to medium separator which includes ladle disks with internal walls and overlapping sheets hinged to the ends. In order to increase the degree of dehydration of the unloaded product, the internal wall of each ladle is made of sheets installed in stages with clearances relative to each other. The advantages of the proposed device include an improvement in the degree of dehydration of the submerged product in the ladles and a reduction in the carry away of the heavy medium with the enrichment products.

  18. Photosynthesis and metabolite responses of Isatis indigotica Fortune to elevated [CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Li; Hongying Li; Yuzheng Zong; Frank Yonghong Li; Yuanhuai Han; Xingyu Hao

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is affecting global crop productivity, food quality, and security. However, few studies have addressed the mechanism by which elevated CO2 may affect the growth of medicinal plants. Isatis indigotica Fortune is a widely used Chinese medicinal herb with multiple pharmacological properties. To investigate the physiological mechanism of I. indigotica response to elevated [CO2], plants were grown at either ambient [CO2] (385μmol mol?1) or elevated [CO2] (590μmol mol?1) in an open-top chamber (OTC) experimental facility in North China. A significant reduction in transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (gs) and a large increase in water-use efficiency contributed to an increase in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under elevated [CO2] 76 days after sowing. Leaf non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was decreased, so that more energy was used in effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSI ) under elevated [CO2]. High ΦPSI , meaning high electron transfer efficiency, also increased Pn. The [CO2]-induced increase in photosynthesis significantly increased biomass by 36.8%. Amounts of metabolic compounds involved in sucrose metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis, and other processes in leaves were reduced under elevated [CO2]. These results showed that the fertilization effect of elevated [CO2] is conducive to increasing dry weight but not secondary metabolism in I. indigotica.

  19. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of D-amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, T W; Oldford, A C; Forgie, M Y; Beye, J A

    2005-07-01

    The present study assessed the effect of D-amphetamine on responding maintained by wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed-interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 5% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15 s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. Doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg D-amphetamine were administered by i.p. injection 20 min prior to a session. As the dose increased, index of curvature values decreased toward zero and rate-dependency plots revealed increases in lower rates early in the interval and decreases in higher rates toward the end of the interval. Effects were similar in the presence of both stimuli. However, an analysis of post-reinforcement pauses and local response rates broken down by transitions revealed a differential effect. As the dose increased, local response rates following a wheel-running reinforcer were affected more than those following a sucrose reinforcer.

  20. Production and application of a rare disaccharide using sucrose phosphorylase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kenji; Yoshihara, Akihide; Furumoto, Toshio; Takata, Goro

    2015-06-01

    Sucrose phosphorylase (SPase) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides exhibited activity towards eight ketohexoses, which behaved as D-glucosyl acceptors, and α-D-glucose-1-phosphate (G1P), which behaved as a donor. All eight of these ketohexoses were subsequently transformed into the corresponding d-glucosyl-ketohexoses. Of the eight ketohexoses evaluated in the current study, d-allulose behaved as the best substrate for SPase, and the resulting d-glucosyl-d-alluloside product was found to be a non-reducing sugar with a specific optical rotation of [α]D(20) + 74.36°. D-Glucosyl-D-alluloside was identified as α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-allulofuranoside by NMR analysis. D-Glucosyl-D-alluloside exhibited an inhibitory activity towards an invertase from yeast with a Km value of 50 mM, where it behaved as a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 9.2 mM. D-Glucosyl-D-alluloside was also successfully produced from sucrose using SPase and D-tagatose 3-epimerase. This process also allowed for the production of G1P from sucrose and d-allulose from D-fructose, which suggested that this method could be used to prepare d-glucosyl-d-alluloside without the need for expensive reagents such as G1P and d-allulose. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of flurbiprofen-loaded nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution using sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong Hoon; Yan, Yi-Dong; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2014-02-01

    A novel flurbiprofen-loaded nanoemulsion which gave uniform emulsion droplets with a narrow size distribution was previously reported to be prepared using membrane emulsification method. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel flurbiprofen-loaded nanoparticle with a narrow size distribution and improved bioavailability. The nanoparticle was prepared by solidifying nanoemulsion using sucrose as a carrier via spray drying method. Its physicochemical properties were investigated using SEM, DSC and PXRD. Furthermore, dissolution and bioavailability in rats were evaluated compared to a flurbiprofen-loaded commercial product. The flurbiprofen-loaded nanoparticles with flurbiprofen/sucrose/surfactant mixture (1/20/2, weight ratio) gave good solidification and no stickiness. They associated with about 70,000-fold improved drug solubility and had a mean size of about 300 nm with a narrow size distribution. Flurbiprofen was present in a changed amorphous state in these nanoparticles. Moreover, the nanoparticles gave significantly shorter Tmax, and higher AUC and Cmax of the drug compared to the commercial product (p flurbiprofen-loaded nanoparticles prepared with sucrose by the membrane emulsification and spray drying method would be a potential candidate for orally delivering poorly water-soluble flurbiprofen with enhanced bioavailability.

  2. Comparison of the cariogenicity of cola, honey, cow milk, human milk, and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, William H; Lawrence, Ruth A

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the cariogenicity of various fluids that are frequently fed to infants and toddlers. We chose to examine sucrose, cola drink, honey, human milk, cow milk, and water because some of these have been associated with development of early childhood caries, although direct experimental evidence is lacking. We used our desalivated rat model because the approach mimics the situation found in infants, whereby the flow of saliva is interrupted through mechanical effects of a nipple. The animals received basic nutrition by gavage, and the fluids being tested were available ad libitum. Thus, the only substances that came in contact with teeth were the test fluids. The investigation continued for 14 days. Cola, sucrose, and honey were by far the most cariogenic. In addition, cola and honey induced considerable erosion. Human milk was significantly more cariogenic than cow milk probably because of its lower mineral content and higher level of lactose. Our data show that the use of honey, cola, and sucrose water in nursing bottles should be discouraged. Although human milk is more cariogenic than cow milk, it is no more cariogenic than are common infant formulas. Protracted exposure to human milk or formula through allowing an infant to sleep on the nipple should be discouraged, and the need for oral hygiene after tooth eruption should be emphasized.

  3. Comparative gastrointestinal tolerance of sucrose, lactitol, or D-tagatose in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A; Storey, D M

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose is a potential new sugar substitute. Ingested D-tagatose is incompletely absorbed from the small intestine; unabsorbed D-tagatose reaches the colon where it is completely fermented. In a double-blind, controlled crossover study, the gastrointestinal effects were compared following acute consumption of 40 g plain chocolates containing 20 g of sucrose, lactitol, or D-tagatose by 50 healthy adults ages 18 to 24 years. Consumption of D-tagatose was not associated with a significant increase in the frequency of passing feces, or in the number of subjects passing watery feces. However, lactitol consumption was associated with an increase in both of these occurrences. Consumption of chocolate containing D-tagatose and lactitol resulted in significant increases in colic, flatulence, borborygmi, and bloating compared to consumption of the sucrose-containing chocolate, but the majority of symptoms were described as only "slightly more than usual." D-tagatose-containing chocolate did not provoke significantly more of these symptoms than lactitol-containing chocolate. A significant number of subjects reported nausea following consumption of D-tagatose chocolate compared to the sucrose chocolate control, and multiple symptoms occurred in some subjects. Overall, these results demonstrate that a 20-g dose of D-tagatose is tolerated well in comparison to lactitol. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Influence of sucrose and xylitol on an early Streptococcus mutans biofilm in a dental simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salli, K M; Forssten, S D; Lahtinen, S J; Ouwehand, A C

    2016-10-01

    In vitro methods to study dental biofilms are useful in finding ways to support a healthy microbial balance in the oral cavity. The effects of sucrose, xylitol, and their combination on three strains of Streptococcus mutans and one strain of Streptococcus sobrinus were studied using a dental simulator. A simulator was used to mimic the oral cavity environment. It provided a continuous-flow system using artificial saliva (AS), constant temperature, mixing, and hydroxyapatite (HA) surface in which the influence of xylitol was studied. The quantities of planktonic and adhered bacteria were measured by real-time qPCR. Compared against the untreated AS, adding 1% sucrose increased the bacterial colonization of HA (pmutans isolate 117. The combination of xylitol and sucrose decreased the bacterial quantities within the AS and the colonization on the HA by clinical S. mutans isolate 2366 was reduced (pmutans strains to adhere to the HA. Clinical studies have also shown that xylitol consumption decreases caries incidence and reduces the amount of plaque. This study contributes to the understanding of the mechanism behind these clinical observations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrometallurgical Process and Kinetics of Leaching Manganese from Semi-Oxidized Manganese Ores with Sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of manganese from a semi-oxidized manganese ore was investigated with sucrose as the reducing agent in dilute sulfuric acid medium. The kinetics of leaching manganese from the complex ore containing MnCO3 and MnO2 was also investigated. The effects of sucrose and sulfuric acid concentrations, leaching temperature and reaction time on the total Mn (TMn, MnO2 and MnCO3 leaching were investigated. Results showed that MnCO3 could more easily react with hydrogen ions than MnO2 in ores, and MnO2 decomposition could be advantageous for MnCO3 leaching. The leaching efficiencies of 91.8% for total Mn, 91.4% for MnO2 and 96.9% for MnCO3 were obtained under the following optimized conditions: 0.035 mol/L sucrose concentration, 5 mol/L sulfuric acid concentration, 60 min of reaction time and 363.2 K of leaching temperature. In addition, it was found that the leaching process of semi-oxidized manganese ore follows the shrinking core model and the leaching rate was controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion. The apparent activation energy of the total manganese, MnO2, and MnCO3 leaching were 40.83, 40.59, and 53.33 kJ·mol−1, respectively.

  6. Effects of Haloperidol on Responding Maintained with Food and Sucrose-Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Aparicio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The “hedonic” value of reinforcers is mediated by dopamine. Accordingly,haloperidol diminishes the value of reinforcers, by interfering with the emission of operant behaviors. Alternatively, the interference of dopamine transmission does not prevent animals from eating food. Thus, reinforcers remain intact after the administration of haloperidol. We assessed these possibilities with eight Wistar rats and two types of reinforcers, food-pellets and sucrose-water, delivered under multiple reinforcement schedules. Ingeneral, lever presses maintained by food-pellets were higher than those maintained by sucrose-water. Haloperidol produced dose-related decreases in lever presses and obtained reinforcers. Different doses had no effect on the number of lever presses. Subcutaneous administrations of haloperidol produced higher decreases in lever presses than intra-peritoneal administrations. Decreases in lever pressing were not necessarily accompanied by substantial reductions in obtained food-pellets and sucrose-water reinforcers; underthe effects of haloperidol rats continued to produce a considerable number of both types of reinforcers.

  7. Water and sucrose diffusion coefficients during osmotic dehydration of sapodilla (Achras zapota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Muritiba Pereira de Lima Coimbra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sapodilla is an original fruit from Central America that is well adapted in all regions of the Brazilian territory. Despite its wide adaptation and acceptance in fruit markets, it is rare to find it outside tropical regions, partially because of its high perishability. The development of alternative, simple, and inexpensive methods to extend the conservation and marketing of these fruits is important, and osmotic dehydration is one of these methods. The main objective of this study was to determine the water and sucrose diffusion coefficients during the osmotic dehydration of sapodilla. This process was performed in short duration (up to 6h to evaluate detailed information on water loss and solids gain kinetics at the beginning of the process and in long duration (up to 60h to determine the equilibrium concentrations in sapodilla. The immersion time had greater influence on the water and sucrose diffusion coefficients (P<0.05; the maximum water loss (WL and solute gain (SG occurred in the osmotic solution at the highest concentration. Water and sucrose diffusion coefficients ranged from 0.00 x 10-10 m2/s to 1.858 x 10-10 m2/s, and from 0.00 x 10-10to 2.304 x 10-10 m2/s, respectively. Thus, understanding the WL and SG kinetics during the process of sapodilla osmotic dehydration could significantly contribute to new alternatives of preservation and commercialization of this fruit.

  8. A procedure for batch separation of 14C-hexose from 14C-sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpley, L.; Vietor, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    This presentation describes a method for separating 14 C-hexose from 14 C-sucrose in extracts of plant tissue. Portions of ethanol extracts are treated with activated charcoal in microcentrifuge tubes. Aliquots are removed, ethanol evaporated and replaced with reaction mixture that phosphorylates hexose (HEPPS, K 2 HPO 4 , Mg(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 , ovalbumen, Na 2 ATP, yeast hexokinase). After a time course, the hexokinase reaction is stopped (slowed considerably) to minimize effects of contamination enzyme activities. The stopping agent used is lyxose, a nonphosphorylable analogue of glucose. The strong anionic charge of phosphate introduced through the hexokinase action results in binding (> 95%) of hexose-phosphate to anion-exchange resin. Sucrose remains unbound (> 95%) in solution. This batch ion-exchange is performed in microcentrifuge tubes to allow many samples to be processed simultaneously. Recovery of radiolabel in extracts is complete (99%), and determinations are repeatable (cv = 23%). This method for routinely separating and quantifying 14 C-hexose and 14 C-sucrose in plant tissue extracts can contribute to the economy and feasibility of studies of 14 C-photoassimilate partitioning to soluble sugars within and among plant tissues

  9. Coal Fly Ash Ceramics: Preparation, Characterization, and Use in the Hydrolysis of Sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pires dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal ash is a byproduct of mineral coal combustion in thermal power plants. This residue is responsible for many environmental problems because it pollutes soil, water, and air. Thus, it is important to find ways to reuse it. In this study, coal fly ash, obtained from the Presidente Médici Thermal Power Plant, was utilized in the preparation of ceramic supports for the immobilization of the enzyme invertase and subsequent hydrolysis of sucrose. Coal fly ash supports were prepared at several compaction pressures (63.66–318.30 MPa and sintered at 1200°C for 4 h. Mineralogical composition (by X-ray diffraction and surface area were studied. The ceramic prepared with 318.30 MPa presented the highest surface area (35 m2/g and amount of immobilized enzyme per g of support (76.6 mg/g. In assays involving sucrose inversion, it showed a high degree of hydrolysis (around 81% even after nine reuses and 30 days’ storage. Therefore, coal fly ash ceramics were demonstrated to be a promising biotechnological alternative as an immobilization support for the hydrolysis of sucrose.

  10. Intravenous iron sucrose therapy for moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriplani, Alka; Mahey, Reeta; Dash, Biswa Bhusan; Kulshreshta, Vidushi; Agarwal, Nutan; Bhatla, Neerja

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in pregnancy. Prophylactic oral iron is recommended during pregnancy to meet the increased requirement. In India, women become pregnant with low baseline haemoglobin level resulting in high incidence of moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy where oral iron therapy cannot meet the requirement. Pregnant women with moderate anaemia are to be treated with parentral iron therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the response and effect of intravenous iron sucrose complex (ISC) given to pregnant women with IDA. A prospective study was conducted (June 2009 to June 2011) in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. One hundred pregnant women with haemoglobin between 5-9 g% with diagnosed iron deficiency attending antenatal clinic were given intravenous iron sucrose complex in a dose of 200 mg twice weekly schedule after calculating the dose requirement. The mean haemoglobin raised from 7.63 ± 0.61 to 11.20 ± 0.73 g% (Panaemia. Intravenous iron sucrose can be used in hospital settings and tertiary urban hospitals where it can replace intramuscular therapy due to injection related side effects. Further, long-term comparative studies are required to recommend its use at peripheral level.

  11. The promoter activities of sucrose phosphate synthase genes in rice, OsSPS1 and OsSPS11, are controlled by light and circadian clock, but not by sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madoka eYonekura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sucrose plays a role in sugar sensing and its signaling pathway, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the expressions of plant sucrose-related genes. Our previous study on the expression of the sucrose phosphate synthase gene family in rice (OsSPSs suggested the involvement of sucrose sensing and/or circadian rhythm in the transcriptional regulation of OsSPS. To examine whether the promoters of OsSPSs can be controlled by sugars and circadian clock, we produced transgenic rice plants harboring a promoter–luciferase construct for OsSPS1 or OsSPS11 and analyzed the changes in the promoter activities by monitoring bioluminescence from intact transgenic plants in real time. Transgenic plants fed sucrose, glucose, or mannitol under continuous light conditions showed no changes in bioluminescence intensity; meanwhile, the addition of sucrose increased the concentration of sucrose in the plants, and the mRNA levels of OsSPS remained constant. These results suggest that these OsSPS promoters may not be regulated by sucrose levels in the tissues. Next, we investigated the changes in the promoter activities under 12-h light/12-h dark cycles and continuous light conditions. Under the light–dark cycle, both OsSPS1 and OsSPS11 promoter activities were low in the dark and increased rapidly after the beginning of the light period. When the transgenic rice plants were moved to the continuous light condition, both POsSPS1::LUC and POsSPS11::LUC reporter plants exhibited circadian bioluminescence rhythms; bioluminescence peaked during the subjective day with a 27-h period: in the early morning as for OsSPS1 promoter and midday for OsSPS11 promoter. These results indicate that these OsSPS promoters are controlled by both light illumination and circadian clock and that the regulatory mechanism of promoter activity differs between the 2 OsSPS genes.

  12. Dietary energy source affecting fat deposition mechanism, muscle fiber metabolic and overall meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Hijazeen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the effect of two dietary energy sources, soy bean oil, and sucrose on regulatory mechanisms of meat preservation. Twenty one day-old Hubbard commercial broilers were randomly allocated into two dietary treatment groups with six replicates per treatment, and four broilers per replicate. All birds were coded for the influence of energy source: fat based diet (FD, and sugar based diet (SD. Formulated grower diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The chickens were slaughtered and then boneless, skinless ground chicken tight meat was prepared. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, and sensory panel evaluation. In addition, meat from the small muscles of the raw thigh was used to evaluate other meat quality characteristics. Proximate analyses showed no significant differences between both dietary treatments on protein, ash and moisture percentage values. Meat samples of the group that was fed FD showed higher significant values of both TBARS and total carbonyl at day 7 of storage time. However, samples of the second group (Fed SD showed lower values of both ultimate pH and water separation % using raw thigh meat. The effect of FD treatment on the meat composition appeared clearly especially on fat percentage content. In addition, meat samples obtained from chickens fed SD showed better significant values of the overall acceptability attribute. According to the current findings, sucrose could be an excellent alternative to oil in dietary broilers which improved the meat preservation bio-system, and post-mortem storage stability.

  13. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  14. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  15. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  16. Robust carbohydrate dynamics based on sucrose resynthesis in developing Norway spruce somatic embryos at variable sugar supply

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubeš, Martin; Drážná, N.; Konrádová, H.; Lipavská, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2014), s. 45-57 ISSN 1054-5476 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Sucrose * Raffinose family oligosaccharides * Picea abies Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.981, year: 2014

  17. Temperature dependence of mean square displacement by IN13: a comparison between trehalose and sucrose water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magazu, S.; Migliardo, F.; Mondelli, C.; Romeo, G

    2003-08-01

    An analysis in terms of elastic scans of the neutron intensity in mixtures of homologues disaccharides (i.e., trehalose and sucrose)/D{sub 2}O as a function of temperature has been carried out. The study provides an effective way for characterizing the dynamical behavior, furnishing a set of parameters characterizing the 'flexibility' and the 'rigidity' that justifies the better cryptobiotic effect of trehalose in respect to sucrose. Elastic scans make evident a non-Gaussian behavior of the intensity profiles which is more marked for sucrose, with a dynamical transition at T{approx}253 K and T{approx}250 K for trehalose/D{sub 2}O and sucrose/D{sub 2}O mixtures, respectively.

  18. Chromosomal aberrations in Pisum sativum by magnetic field, x-rays and urea and their restitution in sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, H.K.; Dave, Neelima

    1975-01-01

    Several workers (D' Amato 1948, Bowen and Wilson 1954, Von Rosen 1957) have induced chromosomal aberrations in roots of Pisum sativum L. Present paper embodies after effect of three independent treatments and their restitution in sucrose. (auth.)

  19. Pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. pérola ex vitro growth and mycorrhizal colonization affected by in vitro sucrose concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Kunze

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sucrose concentration in the culture medium on growth and on the establishment of mycorrhizas during the acclimatization of pineapple cv. Pérola. The plantlets were micropropagated in MS culture medium with 0, 10, 20 and 30 g L-1 of sucrose and then they were acclimatized during 12 weeks under greenhouse conditions, in a sandy soil - compost mixture, uninoculated or inoculated with a Rhizophagus clarus isolate. Plantlets from the culture medium with 20 g and 30 g of sucrose L-1 showed higher shoot and root biomass than those from sugar-free medium. Mycorrhizal colonization was lower in plantlets micropropagated in sucrose-free medium, but the intensity of arbuscules did not differ among treatments. In the 12-week period of acclimatization, mycorrhizal colonization had no effect on plant biomass.

  20. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content in sweet potato roots and potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Kawashima, K.

    1982-01-01

    The sucrose content in both potato tubers and sweet potato roots was considerably increased by gamma-irradiation. The maximum increase was achieved by an irradiation dose of 3 to 4 kGy for potatoes and 0.8 to 2 kGy for sweet potatoes. Cooling treatment (15°C, 2 weeks) for sweet potato roots also enhanced the sucrose content (almost 2 times) but was not additive to the irradiation treatment; the maximum sucrose content in irradiated sweet potato roots was in the range of 7 to 12% irrespective of the cooling treatment, depending on the variety of sweet potatoes. Irradiation made the sucrose content in the roots 2 to 4 times higher

  1. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  2. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  3. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary protein and blood pressure: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieke Altorf-van der Kuil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated blood pressure (BP, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, including protein from various sources, in relation to human BP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a MEDLINE search and a manual search to identify English language studies on the association between protein and blood pressure, published before June 2010. A total of 46 papers met the inclusion criteria. Most observational studies showed no association or an inverse association between total dietary protein and BP or incident hypertension. Results of biomarker studies and randomized controlled trials indicated a beneficial effect of protein on BP. This beneficial effect may be mainly driven by plant protein, according to results in observational studies. Data on protein from specific sources (e.g. from fish, dairy, grain, soy, and nut were scarce. There was some evidence that BP in people with elevated BP and/or older age could be more sensitive to dietary protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, evidence suggests a small beneficial effect of protein on BP, especially for plant protein. A blood pressure lowering effect of protein may have important public health implications. However, this warrants further investigation in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, more data are needed on protein from specific sources in relation to BP, and on the protein-BP relation in population subgroups.

  5. Reprint of “Heat capacity and transition behavior of sucrose by standard, fast scanning and temperature-modulated calorimetry”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoń, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland); Wurm, A.; Schick, C. [Department of Physics, University of Rostock, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Pangloli, Ph.; Zivanovic, S. [Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Skotnicki, M. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-780 Poznań (Poland); Pyda, M., E-mail: mpyda@utk.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    Highlights: • Experimental, apparent heat capacity of sucrose was investigated by advanced thermal analysis. • Vibrational heat capacity of solid state was linked with a low temperature experimental heat capacity of sucrose. • Equilibrium melting parameters of sucrose were determined. • Decomposition, superheating of crystalline sucrose during melting process were presented. • TGA, DSC, TMDSC, and FSC are useful tools for characterization of sucrose. - Abstract: The heat capacity (C{sub p}) of crystalline and amorphous sucrose was determined using standard and quasi-isothermal temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry. The results were combined with the published data determined by adiabatic calorimetry, and the C{sub p} values are now reported for the wide 5–600 K range. The experimental C{sub p} of solid sucrose at 5–300 K was used to calculate the vibrational, solid C{sub p} based on the vibrational molecular motions. The calculated solid and liquid C{sub p} together with the transition parameters for equilibrium conditions were used as references for detailed quantitative thermal analysis of crystalline and amorphous sucrose. Melting temperature (T{sub m}) of the crystalline sucrose was identified in a broad 442–465 K range with a heat of fusion of 40–46 J/mol determined at heating rates 0.5–20 K/min, respectively. The equilibrium T{sub m} and heat of fusion of crystalline sucrose were estimated at zero heating rate as T{sup o}{sub m} = 424.4 K and ΔH{sup o}{sub f} = 32 kJ/mol, respectively. The glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of amorphous sucrose was at 331 K with a change in C{sub p} of 267 J/(mol K) as it was estimated from reversing heat capacity by quasi-isothermal TMDSC on cooling. At heating rates less than 30 K/min, thermal decomposition occurred during melting, while at extreme rate of 1000 K/s, degradation was not observed. Data obtained by fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) at 1000 K/s, showed that T{sub m} was

  6. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  7. Stress and Sucrose Intake Modulate Neuronal Activity in the Anterior Hypothalamic Area in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Arojit; Guèvremont, Geneviève; Timofeeva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The anterior hypothalamic area (AHA) is an important integrative relay structure for a variety of autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses including feeding behavior and response to stress. However, changes in the activity of the AHA neurons during stress and feeding in freely moving rats are not clear. The present study investigated the firing rate and burst activity of neurons in the central nucleus of the AHA (cAHA) during sucrose intake in non-stressful conditions and after acute stress in freely behaving rats. Rats were implanted with micro-electrodes into the cAHA, and extracellular multi-unit activity was recorded during 1-h access to 10% sucrose in non-stressful conditions or after acute foot shock stress. Acute stress significantly reduced sucrose intake, total sucrose lick number, and lick frequency in licking clusters, and increased inter-lick intervals. At the cluster start (CS) of sucrose licking, the cAHA neurons increased (CS-excited, 20% of the recorded neurons), decreased (CS-inhibited, 42% of the neurons) or did not change (CS-nonresponsive, 38% of the neurons) their firing rate. Stress resulted in a significant increase in the firing rate of the CS-inhibited neurons by decreasing inter-spike intervals within the burst firing of these neurons. This increase in the stress-induced firing rate of the CS-inhibited neurons was accompanied by a disruption of the correlation between the firing rate of CS-inhibited and CS-nonresponsive neurons that was observed in non-stressful conditions. Stress did not affect the firing rate of the CS-excited and CS-nonresponsive neurons. However, stress changed the pattern of burst firing of the CS-excited and CS-nonresponsive neurons by decreasing and increasing the burst number in the CS-excited and CS-nonresponsive neurons, respectively. These results suggest that the cAHA neurons integrate the signals related to stress and intake of palatable food and play a role in the stress- and eating-related circuitry.

  8. ISOLASI cDNA SUCROSE TRANSPORTER (SUT DARI BATANG TANAMAN TEBU (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Slameto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose Transporter (SUT is kind of protein transporter that control in sucrose translocation. Sucrose Transporter is intermediate in translocation of sucrose from apoplasmic to simplasmic. SUT facilitates sucrose transportation from vascular tissues to parenchyma cells toward in node sugarcane stem. This research was purposed to isolate cDNA SUT from sugarcane stem, and cloned in Escherichia coli strain DH5α. Total RNA of sugarcane stem was isolated by single step method, then add with oligo dT in order to obtain the first strand of SUT cDNA then used as template for PCR. The primer used for PCR is 5’ –ggg ctg att gtg gcc atg tc- ‘3 (SUT-F and 5’ –tgc cct ttg tct ccg gaa cc- ‘3 (SUT-R. PCR was programmed as follow denaturation at 94°C for 2 minutes and 30 second, annealing at 54°C for 30 s, extension at 72°C 2 min and 7 min, and storage at 4°C for unlimited, It was for 30 cycles. Complementary DNA SUT from PCR ligalized to pTOPO bunt-end, then it cloned in to E. coli strain DH5α. The cloning resulted then be sequenced in order to observe the homologues with other nucleotides sequences of some plant using BLASTn program in GENE BANK NCBI and the level of homology determined by Genetyx program. The concentrated of total RNA isolated was 5,024 μg/μl, with purity of 1,85. Complementary DNA SUT fragment from PCR with size 2037 bp appropriated to the both of primer was used. Complementary DNA SUT fragment showed by analyzed some of restriction enzyme e.g. EcoRI, PstI and BamHI. Homologues of this cDNA SUT fragment was 100% to SoSUT 2A of sugarcane stem and 84% to OsSUT of rice plant (Casu et al ., 2003.

  9. THE EFFICIENCY OF YARN WOUND FILTERS IN GIARDIA CYSTS REMOVAL USING THE IMPROVED SUCROSE GRADIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R SHAH MANSOURI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The protozoan parasite Giardia is one of the important biological cotaminants in water. lts presence in water has caused the outbreak of a number of epidemics in various part of the world including the United States. The major impediment in detecting this particular parasite is unavailability of suitable filters capable of removing it from water. Regarding the fact yarn wound filters (cartridge used in removing Giardia under laboratory condition are currently difficult to obtain in Iran, attempts were made to design and manufacture the filters according to standards recommended in the literature. Methods. To determine the efficiency of filters manufactured in this way, a pilot system was established and parameters of concern were investigated. A given number of cysts were introduced in each case to the water in the pilot tank after being counted on the hemocytometer lamella After the entire tank water (at least 4001had been pumped through the filters, the filter were removed from the pilot system to have their yarns separated and washed. The cysts recovered were then counted and compared with the original input cysts to determine the efficiency of the filters. Formation of sediments on filters due to suspended solids in water was a great impediment in counting the cysts hidden in the sediments. To overcome this difficulty, the method of floatation in sucrose was used to remove the hidden cysts from the sediments. Regarding the morphological characteristics of the cysts, the method was also studied in terms of the sucrose film concentration and the effects of centrifugal speed and duration on the removal of cysts from sediments. Results. The results indicated an efficiency of 80.69±5.85, which was ideal for a first experience in Iran. a level of 2.5 molar of Sucrose with a duration of 10 minutes for the centrifugation time at 2,000 rpm were considered to be optimum levels to yield a certainty of 95 percent and an efficiency of

  10. THE POLYMORPHISM OF THE SUS4 SUCROSE SYNTHASE DOMAIN SEQUENCES IN RUSSIAN, BELORUSSIAN AND KAZAKH POTATO CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Slugina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potato is one of the main strategic crops in the Russian Federation, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, we have achieved significant advances in the understanding of metabolic mechanism of carbohydrate and interconversion «sucrose – starch» in potato tubers. Sucrose synthase (Sus is a key enzyme in the breakdown of sucrose. Sucrose synthase (Sus is catalyzing a reversible reaction of conversion sucrose and UDP into fructose and UDP-glucose. The identification and subsequent characterization of the genes encoding plant sucrose synthase is the first step towards understanding their physiological roles and metabolic mechanism involved in carbohydrate accumulation in potato tubers. In the present work the nucleotide and amino acid polymorphism of the Sus4 gene fragments containing sequences of the sucrose synthase domain were analyzed. Sus4 gene fragments (intron III – exon VI in 9 potato cultivars of Russian, Kazakh and Belarusian breeding were analyzed. The polymorphism of the Sus4 sucrose synthase domain sequences was first examined. The length of analyzed fragment varied from 977 b.p. (cultivars Favorit, Karasaiskii, Miras to 1013 b.p. (cultivars Zorochka, Manifest, Elisaveta, Bashkirskii. It was demonstrated that the examined sequences contained point mutations, as well as insertions and deletions. The common polymorphism level was 5.82%. It was shown that the examined sequences contained 58 SNPs and 4 indels. The most variable were introns IV (12.4% and V (9.18%. The most variable was exon IV. 7 allelic variants were detected. 6 different amino acid sequences specific to different varieties were also identified.

  11. [Interspecific polymorphism of the glucosyltransferase domain of the sucrose synthase gene in the genus Malus and related species of Rosaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, K V; Kochieva, E Z; Kudryavtsev, A M

    2014-12-01

    The sequences that encode the main functional glucosyltransferase domain of sucrose synthase genes have been identified for the first time in 14 species of the genus Malus and related species of the family Rosaceae, and their polymorphism was investigated. Single nucleotide substitutions leading to amino acid substitutions in the protein sequence, including the conservative transmembrane motif sequence common to all sucrose synthase genes of higher plants, were detected in the studied sequences.

  12. Sucrose in the concentrated solution or the supercooled “State”: A review of caramelisation reactions and physical behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Quintas, M. A. C.; Fundo, J. F.; Silva, C. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Sucrose is probably one of the most studied molecules by food scientists, since it plays an important role as an ingredient or preserving agent in many formulations and technological processes. When sucrose is present in a product with a concentration near or greater than the saturation point—i.e. in the supercooled state—it possesses high potentialities for the food industry in areas as different as pastry industry, dairy and frozen desserts or films and coatings production. This paper prese...

  13. Individual Differences in Discount Rate Are Associated With Demand for Self-Administered Cocaine, But Not Sucrose

    OpenAIRE

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Woods, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Substance abusers, including cocaine abusers, discount delayed rewards to a greater extent than do matched controls. In the current experiment, individual differences in discounting of delayed rewards in rats (choice of one immediate over three delayed sucrose pellets) were assessed for associations with demand for either sucrose pellets or an i.v. dose of 0.1 mg/kg/infusion cocaine. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were split into three groups based on sensitivity to delay to reinforceme...

  14. Physiological investigation of C4-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-introduced rice line shows that sucrose metabolism is involved in the improved drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xia; He, Yafei; Zhang, Jinfei; Yan, Ting; Liu, Xiaolong

    2017-06-01

    We compared the drought tolerance of wild-type (WT) and transgenic rice plants (PC) over-expressing the maize C 4 PEPC gene, which encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) gene, and evaluated the roles of saccharide and sugar-related enzymes in the drought response. Pot-grown seedlings were subjected to real drought conditions outdoors, and the yield components were compared between PC and untransformed wild-type (WT) plants. The stable yield from PC plants was associated with higher net photosynthetic rate under the real drought treatment. The physiological characters of WT and PC seedlings under a simulated drought treatment (25% (w/v) polyethylene glycol-6000 for 3 h; PEG 6000 treatment) were analyzed in detail for the early response of drought. The relative water content was higher in PC than in WT, and PEPC activity and the C 4 -PEPC transcript level in PC were elevated under the simulated drought conditions. The endogenous saccharide responses also differed between PC and WT under simulated drought stress. The higher sugar decomposition rate in PC than in WT under drought analog stress was related to the increased activities of sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, acid invertase, and neutral invertase, increased transcript levels of VIN1, CIN1, NIN1, SUT2, SUT4, and SUT5, and increased activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in the leaves. The greater antioxidant defense capacity of PC and its relationship with saccharide metabolism was one of the reasons for the improved drought tolerance. In conclusion, PEPC effectively alleviated oxidative damage and enhanced the drought tolerance in rice plants, which were more related to the increase of the endogenous saccharide decomposition. These findings show that components of C 4 photosynthesis can be used to increase the yield of rice under drought conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of sucrose and safflower oil preloads on short term appetite and food intake of young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodend, D M; Anderson, G H

    2001-12-01

    The effects of carbohydrate and fat on satiety have been examined primarily through meal composition studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of pure sucrose and safflower oil, isovolumetric beverage preloads, on appetite (measured every 15 minutes by visual analogue scales) and food intake 60 minutes later. Young men consumed 0, 418, 836 and 1254 kJ of sucrose in the first two experiments and these same doses of safflower oil in the third. Finally, the largest doses of sucrose and safflower oil were compared. Sucrose, but not safflower oil, suppressed average appetite compared with control. In experiment 2, food intake was reduced (psafflower oil significantly suppressed food intake by 480 kJ in the third experiment. When the 1254 kJ doses were compared directly, sucrose suppressed food intake by 653 kJ compared with control where as safflower oil did not. It is concluded that, in the short-term, sucrose produces a dose dependent reduction in appetite and food intake that is greater than that produced by safflower oil.

  16. Facile and Benign Conversion of Sucrose to Fructose Using Zeolites With Balanced Brønsted and Lewis Acidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Tosi, Irene; Rasmussen, Kristoffer Hauberg

    2017-01-01

    Sucrose is by far the industrially most abundant simple carbohydrate with a production volume of more than 160 million metric tons from sugar cane and sugar beet per year. Many promising pathways towards bio-based organic compounds use, however, fructose as the pathway substrate. Hence, a chemoca......Sucrose is by far the industrially most abundant simple carbohydrate with a production volume of more than 160 million metric tons from sugar cane and sugar beet per year. Many promising pathways towards bio-based organic compounds use, however, fructose as the pathway substrate. Hence......, a chemocatalytic approach to convert sucrose into fructose would provide a means to channel sucrose into pathways for sugar valorization. Here, we show that a variety of heterogeneous zeolite catalysts with balanced Brønsted and Lewis acidity enable a simple route for the conversion of sucrose to more than 80......% fructosides or fructose at 100 °C. The catalysts can encompass aluminum or tin Lewis acidic sites in various zeolite frameworks. The reaction proceeds in volatile alcohol solvents and broadly enables the channelling of sucrose into processes that use fructose as the pathway substrate....

  17. Effect of Increase in Plant Density on Stem Yield and Sucrose Content in Two Sweet Sorghum Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Soleymani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the effect of increase plant density on stalk yield and sucrose content in two sweet sorghum cultivars, an experiment was conducted at Research Farm of Isfahan University located at Zaghmar village. A split plot layout within a randomized complete block design with tree replication was used. Main plots were plant densities (100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 thousand plant/ha and subplots were cultivars (Rio and Keller. The effect of plant density at hard dough harvest stage on plant height, stem diameter, number of tillers, stem fresh weight and juice yield were significant but had no significant effect on brix, sucrose percentage and purity. The highest juice yield and purity were produced by 400 thousand plants/ha. Keller was significantly superior for plant height, stem diameter, stem fresh weight, juice yield and brix at hard dough harvest stage as compared to Rio. Number of tiller per plant of Rio was significantly more than Keller. There were no significant difference between two cultivars for sucrose percentage and purity but sucrose percentage in Keller had highest as compared to Rio. Maximum stem fresh weight, juice yield, sucrose percentage and purity were obtained at hard dough harvest stag. On the basis of the results obtained, 400 thousand plant/ha plant density, Keller cultivar and hard dough harvest stage might be suitable for sweet sorghum production under the condition similar to the present study. Keywords: Sweet sorghum, Stem yield, Sucrose percentage, Harvesting stages