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Sample records for dietary behaviour protocol

  1. Assessing the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning to improve dietary behaviour: protocol for a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michie Susan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, including diet and health. The aims of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning for improving dietary behaviours. Methods/Design The research will consist of a systematic review and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Studies will be considered for the review if they are randomised controlled trials, involving participants aged 13 or over, which evaluate the effectiveness or efficacy of interactive software programmes for improving dietary behaviour. Primary outcome measures will be those related to dietary behaviours, including estimated intakes of energy, nutrients and dietary fibre, or the estimated number of servings per day of foods or food groups. Secondary outcome measures will be objective clinical measures that are likely to respond to changes in dietary behaviours, such as anthropometry or blood biochemistry. Knowledge, self-efficacy, intention and emotion will be examined as mediators of dietary behaviour change in order to explore potential mechanisms of action. Databases will be searched using a comprehensive four-part search strategy, and the results exported to a bibliographic database. Two review authors will independently screen results to identify potentially eligible studies, and will independently extract data from included studies, with any discrepancies at each stage settled by a third author. Standardised forms and criteria will be used. A descriptive analysis of included

  2. Assessing the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning to improve dietary behaviour: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Phil; Felix, Lambert; Harris, Jody; Ferguson, Elaine; Free, Caroline; Landon, Jane; Lock, Karen; Michie, Susan; Miners, Alec; Murray, Elizabeth

    2010-04-21

    The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, including diet and health. The aims of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning for improving dietary behaviours. The research will consist of a systematic review and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Studies will be considered for the review if they are randomised controlled trials, involving participants aged 13 or over, which evaluate the effectiveness or efficacy of interactive software programmes for improving dietary behaviour. Primary outcome measures will be those related to dietary behaviours, including estimated intakes of energy, nutrients and dietary fibre, or the estimated number of servings per day of foods or food groups. Secondary outcome measures will be objective clinical measures that are likely to respond to changes in dietary behaviours, such as anthropometry or blood biochemistry. Knowledge, self-efficacy, intention and emotion will be examined as mediators of dietary behaviour change in order to explore potential mechanisms of action. Databases will be searched using a comprehensive four-part search strategy, and the results exported to a bibliographic database. Two review authors will independently screen results to identify potentially eligible studies, and will independently extract data from included studies, with any discrepancies at each stage settled by a third author. Standardised forms and criteria will be used.A descriptive analysis of included studies will describe study design, participants, the

  3. The food choice at work study: effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions on dietary behaviours and diet-related disease risk - study protocol for a clustered controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaney, Fiona; Scotto Di Marrazzo, Jessica; Kelly, Clare; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Harrington, Janas M; Kirby, Ann; McKenzie, Ken; Greiner, Birgit; Perry, Ivan J

    2013-11-06

    Dietary behaviour interventions have the potential to reduce diet-related disease. Ample opportunity exists to implement these interventions in the workplace. The overall aim is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of complex dietary interventions focused on environmental dietary modification alone or in combination with nutrition education in large manufacturing workplace settings. A clustered controlled trial involving four large multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork will be conducted. The complex intervention design has been developed using the Medical Research Council's framework and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines and will be reported using the TREND statement for the transparent reporting of evaluations with non-randomized designs. It will draw on a soft paternalistic 'nudge' theoretical perspective. It will draw on a soft paternalistic "nudge" theoretical perspective. Nutrition education will include three elements: group presentations, individual nutrition consultations and detailed nutrition information. Environmental dietary modification will consist of five elements: (a) restriction of fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt, (b) increase in fibre, fruit and vegetables, (c) price discounts for whole fresh fruit, (d) strategic positioning of healthier alternatives and (e) portion size control. No intervention will be offered in workplace A (control). Workplace B will receive nutrition education. Workplace C will receive nutrition education and environmental dietary modification. Workplace D will receive environmental dietary modification alone. A total of 448 participants aged 18 to 64 years will be selected randomly. All permanent, full-time employees, purchasing at least one main meal in the workplace daily, will be eligible. Changes in dietary behaviours, nutrition knowledge, health status with measurements obtained at baseline and at intervals of 3 to 4 months, 7 to 9 months and 13 to 16

  4. The food choice at work study: effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions on dietary behaviours and diet-related disease risk - study protocol for a clustered controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary behaviour interventions have the potential to reduce diet-related disease. Ample opportunity exists to implement these interventions in the workplace. The overall aim is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of complex dietary interventions focused on environmental dietary modification alone or in combination with nutrition education in large manufacturing workplace settings. Methods/design A clustered controlled trial involving four large multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork will be conducted. The complex intervention design has been developed using the Medical Research Council’s framework and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines and will be reported using the TREND statement for the transparent reporting of evaluations with non-randomized designs. It will draw on a soft paternalistic “nudge” theoretical perspective. Nutrition education will include three elements: group presentations, individual nutrition consultations and detailed nutrition information. Environmental dietary modification will consist of five elements: (a) restriction of fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt, (b) increase in fibre, fruit and vegetables, (c) price discounts for whole fresh fruit, (d) strategic positioning of healthier alternatives and (e) portion size control. No intervention will be offered in workplace A (control). Workplace B will receive nutrition education. Workplace C will receive nutrition education and environmental dietary modification. Workplace D will receive environmental dietary modification alone. A total of 448 participants aged 18 to 64 years will be selected randomly. All permanent, full-time employees, purchasing at least one main meal in the workplace daily, will be eligible. Changes in dietary behaviours, nutrition knowledge, health status with measurements obtained at baseline and at intervals of 3 to 4 months, 7 to 9 months and 13 to 16 months will be recorded. A process

  5. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial to assess the impact of a workplace osteoporosis prevention intervention on the dietary and physical activity behaviours of working women: study protocol.

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    Tan, Ai May; Lamontagne, Anthony D; Sarmugam, Rani; Howard, Peter

    2013-04-29

    Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease and its risk can be reduced through adequate calcium consumption and physical activity. This protocol paper describes a workplace-based intervention targeting behaviour change in premenopausal women working in sedentary occupations. A cluster-randomised design was used, comparing the efficacy of a tailored intervention to standard care. Workplaces were the clusters and units of randomisation and intervention. Sample size calculations incorporated the cluster design. Final number of clusters was determined to be 16, based on a cluster size of 20 and calcium intake parameters (effect size 250 mg, ICC 0.5 and standard deviation 290 mg) as it required the highest number of clusters.Sixteen workplaces were recruited from a pool of 97 workplaces and randomly assigned to intervention and control arms (eight in each). Women meeting specified inclusion criteria were then recruited to participate. Workplaces in the intervention arm received three participatory workshops and organisation wide educational activities. Workplaces in the control/standard care arm received print resources. Intervention workshops were guided by self-efficacy theory and included participatory activities such as goal setting, problem solving, local food sampling, exercise trials, group discussion and behaviour feedback.Outcomes measures were calcium intake (milligrams/day) and physical activity level (duration: minutes/week), measured at baseline, four weeks and six months post intervention. This study addresses the current lack of evidence for behaviour change interventions focussing on osteoporosis prevention. It addresses missed opportunities of using workplaces as a platform to target high-risk individuals with sedentary occupations. The intervention was designed to modify behaviour levels to bring about risk reduction. It is the first to address dietary and physical activity components each with unique intervention strategies in the context of osteoporosis

  6. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial to assess the impact of a workplace osteoporosis prevention intervention on the dietary and physical activity behaviours of working women: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Ai May; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Sarmugam, Rani; Howard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease and its risk can be reduced through adequate calcium consumption and physical activity. This protocol paper describes a workplace-based intervention targeting behaviour change in premenopausal women working in sedentary occupations. Method/Design A cluster-randomised design was used, comparing the efficacy of a tailored intervention to standard care. Workplaces were the clusters and units of randomisation and intervention. Sample size calculat...

  7. Nurses' health-related behaviours: protocol for a quantitative systematic review of prevalence of tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neall, Rosie A; Atherton, Iain M; Kyle, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    To enumerate nurses' health-related behaviour by critically appraising studies on tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits. Nurses represent the largest occupational group in healthcare systems internationally and have an established and expanding public health role. Nurses own health-related behaviour is known to impact nurses' ability and confidence to engage in health promotion, and how patients receive and respond to advice and guidance nurses' give. However, there has been no comprehensive and comparable assessment of evidence on nurses' health-related behaviours. Quantitative systematic review of prevalence of tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits. Systematic searches for literature published between January 2000 and February 2015 and indexed in Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Psychological Information. Eligibility criteria will be applied to titles and abstracts by two reviewers independently. Full text will be reviewed and the same criteria and process applied. Two reviewers will independently assess study quality guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute handbook for the systematic review of prevalence and incidence data. Discrepancies in eligibility or quality assessment will be resolved through discussion and, where required, a third reviewer. Data synthesis will be conducted and findings reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. Enumerating prevalence of nurses' health-related behaviours is crucial to direct future research, inform public health policy, particularly around health promotion and to better support the nursing workforce through the development of behaviour change interventions. PROSPERO registration: CRD42015016751. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Dietary behaviours of volleyball and basketball players].

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    Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours

  9. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours.

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    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to

  10. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  11. Parenting styles, family structure and adolescent dietary behaviour.

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    Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart J H; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte

    2010-08-01

    To examine associations between parenting styles, family structure and aspects of adolescent dietary behaviour. Cross-sectional study. Secondary schools in the East Midlands, UK. Adolescents aged 12-16 years (n 328, 57 % boys) completed an FFQ assessing their consumption of fruit, vegetables, unhealthy snacks and breakfast. Adolescents provided information on parental and sibling status and completed a seventeen-item instrument measuring the general parenting style dimensions of involvement and strictness, from which four styles were derived: indulgent, neglectful, authoritarian, authoritative. After controlling for adolescent gender and age, analysis of covariance revealed no significant interactions between parenting style and family structure variables for any of the dietary behaviours assessed. Significant main effects for family structure were observed only for breakfast consumption, with adolescents from dual-parent families (P parent families and those with one or more brother, respectively. Significant main effects for parenting style were observed for all dietary behaviours apart from vegetable consumption. Adolescents who described their parents as authoritative ate more fruit per day, fewer unhealthy snacks per day, and ate breakfast on more days per week than those who described their parents as neglectful. The positive associations between authoritative parenting style and adolescent dietary behaviour transcend family structure. Future research should be food-specific and assess the efficacy of strategies promoting the central attributes of an authoritative parenting style on the dietary behaviours of adolescents from a variety of family structures.

  12. Stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns in children.

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    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabriele; Hebestreit, Antje; Huybrechts, Inge; Vanaelst, Barbara; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-12-01

    Psychological stress has been suggested to change dietary pattern towards more unhealthy choices and as such to contribute to overweight. Emotional eating behaviour could be an underlying mediating mechanism. The interrelationship between stress, emotional eating behaviour and dietary patterns has only rarely been examined in young children. Nevertheless, research in children is pivotal as the foundations of dietary habits are established starting from childhood and may track into adulthood. In 437 children (5-12years) of the ChiBS study, stress was measured by questionnaires on stressful events, emotions (happy, angry, sad, anxious) and problems (emotional, peer, conduct and hyperactivity). Data were collected on children's emotional eating behaviour and also on dietary patterns: frequency of fatty foods, sweet foods, snacks (fat and sweet), fruit and vegetables. Stressful events, negative emotions and problems were positively associated with emotional eating. Positive associations were observed between problems and both sweet and fatty foods consumption. Negative associations were observed between events and fruit and vegetables consumption. Overall, stress was associated with emotional eating and a more unhealthy dietary pattern and could thus contribute to the development of overweight, also in children. Nevertheless, emotional eating behaviour was not observed to mediate the stress-diet relation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trial Protocol: randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking.

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    Lycett, Deborah; Hajek, Peter; Aveyard, Paul

    2010-10-07

    Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD), individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2), daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm); with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks),15 mg(2 weeks),10 mg(2 weeks)). The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP)) engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR) aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months.Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of urinary ketones measured weekly. Daily

  14. Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajek Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD, individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. Methods This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2, daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm; with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks,15 mg(2 weeks,10 mg(2 weeks. The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of

  15. One-to-one dietary interventions undertaken in a dental setting to change dietary behaviour.

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    Harris, Rebecca; Gamboa, Ana; Dailey, Yvonne; Ashcroft, Angela

    2012-03-14

    The dental care setting is an appropriate place to deliver dietary assessment and advice as part of patient management. However, we do not know whether this is effective in changing dietary behaviour. To assess the effectiveness of one-to-one dietary interventions for all ages carried out in a dental care setting in changing dietary behaviour. The effectiveness of these interventions in the subsequent changing of oral and general health is also assessed. The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 24 January 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 24 January 2012), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 24 January 2012), CINAHL via EBSCO (1982 to 24 January 2012), PsycINFO via OVID (1967 to 24 January 2012), and Web of Science (1945 to 12 April 2011). We also undertook an electronic search of key conference proceedings (IADR and ORCA between 2000 and 13 July 2011). Reference lists of relevant articles, thesis publications (Dissertations Abstracts Online 1861 to 2011) were searched. The authors of eligible trials were contacted to identify any unpublished work. Randomised controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of one-to-one dietary interventions delivered in a dental care setting. Abstract screening, eligibility screening and data extraction decisions were all carried out independently and in duplicate by two review authors. Consensus between the two opinions was achieved by discussion, or involvement of a third review author. Five studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Two of these were multi-intervention studies where the dietary intervention was one component of a wider programme of prevention, but where data on dietary behaviour change were reported. One of the single intervention studies was concerned with dental caries prevention. The other two concerned general health outcomes. There were no studies

  16. Behaviour Protocols Verification: Fighting State Explosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mach, M.; Plášil, František; Kofroň, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2005), s. 22-30 ISSN 1525-9293 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/03/0672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : formal verification * software components * stateexplos ion * behavior protocols * parse trees Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  17. Digital and social media opportunities for dietary behaviour change.

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    McGloin, Aileen F; Eslami, Sara

    2015-05-01

    The way that people communicate, consume media and seek and receive information is changing. Forty per cent of the world's population now has an internet connection, the average global social media penetration is 39% and 1·5 billion people have internet access via mobile phone. This large-scale move in population use of digital, social and mobile media presents an unprecedented opportunity to connect with individuals on issues concerning health. The present paper aims to investigate these opportunities in relation to dietary behaviour change. Several aspects of the digital environment could support behaviour change efforts, including reach, engagement, research, segmentation, accessibility and potential to build credibility, trust, collaboration and advocacy. There are opportunities to influence behaviour online using similar techniques to traditional health promotion programmes; to positively affect health-related knowledge, skills and self-efficacy. The abundance of data on citizens' digital behaviours, whether through search behaviour, global positioning system tracking, or via demographics and interests captured through social media profiles, offer exciting opportunities for effectively targeting relevant health messages. The digital environment presents great possibilities but also great challenges. Digital communication is uncontrolled, multi-way and co-created and concerns remain in relation to inequalities, privacy, misinformation and lack of evaluation. Although web-based, social-media-based and mobile-based studies tend to show positive results for dietary behaviour change, methodologies have yet to be developed that go beyond basic evaluation criteria and move towards true measures of behaviour change. Novel approaches are necessary both in the digital promotion of behaviour change and in its measurement.

  18. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorely Trish

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys. Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day, fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week, and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls.

  19. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

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    Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart JH; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys). Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day), fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day) and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week), and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p < 0.001) and younger adolescents were more active than older adolescents (p < 0.01). Boys ate breakfast on more days per week than girls (p < 0.01) and older adolescents ate more fruit and vegetables than younger adolescents (p < 0.01). Almost 54% of adolescents had multiple risk behaviours and only 6% achieved all three of the recommendations. Girls had significantly more risk factors than boys (p < 0.01). For adolescents with two risk behaviours, the most prevalent cluster was formed by not meeting the physical activity and fruit and vegetable recommendations. Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls. PMID:19624822

  20. Children’s Food Environment : Studies on environmental determinants of primary school children’s dietary behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.C. van Ansem (Wilke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Dietary behaviour is related to overweight and obesity, but also to several chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus type II. Some dietary behaviour may reduce the risk of obesity or chronic diseases (‘healthy’ dietary behaviour), while other dietary behaviour may

  1. Drivers of dietary behaviours in women living in urban Africa: a systematic mapping review.

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    Gissing, Stefanie C; Pradeilles, Rebecca; Osei-Kwasi, Hibbah A; Cohen, Emmanuel; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2017-08-01

    To (i) systematically review the literature to determine the factors influencing diet and dietary behaviour in women living in urban Africa; (ii) present these in a visual map; and (iii) utilize this to identify potentially important areas for future research. Systematic mapping review. The review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/; registration number CRD42015017749). Six databases were systematically searched, followed by reference and citation searching. Eligibility criteria included women aged 18-70 years living in urban Africa, any design/methodology, exploring any driver, using any measure of dietary behaviour. Quality appraisal occurred parallel with data extraction. Twelve predominantly cross-sectional quantitative studies were included; reported in seventeen publications. Determinants were synthesized narratively and compiled into a map adapted from an existing ecological model based on research in high-income countries. Urban Africa. African women aged 18-70 years. Determinants significantly associated with unhealthy dietary behaviour ranged from the individual to macro level, comprising negative body image perception, perceptions of insufficient food quantity and poorer quality, poorer food knowledge, skipping meals, snacking less, higher alcohol consumption, unhealthy overall lifestyle, older age, higher socio-economic status, having an education, lower household food expenditure, frequent eating outside the home and media influence. Marital status and strong cultural and religious beliefs were also identified as possible determinants. Few studies have investigated drivers of dietary behaviours in urban African settings. Predominantly individual-level factors were reported. Gaps in the literature identified a need for research into the neglected areas: social, physical and macro-level drivers of food choice.

  2. Consumer accounts of favourable dietary behaviour change and comparison with official dietary guidelines.

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    Ares, Gastón; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Vidal, Leticia; Machín, Leandro; Moratorio, Ximena; Bandeira, Elisa; Curutchet, María Rosa; Bove, Isabel; Giménez, Ana

    2018-07-01

    The current study aimed to assess Uruguayan consumers' accounts of their own need to change their dietary patterns, their intended changes and the barriers related to doing so, and to compare the intentions and barriers with the recommendations of the national dietary guidelines. An online survey with 2381 Uruguayan employed adults, aged between 18 and 65 years, 65 % females, was conducted. Participants had to answer two open-ended questions related to changes they could make in the foods they eat and/or the way in which they eat to improve the quality of their diet and the reasons why they had not implemented those changes yet. Content analysis using inductive coding by two researchers was used to analyse the responses. Consumers mainly intended to change consumption of types of foods, particularly eating more fruits, vegetables and legumes and consuming less flour, but also intended to alter their eating patterns. Lack of time and the fact that healthy foods are perceived as being more expensive than unhealthy foods were major barriers to behaviour change. Some of the recommendations of the dietary guidelines, particularly those related to enjoying cooking and meals and engaging in it as a social activity, were not represented in consumer accounts. Accompanying policies to the dietary guidelines need to underline the importance of changes in dietary patterns, including greater enjoyment and sharing food preparation and meals in the company with others, address misconceptions about flour, and provide concrete, consumer-derived recommendations on how to enact the guidelines.

  3. Self-regulation and the intention behaviour gap. Exploring dietary behaviours in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Barbara; Allom, Vanessa; Brogan, Amy; Kothe, Emily; Todd, Jemma

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether two aspects of self-regulation (impulsivity and temporal orientation) could reduce the intention–behaviour gap for two dietary behaviours: fruit and vegetable consumption and saturated fat consumption. Australian undergraduate students (N = 154) completed questionnaires (the Barratt impulsiveness scale and the consideration of future consequences scale) and intention measures, and 1 week later behaviour was measured using the Block rapid food screener. After controlling for demographics, intention was associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, but the self-regulation measures did not further improve the variance accounted for. For saturated fat, gender was associated with consumption, such that males tended to consume more saturated fat. Intention was significantly associated with consumption, and impulsivity further improved the model such that those who were more impulsive tended to consume more saturated fat. These findings suggest that health protective and health risk behaviours, such as those investigated in the current study, may have different determinants.

  4. Dietary behaviour, psychological well-being and mental distress among adolescents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seo Ah; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Dietary intake is important for physical and mental health. The aim of this investigation was to assess associations between dietary behaviours and psychological well-being and distress among school-going adolescents in Korea. In a cross-sectional nationally representative survey, 65,212 students (Mean age = 15.1 years, SE = 0.02 and 52.2% male and 47.8% female) responded to a questionnaire that included measures of dietary behaviour, psychological well-being and mental distress. In logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, school level, school types, Body Mass Index, physical activity, and substance use, positive dietary behaviours (regular breakfast, fruit, vegetable, and milk consumption) were positively and unhealthy dietary behaviours (intake of caffeine, soft drinks, sweet drinks and fast food consumption) were negatively associated with self-reported health, happiness and sleep satisfaction. Positive dietary behaviours (regular breakfast, fruit, vegetable, and milk consumption) were negatively associated with perceived stress and depression symptoms. Unhealthy dietary behaviours (consumption of fast food, caffeine, sweetened drinks and soft drinks) were associated with perceived stress and depression symptoms. The study found strong cross-sectional evidence that healthy dietary behaviours were associated with lower mental distress and higher psychological well-being. It remains unclear, if a healthier dietary behaviour is the cause or the sequela of a more positive well-being.

  5. Dietary behaviour and health in Northern Ireland: an exploration of biochemical and haematological associations.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, M E; McClean, S I; Strain, J J; Thompson, K A

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine the relationships between dietary behaviour and biochemical and haematological measures. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional population study. SETTING--The study took place in the general community within Northern Ireland. SUBJECTS--522 randomly selected adults aged 18-64 years took part (65% of the eligible sample). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Four dietary behaviours were identified using principal components analysis from 7 d weighed dietary recor...

  6. Dietary energy density: Applying behavioural science to weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J

    2017-09-01

    Studies conducted by behavioural scientists show that energy density (kcal/g) provides effective guidance for healthy food choices to control intake and promote satiety. Energy density depends upon a number of dietary components, especially water (0 kcal/g) and fat (9 kcal/g). Increasing the proportion of water or water-rich ingredients, such as vegetables or fruit, lowers a food's energy density. A number of studies show that when the energy density of the diet is reduced, both adults and children spontaneously decrease their ad libitum energy intake. Other studies show that consuming a large volume of a low-energy-dense food such as soup, salad, or fruit as a first course preload can enhance satiety and reduce overall energy intake at a meal. Current evidence suggests that energy density influences intake through a complex interplay of cognitive, sensory, gastrointestinal, hormonal and neural influences. Other studies that focus on practical applications show how the strategic incorporation of foods lower in energy density into the diet allows people to eat satisfying portions while improving dietary patterns. This review discusses studies that have led to greater understanding of the importance of energy density for food intake regulation and weight management.

  7. Systematic mapping review of the factors influencing dietary behaviour in ethnic minority groups living in Europe: a DEDIPAC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osei-Kwasi, Hibbah Araba; Nicolaou, Mary; Powell, Katie; Terragni, Laura; Maes, Lea; Stronks, Karien; Lien, Nanna; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Europe has a growing population of ethnic minority groups whose dietary behaviours are potentially of public health concern. To promote healthier diets, the factors driving dietary behaviours need to be understood. This review mapped the broad range of factors influencing dietary behaviour among

  8. Dietary health behaviour and beliefs among university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of six healthy dietary behaviours and associated factors in university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries. In a cross-sectional survey, we used a self-administered questionnaire (largely based on the European Health and Behaviour Survey) among 19503 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, Standard deviation=2.8, age range of 16-30 years) from 27 universities in 26 countries. Results indicated that for a total of six healthy dietary behaviours, overall, students scored a mean of 2.8 healthy dietary behaviours. More female than male students indicated healthy dietary behaviours. In multivariate linear regression among men and women, living in an upper middle income or high income country, dieting to lose weight, the high importance of dietary health benefits, high non-organized religious activity, high physical activity and currently a non-tobacco user were associated with the healthy dietary behaviour index. The study found a high prevalence of relatively poor dietary healthy behaviours.

  9. Self-regulationandthe intention behaviour gap: Exploring dietary behaviours in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Barbara; Allom, Vanessa; Brogan, Amy; Kothe, Emily; Todd, Jemma

    2013-10-25

    The aim of this study was to explore whether two aspects of self-regulation (impulsivityand temporal orientation) could reduce the intention-behaviour gap for two dietary behaviours: fruit and vegetable consumption and saturated fat consumption. Australian undergraduate students(N=154)completed questionnaires (the Barrattimpulsivenessscale and the consideration of future consequences scale) and intention measures, and one week later behaviour was measured using the Block food screener.After controlling for demographics, intention was associated withfruit and vegetable consumption, but the self-regulation measures did notfurther improve the variance accounted for. For saturated fat, gender was associated with consumption, such that males tended to consume more saturated fat. Intention was significantly associated with consumption, and impulsivity further improved the model such that those who were more impulsive tended to consume more saturated fat. These findings suggest that health protective and health risk behaviours, such as those investigated in the current study, may have different determinants. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Environmental correlates of physical activity and dietary behaviours among young people: a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, E; de Ridder, D T D; de Wit, J B F

    2011-05-01

    An extensive body of research exists on environmental influences on weight-related behaviours in young people. Existing reviews aimed to synthesize this body of work, but generally focused on specific samples, behaviours or environmental influences and integration of findings is lacking. Hereto, we reviewed 18 reviews representing 671 unique studies, aiming to identify what environmental factors do and do not affect physical activity and dietary behaviours in children and adolescents. Eleven reviews focused exclusively on physical activity, six on diet, and one review focused on both physical activity and dietary behaviours with only small overlap in included studies. Physical activity was more consistently related to school and neighbourhood characteristics than to interpersonal and societal environments. In contrast, interpersonal factors played a pronounced role in dietary behaviours; no school, neighbourhood or societal factors were consistently related to dietary behaviours. This review of reviews adds to the literature by providing a comprehensive synthesis of factors related to physical activity and dietary behaviours that could be targeted in interventions. Moreover, by identifying factors that are unrelated to physical activity and dietary behaviours, this review may help to narrow the scope of future studies and environmental interventions. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  11. The relationships among child's ability of mastication, dietary behaviour and physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibayashi, M

    2011-05-01

      To investigate the relationships between the ability of mastication and physical fitness, and between the ability of mastication and dietary behaviour in children, I examined these parameters using the data of sugar elution rate, physical fitness and athletic ability survey and self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour on 171 sixth grade children (88 boys and 83 girls). The sugar elution rate was the index of the ability of mastication and was evaluated by the chewing gum method. The results of self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour were used as an index of dietary behaviour. Physical fitness was evaluated by the physical fitness and athletic ability survey of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Regression analysis revealed that the sugar elution rate had significantly positive correlations with the mean grip strength, sit-up, sit-and-reach, repetition side steps and ball throw. The results of self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour revealed that the sugar elution rate was significantly higher in children, who had high expectation of food intake and high frequency of vegetable intake, than those with lower parameters. These results suggest that the ability of mastication correlates with physical fitness and dietary behaviour in children. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. The Theory of Planned Behaviour and dietary patterns: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M S; Oliver, M; Simnadis, T; Beck, E J; Coltman, T; Iverson, D; Caputi, P; Sharma, R

    2015-12-01

    Promoting adherence to healthy dietary patterns is a critical public health issue. Models of behaviour, such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) allow programme designers to identify antecedents of dietary patterns and design effective interventions. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between TPB variables and dietary patterns. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate average correlations. Meta-regression was used to test the impact of moderator variables. In total, 22 reports met the inclusion criteria. Attitudes had the strongest association with intention (r+=0.61) followed by perceived behavioural control (PBC, r+=0.46) and subjective norm (r+=0.35). The association between intention and behaviour was r+=0.47, and between PBC and behaviour r+=0.32. Moderator analyses revealed that younger participants had stronger PBC-behaviour associations than older participants had, and studies recording participants' perceptions of behaviour reported significantly higher intention-behaviour associations than did those using less subjective measures. TPB variables were found to have medium to large associations with both intention and behaviour that were robust to the influence of key moderators. Recommendations for future research include further examination of the moderation of TPB variables by age and gender and the use of more valid measures of eating behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The mediating and moderating role of planning on mothers' decisions for early childhood dietary behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Kothe, Emily J; Mullan, Barbara; Spinks, Teagan

    2017-12-01

    Examine the roles of action and coping planning on the intention-behaviour relationship for mothers' decisions for their young children's dietary behaviours. Prospective design with two waves of data collection, one week apart. Mothers (N = 197, M age  = 34.39, SD = 5.65) of children aged 2-3 years completed a main questionnaire assessing planning constructs and intentions, and a one-week follow-up of the target behaviours - 'healthy eating' and 'discretionary choices'. Intention was the strongest predictor of behaviour for both dietary behaviours. For healthy eating, intention moderated the indirect relationship between intention-behaviour via planning; coping planning was less important when intention was strong. Further, intention was not a direct predictor of behaviour when intention was relatively low. Action planning was not a direct predictor of either behaviour after accounting for intention and coping planning; action planning on behaviour was mediated by coping planning (only for healthy eating). Intention was not a direct predictor of coping planning; intention on coping planning was mediated by action planning. Neither type of planning predicted discretionary choices. Current findings contribute novel information on the mechanisms underpinning the effect of action and coping planning on the intention-behaviour relationship.

  14. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Heilman Bell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP. This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy. Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs.

  15. Energy drink consumption is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours among college youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E

    2015-11-01

    Energy drink consumption has been associated with a variety of health risk behaviours, yet little research has explored the relationship between energy drinks and dietary behaviours of emerging adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviours among energy drink users and non-users within a sample of college youth. College freshmen (n = 585, m age = 18.7 years; 47% non-Hispanic White, 20.9% Hispanic, 25.5% Asian, 2.7% non-Hispanic Black and 4.4% other; 56% female), at a large, southwest university self-reported their energy drink consumption in the past week and a variety of dietary behaviours, including past week soda, diet soda, pre-packaged salty snacks, pre-packaged sweet snacks, fast food, restaurant food, frozen food, fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast consumption. Linear regression analyses were run to determine associations between energy drink consumption and dietary behaviour among users and non-users of energy drinks. Analyses controlled for gender, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI). Overall, 17.5% of students had consumed energy drinks in the past week. Energy drink users were more likely to be male, White and have a greater BMI. Students also reported low past week intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and breakfast. Past week energy drink consumption was associated with increased soda and frozen meal consumption. Given a rapidly expanding energy drink market, future dietary interventions among college youth may want to consider the implications of energy drinks, as results of this study suggest consumption of these beverages is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviours and a greater BMI. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  16. Promoting healthy dietary behaviour through personalised nutrition: technology push or technology pull?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart-Knox, B.; Rankin, A.; Kuznesof, S.; Poínhos, R.; Vaz de Almeida, M.D.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of educating the public through generic healthy eating messages has pervaded dietary health promotion efforts over the years and continues to do so through various media, despite little evidence for any enduring impact upon eating behaviour. There is growing evidence, however, that

  17. Meta-analyses of workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions on weight outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Coffeng, J.; Mechelen, W. van; Proper, K.I.

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analytic review critically examines the effectiveness of workplace interventions targeting physical activity, dietary behaviour or both on weight outcomes. Data could be extracted from 22 studies published between 1980 and November 2009 for meta-analyses. The GRADE approach was used to

  18. Descriptive peer norms, self-control and dietary behaviour in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, E.; Otten, R.; Hermans, R.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that perceived peer eating norms can influence dietary behaviour. This cross-sectional study examined whether certain personality traits increase the likelihood that personal eating habits are similar to perceived peer eating habits. We assessed frequency of consumption of

  19. Changing dietary behaviour: the role and development of practitioner communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kirsten

    2015-05-01

    The need to support people to change diet-related behaviour is widely advocated and how to do this effectively in practice is an expanding area of research. Important factors to consider are how healthcare practitioners communicate with their patients and how that communication may affect diet-related behaviour change and subsequent outcomes. The aim of the present paper is to discuss communication skills for behaviour change (CSBC), focusing predominantly on registered dietitians who are required to communicate effectively and have an important role in supporting patients to change diet-related behaviour. The views of dietitians in relation to CSBC have been investigated and respondents have consistently reported that they perceive these skills to be of vital importance in practice. Patient views have reiterated the importance of good CSBC in one-to-one consultations. However, pre-qualification training of dietitians is thought to deliver practitioners who are competent at a minimum level. The need for ongoing continuous professional development (CPD) in relation to CSBC has been recognised but currently most CPD focuses on updating knowledge rather than improving these essential skills. Measuring CSBC in a consistent and objective manner is difficult and an assessment tool, DIET-COMMS, has been developed and validated for this purpose. DIET-COMMS can be used to support CSBC development, but concerns about logistical challenges and acceptability of implementing this in practice have been raised. Although a suitable assessment tool now exists there is a need to develop ways to facilitate assessment of CSBC in practice.

  20. Mothers’ Self-Efficacy Regarding Dietary Behaviour and Physical Activity of Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kokolaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity constitutes a crucial health issue during preschool period and has an impact on children regardless their ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to examine the self-efficacy perceptions of mothers and potential differences and correlations with dietary behaviour and physical activity of their preschool children in Finland. Materials and Methods: The sample for this study consisted of 154 mothers from nine private nurseries who lived in greater Helsinki and have Finnish or other nationality. There were 7 categories of geographical regions from which mothers came from, according to the nationality they declared. For the data collection the "Parental Self-Efficacy Questionnaire" was used, which evaluates the self-efficacy of parents regarding the dietary behaviour and physical activity of their children.   Results: The age range of the children was between 3 up to 6 years of age (Mean=5.08 + 0.96, while the age range of mothers was between 25 up to 54 years of age (Mean=37.7+ 4.85. Positive correlations were found between maternal self-efficacy and children’s physical activity as well as between maternal self-efficacy and dietary behaviour. As it occurs from the analysis of the results from Pearson correlations: dietary behaviour had a positive correlation with physical activity r=0.583, p Conclusion: Despite the non-statistically significant differences on these two factors, the results also showed high mean score values on maternal self-efficacy so in physical activity, as in dietary behaviour. Mothers who living in the same country which offers well structured guidelines about integrating nutrition and physical activity to help prevent lifestyle related diseases, possibly explains the fact that there are no differences related to ethnicity.

  1. Effects of different dietary protein levels during rearing and different dietary energy levels during lay on behaviour and feather cover in broiler breeder females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, Van Rick A.; Kwakkel, René; Krimpen, van Marinus; Hendriks, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary protein levels during rearing and different dietary energy levels during lay on behaviour and feather cover in broiler breeder females. A 2×3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. A total of 2880 Ross 308

  2. A nutritional evaluation of dietary behaviour in various professional sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilis, Karol; Michalski, Cezary; Zych, Michał; Pilis, Anna; Jelonek, Jakub; Kaczmarzyk, Agata; Pilis, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    The types of physical exertion undertaken by weightlifters and race walkers markedly differ. This difference should also be reflected in their respective diets. The aim of the study was to investigate and assess the diets of professional weightlifters and race walkers, along with a comparison to the diets of those students studying physical education (PE). Materials and Methods. Subjects were respectively 12 weightlifters, 12 race walkers and 12 physical education students whose body composition and nutrition were determined by weighing the foods that were both eaten and drunk. The study groups showed body differences, which may have arisen through dietary differences. Higher calorie diets were observed for race walkers according to body mass whilst weightlifters showed no difference with the other groups. Dietary intakes of protein, fat, and carbohydrates were however inappropriate for all groups. Vitamin and mineral intakes in weightlifters and students were within tolerable limits, but the rather aggressive taking of supplements by race walkers resulted in standard/recommended consumption levels being greatly exceeded in some cases. The diets of the study groups of weightlifters and race walkers need to be corrected. nutrition in sport, weightlifting, race walking, food supplementation.

  3. Stimulus control and affect in dietary behaviours. An intensive longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Bower, Jodie; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2015-04-01

    Dietary behaviours are substantially influenced by environmental and internal stimuli, such as mood, social situation, and food availability. However, little is known about the role of stimulus control for eating in non-clinical populations, and no studies so far have looked at eating and drinking behaviour simultaneously. 53 individuals from the general population took part in an intensive longitudinal study with repeated, real-time assessments of eating and drinking using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Eating was assessed as main meals and snacks, drinks assessments were separated along alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. Situational and internal stimuli were assessed during both eating and drinking events, and during randomly selected non-eating occasions. Hierarchical multinomial logistic random effects models were used to analyse data, comparing dietary events to non-eating occasions. Several situational and affective antecedents of dietary behaviours could be identified. Meals were significantly associated with having food available and observing others eat. Snacking was associated with negative affect, having food available, and observing others eat. Engaging in activities and being with others decreased the likelihood of eating behaviours. Non-alcoholic drinks were associated with observing others eat, and less activities and company. Alcoholic drinks were associated with less negative affect and arousal, and with observing others eat. RESULTS support the role of stimulus control in dietary behaviours, with support for both internal and external, in particular availability and social stimuli. The findings for negative affect support the idea of comfort eating, and results point to the formation of eating habits via cue-behaviour associations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Jason; Sadler, Richard; Clark, Andrew; O'Connor, Colleen; Milczarek, Malgorzata; Doherty, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone “apps” are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called “SmartAPPetite,” which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to “nudge” users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the “triple bottom line” of health, economy, and environment. PMID:26380298

  5. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gilliland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone “apps” are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called “SmartAPPetite,” which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to “nudge” users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the “triple bottom line” of health, economy, and environment.

  6. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Jason; Sadler, Richard; Clark, Andrew; O'Connor, Colleen; Milczarek, Malgorzata; Doherty, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone "apps" are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called "SmartAPPetite," which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to "nudge" users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the "triple bottom line" of health, economy, and environment.

  7. Effect of dietary behaviour modification on anthropometric indices and eating behaviour in obese adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet Sarvestani, Raheleh; Jamalfard, Mohammad Hoseein; Kargar, Marziye; Kaveh, Mohammad Hoseein; Tabatabaee, Hamid Reza

    2009-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to evaluate the effects of behaviour modification on anthropometric indices and to explore if behaviour modification could improve eating behaviour in adolescents. Obesity is currently the most important nutritional disease of children and adolescents. To date, several attempts to achieve weight loss in children have been made, but little is known about their effects on improving eating behaviours. Sixty obese adolescent girls participated in a behaviour modification program which was held for 16 weeks in 2007. The participants were randomly selected from two different schools and were assigned to an experimental and control group (30 participants each). Anthropometric indices and eating behaviours were assessed before and after the program. Eating behaviour was assessed using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. There were statistically significant differences in changes in body weight (-2.75 kg vs. 0.62 kg), body mass index (-1.07 kg/m(2) vs. 0.24 kg/m(2)) and arm circumference (-2.31 cm vs. 0.5 cm) in the experimental group in contrast to controls (P behaviour, emotional eating (0.63, 0.17), external eating (0.99, 0.05) and restrained eating (0.72, 0.03) in the experimental vs. the control group respectively (P < 0.001). Nurses, more than other healthcare professionals, can address obesity in adolescents and they should not concentrate solely on weight reduction, but also encourage children to acquire a healthy lifestyle.

  8. Adaptive e-learning to improve dietary behaviour: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J; Felix, L; Miners, A; Murray, E; Michie, S; Ferguson, E; Free, C; Lock, K; Landon, J; Edwards, P

    2011-10-01

    UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is 'e-learning', the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues including health. The high level of accessibility, combined with emerging advances in computer processing power, data transmission and data storage, makes interactive e-learning a potentially powerful and cost-effective medium for improving dietary behaviour. This review aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-learning interventions for dietary behaviour change, and also to explore potential psychological mechanisms of action and components of effective interventions. Electronic bibliographic databases (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, Dissertation Abstracts, EMBASE, Education Resources Information Center, Global Health, Health Economic Evaluations Database, Health Management Information Consortium, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science) were searched for the period January 1990 to November 2009. Reference lists of included studies and previous reviews were also screened; authors were contacted and trial registers were searched. Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials, involving participants aged ≥ 13 years, which evaluated the effectiveness of interactive software programs for improving dietary behaviour. Primary outcomes were measures of dietary behaviours, including estimated intakes or changes in intake of energy, nutrients, dietary fibre, foods or food groups. Secondary outcome measures were clinical outcomes such as anthropometry or blood biochemistry. Psychological mediators of dietary behaviour change were also investigated. Two review authors independently screened results and extracted data from

  9. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-09-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth. © 2015 World Obesity.

  10. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Artur; Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-06-25

    There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklist can be used to identify BCTs in smartphone apps. The top-20 paid and top-20 free physical activity and/or dietary behaviour apps from the New Zealand Apple App Store Health & Fitness category were downloaded to an iPhone. Four independent raters user-tested and coded each app for the presence/absence of BCTs using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (26 BCTs in total). The number of BCTs included in the 40 apps was calculated. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability for each of the 26 BCTs. Apps included an average of 8.1 (range 2-18) techniques, the number being slightly higher for paid (M = 9.7, range 2-18) than free apps (M = 6.6, range 3-14). The most frequently included BCTs were "provide instruction" (83% of the apps), "set graded tasks" (70%), and "prompt self-monitoring" (60%). Techniques such as "teach to use prompts/cues", "agree on behavioural contract", "relapse prevention" and "time management" were not present in the apps reviewed. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 (Mean 0.6, SD = 0.2). Presence of BCTs varied by app type and price; however, BCTs associated with increased intervention effectiveness were in general more common in paid apps. The taxonomy checklist can be used by independent raters to reliably identify BCTs in physical activity and dietary behaviour smartphone apps.

  11. Knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding dietary salt intake among medical students in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Pedro; Sanhangala, Edgar J R; Dombele, Isildro M; Ulundo, Henrique S N; Capingana, Daniel P; Silva, Amílcar B T

    2015-01-01

    Levels of salt consumption and its awareness among medical students in Angola remain insufficiently studied. This study determined salt intake and assessed medical students' knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding salt consumption. Were collected 24-hour urine samples from a random sample of 123 undergraduate medical students aged 17-43 years who were studying at the University of Agostinho Neto in Luanda. Their knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding dietary salt were surveyed. Socio-demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected. Average salt intake was 14.2 ± 5.1 g/day, without significant difference between genders (p = 0.221). In total, 96.7% consumed over 5 g/day, but only 6.5% of participants were aware of their excessive salt intake. The majority knew about salt-related health consequences and 45.5% reported they controlled their salt intake. This study indicated a high salt intake and inadequate behaviour regarding dietary salt consumption among medical students studying at the University of Agostinho Neto. This highlights the need for nutritional education to improve their dietary habits and future role in counselling.

  12. Developing a systems-based framework of the factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviours in ethnic minority populations living in Europe - a DEDIPAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Michelle; Nicolaou, Mary; Langøien, Lars Jørun; Osei-Kwasi, Hibbah Araba; Chastin, Sebastien F M; Stok, F Marijn; Capranica, Laura; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Monsivais, Pablo; Mazzocchi, Mario; Maes, Lea; Roos, Gun; Mejean, Caroline; Powell, Katie; Stronks, Karien

    2017-11-07

    Some ethnic minority populations have a higher risk of non-communicable diseases than the majority European population. Diet and physical activity behaviours contribute to this risk, shaped by a system of inter-related factors. This study mapped a systems-based framework of the factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviours in ethnic minority populations living in Europe, to inform research prioritisation and intervention development. A concept mapping approach guided by systems thinking was used: i. Preparation (protocol and terminology); ii. Generating a list of factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviours in ethnic minority populations living in Europe from evidence (systematic mapping reviews) and 'eminence' (89 participants from 24 academic disciplines via brainstorming, an international symposium and expert review) and; iii. Seeking consensus on structuring, rating and clustering factors, based on how they relate to each other; and iv. Interpreting/utilising the framework for research and interventions. Similar steps were undertaken for frameworks developed for the majority European population. Seven distinct clusters emerged for dietary behaviour (containing 85 factors) and 8 for physical activity behaviours (containing 183 factors). Four clusters were similar across behaviours: Social and cultural environment; Social and material resources; Psychosocial; and Migration context. Similar clusters of factors emerged in the frameworks for diet and physical activity behaviours of the majority European population, except for 'migration context'. The importance of factors across all clusters was acknowledged, but their relative importance differed for ethnic minority populations compared with the majority population. This systems-based framework integrates evidence from both expert opinion and published literature, to map the factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviours in ethnic minority groups. Our findings illustrate

  13. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Chouet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined. Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS. Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI, comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64, those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024 and lower (i.e., better FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042. In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013 and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = −0.33, p = 0.037. Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = −0.24, p = 0.001. Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults.

  14. Dietary Vitamin K Intake Is Associated with Cognition and Behaviour among Geriatric Patients: The CLIP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, Justine; Ferland, Guylaine; Féart, Catherine; Rolland, Yves; Presse, Nancy; Boucher, Kariane; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-08-12

    Our objective was to determine whether dietary vitamin K intake was associated with cognition and behavior among older adults. 192 consecutive participants ≥65 years, recruited in the cross-sectional CLIP (Cognition and LIPophilic vitamins) study, were separated into two groups according to the tertiles of dietary phylloquinone intake (i.e., lowest third below 207 µg/day versus the other two thirds combined). Daily dietary phylloquinone intake was estimated from 50-item interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cognition was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); behaviour with Frontotemporal Behavioral Rating Scale (FBRS). Age, gender, social problems, education, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, history of stroke, use vitamin K antagonists, inadequate fatty fish intake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), vitamin B12, albumin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were used as confounders. Compared to participants in the lowest third of dietary phylloquinone intake (n = 64), those with higher intake had higher (i.e., better) mean MMSE score (22.0 ± 5.7 versus 19.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.024) and lower (i.e., better) FBRS score (1.5 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.3, p = 0.042). In multivariate linear regressions, log dietary phylloquinone intake was positively associated with MMSE score (adjusted β = 1.66, p = 0.013) and inversely associated with FBRS score (adjusted β = -0.33, p = 0.037). Specifically, log dietary phylloquinone intake correlated negatively with FBRS subscore of physical neglect (r = -0.24, p = 0.001). Higher dietary phylloquinone intake was associated with better cognition and behavior among older adults.

  15. Does the school food environment influence the dietary behaviours of Norwegian 11-year-olds? The HEIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Andersen, Lene F; Bjelland, Mona; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Totland, Torunn H; Bergh, Ingunn H; Lien, Nanna

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of the school food environment on the dietary behaviours of 11-year-old Norwegian children in elementary schools. Baseline data from a school-based intervention study: the Health In Adolescents study was used. A total of 1425 11-year-old children from 35 schools from the eastern part of Norway were included. School administrators provided information on the physical, political, and sociocultural school food environment and students reported their intake of fruits, vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and snacks. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the school-level variance in dietary behaviours and to investigate the association of school food environmental factors with these dietary behaviours. After adjustment for student characteristics, the school level accounted for a small proportion (1.1%-3.0%) of the variance in the dietary behaviours investigated. None of the investigated school food environmental factors were found to be related to the children's reported intake of fruits, vegetables, snacks or SSB. Most of the variance in the dietary behaviours investigated was at the personal level. Thus in this sample, the investigated school-level factors do not appear to exert a strong influence on the dietary behaviours of children. Longitudinal studies using validated measures of the school food environment are needed.

  16. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  17. Development of a Tool to Stage Households' Readiness to Change Dietary Behaviours in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daivadanam, Meena; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Thankappan, K R; Sarma, P S; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Dietary interventions and existing health behaviour theories are centred on individuals; therefore, none of the available tools are applicable to households for changing dietary behaviour. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a practical tool that could be administered by community volunteers to stage households in rural Kerala based on readiness to change dietary behaviour. Such a staging tool, comprising a questionnaire and its algorithm, focusing five dietary components (fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar and oil) and households (rather than individuals), was finalised through three consecutive pilot validation sessions, conducted over a four-month period. Each revised version was tested with a total of 80 households (n = 30, 35 and 15 respectively in the three sessions). The tool and its comparator, Motivational Interviewing (MI), assessed the stage-of-change for a household pertaining to their: 1) fruit and vegetable consumption behaviour; 2) salt, sugar and oil consumption behaviour; 3) overall readiness to change. The level of agreement between the two was tested using Kappa statistics to assess concurrent validity. A value of 0.7 or above was considered as good agreement. The final version was found to have good face and content validity, and also a high level of agreement with MI (87%; weighted kappa statistic: 0.85). Internal consistency testing was performed using Cronbach's Alpha, with a value between 0.80 and 0.90 considered to be good. The instrument had good correlation between the items in each section (Cronbach's Alpha: 0.84 (fruit and vegetables), 0.85 (salt, sugar and oil) and 0.83 (Overall)). Pre-contemplation was the most difficult stage to identify; for which efficacy and perceived cooperation at the household level were important. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first staging tool for households. This tool represents a new concept in community-based dietary interventions. The tool can be easily administered by lay community

  18. Development of a Tool to Stage Households’ Readiness to Change Dietary Behaviours in Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daivadanam, Meena; Ravindran, T. K. Sundari; Thankappan, K. R.; Sarma, P. S.; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Dietary interventions and existing health behaviour theories are centred on individuals; therefore, none of the available tools are applicable to households for changing dietary behaviour. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a practical tool that could be administered by community volunteers to stage households in rural Kerala based on readiness to change dietary behaviour. Such a staging tool, comprising a questionnaire and its algorithm, focusing five dietary components (fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar and oil) and households (rather than individuals), was finalised through three consecutive pilot validation sessions, conducted over a four-month period. Each revised version was tested with a total of 80 households (n = 30, 35 and 15 respectively in the three sessions). The tool and its comparator, Motivational Interviewing (MI), assessed the stage-of-change for a household pertaining to their: 1) fruit and vegetable consumption behaviour; 2) salt, sugar and oil consumption behaviour; 3) overall readiness to change. The level of agreement between the two was tested using Kappa statistics to assess concurrent validity. A value of 0.7 or above was considered as good agreement. The final version was found to have good face and content validity, and also a high level of agreement with MI (87%; weighted kappa statistic: 0.85). Internal consistency testing was performed using Cronbach’s Alpha, with a value between 0.80 and 0.90 considered to be good. The instrument had good correlation between the items in each section (Cronbach’s Alpha: 0.84 (fruit and vegetables), 0.85 (salt, sugar and oil) and 0.83 (Overall)). Pre-contemplation was the most difficult stage to identify; for which efficacy and perceived cooperation at the household level were important. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first staging tool for households. This tool represents a new concept in community-based dietary interventions. The tool can be easily administered by lay

  19. Exploring the relationship between perceived barriers to healthy eating and dietary behaviours in European adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, M G M; Mackenbach, J D; Charreire, H; Oppert, J-M; Bárdos, H; Glonti, K; Rutter, H; Compernolle, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Beulens, J W J; Brug, J; Lakerveld, J

    2017-04-26

    Dietary behaviours may be influenced by perceptions of barriers to healthy eating. Using data from a large cross-European study (N = 5900), we explored associations between various perceived barriers to healthy eating and dietary behaviours among adults from urban regions in five European countries and examined whether associations differed across regions and socio-demographic backgrounds. Frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, fast food, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets, breakfast and home-cooked meals were split by the median into higher and lower consumption. We tested associations between barriers (irregular working hours; giving up preferred foods; busy lifestyle; lack of willpower; price of healthy food; taste preferences of family and friends; lack of healthy options and unappealing foods) and dietary variables using multilevel logistic regression models. We explored whether associations differed by age, sex, education, urban region, weight status, household composition or employment. Respondents who perceived any barrier were less likely to report higher consumption of healthier foods and more likely to report higher consumption of fast food. 'Lack of willpower', 'time constraints' and 'taste preferences' were most consistently associated with consumption. For example, those perceiving lack of willpower ate less fruit [odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.64], and those with a busy lifestyle ate less vegetables (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.47-0.62). Many associations differed in size, but not in direction, by region, sex, age and household composition. Perceived 'lack of willpower', 'time constraints' and 'taste preferences' were barriers most strongly related to dietary behaviours, but the association between various barriers and lower intake of fruit and vegetables was somewhat more pronounced among younger participants and women.

  20. Cultural factors influencing dietary and fluid restriction behaviour: perceptions of older Chinese patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xiaoshan; Peng, Youqing; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Dan

    2017-03-01

    To explore the cultural factors related to dietary and fluid restriction behaviours among older Chinese patients. Excess dietary sodium and fluid intake are risk factors contributing to the worsening and rehospitalisation for heart failure in older patients. Managing the complex fluid and diet requirements of heart failure patients is challenging and is made more complicated by cultural variations in self-management behaviours in response to a health threat. Qualitative study using semi-structured in interviews and framework analysis. The design of this study is qualitative descriptive. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 heart failure patients. Data were analysed through content analysis. Seven cultural themes emerged from the qualitative data: the values placed on health and illness, customary way of life, preference for folk care and the Chinese healthcare system, and factors related to kinship and social ties, religion, economics and education. Dietary change and management in response to illness, including heart failure, is closely related to individuals' cultural background. Healthcare providers should have a good understanding of cultural aspects that can influence patients' conformity to medical recommendations. Heart failure patients need support that considers their cultural needs. Healthcare providers must have a good understanding of the experiences of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Academic performance of Korean children is associated with dietary behaviours and physical status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Young P; Frongillo, Edward A; Han, Sung-Sook; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Woo-Kyung; Jang, Young-Ai; Won, Hye-Sook; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Sook-He

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a fuller understanding of the association of dietary behaviours, physical status and socio-economic status with academic performance in Korean teenagers. The subjects in this study were 6,463 boys and girls, in grade 5, 8, and 11 in Korea. A self-administered questionnaire and the food-frequency form were used. Grade point average (GPA), height, weight, and physical fitness score for the year were recorded from the school record. The academic performance of students was strongly associated with dietary behaviours, especially with regularity of three meals even after control for parent's education level. Regular breakfast and lunch were more important in grades 5 and 8, while regular dinner was more related with academic performance in grade 11. Small, positive associations of height and physical fitness to academic performance were also found. The relative importance of regularity of meals was greater than that of socio-economic status and physical status in older teenagers. The results of this study suggest that accommodation of better dietary environment and nutrition education for three regular meals is recommended.

  2. The effects of breeding protocol in C57BL/6J mice on adult offspring behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Foldi

    Full Text Available Animal experiments have demonstrated that a wide range of prenatal exposures can impact on the behaviour of the offspring. However, there is a lack of evidence as to whether the duration of sire exposure could affect such outcomes. We compared two widely used methods for breeding offspring for behavioural studies. The first involved housing male and female C57Bl/6J mice together for a period of time (usually 10-12 days and checking for pregnancy by the presence of a distended abdomen (Pair-housed; PH. The second involved daily introduction of female breeders to the male homecage followed by daily checks for pregnancy by the presence of vaginal plugs (Time-mated; TM. Male and female offspring were tested at 10 weeks of age on a behavioural test battery including the elevated plus-maze, hole board, light/dark emergence, forced swim test, novelty-suppressed feeding, active avoidance and extinction, tests for nociception and for prepulse inhibition (PPI of the acoustic startle response. We found that length of sire exposure (LSE had no significant effects on offspring behaviour, suggesting that the two breeding protocols do not differentially affect the behavioural outcomes of interest. The absence of LSE effects on the selected variables examined does not detract from the relevance of this study. Information regarding the potential influences of breeding protocol is not only absent from the literature, but also likely to be of particular interest to researchers studying the influence of prenatal manipulations on adult behaviour.

  3. Does neighbourhood composition modify the association between acculturation and unhealthy dietary behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donglan; van Meijgaard, Jeroen; Shi, Lu; Cole, Brian; Fielding, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    Studies have shown that immigrants' acculturation is associated with numerous unhealthy behaviours. Yet, the role of environmental factors in modifying the effect of acculturation on health behaviours has received little attention. This study aims to create a more nuanced understanding of the health effects of acculturation by examining how neighbourhood immigrant composition modifies the association between individuals' eating patterns and acculturation. Cross-sectional Data from Los Angeles County Health Survey 2007 adult sample were linked to data on retail food establishments and US Census 2000 neighbourhood characteristics. Acculturation was measured by language spoken at home and years stayed in the US. Eating fast food more than once per week and eating zero serving of fruit or vegetables during the previous day were used as proxy indicators for unhealthy dietary behaviour. Multilevel logistic regression models were performed in the full sample and in the sample with only Latino adults. Immigrants' lack of acculturation and living in a neighbourhood with a high percentage immigrants were associated with healthier dietary behaviour. We also identified that lack of acculturation conveyed a significantly stronger protective effect on regular fast-food consumption for immigrants living in neighbourhoods with higher percentage immigrants (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.93). Among immigrants in Los Angeles County, living in a neighbourhood with a high density of other immigrants attenuates the negative effects of acculturation on healthy eating behaviours. Healthy eating promotion efforts should build on this protective effect in outreach to acculturating immigrant communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Dietary phytochemical intake from foods and health outcomes: a systematic review protocol and preliminary scoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Vivienne X; Kent, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dietary phytochemicals are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables and grains and may be categorised in a nested hierarchical manner with many hundred individual phytochemicals identified to date. To associate phytochemical intakes with positive health outcomes, a fundamental step is to accurately estimate the dietary phytochemical intake from foods reported. The purpose of this systematic review protocol is to describe the process to be undertaken to summarise the evidence for food-based dietary phytochemical intakes and health outcomes for adults. Methods and analysis The review will be undertaken following the PRISMA guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions using the Review Manager software. Phytochemical subclasses (phenolic acids, flavanols, etc) will be used to search for relevant studies using the Web of Science and Scopus scientific databases. The retrieved studies will be screened based on inclusion of natural whole food items and health outcomes. Phytochemical studies related to cardiovascular disease, cancer, overweight, glucose tolerance, digestive, reproductive, macular and bone health and mental disorders, fatigue and immunity will be examined based on prior scoping. The evidence will be aggregated by the food types and health outcomes. Comparison of differences in the outcomes for randomised controlled trials and observational studies will be undertaken. The strength of the review lies in its focus on whole food items and health conditions rather than one type of phytochemical related to one single health condition. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be conducted where an adequate number of publications are found per phytochemical subclass. Dissemination By comparing the outcomes from experimental and observational studies, the review will determine whether the overall conclusions related to the phytochemical subclasses are the same between study types for the identified health

  5. Farmers' market shopping and dietary behaviours among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Wu, Qiang; Demarest, Chelsea L; Dixon, Crystal E; Dortche, Ciarra Jm; Bullock, Sally L; McGuirt, Jared; Ward, Rachel; Ammerman, Alice S

    2015-09-01

    Because farmers' markets include a variety of fruits and vegetables, shopping at farmers' markets would likely improve diet quality among low-income consumers, as well as promote sustainable direct farm-to-consumer business models. However, not much is known about how to promote farmers' market shopping among low-income consumers. Therefore, the purpose of the present paper was to examine barriers to and facilitators of shopping at farmers' markets and associations between shopping at farmers' markets and self-reported dietary behaviours (fruit and vegetable, sugar-sweetened beverage and fast-food consumption) and BMI. Cross-sectional analyses of associations between farmers' market shopping frequency, awareness of markets, access to markets, dietary behaviours and BMI. Department of Social Services, Pitt County, eastern North Carolina, USA. Between April and July 2013, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants (n 205) completed a quantitative survey. Barriers to shopping at farmers' markets included does not accept SNAP/electronic benefit transfer, out of the way and lack of transportation. Farmers' market shopping was associated with awareness of farmers' markets (estimate =0·18 (se 0·04), Pmarket shopping (estimate =1·06 (se 0·32), P=0·001). Our study is one of the first to examine SNAP participants' farmers' market shopping, distance to farmers' markets and dietary behaviours. Barriers to shopping at farmers' markets and increasing awareness of existing markets should be addressed in future interventions to increase SNAP participants' use of farmers' markets, ultimately improving diet quality in this high-risk group.

  6. Meta-analyses of workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions on weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, L M; Coffeng, J; van Mechelen, W; Proper, K I

    2011-06-01

    This meta-analytic review critically examines the effectiveness of workplace interventions targeting physical activity, dietary behaviour or both on weight outcomes. Data could be extracted from 22 studies published between 1980 and November 2009 for meta-analyses. The GRADE approach was used to determine the level of evidence for each pooled outcome measure. Results show moderate quality of evidence that workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions significantly reduce body weight (nine studies; mean difference [MD]-1.19 kg [95% CI -1.64 to -0.74]), body mass index (BMI) (11 studies; MD -0.34 kg m⁻² [95% CI -0.46 to -0.22]) and body fat percentage calculated from sum of skin-folds (three studies; MD -1.12% [95% CI -1.86 to -0.38]). There is low quality of evidence that workplace physical activity interventions significantly reduce body weight and BMI. Effects on percentage body fat calculated from bioelectrical impedance or hydrostatic weighing, waist circumference, sum of skin-folds and waist-hip ratio could not be investigated properly because of a lack of studies. Subgroup analyses showed a greater reduction in body weight of physical activity and diet interventions containing an environmental component. As the clinical relevance of the pooled effects may be substantial on a population level, we recommend workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions, including an environment component, in order to prevent weight gain. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Dietary magnesium deficiency affects gut microbiota and anxiety-like behaviour in C57BL/6N mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyndt Jørgensen, Bettina; Winther, Gudrun; Kihl, Pernille; Nielsen, Dennis S; Wegener, Gregers; Hansen, Axel K; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2015-10-01

    Magnesium deficiency has been associated with anxiety in humans, and rodent studies have demonstrated the gut microbiota to impact behaviour. We investigated the impact of 6 weeks of dietary magnesium deficiency on gut microbiota composition and anxiety-like behaviour and whether there was a link between the two. A total of 20 C57BL/6 mice, fed either a standard diet or a magnesium-deficient diet for 6 weeks, were tested using the light-dark box anxiety test. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis. We demonstrated that the gut microbiota composition correlated significantly with the behaviour of dietary unchallenged mice. A magnesium-deficient diet altered the gut microbiota, and was associated with altered anxiety-like behaviour, measured by decreased latency to enter the light box. Magnesium deficiency altered behavior. The duration of magnesium deficiency is suggested to influence behaviour in the evaluated test.

  8. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits among Kuwaiti adolescents: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allafi, Ahmad; Al-Haifi, Ahmad R; Al-Fayez, Mohammad A; Al-Athari, Buthaina I; Al-Ajmi, Fahhad A; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Ahmed, Faruk

    2014-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits among adolescents in Kuwait and to compare the differences between genders. A cross-sectional study was conducted among secondary-school children who participated in the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS), a multi-centre collaborative project. Secondary schools in Kuwait. Adolescents (463 boys and 443 girls), aged 14-19 years. Nearly half (44·6 %) of the boys and three-quarters (76·0 %) of the girls did not meet the recommended daily physical activity levels (≥2520 MET-min/week, moderate to vigorous intensity). Nearly all (96·3 % of boys and 96·7 % of girls) adolescents reported spending >2 h/d on screen time, with girls found to spend more time per day watching television (P = 0·02) and using a computer (P physical activity, spend more time on sedentary activities and have unhealthy dietary practices. The findings emphasize an urgent need for implementing an appropriate intervention for promoting physical activity, healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviours among these children.

  9. Association of maternal characteristics and behaviours with 4-year-old children's dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Catarina; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the association of family and maternal characteristics with preschool children's dietary patterns. Trained interviewers evaluated subsample 3422 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal, 2005-2006). Maternal characteristics and behaviours (exercise, smoking habits, diet and child-feeding practices) and family characteristics were evaluated. Maternal diet was classified by a dietary score, and children's dietary patterns were identified by latent class analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by multinomial regression models. The analysis was based on a framework with four conceptual levels: maternal socio-economic position (SEP) at 12 years, maternal socio-economic and demographic characteristics at child's delivery, family characteristics and maternal behaviours at child's 4 years. Three dietary patterns were identified in children: high in energy-dense foods (EDF); low in foods typically consumed at main meals and intermediate in snacks (Snacking); higher in healthy foods; and lower in unhealthy ones (Healthier, reference). Lower maternal SEP had an overall effect on children's diet (low vs. high SEP; EDF, OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.42-2.18; Snacking, OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.27-2.35), while maternal education was directly associated with it (≤9 vs. >12 schooling years, EDF, OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.70-2.81; Snacking, OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.82-3.55). Children whose mothers had worse dietary score were significantly more likely to follow unhealthier patterns (first vs. fourth quartile; EDF, OR = 9.94, 95% CI: 7.35-13.44, P-trend diet was the key factor associated with children's diet, above and beyond socio-economic and demographic characteristics, accounting for one-third of the determination coefficient of the fully adjusted model. At preschool age, interventions should give a particular focus on maternal diet and low SEP groups. © 2016

  10. Evaluation of selected dietary behaviours of students according to gender and nutritional knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowicz, Katarzyna; Czarnocińska, Jolanta; Galiński, Grzegorz; Kaźmierczak, Paulina; Górska, Karolina; Durczewski, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition is a factor influencing physical and mental fitness. In this study we examine the lifestyle of university students and its impact on nutritional errors. To evaluate the dietary behaviours of students taking into account gender and nutritional knowledge. Using a QEB questionnaire, we were able to evaluate dietary behaviours and nutritional knowledge of respondents. Our analysis was conducted on data obtained from 456 students. We found that nutritional knowledge for women was 34.7% satisfactory and 34.7% good. In contrast, nutritional knowledge for men varied, amounting to 40.2% satisfactory and 25.1% good. The number of meals and their regular consumption did not depend on gender or the nutritional knowledge of students, however, significant differences were recorded for the types of snacks they eat. A greater number of women than men snacked on sweets and biscuits, nuts and seeds, while in the case of salty snacks an opposite trend was observed. A higher level of nutritional knowledge correlated with the number of students snacking on fruit and vegetables instead of salty snacks. Moreover, it was observed that health-promoting behaviours such as not adding sugar to beverages and not adding salt to dishes were more common with women and individuals with a higher level of nutritional knowledge. Women more frequently snack on sweets, biscuits, nuts and seeds. More men snack on salty snacks, add sugar to beverages and add salt to dishes. Individuals with insufficient nutritional knowledge more frequently snack on salty snacks rather than fruit. Students with insufficient nutritional knowledge more often commit nutritional errors.

  11. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-03

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  12. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia J. Harray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP. These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality, dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  13. Relationship between attitudes towards healthy eating and dietary behaviour, lifestyle and demographic factors in a representative sample of Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, A P; McCarthy, S N; Kearney, J M; Gibney, M J

    2007-01-01

    Attitudes towards healthy eating were explored according to dietary, lifestyle and socio-demographic correlates in a random sample of 1256 Irish adults. Data were obtained from an Irish cross-sectional survey (1997-1999). A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain attitudinal information. Food consumption was estimated using a 7-d food diary. A majority of the sample had a positive attitude or motivation towards their healthy eating behaviour. Those who perceived their own eating habits to be healthy were more likely to comply with current dietary guidelines than those who did not. Females, increasing age, higher social class, tertiary education, non-smokers, lower body-weights and increased recreational activity were associated with a lower odds ratio (OR) for having a negative attitude towards their healthy eating behaviour. An increased intake (g/d) of breakfast cereals, vegetables, fruit and poultry dishes were associated with decreased OR for negative attitudes towards their healthy eating behaviour, while an increased intake of high-calorie beverages (g/d) was associated with an increased OR. It can be concluded that attitudes or motivation towards eating healthily was related to measured dietary and lifestyle behaviour in this sample. Future research is warranted to devise appropriate methods of instituting attitude change towards dietary behaviour in certain subgroups of the population.

  14. The impact of a standardised intramuscular sedation protocol for acute behavioural disturbance in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downes Michael A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute behavioural disturbance (ABD is an increasing problem in emergency departments. This study aimed to determine the impact of a structured intramuscular (IM sedation protocol on the duration of ABD in the emergency department. Methods A historical control study was undertaken comparing 58 patients who required physical restraint and parenteral sedation with the structured IM sedation protocol, to 73 historical controls treated predominantly by intravenous sedation, according to individual clinician preference. The primary outcome was the duration of the ABD defined as the time security staff were required. Secondary outcomes were the requirement for additional sedation, drug related-adverse effects and patient and staff injuries. Results The median duration of the ABD in patients with the new sedation protocol was 21 minutes (IQR: 15 to 35 minutes; Range: 5 to 78 minutes compared to a median duration of 30 minutes (IQR: 15 to 50 minutes; Range: 5 to 135 minutes in the historical controls which was significantly different (p = 0.03. With IM sedation only 27 of 58 patients (47%; 95% CI: 34% to 60% required further sedation compared to 64 of 73 historical controls (88%; 95%CI: 77% to 94%. There were six (10% drug-related adverse events with the new IM protocol [oxygen desaturation (5, oxygen desaturation/airway obstruction (1] compared to 10 (14% in the historical controls [oxygen desaturation (5, hypoventilation (4 and aspiration (1]. Injuries to staff occurred with three patients using the new sedation protocol and in seven of the historical controls. Two patients were injured during the new protocol and two of the historical controls. Conclusion The use of a standardised IM sedation protocol was simple, more effective and as safe for management of ABD compared to predominantly intravenous sedation.

  15. Health risk behaviours amongst school adolescents: protocol for a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youness El Achhab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining risky behaviours of adolescents provides valuable information for designing appropriate intervention programmes for advancing adolescent’s health. However, these behaviours are not fully addressed by researchers in a comprehensive approach. We report the protocol of a mixed methods study designed to investigate the health risk behaviours of Moroccan adolescents with the goal of identifying suitable strategies to address their health concerns. Methods We used a sequential two-phase explanatory mixed method study design. The approach begins with the collection of quantitative data, followed by the collection of qualitative data to explain and enrich the quantitative findings. In the first phase, the global school-based student health survey (GSHS was administered to 800 students who were between 14 and 19 years of age. The second phase engaged adolescents, parents and teachers in focus groups and assessed education documents to explore the level of coverage of health education in the programme learnt in the middle school. To obtain opinions about strategies to reduce Moroccan adolescents’ health risk behaviours, a nominal group technique will be used. Discussion The findings of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study provide insights into the risk behaviours that need to be considered if intervention programmes and preventive strategies are to be designed to promote adolescent’s health in the Moroccan school.

  16. A randomised control crossover trial of a theory based intervention to improve sun-safe and healthy behaviours in construction workers: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nioi, Amanda; Wendelboe-Nelson, Charlotte; Cowan, Sue; Cowie, Hilary; Rashid, Shahzad; Ritchie, Peter; Cherrie, Mark; Lansdown, Terry C; Cherrie, John W

    2018-02-15

    Exposure to sunlight can have both positive and negative health impacts. Excessive exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer, however insufficient exposure to sunlight has a detrimental effect on production of Vitamin D. In the construction industry there are onsite proactive behaviours for safety, but sun-safety remains a low priority. There is limited research on understanding the barriers to adopting sun-safe behaviours and the association this may have with Vitamin D production. This paper reports a protocol for an intervention study, using text messaging in combination with a supportive smartphone App. The intervention aims to both reduce UV exposure during months with higher UV levels and promote appropriate dietary changes to boost Vitamin D levels during months with low UV levels. Approximately 60 construction workers will be recruited across the United Kingdom. A randomised control crossover trial (RCCT) will be used to test the intervention, with randomisation at site level - i.e. participants will receive both the control (no text messages or supportive App support) and intervention (daily text messages and supportive App). Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) the intervention focuses on supporting sun-safety and healthy dietary decisions in relation to Vitamin D intake. The intervention emphasises cultivating the perception of normative support in the workplace, increasing awareness of control and self-efficacy in taking sun-protective behaviours, making healthier eating choices to boost Vitamin D, and tackling stigmas attached to image and group norms. Each study epoch will last 21 days with intervention text messages delivered on workdays only. The supportive App will provide supplementary information about sun protective behaviours and healthy dietary choices. The primary outcome measure is 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D [25(OH)D] level (obtained using blood spot sampling), which will be taken pre and post control and

  17. Role of dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and overweight on the longitudinal development of childhood constipation: the Generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; de Vries, Jeanne H; Escher, Johanna C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Moll, Henriette A

    2013-10-01

    The influence of childhood nutrition on the development of constipation beyond the period of weaning and breastfeeding is relatively understudied. In addition, eating patterns in childhood can be highly correlated with overweight and sedentary behaviour, which may also have an influence on constipation. The aim of this study was to assess whether common dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and childhood overweight are associated with constipation in childhood. The study was embedded in a population-based prospective birth cohort. Information on dietary intake was obtained by a food frequency questionnaire at the child's age of 14 months (n = 2420). The adherence scores on a 'Health conscious' and 'Western-like' diet were extracted from principal component analysis. At the age of 24, 36 and 48 months, information on constipation and sedentary behaviour, and weight and height was obtained by parental-derived questionnaires and from the child health centres, respectively. Adherence to a 'Western-like' dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of constipation up to 48 months [adjusted odds ratio (aOR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39; 1.02-1.87], which was not mediated by overweight or sedentary behaviour. Adherence to a 'Health Conscious' dietary pattern was only associated at short term, with a lower prevalence of constipation at 24 months (aOR; 95%CI: 0.65; 0.44-0.96). No association was found between overweight, sedentary behaviour and constipation. Our results suggest that specific dietary patterns in early childhood could be associated with higher or lower risks for constipation, but these effects are time-dependent. Overweight and sedentary behaviour seem to not have a major role on constipation in childhood. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Social relationships and healthful dietary behaviour: evidence from over-50s in the EPIC cohort, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Surtees, Paul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships are an important aspect of a person's social environment that can protect against a wide range of chronic conditions and facilitate recovery from disease. Social relationships have also been linked to dietary behaviour which may be an important pathway through which social circumstances exert their influence on health. Yet, questions remain about which structural aspects of social relationships most affect healthful dietary behaviours and whether different structural components interact to produce a combined effect. Using data from adults (≥50 years) in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk study (1996-2002), we examined marital status, living arrangement and social isolation in relation to scores for variety of fruit and vegetable intake as a marker of diet quality associated with adverse health outcomes. Data were analysed with multivariable linear regression models for gender-specific and interaction associations. We found that being single or widowed was associated with a lower variety score, particularly vegetable variety, and associations were enhanced when combined with male gender, living alone or infrequent friend contact. Lower variety scores for lone-living were also observed, especially for men. Infrequent friend contact interacted with living arrangement to amplify negative associations of lone-living with variety, with statistically significant differences in contact frequency for vegetable variety. Lower levels of friend contact were associated with reduced variety of fruits and vegetables in a graded trend for both genders; the trend was more pronounced among men. Family contact appeared to have limited association with vegetable variety in men; among women, weekly contact was significantly and positively associated with vegetable variety compared to daily family contact. Results highlight the importance of considering living arrangement and/or frequency of social contact when assessing whether widowed

  19. Social relationships and healthful dietary behaviour: Evidence from over-50s in the EPIC cohort, UK☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Surtees, Paul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships are an important aspect of a person's social environment that can protect against a wide range of chronic conditions and facilitate recovery from disease. Social relationships have also been linked to dietary behaviour which may be an important pathway through which social circumstances exert their influence on health. Yet, questions remain about which structural aspects of social relationships most affect healthful dietary behaviours and whether different structural components interact to produce a combined effect. Using data from adults (≥50 years) in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk study (1996–2002), we examined marital status, living arrangement and social isolation in relation to scores for variety of fruit and vegetable intake as a marker of diet quality associated with adverse health outcomes. Data were analysed with multivariable linear regression models for gender-specific and interaction associations. We found that being single or widowed was associated with a lower variety score, particularly vegetable variety, and associations were enhanced when combined with male gender, living alone or infrequent friend contact. Lower variety scores for lone-living were also observed, especially for men. Infrequent friend contact interacted with living arrangement to amplify negative associations of lone-living with variety, with statistically significant differences in contact frequency for vegetable variety. Lower levels of friend contact were associated with reduced variety of fruits and vegetables in a graded trend for both genders; the trend was more pronounced among men. Family contact appeared to have limited association with vegetable variety in men; among women, weekly contact was significantly and positively associated with vegetable variety compared to daily family contact. Results highlight the importance of considering living arrangement and/or frequency of social contact when assessing whether widowed

  20. Relationship among attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dietary behaviours and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Kwon, H J; Ha, M; Lim, M H; Oh, S Y; Kim, J H; Yoo, S J; Paik, K C

    2014-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood and can be associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to reveal the connection between ADHD symptoms, food habits and obesity. We examined 12 350 children (6010 boys, 6340 girls) from 27 elementary schools in Cheonan, the Republic of Korea. The study subjects were 5- to 13-year-old children (9.4 ± 1.7 years). Parents completed the DuPaul ADHD Rating Scale. Food habits were measured by a questionnaire adapted from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and a validated mini-dietary assessment tool. The full set of hypothesized associations was tested using covariance structural modelling. The prevalence of ADHD was 7.6% and that of obesity was 4.5% in our study population. The data was well fit by the model. ADHD was associated with body mass index (BMI; standardized β = 0.086, P ADHD was a risk factor for obesity through dietary behavioural change and socio-economic status. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The associations between feeding difficulties and behaviours and dietary patterns at 2 years of age: the ALSPAC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of toddlers. This period of life is important for forming good dietary habits later in life. Using dietary data collected via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at 2 years of age, we examined the dietary patterns of children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Principal component analysis was performed for 9599 children and three patterns were extracted: 'family foods' associated with traditional British family foods such as meat, fish, puddings, potatoes and vegetables; 'sweet and easy' associated with foods high in sugar (sweets, chocolate, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks) and foods requiring little preparation (crisps, potatoes, baked beans, peas, soup); 'health conscious' associated with fruit, vegetables, eggs, nuts and juices. We found clear associations between dietary pattern scores and socio-demographic variables, with maternal education being the most important. Higher levels of education were associated with higher scores on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns, and decreased scores on the 'sweet and easy' pattern. Relationships were evident between dietary pattern scores and various feeding difficulties and behaviours. Notably, children who were introduced late to lumpy (chewy) solids (after 9 months) scored lower on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns. Further analyses are required to determine the temporal relationship between perceived feeding difficulties and behaviours, and it will be important to assess the contribution of the age of introduction to lumpy solids to these relationships. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Considerations affecting dietary behaviour of immigrants with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study among Surinamese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohinor, Mirjam J. E.; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary; Haafkens, Joke A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the sociocultural factors affecting the dietary behaviour of Dutch Surinamese patients with type 2 diabetes. In this qualitative study, 32 Surinamese primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in semi-structured interviews (16 African

  3. Considerations affecting dietary behaviour of immigrants with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study among Surinamese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohinor, M.J.E.; Stronks, K.; Nicolaou, M.; Haafkens, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to explore the sociocultural factors affecting the dietary behaviour of Dutch Surinamese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. In this qualitative study, 32 Surinamese primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in semi-structured

  4. Behavioural effects of chronic manipulations of dietary choline in senescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundaro, A; Paschero, A

    1990-01-01

    1. Senescent rats were maintained on choline-deficient and choline-enriched diets. The modifications in rat behaviour caused by the chronic manipulations of dietary choline were studied in two schedules of operant conditioning. 2. In the "periodic conditioning" test, the schedule of reinforcement, in a 100 min trial, was changed from a fixed ratio to a fixed interval schedule. In the "reversal" test the contingency for food delivery was switched four times from one lever to the other in a two lever Skinner box. 3. In the "periodic conditioning" test, the choline enriched group (430 mg/Kg/day) showed the same reduction of responses/reinforcement as controls, from the beginning to the end of trial; in the same group the time course reduction of responses/reinforcement became significant earlier than in the control group. The deficient-choline group in the last 40 min of "periodic conditioning" trial gave a reduction of responses/reinforcement greater than controls and one rat in the group did not learn the change of experimental schedule and extinguished its operant behaviour. 4. In the "reversal" test, the choline-enriched diet (320 mg/Kg/day) improved the reinforced responses in the IV reversal; one rat of the deficient-choline group could not learn the new operant schedule since the first reversal and continued to respond on the same lever during the whole of the test.

  5. Associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and dietary behaviours in the context of general parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-01-01

    Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive) interventions. To examine associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake. Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009-2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's appetitive traits, children's dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses. Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight. Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children.

  6. Associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and dietary behaviours in the context of general parenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Rodenburg

    Full Text Available Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive interventions.To examine associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake.Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009-2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's appetitive traits, children's dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses.Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight.Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children.

  7. Behaviour change interventions for the management of Raynaud's phenomenon: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jo; Pauling, John D; Eccelston, Christopher

    2017-08-04

    Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) describes excessive peripheral vasospasm to cold exposure and/or emotional stress. RP episodes are associated with digital colour changes, pain and reduced quality of life. Pharmacological interventions are of low to moderate efficacy and often result in adverse effects such as facial flushing and headaches. Recommended lifestyle and behavioural interventions have not been evaluated. The objectives of the proposed systematic review are to assess the comparative safety and efficacy of behaviour change interventions for RP and identify what we can learn to inform future interventions. Studies eligible for inclusion include randomised controlled trials testing behaviour change interventions with a control comparator. A comprehensive search strategy will include peer review and grey literature up until 30 April 2017. Search databases will include Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and Cochrane. Initial sifting, eligibility, data extraction, risk of bias and quality assessment will be subject to review by two independent reviewers with a third reviewer resolving discrepancies. Risk of bias assessment will be performed using Cochrane risk of a bias assessment tool with quality of evidence assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation(GRADE). A meta-analysis will be performed if there are sufficient data. Two subgroup analyses are planned: primary versus secondary RP outcomes; comparison of theoretically informed interventions with pragmatic interventions. This review does not require ethical approval as it will summarise published studies with non-identifiable data. This protocol complies with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed articles and reported according to PRISMA. This review will make a significant contribution to the management of RP where no review of behaviour-change interventions currently exist

  8. Predicting healthy eating intention and adherence to dietary recommendations during pregnancy in Australia using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Lenka; Umberger, Wendy J; Makrides, Maria; ShaoJia, Zhou

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to aid in the development of more effective healthy eating intervention strategies for pregnant women by understanding the relationship between healthy eating intention and actual eating behaviour. Specifically, the study explored whether Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) constructs [attitude, subjective-norm, perceived-behavioural-control (PBC)] and additional psychosocial variables (perceived stress, health value and self-identity as a healthy eater) are useful in explaining variance in women's 1) intentions to consume a healthy diet during pregnancy and 2) food consumption behaviour (e.g. adherence to food group recommendations) during pregnancy. A cross-sectional sample of 455 Australian pregnant women completed a TPB questionnaire as part of a larger comprehensive web-based nutrition questionnaire. Women's perceived stress, health value and self-identity as a healthy eater were also measured. Dietary intake was assessed using six-items based on the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. Hierarchical multiple linear regression models were estimated (significance level healthy eating intention scores and 12% of the variance in adherence to food group recommendations. TPB constructs explained 66% of the total variance in healthy eating intention. Significant predictors of stronger healthy eating intention were greater PBC and subjective norm, followed by positive attitude and stronger self-identity as a healthy eater. Conversely, TPB constructs collectively explained only 3.4% of total variance in adherence to food group recommendations. These findings reveal that the TPB framework explains considerable variance in healthy eating intention during pregnancy, but explains little variance in actual food consumption behaviour. Further research is required to understand this weak relationship between healthy eating intention and behaviour during pregnancy. Alternative behavioural frameworks, particularly those that account for the automatic nature of most

  9. An augmented cognitive behavioural therapy for treating post-stroke depression: description of a treatment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootker, Joyce A; Rasquin, Sascha M C; Smits, Peter; Geurts, Alexander C; van Heugten, Caroline M; Fasotti, Luciano

    2015-09-01

    Currently, no evidence-based treatment is available for mood problems after stroke. We present a new psychological intervention designed to reduce depressive complaints after stroke. This intervention was based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles and was shown feasible in a pilot study. In order to meet the specific needs of stroke patients (concerning both sensori-motor, cognitive, and behavioural problems), we incorporated motivational interviewing, grief resolution, and psycho-education. We emphasised for each session to take into account the cognitive deficits of the patients (i.e. be concrete, accessible, structured, specific, and repeat information). Moreover, we augmented the psychologist-administered therapy with the contribution of an occupational or movement therapist aimed at facilitating patients' goal-setting and attainment. The intervention consisted of 12 one-hour sessions with a psychologist and three or four one-hour sessions with an occupational or movement therapist. Currently, the effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. The proposed psychological treatment protocol is innovative, as it applies cognitive behavioural therapy in a stroke-specific manner; moreover, it supports goal attainment by incorporating occupational or movement therapy sessions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Orlistat after initial dietary/behavioural treatment: changes in body weight and dietary maintenance in subjects with sleep related breathing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonstad Serena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD are associated with increased morbidity and mortality and weight loss is recommended to overweight or obese patients with SRBD. However, maintenance of weight loss is difficult to achieve and strategies for weight loss maintenance is needed. Orlistat is a pharmacological agent that reduces the intestinal absorption of fat and may favour long-term weight maintenance. Objective To examine the change in body weight and dietary intake during a 1-year treatment with orlistat after an initial weight loss in obese subjects with SRBD. Furthermore, to explore the dietary determinants of weight maintenance during treatment with orlistat. Methods Men and women with SRBD aged 32-62 years (n = 63 participated in a 3-month dietary intervention to increase intake of vegetables and fruit. After an initial weight loss of 3.4 kg they achieved a mean body mass index of 34.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2. Subsequently they were treated with orlistat for 1 year. During this year, dietary and behavioural interventions to attain weight loss were provided in the course of 14 group sessions. Dietary intake, energy density and food choices were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire before and after orlistat treatment. Results With orlistat, body weight decreased by a mean of 3.5 kg (95% CI 1.5, 5.5. The dietary E% from saturated fat, intake of fatty dairy products and energy density increased after 1 year while intakes of oils, fish and vegetables decreased (all P adj = 0.19 [95% CI 0.10, 0.46], and inversely associated with E% saturated fat (R2adj = 0.20 [95% CI 0.12, 0.47] and fatty dairy products (R2adj = 0.23 [95% CI 0.12, 0.49]. Conclusions Orlistat induced further weight loss, but dietary compliance declined with time. Increasing dietary protein and restricting saturated fat and fatty dairy products may facilitate weight loss with orlistat.

  11. Dietary Behaviours, Impulsivity and Food Involvement: Identification of Three Consumer Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmugam, Rani; Worsley, Anthony

    2015-09-18

    This study aims to (1) identify consumer segments based on consumers' impulsivity and level of food involvement, and (2) examine the dietary behaviours of each consumer segment. An Internet-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 530 respondents. The mean age of the participants was 49.2 ± 16.6 years, and 27% were tertiary educated. Two-stage cluster analysis revealed three distinct segments; "impulsive, involved" (33.4%), "rational, health conscious" (39.2%), and "uninvolved" (27.4%). The "impulsive, involved" segment was characterised by higher levels of impulsivity and food involvement (importance of food) compared to the other two segments. This segment also reported significantly more frequent consumption of fast foods, takeaways, convenience meals, salted snacks and use of ready-made sauces and mixes in cooking compared to the "rational, health conscious" consumers. They also reported higher frequency of preparing meals at home, cooking from scratch, using ready-made sauces and mixes in cooking and higher vegetable consumption compared to the "uninvolved" consumers. The findings show the need for customised approaches to the communication and promotion of healthy eating habits.

  12. Dietary Behaviours, Impulsivity and Food Involvement: Identification of Three Consumer Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Sarmugam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to (1 identify consumer segments based on consumers’ impulsivity and level of food involvement, and (2 examine the dietary behaviours of each consumer segment. An Internet-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 530 respondents. The mean age of the participants was 49.2 ± 16.6 years, and 27% were tertiary educated. Two-stage cluster analysis revealed three distinct segments; “impulsive, involved” (33.4%, “rational, health conscious” (39.2%, and “uninvolved” (27.4%. The “impulsive, involved” segment was characterised by higher levels of impulsivity and food involvement (importance of food compared to the other two segments. This segment also reported significantly more frequent consumption of fast foods, takeaways, convenience meals, salted snacks and use of ready-made sauces and mixes in cooking compared to the “rational, health conscious” consumers. They also reported higher frequency of preparing meals at home, cooking from scratch, using ready-made sauces and mixes in cooking and higher vegetable consumption compared to the “uninvolved” consumers. The findings show the need for customised approaches to the communication and promotion of healthy eating habits.

  13. An investigation of food choice behaviour and dietary intake of children, teenagers and adults with food allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Isolde

    2013-01-01

    Food allergies in children, teenagers and adults are managed by eliminating the allergenic food from the diet. Healthcare professionals and policy makers have developed guidelines for the dietary management of food allergies, but as yet there has been no assessment of how individuals with food allergies are able to adapt their behaviour to them. In order to be able to improve the diet and nutrition of children, teenagers and adults with food allergies, and thereby to increase their quality of...

  14. Protein supplementation and dietary behaviours of resistance trained men and women attending commercial gyms: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Antonino; Mammina, Caterina; Thomas, Ewan; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Moro, Tatiana; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background It is anecdotally recognized that commercial gym users assume supplements in order to improve performance or health. However, dietary behaviours of people and athletes attending commercial gyms have been poorly studied. The exact amount and frequency of dietary supplements consumption are still needed to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to understand the quantity and quality of food intake, as well as dietary supplementation in people attending commercial gyms. Se...

  15. The associations between domain-specific sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in European adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the SPOTLIGHT survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Compernolle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviour has been associated with obesity and related chronic diseases. Disentangling the nature of this association is complicated due to interactions with other lifestyle factors, such as dietary habits, yet limited research has investigated the relation between domain-specific sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in adults. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between domain-specific sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in adults and to test the moderating effect of age and gender on this association. Methods A total of 6,037 participants from five urban regions in Europe completed an online survey, of which 6,001 were included in the analyses. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were used to examine main associations and interaction effects. Results All domain-specific sedentary behaviours, except transport-related sitting time, were significantly related to dietary habits. In general, having a higher sitting time was related to having less healthy dietary habits, especially for television viewing. Gender did not moderate any of the relations, and age was only a significant moderator in the relation between other leisure sitting time and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Domain-specific sitting behaviours were related to unhealthy dietary behaviours. However, the small effect sizes suggest that individual level behavioural interventions focusing on sedentary behaviour will not be sufficient to improve dietary habits. The fact that almost none of the associations were moderated by age or gender suggests that these associations, and possibly also the effects of interventions targeting both behaviours, may hold across age and gender groups.

  16. The associations between domain-specific sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in European adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the SPOTLIGHT survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Teixeira, Pedro J; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Roda, Célina; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Lakerveld, Jeroen; McKee, Martin; Glonti, Ketevan; Rutter, Harry; Bardos, Helga; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-10-06

    Sedentary behaviour has been associated with obesity and related chronic diseases. Disentangling the nature of this association is complicated due to interactions with other lifestyle factors, such as dietary habits, yet limited research has investigated the relation between domain-specific sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in adults. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between domain-specific sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in adults and to test the moderating effect of age and gender on this association. A total of 6,037 participants from five urban regions in Europe completed an online survey, of which 6,001 were included in the analyses. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were used to examine main associations and interaction effects. All domain-specific sedentary behaviours, except transport-related sitting time, were significantly related to dietary habits. In general, having a higher sitting time was related to having less healthy dietary habits, especially for television viewing. Gender did not moderate any of the relations, and age was only a significant moderator in the relation between other leisure sitting time and alcohol consumption. Domain-specific sitting behaviours were related to unhealthy dietary behaviours. However, the small effect sizes suggest that individual level behavioural interventions focusing on sedentary behaviour will not be sufficient to improve dietary habits. The fact that almost none of the associations were moderated by age or gender suggests that these associations, and possibly also the effects of interventions targeting both behaviours, may hold across age and gender groups.

  17. Dietary behaviour and socioeconomic position: the role of physical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Jonas D; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M

    2013-01-01

    The positive association between education level and health outcomes can be partly explained by dietary behaviour. We investigated the associations between education and several indices of food intake and potential influencing factors, placing special emphasis on physical-activity patterns, using a representative sample of the German adult population. The German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) involved 7,124 participants aged between 18 and 79. Complete information on the exposure (education) and outcome (nutrition) variables was available for 6,767 persons. The associations between 'education' and indices of 'sugar-rich food', 'fat-rich food', 'fruit-and-vegetable' and 'alcohol' intake were analysed separately for men and women using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) of education level on nutrition outcomes were calculated and adjusted for age, region (former East/West Germany), occupation, income and other influencing factors such as physical activity indicators. Men and women with only a primary education had a more frequent intake of sugar-rich and fat-rich foods and a less frequent intake of fruit and vegetables and alcohol than people with a tertiary education. 'Physical work activity' partly explained the associations between education and sugar-rich food intake. The interference with physical work activity was stronger among men than women. No significant associations between education and energy-dense food intake were observed in the retirement-age group of persons aged 65+ and among persons with low energy expenditure. In Germany, adults with a low level of education report that they consume energy-dense foods more frequently - and fruit and vegetables and alcohol less frequently - than adults with a high education level. High levels of physical work activity among adults with a low education level may partly explain why they consume more energy-dense foods.

  18. Effect of a standardised dietary restriction protocol on multiple laboratory strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Grandison

    Full Text Available Outcomes of lifespan studies in model organisms are particularly susceptible to variations in technical procedures. This is especially true of dietary restriction, which is implemented in many different ways among laboratories.In this study, we have examined the effect of laboratory stock maintenance, genotype differences and microbial infection on the ability of dietary restriction (DR to extend life in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. None of these factors block the DR effect.These data lend support to the idea that nutrient restriction genuinely extends lifespan in flies, and that any mechanistic discoveries made with this model are of potential relevance to the determinants of lifespan in other organisms.

  19. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-01-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the

  20. Food parenting and children's dietary behaviours: Approaching an integrated theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    We explored the differential influences of parental feeding styles and food parenting practices on children's dietary intake. Simple knowledge-based parent change interventions have generally not been shown to influence children's dietary intake. As a result, increasing attention has been given to t...

  1. Grip on challenging behaviour: a multidisciplinary care programme for managing behavioural problems in nursing home residents with dementia. Study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Bosmans, J.E.; Tulder, M.W. van; Eefsting, J.A.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Pot, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioural problems are common in nursing home residents with dementia and they often are burdensome for both residents and nursing staff. In this study, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new care programme for managing behavioural problems will be evaluated. METHODS/DESIGN:

  2. Grip on challenging behaviour: a multidisciplinary care programme for managing behavioural problems in nursing home residents with dementia. Study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Bosmans, J.E.; van Tulder, M.W.; Eefsting, J.A.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Pot, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Behavioural problems are common in nursing home residents with dementia and they often are burdensome for both residents and nursing staff. In this study, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new care programme for managing behavioural problems will be evaluated. Methods/Design.

  3. [Study protocol of a prevention of recurrent suicidal behaviour program based on case management (PSyMAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Pilar A; Rodríguez-Revuelta, Julia; González-Blanco, Leticia; Burón, Patricia; Al-Halabí, Susana; Garrido, Marlen; García-Alvarez, Leticia; García-Portilla, Paz; Bobes, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of suicidal behaviour is a public health priority in the European Union. A previous suicide attempt is the best risk predictor for future attempts, as well as completed suicides. The primary aim of this article is to describe a controlled study protocol designed for prevention of recurrent suicidal behaviour that proposes case management, and includes a psychoeducation program, as compared with the standard intervention (PSyMAC). Patients admitted from January 2011 to June 2013 to the emergency room of the Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias were evaluated using a protocol including sociodemographic, psychiatric, and psychosocial assessment. Patients were randomly assigned to either a group receiving continuous case management including participation in a psychoeducation program (experimental group), or a control group receiving standard care. The primary objective is to examine whether or not the period of time until recurrent suicidal behaviour in the experimental group is significantly different from that of the control group. PSyMAC proposes low cost and easily adaptable interventions to the usual clinical setting that can help to compensate the shortcoming of specific action protocols and suicidal behaviour prevention programs in our country. The evaluation of PSyMAC results will determine their real effectivity as a case-magament program to reduce suicidal risk. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Conceptual model for dietary behaviour change at household level: a 'best-fit' qualitative study using primary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daivadanam, Meena; Wahlström, Rolf; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Thankappan, K R; Ramanathan, Mala

    2014-06-09

    Interventions having a strong theoretical basis are more efficacious, providing a strong argument for incorporating theory into intervention planning. The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual model to facilitate the planning of dietary intervention strategies at the household level in rural Kerala. Three focus group discussions and 17 individual interviews were conducted among men and women, aged between 23 and 75 years. An interview guide facilitated the process to understand: 1) feasibility and acceptability of a proposed dietary behaviour change intervention; 2) beliefs about foods, particularly fruits and vegetables; 3) decision-making in households with reference to food choices and access; and 4) to gain insights into the kind of intervention strategies that may be practical at community and household level. The data were analysed using a modified form of qualitative framework analysis, which combined both deductive and inductive reasoning. A priori themes were identified from relevant behaviour change theories using construct definitions, and used to index the meaning units identified from the primary qualitative data. In addition, new themes emerging from the data were included. The associations between the themes were mapped into four main factors and its components, which contributed to construction of the conceptual model. Thirteen of the a priori themes from three behaviour change theories (Trans-theoretical model, Health Belief model and Theory of Planned Behaviour) were confirmed or slightly modified, while four new themes emerged from the data. The conceptual model had four main factors and its components: impact factors (decisional balance, risk perception, attitude); change processes (action-oriented, cognitive); background factors (personal modifiers, societal norms); and overarching factors (accessibility, perceived needs and preferences), built around a three-stage change spiral (pre-contemplation, intention, action). Decisional

  5. Conceptual model for dietary behaviour change at household level: a ‘best-fit’ qualitative study using primary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions having a strong theoretical basis are more efficacious, providing a strong argument for incorporating theory into intervention planning. The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual model to facilitate the planning of dietary intervention strategies at the household level in rural Kerala. Methods Three focus group discussions and 17 individual interviews were conducted among men and women, aged between 23 and 75 years. An interview guide facilitated the process to understand: 1) feasibility and acceptability of a proposed dietary behaviour change intervention; 2) beliefs about foods, particularly fruits and vegetables; 3) decision-making in households with reference to food choices and access; and 4) to gain insights into the kind of intervention strategies that may be practical at community and household level. The data were analysed using a modified form of qualitative framework analysis, which combined both deductive and inductive reasoning. A priori themes were identified from relevant behaviour change theories using construct definitions, and used to index the meaning units identified from the primary qualitative data. In addition, new themes emerging from the data were included. The associations between the themes were mapped into four main factors and its components, which contributed to construction of the conceptual model. Results Thirteen of the a priori themes from three behaviour change theories (Trans-theoretical model, Health Belief model and Theory of Planned Behaviour) were confirmed or slightly modified, while four new themes emerged from the data. The conceptual model had four main factors and its components: impact factors (decisional balance, risk perception, attitude); change processes (action-oriented, cognitive); background factors (personal modifiers, societal norms); and overarching factors (accessibility, perceived needs and preferences), built around a three-stage change spiral (pre

  6. Considerations affecting dietary behaviour of immigrants with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study among Surinamese in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohinor, Mirjam J E; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary; Haafkens, Joke A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the sociocultural factors affecting the dietary behaviour of Dutch Surinamese patients with type 2 diabetes. In this qualitative study, 32 Surinamese primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in semi-structured interviews (16 African Surinamese and 16 Hindustani Surinamese). Interviews were recorded and transcripts were analysed and coded into themes using principles of grounded theory and MAXQDA software. Surinamese food was eaten regularly by all respondents. Most participants were aware of the need to change their diet but reported difficulty with changing their dietary behaviour to meet dietary guidelines. Many perceived these guidelines to be based on Dutch eating habits, making it difficult to reconcile them with Surinamese cooking and eating practices. Firstly, respondents indicated that they did not choose foods based on their nutritional qualities. Instead, choices were based on Surinamese beliefs regarding 'good' (e.g., bitter vegetables) or 'bad' (e.g., spicy dishes) foods for diabetes. Secondly, respondents often perceived recommendations such as eating at fixed times as interfering with traditional values, for example hospitality. Above all, the maintenance of Surinamese cooking and eating practices was regarded as extremely important since the respondents perceived these to be a core element of their identity as Surinamese. For Surinamese diabetes patients, cooking and eating practices are related to deeply rooted cultural beliefs and values. The wish to maintain one's Surinamese identity may pose difficulty for patients' adherence to dietary guidelines, as these are perceived as being based on 'Dutch' habits. This suggests that immigrants with a long duration of residence in the host country like the Surinamese, who are seen as well integrated might benefit from culturally sensitive diabetes education that is adapted at surface and deep structure.

  7. Associations of Children's Appetitive Traits with Weight and Dietary Behaviours in the Context of General Parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); A. Oenema (Anke); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can

  8. Chronic dietary mercury exposure causes oxidative stress, brain lesions, and altered behaviour in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntssen, Marc H.G.; Aatland, Aase; Handy, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr were fed for 4 months on fish meal based diets supplemented with mercuric chloride (0, 10, or 100 mg Hg kg -1 DW) or methylmercury chloride (0, 5, or 10 mg Hg kg -1 DW) to assess the effects of inorganic (Hg) and organic dietary mercury on brain lipid peroxidation and neurotoxicity. Lipid peroxidative products, endogenous anti oxidant enzymes, brain histopathology, and overall behaviour were measured. Methylmercury accumulated significantly in the brain of fish fed 5 or 10 mg kg -1 by the end of the experiment, and inorganic mercury accumulated significantly in the brain only at 100 mg kg -1 exposure levels. No mortality or growth reduction was observed in any of the exposure groups. Fish fed 5 mg kg -1 methylmercury had a significant increase (2-fold) in the antioxidant enzyme super oxide dismutase (SOD) in the brain. At dietary levels of 10 mg kg -1 methylmercury, a significant increase (7-fold) was observed in lipid peroxidative products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) and a subsequently decrease (1.5-fold) in anti oxidant enzyme activity (SOD and glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px). Fish fed 10 mg kg -1 methylmercury also had pathological damage (vacoulation and necrosis), significantly reduced neural enzyme activity (5-fold reduced monoamine oxidase, MAO, activity), and reduced overall post-feeding activity behaviour. Pathological injury started in the brain stem and became more widespread in other areas of the brain at higher exposure levels. Fish fed 100 mg Hg kg -1 inorganic mercury had significant reduced neural MAO activity and pathological changes (astrocyte proliferation) in the brain, however, neural SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activity, lipid peroxidative products (TBARS), and post feeding behaviour did not differ from controls. Compared with other organs, the brain is particular susceptible for dietary methylmercury induced lipid peroxidative stress at relative low exposure concentrations. Doses of dietary

  9. Rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy vs. cognitive behaviour therapy for depression: study protocol for a randomised controlled superiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvenegaard, Morten; Watkins, Ed R; Poulsen, Stig; Rosenberg, Nicole K; Gondan, Matthias; Grafton, Ben; Austin, Stephen F; Howard, Henriette; Moeller, Stine B

    2015-08-11

    Cognitive behavioural therapy is an effective treatment for depression. However, one third of the patients do not respond satisfactorily, and relapse rates of around 30 % within the first post-treatment year were reported in a recent meta-analysis. In total, 30-50 % of remitted patients present with residual symptoms by the end of treatment. A common residual symptom is rumination, a process of recurrent negative thinking and dwelling on negative affect. Rumination has been demonstrated as a major factor in vulnerability to depression, predicting the onset, severity, and duration of future depression. Rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy is a psychotherapeutic treatment targeting rumination. Because rumination plays a major role in the initiation and maintenance of depression, targeting rumination with rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy may be more effective in treating depression and reducing relapse than standard cognitive behavioural therapy. This study is a two-arm pragmatic randomised controlled superiority trial comparing the effectiveness of group-based rumination-focused cognitive behaviour therapy with the effectiveness of group-based cognitive behavioural therapy for treatment of depression. One hundred twenty-eight patients with depression will be recruited from and given treatment in an outpatient service at a psychiatric hospital in Denmark. Our primary outcome will be severity of depressive symptoms (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression) at completion of treatment. Secondary outcomes will be level of rumination, worry, anxiety, quality of life, behavioural activation, experimental measures of cognitive flexibility, and emotional attentional bias. A 6-month follow-up is planned and will include the primary outcome measure and assessment of relapse. The clinical outcome of this trial may guide clinicians to decide on the merits of including rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy in the treatment of depression in

  10. Barriers and enhancers to dietary behaviour change for Aboriginal people attending a diabetes cooking course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope; Davison, Joyce; Moore, Louise; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal people access diabetes and nutrition education less than non-Aboriginal people. Culturally appropriate, effective and accessible diabetes and nutrition education for Aboriginal people is urgently needed. A qualitative approach was used to explore the experiences of Aboriginal people who had attended cooking courses run at the Aboriginal Medical Service Western Sydney between 2002 and 2007. Data from 23 semi-structured interviews were analysed thematically. Despite reported improvements in nutrition knowledge and cooking skills, the ability of participants to implement desired dietary changes varied. A new health diagnosis, such as diabetes, pre-diabetes, heart disease or cancer and the desire of participants to influence their families to lead healthier, diabetes-free lives were strong motivators for dietary change. In contrast, lack of family support for dietary change and a sense of social isolation caused by dietary change strongly impeded some participants' attempts to improve their diets. Other significant barriers were poor oral health and depression, the higher cost of healthier food and generational food preferences. Aboriginal cooking course participants faced multiple barriers to dietary change - social, financial, medical and historical. The family was the most crucial determinant of participant ability to achieve sustained dietary change.

  11. Identifying the content of home-based health behaviour change interventions for frail older people: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicic, Ana; Gardner, Benjamin; Belk, Celia; Kharicha, Kalpa; Iliffe, Steve; Manthorpe, Jill; Goodman, Claire; Drennan, Vari; Walters, Kate

    2015-11-04

    Meeting the needs of the growing number of older people is a challenge for health and social care services. Home-based interventions aiming to modify health-related behaviours of frail older people have the potential to improve functioning and well-being. Previous reviews have focused on whether such interventions are effective, rather than what might make them effective. Recent advances in behavioural science make possible the identification of potential 'active ingredients' of effective interventions, such as component behaviour change techniques (BCTs), and intended intervention functions (IFs; e.g. to educate, to impart skills). This paper reports a protocol for a systematic review that seeks to (a) identify health behaviour change interventions for older frail people, (b) describe the content of these interventions, and (c) explore links between intervention content and effectiveness. The protocol is reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 guidelines. Studies will be identified through a systematic search of 15 electronic databases, supplemented by citation tracking. Studies will be retained for review where they report randomised controlled trials focusing on home-based health promotion delivered by a health professional for frail older people in community settings, written in English, and either published from 1980 onwards, or, for registered trials only, unpublished but completed with results obtainable from authors. Interventions will be coded for their content (BCTs, IFs) and for evidence of effectiveness (outcome data relating to behavioural and health outcomes). Analyses will describe characteristics of all interventions. Interventions for which effectiveness data are available will be categorised into those showing evidence of effectiveness versus those showing no such evidence. The potential for each intervention characteristic to contribute to change in behaviour or

  12. Dietary magnesium deficiency alters gut microbiota and leads to depressive-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Gudrun; Pyndt Jørgensen, Betina M; Elfving, Betina; Nielsen, Denis Sandris; Kihl, Pernille; Lund, Sten; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Wegener, Gregers

    2015-06-01

    Gut microbiota (GM) has previously been associated with alterations in rodent behaviour, and since the GM is affected by the diet, the composition of the diet may be an important factor contributing to behavioural changes. Interestingly, a magnesium restricted diet has been shown to induce anxiety and depressive-like behaviour in humans and rodents, and it could be suggested that magnesium deficiency may mediate the effects through an altered GM. The present study therefore fed C57BL/6 mice with a standard diet or a magnesium deficient diet (MgD) for 6 weeks, followed by behavioural testing in the forced swim test (FST) to evaluate depressive-like behaviour. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed 2 day after the FST to assess metabolic alterations. Neuroinflammatory markers were analysed from hippocampus. GM composition was analysed and correlated to the behaviour and hippocampal markers. It was found that mice exposed to MgD for 6 weeks were more immobile than control mice in the FST, suggesting an increased depressive-like behaviour. No significant difference was detected in the GTT. GM composition correlated positively with the behaviour of undisturbed C57BL/6 mice, feeding MgD diet altered the microbial composition. The altered GM correlated positively to the hippocampal interleukin-6. In conclusion, we hypothesise that imbalances of the microbiota-gut-brain axis induced by consuming a MgD diet, contributes to the development of depressive-like behaviour.

  13. Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: a cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Vivien; Power, Kevin G; Crombie, Iain K; Irvine, Linda; Kiezebrink, Kirsty; Wrieden, Wendy; Slane, Peter W

    2011-06-23

    Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland. Three hundred mothers of children aged 2 years (from 372 invited to participate, 81% response rate), recruited via General Practitioners, took part in home-based semi-structured interviews in a cross-sectional survey of maternal psychological factors related to their children's dietary quality. Regression analyses examined statistical predictors of maternal intentions and feeding behaviours. Mothers of children with poorer quality diets were less likely than others to provide breakfast every day, cook from 'scratch' and provide 'proper sit-down meals'. TPB socio-cognitive factors (intentions, perceived behavioural control) significantly predicted these three behaviours, and attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted mothers' intentions, with medium to large effect sizes. Interventions to improve young children's dietary health could benefit from a focus on modifying maternal motivations and attitudes in attempts to improve feeding behaviours.

  14. Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiezebrink Kirsty

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland. Method Three hundred mothers of children aged 2 years (from 372 invited to participate, 81% response rate, recruited via General Practitioners, took part in home-based semi-structured interviews in a cross-sectional survey of maternal psychological factors related to their children's dietary quality. Regression analyses examined statistical predictors of maternal intentions and feeding behaviours. Results Mothers of children with poorer quality diets were less likely than others to provide breakfast every day, cook from 'scratch' and provide 'proper sit-down meals'. TPB socio-cognitive factors (intentions, perceived behavioural control significantly predicted these three behaviours, and attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted mothers' intentions, with medium to large effect sizes. Conclusions Interventions to improve young children's dietary health could benefit from a focus on modifying maternal motivations and attitudes in attempts to improve feeding behaviours.

  15. A randomised, family-focused dietary intervention to evaluate the Atlantic diet: the GALIAT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Calvo-Malvar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional diet of northwestern Spain and northern Portugal follows an ‘Atlantic diet’ pattern. Adherence to the Atlantic diet has been related to the good metabolic health and low coronary mortality recorded for these regions. Methods The GALIAT (Galicia Alimentación Atlántica [Galicia Atlantic Diet] study is a randomised, controlled, dietary intervention clinical trial designed to examine the effect of the Atlantic diet on the lipid profile, glucose metabolism, inflammation makers and adiposity of the general population. The trial involved 250 randomly selected families (715 adults and children over 3 years of age from a town in Spain’s northwest, randomly allocated to follow either a control diet (C group or the Atlantic diet (AD group for a period of 6 months. The families of the AD group received educational sessions on food, diet and gastronomy and were provided written supporting material with nutritional recommendations and recipes for the preparation of menus. They also attended cooking classes. Throughout the study period, these families were provided a range of foods (free of charge that form part of the traditional Atlantic diet. The C group families took part in none of the above activities, nor were they provided with any food. Lipid profile variables (primary variables, and anthropometric, inflammation marker and glucose metabolism status (secondary variables, were measured at baseline, three and six months. Discussion The GALIAT study is the first clinical trial to examine the effects of the Atlantic diet on metabolic and cardiovascular health and adiposity. If the study hypothesis is confirmed, this dietary pattern could be included in strategies to promote health. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02391701 on March 18, 2015.

  16. A randomised, family-focused dietary intervention to evaluate the Atlantic diet: the GALIAT study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Malvar, Maria Del Mar; Leis, Rosaura; Benítez-Estévez, Alfonso Javier; Sánchez-Castro, Juan; Gude, Francisco

    2016-08-18

    The traditional diet of northwestern Spain and northern Portugal follows an 'Atlantic diet' pattern. Adherence to the Atlantic diet has been related to the good metabolic health and low coronary mortality recorded for these regions. The GALIAT (Galicia Alimentación Atlántica [Galicia Atlantic Diet]) study is a randomised, controlled, dietary intervention clinical trial designed to examine the effect of the Atlantic diet on the lipid profile, glucose metabolism, inflammation makers and adiposity of the general population. The trial involved 250 randomly selected families (715 adults and children over 3 years of age) from a town in Spain's northwest, randomly allocated to follow either a control diet (C group) or the Atlantic diet (AD group) for a period of 6 months. The families of the AD group received educational sessions on food, diet and gastronomy and were provided written supporting material with nutritional recommendations and recipes for the preparation of menus. They also attended cooking classes. Throughout the study period, these families were provided a range of foods (free of charge) that form part of the traditional Atlantic diet. The C group families took part in none of the above activities, nor were they provided with any food. Lipid profile variables (primary variables), and anthropometric, inflammation marker and glucose metabolism status (secondary variables), were measured at baseline, three and six months. The GALIAT study is the first clinical trial to examine the effects of the Atlantic diet on metabolic and cardiovascular health and adiposity. If the study hypothesis is confirmed, this dietary pattern could be included in strategies to promote health. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02391701 on March 18, 2015.

  17. Dietary magnesium deficiency alters gut microbiota and leads to depressive-like behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Gudrun; Pyndt Jørgensen, Betina M; Elfving, Betina

    2015-01-01

    by behavioural testing in the forced swim test (FST) to evaluate depressive-like behaviour. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed 2 day after the FST to assess metabolic alterations. Neuroinflammatory markers were analysed from hippocampus. GM composition was analysed and correlated...

  18. A complex behavioural change intervention to reduce the risk of diabetes and prediabetes in the pre-conception period in Malaysia: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skau, Jutta K H; Nordin, Awatef Binti Amer; Cheah, Julius C H; Ali, Roslinah; Zainal, Ramli; Aris, Tahir; Ali, Zainudin Mohd; Matzen, Priya; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens; Hanson, Mark A; Norris, Shane A

    2016-04-27

    Over the past two decades, the population of Malaysia has grown rapidly and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Malaysia has dramatically increased, along with the frequency of obesity, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension. Early-life influences play an important role in the development of non-communicable diseases. Indeed, maternal lifestyle and conditions such as gestational diabetes mellitus or obesity can affect the risk of diabetes in the next generation. Lifestyle changes can help to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is a protocol for an unblinded, community-based, randomised controlled trial in two arms to evaluate the efficacy of a complex behavioural change intervention, combining motivational interviewing provided by a community health promoter and access to a habit formation mobile application, among young Malaysian women and their spouses prior to pregnancy. Eligible subjects will be Malaysian women in the age group 20 to 39 years, who are nulliparous, not diagnosed with diabetes and own a smartphone. With an alpha-value of 0.05, a statistical power of 90 %, 264 subjects will need to complete the study. Subjects with their spouses will be randomised to either the intervention or the control arm for an 8-month period. The primary endpoint is change in waist circumference from baseline to end of intervention period and secondary endpoints are changes in anthropometric parameters, biochemical parameters, change in health literacy level, dietary habits, physical activity and stress level. Primary endpoint and the continuous secondary endpoints will be analysed in a linear regression model, whereas secondary endpoints on an ordinal scale will be analysed by using the chi-squared test. A multivariate linear model for the primary endpoint will be undertaken to account for potential confounders. This study has been approved by the Medical Research and Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health Malaysia (protocol number: NMRR-14

  19. Patients' and therapists' experiences with a new treatment programme for eating disorders that combines physical exercise and dietary therapy: the PED-t trial. A qualitative study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Gunn; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Bakland, Maria; Wynn, Rolf; Mathisen, Therese Fostervold; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2018-01-08

    Women with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder often suffer for many years before they seek professional help. Evidence-based treatments like cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) might be poorly accessible, and about 50% of those who receive CBT respond to it. Such outcome may reflect the heterogeneous nature of eating disorders, and addressing this heterogeneity calls for expanding the portfolio of treatment options. In particular, it is important to explore such options' acceptability, tolerability and affordability expressed through experiences with the treatment. This protocol outlines the rationale and design of a qualitative study. It captures experiences from patients and therapists who were involved in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) exploring the efficacy of a new group-based treatment programme combining physical exercise and dietary therapy. 15 patients with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder, 10 therapists (physical trainers and dietitians) and 6-10 patients who dropped out of the RCT will be semistructurally interviewed. All interviews will be analysed using a systematic text condensation approach. Results will be presented in peer-reviewed international journals, and at relevant international conferences. Key findings will be available to study participants as well as to patient organisations and health authorities. The overall study meets the intent and requirements of the Health Research Act and the Declaration of Helsinki. It is approved by the regional committee for medical research ethics (2013/1871). NCT02079935; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Effect of dietary fibre type on physical activity and behaviour in kennelled dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Beerda, B.; Hoek, van de E.; Hesta, M.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Janssens, G.P.J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Dog diets may differ in their effectiveness of maintaining satiety after a meal. Consequently, sensations of hunger, feeding motivation, physical activity, and sensitivity to environmental stressors may be increased. Dietary fibre may be effective in prolonging postprandial satiety depending on type

  1. Dietary intake and factors influencing eating behaviours in overweight and obese South Asian men living in the United Kingdom:a mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    Emadian, Amir; England, Clare; Thompson, Janice L

    2017-01-01

    Objective:It is widely recognised that South Asian men living in the UK are more likely to develop Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) than their white British counterparts. Despite this, limited data have been published quantifying current dietary intake patterns and qualitatively exploring eating behaviours in this population. The objectives of this study were to: 1) assess diet; 2) explore perceptions of T2DM; 3) investigate factors influencing eating behaviours in overweight/obese South Asian...

  2. Eating behaviour of university students in Germany: Dietary intake, barriers to healthy eating and changes in eating behaviour since the time of matriculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Jennifer; Loerbroks, Adrian; Diehl, Katharina

    2017-02-01

    A healthy diet plays a key role in preventing obesity and non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes. This is true for all age groups, including young adults. While unhealthy eating habits among young adults, in particular university students, have been identified in former studies, this group has been neglected in existing health promotion strategies. Our aim was to explore baseline dietary intake, common barriers to healthy eating, and changes in eating behaviour among university students since the time of matriculation. We used data from the quantitative part of the Nutrition and Physical Activity Study (NuPhA), a cross-sectional online survey (data collection: 2014/10/31-2015/01/15). Students were recruited from all over Germany. Overall, 689 university students (30.5% male; mean age: 22.69) from more than 40 universities across Germany participated. We found that there is room for improvement with regard to the consumption of specific food groups, for example, fruits and vegetables. The main barriers to healthy eating were lack of time due to studies, lack of healthy meals at the university canteen, and high prices of healthy foods. Cluster analysis revealed that barriers to healthy eating might affect only specific subgroups, for instance freshmen. Changes in eating behaviour since matriculation were found in the consumption of meat, fish, and regular meals. Future qualitative studies may help to explore why university students change their eating behaviour since the time of matriculation. Such knowledge is necessary to inform health promotion strategies in the university setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Total dietary sugar consumption does not influence sleep or behaviour in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Banks, Siobhan; Kohler, Mark

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to compare sugar intake in Australian children with current guidelines and determine if total sugar consumption as a percentage of energy (sugar %E) exacerbates the relationship between sleep and behaviour. A sample of 287 children aged 8-12 years (boys 48.8%, age: 10.7 ± 1.3 years), and their parents/guardians completed a battery of questionnaires. Children completed a food frequency questionnaire, and parents completed demographic, sleep, and behaviour questionnaires. Average sugar intake was 134.9 ± 71.7 g per day (sugar %E 26.0 ± 7.0%), and only 55 (19%) participants did not exceed the recommended sugar intake limit. Correlations and logistical regressions indicated that sugar %E was not associated with sleep or behavioural domains (r range = -0.07-0.08; p range = .173-.979) nor contributed to the prediction of sleep behaviour problems (p range = .16-.80). Whilst a high proportion of children consumed above the recommended amount of daily total sugar, total sugar consumption was not related to behavioural or sleep problems, nor affected the relationship between these variables.

  4. Dietary LC-PUFA deficiency early in ontogeny induces behavioural changes in pike perch (Sander lucioperca) larvae and fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Höglund, Erik; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.

    2014-01-01

    enriched with either refined olive oil high in oleic acid (A); refined olive oil supplemented with a low (B) or a high (C) level of DHA; or refined olive oil acid supplemented with fish oil with a high content of phospholipids (PL) and DHA (D). The enriched live diets were provided until 28days post hatch...... (dph), at which time larval behavioural responses to visual and mechano-sensory stimuli were assessed. All dietary groups were subsequently fed an identical enriched live feed (diet D) and gradually weaned to an extruded dry feed, on which they were maintained for 112days. At the end of this period...... that was not observed for larvae on diets low in DHA content. Independent of the predator simulation, larvae deficient or low in DHA exhibited significantly more time swimming along the edge of a test arena and had overall higher locomotor activities compared to larvae fed a diet with a high DHA content. Larvae on DHA...

  5. Effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laan Eva K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary habits, smoking and high alcohol consumption are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer. Web-based health risk assessments with tailored feedback seem promising in promoting a healthy lifestyle. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a web-based health risk assessment with individually-tailored feedback on lifestyle behaviour, conducted in a worksite setting. Methods/Design The web-based health risk assessment starts with a questionnaire covering socio-demographic variables, family and personal medical history, lifestyle behaviour and psychological variables. Prognostic models are used to estimate individual cardiovascular risks. In case of high risk further biometric and laboratory evaluation is advised. All participants receive individually-tailored feedback on their responses to the health risk assessment questionnaire. The study uses a quasi-experimental design with a waiting list control group. Data are collected at baseline (T0 and after six months (T1. Within each company, clusters of employees are allocated to either the intervention or the control group. Primary outcome is lifestyle behaviour, expressed as the sum of five indicators namely physical activity, nutrition, smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, and symptoms of burnout. Multilevel regression analysis will be used to answer the main research question and to correct for clustering effects. Baseline differences between the intervention and control group in the distribution of characteristics with a potential effect on lifestyle change will be taken into account in further analyses using propensity scores. Discussion This study will increase insight into the effectiveness of health risk assessments with tailored feedback and into conditions that may modify the effectiveness. This information can be used to design effective interventions for lifestyle behaviour change among employees. Trial

  6. The contribution of lifestyle coaching of overweight patients in primary care to more autonomous motivation for physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour: results of a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, G.M.; Meis, J.J.M.; Hendriks, M.R.C.; Hamers, F.J.M.; Veenhof, C.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to

  7. The contribution of lifestyle coaching of overweight patients in primary care to more autonomous motivation for physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour: results of a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, G.M.; Meis, J.J.M.; Hendriks, M.R.C.; Hamers, F.J.M.; Veenhof, C.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to

  8. What the drivers do and do not tell you: using verbal protocol analysis to investigate driver behaviour in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A; Harvey, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Although task analysis of pedestrian detection can provide us with useful insights into how a driver may behave in emergency situations, the cognitive elements of driver decision-making are less well understood. To assist in the design of future Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, such as Autonomous Emergency Brake systems, it is essential that the cognitive elements of the driving task are better understood. This paper uses verbal protocol analysis in an exploratory fashion to uncover the thought processes underlying behavioural outcomes represented by hard data collected using the Southampton University Driving Simulator.

  9. Inventory of surveillance systems assessing dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Europe: a DEDIPAC study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Huybrechts, Inge; Thumann, Barbara F; Hebestreit, Antje; Abuja, Peter M; de Henauw, Stefaan; Dubuisson, Carine; Heuer, Thorsten; Murrin, Celine M; Lazzeri, Giacomo; van Rossum, Caroline; Andersen, Lene F; Szeklicki, Robert; Vioque, Jesús; Berry, Rachel; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Slimani, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for harmonized public health surveillance systems to monitor regional variations and temporal trends of health behaviours and health outcomes and to align policies, action plans and recommendations in terms of healthy diet and physical (in)activity within Europe. We provide an

  10. Antibiotics and activity spaces: protocol of an exploratory study of behaviour, marginalisation and knowledge diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haenssgen, MJ; Charoenboon, N; Zanello, G; Mayxay, M; Reed-Tsochas, F; Jones, COH; Kosaikanont, R; Praphattong, P; Manohan, P; Lubell, Y; Newton, PN; Keomany, S; Wertheim, HFL; Lienert, J; Xayavong, T

    2018-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health priority. Leading UK and global strategy papers to fight AMR recognise its social and behavioural dimensions, but current policy responses to improve the popular use of antimicrobials (eg, antibiotics) are limited to education and awareness-raising campaigns. In response to conceptual, methodological and empirical weaknesses of this approach, we study people’s antibiotic-related health behaviour through three research questions. ...

  11. Antibiotics and activity spaces: protocol of an exploratory study of behaviour, marginalisation and knowledge diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenboon, Nutcha; Zanello, Giacomo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Jones, Caroline O H; Kosaikanont, Romyen; Praphattong, Pollavat; Manohan, Pathompong; Lubell, Yoel; Newton, Paul N; Keomany, Sommay; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Lienert, Jeffrey; Xayavong, Thipphaphone; Warapikuptanun, Penporn; Khine Zaw, Yuzana; U-Thong, Patchapoom; Benjaroon, Patipat; Sangkham, Narinnira; Wibunjak, Kanokporn; Chai-In, Poowadon; Chailert, Sirirat; Thavethanutthanawin, Patthanan; Promsutt, Krittanon; Thepkhamkong, Amphayvone; Sithongdeng, Nicksan; Keovilayvanh, Maipheth; Khamsoukthavong, Nid; Phanthasomchit, Phaengnitta; Phanthavong, Chanthasone; Boualaiseng, Somsanith; Vongsavang, Souksakhone; Greer, Rachel C; Althaus, Thomas; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Intralawan, Daranee; Wangrangsimakul, Tri; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Ariana, Proochista

    2018-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health priority. Leading UK and global strategy papers to fight AMR recognise its social and behavioural dimensions, but current policy responses to improve the popular use of antimicrobials (eg, antibiotics) are limited to education and awareness-raising campaigns. In response to conceptual, methodological and empirical weaknesses of this approach, we study people’s antibiotic-related health behaviour through three research questions. RQ1: What are the manifestations and determinants of problematic antibiotic use in patients’ healthcare-seeking pathways? RQ2: Will people’s exposure to antibiotic awareness activities entail changed behaviours that diffuse or dissipate within a network of competing healthcare practices? RQ3: Which proxy indicators facilitate the detection of problematic antibiotic behaviours across and within communities? Methods We apply an interdisciplinary analytical framework that draws on the public health, medical anthropology, sociology and development economics literature. Our research involves social surveys of treatment-seeking behaviour among rural dwellers in northern Thailand (Chiang Rai) and southern Lao PDR (Salavan). We sample approximately 4800 adults to produce district-level representative and social network data. Additional 60 cognitive interviews facilitate survey instrument development and data interpretation. Our survey data analysis techniques include event sequence analysis (RQ1), multilevel regression (RQ1–3), social network analysis (RQ2) and latent class analysis (RQ3). Discussion Social research in AMR is nascent, but our unprecedentedly detailed data on microlevel treatment-seeking behaviour can contribute an understanding of behaviour beyond awareness and free choice, highlighting, for example, decision-making constraints, problems of marginalisation and lacking access to healthcare and competing ideas about desirable behaviour. Trial registration number NCT

  12. Starvation-Induced Dietary Behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Safee Ullah; Afzal, Ahmed Jawaad; Tariq, Muhammad

    2015-09-24

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae are classified as herbivores and known to feed on non-carnivorous diet under normal conditions. However, when nutritionally challenged these larvae exhibit cannibalistic behaviour by consuming a diet composed of larger conspecifics. Herein, we report that cannibalism in Drosophila larvae is confined not only to scavenging on conspecifics that are larger in size, but also on their eggs. Moreover, such cannibalistic larvae develop as normally as those grown on standard cornmeal medium. When stressed, Drosophila melanogaster larvae can also consume a carnivorous diet derived from carcasses of organisms belonging to diverse taxonomic groups, including Musca domestica, Apis mellifera, and Lycosidae sp. While adults are ill-equipped to devour conspecific carcasses, they selectively oviposit on them and also consume damaged cadavers of conspecifics. Thus, our results suggest that nutritionally stressed Drosophila show distinct as well as unusual feeding behaviours that can be classified as detritivorous, cannibalistic and/or carnivorous.

  13. Associations of Children’s Appetitive Traits with Weight and Dietary Behaviours in the Context of General Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-01-01

    Background Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive) interventions. Objectives To examine associations of children’s appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake. Methods Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009–2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children’s appetitive traits, children’s dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses. Results Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight. Conclusions Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children. PMID:23227194

  14. The Development of a Web-Based Program to Reduce Dietary Salt Intake in Schoolchildren: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley Ann; Booth, Alison; Khokhar, Durreajam; West, Madeline; Margerison, Claire; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2017-05-31

    Salt intake of schoolchildren in the Australian state of Victoria is high. To protect future cardiovascular health, interventions that seek to reduce the amount of salt in children's diets are required. We sought to develop and pilot test a Web-based program (Digital Education to Limit Salt Intake in the Home [DELISH]) that aims to reduce dietary salt intake among schoolchildren and to improve child and parent knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to salt intake. This paper presents the DELISH study protocol, along with pilot findings used to inform the development of the program. The DELISH program is a 5-week Web-based intervention that targets schoolchildren aged 7-10 years and their parents. This is a single-arm study with a pretest and posttest design. We will assess change in salt intake through analysis of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Children and parents will complete online surveys assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to salt intake. We will assess feasibility of the program via process measures, which include metrics to describe intervention uptake (eg, number of children who complete Web-based sessions and of parents who view online newsletters) and evaluation surveys and interviews conducted with children, parents, and schoolteachers. The first 2 Web sessions developed for children were pilot tested in 19 children aged 8-12 years. Findings from pilot testing indicated that most children (session 1: 18/19, 95%; and session 2: 19/19, 100%) enjoyed completing each session and liked the inclusion of comic strips and interactive games. Commonly reported areas of improvement related to sessions being text and content heavy. Based on these findings, we simplified sessions and developed 3 additional sessions for use in the DELISH program. The DELISH program was implemented during June-December 2016. We expect to have results from this study at the end of 2017. To our knowledge, this is the first Australian study to examine the

  15. Interventions for sustained healthcare professional behaviour change: a protocol for an overview of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stephan U; Campbell, Pauline; Frost, Helen; Pollock, Alex; McLellan, Julie; MacGillivray, Steve; Gavine, Anna; Maxwell, Margaret; O'Carroll, Ronan; Cheyne, Helen; Presseau, Justin; Williams, Brian

    2016-10-13

    Failure to successfully implement and sustain change over the long term continues to be a major problem in health and social care. Translating evidence into routine clinical practice is notoriously complex, and it is recognised that to implement new evidence-based interventions and sustain them over time, professional behaviour needs to change accordingly. A number of theories and frameworks have been developed to support behaviour change among health and social care professionals, and models of sustainability are emerging, but few have translated into valid and reliable interventions. The long-term success of healthcare professional behavioural change interventions is variable, and the characteristics of successful interventions unclear. Previous reviews have synthesised the evidence for behaviour change, but none have focused on sustainability. In addition, multiple overlapping reviews have reported inconsistent results, which do not aid translation of evidence into practice. Overviews of reviews can provide accessible succinct summaries of evidence and address barriers to evidence-based practice. We aim to compile an overview of reviews, identifying, appraising and synthesising evidence relating to sustained social and healthcare professional behaviour change. We will conduct a systematic review of Cochrane reviews (an Overview). We plan to systematically search the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We will include all systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials comparing a healthcare professional targeted behaviour change intervention to a standard care or no intervention control group. Two reviewers will independently assess the eligibility of the reviews and the methodological quality of included reviews using the ROBIS tool. The quality of evidence within each comparison in each review will be judged based on the GRADE criteria. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion. Effects of interventions will be systematically tabulated and the

  16. Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of sedentary behaviours in adults: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Stephanie A; Gresty, Katelin M; Reed, Jennifer L; Wright, Erica; Tremblay, Mark S; Reid, Robert D

    2014-10-21

    Adults spend the majority of their time being sedentary, and evidence suggests that those who spend more of their day engaged in sedentary activities (TV viewing, sitting, screen-based activities) are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality, regardless of whether they exercise regularly. In order to develop effective interventions to reduce sedentary time, it is necessary to identify and understand the strongest modifiable factors of these behaviours. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence in order to identify individual, social, environmental and policy correlates and determinants of sedentary behaviours (TV time, sitting time, screen time) and total sedentary time among adults. Six electronic databases will be searched to identify all studies that report on individual, social and/or environmental correlates and determinants of sedentary behaviours and total sedentary time in adults. Grey literature sources including theses, published conference abstracts and websites from relevant organizations will also be included. Articles that report on modifiable individual (e.g. health behaviours and status, self-efficacy, socio-economic status), social (e.g. crime, safety, social support, climate and capital), environmental (e.g. weather, workplace, home, neighbourhood, recreation environment, transportation environment) and policy correlates and determinants (based on study design) of sedentary behaviours in an adult population (mean age ≥18 years) will be included. Study quality and risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies. Harvest plots will be used to synthesize results across all correlates, and meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity. This review will provide a comprehensive examination of evidence in the field and will serve to highlight gaps for future research on the determinants of sedentary behaviours and inform intervention

  17. The effectiveness of workplace interventions to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviour in adults: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loitz, Christina C; Potter, Robert J; Walker, Jessica L; McLeod, Nicole C; Johnston, Nora J

    2015-12-12

    A physically active lifestyle plays a preventative role in the development of various chronic diseases and mental health conditions. Unfortunately, few adults achieve the minimum amount of physical activity and spend excessive time sitting. Developing targeted interventions to increase active living among adults is an important endeavour for public health. One plausible context to reach adults is the workplace. This systematic review aims to review the effectiveness of workplace interventions on increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary behaviour in the workplace. An advisory group of practitioners will work in collaboration with the research team to inform the systematic review and knowledge mobilization. Fifteen electronic databases will be searched to identify studies examining the effectiveness of workplace interventions on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. All experimental designs and observational studies (non-experimental intervention studies) meeting the study criteria will be included. Studies examining generally healthy, employed, adult participants will be included for the review. Interventions will focus on increasing physical activity and/or decreasing sedentary behaviour from the individual to policy level. The primary outcome variables will be reported or observed physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour in the workplace. Secondary outcomes will include variables ranging from return on investment to quality of life. Study quality will be assessed for risk of bias following the protocol identified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and supplemented by the guidelines developed by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care group, using RevMan. The quality of the evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Meta-analyses, forest plots, and harvest plots will be used where appropriate to assess the direction, size, and

  18. Food supply and actions to improve dietary behaviour of students - a comparison between secondary schools participating or not participating in the 'Healthy School Canteen Program'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, Ivon E J; Mikolajczak, Jochen; van den Berg, Saskia W; van de Veen-van Hofwegen, Madelon; Bemelmans, Wanda J E

    2015-02-01

    (i) To identify determinants of participation in the 'Healthy School Canteen Program', a programme that encourages schools to set up their canteen in a way that promotes healthy dietary behaviour. (ii) To compare food supply and actions between participating and non-participating schools. (iii) To investigate what reasons schools have to increase attention for nutrition in the curriculum. A cross-sectional study based on information from questionnaires performed in 2010/2011. All secondary schools (age group 12-18 years) in the Netherlands (n 1145). Response was 33 % (n 375). Analyses included all schools with a canteen in which food is offered (28 %, n 325). None of the investigated determinants was associated with participation. Participating schools offered significantly (P schools. However, there was no difference in the number of less healthy products offered (e.g. candy bars, cakes and regular soft drinks). Participating schools reported more often that they took actions to improve dietary behaviour and more often had a policy on nutrition. Participating schools more often increased attention for nutrition in the curriculum in recent years than non-participating schools (57 % v. 43 %, P = 0·01). Reported reasons were similar and included media attention, eating behaviour of students and 'overweight'. Schools that participate in the programme seemed to offer more healthy products in their canteens and took more actions to improve dietary behaviour than non-participating schools. However, at all schools less healthy foods were also available.

  19. Gnawing blocks as cage enrichment and dietary supplement for does and fatteners: intake, performance and behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Maertens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different experimental gnawing blocks as cage enrichment in rabbits. One hundred and five pregnant rabbit does housed in conventional wire cages were distributed according to their parity number in 4 homogenous treatment groups. Throughout one complete reproductive cycle (from day 18 of pregnancy till weaning of the litter, does either received no enrichment (controls or a gnawing block hung from a wire on the cage wall. The 3 different blocks had the same basal components (wheat, molasses and oligoelements, but additionally wood mash (WM, wood mash+chicory pulp (ChP or wood mash and inulin syrup (I were respectively incorporated. After weaning, each litter continued to receive the same blocks as before and block consumption was measured as well as the performance of the fatteners. Weight development during the lactation was comparable except in does that received the wood powder blocks. These females had a significantly lower weight (P<0.05 at different time points compared to controls. Litter weight or kit weight was not significantly different at any of the time points measured, but again the treatment with wood powder blocks presented the lowest weight. The consumption of blocks during the whole reproduction cycle (42 d was 11.0±1.1; 6.8±1.0 and 4.4±0.7 g/d per cage for wood mash, chicory pulp or inulin enriched blocks, respectively. A very high variability in consumption of blocks was observed between females. This varied between 1 and 5 (I or ChP group or even 1 and 9 blocks (WM group per reproductive cycle. In fatteners, daily block consumption was significantly different (P<0.05 and reached on average 7.0±0.5; 3.9±0.5 and 2.2±0.2 g/d per fattener, respectively for WM, ChP and I. Five females with a block and 5 females without a block were observed for 1 h 3 d before the expected parturition and at 2 time points during lactation. Distinction was made between 15 different behaviours. Although the

  20. Positive and negative behaviours in workplace relationships: a scoping review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost, Joan; Wolff, Angela; Mildon, Barbara; Price, Sheri; Godfrey, Christina; Robinson, Sandra; Ross-White, Amanda; Mercado-Mallari, Sheile

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Engaging in teamwork requires a clear understanding of positive and negative behaviours that act as facilitators and barriers to collegial workplace relationships. Identifying and correcting underlying barriers, while promoting facilitators, is fundamental to improving care delivery and, ultimately, clinical outcomes. Despite a considerable amount of literature in this area, there is a lack of clarity of the different behaviours as several parallel literatures address similar questions about antecedents, processes and outcomes. The purpose of this study is to synthesise the current state of literature reporting on behaviours in workplace relationships. Using a scoping review methodology, the following research question will be addressed: “What is known about positive and negative behaviours in workplace relationships?” Methods and analysis We will employ the methodological frameworks used by Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al. The search strategy will include numerous electronic databases, grey literature sources and hand-searching of reference lists from 1990 to present with a limit to English language. Search strategies will be developed using controlled vocabulary and keyword terms related to various components of workplace relationships. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts for inclusion, followed by screening of the full text of potential articles to determine final inclusion. A descriptive numerical analysis will describe characteristics of included studies. A thematic analysis will provide an overview of the literature, including definitions, conceptual frameworks, antecedents, outcomes and interventions. Dissemination In reviewing a wide range of positive and negative behaviours, then integrating into a manageable, meaningful whole, this study is a critical step in helping policymakers, leaders and healthcare professionals effectively use what is known thus far. Knowledge translation activities will occur throughout

  1. Food swamps and food deserts in Baltimore City, MD, USA: associations with dietary behaviours among urban adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Cockerham, Alexandra; O'Reilly, Nicole; Harrington, Donna; Harding, James; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether living in a food swamp (≥4 corner stores within 0·40 km (0·25 miles) of home) or a food desert (generally, no supermarket or access to healthy foods) is associated with consumption of snacks/desserts or fruits/vegetables, and if neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) confounds relationships. Cross-sectional. Assessments included diet (Youth/Adolescent FFQ, skewed dietary variables normalized) and measured height/weight (BMI-for-age percentiles/Z-scores calculated). A geographic information system geocoded home addresses and mapped food deserts/food swamps. Associations examined using multiple linear regression (MLR) models adjusting for age and BMI-for-age Z-score. Baltimore City, MD, USA. Early adolescent girls (6th/7th grade, n 634; mean age 12·1 years; 90·7 % African American; 52·4 % overweight/obese), recruited from twenty-two urban, low-income schools. Girls' consumption of fruit, vegetables and snacks/desserts: 1·2, 1·7 and 3·4 servings/d, respectively. Girls' food environment: 10·4 % food desert only, 19·1 % food swamp only, 16·1 % both food desert/swamp and 54·4 % neither food desert/swamp. Average median neighbourhood-level household income: $US 35 298. In MLR models, girls living in both food deserts/swamps consumed additional servings of snacks/desserts v. girls living in neither (β=0·13, P=0·029; 3·8 v. 3·2 servings/d). Specifically, girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls who did not (β=0·16, P=0·003; 3·7 v. 3·1 servings/d), with no confounding effect of neighbourhood-level SES. No associations were identified with food deserts or consumption of fruits/vegetables. Early adolescent girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls not living in food swamps. Dietary interventions should consider the built environment/food access when addressing adolescent dietary behaviours.

  2. Reducing the environmental impact of dietary choice: perspectives from a behavioural and social change approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Andrew; Dixon, Sarah; Comfort, Jude; Hallett, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area.

  3. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Dietary Choice: Perspectives from a Behavioural and Social Change Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area.

  4. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE'): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, Scot M; Playdon, Mary C; Wolfe, Pamela; McGinley, John N; Wisthoff, Mark R; Daeninck, Elizabeth A; Jiang, Weiqin; Zhu, Zongjian; Thompson, Henry J

    2011-07-06

    Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m²) will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF), IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated with poor prognosis for long term

  5. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeninck Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Methods/Design Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2 will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF, IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. Discussion While clinical data indicate that excess weight

  6. Music in mind, a randomized controlled trial of music therapy for young people with behavioural and emotional problems: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sam; Holmes, Valerie; McLaughlin, Katrina; Lynn, Fiona; Cardwell, Chris; Braiden, Hannah-Jane; Doran, Jackie; Rogan, Sheelagh

    2012-10-01

    This article is a report of a trial protocol to determine if improvizational music therapy leads to clinically significant improvement in communication and interaction skills for young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural problems. Music therapy is often considered an effective intervention for young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural difficulties. However, this assumption lacks empirical evidence. Music in mind is a multi-centred single-blind randomized controlled trial involving 200 young people (aged 8-16 years) and their parents. Eligible participants will have a working diagnosis within the ambit of international classification of disease 10 mental and behavioural disorders and will be recruited over 15 months from six centres within the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services of a large health and social care trust in Northern Ireland. Participants will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive standard care alone or standard care plus 12 weekly music therapy sessions delivered by the Northern Ireland Music Therapy Trust. Baseline data will be collected from young people and their parents using standardized outcome measures for communicative and interaction skills (primary endpoint), self-esteem, social functioning, depression and family functioning. Follow-up data will be collected 1 and 13 weeks after the final music therapy session. A cost-effectiveness analysis will also be carried out. This study will be the largest trial to date examining the effect of music therapy on young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural difficulties and will provide empirical evidence for the use of music therapy among this population. Trial registration. This study is registered in the ISRCTN Register, ISRCTN96352204. Ethical approval was gained in October 2010. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Behavioural intervention to increase physical activity among patients with coronary heart disease: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Eman; Blake, Holly; Windle, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Although physical activity has significant health benefits in the treatment of patients with coronary heart disease, patients often do not follow prescribed physical activity recommendations. Behavioural strategies have been shown to be efficacious in increasing physical activity among those patients with coronary heart disease who are attending structured cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Research has also shown that tailoring consultation according to patients' needs and sending motivational reminders are successful ways of motivating patients to be physically active. However, there is a lack of evidence for the efficacy of behavioural interventions based on individualised consultation in promoting physical activity among those patients with coronary heart disease who are not attending structured physical activity programmes. This paper outlines the study protocol for a trial which is currently underway, to examine the effect of a behavioural change intervention delivered through individualised consultation calls and motivational reminder text messages on the level of physical activity among patients with coronary heart disease. Two large hospitals in Jordan. Eligible patients aged between 18 and 70 years, who are clinically stable, are able to perform physical activity and who have access to a mobile telephone have been randomly allocated to control or intervention group. Two-group randomised controlled trial. Behavioural intervention will be compared with usual care in increasing physical activity levels among patients with coronary heart disease. The control group (n=85) will receive advice from their doctors about physical activity as they would in usual practice. The intervention group (n=71) will receive the same advice, but will also receive behavioural change intervention (goal-setting, feed-back, self-monitoring) that will be delivered over a period of six months. Intervention will be delivered through individually tailored face-to-face and telephone

  8. Changing physical activity behaviour for people with multiple sclerosis: protocol of a randomised controlled feasibility trial (iStep-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Fortune, Jennifer; Stennett, Andrea; Kilbride, Cherry; Anokye, Nana; Victor, Christina; Hendrie, Wendy; Abdul, Mohamed; DeSouza, Lorraine; Lavelle, Grace; Brewin, Debbie; David, Lee; Norris, Meriel

    2017-11-15

    Although physical activity may reduce disease burden, fatigue and disability, and improve quality of life among people with multiple sclerosis (MS), many people with MS are physically inactive and spend significant time in sedentary behaviour. Behaviour change interventions may assist people with MS to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour. However, few studies have investigated their effectiveness using objective measures of physical activity, particularly in the long term. Further, interventions that have proven effective in the short term may not be feasible in clinical practice because of the large amount of support provided. The iStep-MS trial aims to determine the safety, feasibility and acceptability of a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour among people with MS. Sixty people with MS will be randomised (1:1 ratio) to receive a 12-week intervention or usual care only. The intervention consists of four physical activity consultations with a physiotherapist supported by a handbook and pedometer. Outcomes assessed at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months are physical activity (ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer), sedentary behaviour (activPAL3µ), self-reported activity and sitting time, walking capability, fatigue, self-efficacy, participation, quality of life and health service use. The safety of the intervention will be determined by assessing change in pain and fatigue and the incidence of adverse events during the follow-up period. A parallel process evaluation will assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention through assessment of fidelity to the programme and semistructured interviews exploring participants' and therapists' experiences of the intervention. The feasibility of conducting an economic evaluation will be determined by collecting data on quality of life and resource use. Research ethics committee approval has been granted from Brunel University London. Results of

  9. Connecting Health and Technology (CHAT): protocol of a randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using mobile devices and tailored text messaging in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing intakes of fruits and vegetables intake, in tandem with reducing consumption of energy-dense and nutrient poor foods and beverages are dietary priorities to prevent chronic disease. Although most adults do not eat enough fruit and vegetables, teenagers and young adults tend to have the lowest intakes. Young adults typically consume a diet which is inconsistent with the dietary recommendations. Yet little is known about the best approaches to improve dietary intakes and behaviours among this group. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of using a mobile device to assess dietary intake, provide tailored dietary feedback and text messages to motivate changes in fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among young adults. Methods/design The CHAT project will involve the development of the mobile device food record (MDFR), and evaluation of dietary feedback and implementation of a 6-month intervention in young adults aged 18 to 30 years. The participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups (1) Intervention Group 1: MDFR + Text Messages + Dietary Feedback; (2) Intervention Group 2: MDFR + Dietary Feedback; (3) Control Group 3: MDFR, no feedback. All groups will undertake a 3-day dietary record using the MDFR but only the Intervention Groups 1 and 2 will receive tailored dietary feedback at baseline and at 6-months which will consist of assessment of serves of fruits, vegetables and junk food in comparison to dietary recommendations. Tailored nutrition text messages will be sent to Intervention Group 1 over the 6 months. Data will be collected at baseline and again at the 6-month completion. Discussion This trial will test if applications running on mobile devices have potential to assess diet, provide tailored feedback and nutrition messages as an effective way of improving fruit and vegetable consumption and reducing energy-dense nutrient poor foods in young adults. The CHAT project will assess the

  10. Connecting Health and Technology (CHAT): protocol of a randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using mobile devices and tailored text messaging in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Deborah A; Pollard, Christina M; Howat, Peter; Delp, Edward J; Pickering, Mark; Kerr, Katherine R; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Pratt, Iain S; Wright, Janine; Boushey, Carol J

    2012-06-22

    Increasing intakes of fruits and vegetables intake, in tandem with reducing consumption of energy-dense and nutrient poor foods and beverages are dietary priorities to prevent chronic disease. Although most adults do not eat enough fruit and vegetables, teenagers and young adults tend to have the lowest intakes. Young adults typically consume a diet which is inconsistent with the dietary recommendations. Yet little is known about the best approaches to improve dietary intakes and behaviours among this group. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of using a mobile device to assess dietary intake, provide tailored dietary feedback and text messages to motivate changes in fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among young adults. The CHAT project will involve the development of the mobile device food record (MDFR), and evaluation of dietary feedback and implementation of a 6-month intervention in young adults aged 18 to 30 years. The participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups (1) Intervention Group 1: MDFR + Text Messages + Dietary Feedback; (2) Intervention Group 2: MDFR + Dietary Feedback; (3) Control Group 3: MDFR, no feedback. All groups will undertake a 3-day dietary record using the MDFR but only the Intervention Groups 1 and 2 will receive tailored dietary feedback at baseline and at 6-months which will consist of assessment of serves of fruits, vegetables and junk food in comparison to dietary recommendations. Tailored nutrition text messages will be sent to Intervention Group 1 over the 6 months. Data will be collected at baseline and again at the 6-month completion. This trial will test if applications running on mobile devices have potential to assess diet, provide tailored feedback and nutrition messages as an effective way of improving fruit and vegetable consumption and reducing energy-dense nutrient poor foods in young adults. The CHAT project will assess the impact of the intervention on behavioural

  11. Connecting Health and Technology (CHAT: protocol of a randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using mobile devices and tailored text messaging in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Deborah A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing intakes of fruits and vegetables intake, in tandem with reducing consumption of energy-dense and nutrient poor foods and beverages are dietary priorities to prevent chronic disease. Although most adults do not eat enough fruit and vegetables, teenagers and young adults tend to have the lowest intakes. Young adults typically consume a diet which is inconsistent with the dietary recommendations. Yet little is known about the best approaches to improve dietary intakes and behaviours among this group. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of using a mobile device to assess dietary intake, provide tailored dietary feedback and text messages to motivate changes in fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among young adults. Methods/design The CHAT project will involve the development of the mobile device food record (MDFR, and evaluation of dietary feedback and implementation of a 6-month intervention in young adults aged 18 to 30 years. The participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups (1 Intervention Group 1: MDFR + Text Messages + Dietary Feedback; (2 Intervention Group 2: MDFR + Dietary Feedback; (3 Control Group 3: MDFR, no feedback. All groups will undertake a 3-day dietary record using the MDFR but only the Intervention Groups 1 and 2 will receive tailored dietary feedback at baseline and at 6-months which will consist of assessment of serves of fruits, vegetables and junk food in comparison to dietary recommendations. Tailored nutrition text messages will be sent to Intervention Group 1 over the 6 months. Data will be collected at baseline and again at the 6-month completion. Discussion This trial will test if applications running on mobile devices have potential to assess diet, provide tailored feedback and nutrition messages as an effective way of improving fruit and vegetable consumption and reducing energy-dense nutrient poor foods in young adults. The CHAT

  12. Determination of relationship between sensory viscosity rating and instrumental flow behaviour of soluble dietary fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Simran Kaur; Patel, A A; Kumar, Naveen; Chauhan, O P

    2016-04-01

    The shear-thinning low, medium and high-viscosity fiber preparations (0.15-1.05 % psyllium husk, 0.07-0.6 % guar gum, 0.15-1.20 % gum tragacanth, 0.1-0.8 % gum karaya, 0.15-1.05 % high-viscosity Carboxy Methyl Cellulose and 0.1-0.7 % xanthan gum) showed that the consistency coefficient (k) was a function of concentration, the relationship being exponential (R(2), 0.87-0.96; P flow behaviour index (n) (except for gum karaya and CMC) was exponentially related to concentration (R(2), 0.61-0.98). The relationship between k and sensory viscosity rating (SVR) was essentially linear in nearly all cases. The SVR could be predicted from the consistency coefficient using the regression equations developed. Also, the relationship of k with fiber concentration would make it possible to identify the concentration of a particular gum required to have desired consistency in terms of SVR.

  13. An analysis of weight perception and physical activity and dietary behaviours among youth in the COMPASS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Patte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Weight misperceptions appear common among youth, potentially influencing their motivation to engage in health-related behaviours; however, the direction of impact remains unclear. The current study examined how weight perception influences physical activity (PA and diet among youth. Methods: This study used 2-year linked data of 19,322 grade 9–12 students from Year 2 (Y2:2013-2014 and 3 (Y3:2014-2015 of the COMPASS study. Generalized Estimating Equation models tested the effect of Y3 weight perception on the various Y3 PA and dietary behaviour measures, adjusting for Y3 covariates (grade, race/ethnicity, weekly spending money, school cluster, school area median household income, and the Y2 outcome. Models were stratified by gender and body mass index (BMI classification. Results: Regardless of BMI status, overweight perceptions among boys and girls were associated with lower likelihoods of playing school sports, physical education class enrollment, meeting resistance exercise recommendations, eating breakfast regularly, and less vigorous-intensity PA, and among boys only, lower odds of meeting PA guidelines, compared to their peers who perceived their weight as “about right”. In boys with normal-weight BMIs, underweight perceptions predicted less vigorous-intensity PA, and lower odds of physical education class enrollment, and of meeting PA and resistance exercise recommendations, than “about right” perceptions. Among girls, underweight perceptions predicted lower likelihoods of engaging in adequate resistance exercise and playing intramurals, and greater odds of eating fast food on weekends, purchasing snacks, and drinking energy drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Girls with overweight/obese BMIs who perceived their weight as such were less likely to consume adequate fruits and vegetables relative to their counterparts with “about right” weight perceptions. Conclusions: Overall, weight perceptions of “about right

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviour intentions for three bowel management practices in intensive care: effects of a targeted protocol implementation for nursing and medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Serena; Lam, Lawrence T; McInnes, Elizabeth; Elliott, Doug; Hardy, Jennifer; Middleton, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Bowel management protocols have the potential to minimize complications for critically ill patients. Targeted implementation can increase the uptake of protocols by clinicians into practice. The theory of planned behaviour offers a framework in which to investigate clinicians' intention to perform the behaviour of interest. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of implementing a bowel management protocol on intensive care nursing and medical staffs' knowledge, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, behaviour intentions, role perceptions and past behaviours in relation to three bowel management practices. A descriptive before and after survey using a self-administered questionnaire sent to nursing and medical staff working within three intensive care units before and after implementation of our bowel management protocol (pre: May - June 2008; post: Feb - May 2009). Participants had significantly higher knowledge scores post-implementation of our protocol (pre mean score 17.6; post mean score 19.3; p = 0.004). Post-implementation there was a significant increase in: self-reported past behaviour (pre mean score 5.38; post mean score 7.11; p = 0.002) and subjective norms scores (pre mean score 3.62; post mean score 4.18; p = 0.016) for bowel assessment; and behaviour intention (pre mean score 5.22; post mean score 5.65; p = 0.048) for administration of enema. This evaluation, informed by the theory of planned behaviour, has provided useful insights into factors that influence clinician intentions to perform evidence-based bowel management practices in intensive care. Addressing factors such as knowledge, attitudes and beliefs can assist in targeting implementation strategies to positively affect clinician behaviour change. Despite an increase in clinicians' knowledge scores, our implementation strategy did not, however, significantly change clinician behaviour intentions for all three bowel management practices. Further research is

  15. Is health coaching effective in changing the health status and behaviour of prisoners?-a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almondes, Nadja; Downie, Denise; Cinar, Ayse B; Richards, Derek; Freeman, Ruth

    2017-07-03

    This is a protocol for a systematic review of the impact of health coaching on changing the health behaviour of offenders. Prisoners are more likely to suffer from health-related issues when compared to the general population. Health coaching has been shown to influence health outcomes of patients with chronic conditions. This review, therefore, aims to assess the effectiveness of health coaching interventions on the health of adolescent and adult offenders in custodial institutions. We plan to conduct a systematic review of the current literature on health coaching interventions delivered in the prison setting. We will include randomised controlled trials and observational studies that compare health coaching to the usual care or other alternative interventions. The ideal interventions will be delivered either by health professionals or peer coaches, and the outcomes extracted in the data collection will be disease-specific, clients' life and self-management skills, behavioural and psychosocial outcomes. If appropriate, a meta-analysis of the data collected will be carried out on the last stage of the review. This systematic review will identify and gather evidence on the impact of health coaching interventions delivered in the prison setting and can function as a supporting material for health professionals, prison staff, the healthcare system, and public health departments when considering delivering health coaching. PROSPERO CRD42016053237 .

  16. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to dietary salt among adults in the state of Victoria, Australia 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Kelley, Sarah-Jane; Stanley, Sonya; Bolam, Bruce; Webster, Jacqui; Khokhar, Durreajam; Nowson, Caryl A

    2017-05-30

    Information on consumer's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours (KABs) related to salt can be used to inform awareness and education campaigns and serve as a baseline measure to monitor changes in KABs over time. The aim of this study was to determine KABs related to salt intake among Victorian adults. Cross-sectional survey conducted in Victorian adults aged 18-65 years. Participants were recruited from shopping centres located in Melbourne and Geelong and via online methods (Facebook and Consumer Research Panel) to complete an online survey assessing KABs related to dietary salt. Descriptive statistics (mean (SD) or n (%)) were used to report survey findings. A total of 2398 participants provided a valid survey (mean age 43 years (SD 13), 57% female). The majority (80%) were born in Australia and 63% were the main household grocery shopper. The majority (89%) were aware of the health risks associated with a high salt intake. Eighty three percent believed that Australians eat too much salt. Three quarters (75%) correctly identified salt from processed foods as being the main source of salt in the diet. Less than a third (29%) of participants believed their own individual salt intake exceeded dietary recommendations and only 28% could correctly identify the maximum recommended daily intake for salt. Just under half (46%) of participants were concerned about the amount of salt in food. Almost two thirds (61%) of participants believed that there should be laws which limit the amount of salt added to manufactured foods and 58% agreed that it was difficult to find lower salt options when eating out. The findings of this study serve as a baseline assessment of KABs related to salt intake in Victorian adults and can be used to assess changes in salt related KABs over time. Public concern about salt is low as many people remain unaware of their own salt intake. An increased awareness of the excessive amount of salt consumed and increased availability of lower salt foods

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to dietary salt among adults in the state of Victoria, Australia 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A. Grimes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on consumer’s knowledge, attitudes and behaviours (KABs related to salt can be used to inform awareness and education campaigns and serve as a baseline measure to monitor changes in KABs over time. The aim of this study was to determine KABs related to salt intake among Victorian adults. Methods Cross-sectional survey conducted in Victorian adults aged 18–65 years. Participants were recruited from shopping centres located in Melbourne and Geelong and via online methods (Facebook and Consumer Research Panel to complete an online survey assessing KABs related to dietary salt. Descriptive statistics (mean (SD or n (% were used to report survey findings. Results A total of 2398 participants provided a valid survey (mean age 43 years (SD 13, 57% female. The majority (80% were born in Australia and 63% were the main household grocery shopper. The majority (89% were aware of the health risks associated with a high salt intake. Eighty three percent believed that Australians eat too much salt. Three quarters (75% correctly identified salt from processed foods as being the main source of salt in the diet. Less than a third (29% of participants believed their own individual salt intake exceeded dietary recommendations and only 28% could correctly identify the maximum recommended daily intake for salt. Just under half (46% of participants were concerned about the amount of salt in food. Almost two thirds (61% of participants believed that there should be laws which limit the amount of salt added to manufactured foods and 58% agreed that it was difficult to find lower salt options when eating out. Conclusions The findings of this study serve as a baseline assessment of KABs related to salt intake in Victorian adults and can be used to assess changes in salt related KABs over time. Public concern about salt is low as many people remain unaware of their own salt intake. An increased awareness of the excessive amount of

  19. Characterisation of a behavioural protocol for the assessment of nociception in normal and inflamed porcine skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo

    2012-01-01

    The study of pain has been historically based on the investigation of human clinical conditions with the purpose of identifying the direct causes of pain to develop suitable analgesic treatments. The need to comprehend the mechanisms behind the processes of pain ignited the rapid development of pre......-clinical research, based on the investigation of experimental models designed to reproduce painful conditions or parts thereof. Animals play a fundamental role, since they provide the platform to reproduce human conditions in order to study the mechanisms behind pain processes, and during the last three decades...... increasing scepticism because a large proportion of emerging pharmaceutical products never reached marketing approval due to poor correlations between preclinical therapeutic findings and the eventual efficacy of these compounds in clinical trials. Thus, the behavioural component of pre-clinical studies...

  20. Everything should be as simple as possible, but no simpler: towards a protocol for accumulating evidence regarding the active content of health behaviour change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; de Bruin, Marijn; Crutzen, Rik

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to consolidate the evidence base underlying our toolbox of methods of behaviour change. Recent efforts to this effect have conducted meta-regressions on evaluations of behaviour change interventions, deriving each method's effectiveness from its association to intervention effect size. However, there are a range of issues that raise concern about whether this approach is actually furthering or instead obstructing the advancement of health psychology theories and the quality of health behaviour change interventions. Using examples from theory, the literature and data from previous meta-analyses, these concerns and their implications are explained and illustrated. An iterative protocol for evidence base accumulation is proposed that integrates evidence derived from both experimental and applied behaviour change research, and combines theory development in experimental settings with theory testing in applied real-life settings. As evidence gathered in this manner accumulates, a cumulative science of behaviour change can develop.

  1. Understanding discharge communication behaviours in a pediatric emergency care context: a mixed methods observation study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A; Bishop, Andrea; Plint, Amy; MacPhee, Shannon; Zemek, Roger; Chorney, Jill; Jabbour, Mona; Porter, Stephen; Sawyer, Scott

    2017-04-17

    One of the most important transitions in the continuum of care for children is discharge to home. Optimal discharge communication between healthcare providers and caregivers (e.g., parents or other guardians) who present to the emergency department (ED) with their children is not well understood. The lack of policies and considerable variation in practice regarding discharge communication in pediatric EDs pose a quality and safety risk for children and their parents. The aim of this mixed methods study is to better understand the process and structure of discharge communication in a pediatric ED context to contribute to the design and development of discharge communication interventions. We will use surveys, administrative data and real-time video observation to characterize discharge communication for six common illness presentations in a pediatric ED: (1) asthma, (2) bronchiolitis, (3) abdominal pain, (4) fever, (5) diarrhea and vomiting, and (6) minor head injury. Participants will be recruited from one of two urban pediatric EDs in Canada. Video recordings will be analyzed using Observer XT. We will use logistic regression to identify potential demographic and visit characteristic cofounders and multivariate logistic regression to examine association between verbal and non-verbal behaviours and parent recall and comprehension. Video recording of discharge communication will provide an opportunity to capture important data such as temporality, sequence and non-verbal behaviours that might influence the communication process. Given the importance of better characterizing discharge communication to identify potential barriers and enablers, we anticipate that the findings from this study will contribute to the development of more effective discharge communication policies and interventions.

  2. Dietary and physical activity behaviours related to obesity-specific quality of life and work productivity: baseline results from a worksite trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Beresford, Shirley A A; Henderson, Jo Ann; McTiernan, Anne; Xiao, Liren; Wang, C Y; Patrick, Donald L

    2012-09-28

    Obesity is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (QOL) and reduced productivity; less is known about the effect of dietary factors. The present study investigated how dietary behaviours, physical activity and BMI relate to weight-specific QOL and work productivity. The study was conducted in thirty-one small blue-collar and service industry worksites in Seattle. Participants were 747 employees (33·5 % non-White). Measures included self-reported servings of fruits and vegetables, dietary behaviours such as fast food consumption, Godin free-time physical activity scores, measured height and weight, Obesity and Weight-Loss QOL (OWLQOL) scores, and Work Limitations Questionnaire scores. Baseline data were analysed using linear mixed models separately for men (n 348) and women (n 399), since sex modified the effects. BMI was negatively associated with OWLQOL in both women (P increase in BMI was 30 (95 % CI 25, 44) % for women and 14 (95 % CI 10, 17) % for men. BMI was positively associated with productivity loss only in women (exp(slope) = 1·46, 95 % CI 1·02, 2·11, P = 0·04). Eating while doing another activity was negatively associated with OWLQOL scores in men (P = 0·0006, independent of BMI) and with productivity in women (P = 0·04, although the effect diminished when adjusting for BMI). Fast-food meals were associated with decreased productivity in men (P = 0·038, independent of BMI). The results suggest that obesogenic dietary behaviours and higher BMI are associated with decreased QOL and productivity to different degrees in women and men.

  3. Tough justice for small nations. How strategic behaviour can influence the enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Maestad, Ottar; Westskog, Hege

    2003-07-01

    The paper looks at how strategic considerations may play a role in the decision of whether or not to impose sanctions on Parties who are not in compliance with their commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. A member of the Enforcement Branch might have incentive to vote for sanctions towards one non-compliant country and not another even with the same violation. This implies that a certain composition of the members of the Enforcement Branch could decide to sanction one country and not another for the same relative non-compliance, while another composition might choose differently. We show that the expected effects on world market prices of sanctioning a country is likely to influence the decision of whether to carry out the sanctions or not. We find that it is likely to be easier to sanction countries where sanctions result in minor impacts on world market prices than those where the impacts are larger. Finally we discuss an alternative design of the sanction mechanism in view of our results. (Author)

  4. Tough justice for small nations. How strategic behaviour can influence the enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Maestad, Ottar; Westskog, Hege

    2003-01-01

    The paper looks at how strategic considerations may play a role in the decision of whether or not to impose sanctions on Parties who are not in compliance with their commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. A member of the Enforcement Branch might have incentive to vote for sanctions towards one non-compliant country and not another even with the same violation. This implies that a certain composition of the members of the Enforcement Branch could decide to sanction one country and not another for the same relative non-compliance, while another composition might choose differently. We show that the expected effects on world market prices of sanctioning a country is likely to influence the decision of whether to carry out the sanctions or not. We find that it is likely to be easier to sanction countries where sanctions result in minor impacts on world market prices than those where the impacts are larger. Finally we discuss an alternative design of the sanction mechanism in view of our results. (Author)

  5. Protein supplementation and dietary behaviours of resistance trained men and women attending commercial gyms: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is anecdotally recognized that commercial gym users assume supplements in order to improve performance or health. However, dietary behaviours of people and athletes attending commercial gyms have been poorly studied. The exact amount and frequency of dietary supplements consumption are still needed to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to understand the quantity and quality of food intake, as well as dietary supplementation in people attending commercial gyms. Secondly to compare the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire was administered to 561 subjects, 207 from the city centre (CC) and 354 from the suburbs (SB) of Palermo, Italy. Frequency of protein supplements use and association with dietary behaviours were investigated. Subsequently, the frequency distribution was used for demographic assessment. Results Frequency of protein consumption was similar in both groups (30% for CC and 28.8% for SB). Males show greater consumption percentages than females (30.5% in males and 6.9% in females). Milk and chicken are the most frequently consumed foods. Data show that non-supplement users (NSU) consume significantly more snacks and bakery products than supplement users (SU) (P gym users is 30% for the CC and 28.8% for the SB. Significant differences were found between CC and SB females, underlining an interesting discrepancy, indicating to dietary supplement industries regarding regional implications. Subjects that use protein supplements also consume larger quantities of high protein food compared to NSU. NSU also eat higher proportions of unhealthy food compared to SU. PMID:24976800

  6. Improving physician hand hygiene compliance using behavioural theories: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires Janet E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare-associated infections affect 10% of patients in Canadian acute-care hospitals and are significant and preventable causes of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is among the simplest and most effective preventive measures to reduce these infections. However, compliance with hand hygiene among healthcare workers, specifically among physicians, is consistently suboptimal. We aim to first identify the barriers and enablers to physician hand hygiene compliance, and then to develop and pilot a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to increase physicians’ compliance with best hand hygiene practice. Design The study consists of three phases. In Phase 1, we will identify barriers and enablers to hand hygiene compliance by physicians. This will include: key informant interviews with physicians and residents using a structured interview guide, informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework; nonparticipant observation of physician/resident hand hygiene audit sessions; and focus groups with hand hygiene experts. In Phase 2, we will conduct intervention mapping to develop a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to improve physician hand hygiene compliance. Finally, in Phase 3, we will pilot the knowledge translation intervention in four patient care units. Discussion In this study, we will use a behavioural theory approach to obtain a better understanding of the barriers and enablers to physician hand hygiene compliance. This will provide a comprehensive framework on which to develop knowledge translation interventions that may be more successful in improving hand hygiene practice. Upon completion of this study, we will refine the piloted knowledge translation intervention so it can be tested in a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial.

  7. [A Group Cognitive-Behavioural Intervention to Prevent Depression Relapse in Individuals Having Recently Returned to Work: Protocol and Feasibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc

    Workplace depression is one of the major causes for sick leave and loss of productivity at work. Many studies have investigated factors predicting return to work for people with depression, including studies evaluating return to work programs and organizational factors. Yet, a paucity of studies have targeted the prevention of depressive relapses at work, even though more than half of those having had a depression will have a depressive relapse in the near future.Objectives This article describes a research protocol involving a novel group intervention based on cognitive behavioural principles with the aim to optimize return to work and diminish risk of depressive relapses.Method This pilot study follows a randomized controlled trial design, with half the participants (N=25) receiving the group intervention and the other half (N=25) receiving usual services. The theoretical and empirical underpinnings of the intervention are described, along with a detailed presentation of the intervention and of the study's objectives. The group intervention consists of 8 sessions whereby Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) principles and techniques are applied to the following themes: (1) Coping with stress at work; (2) Recognizing and modifying my dysfunctional beliefs linked to work; (3) Overcoming obstacles linked to work functioning and maintaining work; (4) Negotiating needed work adjustments with the support of the immediate supervisor; (5) Finding my strengths and competencies related to work; (6) Accepting criticism and asserting myself appropriately at work; (7) Uncovering my best coping strategies for work.Results Qualitative information pertaining to the first two cohorts' participants' subjective appreciation of the group experience revealed that the intervention was perceived as very useful by all, with group support, namely harmony and interpersonal support, as well as CBT strategies being mentioned specifically.Conclusion Finally, the potential relevance of the

  8. Effect of insulin therapy and dietary adjustments on safety and performance during simulated soccer tests in people with type 1 diabetes: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Marín, Javier; Torrealba-Acosta, Gabriel; Campbell, Matthew; Gaboury, Jesse; Ali, Ajmol; Chen-Ku, Chih Hao

    2017-07-20

    Despite the reduction in glycemic derangement in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) through dietary and therapeutic adjustments implemented before, during and after continuous exercise, evidence for its effectiveness with intermittent forms of exercise, such as soccer, is still lacking. We designed a study protocol for a randomized, crossover, double-blinded, controlled trial, for the evaluation of the effect that a strategy of dietary and therapeutic modifications may have on safety and performance of persons with T1D in soccer training sessions and cognitive testing. Inclusion criteria comprise: age older than 18 years, more than 2 years since T1D diagnosis, low C-peptide level, a stable insulin regimen, HbA1c less than 9.0% and regular participation in soccer activities. Our primary outcome evaluates safety regarding hypoglycemia events in patients using dietary and therapeutic adjustments, compared with the performance under the implementation of current American Diabetes Association (ADA) usual recommendations for nutritional and pharmacological adjustments for exercise. Additionally, we will evaluate as secondary outcomes: soccer performance, indexed by performance in well-established soccer skill tests, cognitive functions (indexed by Stroop, digital vigilance test (DVT), Corsi block-tapping task (CBP), and rapid visual information processing (RVIP) tests), and glycemic control measured with a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). Dietary and insulin adjustments standardized under a 4-step method strategy have never been tested in a clinical trial setting with intermittent forms of exercise, such as soccer. We hypothesize that through this strategy we will observe better performance by persons with T1D in soccer and cognitive evaluations, and more stable control of glycemic parameters before, during and after exercise execution, indexed by CGM measurements. ISRCTN, ISRCTN17447843. Registered on 5 January 2017.

  9. Dietary and physical activity strategies to prevent type 2 diabetes in South Asian adults: protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muilwijk, Mirthe; Stronks, Karien; Qureshi, Samera Azeem; Beune, Erik; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Gill, Jason; Sheikh, Aziz; Jenum, Anne Karen; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major health concern among populations of South Asian ethnicity. Although dietary and physical activity interventions may reduce the risk of T2D, the effectiveness has been moderate among South Asians. This might (in part) be because this subgroup follows

  10. Study protocol of a parent-focused child feeding and dietary intake intervention: the feeding healthy food to kids randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncanson Kerith

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor childhood nutrition is a more pervasive and insidious risk factor for lifestyle-related chronic disease than childhood obesity. Parents find it difficult to address the reported barriers to optimal child feeding, and to improve child dietary patterns. To impact at the population level, nutrition interventions need to be easy to disseminate, have a broad reach and appeal to parents while overcoming the barriers parents face when trying to improve child feeding behaviours. The Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK Randomised Control Trial (RCT examines the impact of providing low cost, self-directed nutrition and parenting resources to rural parents, on child dietary intake and parent–child feeding practices. Methods/Design Up to 150 parents of two-to-five year old children will be recruited in five rural Australian towns. Eligible, consenting parents will be randomly allocated to intervention or 12-month wait-list control groups. Intervention group parents will receive an interactive nutrition CD and parenting DVD, and be provided with instructions for optimal resource utilisation. Intervention and control group participants will also receive a generic nutrition and physical activity brochure and a physical activity resource to blind participants to group allocation. Primary outcome measures are dietary intake of vegetables (serves/day, fruit and energy dense nutrient poor foods (serves/day and %Energy. Secondary outcome measures are total energy (kCal, other food groups (serves/day and %Energy, key nutrients (mg/day, child feeding domains and parenting style domains. Analysis of dietary outcome measures, child feeding and parenting domains will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis and compared at baseline, three and 12 months using the random effects model, using STATA software. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomisation and statistical analysis are described

  11. A randomised controlled trial of a theory-based intervention to improve sun protective behaviour in adolescents ('you can still be HOT in the shade': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most skin cancers are preventable by encouraging consistent use of sun protective behaviour. In Australia, adolescents have high levels of knowledge and awareness of the risks of skin cancer but exhibit significantly lower sun protection behaviours than adults. There is limited research aimed at understanding why people do or do not engage in sun protective behaviour, and an associated absence of theory-based interventions to improve sun safe behaviour. This paper presents the study protocol for a school-based intervention which aims to improve the sun safe behaviour of adolescents. Methods/design Approximately 400 adolescents (aged 12-17 years will be recruited through Queensland, Australia public and private schools and randomized to the intervention (n = 200 or 'wait-list' control group (n = 200. The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive sun protective attitudes and beliefs, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection behaviour, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over using sun protection. It will be delivered during three × one hour sessions over a three week period from a trained facilitator during class time. Data will be collected one week pre-intervention (Time 1, and at one week (Time 2 and four weeks (Time 3 post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun protection behaviour. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., attitudes, perceptions of normative support to sun protect (i.e., subjective norms, group norms, and image norms, and perceived control over performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., perceived behavioural control. Discussion The study will provide valuable information about the effectiveness of the intervention in improving the sun protective behaviour of adolescents.

  12. Comparing cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders integrated with behavioural weight loss therapy to cognitive behavioural therapy-enhanced alone in overweight or obese people with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavras, Marly Amorim; Hay, Phillipa; Touyz, Stephen; Sainsbury, Amanda; da Luz, Felipe; Swinbourne, Jessica; Estella, Nara Mendes; Claudino, Angélica

    2015-12-18

    Around 40 % of individuals with eating disorders of recurrent binge eating, namely bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, are obese. In contrast to binge eating disorder, currently there is no evidence base for weight management or weight loss psychological therapies in the treatment of bulimia nervosa despite their efficacy in binge eating disorder. Thus, a manualised therapy called HAPIFED (Healthy APproach to weIght management and Food in Eating Disorders) has been developed. HAPIFED integrates the leading evidence-based psychological therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy-enhanced (CBT-E) and behavioural weight loss treatment (BWLT) for binge eating disorder and obesity respectively. The aim of the present study is to detail the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of HAPIFED versus CBT-E for people with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder who are overweight/obese. A single-blind superiority RCT is proposed. One hundred Brazilian participants aged ≥ 18 years, with a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder, BMI > 27 to bulimia nervosa as well as with binge eating disorder. It will have the potential to improve health outcomes for the rapidly increasing number of adults with co-morbid obesity and binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa. US National Institutes of Health clinical trial registration number NCT02464345 , date of registration 1 June 2015.

  13. Associations between parental feeding practices, problem food behaviours and dietary intake in New Zealand overweight children aged 4-8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haszard, Jillian J; Skidmore, Paula M L; Williams, Sheila M; Taylor, Rachael W

    2015-04-01

    Parents report that children's eating behaviours are a major barrier to providing them with a healthy diet. Links between problem eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are not well established and have not previously been examined in overweight children. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between problem food behaviours, dietary intake and parental feeding practices of overweight children aged 4-8 years. Participants were recruited for a lifestyle intervention (n 203). At baseline, children's BMI was measured and parents completed comprehensive questionnaires about the feeding practices they used, the problem food behaviours their children exhibited and the foods their child consumed. A fussy eating scale was developed and associations were determined using correlations and regression analysis, including interactions. Dunedin, New Zealand. Overweight children aged 4-8 years. Healthy eating guidance and monitoring by parents were related to the consumption of fewer unhealthy foods (B=-0·4, P=0·001 and B=-0·4, Pfoods (B = 0·5, Pfood intake less (Pfood-restrictive parents ate more fruit and vegetables (B=2·9, Pfood environment might be beneficial for the diet and food behaviours of young overweight children.

  14. Intergenerational transmission of dietary behaviours: A qualitative study of Anglo-Australian, Chinese-Australian and Italian-Australian three-generation families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Kate; Chan, Flora; Prichard, Ivanka; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Wilson, Carlene

    2016-08-01

    Family food choice is complex with a number of people within the family sharing food choice and preparation responsibilities. Differences in dietary behaviours also exist between various ethnic groups worldwide, and are apparent within multicultural nations such as Australia. This study examined the intergenerational transmission of eating behaviour through semi-structured family interviews with 27 three generation families (Anglo-Australian: n = 11, Chinese-Australian: n = 8, Italian-Australian: n = 8; N = 114). The influence of generation (grandparent, parent, child), role (grandmother, grandfather, mother, father, daughter, son), and ethnic background were considered. Thematic analysis identified that regardless of ethnic background, grandmothers and mothers dominated family food choice decisions even in families where fathers were primarily responsible for the preparation of family meals. The women in each generation influenced fruit and vegetable intake by controlling purchasing decisions (e.g., by shopping for food or editing family grocery shopping lists), insisting on consumption, monitoring and reminding, utilizing food as a prerequisite for conditional treats (e.g., eating fruit before being allowed snacks), instigating and enforcing food rules (e.g., fast food only on weekends), and restricting others' food choices. Grandparents and children shared a relationship that skipped the parent generation and influenced dietary behaviours bi-directionally. These findings have implications for the delivery of dietary health messages used in disease prevention interventions designed to successfully reach culturally and linguistically diverse populations and all members of multigenerational families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary intake and factors influencing eating behaviours in overweight and obese South Asian men living in the UK: mixed method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadian, Amir; England, Clare Y; Thompson, Janice L

    2017-01-01

    Objective It is widely recognised that South Asian men living in the UK are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than their white British counterparts. Despite this, limited data have been published quantifying current dietary intake patterns and qualitatively exploring eating behaviours in this population. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess diet, (2) explore perceptions of T2DM, (3) investigate factors influencing eating behaviours in overweight/obese South Asian men and (4) determine the suitability of the UK Diet and Diabetes Questionnaire (UKDDQ) for use in this population. Setting Community-based setting in the Greater London, UK area. Participants South Asian men aged 18–64 years, with a body mass index of over 23.0 kg/m2, not previously diagnosed with T2DM. Methods A cross-sectional mixed-methods design, including assessment of dietary intake using UKDDQ (n=63), followed by semistructured interviews in a purposive sample (n=36). Results UKDDQ scores indicated 54% of participants had a ‘healthy’ diet with a mean sample score of 3.44±0.43 out of a maximum of 5. Oily fish consumption was low (1.84±1.85). Body weight was positively associated with a high-added sugar subscore (r=0.253, p=0.047), with 69.8% of the men having ‘unhealthy’ intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages. Cultural commitments (eg, extended family and faith events), motivation and time were identified as key barriers to dietary change, with family support an important facilitator to making healthy dietary changes. Participants stated that UKDDQ was suitable for assessing diets of South Asians and made suggestions for tailoring questions related to rice consumption, providing examples of Indian sweets, and including ghee as a fat source. Conclusion Many of the areas of dietary improvement and factors affecting eating behaviours identified in this study are similar to those observed in the general UK population. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages

  16. Dietary Behaviour Pattern and Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Egyptian Mothers: Relationships with Their Children's Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2016-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Improper dietary patterns, nonworking mothers and big family size are associated with obesity among Egyptian women. Emphasis should be given to increasing physical activity and encourage healthier diets among Egyptian mothers and their children.

  17. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial for Reducing Arthritis Fatigue by clinical Teams (RAFT) using cognitive-behavioural approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, S; Ambler, N; Almeida, C; Blair, P S; Choy, E; Dures, E; Hammond, A; Hollingworth, W; Kirwan, J; Plummer, Z; Rooke, C; Thorn, J; Tomkinson, K; Pollock, J

    2015-08-06

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fatigue is distressing, leading to unmanageable physical and cognitive exhaustion impacting on health, leisure and work. Group cognitive-behavioural (CB) therapy delivered by a clinical psychologist demonstrated large improvements in fatigue impact. However, few rheumatology teams include a clinical psychologist, therefore, this study aims to examine whether conventional rheumatology teams can reproduce similar results, potentially widening intervention availability. This is a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial of a group CB intervention for RA fatigue self-management, delivered by local rheumatology clinical teams. 7 centres will each recruit 4 consecutive cohorts of 10-16 patients with RA (fatigue severity ≥ 6/10). After consenting, patients will have baseline assessments, then usual care (fatigue self-management booklet, discussed for 5-6 min), then be randomised into control (no action) or intervention arms. The intervention, Reducing Arthritis Fatigue by clinical Teams (RAFT) will be cofacilitated by two local rheumatology clinicians (eg, nurse/occupational therapist), who will have had brief training in CB approaches, a RAFT manual and materials, and delivered an observed practice course. Groups of 5-8 patients will attend 6 × 2 h sessions (weeks 1-6) and a 1 hr consolidation session (week 14) addressing different self-management topics and behaviours. The primary outcome is fatigue impact (26 weeks); secondary outcomes are fatigue severity, coping and multidimensional impact, quality of life, clinical and mood status (to week 104). Statistical and health economic analyses will follow a predetermined plan to establish whether the intervention is clinically and cost-effective. Effects of teaching CB skills to clinicians will be evaluated qualitatively. Approval was given by an NHS Research Ethics Committee, and participants will provide written informed consent. The copyrighted RAFT package will be freely available. Findings

  18. Dissipation behaviour, residue distribution and dietary risk assessment of tetraconazole and kresoxim-methyl in greenhouse strawberry via RRLC-QqQ-MS/MS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxin; Fan, Xueqi; Ma, Yecheng; Hu, Jiye

    2018-02-01

    20% commercial suspension emulsion (SE) of (8% tetraconazole + 12% kresoxim-methyl), as a pre-registered product in China, was firstly investigated under Chinese greenhouse-field conditions. A MWCNTs-based QuEChERS method for simultaneous determination of tetraconazole and kresoxim-methyl in strawberry was developed and validated via RRLC-QqQ-MS/MS. On basis of this method, the dissipation behaviours, residue distributions and dietary risk probability of these fungicides in strawberry were further investigated for food safety. The dissipations of tetraconazole and kresoxim-methyl followed first-order kinetics with the half-lives of 8.0-18.2 days. The highest residues (HRs) of these fungicides in the supervised trials at the pre-harvest interval (PHI, 3 days) were below 0.8970mgkg -1 . The total national estimated daily intake (NEDI) of tetraconazole and kresoxim-methy in strawberry at the PHI 3day was 0.2784mg and 0.4031mg, respectively, based on Chinese dietary pattern and terminal residue distributions under good agricultural practices (GAP) conditions. The risk quotients (RQs) of tetraconazole and kresoxim-methy at PHI 3 days were below 82.7% and 1.6%, respectively, showing that the evaluated strawberry exhibited an acceptably low dietary risk to consumers. The current study could not only guide reasonable usage of the formulation, but also facilitate the setting of maximum residue limits (MRLs) of tetraconazole in strawberry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond Food Promotion: A Systematic Review on the Influence of the Food Industry on Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviour among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Diana; Schneider, Sarah; Mdege, Noreen; Ali, Shehzad; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2015-10-16

    An increased consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages as a result of a changing obesogenic environment contributes substantially to the increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. This paper reviews the nature and extent of food industry influences which expose children to commercial influences and thus might affect unhealthy dietary behaviour and finally contributes to obesity. A systematic search of nine electronic databases (including PubMed, PsycINFO, EconLit) and reference lists of original studies and reviews using key search terms identified 1900 articles. Of these only thirty-six articles met the inclusion and quality criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed six key obesogenic environments by which the food industry possibly influences obesity-related dietary behaviours in young children. These were schools, retailers, mass media "television", mass media "internet", home and promotional campaigns. Identifying these obesogenic environments is critical for monitoring and controlling the food industry, the development of effective environmental-level interventions to prevent childhood overweight and obesity and to identify knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research to support informed decisions of policy makers.

  20. Beyond Food Promotion: A Systematic Review on the Influence of the Food Industry on Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviour among Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sonntag

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An increased consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages as a result of a changing obesogenic environment contributes substantially to the increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. This paper reviews the nature and extent of food industry influences which expose children to commercial influences and thus might affect unhealthy dietary behaviour and finally contributes to obesity. A systematic search of nine electronic databases (including PubMed, PsycINFO, EconLit and reference lists of original studies and reviews using key search terms identified 1900 articles. Of these only thirty-six articles met the inclusion and quality criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed six key obesogenic environments by which the food industry possibly influences obesity-related dietary behaviours in young children. These were schools, retailers, mass media “television”, mass media “internet”, home and promotional campaigns. Identifying these obesogenic environments is critical for monitoring and controlling the food industry, the development of effective environmental-level interventions to prevent childhood overweight and obesity and to identify knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research to support informed decisions of policy makers.

  1. Intergenerational transmission of family meal patterns from adolescence to parenthood: longitudinal associations with parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Miller, Jonathan; Watts, Allison; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-02-01

    The present study examined longitudinal associations between four family meal patterns (i.e. never had regular family meals, started having regular family meals, stopped having regular family meals, maintained having regular family meals) and young adult parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being. In addition, family meal patterns of parents were compared with those of non-parents. Analysis of data from the longitudinal Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults) study. Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between family meal patterns and parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being. School and in-home settings. At baseline (1998; EAT-I), adolescents (n 4746) from socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse households completed a survey and anthropometric measurements at school. At follow-up (2015; EAT-IV), participants who were parents (n 726) and who were non-parents with significant others (n 618) completed an online survey. Young adult parents who reported having regular family meals as an adolescent and as a parent ('maintainers'), or who started having regular family meals with their own families ('starters'), reported more healthful dietary, weight-related and psychosocial outcomes compared with young adults who never reported having regular family meals ('nevers'; Pfamily meal starters than non-parents. Results suggest that mental and physical health benefits of having regular family meals may be realized as a parent whether the routine of regular family meals is carried forward from adolescence into parenthood, or if the routine is started in parenthood.

  2. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and prefrontal dopamine metabolism in food allergic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Theije, C.G.M.; Van Den Elsen, L.W.J.; Willemsen, L.E.M.; Milosevic, V.; Lopes Da Silva, S.; Olivier, B.; Garssen, J.; Korte, S.M.; Kraneveld, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is suggested that allergic immune activation, combined with a genetic predisposition, may contribute to the expression of aberrant social behaviour relevant to autism. We have previously shown that a food allergic response reduced social behaviour in mice, which was associated with

  3. The contribution of lifestyle coaching of overweight patients in primary care to more autonomous motivation for physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour: results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Geert M; Meis, Jessie J M; Hendriks, Marike R C; Hamers, Femke J M; Veenhof, Cindy; Kremers, Stef P J

    2014-07-16

    Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to change their behaviour. To promote the shift towards more autonomous types of motivation, facilitator led CLIs have been developed including lifestyle coaching as key element. The present study examined the shift in types of motivation to increase PA and healthy dieting among participants of a primary care CLI, and the contribution of lifestyle coaching to potential changes in motivational quality. This prospective cohort study included participants of 29 general practices in the Netherlands that implemented a CLI named 'BeweegKuur'. Questionnaires including items on demographics, lifestyle coaching and motivation were sent at baseline and after 4 months. Aspects of motivation were assessed with the Behavioural Regulation and Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) and the Regulation of Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (REBS). We performed a drop out analysis to identify selective drop-out. Changes in motivation were analysed with t-tests and effect size interpretations (Cohen's d), and multivariate regression analysis was used to identify predictors of motivational change. For physical activity, changes in motivational regulation were fully in line with the tenets of Self Determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing: participants made a shift towards a more autonomous type of motivation (i.e. controlled types of motivation decreased and autonomous types increased). Moreover, an autonomy supportive coaching style was generally found to predict a larger shift in autonomous types of motivation. For healthy dietary behaviour, however, except for a small decrease in external motivation, no favourable changes in different types of motivation were observed. The relation between coaching and

  4. The contribution of lifestyle coaching of overweight patients in primary care to more autonomous motivation for physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour: results of a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to change their behaviour. To promote the shift towards more autonomous types of motivation, facilitator led CLIs have been developed including lifestyle coaching as key element. The present study examined the shift in types of motivation to increase PA and healthy dieting among participants of a primary care CLI, and the contribution of lifestyle coaching to potential changes in motivational quality. Methods This prospective cohort study included participants of 29 general practices in the Netherlands that implemented a CLI named ‘BeweegKuur’. Questionnaires including items on demographics, lifestyle coaching and motivation were sent at baseline and after 4 months. Aspects of motivation were assessed with the Behavioural Regulation and Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) and the Regulation of Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (REBS). We performed a drop out analysis to identify selective drop-out. Changes in motivation were analysed with t-tests and effect size interpretations (Cohen’s d), and multivariate regression analysis was used to identify predictors of motivational change. Results For physical activity, changes in motivational regulation were fully in line with the tenets of Self Determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing: participants made a shift towards a more autonomous type of motivation (i.e. controlled types of motivation decreased and autonomous types increased). Moreover, an autonomy supportive coaching style was generally found to predict a larger shift in autonomous types of motivation. For healthy dietary behaviour, however, except for a small decrease in external motivation, no favourable changes in different types of motivation were observed. The

  5. Managing challenging behaviour in preschool children post-traumatic brain injury with online clinician support: protocol for a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Kaitlyn; Catroppa, Cathy; Godfrey, Celia; McKinlay, Audrey; Ponsford, Jennie; Matthews, Jan; Anderson, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is associated with a range of poor long-term outcomes, including behavioural disturbances. Parents can experience high levels of stress and injury-related burden, and evidence suggests that distressed parents are less likely to adopt positive parenting styles to manage their child?s behaviour. The ?Signposts for Building Better Behaviour? program is a parenting programme that was originally developed to assist parents of children with an int...

  6. A randomised controlled trial of a Mediterranean Dietary Intervention for Adults with Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (MEDINA): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamiltiadous, Elena S; Roberts, Stuart K; Nicoll, Amanda J; Ryan, Marno C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Salim, Agus; Tierney, Audrey C

    2016-02-02

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the most prevalent liver disease in developed countries, remains difficult to manage with no proven safe and effective pharmacotherapy available. While weight reduction is the most commonly practiced treatment strategy, this is difficult to both achieve and/or maintain in the majority. Furthermore evidence-based dietary recommendations to guide the nutritional management of these patients are lacking. Using a randomised controlled trial design, this study compares the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet to a standard low fat diet in terms of differences in insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis and metabolic outcomes in participants with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Ninety four eligible patients who have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and who are insulin resistant, will be randomised into either a Mediterranean or low fat diet group for a 3 month intervention period. Insulin sensitivity will be measured on peripheral blood using Homeostatic Model Assessment and liver fat content quantified using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Both arms will consist of three face to face and three telephone call follow up consultations delivered by an Accredited Practicing Dietitian. The intervention arm focuses on recommendations from the traditional Mediterranean diet which have been tailored for use in the Australian population The standard arm uses the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating and the Australian National Heart Foundation dietary guidelines. Study recruitment will take place at four major metropolitan hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Data collection will occur at all face to face reviews including baseline, 6, and 12 weeks. A follow up assessment to measure sustainability will take place at 6 and 12 months. The primary end point is improved insulin sensitivity scores at the 12 week time point. This trial aims to demonstrate in a large cohort of participants with NALFD that a Mediterranean diet independent of weight

  7. Study protocol: the empirical investigation of methods to correct for measurement error in biobanks with dietary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson Lindsey F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Public Population Project in Genomics (P3G is an organisation that aims to promote collaboration between researchers in the field of population-based genomics. The main objectives of P3G are to encourage collaboration between researchers and biobankers, optimize study design, promote the harmonization of information use in biobanks, and facilitate transfer of knowledge between interested parties. The importance of calibration and harmonisation of methods for environmental exposure assessment to allow pooling of data across studies in the evaluation of gene-environment interactions has been recognised by P3G, which has set up a methodological group on calibration with the aim of; 1 reviewing the published methodological literature on measurement error correction methods with assumptions and methods of implementation; 2 reviewing the evidence available from published nutritional epidemiological studies that have used a calibration approach; 3 disseminating information in the form of a comparison chart on approaches to perform calibration studies and how to obtain correction factors in order to support research groups collaborating within the P3G network that are unfamiliar with the methods employed; 4 with application to the field of nutritional epidemiology, including gene-diet interactions, ultimately developing a inventory of the typical correction factors for various nutrients. Methods/Design Systematic review of (a the methodological literature on methods to correct for measurement error in epidemiological studies; and (b studies that have been designed primarily to investigate the association between diet and disease and have also corrected for measurement error in dietary intake. Discussion The conduct of a systematic review of the methodological literature on calibration will facilitate the evaluation of methods to correct for measurement error and the design of calibration studies for the prospective pooling of

  8. Dietary behaviour and parental socioeconomic position among adolescents: the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003-2006 (KiGGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Jonas D; Varnaccia, Gianni; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lampert, Thomas; Mensink, Gert B M

    2015-05-19

    The positive association between parental socioeconomic position (PSEP) and health among adolescents may be partly explained by dietary behaviour. We investigated the associations between fruit intake, vegetable intake, energy-dense food intake, the Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth (HuSKY) and parental education in a nationwide, cluster-randomized sample of adolescents in Germany. The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003-2006 (KiGGS) included 17,641 individuals aged 0-17 years and their parents. Complete information on relevant variables was available for 6359 individuals in the 11-17 age group. The associations between nutrition indicators and parental education were analysed separately for boys and girls, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, region, income, occupation, physical activity and weight status related variables, were calculated for the associations between parental education and nutrition indicators. After full adjustment, higher parental education level was associated with lower energy-dense food intake - with an OR of 1.3 (95 % CI 1.0-1.7) for boys with secondary educated parents and 1.8 (1.4-2.3) for boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents; the corresponding ORs for girls were 1.2 (0.9-1.5) and 1.6 (1.2-2.2). Higher parental education was associated with higher fruit intake - with an OR of 1.3 (1.0-1.7) for boys with secondary educated parents and 2.0 (1.5-2.7) for boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents; the corresponding ORs for girls were 1.0 (0.8-1.4) and 1.5 (1.0-2.1). Among boys and girls with tertiary educated parents compared to those with primary educated parents an OR of 1.3 (CI boys: 1.0-1.7, CI girls: 1.0-1.6) was observed for high vegetable intake. Among boys with tertiary educated parents compared to boys with primary educated parents an OR of 1.6 (1

  9. Uncoupling of interleukin-6 from its signalling pathway by dietary n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation alters sickness behaviour in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingam, Rozenn; Moranis, Aurélie; Bluthé, Rose-Marie; De Smedt-Peyrusse, Véronique; Kelley, Keith W.; Guesnet, Philippe; Lavialle, Monique; Dantzer, Robert; Layé, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Sickness behaviour is an adaptive behavioural response to the activation of the innate immune system. It is mediated by brain cytokine production and action, especially interleukin-6 (IL-6). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential fatty acids that are highly incorporated in brain cells membranes and display immunomodulating properties. We hypothesized that a decrease in n-3 PUFA brain level by dietary means impacts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 production and sickness behaviour. Our results show that mice exposed throughout life to a diet containing n-3 PUFA (n-3/n-6 diet) display a decrease in social interaction that does not occur in mice submitted to a diet devoid of n-3 PUFA (n-6 diet). LPS induced high IL-6 plasma levels as well as expression of IL-6 mRNA in the hippocampus and cFos mRNA in the brainstem of mice fed either diet, indicating intact immune-to-brain communication. However, STAT3 and STAT1 activation, a hallmark of IL-6 signalling pathway, was lower in the hippocampus of LPS-treated n-6 mice as compared to n-3/n-6 mice. In addition, LPS did not reduce social interaction in IL-6 knock-out (IL-6 KO) mice and failed to induce STAT3 activation in the brain of IL-6 KO mice. Altogether, these findings point to alteration in brain STAT3 as a key mechanism for the lack of effect of LPS on social interaction in mice fed with the n-6 PUFA diet. The relative deficiency of Western diets in n-3 PUFA could impact on behavioural aspects of the host response to infection. PMID:18973601

  10. Identification of behaviour change components in swallowing interventions for head and neck cancer patients: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Roganie; Smith, Christina H; Taylor, Stuart A; Grey, Daphne; Wardle, Jane; Gardner, Benjamin

    2015-06-20

    Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is a predictable consequence of head and neck cancer and its treatment. Loss of the ability to eat and drink normally has a devastating impact on quality of life for survivors of this type of cancer. Most rehabilitation programmes involve behavioural interventions that include swallowing exercises to help improve swallowing function. Such interventions are complex; consisting of multiple components that may influence outcomes. These interventions usually require patient adherence to recommended behaviour change advice. To date, reviews of this literature have explored whether variation in effectiveness can be attributed to the type of swallowing exercise, the use of devices to facilitate use of swallowing muscles, and the timing (before, during or after cancer treatment). This systematic review will use a behavioural science lens to examine the content of previous interventions in this field. It aims to identify (a) which behaviour change components are present, and (b) the frequency with which they occur in interventions deemed to be effective and non-effective. Clinical trials of behavioural interventions to improve swallowing outcomes in patients with head and neck cancers will be identified via a systematic and comprehensive search of relevant electronic health databases, trial registers, systematic review databases and Web of Science. To ascertain behaviour change intervention components, we will code the content for its theory basis, intervention functions and specific behaviour change techniques, using validated tools: the Theory Coding Scheme, Behaviour Change Wheel and Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1. Study quality will be assessed for descriptive purposes only. Given the specialisation and focus of this review, a small yield of studies with heterogeneous outcome measures is anticipated. Therefore, narrative synthesis is considered more appropriate than meta-analysis. We will also compare the frequency of

  11. A police education programme to integrate occupational safety and HIV prevention: protocol for a modified stepped-wedge study design with parallel prospective cohorts to assess behavioural outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Arredondo, Jaime; Rocha, Teresita; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Patiño Mandujano, Efrain; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Olivarria, Horcasitas Omar; Gaines, Tommi; Patterson, Thomas L; Beletsky, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Policing practices are key drivers of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). This paper describes the protocol for the first study to prospectively examine the impact of a police education programme (PEP) to align law enforcement and HIV prevention. PEPs incorporating HIV prevention (including harm reduction programmes like syringe exchange) have been successfully piloted in several countries but were limited to brief pre–post assessments; the impact of PEPs on policing behaviours and occupational safety is unknown. Objectives Proyecto ESCUDO (SHIELD) aims to evaluate the efficacy of the PEP on uptake of occupational safety procedures, as assessed through the incidence of needle stick injuries (NSIs) (primary outcome) and changes in knowledge of transmission, prevention and treatment of HIV and viral hepatitis; attitudes towards PWID, adverse behaviours that interfere with HIV prevention and protective behaviours (secondary outcomes). Methods/analysis ESCUDO is a hybrid type I design that simultaneously tests an intervention and an implementation strategy. Using a modified stepped-wedge design involving all active duty street-level police officers in Tijuana (N=∼1200), we will administer one 3 h PEP course to groups of 20–50 officers until the entire force is trained. NSI incidence and geocoded arrest data will be assessed from department-wide de-identified data. Of the consenting police officers, a subcohort (N=500) will be randomly sampled from each class to undergo pre-PEP and post-PEP surveys with a semiannual follow-up for 2 years to assess self-reported NSIs, attitudes and behaviour changes. The impact on PWIDs will be externally validated through a parallel cohort of Tijuana PWIDs. Ethics/dissemination Research ethics approval was obtained from the USA and Mexico. Findings will be disseminated through open access to protocol materials through the Law Enforcement and HIV Network. Trial registration number NCT02444403. PMID:26260350

  12. Protocol for the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess concerning behaviours and mental health in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: the Assessment of Concerning Behaviour (ACB) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh, Paramala; Tarver, Joanne; Gibbons, Felicity; Vitoratou, Silia; Simonoff, Emily

    2016-03-22

    Co-occurring psychiatric conditions and concerning behaviours are prevalent in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and are likely to be detrimental to functioning and long-term outcomes. The cognitive rigidity and deficits in emotional literacy and verbal behaviour that commonly occur in ASD can adversely affect clinicians' confidence to identify concerning behaviours and mental health problems. There is a need to develop a measure that is tailored towards individuals with ASD, and differentiates between symptoms of psychopathology and core ASD symptoms. Furthermore, it should be modified to capture internalising symptoms that individuals with ASD may find difficult or be unable to verbalise. This protocol describes the intended development and validation of the Assessment of Concerning Behaviour (ACB) scale. The ACB will aim to be a multidimensional measure of concerning behaviours in ASD incorporating self-report, parent/carer, teacher/employer and clinician report versions that can be used across the lifespan and spectrum of intellectual ability. This study will be guided by the methods described in the US Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry Patient-reported Outcome Measures. A literature review, cognitive interviews and focus groups with individuals who have experience of working or living with ASDs will be used for item generation. A sample of children and adults with ASD will complete the ACB, in addition to other gold standard measures of concerning behaviour in order to establish the initial psychometric properties of the scale. This study has received ethical approval from the NHS Research Ethics Committee: London-Camden and King's Cross (ref: 15/LO/0085). Study findings will be disseminated to healthcare professionals and scientists in the field through publication in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  13. Evaluating the effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle clinician in addressing the chronic disease risk behaviours of community mental health clients: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehily, Caitlin; Bartlem, Kate; Wiggers, John; Wye, Paula; Clancy, Richard; Castle, David; Wutzke, Sonia; Rissel, Chris; Wilson, Andrew; McCombie, Paul; Murphy, Fionna; Bowman, Jenny

    2017-06-15

    People with a mental illness experience a greater morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases relative to the general population. A higher prevalence of modifiable health risk behaviours such as smoking, poor nutrition, physical inactivity and harmful alcohol consumption contribute substantially to this disparity. Despite clinical practice guidelines recommending that mental health services routinely provide care to address these risk behaviours, the provision of such care is consistently reported to be low internationally and in Australia. This protocol describes a randomised controlled trial that aims to assess the effectiveness of allocating a clinician within a community mental health service to the specific role of providing assessment, advice and referral for clients' chronic disease risk behaviours. Approximately 540 clients of one community mental health service will be randomised to receive either usual care for chronic disease risks provided in routine consultations or usual care plus an additional face-to-face consultation and follow-up telephone call with a 'healthy lifestyle clinician'. The clinician will assess clients' chronic disease risk behaviours, provide advice to change behaviours, and refer at-risk clients to free telephone coaching services (New South Wales (NSW) Quitline and NSW Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service) for specialist behaviour change care. The primary outcomes, regarding referral to and client uptake of the telephone services, will be obtained from the respective services. Telephone interviews of clients at baseline and at 1 and 6 months post baseline follow-ups will assess secondary outcomes: receipt of any assessment, advice and referral from the mental health service; satisfaction with the receipt of such care; satisfaction with the receipt of any care provided by the telephone services; interest and confidence in and perceived importance of changing risk behaviours; and risk behaviour status. This study will add

  14. Modelling the role of dietary habits and eating behaviours on the development of acute coronary syndrome or stroke: aims, design, and validation properties of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Milionis, Haralampos J; Goudevenos, John A; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2010-09-14

    In this paper the methodology and procedures of a case-control study that will be developed for assessing the role of dietary habits and eating behaviours on the development of acute coronary syndrome and stroke is presented. Based on statistical power calculations, 1000 participants will be enrolled; of them, 250 will be consecutive patients with a first acute coronary event, 250 consecutive patients with a first ischaemic stroke, and 500 population-based healthy subjects (controls), age and sex matched to the cases. Socio-demographic, clinical, dietary, psychological, and other lifestyle characteristics will be measured. Dietary habits and eating behaviours will be evaluated with a special questionnaire that has been developed for the study.

  15. Role of dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and overweight of the longditudinal development of childhood constipation: The generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Escher, J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, M.K.; Raat, H.; Moll, H.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of childhood nutrition on the development of constipation beyond the period of weaning and breastfeeding is relatively understudied. In addition, eating patterns in childhood can be highly correlated with overweight and sedentary behaviour, which may also have an influence on

  16. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a consumer behaviour intervention to improve healthy food purchases from online canteens: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Delaney, Tessa; Wyse, Rebecca; Yoong, Sze Lin; Sutherland, Rachel; Wiggers, John; Ball, Kylie; Campbell, Karen; Rissel, Chris; Wolfenden, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Introduction School canteens represent an opportune setting in which to deliver public health nutrition strategies given their wide reach, and frequent use by children. Online school canteen ordering systems, where students order and pay for their lunch online, provide an avenue to improve healthy canteen purchases through the application of consumer behaviour strategies that impact on purchasing decisions. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a consumer behaviour intervention i...

  17. The efficacy of nudge theory strategies in influencing adult dietary behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arno, Anneliese; Thomas, Steve

    2016-07-30

    Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic and is spreading to countries with emerging economies. Previously tested interventions are often too costly to maintain in the long term. This leaves a need for improved strategies for management of the epidemic. Nudge Theory presents a new collection of methods, deemed "nudges", which have the potential for low-cost and broad application to guide healthier lifestyle choices without the need for restrictive regulation. There has not yet been a large-scale examination of the effectiveness of nudges, despite several policy making bodies now considering their use. To address this gap in knowledge, an adapted systematic review methodology was used to collect and consolidate results from current Nudge papers and to determine whether Nudge strategies are successful in changing adults' dietary choices for healthier ones. It was found that nudges resulted in an average 15.3 % increase in healthier dietary or nutritional choices, as measured by a change in frequency of healthy choices or a change in overall caloric consumption. All of the included studies were from wealthy nations, with a particular emphasis on the United States with 31 of 42 included experiments. This analysis demonstrates Nudge holds promise as a public health strategy to combat obesity. More research is needed in varied settings, however, and future studies should aim to replicate previous results in more geographically and socioeconomically diverse countries.

  18. Eating styles in the morbidly obese: restraint eating, but not emotional and external eating, predicts dietary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Amy; Hevey, David

    2013-01-01

    The research explored (1) the relationships between self-reported eating style (restraint, emotional and external eating) and dietary intake and (2) emotional eater status as a moderator of food intake when emotional, in a morbidly obese population. A sample of 57 obese participants (BMI: M = 51.84, SD = 8.66) completed a five-day food diary together with a reflective diary, which assessed eating style and positive and negative affect daily. A dietician-scored food pyramid analysis of intake. Restraint eating was the only predictor (negative) of overall food intake and the variable most strongly associated with the consumption of top-shelf foods. Emotional and external eating were unrelated to food intake. Emotional eater status did not moderate food intake in response to positive and negative mood states. The findings indicated largely analogous relationships between eating style and dietary intake in this obese sample compared with previous results from healthy populations. The lack of predictive validity for emotional eating scales (when emotional) raises questions over people's ability to adequately assess their eating style and consequently, the overall validity of emotional eater scales.

  19. The efficacy of nudge theory strategies in influencing adult dietary behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneliese Arno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic and is spreading to countries with emerging economies. Previously tested interventions are often too costly to maintain in the long term. This leaves a need for improved strategies for management of the epidemic. Nudge Theory presents a new collection of methods, deemed “nudges”, which have the potential for low-cost and broad application to guide healthier lifestyle choices without the need for restrictive regulation. There has not yet been a large-scale examination of the effectiveness of nudges, despite several policy making bodies now considering their use. Methods To address this gap in knowledge, an adapted systematic review methodology was used to collect and consolidate results from current Nudge papers and to determine whether Nudge strategies are successful in changing adults’ dietary choices for healthier ones. Results It was found that nudges resulted in an average 15.3 % increase in healthier dietary or nutritional choices, as measured by a change in frequency of healthy choices or a change in overall caloric consumption. All of the included studies were from wealthy nations, with a particular emphasis on the United States with 31 of 42 included experiments. Conclusions This analysis demonstrates Nudge holds promise as a public health strategy to combat obesity. More research is needed in varied settings, however, and future studies should aim to replicate previous results in more geographically and socioeconomically diverse countries.

  20. Preventing disease through opportunistic, rapid engagement by primary care teams using behaviour change counselling (PRE-EMPT): protocol for a general practice-based cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanou, Clio; Simpson, Sharon A; Hood, Kerry; Edwards, Adrian; Cohen, David; Rollnick, Stephen; Carter, Ben; McCambridge, Jim; Moore, Laurence; Randell, Elizabeth; Pickles, Timothy; Smith, Christine; Lane, Claire; Wood, Fiona; Thornton, Hazel; Butler, Chris C

    2010-09-21

    Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, lack of exercise and an unhealthy diet are the key modifiable factors contributing to premature morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Brief interventions in health care consultations can be effective in changing single health behaviours. General Practice holds considerable potential for primary prevention through modifying patients' multiple risk behaviours, but feasible, acceptable and effective interventions are poorly developed, and uptake by practitioners is low. Through a process of theoretical development, modeling and exploratory trials, we have developed an intervention called Behaviour Change Counselling (BCC) derived from Motivational Interviewing (MI). This paper describes the protocol for an evaluation of a training intervention (the Talking Lifestyles Programme) which will enable practitioners to routinely use BCC during consultations for the above four risk behaviours. This cluster randomised controlled efficacy trial (RCT) will evaluate the outcomes and costs of this training intervention for General Practitioners (GPs) and nurses. Training methods will include: a practice-based seminar, online self-directed learning, and reflecting on video recorded and simulated consultations. The intervention will be evaluated in 29 practices in Wales, UK; two clinicians will take part (one GP and one nurse) from each practice. In intervention practices both clinicians will receive training. The aim is to recruit 2000 patients into the study with an expected 30% drop out. The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients making changes in one or more of the four behaviours at three months. Results will be compared for patients seeing clinicians trained in BCC with patients seeing non-BCC trained clinicians. Economic and process evaluations will also be conducted. Opportunistic engagement by health professionals potentially represents a cost effective medical intervention. This study integrates an existing

  1. Managing challenging behaviour in preschool children post-traumatic brain injury with online clinician support: protocol for a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kaitlyn; Catroppa, Cathy; Godfrey, Celia; McKinlay, Audrey; Ponsford, Jennie; Matthews, Jan; Anderson, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is associated with a range of poor long-term outcomes, including behavioural disturbances. Parents can experience high levels of stress and injury-related burden, and evidence suggests that distressed parents are less likely to adopt positive parenting styles to manage their child's behaviour. The 'Signposts for Building Better Behaviour' program is a parenting programme that was originally developed to assist parents of children with an intellectual disability in managing their child's behaviour. More recently, it has been adapted to include a TBI module, to assist parents in managing post-TBI behaviour. However, geographical and financial barriers remain, preventing many parents from accessing the programme in the standard face-to-face modality. This project aims to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of the programme when delivered with clinician support via videoconferencing. The sample for this feasibility study will be recruited from the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, and the Victorian Paediatric Rehabilitation Service. Participants will be the parents of a child who sustained a TBI between the ages of 2.0 and 6.11, within the previous 2 years. The parents of 15 children will complete the programme, with clinician support via videoconferencing, while the parents of a further 15 children will form a treatment as usual wait-list control group. Parents complete questionnaires assessing their child's behaviour, as well as assessing their own mental health, sense of parenting competency, disciplinary style, and family functioning. These will be completed upon enrolment in the study regarding their child's pre-injury behaviour and then again pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and 4 months post-intervention. Parents who complete the intervention will also complete questionnaires assessing their satisfaction with the programme and its delivery. Information will be collected on the feasibility

  2. 'One sip won't do any harm . . .': temptation among women with inflammatory bowel disease/irritable bowel syndrome to engage in negative dietary behaviours, despite the consequences to their health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Margaret A; Jamieson, Anne; Fletcher, Paula C

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the dietary lived experiences of university-aged women suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This paper will address the decision-making process used by these women when contemplating the consumption of dietary temptations, despite the associated negative consequences. This phenomenological study was guided by heuristic inquiry. A purposive sample of eight women, between the ages of 18 and 23 years, who were living with IBD or IBS were recruited via postings and word-of-mouth. The findings indicate that these women occasionally felt compelled to give into dietary temptations, despite the consequences to their health. The decision-making process they used when considering these negative health behaviours involved three personally controlled parameters. These three parameters included: assessing the cost-benefit relationship before engaging in these behaviours; having a physical and/or psychological reliance on medications to treat resulting symptoms; and through controlling the timing and surroundings in which they indulged in these negative dietary behaviours. The practical implications for health-care professionals treating patients with IBD or IBS are discussed.

  3. The development of an intervention programme to reduce whole-body vibration exposure at work induced by a change in behaviour: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemessen, Ivo JH; Hulshof, Carel TJ; Frings-Dresen, Monique HW

    2007-01-01

    Background Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure at work is common and studies found evidence that this exposure might cause low back pain (LBP). A recent review concluded there is a lack of evidence of effective strategies to reduce WBV exposure. Most research in this field is focussed on the technical implications, although changing behaviour towards WBV exposure might be promising as well. Therefore, we developed an intervention programme to reduce WBV exposure in a population of drivers with the emphasis on a change in behaviour of driver and employer. The hypothesis is that an effective reduction in WBV exposure, in time, will lead to a reduction in LBP as WBV exposure is a proxy for an increased risk of LBP. Methods/Design The intervention programme was developed specifically for the drivers of vibrating vehicles and their employers. The intervention programme will be based on the most important determinants of WBV exposure as track conditions, driving speed, quality of the seat, etc. By increasing knowledge and skills towards changing these determinants, the attitude, social influence and self-efficacy (ASE) of both drivers and employers will be affected having an effect on the level of exposure. We used the well-known ASE model to develop an intervention programme aiming at a change or the intention to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The developed programme consists of: individual health surveillance, an information brochure, an informative presentation and a report of the performed field measurements. Discussion The study protocol described is advantageous as the intervention program actively tries to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The near future will show if this intervention program is effective by showing a decrease in WBV exposure. PMID:18005400

  4. The development of an intervention programme to reduce whole-body vibration exposure at work induced by a change in behaviour: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frings-Dresen Monique HW

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole body vibration (WBV exposure at work is common and studies found evidence that this exposure might cause low back pain (LBP. A recent review concluded there is a lack of evidence of effective strategies to reduce WBV exposure. Most research in this field is focussed on the technical implications, although changing behaviour towards WBV exposure might be promising as well. Therefore, we developed an intervention programme to reduce WBV exposure in a population of drivers with the emphasis on a change in behaviour of driver and employer. The hypothesis is that an effective reduction in WBV exposure, in time, will lead to a reduction in LBP as WBV exposure is a proxy for an increased risk of LBP. Methods/Design The intervention programme was developed specifically for the drivers of vibrating vehicles and their employers. The intervention programme will be based on the most important determinants of WBV exposure as track conditions, driving speed, quality of the seat, etc. By increasing knowledge and skills towards changing these determinants, the attitude, social influence and self-efficacy (ASE of both drivers and employers will be affected having an effect on the level of exposure. We used the well-known ASE model to develop an intervention programme aiming at a change or the intention to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The developed programme consists of: individual health surveillance, an information brochure, an informative presentation and a report of the performed field measurements. Discussion The study protocol described is advantageous as the intervention program actively tries to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The near future will show if this intervention program is effective by showing a decrease in WBV exposure.

  5. The Use of Cluster Analysis for Non-Continuous Variables in the Assessment of Dietary Behaviours and Physical Activities in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalewska Magdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity, along with proper nutrition, is a very important element in child development. Lack of everyday, regular physical activity among young people is a public health problem. The aim of the study was to use cluster analysis to assess the relationship between nutrition and physical activity levels of primary school children. The study included 682 students from randomly selected elementary schools and was performed using a proprietary questionnaire during the 2013/2014 school year. The questionnaire contained questions about eating habits and physical activity, as well as the socio-economic conditions of families. Clusters of students of similar dietary habits were identified using cluster analysis and subsequently compared in terms of physical activity level. We identified four clusters, characterized by relative internal homogeneity and at the same time variability between one another in terms of number of meals throughout the day and time of their consumption. The most important characteristic of Cluster 1 was eating four meals a day including breakfast, which is the most important meal of the day. The diets of children in Cluster 2 abounded with raw vegetables and fruits. Students in Cluster 3 were characterized by a regular and varied diet. The least appropriate behaviour in the field of nutrition was observed among students belonging to Cluster 4. Cluster analysis in the studied population allowed relationships between dietary habits and physical activity to be described. By using the UIAF indicator (Moderate to Intense Physical Activity, a statistically significant association between the eating habits of the children and their physical activity levels was observed. A sufficient level of physical activity was observed in most students belonging to Cluster 3, and high levels of physical activity were observed in a small percentage of children belonging Cluster 4. An average level of physical activity was observed in a high

  6. Which dietary patterns are more likely to be associated with aspects of eco-sustainable food behaviours in Italy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalvedi, Maria Luisa; Turrini, Aida; Saba, Anna

    2017-12-04

    Sustainable food consumption (SFC) policies need further investigation into eating habits to improve interventions to encourage shifting to new consumption patterns respectful of human rights, environment and health. Reversing the usual approach focussed on sustainable consumer, the present study investigates how different eating patterns relate to eco-sustainable food. A cluster analysis was carried out on consumption frequencies of food groups recorded in an Italian national survey on 3004 respondents, providing four eating habit segments, further investigated as for sustainable food attitude and behaviour. Openness to eco-sustainable food is found mostly in the more balanced diet segment, accounting for about one third of the adult Italian population. Inaccessibility, non-affordability, unhealthy diet and a lack of information still negatively condition eating habits to the detriment of more sustainable consumption. These findings could support SFC stakeholders in targeting policies and strategies based on diversified approaches to enhance awareness of SFC issues.

  7. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kyrios, Michael; Nedeljkovic, Maja; Moulding, Richard; Klein, Britt; Austin, David; Meyer, Denny; Ahern, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Background Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common chronic psychiatric disorder that constitutes a leading cause of disability. Although Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for OCD, this specialised treatment is unavailable to many due to access issues and the social stigma associated with seeing a mental health specialist. Internet-based psychological treatments have shown to provide effective, accessible and affordable treatment for a range ...

  8. Trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy and exercise for chronic whiplash: protocol of a randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letitia Campbell

    2015-10-01

    Discussion: This study will provide a definitive evaluation of the effects of adding trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy to physiotherapy exercise for individuals with chronic WAD and PTSD. This study is likely to influence the clinical management of whiplash injury and will have immediate clinical applicability in Australia, Denmark and the wider international community. The study will also have implications for both health and insurance policy makers in their decision-making regarding treatment options and funding.

  9. How to effectively design public health interventions: Implications from the interaction effects between socioeconomic status and health locus of control beliefs on healthy dietary behaviours among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyungeun; Baek, Young Min

    2018-04-16

    This study investigated whether individuals with different socioeconomic status (SES) should be provided differently tailored health messages to promote healthy dietary behaviour (HDB). Prior research has suggested that people with different SESs tend to exhibit different types of beliefs about health, but it remains unclear how SES interacts with these beliefs to influence health outcomes. To better understand the differences in HDB between high- and low-SES populations and propose effective intervention strategies, we examined (i) how SES is associated with HDB, (ii) how internal health locus of control (HLC) and powerful others HLC are associated with HDB, and (iii) how SES interacts with internal and powerful others HLC to influence HDB. Using data from the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey, collected from 2005 to 2012 (N = 6,262) in the United States, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Education level was found to be positively associated with HDB, while income level was not. Both internal and powerful others HLC beliefs were positively associated with HDB. The positive relationship between internal HLC and HDB strengthened as the level of education and income increased, whereas the positive relationship between powerful others HLC and HDB weakened as respondents' education level increased. These results suggest that the design and delivery of communication messages should be tailored to populations' specific SES and HLC beliefs for effective public health interventions. For example, messages enhancing internal HLC (e.g. providing specific skills and knowledge about health behaviours) might be more helpful for the richer and more-educated, while messages appealing to one's powerful others HLC beliefs (e.g. advice on health lifestyles given by well-known health professionals) might be more effective for less-educated people. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dialectical behaviour therapy for treating adults and adolescents with emotional and behavioural dysregulation: study protocol of a coordinated implementation in a publicly funded health service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Daniel

    2018-02-26

    In the Republic of Ireland, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a feature of approximately 11-20% of clinical presentations to outpatient clinics within mental health services. These estimates are similar to other countries including the UK and USA. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is an intervention with a growing body of evidence that demonstrates its efficacy in treating individuals diagnosed with BPD. While a number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the efficacy of DBT, there is limited research which evaluates the effectiveness of this model when applied to real world settings. Funding was secured to co-ordinate DBT training in public community-based mental health services across Ireland. As no other study has evaluated a co-ordinated national implementation of DBT, the current study proposes to investigate the effectiveness of DBT in both adult and child\\/adolescent community mental health services across Ireland, evaluate the coordinated implementation of DBT at a national level, and complete a comprehensive economic evaluation comparing DBT versus treatment-as-usual.

  11. Effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate weight loss dietary intervention on biomarkers of long term survival in breast cancer patients ('CHOICE'): study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, Scot M; Playdon, Mary C; Wolfe, Pamela; McGinley, John N; Wisthoff, Mark R; Daeninck, Elizabeth A; Jiang, Weiqin; Zhu, Zongjian; Thompson, Henry J

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss in overweight or obese breast cancer patients is associated with an improved prognosis for long term survival. However, it is not clear whether the macronutrient composition of the chosen weight loss dietary plan imparts further prognostic benefit. A study protocol is presented for a dietary intervention to investigate the effects of weight loss dietary patterns that vary markedly in fat and carbohydrate contents on biomarkers of exposure to metabolic processes that may promote tumorigenesis and that are predictive of long term survival. The study will also determine how much weight must be lost for biomarkers to change in a favorable direction. Approximately 370 overweight or obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (body mass index: 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m 2 ) will be accrued and assigned to one of two weight loss intervention programs or a non-intervention control group. The dietary intervention is implemented in a free living population to test the two extremes of popular weight loss dietary patterns: a high carbohydrate, low fat diet versus a low carbohydrate, high fat diet. The effects of these dietary patterns on biomarkers for glucose homeostasis, chronic inflammation, cellular oxidation, and steroid sex hormone metabolism will be measured. Participants will attend 3 screening and dietary education visits, and 7 monthly one-on-one dietary counseling and clinical data measurement visits in addition to 5 group visits in the intervention arms. Participants in the control arm will attend two clinical data measurement visits at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome is high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Secondary outcomes include interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF), IGF binding protein-3, 8-isoprostane-F2-alpha, estrone, estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, adiponectin, and leptin. While clinical data indicate that excess weight for height is associated with poor prognosis for long term

  12. The effect of mobile application interventions on influencing healthy maternal behaviour and improving perinatal health outcomes: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Lisa M; Horey, Dell; Middleton, Philippa F; Boyle, Frances M; Flenady, Vicki

    2017-02-08

    Perinatal morbidity and mortality remain significant public health issues globally, with enduring impact on the health and well-being of women and their families. Pregnant women who adopt, practice and maintain healthy behaviours can potentially improve the health of themselves and their babies. Mobile applications are an increasingly popular mode of accessing, storing and sharing health information among pregnant women. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the effects of mobile application interventions during pregnancy on maternal behaviour and associated maternal and infant outcomes. This review will include randomised and non-randomised studies which tested use of mobile applications designed to improve either maternal knowledge or behaviours to address known risk factors associated with adverse perinatal health outcomes. This review will include studies which included pregnant women and/or women during birth. The search strategy will utilise a combination of keywords and MeSH terms. Literature databases such as PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL and WHO Global Health Library will be searched. Two reviewers will independently screen retrieved citations to determine if they meet inclusion criteria. Studies will be selected that provide information about interventions commenced in early pregnancy, late pregnancy or labour. Comparisons to be made include mobile applications versus interventions relying on paper-based or text-messaging-based communication; interpersonal communication such as face-to-face or telephone conversation; and no intervention or standard care. Quality assessment of included randomised studies will utilise established guidelines provided in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Quality assessment of non-randomised studies will be based on the Risk of Bias in Non-randomised Studies-of Interventions (ROBINS-I) assessment tool. Quality of the evidence will be evaluated using the Grades of

  13. Stages of behavioural change after direct-to-consumer disease risk profiling: study protocol of two integrated controlled pragmatic trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelly F J; Wesselius, Anke; Schols, Annemie M W J; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2018-04-19

    The incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases have reached epidemic proportions during the last decades and are not expected to diminish. Chronic diseases increasingly affect younger individuals too, with over 40% of all deaths due to non-communicable diseases occurring before the age of 70. This has led to the development of information services aimed at preventive health care, such as Health Potential®. This counselling service estimates a personal disease risk of a carefully selected list of preventable common chronic diseases that have both a genetic and a lifestyle component of development. The results are delivered face-to-face by a lifestyle counsellor, simultaneously stimulating initial steps towards behaviour change. This information can assist in lifestyle decision-making. The primary aim is to study the effect of the Health Potential® service on change in lifestyle behaviour in distinguishable customer populations. The secondary aims are (1) to study the effect of the Health Potential® service on determinants of behaviour change, (2) to study the effect of additional lifestyle counselling on behaviour change and determinants thereof, and (3) to describe the characteristics of the Health Potential® customer. The study consists of two integrated designs: (A) a two-armed non-randomised controlled pre-test/post-test trial (1.5:1 ratio), followed by (B) a two-armed randomised controlled pre-test/post-test trial (1:1 ratio), resulting in three study arms. Participants are clients of local prevention clinics, purchasing a personalised health check (PHC; intervention condition), consisting of Health Potential® and a general health check, or the general health check alone (GHC; control condition) (part A). PHC participants will be randomised to receive four additional lifestyle counselling sessions over a period of 3 months (part B). This research can provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of and possible ways forward in the field of

  14. Achieving behaviour change for detection of Lynch syndrome using the Theoretical Domains Framework Implementation (TDFI) approach: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Natalie; Long, Janet C; Debono, Deborah; Williams, Rachel; Salisbury, Elizabeth; O'Neill, Sharron; Eykman, Elizabeth; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Chin, Melvin

    2016-03-12

    Lynch syndrome is an inherited disorder associated with a range of cancers, and found in 2-5 % of colorectal cancers. Lynch syndrome is diagnosed through a combination of significant family and clinical history and pathology. The definitive diagnostic germline test requires formal patient consent after genetic counselling. If diagnosed early, carriers of Lynch syndrome can undergo increased surveillance for cancers, which in turn can prevent late stage cancers, optimise treatment and decrease mortality for themselves and their relatives. However, over the past decade, international studies have reported that only a small proportion of individuals with suspected Lynch syndrome were referred for genetic consultation and possible genetic testing. The aim of this project is to use behaviour change theory and implementation science approaches to increase the number and speed of healthcare professional referrals of colorectal cancer patients with a high-likelihood risk of Lynch syndrome to appropriate genetic counselling services. The six-step Theoretical Domains Framework Implementation (TDFI) approach will be used at two large, metropolitan hospitals treating colorectal cancer patients. Steps are: 1) form local multidisciplinary teams to map current referral processes; 2) identify target behaviours that may lead to increased referrals using discussion supported by a retrospective audit; 3) identify barriers to those behaviours using the validated Influences on Patient Safety Behaviours Questionnaire and TDFI guided focus groups; 4) co-design interventions to address barriers using focus groups; 5) co-implement interventions; and 6) evaluate intervention impact. Chi square analysis will be used to test the difference in the proportion of high-likelihood risk Lynch syndrome patients being referred for genetic testing before and after intervention implementation. A paired t-test will be used to assess the mean time from the pathology test results to referral for high

  15. Using mobile technology to deliver a cognitive behaviour therapy-informed intervention in early psychosis (Actissist): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Sandra; Barrowclough, Christine; Ainsworth, John; Morris, Rohan; Berry, Katherine; Machin, Matthew; Emsley, Richard; Lewis, Shon; Edge, Dawn; Buchan, Iain; Haddock, Gillian

    2015-09-10

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is recommended for the treatment of psychosis; however, only a small proportion of service users have access to this intervention. Smartphone technology using software applications (apps) could increase access to psychological approaches for psychosis. This paper reports the protocol development for a clinical trial of smartphone-based CBT. We present a study protocol that describes a single-blind randomised controlled trial comparing a cognitive behaviour therapy-informed software application (Actissist) plus Treatment As Usual (TAU) with a symptom monitoring software application (ClinTouch) plus TAU in early psychosis. The study consists of a 12-week intervention period. We aim to recruit and randomly assign 36 participants registered with early intervention services (EIS) across the North West of England, UK in a 2:1 ratio to each arm of the trial. Our primary objective is to determine whether in people with early psychosis the Actissist app is feasible to deliver and acceptable to use. Secondary aims are to determine whether Actissist impacts on predictors of first episode psychosis (FEP) relapse and enhances user empowerment, functioning and quality of life. Assessments will take place at baseline, 12 weeks (post-treatment) and 22-weeks (10 weeks post-treatment) by assessors blind to treatment condition. The trial will report on the feasibility and acceptability of Actissist and compare outcomes between the randomised arms. The study also incorporates semi-structured interviews about the experience of participating in the Actissist trial that will be qualitatively analysed to inform future developments of the Actissist protocol and app. To our knowledge, this is the first controlled trial to test the feasibility, acceptability, uptake, attrition and potential efficacy of a CBT-informed smartphone app for early psychosis. Mobile applications designed to deliver a psychologically-informed intervention offer new possibilities to

  16. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a consumer behaviour intervention to improve healthy food purchases from online canteens: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Tessa; Wyse, Rebecca; Yoong, Sze Lin; Sutherland, Rachel; Wiggers, John; Ball, Kylie; Campbell, Karen; Rissel, Chris; Wolfenden, Luke

    2017-04-17

    School canteens represent an opportune setting in which to deliver public health nutrition strategies given their wide reach, and frequent use by children. Online school canteen ordering systems, where students order and pay for their lunch online, provide an avenue to improve healthy canteen purchases through the application of consumer behaviour strategies that impact on purchasing decisions. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a consumer behaviour intervention implemented in an online school canteen ordering system in reducing the kilojoule, saturated fat, sugar and sodium content of primary student lunch orders. The study will employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Approximately 1040 students (aged 5-12 years) from 10 primary schools in New South Wales, Australia, currently using an online canteen ordering system will be invited to participate. Schools will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the intervention (enhanced system) or control (standard online ordering only). The intervention will include evidence-based strategies shown to influence healthy food purchasing (strategies targeting availability, menu labelling, placement and prompting). The primary outcomes of the trial will be the mean content per student online lunch order of (1) energy (kJ), (2) saturated fat (g), (3) sugar (g) and (4) sodium (mg). The impact of the intervention will be determined by between-group assessment of the nutritional content of lunch purchases over a 2-month period postintervention initiation. The study was approved by the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee, University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee and New South Wales Department of Education and School Communities. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and relevant presentations in international conferences and to stakeholders. ACTRN12616000499482. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  17. Trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy and exercise for chronic whiplash: protocol of a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Letitia; Kenardy, Justin; Andersen, Tonny; McGregor, Leanne; Maujean, Annick; Sterling, Michele

    2015-10-01

    As a consequence of a road traffic crash, persistent pain and disability following whiplash injury are common and incur substantial personal and economic costs. Up to 50% of people who experience a whiplash injury will never fully recover and up to 30% will remain moderately to severely disabled by the condition. The reason as to why symptoms persist past the acute to sub-acute stage and become chronic is unclear, but likely results from complex interactions between structural injury, physical impairments, and psychological and psychosocial factors. Psychological responses related to the traumatic event itself are becoming an increasingly recognised factor in the whiplash condition. Despite this recognition, there is limited knowledge regarding the effectiveness of psychological interventions, either delivered alone or in combination with physiotherapy, in reducing the physical and pain-related psychological factors of chronic whiplash. Pilot study results have shown positive results for the use of trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy to treat psychological factors, pain and disability in individuals with chronic whiplash. The results have indicated that a combined approach could not only reduce psychological symptoms, but also pain and disability. The primary aim of this randomised, controlled trial is to investigate the effectiveness of combined trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, delivered by a psychologist, and physiotherapy exercise to decrease pain and disability of individuals with chronic whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The trial also aims to investigate the effectiveness of the combined therapy in decreasing post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety and depression. A total of 108 participants with chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) grade II of > 3 months and whiplash injury and will have immediate clinical applicability in Australia, Denmark and the wider international community. The study will also have

  18. Study protocol of the German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA: a national household survey of smoking behaviour and cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kastaun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of tobacco smoking in Germany is high (~27%. Monitoring of national patterns of smoking behaviour and data on the “real-world” effectiveness of cessation methods are needed to inform policies and develop campaigns aimed at reducing tobacco-related harm. In England, the Smoking Toolkit Study (STS has been tracking such indicators since 2006, resulting in the adaptation of tobacco control policies. However, findings cannot be directly transferred into the German health policy context. The German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA: “Deutsche Befragung zum Rauchverhalten” aims to provide such nationally representative data. Methods/Design In June 2016, the study started collecting data from computer-assisted, face-to-face household interviews in people aged 14 years and older. Over a period of 3 years, a total of ~36,000 respondents will complete the survey with a new sample of ~2000 respondents every 2 months (=18 waves. This sample will report data on demographics and the use of tobacco and electronic (e-cigarettes. Per wave, about 500–600 people are expected to be current or recent ex-smokers (<12 months since quitting. This sample will answer detailed questions about smoking behaviour, quit attempts, exposure to health professionals’ advice on quitting, and use of cessation aids. Six-month follow-up data will be collected by telephone. Discussion The DEBRA study will be an important source of data for tobacco control policies, health strategies, and future research. The methodology is closely aligned to the STS, which will allow comparisons with data from England, a country with one of the lowest smoking prevalence rates in Europe (18%. Trial registration This study has been registered at the German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00011322 on 25th November 2016.

  19. Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for depression in people with diabetes: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Lisa; Newby, Jill; Wilhelm, Kay; Smith, Jessica; Fletcher, Therese; Ma, Trevor; Finch, Adam; Campbell, Lesley; Andrews, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Depression substantially contributes to the personal burden and healthcare costs of living with diabetes mellitus (DM). Comorbid depression and DM are associated with poorer quality of life, poorer self-management and glycemic control, increased risk for DM complications and higher mortality rates, and higher health service utilization. Depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in people with DM, which may, in part, result from barriers associated with accessing face-to-face treatment. This study will examine the efficacy of an internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy programme for major depressive disorder (iCBT-MDD) in people with DM. A CONSORT 2010 compliant, registered randomised controlled trial of the intervention (iCBT-MDD) versus a treatment as usual control group will be conducted. The study will include 100 adults aged 18 years and over with a diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 DM and self-reported symptoms that satisfy MDD which will enable us to detect a statistically significant difference with a group effect size of 0.6 at a power of 80% and significance level of p=0.05. Participants will be randomised to receive the iCBT-MDD programme immediately, or to wait 10 weeks before accessing the programme. Primary outcomes will be self-reported depression severity, DM-related distress, and glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin). Secondary outcomes will be general distress and disability, generalized anxiety, lifestyle behaviours, somatization, eating habits, alcohol use, and acceptability of the iCBT programme to participants, and practicality for clinicians. Data will be analyzed with linear mixed models for each outcome measure. The Human Research Ethics Committee of St Vincent's Hospital Australia have given ethics approval (HREC/13/SVH/291). Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and social media channels of Australian Diabetes Consumer Representative Bodies. The trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand

  20. Fostering active living and healthy eating through understanding physical activity and dietary behaviours of Arabic-speaking adults: a cross-sectional study from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Fung, Tak Shing; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud Bint Mohammad

    2018-04-20

    Physical inactivity and unhealthy diets increase the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Many people in Qatar are sedentary and consume diets high in fats, salt and sugar. The purpose of this study was to determine physical activity levels, food habits and understand the variables that might predict physical activity and healthy eating behaviours among Arabic-speaking adults living in the State of Qatar. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted with 1606 Arab adults ≥18 years of age from March 2013 to June 2015. Using a non-probability sampling technique, participants were recruited from three universities and five primary healthcare centres in Qatar. Participants were interviewed using a structured survey questionnaire. The survey included questions regarding demography, clinical characteristics and the participant's daily dietary practice. Physical activity level was assessed by the Arabic version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS V.22.0. Of 1606 participants, 50.1% were men and 49.9% were women. The participants' mean (SD) body mass index was 28.03 (5.85) Kg/m 2 . Two-thirds of the participants were either overweight (36.4%) or obese (33.6%). Within the 7 days prior to completing the questionnaire, 64% and 39.9% of study participants did not engage in vigorous or moderate physical activity, respectively. Within the 7 days prior to completing the questionnaire, the mean (SD) time for vigorous physical activity was 31.12 (59.28) min, 46.87 (63.01) min for moderate physical activity, and 42.01 (47.04) min for walking. One-third of the participants consumed fresh fruits and vegetables once or more daily, and fish, beef or chicken 2-4 times weekly. One quarter of the participants ate pasta, cakes or pastries 2-4 times weekly, and 40.6% of them ate white bread daily. Participants exhibited insufficient physical activity and poor dietary habits. There is a need for a

  1. Study protocol of the German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA): a national household survey of smoking behaviour and cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastaun, Sabrina; Brown, Jamie; Brose, Leonie S; Ratschen, Elena; Raupach, Tobias; Nowak, Dennis; Cholmakow-Bodechtel, Constanze; Shahab, Lion; West, Robert; Kotz, Daniel

    2017-05-02

    The prevalence of tobacco smoking in Germany is high (~27%). Monitoring of national patterns of smoking behaviour and data on the "real-world" effectiveness of cessation methods are needed to inform policies and develop campaigns aimed at reducing tobacco-related harm. In England, the Smoking Toolkit Study (STS) has been tracking such indicators since 2006, resulting in the adaptation of tobacco control policies. However, findings cannot be directly transferred into the German health policy context. The German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA: "Deutsche Befragung zum Rauchverhalten") aims to provide such nationally representative data. In June 2016, the study started collecting data from computer-assisted, face-to-face household interviews in people aged 14 years and older. Over a period of 3 years, a total of ~36,000 respondents will complete the survey with a new sample of ~2000 respondents every 2 months (=18 waves). This sample will report data on demographics and the use of tobacco and electronic (e-)cigarettes. Per wave, about 500-600 people are expected to be current or recent ex-smokers (German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00011322 ) on 25th November 2016.

  2. Investigating Canadian parents' HPV vaccine knowledge, attitudes and behaviour: a study protocol for a longitudinal national online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Gilla K; Perez, Samara; Naz, Anila; Tatar, Ovidiu; Guichon, Juliet R; Amsel, Rhonda; Zimet, Gregory D; Rosberger, Zeev

    2017-10-11

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, can cause anogenital warts and a number of cancers. To prevent morbidity and mortality, three vaccines have been licensed and are recommended by Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunisation (for girls since 2007 and boys since 2012). Nevertheless, HPV vaccine coverage in Canada remains suboptimal in many regions. This study will be the first to concurrently examine the correlates of HPV vaccine decision-making in parents of school-aged girls and boys and evaluate changes in parental knowledge, attitudes and behaviours over time. Using a national, online survey utilising theoretically driven constructs and validated measures, this study will identify HPV vaccine coverage rates and correlates of vaccine decision-making in Canada at two time points (August-September 2016 and June-July 2017). 4606 participants will be recruited to participate in an online survey through a market research and polling firm using email invitations. Data cleaning methods will identify inattentive or unmotivated participants. The study received research ethics board approval from the Research Review Office, Integrated Health and Social Services University Network for West-Central Montreal (CODIM-FLP-16-219). The study will adopt a multimodal approach to disseminate the study's findings to researchers, clinicians, cancer and immunisation organisations and the public in Canada and internationally. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. How lay health workers tailor in effective health behaviour change interventions: a protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Faith; Gnich, Wendy; Ross, Alastair J; Sherriff, Andrea; Worlledge-Andrew, Heather

    2016-06-16

    Lay health workers (LHWs) are utilised as a channel of delivery in many health interventions. While they have no formal professional training related to their role, they utilise their connections with the target group or community in order to reach individuals who would not normally readily engage with health services. Lay health worker programmes are often based on psychological theories of behaviour change that point to 'tailoring to individuals' needs or characteristics' as key to success. Although lay health workers have been shown to be effective in many contexts, there is, as yet, little clarity when it comes to how LHWs assess individuals' needs in order to tailor their interventions. This study aims to develop a better understanding of the effective implementation of tailoring in lay health worker interventions by appraising evidence and synthesising studies that report evaluations of tailored interventions. Health and psychology electronic databases (EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsycINFO) will be searched. Reference lists of included studies will also be searched. For articles that are deemed to be potentially relevant, we will employ a 'cluster searching' technique in order to identify all published papers related to a relevant intervention. Cluster searching will be undertaken in an effort to maximise the breadth and depth of description of the intervention. Quantitative studies will be assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed by the Effective Public Health Practice Project, ON, Canada. Qualitative studies will be assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist for qualitative research. Sythesising the data will enable the development of a taxonomy of strategies for the criteria used for individual assessment of recipients' needs and the ways in which messages or actions are tailored to these individual criteria by LHWs. This systematic review focuses specifically on how health promotion and

  4. Study protocol: evaluation of an online, father-inclusive, universal parenting intervention to reduce child externalising behaviours and improve parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Lucy A; Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Collins, Daniel A J; Mairet, Kathleen S; Hawes, David J; Kimonis, Eva R; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Moul, Caroline; Anderson, Vicki; Frick, Paul J; Dadds, Mark R

    2017-06-19

    Parenting interventions that focus on enhancing the quality and consistency of parenting are effective for preventing and reducing externalising problems in children. There has been a recent shift towards online delivery of parenting interventions in order to increase their reach and impact on the population prevalence of child externalising problems. Parenting interventions have low rates of father participation yet research suggests that father involvement may be critical to the success of the intervention. Despite this, no online parenting interventions have been specifically developed to meet the needs and preferences of fathers, as well as mothers. This paper describes the protocol of a study examining the effectiveness of an online, father-inclusive parenting intervention called 'ParentWorks', which will be delivered as a universal intervention to Australian families. A single group clinical trial will be conducted to examine the effectiveness of ParentWorks for reducing child externalising problems and improving parenting, as well as to explore the impact of father engagement (in two-parent families) on child outcomes. Australian parents/caregivers with a child aged 2-16 years will be recruited. Participants will provide informed consent, complete pre-intervention measures and will then complete the intervention, which consists of five compulsory video modules and three optional modules. The primary outcomes for this study are changes in child externalising behaviour, positive and dysfunctional parenting practices and parental conflict, and the secondary outcome is changes in parental mental health. Demographic information, satisfaction with the intervention, and measures of parental engagement will also be collected. Questionnaire data will be collected at pre-intervention, post-intervention and three-month follow-up, as well as throughout the program. This paper describes the study protocol of a single group clinical trial of a national, online, father

  5. Study protocol of a multicentre randomised controlled trial of self-help cognitive behaviour therapy for working women with menopausal symptoms (MENOS@Work).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Myra S; Hardy, Claire; Norton, Sam; Griffiths, Amanda

    2016-10-01

    Hot flushes and night sweats (HFNS) - the main symptoms of the menopause transition - can reduce quality of life and are particularly difficult to manage at work. A cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) intervention has been developed specifically for HFNS that is theoretically based and shown to reduce significantly the impact of HFNS in several randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Self-help CBT has been found to be as effective as group CBT for these symptoms, but these interventions are not widely available in the workplace. This paper describes the protocol of an RCT aiming to assess the efficacy of CBT for menopausal symptoms implemented in the workplace, with a nested qualitative study to examine acceptability and feasibility. One hundred menopausal working women, aged 45-60 years, experiencing bothersome HFNS for two months will be recruited from several (2-10) large organisations into a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Women will be randomly assigned to either treatment (a self-help CBT intervention lasting 4 weeks) or to a no treatment-wait control condition (NTWC), following a screening interview, consent, and completion of a baseline questionnaire. All participants will complete follow-up questionnaires at 6 weeks and 20 weeks post-randomisation. The primary outcome is the rating of HFNS; secondary measures include HFNS frequency, mood, quality of life, attitudes to menopause, HFNS beliefs and behaviours, work absence and presenteeism, job satisfaction, job stress, job performance, disclosure to managers and turnover intention. Adherence, acceptability and feasibility will be assessed at 20 weeks post-randomisation in questionnaires and qualitative interviews. Upon trial completion, the control group will also be offered the intervention. This is the first randomised controlled trial of a self-management intervention tailored for working women who have troublesome menopausal symptoms. Clin.Gov NCT02623374. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  6. Effects of digital Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia on cognitive function: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Simon D; Hurry, Madeleine E D; Emsley, Richard; Luik, Annemarie I; Omlin, Ximena; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Espie, Colin A; Sexton, Claire E

    2017-06-17

    The daytime effects of insomnia pose a significant burden to patients and drive treatment seeking. In addition to subjective deficits, meta-analytic data show that patients experience reliable objective impairments across several cognitive domains. While Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) is an effective and scalable treatment, we know little about its impact upon cognitive function. Trials of CBT-I have typically used proxy measures for cognitive functioning, such as fatigue or work performance scales, and no study has assessed self-reported impairment in cognitive function as a primary outcome. Moreover, only a small number of studies have assessed objective cognitive performance, pre-to-post CBT-I, with mixed results. This study specifically aims to (1) investigate the impact of CBT-I on cognitive functioning, assessed through both self-reported impairment and objective performance measures, and (2) examine whether change in sleep mediates this impact. We propose a randomised controlled trial of 404 community participants meeting criteria for Insomnia Disorder. In the DISCO trial (D efining the I mpact of improved S leep on CO gnitive function (DISCO)) participants will be randomised to digital automated CBT-I delivered by a web and/or mobile platform (in addition to treatment as usual (TAU)) or to a wait-list control (in addition to TAU). Online assessments will take place at 0 (baseline), 10 (post-treatment), and 24 (follow-up) weeks. At week 25, all participants allocated to the wait-list group will be offered digital CBT-I, at which point the controlled element of the trial will be complete. The primary outcome is self-reported cognitive impairment at post-treatment (10 weeks). Secondary outcomes include objective cognitive performance, insomnia severity, sleepiness, fatigue, and self-reported cognitive failures and emotional distress. All main analyses will be carried out on completion of follow-up assessments and will be based on the

  7. Nutrition and dietary intake and their association with mortality and hospitalisation in adults with chronic kidney disease treated with haemodialysis: protocol for DIET-HD, a prospective multinational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Suetonia C; Ruospo, Marinella; Campbell, Katrina L; Garcia Larsen, Vanessa; Saglimbene, Valeria; Natale, Patrizia; Gargano, Letizia; Craig, Jonathan C; Johnson, David W; Tonelli, Marcello; Knight, John; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Celia, Eduardo; Del Castillo, Domingo; Dulawa, Jan; Ecder, Tevfik; Fabricius, Elisabeth; Frazão, João Miguel; Gelfman, Ruben; Hoischen, Susanne Hildegard; Schön, Staffan; Stroumza, Paul; Timofte, Delia; Török, Marietta; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Wollheim, Charlotta; Frantzen, Luc; Strippoli, G F M

    2015-03-20

    Adults with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) treated with haemodialysis experience mortality of between 15% and 20% each year. Effective interventions that improve health outcomes for long-term dialysis patients remain unproven. Novel and testable determinants of health in dialysis are needed. Nutrition and dietary patterns are potential factors influencing health in other health settings that warrant exploration in multinational studies in men and women treated with dialysis. We report the protocol of the "DIETary intake, death and hospitalisation in adults with end-stage kidney disease treated with HaemoDialysis (DIET-HD) study," a multinational prospective cohort study. DIET-HD will describe associations of nutrition and dietary patterns with major health outcomes for adults treated with dialysis in several countries. DIET-HD will recruit approximately 10,000 adults who have ESKD treated by clinics administered by a single dialysis provider in Argentina, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Turkey. Recruitment will take place between March 2014 and June 2015. The study has currently recruited 8000 participants who have completed baseline data. Nutritional intake and dietary patterns will be measured using the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) food frequency questionnaire. The primary dietary exposures will be n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption. The primary outcome will be cardiovascular mortality and secondary outcomes will be all-cause mortality, infection-related mortality and hospitalisation. The study is approved by the relevant Ethics Committees in participating countries. All participants will provide written informed consent and be free to withdraw their data at any time. The findings of the study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and to participants via regular newsletters. We expect that the DIET-HD study will inform large pragmatic

  8. Obesity and dietary behavioural changes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-31

    May 31, 2010 ... people's self-esteem, there are many detrimental health implications to ... making small changes leads to the successful achievement of long-term goals.5 ... Ask empathetic questions such as “What do you think about your.

  9. Connecting Health and Technology (CHAT): protocol of a randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using mobile devices and tailored text messaging in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr Deborah A; Pollard Christina M; Howat Peter; Delp Edward J; Pickering Mark; Kerr Katherine R; Dhaliwal Satvinder S; Pratt Iain S; Wright Janine; Boushey Carol J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Increasing intakes of fruits and vegetables intake, in tandem with reducing consumption of energy-dense and nutrient poor foods and beverages are dietary priorities to prevent chronic disease. Although most adults do not eat enough fruit and vegetables, teenagers and young adults tend to have the lowest intakes. Young adults typically consume a diet which is inconsistent with the dietary recommendations. Yet little is known about the best approaches to improve dietary inta...

  10. Stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N combined with conventional dietary approaches reveal plasticity in central-place foraging behaviour of little penguins (Eudyptula minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre eChiaradia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine top and meso predators like seabirds are limited by the need to breed on land but forage on limited or patchily distributed resources at sea. Constraints imposed by such central-place foraging behaviour change during breeding or even disappear outside the breeding period when there is no immediate pressure to return to a central place. However, central place foraging is usually factored as an unchanging condition in life history studies. Here we used little penguin Eudyptula minor, a resident bird with one of the smallest foraging range among seabirds, to examine the different degree of pressure/constraints of being a central-place forager. We combined data on isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N, conventional stomach contents and body mass of little penguins breeding at Phillip Island, Australia over nine years (2003-11. We explored relationships between diet and body mass in each stage of the breeding season (pre-laying, incubation, guard, and post-guard in years of high and low reproductive success. Values of δ13C and δ15N as well as isotopic niche width had similar patterns among years, with less variability later in the season when little penguins shorten their foraging range at the expected peak of their central-place foraging limitation. Body mass peaked before laying and hatching in preparation for the energetically demanding periods of egg production and chick provisioning. An increase of anchovy and barracouta in the diet, two major prey for little penguins, occurred at the critical stage of chick rearing. These intra-annual trends could be a response to imposed foraging constraints as reproduction progresses, while inter-annual trends could reflect their ability to match or mismatch the high energy demanding chick rearing period with the peak in availability of high-quality prey such as anchovy. Our findings underline the key advantages of using a stable isotope approach combined with conventional dietary reconstruction to

  11. Cognitive behaviour therapy for older adults experiencing insomnia and depression in a community mental health setting: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Paul; McLaren, Suzanne; Klein, Britt; Jenkins, Megan; Harvey, Jack

    2015-11-27

    Cognitive behaviour therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is a well-established treatment; however, the evidence is largely limited to homogenous samples. Although emerging research has indicated that CBT-I is also effective for comorbid insomnia, CBT-I has not been tested among a complex sample of older adults with comorbid insomnia and depression. Furthermore, no study has explored whether modifying CBT-I to target associated depressive symptoms could potentially enhance sleep and mood outcomes. Therefore, this study aims to report a protocol designed to test whether an advanced form of CBT for insomnia and depression (CBT-I-D) is more effective at reducing insomnia and depressive symptoms compared to a standard CBT-I and psychoeducation control group (PCG) for older adults in a community mental health setting. We aim to recruit 150 older adults with comorbid insomnia who have presented to community mental health services for depression. Eligible participants will be randomly allocated via block/cluster randomisation to one of three group therapy conditions: CBT-I, CBT-I-D, or PCG. Participants who receive CBT-I will only practice strategies designed to improve their sleep, whereas participants who receive CBT-I-D will practice additional strategies designed to also improve their mood. This trial will implement a mixed-methods design involving quantitative outcome measures and qualitative focus groups. The primary outcome measures are insomnia and depression severity, and secondary outcomes are anxiety, hopelessness, beliefs about sleep, comorbid sleep conditions, and health. Outcomes will be assessed at pre-intervention (week 0), post-intervention (week 8), and 3-month follow-up (week 20). This CBT study protocol has been designed to address comorbid insomnia and depression for older adults receiving community mental health services. The proposed trial will determine whether CBT-I is more effective for older adults with comorbid insomnia and depression compared to a PCG

  12. Testing the efficacy of web-based cognitive behavioural therapy for adult patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CBIT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Anthonie; Worm-Smeitink, Margreet; Bussel-Lagarde, José; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Nikolaus, Stephanie; Knoop, Hans

    2015-08-12

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for fatigue and disabilities in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, treatment capacity is limited. Providing web-based CBT and tailoring the amount of contact with the therapist to the individual needs of the patient may increase the efficiency of the intervention. Web-based CBT for adolescents with CFS has proven to be effective in reducing fatigue and increasing school attendance. In the proposed study the efficacy of a web-based CBT intervention for adult patients with CFS will be explored. Two different formats of web-based CBT will be tested. In the first format named protocol driven feedback, patients report on their progress and receive feedback from a therapist according to a preset schedule. In the second format named support on demand, feedback and support of the therapist is only given when patients ask for it. The primary objective of the study is to determine the efficacy of a web-based CBT intervention on fatigue severity. A randomized clinical trial will be conducted. Two-hundred-forty adults who have been diagnosed with CFS according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) consensus criteria will be recruited and randomized to one of three conditions: web-based CBT with protocol driven feedback, web-based CBT with support on demand, or wait list. Feedback will be delivered by therapists specialized in CBT for CFS. Each of the web-based CBT interventions will be compared to a wait list condition with respect to its effect on the primary outcome measure; fatigue severity. Secondary outcome measures are level of disability, physical functioning, psychological distress, and the proportion of patients with clinical significant improvement in fatigue severity. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and six months post randomization. The web-based CBT formats will be compared with respect to the time therapists need to deliver the intervention. As far as we

  13. Study protocol for Log2Lose: A feasibility randomized controlled trial to evaluate financial incentives for dietary self-monitoring and interim weight loss in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voils, Corrine I; Levine, Erica; Gierisch, Jennifer M; Pendergast, Jane; Hale, Sarah L; McVay, Megan A; Reed, Shelby D; Yancy, William S; Bennett, Gary; Strawbridge, Elizabeth M; White, Allison C; Shaw, Ryan J

    2018-02-01

    The obesity epidemic has negative physical, psychological, and financial consequences. Despite the existence of effective behavioral weight loss interventions, many individuals do not achieve adequate weight loss, and most regain lost weight in the year following intervention. We report the rationale and design for a 2×2 factorial study that involves financial incentives for dietary self-monitoring (yes vs. no) and/or interim weight loss (yes vs. no). Outpatients with obesity participate in a 24-week, group-based weight loss intervention. All participants are asked to record their daily dietary and liquid intake on a smartphone application (app) and to weigh themselves daily at home on a study-provided cellular scale. An innovative information technology (IT) solution collates dietary data from the app and weight from the scale. Using these data, an algorithm classifies participants weekly according to whether they met their group's criteria to receive a cash reward ranging from $0 to $30 for dietary self-monitoring and/or interim weight loss. Notice of the reward is provided via text message, and credit is uploaded to a gift card. This pilot study will provide information on the feasibility of using this novel IT solution to provide variable-ratio financial incentives in real time via its effects on recruitment, intervention adherence, retention, and cost. This study will provide the foundation for a comprehensive, adequately-powered, randomized controlled trial to promote short-term weight loss and long-term weight maintenance. If efficacious, this approach could reduce the prevalence, adverse outcomes, and costs of obesity for millions of Americans. Clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT02691260. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy for concerned significant others of people with problem gambling: study protocol for a randomised wait-list controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Anders; Hellner Gumpert, Clara; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2015-12-09

    About 2.3% of the adult population in Sweden are considered to suffer from problem gambling, and it is estimated that only 5% of those seek treatment. Problem gambling can have devastating effects on the economy, health and relationship, both for the individual who gambles and their concerned significant other (CSO). No empirically supported treatment exists for the CSOs of people with problem gambling. Consequently, the aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a programme aimed at CSOs of treatment-refusing problem gamblers. The programme will be based on principles from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing. To benefit as many CSOs as possible, the programme will be delivered via the internet with therapist support via encrypted email and short weekly conversations via telephone. This will be a randomised wait-list controlled internet-delivered treatment trial. A CBT programme for the CSOs of people with problem gambling will be developed and evaluated. The participants will work through nine modules over 10 weeks in a secure online environment, and receive support via secure emails and over the telephone. A total of 150 CSOs over 18 years of age will be included. Measures will be taken at baseline and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes concern gambling-related harm. Secondary outcomes include the treatment entry of the individual who gambles, the CSO's levels of depression, anxiety, as well as relationship satisfaction and quality of life. The protocol has been approved by the regional ethics board of Stockholm, Sweden. This study will add to the body of knowledge on how to protect CSOs from gambling-related harm, and how to motivate treatment-refusing individuals to seek professional help for problem gambling. NCT02250586. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Understanding influences on teachers' uptake and use of behaviour management strategies within the STARS trial: process evaluation protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, Lorraine; Sharkey, Siobhan; Edwards, Vanessa; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Byford, Sarah; Norwich, Brahm; Logan, Stuart; Ford, Tamsin

    2015-02-10

    The 'Supporting Teachers And childRen in Schools' (STARS) study is a cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (TCM) programme as a public health intervention. TCM is a 6 day training course delivered to groups of 8-12 teachers. The STARS trial will investigate whether TCM can improve children's behaviour, attainment and wellbeing, reduce teachers' stress and improve their self-efficacy. This protocol describes the methodology of the process evaluation embedded within the main trial, which aims to examine the uptake and implementation of TCM strategies within the classroom plus the wider school environment and improve the understanding of outcomes. The STARS trial will work with eighty teachers of children aged 4-9 years from eighty schools. Teachers will be randomised to attend the TCM course (intervention arm) or to "teach as normal" (control arm) and attend the course a year later. The process evaluation will use quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess fidelity to model, as well as explore headteachers' and teachers' experiences of TCM and investigate school factors that influence the translation of skills learnt to practice. Four of the eight groups of teachers (n = 40) will be invited to participate in focus groups within one month of completing the TCM course, and again a year later, while 45 of the 80 headteachers will be invited to take part in telephone interviews. Standardised checklists will be completed by group leaders and each training session will be videotaped to assess fidelity to model. Teachers will also complete standardised session evaluations. This study will provide important information about whether the Teacher Classroom Management course influences child and teacher mental health and well-being in both the short and long term. The process evaluation will provide valuable insights into factors that may facilitate or impede any impact. The trial has been registered with ISCTRN

  16. Effects of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention on preventing major depressive episodes among workers: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Kotaro; Kawakami, Norito; Furukawa, Toshi A; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Shimazu, Akihito; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) program on decreasing the risk of major depressive episodes (MDEs) among workers employed in a private corporate group in Japan, using a randomised controlled trial design. All of the workers in a corporate group (n=20,000) will be recruited through an invitation email. Participants who fulfil the inclusion criteria will be randomly allocated to intervention or control groups (planned N=4050 for each group). They will be allowed to complete the six lessons of the iCBT program within 10 weeks after the baseline survey. Those in the control group will receive the same iCBT after 12 months. The program includes several CBT skills: self-monitoring, cognitive restructuring, assertiveness, problem-solving and relaxation. The primary outcome measure is no new onset of MDE (using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)/DSM-5 criteria) during the 12-month follow-up. Assessment will use the web version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview V.3.0 depression section. The Research Ethics Review Board of Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo (No. 3083-(2)), approved the study procedures. The study protocol is registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR; ID=UMIN000014146). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. The PiGeOn project: protocol for a longitudinal study examining psychosocial, behavioural and ethical issues and outcomes in cancer tumour genomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Megan; Newson, Ainsley J; Meiser, Bettina; Juraskova, Ilona; Goldstein, David; Tucker, Kathy; Ballinger, Mandy L; Hess, Dominique; Schlub, Timothy E; Biesecker, Barbara; Vines, Richard; Vines, Kate; Thomas, David; Young, Mary-Anne; Savard, Jacqueline; Jacobs, Chris; Butow, Phyllis

    2018-04-05

    Genomic sequencing in cancer (both tumour and germline), and development of therapies targeted to tumour genetic status, hold great promise for improvement of patient outcomes. However, the imminent introduction of genomics into clinical practice calls for better understanding of how patients value, experience, and cope with this novel technology and its often complex results. Here we describe a protocol for a novel mixed-methods, prospective study (PiGeOn) that aims to examine patients' psychosocial, cognitive, affective and behavioural responses to tumour genomic profiling and to integrate a parallel critical ethical analysis of returning results. This is a cohort sub-study of a parent tumour genomic profiling programme enrolling patients with advanced cancer. One thousand patients will be recruited for the parent study in Sydney, Australia from 2016 to 2019. They will be asked to complete surveys at baseline, three, and five months. Primary outcomes are: knowledge, preferences, attitudes and values. A purposively sampled subset of patients will be asked to participate in three semi-structured interviews (at each time point) to provide deeper data interpretation. Relevant ethical themes will be critically analysed to iteratively develop or refine normative ethical concepts or frameworks currently used in the return of genetic information. This will be the first Australian study to collect longitudinal data on cancer patients' experience of tumour genomic profiling. Findings will be used to inform ongoing ethical debates on issues such as how to effectively obtain informed consent for genomic profiling return results, distinguish between research and clinical practice and manage patient expectations. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods will provide comprehensive and critical data on how patients cope with 'actionable' and 'non-actionable' results. This information is needed to ensure that when tumour genomic profiling becomes part of routine

  18. Protocol for the ADDITION-Plus study: a randomised controlled trial of an individually-tailored behaviour change intervention among people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes under intensive UK general practice care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanshawe Tom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses both clinical and public health challenges. Cost-effective approaches to prevent progression of the disease in primary care are needed. Evidence suggests that intensive multifactorial interventions including medication and behaviour change can significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with established type 2 diabetes, and that patient education in self-management can improve short-term outcomes. However, existing studies cannot isolate the effects of behavioural interventions promoting self-care from other aspects of intensive primary care management. The ADDITION-Plus trial was designed to address these issues among recently diagnosed patients in primary care over one year. Methods/Design ADDITION-Plus is an explanatory randomised controlled trial of a facilitator-led, theory-based behaviour change intervention tailored to individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. 34 practices in the East Anglia region participated. 478 patients with diabetes were individually randomised to receive (i intensive treatment alone (n = 239, or (ii intensive treatment plus the facilitator-led individual behaviour change intervention (n = 239. Facilitators taught patients key skills to facilitate change and maintenance of key behaviours (physical activity, dietary change, medication adherence and smoking, including goal setting, action planning, self-monitoring and building habits. The intervention was delivered over one year at the participant's surgery and included a one-hour introductory meeting followed by six 30-minute meetings and four brief telephone calls. Primary endpoints are physical activity energy expenditure (assessed by individually calibrated heart rate monitoring and movement sensing, change in objectively measured dietary intake (plasma vitamin C, medication adherence (plasma drug levels, and smoking status (plasma cotinine levels at

  19. Protocol for the ADDITION-Plus study: a randomised controlled trial of an individually-tailored behaviour change intervention among people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes under intensive UK general practice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Simon J; Simmons, Rebecca K; Williams, Kate M; Prevost, A Toby; Hardeman, Wendy; Grant, Julie; Whittle, Fiona; Boase, Sue; Hobbis, Imogen; Brage, Soren; Westgate, Kate; Fanshawe, Tom; Sutton, Stephen; Wareham, Nicholas J; Kinmonth, Ann Louise

    2011-04-04

    The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses both clinical and public health challenges. Cost-effective approaches to prevent progression of the disease in primary care are needed. Evidence suggests that intensive multifactorial interventions including medication and behaviour change can significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with established type 2 diabetes, and that patient education in self-management can improve short-term outcomes. However, existing studies cannot isolate the effects of behavioural interventions promoting self-care from other aspects of intensive primary care management. The ADDITION-Plus trial was designed to address these issues among recently diagnosed patients in primary care over one year. ADDITION-Plus is an explanatory randomised controlled trial of a facilitator-led, theory-based behaviour change intervention tailored to individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. 34 practices in the East Anglia region participated. 478 patients with diabetes were individually randomised to receive (i) intensive treatment alone (n = 239), or (ii) intensive treatment plus the facilitator-led individual behaviour change intervention (n = 239). Facilitators taught patients key skills to facilitate change and maintenance of key behaviours (physical activity, dietary change, medication adherence and smoking), including goal setting, action planning, self-monitoring and building habits. The intervention was delivered over one year at the participant's surgery and included a one-hour introductory meeting followed by six 30-minute meetings and four brief telephone calls. Primary endpoints are physical activity energy expenditure (assessed by individually calibrated heart rate monitoring and movement sensing), change in objectively measured dietary intake (plasma vitamin C), medication adherence (plasma drug levels), and smoking status (plasma cotinine levels) at one year. We will undertake an intention

  20. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  1. Dietary sodium intake and overweight and obesity in children and adults: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-01-18

    Overweight and obesity in children and adults is a major public health concern. Emerging evidence suggests dietary sodium intake may be associated with obesity. This systematic review and meta-analysis will aim to (i) assess the relation between dietary sodium intake and measures of adiposity in children and adults and (ii) examine the relation between sodium intake and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, which is a known risk factor for obesity. An electronic search will be conducted using Medline Complete, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase and Cochrane central register of controlled trials (CENTRAL). The search strategy will identify published peer-reviewed articles that report on dietary sodium and either a marker of adiposity or SSB consumption. Only human studies (ages >1 year) in English will be included, and no limits will be placed on publication date. No restrictions will be placed on the method of sodium intake assessment. Cross-sectional, prospective studies, and randomised controlled trials with a duration of ≥ 3 months will be included. Studies with participants with renal disease, cancer, type 1 diabetes or heart failure or who are pregnant will be excluded. To assess the quality of studies, the Cochrane's Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials will be used for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale will be used for cross-sectional and prospective studies. Meta-analysis will be used to assess the relation of sodium intake with two primary outcomes: (i) BMI and body weight in adults and BMI z-score in children and (ii) weight category (i.e. healthy weight vs. overweight/obese). For any outcomes in which meta-analysis is not possible, we will present data as a systematic review. Findings will be grouped and reported separately for children and adolescents (ages 1-17 years) and adults (ages >18 years). This review and meta-analysis will provide insight into the relation between dietary

  2. Feasibility randomised controlled trial of Recovery-focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Older Adults with bipolar disorder (RfCBT-OA): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Elizabeth; Lobban, Fiona; Sutton, Chris; Depp, Colin; Johnson, Sheri; Laidlaw, Ken; Jones, Steven H

    2016-03-03

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and chronic mental health problem that persists into older adulthood. The number of people living with this condition is set to rise as the UK experiences a rapid ageing of its population. To date, there has been very little research or service development with respect to psychological therapies for this group of people. A parallel two-arm randomised controlled trial comparing a 14-session, 6-month Recovery-focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Older Adults with bipolar disorder (RfCBT-OA) plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU alone. Participants will be recruited in the North-West of England via primary and secondary mental health services and through self-referral. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of RfCBT-OA; therefore, a formal power calculation is not appropriate. It has been estimated that randomising 25 participants per group will be sufficient to be able to reliably determine the primary feasibility outcomes (eg, recruitment and retention rates), in line with recommendations for sample sizes for feasibility/pilot trials. Participants in both arms will complete assessments at baseline and then every 3 months, over the 12-month follow-up period. We will gain an estimate of the likely effect size of RfCBT-OA on a range of clinical outcomes and estimate parameters needed to determine the appropriate sample size for a definitive, larger trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of RfCBT-OA. Data analysis is discussed further in the Analysis section in the main paper. This protocol was approved by the UK National Health Service (NHS) Ethics Committee process (REC ref: 15/NW/0330). The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and local, participating NHS trusts. ISRCTN13875321; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  3. Everything should be as simple as possible, but no simpler: towards a protocol for accumulating evidence regarding the active content of health behaviour change interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G.J.Y.; de Bruin, M.; Crutzen, R.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to consolidate the evidence base underlying our toolbox of methods of behaviour change. Recent efforts to this effect have conducted meta-regressions on evaluations of behaviour change interventions, deriving each method's effectiveness from its association to intervention effect

  4. From Theory-Inspired to Theory-Based Interventions: A Protocol for Developing and Testing a Methodology for Linking Behaviour Change Techniques to Theoretical Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Carey, Rachel N; Johnston, Marie; Rothman, Alexander J; de Bruin, Marijn; Kelly, Michael P; Connell, Lauren E

    2018-05-18

    Understanding links between behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and mechanisms of action (the processes through which they affect behaviour) helps inform the systematic development of behaviour change interventions. This research aims to develop and test a methodology for linking BCTs to their mechanisms of action. Study 1 (published explicit links): Hypothesised links between 93 BCTs (from the 93-item BCT taxonomy, BCTTv1) and mechanisms of action will be identified from published interventions and their frequency, explicitness and precision documented. Study 2 (expert-agreed explicit links): Behaviour change experts will identify links between 61 BCTs and 26 mechanisms of action in a formal consensus study. Study 3 (integrated matrix of explicit links): Agreement between studies 1 and 2 will be evaluated and a new group of experts will discuss discrepancies. An integrated matrix of BCT-mechanism of action links, annotated to indicate strength of evidence, will be generated. Study 4 (published implicit links): To determine whether groups of co-occurring BCTs can be linked to theories, we will identify groups of BCTs that are used together from the study 1 literature. A consensus exercise will be used to rate strength of links between groups of BCT and theories. A formal methodology for linking BCTs to their hypothesised mechanisms of action can contribute to the development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions. This research is a step towards developing a behaviour change 'ontology', specifying relations between BCTs, mechanisms of action, modes of delivery, populations, settings and types of behaviour.

  5. A pilot effectiveness study of the Enhancing Parenting Skills (EPaS) 2014 programme for parents of children with behaviour problems: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margiad Elen; Hutchings, Judy

    2015-05-20

    The Enhancing Parenting Skills (EPaS) 2014 programme is a home-based, health visitor-delivered parenting support programme for parents of children with identified behaviour problems. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the EPaS 2014 programme compared to a waiting-list treatment as usual control group. This is a pragmatic, multicentre randomised controlled trial. Sixty health visitors will each be asked to identify two families that have a child scoring above the clinical cut-off for behaviour problems using the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory (ECBI). Families recruited to the trial will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio into an intervention or waiting-list control group. Randomisation will occur within health visitor to ensure that each health visitor has one intervention family and one control family. The primary outcome is change in child behaviour problems as measured by the parent-reported ECBI. Secondary outcomes include other measures of child behaviour, parent behaviour, and parental depression as measured by parent-reports and an independent observation of parent and child behaviour. Follow-up measures will be collected 6-months after the collection of baseline measures. This is the first rigorous evaluation of the EPaS 2014 programme. The trial will provide important information on the effectiveness of a one-to-one home-based intervention, delivered by health visitors, for pre-school children with behaviour problems. It will also examine potential mediating (improved parent behaviour and/or improved parental depression) and moderating (single parent, teenage parent, poverty, low education level) factors. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN06867279 (18 June 2014).

  6. Comparison of two theory-based, fully automated telephone interventions designed to maintain dietary change in healthy adults: study protocol of a three-arm randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Julie A; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Migneault, Jeffrey P; Heeren, Timothy; Friedman, Robert H

    2014-11-10

    Health behavior change interventions have focused on obtaining short-term intervention effects; few studies have evaluated mid-term and long-term outcomes, and even fewer have evaluated interventions that are designed to maintain and enhance initial intervention effects. Moreover, behavior theory has not been developed for maintenance or applied to maintenance intervention design to the degree that it has for behavior change initiation. The objective of this paper is to describe a study that compared two theory-based interventions (social cognitive theory [SCT] vs goal systems theory [GST]) designed to maintain previously achieved improvements in fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption. The interventions used tailored, interactive conversations delivered by a fully automated telephony system (Telephone-Linked Care [TLC]) over a 6-month period. TLC maintenance intervention based on SCT used a skills-based approach to build self-efficacy. It assessed confidence in and barriers to eating F&V, provided feedback on how to overcome barriers, plan ahead, and set goals. The TLC maintenance intervention based on GST used a cognitive-based approach. Conversations trained participants in goal management to help them integrate their newly acquired dietary behavior into their hierarchical system of goals. Content included goal facilitation, conflict, shielding, and redundancy, and reflection on personal goals and priorities. To evaluate and compare the two approaches, a sample of adults whose F&V consumption was below public health goal levels were recruited from a large urban area to participate in a fully automated telephony intervention (TLC-EAT) for 3-6 months. Participants who increase their daily intake of F&V by ≥1 serving/day will be eligible for the three-arm randomized controlled trial. A sample of 405 participants will be randomized to one of three arms: (1) an assessment-only control, (2) TLC-SCT, and (3) TLC-GST. The maintenance interventions are 6 months. All 405

  7. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Eguskiñe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro, central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity, nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X, physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170, carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax, and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin. Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical

  8. Increasing young adults' condom use intentions and behaviour through changing chlamydia risk and coping appraisals: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Katie V; French, David P; Brown, Katherine E; Lecky, Donna M

    2013-05-30

    Chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection (STI) in England and has serious public health consequences. Young people carry a disproportionate burden of infection. A number of social cognition models identify risk appraisal as a primary motivator of behaviour suggesting that changing risk appraisals for STIs may be an effective strategy in motivating protective behaviour. Meta-analytic evidence indicates that the relationship between risk appraisal and health behaviour is small, but studies examining this relationship have been criticised for their many conceptual and methodological weaknesses. The effect of risk appraisal on health behaviour may therefore be of larger size. The proposed study aims to examine the efficacy of an intervention to increase condom use intentions and behaviour amongst young people through changing chlamydia risk and coping appraisals. Coping appraisal is targeted to avoid the intervention being counterproductive amongst recipients who do not feel able to perform the behaviour required to reduce the threat. An experimental design with follow-up, a conditional measure of risk appraisal, and analysis which controls for past behaviour, enable the relationship between risk appraisal and protective behaviour to be accurately assessed. The proposed study is a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial using a waiting-list control design to test the efficacy of the intervention compared to a control group. Participants will be school pupils aged 13-16 years old recruited from approximately ten secondary schools. Schools will be randomised into each arm. Participants will receive their usual teaching on STIs but those in the intervention condition will additionally receive a single-session sex education lesson on chlamydia. Measures will be taken at baseline, post-intervention and at follow-up three months later. The primary outcome measure is intention to use condoms with casual sexual partners. As far as the authors

  9. A systematic review of school-based eHealth interventions targeting alcohol use, smoking, physical inactivity, diet, sedentary behaviour and sleep among adolescents: a review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Katrina E; Newton, Nicola C; Spring, Bonnie; Wafford, Q Eileen; Parmenter, Belinda J; Teesson, Maree

    2017-12-06

    Six key behavioural risk factors (risky alcohol use, smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy sleep patterns) have been identified as strong determinants of chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancers. School-based interventions targeting these multiple health risk behaviours among adolescents have the potential to halt the trajectory towards later disease, whilst online and mobile technology interventions offer advantages in terms of student engagement, reach and scalability. Despite this, the efficacy of eHealth school-based interventions targeting these six health risk behaviours among adolescents has not been evaluated. The proposed systematic review aims to address this by determining the nature and efficacy of existing eHealth school-based interventions targeting multiple health risk behaviours among adolescents. A systematic search of the MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library databases will be conducted to identify eligible published papers. Eligible studies will be randomised controlled trials, including cluster randomised controlled trials, of interventions targeting two or more of the following lifestyle risk behaviours: alcohol use, smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and sleep. Eligible studies will be those evaluating interventions delivered in a secondary school setting among participants 11-18 years of age, via an eHealth platform (Internet, computers of mobile technology). Two reviewers will independently screen studies for eligibility, extract data and assess the risk of bias. Study outcomes will be summarised in a narrative synthesis, and meta-analyses will be conducted where it is appropriate to combine studies. It is anticipated that the results from this review will serve to inform the development of future eHealth multiple health behaviour interventions for adolescents by identifying common characteristics of effective programs and highlighting

  10. Reducing patient delay in Acute Coronary Syndrome (RAPiD): research protocol for a web-based randomized controlled trial examining the effect of a behaviour change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Barbara; Johnston, Marie; Smith, Karen; Williams, Brian; Treweek, Shaun; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Dougall, Nadine; Abhyankar, Purva; Grindle, Mark

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a behaviour change technique-based intervention and compare two possible modes of delivery (text + visual and text-only) with usual care. Patient delay prevents many people from achieving optimal benefit of time-dependent treatments for acute coronary syndrome. Reducing delay would reduce mortality and morbidity, but interventions to change behaviour have had mixed results. Systematic inclusion of behaviour change techniques or a visual mode of delivery might improve the efficacy of interventions. A three-arm web-based, parallel randomized controlled trial of a theory-based intervention. The intervention comprises 12 behaviour change techniques systematically identified following systematic review and a consensus exercise undertaken with behaviour change experts. We aim to recruit n = 177 participants who have experienced acute coronary syndrome in the previous 6 months from a National Health Service Hospital. Consenting participants will be randomly allocated in equal numbers to one of three study groups: i) usual care, ii) usual care plus text-only behaviour change technique-based intervention or iii) usual care plus text + visual behaviour change technique-based intervention. The primary outcome will be the change in intention to phone an ambulance immediately with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome ≥15-minute duration, assessed using two randomized series of eight scenarios representing varied symptoms before and after delivery of the interventions or control condition (usual care). Funding granted January 2014. Positive results changing intentions would lead to a randomized controlled trial of the behaviour change intervention in clinical practice, assessing patient delay in the event of actual symptoms. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02820103. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Agreement between parent and child report on parental practices regarding dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours: the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebholz, C.E.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Stralen, M.M.; Bere, E.; Bringolf, B.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Jan, N.; Kovacs, E.; Maes, L.; Manios, Y.; Moreno, L.; Singh, A.S.; Brug, J.; te Velde, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents and their parenting practices play an important role in shaping their children's environment and energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). Measurement of parenting practices can be parent- or child-informed, however not much is known about agreement between parent and child

  12. Agreement between parent and child report of physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours in 9-12-year-old children and associations with children's weight status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Maaike; de Jong, Astrid; de Jong, Elske; Visscher, Tommy L.S.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Renders, Carry M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: To date, population based surveys aimed at gaining insight in health related behaviour of children have often used either child self-reports or parent proxy reports. It remains unclear however, if surveys using different sources of information from either parents or children are

  13. Developing a systems-based framework of the factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviours in ethnic minority populations living in Europe - a DEDIPAC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holdsworth, Michelle; Nicolaou, Mary; Langøien, Lars Jørun; Osei-Kwasi, Hibbah Araba; Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Stok, F. Marijn; Capranica, Laura; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Monsivais, Pablo; Mazzocchi, Mario; Maes, Lea; Roos, Gun; Mejean, Caroline; Powell, Katie; Stronks, Karien

    2017-01-01

    Some ethnic minority populations have a higher risk of non-communicable diseases than the majority European population. Diet and physical activity behaviours contribute to this risk, shaped by a system of inter-related factors. This study mapped a systems-based framework of the factors influencing

  14. The PED-t trial protocol: The effect of physical exercise -and dietary therapy compared with cognitive behavior therapy in treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Therese Fostervold; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Pettersen, Gunn; Friborg, Oddgeir; Vrabel, KariAnne; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Svendsen, Mette; Stensrud, Trine; Bakland, Maria; Wynn, Rolf; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2017-05-12

    Sufferers from bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) underestimate the severity risk of their illness and, therefore, postpone seeking professional help for years. Moreover, less than one in five actually seek professional help and only 50% respond to current treatments, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The impetus for the present trial is to explore a novel combination treatment approach adapted from physical exercise- and dietary therapy (PED-t). The therapeutic underpinnings of these separate treatment components are well-known, but their combination to treat BN and BED have never been previously tested. The purpose of this paper is to provide the rationale for this new treatment approach and to outline the specific methods and procedures. The PED-t trial uses a prospective randomized controlled design. It allocates women between 18 and 40 years (BMI range 17.5-35.0) to groups consisting of 5-8 members who receive either CBT or PED-t for 16 weeks. Excess participants are allocated to a waiting list control group condition. All participants are assessed at baseline, post-treatment, 6, 12 and 24 months' post-follow-up, respectively, and monitored for changes in biological, psychological and therapy process variables. The primary outcome relates to the ED symptom severity, while secondary outcomes relates to treatment effects on physical health, treatment satisfaction, therapeutic alliance, and cost-effectiveness. We aim to disseminate the results in high-impact journals, preferable open access, and at international conferences. We expect that the new treatment will perform equal to CBT in terms of behavioral and psychological symptoms, but better in terms of reducing somatic symptoms and complications. We also expect that the new treatment will improve physical fitness and thereby, quality of life. Hence, the new treatment will add to the portfolio of evidence-based therapies and thereby provide a good treatment alternative for females

  15. Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magarey Anthea M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1. Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2 following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability and (b Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency. Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134 occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p 0.05 for 10/12 (test-retest reliability and 3/7 (validity scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in

  16. A mobile technology intervention to reduce sedentary behaviour in 2- to 4-year-old children (Mini Movers): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine L; Salmon, Jo; Hinkley, Trina; Hnatiuk, Jill A; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2017-03-03

    Sedentary behaviour (e.g. television viewing, sitting time) tracks over time and is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes across the lifespan. Young children (5 years or younger) spend up to 12 h/day sedentary, of which around 2 h is spent in screen time (e.g. watching television). Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in early childhood report mixed results and many have limited potential for scalability. Mobile phones offer a wide-reaching, low-cost avenue for the delivery of health behaviour programmes to parents but their potential to reduce young children's sedentary behaviour has not been widely tested. This study aims to test the feasibility and efficacy of a parent-focused, predominantly mobile telephone-delivered intervention to support parents to minimise the amount of time their child spends using screens and in overall sitting time. Mini Movers is a pilot randomised controlled trial recruiting 100 parents and children. Inclusion criteria include having a child aged between 2 and 4 years, being able to speak, read and write English, and smartphone ownership. Participants will be randomised to the intervention or a wait-list control group at a 1:1 ratio. Intervention group parents will receive printed materials including a content booklet and goal-checking magnet and will participate in a one-on-one discussion with the interventionist to plan two goals to reduce their child's sedentary behaviour. Subsequently, the intervention will be delivered over 6 weeks via personalised and interactive text messages promoting positive health behaviours (strategies for decreasing screen time and overall sitting time), goal setting and self-monitoring. Outcomes to be assessed include intervention feasibility and children's screen time and objectively-assessed sitting time. Few studies have used mobile phone technology to deliver health behaviour programmes to parents of young children. Findings will inform the development of larger

  17. A behaviour change intervention to reduce sedentary time in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sonia Wing Mei; Alison, Jennifer; Dennis, Sarah; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Spencer, Lissa; McNamara, Renae; Sims, Susan; McKeough, Zoe

    2017-07-01

    Replacing sedentary behaviour with light intensity physical activity (ie, activities classified as less than three metabolic equivalents, such as slow-paced walking) may be a more realistic strategy for reducing cardiometabolic risk in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than only aiming to increase levels of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity. Behaviour change interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not yet been developed or tested. Is a 6-week behaviour change intervention effective and feasible in reducing sedentary time in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? This study will be a multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding, and intention-to-treat analysis, comparing a 6-week behaviour change intervention aimed at reducing sedentary time with a sham intervention in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Seventy participants will be recruited from the waiting lists for pulmonary rehabilitation programs at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The behaviour change intervention aims to reduce sedentary time through a process of guided goal setting with participants to achieve two target behaviours: (1) replace sitting and lying down with light-intensity physical activity where possible, and (2) stand up and move for 2minutes after 30minutes of continuous sedentary time. Three face-to-face sessions and three phone sessions will be held with a physiotherapist over the 6-week intervention period. The 'capability', 'opportunity', 'motivation' and 'behaviour' (COM-B) model will be applied to each participant to determine which components of behaviour (capability, opportunity or motivation) need to change in order to reduce sedentary time. Based on this 'behavioural diagnosis', the Behaviour Change Wheel will be used to systematically select appropriate behaviour change

  18. Systematic review of interventions to increase the provision of care for chronic disease risk behaviours in mental health settings: review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehily, Caitlin; Bartlem, Kate; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke; Regan, Timothy; Dray, Julia; Bailey, Jacqueline; Bowman, Jenny

    2018-04-30

    People with a mental illness experience a higher morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases relative to the general population. A higher prevalence of risk behaviours, including tobacco smoking, poor nutrition, harmful alcohol consumption and physical inactivity, is a substantial contributor to this health inequity. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that mental health services routinely provide care to their clients to address these risk behaviours. Such care may include the following elements: ask, assess, advise, assist and arrange (the '5As'), which has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing risk behaviours. Despite this potential, the provision of such care is reported to be low internationally and in Australia, and there is a need to identify effective strategies to increase care provision. The proposed review will examine the effectiveness of interventions which aimed to increase care provision (i.e. increase the proportion of clients receiving or clinicians providing the 5As) for the chronic disease risk behaviours of clients within the context of mental health service delivery. Eligible studies will be any quantitative study designs with a comparison group and which report on the effectiveness of an intervention strategy (including delivery arrangements, financial arrangements, governance arrangements and implementation strategies) to increase care provision specifically for chronic disease risk behaviours (tobacco smoking, poor nutrition, harmful alcohol consumption and physical inactivity). Screening for studies will be conducted across seven electronic databases: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Two authors will independently screen studies for eligibility and extract data from included studies. Where studies are sufficiently homogenous

  19. A randomised controlled trial of a lifestyle behavioural intervention for patients with low back pain, who are overweight or obese: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda; Wiggers, John; O'Brien, Kate M; Wolfenden, Luke; Yoong, Serene; Campbell, Elizabeth; Robson, Emma; McAuley, James; Haskins, Robin; Kamper, Steven J; Williams, Christopher M

    2016-02-11

    Low back pain is a highly prevalent condition with a significant global burden. Management of lifestyle factors such as overweight and obesity may improve low back pain patient outcomes. Currently there are no randomised controlled trials that have been conducted to assess the effectiveness of lifestyle behavioural interventions in managing low back pain. The aim of this trial is to determine if a telephone-based lifestyle behavioural intervention is effective in reducing pain intensity in overweight or obese patients with low back pain, compared to usual care. A randomised controlled trial will be conducted with patients waiting for an outpatient consultation with an orthopaedic surgeon at a public tertiary referral hospital within New South Wales, Australia for chronic low back pain. Patients will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive a lifestyle behavioural intervention (intervention group) or continue with usual care (control group). After baseline data collection, patients in the intervention group will receive a clinical consultation followed by a 6-month telephone-based lifestyle behavioural intervention (10 individually tailored sessions over a 6-month period) and patients in the control group will continue with usual care. Participants will be followed for 26 weeks and asked to undertake three self-reported questionnaires at baseline (pre-randomisation), week 6 and 26 post randomisation to collect primary and secondary outcome data. The study requires a sample of 80 participants per group to detect a 1.5 point difference in pain intensity (primary outcome) 26 weeks post randomisation. The primary outcome, pain intensity, will be measured using a 0-10 numerical rating scale. The study will provide robust evidence regarding the effectiveness of a lifestyle behavioural intervention in reducing pain intensity in overweight or obese patients with low back pain and inform management of these patients. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry

  20. A randomised controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural intervention for women who have menopausal symptoms following breast cancer treatment (MENOS 1: Trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellier Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a group cognitive behavioural intervention to alleviate menopausal symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats in women who have had breast cancer treatment. Hot flushes and night sweats are highly prevalent but challenging to treat in this population. Cognitive behaviour therapy has been found to reduce these symptoms in well women and results of an exploratory trial suggest that it might be effective for breast cancer patients. Two hypotheses are tested: Compared to usual care, group cognitive behavioural therapy will: 1. Significantly reduce the problem rating and frequency of hot flushes and nights sweats after six weeks of treatment and at six months post-randomisation. 2. Improve mood and quality of life after six weeks of treatment and at six months post-randomisation. Methods/Design Ninety-six women who have completed their main treatment for breast cancer and who have been experiencing problematic hot flushes and night sweats for over two months are recruited into the trial from oncology and breast clinics in South East London. They are randomised to either six weekly group cognitive behavioural therapy (Group CBT sessions or to usual care. Group CBT includes information and discussion about hot flushes and night sweats in the context of breast cancer, monitoring and modifying precipitants, relaxation and paced respiration, stress management, cognitive therapy for unhelpful thoughts and beliefs, managing sleep and night sweats and maintaining changes. Prior to randomisation women attend a clinical interview, undergo 24-hour sternal skin conductance monitoring, and complete questionnaire measures of hot flushes and night sweats, mood, quality of life, hot flush beliefs and behaviours, optimism and somatic amplification. Post-treatment measures (sternal skin conductance and questionnaires are collected six to eight weeks later and follow-up measures (questionnaires and a use

  1. A behaviour change intervention to reduce sedentary time in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Wing Mei Cheng

    2017-07-01

    Discussion/significance: If behaviour change interventions are found to be an effective and feasible method for reducing sedentary time, such interventions may be used to reduce cardiometabolic risk in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. An approach that emphasises participation in light-intensity physical activity may increase the confidence and willingness of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to engage in more intense physical activity, and may serve as an intermediate goal to increase uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation.

  2. Psychosocial interventions for disruptive behavioural problems in children living in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Matthew D; Hosein, Megan; Purgato, Marianna; Adi, Ahmad; Morton, Isabella; Kohrt, Brandon A; Tol, Wietse A

    2015-05-20

    Disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) are among the most common forms of child psychopathology and have serious long-term academic, social, and mental health consequences worldwide. Psychosocial treatments are the first line of evidence-based treatments for DBDs, yet their effectiveness often varies according to patient sociodemographic characteristics, practice setting, and implementation procedures. While a large majority of the world's children live in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), most studies have evaluated psychosocial treatments for DBDs in high-income Anglo countries. The primary objective of this systematic review is to assess the effects of psychosocial treatments for DBDs in children and adolescents (under age 18) diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, or other disruptive behavioural problems living in LMIC. The secondary objectives are to: (1) describe the range and types of psychosocial treatments used to address DBDs in LMIC and (2) identify key dissemination and implementation factors (adaptation processes, training/supervision processes, and financial costs). All controlled trials comparing psychosocial treatments versus waiting list, no treatment, or treatment as usual in children living in LMIC will be included. Studies will be identified using the methods outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines without restrictions on language, publication type, status, or date of publication. The primary outcome measures will be disruptive behavioural problems (eg, oppositionality, defiance, aggression or deceit). Secondary outcomes will be positive mental health outcomes (eg, prosocial behaviour), function impairment, institutionalisation (or hospitalisation), academic outcomes and caregiver outcomes. This study uses data from published studies; therefore ethical review is not required. Findings will be presented in a published manuscript. PROSPERO CRD42014015334

  3. Efficacy of a cognitive and behavioural psychotherapy applied by primary care psychologists in patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder: a research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Amale; Ponte, Joaquín; Salgueiro, Monika; Unanue, Saloa; Donaire, Carmen; Gómez, Maria Cruz; Burgos-Alonso, Natalia; Grandes, Gonzalo

    2015-03-20

    In contrast with the recommendations of clinical practice guidelines, the most common treatment for anxiety and depressive disorders in primary care is pharmacological. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural psychological intervention, delivered by primary care psychologists in patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder compared to usual care. This is an open-label, multicentre, randomized, and controlled study with two parallel groups. A random sample of 246 patients will be recruited with mild-to-moderate mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, from the target population on the lists of 41 primary care doctors. Patients will be randomly assigned to the intervention group, who will receive standardised cognitive-behavioural therapy delivered by psychologists together with usual care, or to a control group, who will receive usual care alone. The cognitive-behavioural therapy intervention is composed of eight individual 60-minute face-to face sessions conducted in eight consecutive weeks. A follow-up session will be conducted over the telephone, for reinforcement or referral as appropriate, 6 months after the intervention, as required. The primary outcome variable will be the change in scores on the Short Form-36 General Health Survey. We will also measure the change in the frequency and intensity of anxiety symptoms (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory) at baseline, and 3, 6 and 12 months later. Additionally, we will collect information on the use of drugs and health care services. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a primary care-based cognitive-behavioural psychological intervention in patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. The international scientific evidence has demonstrated the need for psychologists in primary care. However, given the differences between health policies and health services, it is important to test the effect of these psychological interventions

  4. A pilot effectiveness study of the Enhancing Parenting Skills (EPaS) 2014 programme for parents of children with behaviour problems: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Margiad Elen; Hutchings, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Background The Enhancing Parenting Skills (EPaS) 2014 programme is a home-based, health visitor-delivered parenting support programme for parents of children with identified behaviour problems. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the EPaS 2014 programme compared to a waiting-list treatment as usual control group. Methods/Design This is a pragmatic, multicentre randomised controlled trial. Sixty health visitors will each be asked to identify two families that have a child scoring ...

  5. The effectiveness of the Inspiring Futures parenting programme in improving behavioural and emotional outcomes in primary school children with behavioural or emotional difficulties: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Axford

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to build the evidence base of early interventions promoting children’s health and development in the UK. Malachi Specialist Family Support Services (‘Malachi’ is a voluntary sector organisation based in the UK that delivers a therapeutic parenting group programme called Inspiring Futures to parents of children identified as having behavioural and emotional difficulties. The programme comprises two parts, delivered sequentially: (1 a group-based programme for all parents for 10–12 weeks, and (2 one-to-one sessions with selected parents from the group-based element for up to 12 weeks. Methods/design A randomised controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate Malachi’s Inspiring Futures parenting programme. Participants will be allocated to one of two possible arms, with follow-up measures at 16 weeks (post-parent group programme and at 32 weeks (post-one-to-one sessions with selected parents. The sample size is 248 participants with a randomisation allocation ratio of 1:1. The intervention arm will be offered the Inspiring Futures programme. The control group will receive services as usual. The aim is to determine the effectiveness of the Inspiring Futures programme on the primary outcome of behavioural and emotional difficulties of primary school children identified as having behavioural or emotional difficulties. Discussion This study will further enhance the evidence for early intervention parenting programmes for child behavioural and emotional problems in the UK. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN32083735. Retrospectively registered 28 October 2014.

  6. A randomised controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural intervention for men who have hot flushes following prostate cancer treatment (MANCAN: trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf Omar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This randomised controlled trial (RCT aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a guided self-help cognitive behavioural intervention to alleviate problematic hot flushes (HF and night sweats (NS in men who are undergoing prostate cancer treatment. The trial and the self-help materials have been adapted from a previous RCT, which showed that a cognitive behavioural intervention reduced the self-reported problem-rating of hot flushes in women with menopausal symptoms, and in women undergoing breast cancer treatment. We hypothesize that guided self-help will be more effective than usual care in reducing HF/NS problem-rating at post treatment assessment. Methods/Design Seventy men who are undergoing treatment for prostate cancer and who have been experiencing more than ten HF/NS weekly for over a month are recruited into the trial from urology clinics in London. They are randomly allocated to either a four-week self-help cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT treatment or to their usual care (control group. The treatment includes information and discussion about hot flushes and night sweats in the context of prostate cancer, monitoring and modifying precipitants, relaxation and paced respiration, stress management, cognitive therapy for unhelpful thoughts and beliefs, managing sleep and night sweats, and advice on maintaining these changes. Prior to randomisation, men attend a clinical interview, undergo 24-48-hour sternal skin conductance monitoring, and complete pre-treatment questionnaires (e.g., problem-rating and frequency of hot flushes and night sweats; quality of life; mood; hot flush beliefs and behaviours. Post-treatment measures (sternal skin conductance and the above questionnaires are collected four-six weeks later, and again at a six-month follow-up. Discussion MANCAN is the first randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for HF/NS for men that measures both self-reported and physiologically indexed

  7. The study protocol of a blinded randomised-controlled cross-over trial of lavender oil as a treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Increasingly more attention is being paid to alternative interventions that are associated with fewer risks than pharmacology. Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) has been thought, for centuries, to have soothing properties, but the existing evidence is limited and shows mixed results. The aim of the current study is to test the effectiveness of topically applied pure lavender oil in reducing actual counts of challenging behaviours in nursing home residents. Methods/Design We will use a blinded repeated measures design with random cross-over between lavender oil and placebo oil. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to lavender or placebo blocks for one week then switched to the other condition for the following week. In each week the oils will be applied on three days with at least a two-day wash out period between conditions. Trained observers will note presence of target behaviours and predominant type of affect displayed during the 30 minutes before and the 60 minutes after application of the oil. Nursing staff will apply 1 ml of 30% high strength essential lavender oil to reduce the risk of missing a true effect through under-dosing. The placebo will comprise of jojoba oil only. The oils will be identical in appearance and texture, but can easily be identified by smell. For blinding purposes, all staff involved in applying the oil or observing the resident will apply a masking cream containing a mixture of lavender and other essential oils to their upper lip. In addition, nursing staff will wear a nose clip during the few minutes it takes to massage the oil to the resident's forearms. Discussion If our results show

  8. The study protocol of a blinded randomised-controlled cross-over trial of lavender oil as a treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Daniel W

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Increasingly more attention is being paid to alternative interventions that are associated with fewer risks than pharmacology. Lavandula angustifolia (lavender has been thought, for centuries, to have soothing properties, but the existing evidence is limited and shows mixed results. The aim of the current study is to test the effectiveness of topically applied pure lavender oil in reducing actual counts of challenging behaviours in nursing home residents. Methods/Design We will use a blinded repeated measures design with random cross-over between lavender oil and placebo oil. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to lavender or placebo blocks for one week then switched to the other condition for the following week. In each week the oils will be applied on three days with at least a two-day wash out period between conditions. Trained observers will note presence of target behaviours and predominant type of affect displayed during the 30 minutes before and the 60 minutes after application of the oil. Nursing staff will apply 1 ml of 30% high strength essential lavender oil to reduce the risk of missing a true effect through under-dosing. The placebo will comprise of jojoba oil only. The oils will be identical in appearance and texture, but can easily be identified by smell. For blinding purposes, all staff involved in applying the oil or observing the resident will apply a masking cream containing a mixture of lavender and other essential oils to their upper lip. In addition, nursing staff will wear a nose clip during the few minutes it takes to massage the oil to the resident's forearms

  9. A behavioural change package to prevent hand dermatitis in nurses working in the national health service (the SCIN trial): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Ira; Parsons, Vaughan; Cookson, Barry; English, John; Lavender, Tina; McCrone, Paul; Murphy, Caroline; Ntani, Georgia; Rushton, Lesley; Smedley, Julia; Williams, Hywel; Wright, Alison; Coggon, David

    2016-03-17

    Hand dermatitis can be a serious health problem in healthcare workers. While a range of skin care strategies and policy directives have been developed in recent years to minimise the risk, their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness remain unclear. Evidence now suggests that psychological theory can facilitate behaviour change with respect to improved hand care practices. Therefore, we will test the hypothesis that a behavioural change intervention to improve hand care, based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and implementation intentions, coupled with provision of hand moisturisers, can produce a clinically useful reduction in the occurrence of hand dermatitis, when compared to standard care, among nurses working in the UK National Health Service (NHS) who are particularly at risk. Secondary aims will be to assess impacts on participants' beliefs and behaviour regarding hand care. In addition, we will assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in comparison with normal care. We will conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial at 35 NHS hospital trusts/health boards/universities, focussing on student nurses with a previous history of atopic disease or hand eczema and on nurses in intensive care units. Nurses at 'intervention-light' sites will be managed according to what would currently be regarded as best practice, with provision of an advice leaflet about optimal hand care to prevent hand dermatitis and encouragement to contact their occupational health (OH) department early if hand dermatitis occurs. Nurses at 'intervention-plus' sites will additionally receive a behavioural change programme (BCP) with on-going active reinforcement of its messages, and enhanced provision of moisturising cream. The impact of the interventions will be compared using information collected by questionnaires and through standardised photographs of the hands and wrists, collected at baseline and after 12 months follow-up. In addition, we will assemble relevant economic data

  10. A simple and effective protocol for fast isolation of human Tenon's fibroblasts from a single trabeculectomy biopsy - a comparison of cell behaviour in different culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekora, Agata; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2017-01-01

    Human Tenon's fibroblasts (HTFs) play a crucial role in wound healing. They cause postoperative scarring of the filtering bleb and are thus responsible for trabeculectomy failure. This study aimed to find an effective and fast protocol for HTF isolation from trabeculectomy biopsies. The protocol was compared with the commonly recommended HTF isolation procedure, which uses Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). We used Eagle's minimum essential medium (EMEM) enriched with fibroblast growth factor (FGF), which selectively promoted the proliferation of HTF cells. A secondary goal was to compare HTF morphology, metabolism and growth during parallel cultivation of the isolated cells in FGF-enriched EMEM and DMEM. Standard procedures for HTF isolation from tissue biopsies require a 20- to 30-day culture of the explants to obtain the first monolayer. Our protocol yielded the first monolayer after approx. 15 days. More importantly, the majority of the cells were fibroblasts with only individual epithelium-derived cells present. Using FGF-enriched EMEM allowed 1.3 × 10 6 vimentin-positive fibroblasts to be obtained from a single biopsy within approx. 25 days. Using DMEM resulted in isolation failure and required exchange to FGF-enriched medium to recover the fibroblast culture. HTFs maintained in FGF-enriched EMEM also showed faster proliferation and a different type I collagen production ability compared to HTFs cultured in DMEM. Thus, FGF-enriched EMEM is recommended for fast propagation of HTFs unless the aim of the study is to assess the effect of a tested agent on proliferation ability or type I collagen production. Our fast protocol for HTF isolation allows easy setup of cell banks by researchers under laboratory conditions and could be very useful during testing of novel ophthalmologic anti-fibrotic agents in vitro. Molecular analysis of HTFs isolated from patients with known treatment histories may provide valuable information on the effects of some

  11. Protocol for the ‘Virtual Traveller’ cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. ‘Virtual Traveller’ is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whiteboards to integrate movement into primary-school Maths and English teaching. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of the Virtual Traveller intervention on children's PA, on-task behaviour and student engagement. Methods and analysis This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a waiting-list control group. Ten year 4 (aged 8–9 years) classes across 10 primary schools will be randomised by class to either the 6-week Virtual Traveller intervention or the waiting-list control group. Data will be collected 5 times: at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention, and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. At baseline, anthropometric measures, 4-day objective PA monitoring (including 2 weekend days; Actigraph accelerometer), PA and on-task behaviour observations and student engagement questionnaires will be performed. All but anthropometric measures will be repeated at all other data collection points. Changes in overall PA levels and levels during different time-periods (eg, lesson-time) will be examined. Changes in on-task behaviour and student engagement between intervention groups will also be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Process evaluation will be carried out during the intervention period. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University

  12. Effectiveness of behavioural change techniques in physiotherapy interventions to promote physical activity adherence in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Matthew; Duda, Joan; Gautrey, Charlotte; Fenton, Sally; Greig, Carolyn; Rushton, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative articular disease, the highest cause of individual level disability and a significant socioeconomic burden to healthcare services. Patient education and physical activity (PA) prescription are recommended components of interventions in several healthcare guidelines and are commonly provided by physiotherapists. However, these interventions lack long-term clinical effectiveness. Patient adherence to PA prescription requires patients to modify their PA behaviour and appears critical in maintaining symptomatic improvements. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural change techniques (BCTs) used in physiotherapy interventions to improve PA adherence. Methods and analysis Medline, Cochrane and PEDro registers of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo databases, and key grey literature sources will be rigorously searched for randomised controlled trials that compared a physiotherapy intervention incorporating BCTs with other therapies, placebo interventions, usual care or no-treatment. Two independent researchers will conduct literature searches, assess trial eligibility, extract data, conduct risk of bias assessment (using Cochrane risk of bias tool), classify BCTs and evaluate the quality of the body of literature following Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Narrative synthesis of key outcomes will be presented and meta-analysis will be performed if included trials are clinically homogenous, based on their intervention and comparator groups and outcome measures. This review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval is not required. This review will help inform clinicians and researchers on the most effective behavioural change techniques used in physiotherapy interventions to enhance adherence to PA

  13. Understanding the importance of therapeutic relationships in the development of self-management behaviours during cancer rehabilitation: a qualitative research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Wendy M; Rance, Jaynie; Fitzsimmons, Deborah

    2017-01-17

    Cancer is a growing health, social and economic problem. 1 in 3 people in the UK will develop cancer in their lifetime. With survival rates rising to over 50%, the long-term needs of cancer survivors are of growing importance. Cancer rehabilitation is tailored to address the physical or psychosocial decline in ability to engage in daily activities. Its use is supported by high-quality international, multicentre research. Incorporating strategies for self-management behaviour development into rehabilitation can prepare individuals for cancer survivorship. However, healthcare professionals will need to adjust their therapeutic interactions accordingly. Research is yet to clarify the impact of the therapeutic relationship on rehabilitation outcomes in cancer. This study aims to explore the impact of therapeutic relationships on self-management behaviours after cancer. This qualitative study aims to understand cancer rehabilitation participants' beliefs regarding the importance of therapeutic relationships in developing self-management behaviours. A sample representative of a local cancer rehabilitation cohort will be asked to complete a semistructured interview to identify their perspectives on the importance of therapeutic relationships in cancer rehabilitation. Data obtained from the interviews will be analysed, coded and entered into a Delphi questionnaire for circulation to a local cancer rehabilitation population to determine if the views expressed by the interviewees are supported by group consensus. This study was approved by Wales Research Ethics Committee 6 (15/WA/0331) in April 2016. Findings will be disseminated through the first author's doctoral thesis; peer-reviewed journals; local, national and international conference presentations; and public events involving research participants and the general public. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Effectiveness of behavioural change techniques in physiotherapy interventions to promote physical activity adherence in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Matthew; Duda, Joan; Gautrey, Charlotte; Fenton, Sally; Greig, Carolyn; Rushton, Alison

    2017-06-30

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative articular disease, the highest cause of individual level disability and a significant socioeconomic burden to healthcare services. Patient education and physical activity (PA) prescription are recommended components of interventions in several healthcare guidelines and are commonly provided by physiotherapists. However, these interventions lack long-term clinical effectiveness. Patient adherence to PA prescription requires patients to modify their PA behaviour and appears critical in maintaining symptomatic improvements. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural change techniques (BCTs) used in physiotherapy interventions to improve PA adherence. Medline, Cochrane and PEDro registers of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo databases, and key grey literature sources will be rigorously searched for randomised controlled trials that compared a physiotherapy intervention incorporating BCTs with other therapies, placebo interventions, usual care or no-treatment. Two independent researchers will conduct literature searches, assess trial eligibility, extract data, conduct risk of bias assessment (using Cochrane risk of bias tool), classify BCTs and evaluate the quality of the body of literature following Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Narrative synthesis of key outcomes will be presented and meta-analysis will be performed if included trials are clinically homogenous, based on their intervention and comparator groups and outcome measures. This review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Research ethics approval is not required. This review will help inform clinicians and researchers on the most effective behavioural change techniques used in physiotherapy interventions to enhance adherence to PA prescription for patients with lower limb OA. The findings will

  15. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  16. A three-component cognitive behavioural lifestyle program for preconceptional weight-loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskoot, G; Benneheij, S H; Beerthuizen, A; de Niet, J E; de Klerk, C; Timman, R; Busschbach, J J; Laven, J S E

    2017-03-06

    Obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) negatively affects all clinical features, and a 5 to 10% weight loss has shown promising results on reproductive, metabolic and psychological level. Incorporating a healthy diet, increasing physical activity and changing dysfunctional thought patterns in women with PCOS are key points in losing weight. The biggest challenge in weight management programs is to achieve a reasonable and sustainable weight loss. The aim of this study is to explore whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) by a mental health professional, working in a multidisciplinary team with a dietician and a physical therapist (a three-component intervention), is more effective for weight loss in the long term, within 12 months. We will also explore whether mobile phone applications are effective in supporting behavioural change and sustainable weight loss. The present study is a longitudinal randomized controlled trial (RCT) to study the effectiveness of a three-component 1-year cognitive-behavioural lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese women with PCOS. A total of 210 participants are randomly assigned to three groups: 1) CBT provided by the multidisciplinary team or; 2) CBT provided by the multidisciplinary team and Short Message Service (SMS) or; 3) usual care: encourage weight loss through publicly available services (control group). The primary aim of the 12-month intervention is to explore whether a three-component 1-year cognitive-behavioural lifestyle intervention is effective to decrease weight, when compared to usual care. Secondary outcomes include: the effect of the intervention on the PCOS phenotype, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, ovulation rates, total testosterone, SHBG, free androgen index (FAI), AMH, hirsutism, acne, fasting glucose, blood pressure and all psychological parameters. Additionally, we assessed time to pregnancy, ongoing pregnancies, clinical pregnancies, miscarriages and birth weight. All

  17. Effects of behavioural exercise therapy on the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation for chronic non-specific low back pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jana; Peters, Stefan; Geidl, Wolfgang; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus

    2013-03-11

    In Germany, a multidisciplinary rehabilitation named "behavioural medical rehabilitation" (BMR) is available for treatment of chronic low back pain (clbp). A central component of BMR is standard exercise therapy (SET), which is directed mainly to improve physical fitness. There is a need to address psychosocial factors within SET and therefore to improve behavior change with a focus on the development of self-management skills in dealing with clbp. Furthermore, short-term effectiveness of BMR with a SET has been proven, but the impact of a behavioural exercise therapy (BET) for improvement of the long-term effectiveness of BMR is unclear. To compare the effectiveness of two exercise programs with different approaches within BMR on the effects of BMR a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) in two rehabilitation centres will be performed. 214 patients aged 18-65 with clbp will be, based on an "urn randomisation"-algorithm, randomly assigned to a BMR with SET (function-oriented, n=107) and BMR with BET (behaviour-oriented, n=107). Both exercise programs have a mean duration of 26 hours in three weeks and are delivered by a limited number of not-blinded study therapists in closed groups with six to twelve patients who will be masked regarding study group. The main differences of BET lie in its detailed manualised program with a theory-based, goal-orientated combination of exercise, education and behavioural elements, active participation of patients and consideration of their individual preferences and previous experiences with exercise. The primary outcome is functional ability assessed with the Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire directly before and after the rehabilitation program, as well as a six and twelve-month follow-up. This RCT is designed to explore the effects of BET on the effectiveness of a BMR compared to a BMR with SET in the management of patients with clbp. Methodological challenges arise from conducting a RCT within routine health care

  18. Cognitive behavioural therapy versus multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (FatiGo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos-Vromans, Desirée C W M; Smeets, Rob J E M; Rijnders, Leonie J M; Gorrissen, René R M; Pont, Menno; Köke, Albère J A; Hitters, Minou W M G C; Evers, Silvia M A A; Knottnerus, André J

    2012-05-30

    Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome experience extreme fatigue, which often leads to substantial limitations of occupational, educational, social and personal activities. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the treatment. Patients try many different therapies to overcome their fatigue. Although there is no consensus, cognitive behavioural therapy is seen as one of the most effective treatments. Little is known about multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment, a combination of cognitive behavioural therapy with principles of mindfulness, gradual increase of activities, body awareness therapy and pacing. The difference in effectiveness and cost-effectiveness between multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment and cognitive behavioural therapy is as yet unknown. The FatiGo (Fatigue-Go) trial aims to compare the effects of both treatment approaches in outpatient rehabilitation on fatigue severity and quality of life in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. One hundred twenty patients who meet the criteria of chronic fatigue syndrome, fulfil the inclusion criteria and sign the informed consent form will be recruited. Both treatments take 6 months to complete. The outcome will be assessed at 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment. Two weeks after the start of treatment, expectancy and credibility will be measured, and patients will be asked to write down their personal goals and score their current performance on these goals on a visual analogue scale. At 6 and 14 weeks after the start of treatment, the primary outcome and three potential mediators-self-efficacy, causal attributions and present-centred attention-awareness-will be measured. Primary outcomes are fatigue severity and quality of life. Secondary outcomes are physical activity, psychological symptoms, self-efficacy, causal attributions, impact of disease on emotional and physical functioning, present-centred attention-awareness, life satisfaction, patient personal goals, self-rated improvement

  19. Cognitive behavioural therapy versus multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (FatiGo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos-Vromans Desirée CWM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome experience extreme fatigue, which often leads to substantial limitations of occupational, educational, social and personal activities. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the treatment. Patients try many different therapies to overcome their fatigue. Although there is no consensus, cognitive behavioural therapy is seen as one of the most effective treatments. Little is known about multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment, a combination of cognitive behavioural therapy with principles of mindfulness, gradual increase of activities, body awareness therapy and pacing. The difference in effectiveness and cost-effectiveness between multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment and cognitive behavioural therapy is as yet unknown. The FatiGo (Fatigue-Go trial aims to compare the effects of both treatment approaches in outpatient rehabilitation on fatigue severity and quality of life in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Methods One hundred twenty patients who meet the criteria of chronic fatigue syndrome, fulfil the inclusion criteria and sign the informed consent form will be recruited. Both treatments take 6 months to complete. The outcome will be assessed at 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment. Two weeks after the start of treatment, expectancy and credibility will be measured, and patients will be asked to write down their personal goals and score their current performance on these goals on a visual analogue scale. At 6 and 14 weeks after the start of treatment, the primary outcome and three potential mediators—self-efficacy, causal attributions and present-centred attention-awareness—will be measured. Primary outcomes are fatigue severity and quality of life. Secondary outcomes are physical activity, psychological symptoms, self-efficacy, causal attributions, impact of disease on emotional and physical functioning, present-centred attention-awareness, life

  20. Stand Out in Class: restructuring the classroom environment to reduce sedentary behaviour in 9-10-year-olds - study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemes, Stacy A; Bingham, Daniel D; Pearson, Natalie; Chen, Yu-Ling; Edwardson, Charlotte; McEachan, Rosemary; Tolfrey, Keith; Cale, Lorraine; Richardson, Gerry; Fray, Mike; Bandelow, Stephan; Jaicim, Nishal Bhupendra; Salmon, Jo; Dunstan, David; Barber, Sally E

    2018-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour (sitting) is a highly prevalent negative health behaviour, with individuals of all ages exposed to environments that promote prolonged sitting. Excessive sedentary behaviour adversely affects health in children and adults. As sedentary behaviour tracks from childhood into adulthood, the reduction of sedentary time in young people is key for the prevention of chronic diseases that result from excessive sitting in later life. The sedentary school classroom represents an ideal setting for environmental change, through the provision of sit-stand desks. Whilst the use of sit-stand desks in classrooms demonstrates positive effects in some key outcomes, evidence is currently limited by small samples and/or short intervention durations, with few studies adopting randomised controlled trial (RCT) designs. This paper describes the protocol of a pilot cluster RCT of a sit-stand desk intervention in primary school classrooms. A two-arm pilot cluster RCT will be conducted in eight primary schools (four intervention, four control) with at least 120 year 5 children (aged 9-10 years). Sit-stand desks will replace six standard desks in the intervention classrooms. Teachers will be encouraged to ensure all pupils are exposed to the sit-stand desks for at least 1 h/day on average using a rotation system. Schools assigned to the control arm will continue with their usual practice, no environmental changes will be made to their classrooms. Measurements will be taken at baseline, before randomisation, and at the end of the schools' academic year. In this study, the primary outcomes of interest will be school and participant recruitment and attrition, acceptability of the intervention, and acceptability and compliance to the proposed outcome measures (including activPAL-measured school-time and school-day sitting, accelerometer-measured physical activity, adiposity, blood pressure, cognitive function, academic progress, engagement, and behaviour) for inclusion in a

  1. Foundations of Session Types and Behavioural Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Lanese, Ivan; T. Vasconcelos, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural type systems, usually associated to concurrent or distributed computations, encompass concepts such as interfaces, communication protocols, and contracts, in addition to the traditional input/output operations. The behavioural type of a software component specifies its expected patter...

  2. Protocol for the 'Virtual Traveller' cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2016-06-27

    Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. 'Virtual Traveller' is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whiteboards to integrate movement into primary-school Maths and English teaching. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of the Virtual Traveller intervention on children's PA, on-task behaviour and student engagement. This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a waiting-list control group. Ten year 4 (aged 8-9 years) classes across 10 primary schools will be randomised by class to either the 6-week Virtual Traveller intervention or the waiting-list control group. Data will be collected 5 times: at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention, and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. At baseline, anthropometric measures, 4-day objective PA monitoring (including 2 weekend days; Actigraph accelerometer), PA and on-task behaviour observations and student engagement questionnaires will be performed. All but anthropometric measures will be repeated at all other data collection points. Changes in overall PA levels and levels during different time-periods (eg, lesson-time) will be examined. Changes in on-task behaviour and student engagement between intervention groups will also be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Process evaluation will be carried out during the intervention period. The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (reference number: 3500

  3. A web delivered intervention for depression combining Behavioural Activation with physical activity promotion: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey David Lambert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity (PA yields moderate effect sizes for treating depression (Cooney et al., 2013. PA may also help reduce depressive relapse, providing additional psychological benefits such as positive self-regard and a sense of competence (Babyak et al., 2000. Behavioural Activation (BA is an evidence-based psychological therapy for depression, which aims to get people more engaged with activities that provide positive reinforcement for non-depressed behaviours (Hopko, Lejuez, LePage, Hopko, & McNeil, 2003. The structured nature of BA is consistent with the use of good behaviour change techniques (specific goal-setting, self-regulation offering a potential platform for promoting PA alongside depression treatment. BA may also be useful for gradually increasing PA in people who are more sedentary than the general population. Aims: This pilot randomised controlled trial aims to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and fidelity of a web-delivered intervention combining BA and PA (eBAcPAc to enhance mental and physical health, and assess the trial methods. Method: A community sample of 120 people exhibiting symptoms of depression and who are participating in less than 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week will be randomized to receive eBAcPAc or be put on a wait list control group. eBAcPAc is informed by previous work (Farrand et al., 2014; Pentecost et al., 2015 and further developed using the Centre for eHealth Research and Disease management Roadmap (CeHReS (van Gemert-Pijnen et al., 2011 in order to be applied in an web-based setting. A platform hosted by the University of Glasgow which has been used to deliver a wide range of successful web-delivered interventions for mental health, will be used to deliver eBAcPAc. Feasibility measures will include data on recruitment, attrition and acceptability. Pre-post outcome measures will include the PHQ-9, and self-reported and accelerometer measured PA. Process and

  4. Improving behaviour in self-testing (IBIS): Study on frequency of use, consequences, information needs and use, and quality of currently available consumer information (protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grispen, Janaica E J; Ickenroth, Martine H P; de Vries, Nanne K; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Ronda, Gaby; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2010-08-03

    Self-tests are available to consumers for more than 25 conditions, ranging from infectious diseases to cardiovascular risk factors. Self-tests are defined as in-vitro tests on body materials such as blood, urine, faeces, or saliva that are initiated by consumers to diagnose a particular disorder or risk factor without involving a medical professional. In 2006, 16% of a sample of Dutch Internet users had ever used at least one self-test and 17% intended to use a self-test in the future. The objectives of this study are to determine (1) the frequency of self-test use, (2) the consumers' reasons for using or not using a self-test, (3) the information that is used by self-testers in the different self-test stages and the consumers' interpretation of the quality of this information, (4) the consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour, (5) the information consumers report to need in the decision making process of using or not using a self-test, and in further management on the basis of the self-test result, and (6) the quality of the currently available consumer information on a selected set of self-tests. Mixed methods study with (1) a cross-sectional study consisting of a two-phase Internet-questionnaire, (2) semi-structured interviews with self-testers and consumers who intend to use a self-test, and (3) the assessment of the quality of consumer information of self-tests. The Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour will serve as the theoretical basis for the questionnaires and the interview topic guides. The self-testing area is still in a state of flux and therefore it is expected that self-test use will increase in the future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which combines quantitative and qualitative research to identify consumers' information needs and use concerning self-testing, and the consumers' actual follow-up behaviour based

  5. Improving behaviour in self-testing (IBIS: Study on frequency of use, consequences, information needs and use, and quality of currently available consumer information (protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests are available to consumers for more than 25 conditions, ranging from infectious diseases to cardiovascular risk factors. Self-tests are defined as in-vitro tests on body materials such as blood, urine, faeces, or saliva that are initiated by consumers to diagnose a particular disorder or risk factor without involving a medical professional. In 2006, 16% of a sample of Dutch Internet users had ever used at least one self-test and 17% intended to use a self-test in the future. The objectives of this study are to determine (1 the frequency of self-test use, (2 the consumers' reasons for using or not using a self-test, (3 the information that is used by self-testers in the different self-test stages and the consumers' interpretation of the quality of this information, (4 the consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour, (5 the information consumers report to need in the decision making process of using or not using a self-test, and in further management on the basis of the self-test result, and (6 the quality of the currently available consumer information on a selected set of self-tests. Methods Mixed methods study with (1 a cross-sectional study consisting of a two-phase Internet-questionnaire, (2 semi-structured interviews with self-testers and consumers who intend to use a self-test, and (3 the assessment of the quality of consumer information of self-tests. The Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour will serve as the theoretical basis for the questionnaires and the interview topic guides. Conclusions The self-testing area is still in a state of flux and therefore it is expected that self-test use will increase in the future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which combines quantitative and qualitative research to identify consumers' information needs and use concerning self

  6. The BBaRTS Healthy Teeth Behaviour Change Programme for preventing dental caries in primary school children: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Cynthia; Adair, Pauline; Robinson, Louise; Burnside, Girvan; Moynihan, Paula; Wade, William; Kistler, James; Curnow, Morag; Henderson, Mary

    2016-02-20

    Oral health behaviours such as establishing twice-daily toothbrushing and sugar control intake need parental self-efficacy (PSE) to prevent the development of childhood dental caries. A previous study has shown that behaviour change techniques (BCTs) delivered via a storybook can improve parental self-efficacy to undertake twice-daily toothbrushing. to determine whether an intervention (BBaRTS, Bedtime Brush and Read Together to Sleep), designed to increase PSE; delivered through storybooks with embedded BCTs, parenting skills and oral health messages, can improve child oral health compared to (1) an exactly similar intervention containing no behaviour change techniques, and (2) the BBaRTS intervention supplemented with home supply of fluoride toothpaste and supervised toothbrushing on schooldays. A 2-year, three-arm, multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial. children (estimated 2000-2600) aged 5-7 years and their families from 60 UK primary schools. Test group 1: a series of eight children's storybooks developed by a psychologist, public health dentist, science educator, children's author and illustrators, with guidance from the Department for Education (England). The books feature animal characters and contain embedded dental health messages, parenting skills and BCTs to promote good oral health routines focused on controlling sugar intake and toothbrushing, as well as reading at bedtime. Books are given out over 2 years. Test group 2: as Test group 1 plus home supplies of fluoride toothpaste (1000 ppmF), and daily supervised toothbrushing in school on schooldays. Active Control group: series of eight books with exactly the same stories, characters and illustrations, but without BCTs, dental health messages or parenting skills. Annual child dental examinations and parental questionnaires will be undertaken. A sub-set of participants will be invited to join an embedded study of the child's diet and salivary microbiota composition. dental caries experience

  7. Study protocol for a transversal study to develop a screening model for excessive gambling behaviours on a representative sample of users of French authorised gambling websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Bastien; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Costes, Jean-Michel; Caillon, Julie; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle

    2017-05-17

    Since the legalisation of online gambling in France in 2010, gambling operators must implement responsible gambling measures to prevent excessive gambling practices. However, actually there is no screening procedure for identifying problematic gamblers. Although several studies have already been performed using several data sets from online gambling operators, the authors deplored several methodological and clinical limits that prevent scientifically validating the existence of problematic gambling behaviour. The aim of this study is to develop a model for screening excessive gambling practices based on the gambling behaviours observed on French gambling websites, coupled with a clinical validation. The research is divided into three successive stages. All analyses will be performed for each major type of authorised online gambling in France. The first stage aims at defining a typology of users of French authorised gambling websites based on their gambling behaviour. This analysis will be based on data from the Authority for Regulating Online Gambling (ARJEL) and the Française Des Jeux (FDJ). For the second stage aiming at determining a score to predict whether a gambler is problematic or not, we will cross answers from the Canadian Problem Gambling Index with real gambling data. The objective of the third stage is to clinically validate the score previously developed. Results from the screening model will be compared (using sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve, and positive and negative predictive values) with the diagnosis obtained with a telephone clinical interview, including diagnostic criteria for gambling addiction. This study was approved by the local Research Ethics Committee (GNEDS) on 25 March 2015. Results will be presented in national and international conferences, submitted to peer-reviewed journals and will be part of a PhD thesis. A final report with the study results will be presented to the ARJEL, especially the final screening model

  8. Evaluating a multicomponent social behaviour change communication strategy to reduce intimate partner violence among married couples: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Jo Clark

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant public health issue that affects 1 in 3 women globally and a similarly large number of women in Nepal. Over the past decade, important policy and programmatic steps have been taken to address violence against women in Nepal. There remains a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of primary violence prevention strategies. The Change Starts at Home study begins to fill this gap by utilizing a multi-component social behaviour change communication (SBCC strategy involving a radio drama and community mobilization to shift attitudes, norms and behaviours that underpin IPV perpetration in Nepal. Methods/Design The study uses a concurrent mixed-methods design. The quantitative aspect of the evaluation is a pair-matched, repeated cross-sectional 2-armed, single-blinded cluster trial (RCT: N = 36 clusters, 1440 individuals, comparing a social behaviour change communication (SBCC strategy to radio programming alone for its impact on physical and / or sexual IPV at the end of programming (12 months’ post-baseline and 6-months post the cessation of project activities (18-months post baseline. The qualitative aspects of the design include several longitudinal approaches to understand the impact of the intervention and to examine mechanisms of change including in-depth interviews with participants (N = 18 couples, and focus group discussions with community leaders (N = 3 groups, and family members of participants (N = 12 groups. Treatment effects will be estimated with generalized logistic mixed models specified to compare differences in primary outcome from baseline to 12-month follow-up, and baseline to 18-months follow-up in accordance with intention-to-treat principles. Discussion The study rigorously evaluates the effectiveness of a promising strategy to prevent IPV. The results of the trial will be immediately useful for governmental, nongovernmental, and donor funded

  9. Research Protocol: Development, implementation and evaluation of a cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention programme for the management of anxiety symptoms in South African children with visual impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Visagie

    2015-07-01

    Objectives: The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a specifically tailored anxiety intervention programme for use with South African children with visual impairments. Method: A specifically tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy-based anxiety intervention, for 9–13 year old South African children with visual impairments, will be evaluated in two special schools. The study will employ a randomised wait-list control group design with pre- postand follow-up intervention measures, with two groups each receiving a 10 session anxiety intervention programme. The main outcome measure relates to the participants’ symptoms of anxiety as indicated on the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Conclusion: If the anxiety intervention programme is found to be effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety, this universal intervention will lay down the foundation upon which future contextually sensitive (South African anxiety intervention programmes can be built.

  10. Evaluation of a group based cognitive behavioural therapy programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities: protocol for a mixed methods controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Menstrual pain which is severe enough to impact on daily activities is very common amongst menstruating females. Research suggests that menstrual pain which impacts on daily functioning may be even more prevalent amongst those with intellectual disabilities. Despite this, little research attention has focused on pain management programmes for those with intellectual disabilities. The aims of this pilot study were to develop and evaluate a theory-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities. Methods/Design The study utilised a mixed methods controlled clinical trial to evaluate elements from a CBT programme called Feeling Better (McGuire & McManus, 2010). The Feeling Better programme is a modular, manualised intervention designed for people with an intellectual disability and their carers. The programme was delivered to 36 young women aged 12 – 30 years who have a Mild - Moderate Intellectual Disability, split between two conditions. The treatment group received the Feeling Better intervention and the control group received treatment as usual. To evaluate the effectiveness of the programme, measures were taken of key pain variables including impact, knowledge, self-efficacy and coping. Process evaluation was conducted to examine which elements of the programme were most successful in promoting change. Discussion Participants in the intervention group were expected to report the use of a greater number of coping strategies and have greater knowledge of pain management strategies following participation in the intervention and at three month follow-up, when compared to control group participants. A significant advantage of the study was the use of mixed methods and inclusion of process evaluation to determine which elements of a cognitive behavioural therapy programme work best for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials

  11. Acute Whiplash Injury Study (AWIS): a protocol for a cluster randomised pilot and feasibility trial of an Active Behavioural Physiotherapy Intervention in an insurance private setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, M Sayeed; Price, Jonathan; Rushton, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) causes substantial social and economic burden internationally. Up to 60% of patients with WAD progress to chronicity. Research therefore needs to focus on effective management in the acute stage to prevent the development of chronicity. Approximately 93% of patients are classified as WADII (neck complaint and musculoskeletal sign(s)), and in the UK, most are managed in the private sector. In our recent systematic review, a combination of active and behavioural physiotherapy was identified as potentially effective in the acute stage. An Active Behavioural Physiotherapy Intervention (ABPI) was developed through combining empirical (modified Delphi study) and theoretical (social cognitive theory focusing on self-efficacy) evidence. This pilot and feasibility trial has been designed to inform the design of an adequately powered definitive randomised controlled trial. Methods and analysis Two parallel phases. (1) An external pilot and feasibility cluster randomised double-blind (assessor and participants), parallel two-arm (ABPI vs standard physiotherapy) clinical trial to evaluate procedures and feasibility. Six UK private physiotherapy clinics will be recruited and cluster randomised by a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Sixty participants (30 each arm) will be assessed at recruitment (baseline) and at 3 months postbaseline. The planned primary outcome measure is the neck disability index. (2) An embedded exploratory qualitative study using semistructured indepth interviews (n=3–4 physiotherapists) and a focus group (n=6–8 patients) and entailing the recruitment of purposive samples will explore perceptions of the ABPI. Quantitative data will be analysed descriptively. Qualitative data will be coded and analysed deductively (identify themes) and inductively (identify additional themes). Ethics and dissemination This trial is approved by the University of Birmingham Ethics Committee (ERN_15-0542). Trial

  12. Value-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for the prevention of chronic whiplash associated disorders: protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Ravn, Sophie Lykkegaard; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2015-09-01

    Whiplash injury is the most common traffic-related injury affecting thousands of people every year. Conservative treatments have not proven effective in preventing persistent symptoms and disability after whiplash injury. Early established maladaptive pain behaviours within the first weeks after the injury may explain part of the transition from acute to chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD). Hence, early targeting of psychological risk factors such as pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance-beliefs, depression, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be important in preventing the development of chronic WAD. Some evidence exists that targeting fear-avoidance beliefs and PTSD with exposure strategies and value-based actions may prevent development of persistent disability after whiplash injury. Yet, the results have to be tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The primary objective of the present study is to test whether a specifically tailored value-based cognitive-behavioural therapy program (V-CBT) is able to prevent the development of persistent disability, pain, and psychological distress if delivered within the first three months after a whiplash injury. The current study is a two-armed randomized controlled study with a crossover design. Group A is scheduled for V-CBT within one week of randomization and group B with a delayed onset 3 months after randomization. If the study detects significant effects of V-CBT as a preventive intervention, the study will provide new insights of preventive treatment for patients with WAD and thereby serve as an important step towards preventing the chronic condition. Current Controlled Trials Registration September 19, 2014: NCT02251028.

  13. Exploiting social influence to magnify population-level behaviour change in maternal and child health: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of network targeting algorithms in rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Holly B; Stafford, Derek; Hughes, D Alex; Keegan, Thomas; Negron, Rennie; Broome, Jai; McKnight, Mark; Nicoll, Liza; Nelson, Jennifer; Iriarte, Emma; Ordonez, Maria; Airoldi, Edo; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2017-03-13

    Despite global progress on many measures of child health, rates of neonatal mortality remain high in the developing world. Evidence suggests that substantial improvements can be achieved with simple, low-cost interventions within family and community settings, particularly those designed to change knowledge and behaviour at the community level. Using social network analysis to identify structurally influential community members and then targeting them for intervention shows promise for the implementation of sustainable community-wide behaviour change. We will use a detailed understanding of social network structure and function to identify novel ways of targeting influential individuals to foster cascades of behavioural change at a population level. Our work will involve experimental and observational analyses. We will map face-to-face social networks of 30 000 people in 176 villages in Western Honduras, and then conduct a randomised controlled trial of a friendship-based network-targeting algorithm with a set of well-established care interventions. We will also test whether the proportion of the population targeted affects the degree to which the intervention spreads throughout the network. We will test scalable methods of network targeting that would not, in the future, require the actual mapping of social networks but would still offer the prospect of rapidly identifying influential targets for public health interventions. The Yale IRB and the Honduran Ministry of Health approved all data collection procedures (Protocol number 1506016012) and all participants will provide informed consent before enrolment. We will publish our findings in peer-reviewed journals as well as engage non-governmental organisations and other actors through venues for exchanging practical methods for behavioural health interventions, such as global health conferences. We will also develop a 'toolkit' for practitioners to use in network-based intervention efforts, including public

  14. Clinical, behavioural and pharmacogenomic factors influencing the response to levothyroxine therapy in patients with primary hypothyroidism-protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Rosie; Okosieme, Onyebuchi; Dayan, Colin; Eligar, Vinay; Khan, Ishrat; Razvi, Salman; Pearce, Simon; Wilkes, Scott

    2017-03-21

    Suboptimal thyroid hormone therapy including under-replacement and over-replacement is common amongst patients with hypothyroidism. This is a significant health concern as affected patients are at risk of adverse cardiovascular or metabolic consequences. Despite a growing body of evidence on the effects of various factors on thyroid hormone replacement, a systematic appraisal of the evidence is lacking. This review aims to appraise and quantify the extent to which clinical, behavioural and pharmacogenomic factors affect levothyroxine therapy in patients with primary hypothyroidism. The databases Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PubMed will be searched. Patients must be adults over the age of 18 years, suffering from primary hypothyroidism including overt and subclinical hypothyroidism and receiving levothyroxine treatment. Studies in children, pregnant women and patients with secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism will not be included. We will also exclude studies focused on forms of thyroid hormone replacement therapy other than levothyroxine. The primary outcome is to quantify the effect of clinical, behavioural and pharmacogenomic factors on thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Secondary outcomes are the effect these factors have on thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, mortality, morbidity, quality of life, treatment complications, adverse effects, physical and social functioning. Studies will be screened through reading the title, abstract and then full text. Two reviewers will independently extract the data and select articles, and a third reviewer will be consulted if there is any disagreement. We will undertake a meta-analysis of studies in which there is a defined intervention or exposure, patients are receiving levothyroxine for hypothyroidism, there is an appropriate control group of levothyroxine treated patients that are not exposed to the intervention, and the primary outcome is determined by serum TSH levels. Studies will

  15. Health information needs, source preferences and engagement behaviours of women with metastatic breast cancer across the care continuum: protocol for a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Carol A; Martin, M Pilar; Jones, Ray B

    2017-02-17

    The health information needs, information source preferences and engagement behaviours of women with metastatic breast cancer (mBC) depend on personal characteristics such as education level, prior knowledge, clinical complications, comorbidities and where they are in the cancer journey. A thorough understanding of the information behaviours of women living with mBC is essential to the provision of optimal care. A preliminary literature review suggests that there is little research on this topic, but that there may be lessons from a slightly broader literature. This review will identify what is known and what is not known about the health information needs, acquisition and influences of women with mBC across the care continuum. Findings will help to identify research needs and specific areas where in-depth systematic reviews may be feasible, as well as inform evidence-based interventions to address the health information needs of female patients with mBC with different demographics and characteristics and across the mBC journey. A scoping review will be performed using the guidelines of Arksey and O'Malley as updated by subsequent authors to systematically search scientific and grey literature for articles in English that discuss the health information needs, source preferences, engagement styles, and associated personal and medical attributes of women ≥18 years living with mBC at different stages of the disease course. A variety of databases (including Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsycINFO, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and PQDT Open), oncology, patient advocacy and governmental websites will be searched from inception to present day. Research and non-research literature will be included; no study designs will be excluded. The six-stage Arksey and O'Malley scoping review methodological framework involves

  16. Effect of aerobic exercise training and cognitive behavioural therapy on reduction of chronic fatigue in patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: protocol of the FACTS-2-FSHD trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Engelen Baziel GM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD muscle function is impaired and declines over time. Currently there is no effective treatment available to slow down this decline. We have previously reported that loss of muscle strength contributes to chronic fatigue through a decreased level of physical activity, while fatigue and physical inactivity both determine loss of societal participation. To decrease chronic fatigue, two distinctly different therapeutic approaches can be proposed: aerobic exercise training (AET to improve physical capacity and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT to stimulate an active life-style yet avoiding excessive physical strain. The primary aim of the FACTS-2-FSHD (acronym for Fitness And Cognitive behavioural TherapieS/for Fatigue and ACTivitieS in FSHD trial is to study the effect of AET and CBT on the reduction of chronic fatigue as assessed with the Checklist Individual Strength subscale fatigue (CIS-fatigue in patients with FSHD. Additionally, possible working mechanisms and the effects on various secondary outcome measures at all levels of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF are evaluated. Methods/Design A multi-centre, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial is conducted. A sample of 75 FSHD patients with severe chronic fatigue (CIS-fatigue ≥ 35 will be recruited and randomized to one of three groups: (1 AET + usual care, (2 CBT + usual care or (3 usual care alone, which consists of no therapy at all or occasional (conventional physical therapy. After an intervention period of 16 weeks and a follow-up of 3 months, the third (control group will as yet be randomized to either AET or CBT (approximately 7 months after inclusion. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, immediately post intervention and at 3 and 6 months follow up. Discussion The FACTS-2-FSHD study is the first theory-based randomized clinical trial which evaluates the effect and the

  17. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal Kapil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. Study Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high risk" adolescents (aged 12-16. The unit of allocation is year groups (n = 28 which are assigned to one of three conditions: an active intervention based upon cognitive behaviour therapy, attention control or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at screening, baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will assess changes in negative thoughts, self esteem, anxiety, school connectedness, peer attachment, alcohol and substance misuse, bullying and self harm. Discussion As of August 2010, all 28 year groups (n = 5023 had been recruited and the assigned interventions delivered. Final 12 month assessments are scheduled to be completed by March 2011. Trial Registration ISRCTN19083628

  18. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  19. Tratamiento cognitivo-conductual protocolizado en grupo de las enfermedades inflamatorias intestinales Protocolized cognitive-behavioural group therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Díaz Sibaja

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los pacientes con enfermedades inflamatorias intestinales presentan una mayor tasa de alteraciones psicopatológicas que la población normal, predominantemente ansiedad y depresión. Objetivo: el principal objetivo de este estudio fue diseñar, poner en práctica y validar un programa de tratamiento psicológico protocolizado, basado en el modelo de competencias y con una metodología psicoeducativa, en el que se incluyeron los siguientes módulos de intervención: información de la enfermedad, modelo de afrontamiento, solución de problemas, técnicas de relajación, entrenamiento en habilidades sociales, técnicas de distracción y técnicas de reestructuración cognitiva. Todas estás técnicas fueron adaptadas a la problemática característica de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. Método: la muestra estuvo constituida por 57 pacientes diagnosticados de enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal de la Asociación de Enfermos de Crohn y Colitis Ulcerosa de España. La muestra se distribuyó aleatoriamente en dos grupos experimentales, 33 formaron parte del programa de tratamiento en grupo y 24 fueron asignados al grupo control en lista de espera. Las variables emocionales medidas fueron: ansiedad y depresión. Resultados: los resultados reflejaron una mejoría clínica y estadísticamente significativa en las variables de ansiedad (p Introduction: patients affected by inflammatory bowel disease have a high rate of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Objective: the main goal of this study was to design, to put into practice, and to validate a protocolized psychological treatment program based on the coping model, and a psycho-educational methodology in which the following intervention modules were included- illness information, coping model, problem solving techniques, relaxation, social skill training, distraction, and cognitive restructuring techniques. All these techniques were adapted to the characteristic

  20. Impact of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes: a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Chaimani, Anna; Hoffmann, Georg; Schwedhelm, Carolina; Boeing, Heiner

    2017-01-01

    Background Dietary advice is one of the cornerstones in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Diabetes Association recommended a hypocaloric diet for overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes in order to induce weight loss. However, there is limited evidence on the optimal approaches to control hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients. The aim of the present study is to assess the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and blood lipi...

  1. Tailored preconceptional dietary and lifestyle counselling in a tertiary outpatient clinic in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammiche, F.; Laven, J.S.E.; Mil, van N.; Cock, M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Lindemans, J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adverse reproductive performance has been linked to unhealthy dietary intake and lifestyles. Our objectives were to investigate the prevalence of unhealthy dietary intake and lifestyles before conception and to evaluate whether tailored preconception counselling modifies these behaviours.

  2. Qualitative, multimethod study of behavioural and attitudinal responses to cochlear implantation from the patient and healthcare professional perspective in Australia and the UK: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Frances; Bierbaum, Mia; McMahon, Catherine; Boisvert, Isabelle; Lau, Annie; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Hughes, Sarah

    2018-05-29

    The growing prevalence of adults with 'severe or greater' hearing loss globally is of great concern, with hearing loss leading to diminished communication, and impacting on an individual's quality of life (QoL). Cochlear implants (CI) are a recommended device for people with severe or greater, sensorineural hearing loss, who obtain limited benefits from conventional hearing aids (HA), and through improved speech perception, CIs can improve the QoL of recipients. Despite this, utilisation of CIs is low. This qualitative, multiphase and multimethod dual-site study (Australia and the UK) explores patients' and healthcare professionals' behaviours and attitudes to cochlear implantation. Participants include general practitioners, audiologists and older adults with severe or greater hearing loss, who are HA users, CI users and CI candidates. Using purposive time frame sampling, participants will be recruited to take part in focus groups or individual interviews, and will each complete a demographic questionnaire and a qualitative proforma. The study aims to conduct 147 data capture events across a sample of 49 participants, or until data saturation occurs. Schema and thematic analysis with extensive group work will be used to analyse data alongside reporting of demographic and participant characteristics. Ethics approval for this study was granted by Macquarie University (HREC: 5201700539), and the study will abide by Australian National Health and Medical Research Council ethical guidelines. Study findings will be published through peer-reviewed journal articles, and disseminated through public and academic conference presentations, participant information sheets and a funders' final report. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. A novel cognitive behaviour therapy for bipolar disorders (Think Effectively About Mood Swings or TEAMS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Warren; Tai, Sara; Clark, Alexandra; Akgonul, Savas; Dunn, Graham; Davies, Linda; Law, Heather; Morriss, Richard; Tinning, Neil; Morrison, Anthony P

    2014-10-24

    Existing psychological therapies for bipolar disorders have been found to have mixed results, with a consensus that they provide a significant, but modest, effect on clinical outcomes. Typically, these approaches have focused on promoting strategies to prevent future relapse. An alternative treatment approach, termed 'Think Effectively About Mood Swings' (TEAMS) addresses current symptoms, including subclinical hypomania, depression and anxiety, and promotes long-term recovery. Following the publication of a theoretical model, a range of research studies testing the model and a case series have demonstrated positive results. The current study reports the protocol of a feasibility randomized controlled trial to inform a future multi-centre trial. A target number of 84 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I or II disorder, or bipolar disorder not-otherwise-specified are screened, allocated to a baseline assessment and randomized to either 16 sessions of TEAMS therapy plus treatment-as-usual (TAU) or TAU. Patients complete self-report inventories of depression, anxiety, recovery status and bipolar cognitions targeted by TEAMS. Assessments of diagnosis, bipolar symptoms, medication, access to services and quality of life are conducted by assessors blind to treatment condition at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months post-randomization. The main aim is to evaluate recruitment and retention of participants into both arms of the study, as well as adherence to therapy, to determine feasibility and acceptability. It is predicted that TEAMS plus TAU will reduce self-reported depression in comparison to TAU alone at six months post-randomization. The secondary hypotheses are that TEAMS will reduce the severity of hypomanic symptoms and anxiety, reduce bipolar cognitions, improve social functioning and promote recovery compared to TAU alone at post-treatment and follow-up. The study also incorporates semi-structured interviews about the experiences of previous treatment and the experience of

  4. Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) versus control CBM and iCBT for depression: study protocol for a parallel-group randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alishia D; Blackwell, Simon E; Holmes, Emily A; Andrews, Gavin

    2013-10-29

    The current randomised controlled trial will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-delivered positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) intervention for depression when compared with an active control condition and help establish the additive benefit of positive imagery CBM when delivered in combination with internet cognitive behavioural therapy for depression. Patients meeting diagnostic criteria for a current major depressive episode will be recruited through the research arm of a not-for-profit clinical and research unit in Australia. The minimum sample size for each group (α set at 0.05, power at 0.80) was identified as 29, but at least 10% more will be recruited to hedge against expected attrition. We will measure the impact of CBM on primary measures of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9)) and interpretive bias (ambiguous scenarios test-depression), and on a secondary measure of psychological distress (Kessler-10 (K10)) following the 1-week CBM intervention. Secondary outcome measures of psychological distress (K10), as well as disability (WHO disability assessment schedule-II), repetitive negative thinking (repetitive thinking questionnaire), and anxiety (state trait anxiety inventory-trait version) will be evaluated following completion of the 11-week combined intervention, in addition to the BDI-II and PHQ9. Intent-to-treat marginal and mixed effect models using restricted maximum likelihood estimation will be used to evaluate the primary hypotheses. Clinically significant change will be defined as high-end state functioning (a BDI-II score reduction greater than the reliable change index score. Maintenance of gains will be assessed at 3-month follow-up. The current trial protocol has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of St Vincent's Hospital and the University of New South Wales, Sydney. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000139774

  5. Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, G A; Cook, L; Spruijt-Metz, D; Black, D S

    2014-06-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviours have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviours, such as binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO and Ovid Healthstar. Papers were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (i) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention; (ii) include at least one obesity-related eating behaviour as an outcome; (iii) include quantitative outcomes; and (iv) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N = 21 papers were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programmes, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behaviour outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviours. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of MBIs for changing obesity-related eating behaviours, specifically binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  6. Effects of aerobic exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy on functioning and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: protocol of the FACTS-2-ALS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Weerd Margreet GH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex, leading to muscle weakness. Muscle weakness may result in the avoidance of physical activity, which exacerbates disuse weakness and cardiovascular deconditioning. The impact of the grave prognosis may result in depressive symptoms and hopelessness. Since there is no cure for ALS, optimal treatment is based on symptom management and preservation of quality of life (QoL, provided in a multidisciplinary setting. Two distinctly different therapeutic interventions may be effective to improve or preserve daily functioning and QoL at the highest achievable level: aerobic exercise therapy (AET to maintain or enhance functional capacity and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT to improve coping style and cognitions in patients with ALS. However, evidence to support either approach is still insufficient, and the underlying mechanisms of the approaches remain poorly understood. The primary aim of the FACTS-2-ALS trial is to study the effects of AET and CBT, in addition to usual care, compared to usual care alone, on functioning and QoL in patients with ALS. Methods / Design A multicentre, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with a postponed information model will be conducted. A sample of 120 patients with ALS (1 month post diagnosis will be recruited from 3 university hospitals and 1 rehabilitation centre. Patients will be randomized to one of three groups i.e. (1 AET + usual care, (2 CBT + usual care, (3 Usual care. AET consists of a 16-week aerobic exercise programme, on 3 days a week. CBT consists of individual psychological support of patients in 5 to 10 sessions over a 16-week period. QoL, functioning and secondary outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, immediately post intervention and at 3- and 6-months follow-up. Discussion The FACTS-2-ALS study is the first

  7. Protocol for a feasibility study of a self-help cognitive behavioural therapy resource for the reduction of dental anxiety in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Zoe; Morgan, Annie; Porritt, Jenny; Gupta, Ekta; Baker, Sarah; Creswell, Cathy; Newton, Tim; Stevens, Katherine; Williams, Christopher; Prasad, Suneeta; Kirby, Jennifer; Rodd, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Childhood dental anxiety is very common, with 10-20 % of children and young people reporting high levels of dental anxiety. It is distressing and has a negative impact on the quality of life of young people and their parents as well as being associated with poor oral health. Affected individuals may develop a lifelong reliance on general anaesthetic or sedation for necessary dental treatment thus requiring the support of specialist dental services. Children and young people with dental anxiety therefore require additional clinical time and can be costly to treat in the long term. The reduction of dental anxiety through the use of effective psychological techniques is, therefore, of high importance. However, there is a lack of high-quality research investigating the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) approaches when applied to young people's dental anxiety. The first part of the study will develop a profile of dentally anxious young people using a prospective questionnaire sent to a consecutive sample of 100 young people referred to the Paediatric Dentistry Department, Charles Clifford Dental Hospital, in Sheffield. The second part will involve interviewing a purposive sample of 15-20 dental team members on their perceptions of a CBT self-help resource for dental anxiety, their opinions on whether they might use such a resource with patients, and their willingness to recruit participants to a future randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the resource. The third part of the study will investigate the most appropriate outcome measures to include in a trial, the acceptability of the resource, and retention and completion rates of treatment with a sample of 60 dentally anxious young people using the CBT resource. This study will provide information on the profile of dentally anxious young people who could potentially be helped by a guided self-help CBT resource. It will gain the perceptions of dental care team members of guided self-help CBT for

  8. Effects of cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia on the mental health of university students: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel; Sheaves, Bryony; Goodwin, Guy M; Yu, Ly-Mee; Harrison, Paul J; Emsley, Richard; Bostock, Sophie; Foster, Russell G; Wadekar, Vanashree; Hinds, Christopher; Espie, Colin A

    2015-05-28

    Insomnia, defined as repeated difficulties getting or staying asleep, is common in the general population. Such sleep difficulties are a problem in their own right, but increasingly it is being recognised that they may also be a contributory factor in the development of a wide range of mental health problems. Our focus is upon the relationship between insomnia and psychotic experiences, such as paranoia and hallucinations. Psychotic experiences commonly occur in mild forms in the general population and have been linked to disrupted sleep. These psychotic-like experiences raise the risk of development of a clinical disorder. Our aim is to reduce insomnia in a large general population group, and examine the effect on paranoia and hallucinations at the age when mental health problems typically emerge. The primary hypotheses are that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for insomnia will reduce insomnia and also levels of paranoia and hallucinations. The theoretical links will be substantiated by a planned mediation analysis. Improvements in a number of other mental health outcomes are also predicted. We will carry out a parallel group, randomised controlled trial of 2,614 students with insomnia in universities across the UK. In the Oxford Access for Students Improving Sleep (OASIS) trial, participants will be randomised to digital CBT for insomnia (in addition to treatment as usual) or treatment as usual. Online assessments will take place at zero, three, 10 (post-treatment), and 22 (follow-up) weeks. Primary outcomes are insomnia and psychotic-like experiences (paranoia or hallucinatory experiences) at 10 weeks. Secondary outcomes are levels of mania, depression, anxiety, nightmares, psychological wellbeing, and the development of mental health disorders. All main analyses will be carried out at the end of the last follow-up assessment and will be based on the intention-to-treat principle. The trial is funded by the Wellcome Trust. This study will be the first large

  9. COgnitive behavioural therapy vs standardised medical care for adults with Dissociative non-Epileptic Seizures (CODES): a multicentre randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Laura H; Mellers, John D C; Landau, Sabine; Stone, Jon; Carson, Alan; Medford, Nick; Reuber, Markus; Richardson, Mark; McCrone, Paul; Murray, Joanna; Chalder, Trudie

    2015-06-27

    The evidence base for the effectiveness of psychological interventions for patients with dissociative non-epileptic seizures (DS) is currently extremely limited, although data from two small pilot randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including from our group, suggest that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) may be effective in reducing DS occurrence and may improve aspects of psychological status and psychosocial functioning. The study is a multicentre, pragmatic parallel group RCT to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of specifically-tailored CBT plus standardised medical care (SMC) vs SMC alone in reducing DS frequency and improving psychological and health-related outcomes. In the initial screening phase, patients with DS will receive their diagnosis from a neurologist/epilepsy specialist. If patients are eligible and interested following the provision of study information and a booklet about DS, they will consent to provide demographic information and fortnightly data about their seizures, and agree to see a psychiatrist three months later. We aim to recruit ~500 patients to this screening stage. After a review three months later by a psychiatrist, those patients who have continued to have DS in the previous eight weeks and who meet further eligibility criteria will be told about the trial comparing CBT + SMC vs SMC alone. If they are interested in participating, they will be given a further booklet on DS and study information. A research worker will see them to obtain their informed consent to take part in the RCT. We aim to randomise 298 people (149 to each arm). In addition to a baseline assessment, data will be collected at 6 and 12 months post randomisation. Our primary outcome is monthly seizure frequency in the preceding month. Secondary outcomes include seizure severity, measures of seizure freedom and reduction, psychological distress and psychosocial functioning, quality of life, health service use, cost effectiveness and adverse

  10. The SITLESS project: exercise referral schemes enhanced by self-management strategies to battle sedentary behaviour in older adults: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné-Garriga, Maria; Coll-Planas, Laura; Guerra, Míriam; Domingo, Àlex; Roqué, Marta; Caserotti, Paolo; Denkinger, Michael; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Tully, Mark A; Kee, Frank; McIntosh, Emma; Martín-Borràs, Carme; Oviedo, Guillermo R; Jerez-Roig, Javier; Santiago, Marta; Sansano, Oriol; Varela, Guillermo; Skjødt, Mathias; Wirth, Katharina; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Klenk, Jochen; Wilson, Jason J; Blackburn, Nicole E; Deidda, Manuela; Lefebvre, Guillaume; González, Denise; Salvà, Antoni

    2017-05-18

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world's population. Recent evidence indicates that excessive sitting time is harmful to health, independent of meeting the recommended moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) guidelines. The SITLESS project aims to determine whether exercise referral schemes (ERS) can be enhanced by self-management strategies (SMSs) to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB), increase PA and improve health, quality of life and function in the long term, as well as psychosocial outcomes in community-dwelling older European citizens from four countries, within a three-armed pragmatic randomised controlled trial, compared with ERS alone and also with general recommendations about PA. A total of 1338 older adults will be included in this study, recruited from four European countries through different existing primary prevention pathways. Participants will be randomly allocated into an ERS of 16 weeks (32 sessions, 45-60 min per session), ERS enhanced by seven sessions of SMSs and four telephone prompts, or a control group. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, month 4 (end of ERS intervention), month 16 (12 months post intervention) and month 22 (18 months post intervention). Primary outcomes will include measures of SB (time spent sedentary) and PA (counts per minute). Secondary outcomes will include muscle and physical function, health economics' related outcomes, anthropometry, quality of life, social networks, anxiety and depressive symptoms, disability, fear of falling, executive function and fatigue. A process evaluation will be conducted throughout the trial. The full analysis set will follow an intention-to-treat principle and will include all randomised participants for whom a baseline assessment is conducted. The study hypothesis will be tested with mixed linear models with repeated measures, to assess changes in the main outcomes (SB and PA) over time (baseline to month 22) and between study arms. The findings of this

  11. Effects of aerobic exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy on functioning and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: protocol of the FACTS-2-ALS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenestijn, Annerieke C; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Schröder, Carin D; Post, Marcel W M; Grupstra, Hepke F; Kruitwagen, Esther T; van der Linde, Harmen; van Vliet, Reinout O; van de Weerd, Margreet G H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Lindeman, Eline

    2011-06-14

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex, leading to muscle weakness. Muscle weakness may result in the avoidance of physical activity, which exacerbates disuse weakness and cardiovascular deconditioning. The impact of the grave prognosis may result in depressive symptoms and hopelessness. Since there is no cure for ALS, optimal treatment is based on symptom management and preservation of quality of life (QoL), provided in a multidisciplinary setting. Two distinctly different therapeutic interventions may be effective to improve or preserve daily functioning and QoL at the highest achievable level: aerobic exercise therapy (AET) to maintain or enhance functional capacity and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to improve coping style and cognitions in patients with ALS. However, evidence to support either approach is still insufficient, and the underlying mechanisms of the approaches remain poorly understood. The primary aim of the FACTS-2-ALS trial is to study the effects of AET and CBT, in addition to usual care, compared to usual care alone, on functioning and QoL in patients with ALS. A multicentre, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with a postponed information model will be conducted. A sample of 120 patients with ALS (1 month post diagnosis) will be recruited from 3 university hospitals and 1 rehabilitation centre. Patients will be randomized to one of three groups i.e. (1) AET + usual care, (2) CBT + usual care, (3) Usual care. AET consists of a 16-week aerobic exercise programme, on 3 days a week. CBT consists of individual psychological support of patients in 5 to 10 sessions over a 16-week period. QoL, functioning and secondary outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, immediately post intervention and at 3- and 6-months follow-up. The FACTS-2-ALS study is the first theory-based randomized controlled trial to evaluate the

  12. Cognitive behavioural therapy for the management of inflammatory bowel disease-fatigue with a nested qualitative element: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artom, Micol; Czuber-Dochan, Wladyslawa; Sturt, Jackie; Norton, Christine

    2017-05-11

    Fatigue is one of the most prevalent and burdensome symptoms for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although fatigue increases during periods of inflammation, for some patients it persists when disease is in remission. Compared to other long-term conditions where fatigue has been extensively researched, optimal management of fatigue in patients with IBD is unknown and fatigue has rarely been the primary outcome in intervention studies. To date, interventions for the management of IBD-fatigue are sparse, have short-term effects and have not been implemented within the existing health system. There is a need to integrate current best evidence across different conditions, patient experience and clinical expertise in order to develop interventions for IBD-fatigue management that are feasible and effective. Modifying an existing intervention for patients with multiple sclerosis, this study aims to assess the feasibility and initial estimates of efficacy of a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention for the management of fatigue in patients with IBD. The study will be a two-arm pilot randomised controlled trial. Patients will be recruited from one outpatient IBD clinic and randomised individually to either: Group 1 (CBT manual for the management of fatigue, one 60-min session and seven 30-min telephone/Skype sessions with a therapist over an eight-week period); or Group 2 (fatigue information sheet to use without therapist help). Self-reported IBD-fatigue (Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Fatigue Scale) and IBD-quality of life (United Kingdom Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire) and self-reported disease activity will be collected at baseline, three, six and 12 months post randomisation. Illness perceptions, daytime sleepiness, anxiety and depression explanatory variables will be collected only at three months post randomisation. Clinical and sociodemographic data will be retrieved from the patients' medical notes. A nested qualitative study will

  13. Dietary tryptophan supplementation in privately owned mildly anxious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Beerda, B.; Beynen, A.C.; Borg, van der J.A.M.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Food composition has been reported to influence mood and behaviour in humans and animals and it could help to reduce unwanted behaviour in dogs. Anxiety-related behaviour is associated with the functioning of the central serotonergic system and here it was investigated if dietary supplementation

  14. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  15. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  16. Evaluation of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for life and a cognitive behavioural therapy stress-management workshop to improve healthcare staff stress: study protocol for two randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Clara; Gu, Jenny; Pitman, Nikki; Chapman, Cavita; Kuyken, Willem; Whittington, Adrian

    2018-04-02

    Healthcare workers experience higher levels of work-related stress and higher rates of sickness absence than workers in other sectors. Psychological approaches have potential in providing healthcare workers with the knowledge and skills to recognise stress and to manage stress effectively. The strongest evidence for effectiveness in reducing stress in the workplace is for stress-management courses based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) principles and mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). However, research examining effects of these interventions on sickness absence (an objective indicator of stress) and compassion for others (an indicator of patient care) is limited, as is research on brief CBT stress-management courses (which may be more widely accessible) and on MBIs adapted for workplace settings. This protocol is for two randomised controlled trials with participant preference between the two trials and 1:1 allocation to intervention or wait-list within the preferred choice. The first trial is examining a one-day CBT stress-management workshop and the second trial an 8-session Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Life (MBCT-L) course, with both trials comparing intervention to wait-list. The primary outcome for both trials is stress post-intervention with secondary outcomes being sickness absence, compassion for others, depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, wellbeing, work-related burnout, self-compassion, presenteeism, and mindfulness (MBCT-L only). Both trials aim to recruit 234 staff working in the National Health Service in the UK. This trial will examine whether a one-day CBT stress-management workshop and an 8-session MBCT-L course are effective at reducing healthcare staff stress and other mental health outcomes compared to wait-list, and, whether these interventions are effective at reducing sickness absence and presenteeism and at enhancing wellbeing, self-compassion, mindfulness and compassion for others. Findings will help inform

  17. NEURAPRO-E study protocol: a multicentre randomized controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive-behavioural case management for patients at ultra high risk of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markulev, Connie; McGorry, Patrick D; Nelson, Barnaby; Yuen, Hok Pan; Schaefer, Miriam; Yung, Alison R; Thompson, Andrew; Berger, Gregor; Mossaheb, Nilufar; Schlögelhofer, Monika; Smesny, Stefan; de Haan, Lieuwe; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Nordentoft, Merete; Chen, Eric Yu Hai; Verma, Swapna; Hickie, Ian; Amminger, G Paul

    2017-10-01

    Recent research has indicated that preventative intervention is likely to benefit patients 'at-risk' for psychosis, both in terms of symptom reduction and delay or prevention of onset of threshold psychotic disorder. The strong preliminary results for the effectiveness of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), coupled with the falling transition rate in ultra high-risk (UHR) samples, mean that further study of such benign, potentially neuroprotective interventions is clinically and ethically required. Employing a multicentre approach, enabling a large sample size, this study will provide important information with regard to the use of omega-3 PUFAs in the UHR group. This trial is a 6-month, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial of 1.4 g day -1 omega-3 PUFAs in UHR patients aged between 13 and 40 years. The primary hypothesis is that UHR patients receiving omega-3 PUFAs plus cognitive-behavioural case management (CBCM) will be less likely to transition to psychosis over a 6-month period compared to treatment with placebo plus CBCM. Secondary outcomes will examine symptomatic and functional changes, as well as examine if candidate risk factors predict response to omega-3 PUFA treatment in the UHR group. This is the protocol of the NeuraproE study. Utilizing a large sample, results from this study will be important in informing indicated prevention strategies for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, which may be the strongest avenue for reducing the burden, stigmatization, disability and economic consequences of these disorders. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Testing interventions to influence women's dietary decisions in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... that responds to national priorities for establishing an evidence-based culture for ... It will host a workshop with researchers, local nutrition specialists and social ... of dietary behaviour and practical solutions to improve nutrition decisions.

  19. Management of hypertension using dietary approach to stop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dietary interventions are important behavioural strategies for hypertension risk reduction. While dietary management of hypertension with DASH significantly lowers blood pressure, investigation of the management of hypertension with local diets in Nigeria is limited. Objective: This study was designed to study ...

  20. Impact of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes: a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Chaimani, Anna; Hoffmann, Georg; Schwedhelm, Carolina; Boeing, Heiner

    2017-03-20

    Dietary advice is one of the cornerstones in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Diabetes Association recommended a hypocaloric diet for overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes in order to induce weight loss. However, there is limited evidence on the optimal approaches to control hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients. The aim of the present study is to assess the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and blood lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a systematic review including a standard pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomized trials. We will conduct searches in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on the Cochrane Library, PubMed (from 1966), and Google Scholar. Citations, abstracts, and relevant papers will be screened for eligibility by two reviewers independently. Randomized controlled trials (with a control group or randomized trials with at least two intervention groups) will be included if they meet the following criteria: (1) include type 2 diabetes mellitus, (2) include patients aged ≥18 years, (3) include dietary intervention (different type of diets: e.g., Mediterranean dietary pattern, low-carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, vegetarian diet, high protein diet); either hypo, iso-caloric, or ad libitum diets, (4) minimum intervention period of 12 weeks. For each outcome measure of interest, random effects pairwise and network meta-analyses will be performed in order to determine the pooled relative effect of each intervention relative to every other intervention in terms of the post-intervention values (or mean differences between the changes from baseline value scores). Subgroup analyses are planned for study length, sample size, age, and sex. This systematic review will synthesize the available evidence on the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches in the management of glycosylated hemoglobin (primary outcome), fasting glucose

  1. Dietary and fluid adherence among haemodialysis patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparison with major infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis ... dietary and fluid adherence is of crucial importance to the quality of life and survival of ... behaviours such as medication adherence among psychiatric ... or nursing sister and introduced to one of the study personnel who .... Children per household. 61.

  2. Trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy versus treatment as usual for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in young children aged 3 to 8 years: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgleish, Tim; Goodall, Benjamin; Chadwick, Isobel; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; McKinnon, Anna; Morant, Nicola; Schweizer, Susanne; Panesar, Inderpal; Humphrey, Ayla; Watson, Peter; Lafortune, Louise; Smith, Patrick; Meiser-Stedman, Richard

    2015-03-25

    Following horrific or life-threatening events approximately 10 to 15% of young children develop post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The symptoms of this disorder are distressing - nightmares, flashbacks, anger outbursts and disturbed play. These symptoms cause major disruption to a child's functioning and, if left untreated, can persist for many years. As yet, there are no established empirically-validated treatments for PTSD in young children. Trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy (TF-CBT) is a psychological intervention that is effective in treating the disorder in older children (8 to 12 years), adolescents and adults. This study examines TF-CBT adapted for children aged between 3 and 8 years. This protocol describes a two-arm exploratory randomised controlled trial comparing TF-CBT to treatment as usual (TAU) in children aged 3 to 8 years with a principal diagnosis of PTSD following a single-event discrete trauma. Using a half-crossover design, 44 participants will be randomly allocated to receive the intervention or to receive TAU. Those allocated to TAU will be offered TF-CBT at the end of the 'treatment' period (approximately 12 weeks) if still indicated. The primary outcome is PTSD diagnosis according to DSM-5 criteria for children 6 years and younger at post-treatment. Secondary outcomes include effects on co-morbid diagnoses and changes in emotion and trauma symptoms at each of the follow-up points (post-treatment, 3-months, 12-months). Additionally, broader efficacy will be considered with regard to treatment feasibility, acceptability and service utilisation. The key targets of the intervention are trauma memory, the interpretation of the meaning of the event, and the management of symptoms. This is the first European trial to examine the efficacy of TF-CBT in alleviating PTSD in very young children. As well as providing much-needed data on the utility of the intervention, this exploratory trial will also allow us to gather important information

  3. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  4. Effectiveness of the ‘Who’s Challenging Who’ support staff training intervention to improve attitudes and empathy towards adults with intellectual disability and challenging behaviours: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Randell, Elizabeth; Hastings, Richard P.; McNamara, Rachel; Knight, Roseanna; Gillespie, David; Taylor, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    Background Findings suggest approximately one in six people with intellectual disability engage in ‘challenging behaviours’, which include aggression towards others/property and self-injurious actions. In residential settings, actions of staff members can make challenging behaviours more likely to occur, or make these behaviours worse. In particular, negative attitudes from members of staff and lack of understanding about the reasons for challenging behaviour are contributory factors. ‘Who’s ...

  5. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  6. Developing a complex intervention for diet and activity behaviour change in obese pregnant women (the UPBEAT trial); assessment of behavioural change and process evaluation in a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Lucilla; Briley, Annette L; Barr, Suzanne; Bell, Ruth; Croker, Helen; Coxon, Kirstie; Essex, Holly N; Hunt, Claire; Hayes, Louise; Howard, Louise M; Khazaezadeh, Nina; Kinnunen, Tarja; Nelson, Scott M; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Robson, Stephen C; Sattar, Naveed; Seed, Paul T; Wardle, Jane; Sanders, Thomas A B; Sandall, Jane

    2013-07-15

    Complex interventions in obese pregnant women should be theoretically based, feasible and shown to demonstrate anticipated behavioural change prior to inception of large randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The aim was to determine if a) a complex intervention in obese pregnant women leads to anticipated changes in diet and physical activity behaviours, and b) to refine the intervention protocol through process evaluation of intervention fidelity. We undertook a pilot RCT of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women, comparing routine antenatal care with an intervention to reduce dietary glycaemic load and saturated fat intake, and increase physical activity. Subjects included 183 obese pregnant women (mean BMI 36.3 kg/m2). Compared to women in the control arm, women in the intervention arm had a significant reduction in dietary glycaemic load (33 points, 95% CI -47 to -20), (p change. Physical discomfort and sustained barriers to physical activity were common at 28 weeks' gestation. Process evaluation identified barriers to recruitment, group attendance and compliance, leading to modification of intervention delivery. This pilot trial of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women suggests greater potential for change in dietary intake than for change in physical activity, and through process evaluation illustrates the considerable advantage of performing an exploratory trial of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women before undertaking a large RCT. ISRCTN89971375.

  7. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  8. Validity of Short and Long Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaires in Ranking Dietary Intake in Middle-Aged and Elderly Japanese in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) Protocol Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yuta; Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Ishii, Yuri; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Shinozawa, Yurie; Tanaka, Junta; Kato, Erika; Kitamura, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies require both the periodic update of intake information via repeated dietary survey and the minimization of subject burden in responding to questionnaires. We developed a 66-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (short-FFQ) for the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) follow-up survey using major foods from the FFQ developed for the original JPHC Study. For the JPHC-NEXT baseline survey, we used a larger 172-item FFQ (long-FFQ), which was also derived from the JPHC-FFQ. We compared the validity of ranking individuals by levels of dietary consumption by these FFQs among residents of selected JPHC-NEXT study areas. Methods From 2012 to 2013, 240 men and women aged 40–74 years from five areas in the JPHC-NEXT protocol were asked to respond to the long-FFQ and provide 12-day weighed food records (WFR) as reference; 228 also completed the short-FFQ. Spearman’s correlation coefficients (CCs) between estimates from the FFQs and WFR were calculated and corrected for intra-individual variation of the WFR. Results Median CC values for energy and 53 nutrients for the short-FFQ for men and women were 0.46 and 0.44, respectively. Respective values for the long-FFQ were 0.50 and 0.43. Compared with the long-FFQ, cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quintiles with the short-FFQ ranged from 68% to 91% in men and 58% to 85% in women. Conclusions Similar to the long-FFQ, the short-FFQ provided reasonably valid measures for ranking middle-aged and elderly Japanese for many nutrients and food groups. The short-FFQ can be used in follow-up surveys in prospective cohort studies aimed at updating diet rank information. PMID:27064130

  9. Unravelling effectiveness of a nurse-led behaviour change intervention to enhance physical activity in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease in primary care: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westland, Heleen; Bos-Touwen, Irene D; Trappenburg, Jaap C A; Schröder, Carin D; de Wit, Niek J; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2017-02-22

    Self-management interventions are considered effective in patients with chronic disease, but trials have shown inconsistent results, and it is unknown which patients benefit most. Adequate self-management requires behaviour change in both patients and health care providers. Therefore, the Activate intervention was developed with a focus on behaviour change in both patients and nurses. The intervention aims for change in a single self-management behaviour, namely physical activity, in primary care patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Activate intervention. A two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted to compare the Activate intervention with care as usual at 31 general practices in the Netherlands. Approximately 279 patients at risk for cardiovascular disease will participate. The Activate intervention is developed using the Behaviour Change Wheel and consists of 4 nurse-led consultations in a 3-month period, integrating 17 behaviour change techniques. The Behaviour Change Wheel was also applied to analyse what behaviour change is needed in nurses to deliver the intervention adequately. This resulted in 1-day training and coaching sessions (including 21 behaviour change techniques). The primary outcome is physical activity, measured as the number of minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity using an accelerometer. Potential effect modifiers are age, body mass index, level of education, social support, depression, patient-provider relationship and baseline number of minutes of physical activity. Data will be collected at baseline and at 3 months and 6 months of follow-up. A process evaluation will be conducted to evaluate the training of nurses, treatment fidelity, and to identify barriers to and facilitators of implementation as well as to assess participants' satisfaction. To increase physical activity in patients and to support nurses in delivering the intervention

  10. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  11. Dietary assessment of British police force employees: a description of diet record coding procedures and cross-sectional evaluation of dietary energy intake reporting (The Airwave Health Monitoring Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rachel; Eriksen, Rebeca; Lamb, Kathryn; McMeel, Yvonne; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Spear, Jeanette; Aresu, Maria; Chan, Queenie; Elliott, Paul; Frost, Gary

    2017-04-04

    Dietary intake is a key aspect of occupational health. To capture the characteristics of dietary behaviour that is affected by occupational environment that may affect disease risk, a collection of prospective multiday dietary records is required. The aims of this paper are to: (1) collect multiday dietary data in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, (2) describe the dietary coding procedures applied and (3) investigate the plausibility of dietary reporting in this occupational cohort. A dietary coding protocol for this large-scale study was developed to minimise coding error rate. Participants (n 4412) who completed 7-day food records were included for cross-sectional analyses. Energy intake (EI) misreporting was estimated using the Goldberg method. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to determine participant characteristics associated with EI misreporting. British police force employees enrolled (2007-2012) into the Airwave Health Monitoring Study. The mean code error rate per food diary was 3.7% (SD 3.2%). The strongest predictors of EI under-reporting were body mass index (BMI) and physical activity. Compared with participants with BMI30 kg/m 2 had increased odds of being classified as under-reporting EI (men OR 5.20 95% CI 3.92 to 6.89; women OR 2.66 95% CI 1.85 to 3.83). Men and women in the highest physical activity category compared with the lowest were also more likely to be classified as under-reporting (men OR 3.33 95% CI 2.46 to 4.50; women OR 4.34 95% CI 2.91 to 6.55). A reproducible dietary record coding procedure has been developed to minimise coding error in complex 7-day diet diaries. The prevalence of EI under-reporting is comparable with existing national UK cohorts and, in agreement with previous studies, classification of under-reporting was biased towards specific subgroups of participants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Evaluation of personalised, one-to-one interaction using Montessori-type activities as a treatment of challenging behaviours in people with dementia: the study protocol of a crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Eva S; O'Connor, Daniel W

    2010-01-24

    The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Behaviours stemming from pain, major depression or psychosis benefit from treatment with analgesics, antidepressants or antipsychotics. In other cases, psychotropic medications have limited efficacy but are used very widely. Therefore, increasingly more attention has been paid to nonpharmacological interventions which are associated with fewer risks. The aim of the current study is to test if personalised one-to-one interaction activities based on Montessori principles will reduce the frequency of behavioural symptoms of dementia significantly more than a relevant control condition. We will conduct a controlled trial with randomised cross-over between conditions. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to Montessori or control blocks for two weeks then switched to the other condition. Montessori activities derive from the principles espoused by Maria Montessori and subsequent educational theorists to promote engagement in learning, namely task breakdown, guided repetition, progression in difficulty from simple to complex, and the careful matching of demands to levels of competence. The control intervention consists of conversation or reading from and looking at pictures in a newspaper to control for non-specific benefits of one-to-one interaction. Presence of target behaviour will be noted as well as level of engagement and type of affect displayed. Secondary measures also include the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and information on time and funds spend to prepare the activities. If our results show that use of Montessori activities is effective in treating challenging behaviours in individuals with dementia, it will

  13. Multicentre RCT and economic evaluation of a psychological intervention together with a leaflet to reduce risk behaviour amongst men who have sex with men (MSM prescribed post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV following sexual exposure (PEPSE: A protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llewellyn Carrie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP following sexual exposure to HIV has been recommended as a method of preventing HIV infection in the UK. Men who have sex with men (MSM are the group most affected by HIV in the UK and their sexual risk taking behaviour is reported to be increasing. One-to-one behavioural interventions, such as motivational interviewing (MI have been recommended to reduce HIV in high risk groups. The Information, Motivation and Behavioral skills (IMB model has been shown to provide a good basis for understanding and predicting HIV-relevant health behaviour and health behaviour change, however the IMB has yet to be applied to PEP after risky sexual exposure. The primary aim of this trial is to examine the impact of MI augmented with information provision and behavioural skills building (informed by the IMB Model, over and above usual care, on risky sexual behaviour in MSM prescribed PEP after potential sexual exposure. A secondary aim of this research is to examine the impact of the intervention on adherence to PEP. This study will also provide estimates of the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Methods A manualised parallel group randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation will be conducted. The primary outcome is the proportion of risky sexual practices. Secondary outcomes include: i Levels of adherence to PEP treatment; ii Number of subsequent courses of PEP; iii Levels of motivation to avoid risky sexual behaviours; iv Levels of HIV risk-reduction information/knowledge; v Levels of risk reduction behavioural skills; vi Diagnosis of anal gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and/or HIV. 250 participants will be asked to self-complete a questionnaire at four time points during the study (at 0,3,6,12 months. The intervention will consist of a two-session, fixed duration, telephone administered augmented MI intervention based on the IMB model. A newly developed treatment manual will guide the selection of

  14. Effectiveness of the 'Who's Challenging Who' support staff training intervention to improve attitudes and empathy towards adults with intellectual disability and challenging behaviours: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Elizabeth; Hastings, Richard P; McNamara, Rachel; Knight, Roseanna; Gillespie, David; Taylor, Zachary

    2017-10-05

    Findings suggest approximately one in six people with intellectual disability engage in 'challenging behaviours', which include aggression towards others/property and self-injurious actions. In residential settings, actions of staff members can make challenging behaviours more likely to occur, or make these behaviours worse. In particular, negative attitudes from members of staff and lack of understanding about the reasons for challenging behaviour are contributory factors. 'Who's Challenging Who?' (WCW) training is designed to emphasise the role of staff in residential settings as a challenge also to people with intellectual disability. The course is delivered jointly by a trainer with intellectual disability who has been labelled as having challenging behaviour, along with a trainer without intellectual disability. This is a cluster randomised two-arm trial of WCW training versus a waiting list control. Overall, 118 residential settings will be recruited and randomised on a 1:1 ratio. Within each setting, two members of staff will be invited to take part in the trial. Participants will complete assessments at baseline and at 6 and 20 weeks. WCW is a half day initial training course with some follow-on coaching to ensure implementation. The primary outcome is changes in staff empathy towards people with challenging behaviour. Secondary outcomes at the staff level include confidence, attitudes and work-related well-being. Secondary outcomes at the residential setting level include recorded incidents of aggressive challenging behaviour, and use of any restrictive practices. If the results of the cluster randomised trial are positive, we will disseminate the findings widely and make all training manuals and materials freely available for anyone in intellectual disability services (and beyond) to use. Our training approach may have wider implications in other areas of social care. It may also provide a generally applicable model for how to train people with

  15. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  16. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be

  17. Emergent Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D

    2016-01-01

    In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions

  18. Examining the Frequency and Contribution of Foods Eaten Away From Home in the Diets of 18- to 30-Year-Old Australians Using Smartphone Dietary Assessment (MYMeals): Protocol for a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard-Cole, Lyndal; Jung, Jisu; Kay, Judy; Rangan, Anna; Chapman, Kathy; Watson, Wendy L; Hughes, Clare; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Bauman, Adrian; Gemming, Luke; Yacef, Kalina; Koprinska, Irena; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2018-01-26

    three 24-hour recall interviews to compare with the data collected using EaT. Data mining techniques such as clustering, decision trees, neural networks, and support vector machines will be used to build predictive models and identify important patterns. Recruitment is underway, and results will be available in 2018. The contribution of foods prepared away from home, in terms of energy, nutrients, deleterious nutrients, and food groups to young people's diets will be determined, as will the impact on meeting national recommendations. Foods and consumption behaviors that should be targeted in future health promotion efforts for young adults will be identified. ©Lyndal Wellard-Cole, Jisu Jung, Judy Kay, Anna Rangan, Kathy Chapman, Wendy L Watson, Clare Hughes, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Adrian Bauman, Luke Gemming, Kalina Yacef, Irena Koprinska, Margaret Allman-Farinelli. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 26.01.2018.

  19. The impact of a nutrition programme on the dietary intake patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-06

    Oct 6, 2010 ... Napier C, Food and Nutrition Consumer Sciences, Durban University of Technology ... Keywords: nutrition education, dietary intake behaviour, children .... which include the recommendation to drink plenty of clean and.

  20. Eat Well Keep Active: Qualitative findings from a feasibility and acceptability study of a brief midwife led intervention to facilitate healthful dietary and physical activity behaviours in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Lucie; Rance, Jaynie; Hunter, Billie

    2017-06-01

    overweight and obesity in the pregnant population is increasing and this is a public health concern. Many women have difficulty in following the recommendation to maintain a healthy diet and to keep active, indeed some identify pregnancy as the start of their concern with being overweight. to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the 'Eat Well Keep Active' intervention programme designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity in pregnant women. This brief midwife led intervention was based upon the Self Determination Theory (SDT) framework and utilised Motivational Interviewing and individualised goal setting. this was a prospective qualitative study to explore women's views on the acceptability and perceived efficacy of the 'Eat Well Keep Active' programme obtained through one-to-one interviews 6 weeks after the delivery of the intervention. Data were also analysed to assess fidelity of the intervention to the psychological constructs of SDT; autonomy, competence and relatedness. Wales, UK. pregnant women suitable for Midwife Led Care and therefore deemed to be 'low risk' were recruited from a large maternity unit in South Wales (n=20). the results indicated that the 'Eat Well Keep Active' intervention programme was well received by participants who reported that it positively influenced their health behaviours. There was clear evidence of the intervention supporting the three SDT psychological needs. The Eat Well Keep Active intervention was designed to be incorporated into existing antenatal provision and findings from this study have demonstrated its acceptability. The brief midwife led intervention based on SDT was found to be acceptable by the participants who embraced the opportunity to discuss and explore their lifestyle behaviours with a midwife. theoretically designed interventions that can facilitate women to pursue a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy are lacking and the 'Eat Well Keep Active' programme has the potential to address this

  1. The role of a behavioural medicine intervention in physiotherapy for the effects of rehabilitation outcomes in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (ECRA) - the study protocol of a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Sabina; Öberg, Birgitta; Nilsson, Lennart; Söderlund, Anne; Bäck, Maria

    2017-05-25

    To help patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) benefit from the positive health effects attained by exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR), adherence to these programmes according to international guidelines is important. Strategies to increase adherence to exercise-based CR are mainly an unexplored area. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of a behavioural medicine intervention in physiotherapy, containing goal-setting, self-monitoring and feedback, with the aim of improving rehabilitation outcomes for exercise-based CR, compared with usual care. This is a randomised, controlled trial. A total of 160 patients with CAD will be included consecutively at the Coronary Care Unit at a university hospital in Sweden. Patients are randomised 1:1 using sealed envelopes to usual care or a behavioural medicine intervention in physiotherapy, in addition to usual care for 4 months. Outcome assessment at baseline, 4 and 12 months includes submaximal aerobic capacity (primary outcome), exercise adherence, muscle endurance, level of physical activity, biomarkers, anxiety and depression, health-related quality of life, patient enablement and self-efficacy (secondary outcomes). This is the first study to evaluate the role of an integrated behavioural medicine intervention in exercise-based CR in the effects of rehabilitation outcomes. The results of this study will provide valuable information about the effect of these interventions in exercise-based CR and it has the potential to inform and assist in further treatment in secondary prevention for patients with CAD. The study include all items from the World Health Organization Trial Registration Data Set. NCT02895451, 2016-08-16, retrospectively registered.

  2. Study protocol: a cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a multi-pronged behavioural intervention to improve use of personal protective equipment among migrant workers exposed to organic solvents in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, most of migrant workers work in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and are a vulnerable group for occupational health. Migrant workers are at increased risk of occupational health risks due to poor occupational health behaviours such as the low use of personal protective equipment (PPE. However, there is a lack of solid evidence regarding how to improve the use of PPE among migrant workers in SMEs. The current study will assess the effectiveness of a multi-pronged behavioural intervention designed to promote PPE utilization among migrant workers exposed to organic solvents in SMEs. Methods/Design This is a single blind, three-arm cluster randomized trial with 60 SMEs equally randomized to receive a top-down intervention (i.e. general health education and mHealth intervention provided by researchers or a comprehensive intervention (which includes both top-down intervention and peer education or a control condition (participants will not receive the intervention, but study measures will be obtained. Interventions will be conducted at the SMEs level for 6 months and all eligible migrant workers in these SMEs will be enrolled into the trial. The primary outcome is effective use of PPE during the last week. The secondary outcomes are occupational health knowledge and attitude and participation in occupational health check-up. Data will be collected and assessed at baseline; 3 months post baseline and the end of the intervention. Discussion This theory- and evidence based intervention will contribute to the limited evidence of behaviour change intervention in improving PPE utilization of migrant workers in SMEs, and provide timely evidence for the development of basic occupational health services in China and elsewhere with similar industrialization contexts. Trial registration ChiCTR-IOR-15006929 . Registered on 16 August 2015.

  3. Evaluating the clinical and cost effectiveness of a behaviour change intervention for lowering cardiovascular disease risk for people with severe mental illnesses in primary care (PRIMROSE study): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, David; Burton, Alexandra; Walters, Kate; Nazareth, Irwin; Heinkel, Samira; Atkins, Lou; Blackburn, Ruth; Holt, Richard; Hunter, Racheal; King, Michael; Marston, Louise; Michie, Susan; Morris, Richard; Morris, Steve; Omar, Rumana; Peveler, Robert; Pinfold, Vanessa; Zomer, Ella; Barnes, Thomas; Craig, Tom; Gilbert, Hazel; Grey, Ben; Johnston, Claire; Leibowitz, Judy; Petersen, Irene; Stevenson, Fiona; Hardy, Sheila; Robinson, Vanessa

    2016-02-12

    People with severe mental illnesses die up to 20 years earlier than the general population, with cardiovascular disease being the leading cause of death. National guidelines recommend that the physical care of people with severe mental illnesses should be the responsibility of primary care; however, little is known about effective interventions to lower cardiovascular disease risk in this population and setting. Following extensive peer review, funding was secured from the United Kingdom National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) to deliver the proposed study. The aim of the trial is to test the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention to lower cardiovascular disease risk in people with severe mental illnesses in United Kingdom General Practices. The study is a cluster randomised controlled trial in 70 GP practices for people with severe mental illnesses, aged 30 to 75 years old, with elevated cardiovascular disease risk factors. The trial will compare the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention designed to lower cardiovascular disease risk and delivered by a practice nurse or healthcare assistant, with standard care offered in General Practice. A total of 350 people will be recruited and followed up at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is total cholesterol level at the 12-month follow-up and secondary outcomes include blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking status, quality of life, adherence to treatments and services and behavioural measures for diet, physical activity and alcohol use. An economic evaluation will be carried out to determine the cost effectiveness of the intervention compared with standard care. The results of this pragmatic trial will provide evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of the intervention on lowering total cholesterol and addressing multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors in people with severe mental illnesses in GP Practices. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13762819. Date of

  4. iCanADAPT Early protocol: randomised controlled trial (RCT) of clinician supervised transdiagnostic internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) for depression and/or anxiety in early stage cancer survivors -vs- treatment as usual

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, M. J.; Newby, J. M.; Butow, P.; Kirsten, L.; Allison, K.; Loughnan, S.; Price, M. A.; Shaw, J.; Shepherd, H.; Smith, J.; Andrews, G.

    2017-01-01

    Background This RCT with two parallel arms will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-delivered transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) intervention for the treatment of clinical depression and/or anxiety in early stage cancer survivors. Methods/design Early stage cancer survivors will be recruited via the research arm of a not-for-profit clinical research unit and randomised to an intervention (iCBT) group or a ?treatment as usual? (TAU) control group. The minimum sample size for...

  5. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  6. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  7. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  8. Healthy eating behaviour - a social marketing perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura

    at population levels. Therefore, there is a call for additional research in order to identify the alternative ways of changing dietary behaviours. Healthy eating is a target behaviour of social marketing, which is a knowledge discipline and a practice that applies commercial marketing principles to achieve...... a voluntary behavioural change for personal welfare and/or the benefit of society. Even though social marketing is considered the most advanced framework for diet-related interventions, it has been criticised for a number of problems that can be grouped into: 1) lack of consumer orientation and research, 2......) lack of availability and application of theories that explain the process of specific behavioural change, 3) predominance of "downstream" approaches, and 4) ethical issues. The overall aim of this dissertation is to provide insights into healthy eating behaviour using the social marketing approach...

  9. Sedentary behaviour and diet across the lifespan: an updated systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, M; Pearson, N; Foster, PJ; Biddle, SJ

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour and its association with dietary intake in young people and adults are important topics and were systematically reviewed in 2011. There is a need to update this evidence given the changing nature of sedentary behaviour and continued interest in this field. This review aims to assist researchers in better interpreting the diversity of findings concerning sedentary behaviour and weight status.

  10. [Health behaviour of doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Anikó

    2016-07-01

    Health behaviour involves maintaining, improving and restoration of health. The aim of the author was to assess correlations of health behaviour with age, gender, job type and overtime. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire (N = 186). Data were analyzed with chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Doctors working in in-patient care drink more coffee (p = 0.034) and energy drinks (p = 0.018); they eat undisturbed only on weekends at home (p = 0.032). Men consume more alcohol (p = 0.003), red meats (pmeals (p = 0.018) and their daily fluid consumption exceeds 2 litres (p = 0.005); their body mass index values are higher compared to women (peat more hot meals (p = 0.005), and those under the age of 30 consume more crisps, fast food (p = 0.001) and energy drinks (p = 0.005), while they are more active (p = 0.010). Dietary habits of doctors are not ideal and their physical activity is diminished compared to international trends. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(30), 1198-1206.

  11. Study protocol: An investigation of mother-infant signalling during breastfeeding using a randomised trial to test the effectiveness of breastfeeding relaxation therapy on maternal psychological state, breast milk production and infant behaviour and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, N H M; Wells, J; Mukhtar, F; Lee, M H S; Fewtrell, M

    2017-01-01

    The physiological and psychological signalling between mother and infant during lactation is one of the prominent mother-infant factors that may influence breastfeeding outcomes. The infant can 'signal' his needs through vocalisation, and the mother can respond by allowing or restricting nipple access, which might alter the breast milk composition or volume. This may lead to parent-offspring conflict during the lactation period. Challenging infant behaviour has also been associated with maternal psychological distress, which might affect breastfeeding performance. Most attempts to improve breastfeeding rates focus on providing additional support, yet many aspects of the breastfeeding process are poorly understood. Thus, our objective is to investigate mother-infant signalling during breastfeeding by manipulating maternal psychological state using a relaxation therapy intervention. The study will test the hypothesis that mothers who listen to the therapy will be more relaxed/less stressed and this will favourably alter breast milk composition and/or affect milk volume and hence influence infant outcomes. A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in first-time breastfeeding mothers and their new-born infants. Pregnant mothers will be recruited at antenatal clinics in Selangor, Malaysia, and four home visits will be carried out at 2, 6, 12 and 14 weeks postnatally. Participants will be randomised into a control and an intervention group in the early post-partum period. Mothers from the intervention group will be asked to listen daily to an audio recording with relaxation therapy during breastfeeding. Maternal psychological state, breastfeeding practices and infant behaviour will be assessed using validated questionnaires. Milk volume will be measured using stable isotopes. Breast milk samples will be collected to measure macronutrient content and hormone levels. Anthropometric measurements (weight, length and head circumference) will be performed during all

  12. Providing NHS staff with height-adjustable workstations and behaviour change strategies to reduce workplace sitting time: protocol for the Stand More AT (SMArT) Work cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, S E; Jackson, B R; Edwardson, C L; Yates, T; Biddle, S J H; Davies, M J; Dunstan, D; Esliger, D; Gray, L; Miller, P; Munir, F

    2015-12-09

    High levels of sedentary behaviour (i.e., sitting) are a risk factor for poor health. With high levels of sitting widespread in desk-based office workers, office workplaces are an appropriate setting for interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behaviour. This paper describes the development processes and proposed intervention procedures of Stand More AT (SMArT) Work, a multi-component randomised control (RCT) trial which aims to reduce occupational sitting time in desk-based office workers within the National Health Service (NHS). SMArT Work consists of 2 phases: 1) intervention development: The development of the SMArT Work intervention takes a community-based participatory research approach using the Behaviour Change Wheel. Focus groups will collect detailed information to gain a better understanding of the most appropriate strategies, to sit alongside the provision of height-adjustable workstations, at the environmental, organisational and individual level that support less occupational sitting. 2) intervention delivery and evaluation: The 12 month cluster RCT aims to reduce workplace sitting in the University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust. Desk-based office workers (n = 238) will be randomised to control or intervention clusters, with the intervention group receiving height-adjustable workstations and supporting techniques based on the feedback received from the development phase. Data will be collected at four time points; baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is a reduction in sitting time, measured by the activPAL(TM) micro at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include objectively measured physical activity and a variety of work-related health and psycho-social measures. A process evaluation will also take place. This study will be the first long-term, evidence-based, multi-component cluster RCT aimed at reducing occupational sitting within the NHS. This study will help form a better understanding and knowledge base of facilitators and

  13. Protocol of a cluster randomised stepped-wedge trial of behavioural interventions targeting amphetamine-type stimulant use and sexual risk among female entertainment and sex workers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kimberly; Stein, Ellen S; Carrico, Adam W; Evans, Jennifer L; Sokunny, Muth; Nil, Ean; Ngak, Song; Sophal, Chhit; McCulloch, Charles; Maher, Lisa

    2016-05-09

    HIV risk among female entertainment and sex workers (FESW) remains high and use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) significantly increases this risk. We designed a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial (The Cambodia Integrated HIV and Drug Prevention Implementation (CIPI) study) to test sequentially delivered behavioural interventions targeting ATS use. The trial combines a 12-week Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) intervention with 4 weeks of cognitive-behavioural group aftercare (AC) among FESW who use ATS. The primary goal is to reduce ATS use and unprotected sex among FESW. The CCT+AC intervention is being implemented in 10 provinces where order of delivery was randomised. Outcome assessments (OEs) including biomarkers and self-reported measures of recent sexual and drug use behaviours are conducted prior to implementation, and at three 6-month intervals after completion. Consultation with multiple groups and stakeholders on implementation factors facilitated acceptance and operationalisation of the trial. Statistical power and sample size calculations were based on expected changes in ATS use and unprotected sex at the population level as well as within subjects. Ethical approvals were granted by the Cambodia National Ethics Committee; University of New Mexico; University of California, San Francisco; and FHI360. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov. Dissemination of process indicators during the multiyear trial is carried out through annual in-country Stakeholder Meetings. Provincial 'Close-Out' forums are held at the conclusion of data collection in each province. When analysis is completed, dissemination meetings will be held in Cambodia with stakeholders, including community-based discussion sessions, policy briefs and results published and presented in the HIV prevention scientific journals and conferences. CIPI is the first trial of an intervention to reduce ATS use and HIV risk among FESW in Cambodia. Will inform both CCT+AC implementation

  14. ‘Let’s Move It’ – a school-based multilevel intervention to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour among older adolescents in vocational secondary schools: a study protocol for a cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Hankonen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA has been shown to decline during adolescence, and those with lower education have lower levels of activity already at this age, calling for targeted efforts for them. No previous study has demonstrated lasting effects of school-based PA interventions among older adolescents. Furthermore, these interventions have rarely targeted sedentary behaviour (SB despite its relevance to health. The Let’s Move It trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of a school-based, multi-level intervention, on PA and SB, among vocational school students. We hypothesise that the intervention is effective in increasing moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA, particularly among those with low or moderate baseline levels, and decreasing SB among all students. Methods The design is a cluster-randomised parallel group trial with an internal pilot study. The trial is conducted in six vocational schools in the Helsinki Metropolitan area, Finland. The intervention is carried out in 30 intervention classes, and 27 control classes retain the standard curriculum. The randomisation occurs at school-level to avoid contamination and to aid delivery. Three of the six schools, randomly allocated, receive the ‘Let’s Move It’ intervention which consists of 1 group sessions and poster campaign targeting students’ autonomous PA motivation and self-regulation skills, 2 sitting reduction in classrooms via alterations in choice architecture and teacher behaviour, and 3 enhancement of PA opportunities in school, home and community environments. At baseline, student participants are blind to group allocation. The trial is carried out in six batches in 2015–2017, with main measurements at pre-intervention baseline, and 2-month and 14-month follow-ups. Primary outcomes are for PA, MVPA measured by accelerometry and self-report, and for SB, sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time (accelerometry

  15. Revised food-based dietary guidelines for South Africa: challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    especially the alcohol FBDG,3-4 might be misinterpreted by consumers. ... of the general recommendations for healthy eating. The main ... psychological and biological interactions. Clearly, there is a need to influence dietary behaviour towards a more prudent diet. ... postgraduate students at South Africa universities that.

  16. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  17. Consumer behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  18. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, Walid El; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential...... associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary...

  19. Implementing multifactorial psychotherapy research in online virtual environments (IMPROVE-2): study protocol for a phase III trial of the MOST randomized component selection method for internet cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Edward; Newbold, Alexandra; Tester-Jones, Michelle; Javaid, Mahmood; Cadman, Jennifer; Collins, Linda M; Graham, John; Mostazir, Mohammod

    2016-10-06

    Depression is a global health challenge. Although there are effective psychological and pharmaceutical interventions, our best treatments achieve remission rates less than 1/3 and limited sustained recovery. Underpinning this efficacy gap is limited understanding of how complex psychological interventions for depression work. Recent reviews have argued that the active ingredients of therapy need to be identified so that therapy can be made briefer, more potent, and to improve scalability. This in turn requires the use of rigorous study designs that test the presence or absence of individual therapeutic elements, rather than standard comparative randomised controlled trials. One such approach is the Multiphase Optimization Strategy, which uses efficient experimentation such as factorial designs to identify active factors in complex interventions. This approach has been successfully applied to behavioural health but not yet to mental health interventions. A Phase III randomised, single-blind balanced fractional factorial trial, based in England and conducted on the internet, randomized at the level of the patient, will investigate the active ingredients of internet cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for depression. Adults with depression (operationalized as PHQ-9 score ≥ 10), recruited directly from the internet and from an UK National Health Service Improving Access to Psychological Therapies service, will be randomized across seven experimental factors, each reflecting the presence versus absence of specific treatment components (activity scheduling, functional analysis, thought challenging, relaxation, concreteness training, absorption, self-compassion training) using a 32-condition balanced fractional factorial design (2 IV 7-2 ). The primary outcome is symptoms of depression (PHQ-9) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of anxiety and process measures related to hypothesized mechanisms. Better understanding of the active ingredients of

  20. Implementing multifactorial psychotherapy research in online virtual environments (IMPROVE-2: study protocol for a phase III trial of the MOST randomized component selection method for internet cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Watkins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a global health challenge. Although there are effective psychological and pharmaceutical interventions, our best treatments achieve remission rates less than 1/3 and limited sustained recovery. Underpinning this efficacy gap is limited understanding of how complex psychological interventions for depression work. Recent reviews have argued that the active ingredients of therapy need to be identified so that therapy can be made briefer, more potent, and to improve scalability. This in turn requires the use of rigorous study designs that test the presence or absence of individual therapeutic elements, rather than standard comparative randomised controlled trials. One such approach is the Multiphase Optimization Strategy, which uses efficient experimentation such as factorial designs to identify active factors in complex interventions. This approach has been successfully applied to behavioural health but not yet to mental health interventions. Methods/Design A Phase III randomised, single-blind balanced fractional factorial trial, based in England and conducted on the internet, randomized at the level of the patient, will investigate the active ingredients of internet cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT for depression. Adults with depression (operationalized as PHQ-9 score ≥ 10, recruited directly from the internet and from an UK National Health Service Improving Access to Psychological Therapies service, will be randomized across seven experimental factors, each reflecting the presence versus absence of specific treatment components (activity scheduling, functional analysis, thought challenging, relaxation, concreteness training, absorption, self-compassion training using a 32-condition balanced fractional factorial design (2IV 7-2. The primary outcome is symptoms of depression (PHQ-9 at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of anxiety and process measures related to hypothesized mechanisms

  1. A study protocol for a non-randomised comparison trial evaluating the feasibility and effectiveness of a mobile cognitive-behavioural programme with integrated coaching for anxious adults in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szigethy, Eva; Solano, Francis; Wallace, Meredith; Perry, Dina L; Morrell, Lauren; Scott, Kathryn; Bell, Megan Jones; Oser, Megan

    2018-01-13

    Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and subclinical GAD are highly prevalent in primary care. Unmanaged anxiety worsens quality of life in patients seen in primary care practices and leads to increased medical utilisation and costs. Programmes that teach patients cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques have been shown to improve anxiety and to prevent the evolution of anxiety symptoms to disorders, but access and engagement have hampered integration of CBT into medical settings. This pragmatic study takes place in University of Pittsburgh Medical Center primary care practices to evaluate a coach-supported mobile cognitive- behavioural programme (Lantern) on anxiety symptoms and quality of life. Clinics were non-randomly assigned to either enhanced treatment as usual or Lantern. All clinics provide electronic screening for anxiety and, within clinics assigned to Lantern, patients meeting a threshold level of mild anxiety (ie, >5 on Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Questionnaire (GAD-7)) are referred to Lantern. The first study phase is aimed at establishing feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness. The second phase focuses on long-term impact on psychosocial outcomes, healthcare utilisation and clinic/provider adoption/sustainable implementation using a propensity score matched parallel group study design. Primary outcomes are changes in anxiety symptoms (GAD-7) and quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey) between baseline and 6-month follow-ups, comparing control and intervention. Secondary outcomes include provider and patient satisfaction, patient engagement, durability of changes in anxiety symptoms and quality of life over 12 months and the impact of Lantern on healthcare utilisation over 12 months. Patients from control sites will be matched to the patients who use the mobile app. Ethics and human subject research approval were obtained. A data safety monitoring board is overseeing trial data and ethics. Results will be communicated to

  2. Prevalence and correlates of non-adherence to immunosuppressants and to health behaviours in patients after kidney transplantation in Brazil - the ADHERE BRAZIL multicentre study: a cross-sectional study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady; Colugnati, Fernando Antonio Basile; Marsicano, Elisa Oliveira; De Geest, Sabina; Medina, José Osmar Pestana

    2018-02-20

    Non-adherence to immunosuppressive therapy is a prevalent risk factor for poor clinical and after kidney transplantation (KT), and has contributed to the lack of improvement in long-term graft survival over the past decade. Understanding the multilevel correlates and risk factors of non-adherence is crucial to determine the optimal level for planning interventions, namely at the patient, health care provider, KT centre, and health care system level. Brazil, having the largest public transplantation program in the world and with regional differences regarding access to health services and service implementation, is in a unique position to study this multilevel approach. Therefore, the Adhere Brazil Study (ADHERE BRAZIL) was designed to assess the prevalence and variability of non-adherence to immunosuppressants and to health behaviours among adult KT recipients in Brazil, and to assess the multilevel correlates of non-adherence to immunosuppressive medication. We describe the rationale, design, and methodology of the ADHERE BRAZIL study. This is an observational, cross-sectional, multicentre study that includes 20 Brazilian KT centres. A stratified sampling approach is used, based on strata, with the following characteristics considered: geographical region and transplant activity (number of KTs per year). A random sample of patients (proportional to the size of the centre within each stratum) is selected from each centre. The prevalence of different health behaviours is assessed through self-report. The assessment of multilevel correlates of non-adherence is guided by the ecological model that considers factors at the level of the patient, health-care professional, and transplant centre, using established instruments or instruments developed for this study. Data will be collected over an 18-month period, with information obtained during the regular follow-up visits to the transplant outpatient clinic and directly entered into the Research Electronic Data Capture

  3. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  4. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  5. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  6. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  7. Cognitive-Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), a drug, or their combination: differential therapeutics for persistent depressive disorder: a study protocol of an individual participant data network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Elisabeth; Weitz, Erica S; Salanti, Georgia; Efthimiou, Orestis; Michalak, Johannes; Watanabe, Norio; Keller, Martin B; Kocsis, James H; Klein, Daniel N; Cuijpers, Pim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite important advances in psychological and pharmacological treatments of persistent depressive disorders in the past decades, their responses remain typically slow and poor, and differential responses among different modalities of treatments or their combinations are not well understood. Cognitive-Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) is the only psychotherapy that has been specifically designed for chronic depression and has been examined in an increasing number of trials against medications, alone or in combination. When several treatment alternatives are available for a certain condition, network meta-analysis (NMA) provides a powerful tool to examine their relative efficacy by combining all direct and indirect comparisons. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis enables exploration of impacts of individual characteristics that lead to a differentiated approach matching treatments to specific subgroups of patients. Methods and analysis We will search for all randomised controlled trials that compared CBASP, pharmacotherapy or their combination, in the treatment of patients with persistent depressive disorder, in Cochrane CENTRAL, PUBMED, SCOPUS and PsycINFO, supplemented by personal contacts. Individual participant data will be sought from the principal investigators of all the identified trials. Our primary outcomes are depression severity as measured on a continuous observer-rated scale for depression, and dropouts for any reason as a proxy measure of overall treatment acceptability. We will conduct a one-step IPD-NMA to compare CBASP, medications and their combinations, and also carry out a meta-regression to identify their prognostic factors and effect moderators. The model will be fitted in OpenBUGS, using vague priors for all location parameters. For the heterogeneity we will use a half-normal prior on the SD. Ethics and dissemination This study requires no ethical approval. We will publish the findings in a peer

  8. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status appears to have an effect on their children's behaviour. Place of residence (urban or semi-rural areas) and gender does not influence their knowledge about different diets. It was, finally, shown that as children grow older they tend to eat less healthy foods.

  9. MENOS4 trial: a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a breast care nurse delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention to reduce the impact of hot flushes in women with breast cancer: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Deborah; Nuttall, Jacqueline; May, Carl; Raftery, James; Fields, Jo; Kirkpatrick, Emma; Abab, Julia; Ellis, Mary; Rose, Taylor; Khambhaita, Priya; Galanopoulou, Angeliki; Maishman, Tom; Haviland, Jo; Griffiths, Gareth; Turner, Lesley; Hunter, Myra

    2018-05-08

    Women who have been treated for breast cancer may identify vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats (HFNS), as a serious problem. HFNS are unpleasant to experience and can have a significant impact on daily life, potentially leading to reduced adherence to life saving adjuvant hormonal therapy. It is known that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is effective for the alleviation of hot flushes in both well women and women who have had breast cancer. Most women with breast cancer will see a breast care nurse and there is evidence that nurses can be trained to deliver psychological treatments to a satisfactory level, whilst also maintaining treatment fidelity. The research team will assess whether breast care nurses can effectively deliver a CBT intervention to alleviate hot flushes in women with breast cancer. This study is a multi-centre phase III individually randomised controlled trial of group CBT versus usual care to reduce the impact of hot flushes in women with breast cancer. 120-160 women with primary breast cancer experiencing seven or more problematic HFNS a week will be randomised to receive either treatment as usual (TAU) or participation in the group CBT intervention plus TAU (CBT Group). A process evaluation using May's Normalisation Process Theory will be conducted, as well as practical and organisational issues relating to the implementation of the intervention. Fidelity of implementation of the intervention will be conducted by expert assessment. The cost effectiveness of the intervention will also be assessed. There is a need for studies that enable effective interventions to be implemented in practice. There is good evidence that CBT is helpful for women with breast cancer who experience HFNS, yet it is not widely available. It is not yet known whether the intervention can be effectively delivered by breast care nurses or implemented in practice. This study will provide information on both whether the intervention can effectively

  10. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  11. [Effect of a multidisciplinar protocol on the clinical results obtained after bariatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas Gaillemin, B; Sastre Martos, J; Moreno Segura, G; Llamazares Iglesias, O; Familiar Casado, C; Abad de Castro, S; López Pardo, R; Sánchez-Cabezudo Muñoz, M A

    2011-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has been shown to be an effective therapy for weight loss in patients with severe obesity, and the implementation of a multidisciplinar management protocol is recommended. To assess the usefulness of the implementation of a management protocol in obesity surgery based on the Spanish Consensus Document of the SEEDO. Retrospective comparative study of the outcomes in patients previously operated (51 patients) and after the implementation of the protocol (66 patients). The following data were gathered: anthropometry, pre-and post-surgery comorbidities, post-surgical nutritional and surgical complications, validated Quality of Life questionnaire, and dietary habits. Withdrawals (l7.6%) and alcoholism (5.8%) were higher in patients pre- versus post-implementation of the protocol (4.5% vs. 3%, respectively), the differences being statistically significant. The mortality rate was 2% in the pre-protocol group and 0% in the postprotocol group. The dietary habits were better in the post-protocol group, the pre-protocol group presenting a higher percentage of feeding-behavior disorders (5.1%) although not reaching a statistical significance. The improvement in quality of life was higher in the post-protocol group for all items, but only reaching statistical significance in sexual activity (p = 0.004). In the pre-protocol group, 70.5% of the patients had more than one nutritional complication vs. 32.8% in the post-protocol group (p 50% in 81.3% in the pre-protocol group vs. 74.8% in the pos-protocol group) or the comorbidities. Bariatric surgery achieves excellent outcomes in weight loss, comorbidities, and quality of life, but presents nutritional, surgical, and psychiatric complications that require a protocol-based and multidisciplinary approach. Our protocol improves the outcomes regarding the withdrawal rates, feeding-behavior disorders, dietary habits, nutritional complications, and quality of life.

  12. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  13. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  14. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and a...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....... necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...

  15. Oral health and oral health risk behaviour in children with and without externalising behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staberg, M; Norén, J G; Gahnberg, L; Ghaderi, A; Kadesjö, C; Robertson, A

    2018-05-15

    This was to study children with early detected externalising behaviour problems compared to matched controls regarding oral health, oral health risk behaviour and the parental evaluation of the child's oral health and dental care. Children aged 10-13 years and with externalising behaviour problems, were compared to matched controls. Behavioural characteristics were based on the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. The children and their parents completed questionnaires regarding dental fear, tooth brushing, dietary habits and evaluation of oral health and dental care. Data on dental caries risk assessments, caries, behaviour management problems and dental trauma were obtained from dental files. There were no differences in caries prevalence in children with early detected externalising behaviour problems, compared to controls. However, the former group consumed more sweet drinks when thirsty and brushed their teeth fewer than twice daily; they also had more dental trauma in both dentitions and a higher risk range for dental fear, compared to controls. This study points out potential oral health risk factors in children with early-detected externalising behaviour problems. Although no difference in caries prevalence was observed, externalising behaviour may affect oral health. Therefore, dental professionals should support the families and the children to preserve dental health by offering increased prophylactic measures. There were no differences between children with externalising behaviour problems, compared with controls, regarding the parent evaluation of their child's dental health. However, more parents in the study group evaluated the dental care as poor or not functioning.

  16. Disentangling women's responses on complex dietary intake patterns from an Indian cross-sectional survey : a latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, SS; Dias, JG; Willekens, FJ

    Objective To investigate the degree of individual heterogeneity related to complex dietary behaviour and to further examine the associations of different dietary compositions with selected characteristics. Design Latent class analysis was applied to data from the recent cross-sectional National

  17. Disentangling women's responses on complex dietary intake patterns from an Indian cross-sectional survey: a latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, S.; Dias, J.; Willekens, F.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the degree of individual heterogeneity related to complex dietary behaviour and to further examine the associations of different dietary compositions with selected characteristics. Design Latent class analysis was applied to data from the recent cross-sectional National

  18. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  19. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  20. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Dietary and lifestyle factors in functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    Dietary factors are increasingly recognized to have an important role in triggering symptoms in a large proportion of patients with functional dyspepsia. Fatty foods seem to be the main culprits, but other foods (including carbohydrate-containing foods, milk and dairy products, citrus fruits, spicy foods, coffee and alcohol) have also been implicated. However, blind challenge tests do not provide consistent results. Moreover, although patients identify specific foods as triggers of their symptoms, these patients often do not seem to make behavioural adjustments in an attempt to improve symptoms; that is, any differences in dietary intake and lifestyle between patients and healthy individuals are small. Patients with functional dyspepsia exhibit mixed sensory-motor abnormalities, such as gastric hypersensitivity and impaired gastric accommodation of a meal. Nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate these abnormalities and might thereby trigger postprandial symptoms. Cognitive factors, including anticipation related to previous negative experience with certain foods, might also have a role in triggering symptoms. Studies evaluating the potential beneficial effect of dietary interventions and changes in lifestyle are lacking, and this Review outlines a number of options that could be used as starting points for meaningful large-scale studies in the future.

  2. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  3. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  4. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  5. Specialities of professional etiquette and business protocol in France

    OpenAIRE

    Veselá, Jana

    2008-01-01

    This theses describes specialities of professional etiquette and business protocol in France. The aim of this theses is to provide comlete view of rules of behaviour in business relations with French business partners primarily because of the fact that France has become, during last 15 years, an importat business partner of the Czech Republic. The first chapter defines terms professional etiquette and business protocol in general and chracterizes basic French qualities. The second chapter is ...

  6. Dietary behaviour among male and female chronic disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mean age 49.3 years; SD=16.5) recruited systematically from health facilities. Results indicate that among men 17.3% and among women 16.0% reported eating at least three times fast food in a week; sweet drinks were consumed 3 times or ...

  7. Obesity and dietary behavioural changes | Jardine | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Assessing Cognitive behavioural Therapy in Irritable Bowel (ACTIB): protocol for a randomised controlled trial of clinical-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of therapist delivered cognitive behavioural therapy and web-based self-management in irritable bowel syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Hazel; Landau, Sabine; Little, Paul; Bishop, Felicity L; McCrone, Paul; O'Reilly, Gilly; Coleman, Nicholas; Logan, Robert; Chalder, Trudie; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2015-07-15

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 10-22% of the UK population, with England's annual National Health Service (NHS) costs amounting to more than £200 million. Abdominal pain, bloating and altered bowel habit affect quality of life, social functioning and time off work. Current treatment relies on a positive diagnosis, reassurance, lifestyle advice and drug therapies, but many people suffer ongoing symptoms. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and self-management can be helpful, but availability is limited. To determine the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of therapist delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (TCBT) and web-based CBT self-management (WBCBT) in IBS, 495 participants with refractory IBS will be randomised to TCBT plus treatment as usual (TAU); WBCBT plus TAU; or TAU alone. The two CBT programmes have similar content. However, TCBT consists of six, 60 min telephone CBT sessions with a therapist over 9 weeks, at home, and two 'booster' 1 hour follow-up phone calls at 4 and 8 months (8 h therapist contact time). WBCBT consists of access to a previously developed and piloted WBCBT management programme (Regul8) and three 30 min therapist telephone sessions over 9 weeks, at home, and two 'booster' 30 min follow-up phone calls at 4 and 8 months (2½ h therapist contact time). Clinical effectiveness will be assessed by examining the difference between arms in the IBS Symptom Severity Score (IBS SSS) and Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WASAS) at 12 months from randomisation. Cost-effectiveness will combine measures of resource use with the IBS SSS at 12 months and quality-adjusted life years. This trial has full ethical approval. It will be disseminated via peer reviewed publications and conference presentations. The results will enable clinicians, patients and health service planners to make informed decisions regarding the management of IBS with CBT. ISRCTN44427879. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  9. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  10. Reactions to dietary tartrazine.

    OpenAIRE

    David, T J

    1987-01-01

    Double blind challenges with tartrazine and benzoic acid were performed in hospital in 24 children whose parents gave a definite history of a purely behavioural immediate adverse reaction to one of these substances. The patients, whose ages ranged from 1.6 to 12.4 years, were on a diet that avoided these items, and in all there was a clear history that any lapse of the diet caused an obvious adverse behavioural reaction within two hours. In no patient was any change in behaviour noted either ...

  11. Reactions to dietary tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, T J

    1987-02-01

    Double blind challenges with tartrazine and benzoic acid were performed in hospital in 24 children whose parents gave a definite history of a purely behavioural immediate adverse reaction to one of these substances. The patients, whose ages ranged from 1.6 to 12.4 years, were on a diet that avoided these items, and in all there was a clear history that any lapse of the diet caused an obvious adverse behavioural reaction within two hours. In no patient was any change in behaviour noted either by the parents or the nursing staff after the administration of placebo or active substances. Twenty two patients returned to a normal diet without problems, but the parents of two children insisted on continuing the diet. While popular belief has it that additives may have harmful behavioural effects, objective verification is required to prevent overdiagnosis.

  12. Reactions to dietary tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, T J

    1987-01-01

    Double blind challenges with tartrazine and benzoic acid were performed in hospital in 24 children whose parents gave a definite history of a purely behavioural immediate adverse reaction to one of these substances. The patients, whose ages ranged from 1.6 to 12.4 years, were on a diet that avoided these items, and in all there was a clear history that any lapse of the diet caused an obvious adverse behavioural reaction within two hours. In no patient was any change in behaviour noted either by the parents or the nursing staff after the administration of placebo or active substances. Twenty two patients returned to a normal diet without problems, but the parents of two children insisted on continuing the diet. While popular belief has it that additives may have harmful behavioural effects, objective verification is required to prevent overdiagnosis. PMID:3548601

  13. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  14. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  15. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  16. Inequalities in health care and behaviour in patients with diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient's SES was indicated by univariate like income, occupation, and education. Patients with high SES were more adherent to drug, dietary intake and health behaviour (χ2 =13.16, p<0.001; 34.71, p<0.0001; 79.24, p<0.0001, respectively). Patients with lower SES were prescribed cheaper hypoglycaemic and ...

  17. Is there an association between dietary intake and academic achievement: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, T; Goldman, S; Pursey, K; Lim, R

    2017-04-01

    The majority of literature examining the effect of dietary behaviour on academic achievement has focused on breakfast consumption only. Here, we aim to systematically review the literature investigating the broader effects of dietary intake and behaviours on school-aged children's academic achievement. A search was undertaken across seven databases using keywords. For studies to be included, they needed to be conducted in: school-aged children (5-18 years); assess and report: (i) a measure of academic performance; (ii) a measure of dietary intake/behaviour; and (iii) the association between dietary intake/behaviours and academic performance. Forty studies were included in the review. The majority of studies were cross-sectional in design (n = 33) and studied children aged >10 years, with very few reports in younger age groups. More than 30 different dietary assessment tools were used, with only 40% of those using a validated/standardised assessment method. Half the studies collected outcomes of academic achievement objectively from a recognised educational authority, whereas 10 studies used self-reported measures. The dietary outcomes most commonly reported to have positive associations with academic achievement were: breakfast consumption (n = 12) and global diet quality/meal patterns (n = 7), whereas negative associations reported with junk/fast food (n = 9). This review highlights that moderate associations exist for dietary intakes characterised by regular breakfast consumption, lower intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and overall diet quality with respect to outcomes of academic achievement. Future studies should consider the use of validated dietary assessment methods and standardised reporting of academic achievement. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Sex differences in macronutrient intake and adherence to dietary recommendations: findings from the UK Biobank

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, E; Peters, SAE; Woodward, M

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To characterise sex differences in macronutrient intakes and adherence to dietary recommendations in the UK Biobank population. Design: Cross-sectional population-based study. Setting: UK Biobank Resource. Participants: 210 106 (52.5% women) individuals with data on dietary behaviour. Main outcome measures: Women-to-men mean differences in nutrient intake in grams and as a percentage of energy and women-to-men ORs in non-adherence, adjusting for age, socioeconomic ...

  19. Dietary Habits in Adolescence Related to Sociodemographic Factors, Physical Activity and Self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Henningsen, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Unhealthy eating during adolescence has shown to have multiple negative consequences. The aim of this paper is to acquire knowledge of dietary habits in adolescence and consider how this behaviour varies across different groups of adolescents. Correlations between dietary habits, age and gender have several times been found, in terms of girls eating healthier than boys, and the intake of healthy food decreasing with age. Additionally, adolescents of low socioeconomic position are at higher ri...

  20. Clustering and Correlates of Multiple Health Behaviours in 9-10 Year Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Atkin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep, physical activity, screen time and dietary behaviours influence health during childhood, but few studies have looked at all of these behaviours simultaneously and previous research has relied predominantly on self- or proxy-reports of physical activity and food frequency

  1. Changes in food neophobia and dietary habits of international students

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, John; Hartwell, Heather; Brown, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Background\\ud International study is becoming more prevalent, yet aspects such as food neophobia often militate against the consumption of a nutritionally balanced diet of visiting students. The purpose of this paper, therefore, was to evaluate the extent to which international postgraduate students experience food neophobia, how this might vary by nationality and other demographic characteristics, and how acculturation might manifest itself in students’ dietary behaviour.\\ud Methods\\ud Inter...

  2. Defining Metabolically Healthy Obesity: Role of Dietary and Lifestyle Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Catherine M.; Dillon, Christina; Harrington, Janas M.; McCarthy, Vera J. C.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Perry, Ivan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a current lack of consensus on defining metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). Limited data on dietary and lifestyle factors and MHO exist. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence, dietary factors and lifestyle behaviours of metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese and non-obese subjects according to different metabolic health criteria. Method Cross-sectional sample of 1,008 men and 1,039 women aged 45-74 years participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese (BMI ≥30kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI unhealthy subjects was 21.8% to 87%. Calorie intake, dietary macronutrient composition, physical activity, alcohol and smoking behaviours were similar between the metabolically healthy and unhealthy regardless of BMI. Greater compliance with food pyramid recommendations and higher dietary quality were positively associated with metabolic health in obese (OR 1.45-1.53 unadjusted model) and non-obese subjects (OR 1.37-1.39 unadjusted model), respectively. Physical activity was associated with MHO defined by insulin resistance (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.19-2.92, p = 0.006). Conclusion A standard MHO definition is required. Moderate and high levels of physical activity and compliance with food pyramid recommendations increase the likelihood of MHO. Stratification of obese individuals based on their metabolic health phenotype may be important in ascertaining the appropriate therapeutic or intervention strategy. PMID:24146838

  3. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  4. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  5. [Dietary habits and cancer: the experience of EPIC-Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieri, Sabina; Agnoli, Claudia; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    to investigate hypothesised relationships between diet and cancer by assessing diet as a whole, in the Italian cohort EPIC. multicentric prospective study. 47,749 volunteers were recruited between 1993 and 1998 in the centres of Varese and Turin (Northern Italy), Florence (Central Italy), Naples and Ragusa (Southern Italy). Information on diet and lifestyle were collected through validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were taken and biological samples collected using standardised protocols. follow-up was carried out by accessing regional cancer and mortality registries, hospital discharge records, and by telephone inquiries (only for Naples). After a median follow-up of 11 years, 879 incident cases of breast cancer, 421 cases of colorectal cancer, and 152 deaths were identified. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate risks in relation to dietary characteristics. the "Olive oil & Salad" dietary pattern, characterised by high consumption of raw vegetables and olive oil, was associated with a lower risk of overall mortality in the elderly. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet rich in vegetables and fruit was associated with reduced risk of colon cancer. Consumption of high-glycemic carbohydrates was associated with higher incidence of breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Reduced risk of colon cancer was also found in regular consumers of yoghurt. the accuracy and comprehensiveness of EPIC-Italy data made it possible to investigate both individual dietary components and dietary habits as a whole, to thereby provide Italians with dietary and lifestyle advice that will help them to remain healthy.

  6. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  7. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  8. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  10. Formal Security Analysis of the MaCAN Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Alessandro; Sojka, Michal; Nielson, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    analysis identifies two flaws in the original protocol: one creates unavailability concerns during key establishment, and the other allows re-using authenticated signals for different purposes. We propose and analyse a modification that improves its behaviour while fitting the constraints of CAN bus...

  11. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  12. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  13. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  14. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  15. Behaviour Recovery. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Bill

    2004-01-01

    This second edition of Behaviour Recovery puts emphasis on teaching behaviour concerning children with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). These children have many factors in their lives that affect their behaviour over which schools have limited control. This book acknowledges the challenge and explores the practical realities, options and…

  16. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  17. Personality and Cognitive Abilities: Predictors of Restrained, Uncontrolled and Emotional Eating Behaviours?

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Kirstie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The psychology of eating behaviour merits more attention, due to the increasing prevalence of eating disorders, obesity and other eating related issues. There is a need for a more grounded understanding of the behavioural, emotional and cognitive aspects of dietary habits. Aim: To examine the relationship between personality, cognitive abilities and eating behaviours; Restrained Eating (RE), Uncontrolled Eating (UE) and Emotional Eating (EE). This was based on a series of pre...

  18. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  19. Cross-sectional associations between maternal self-efficacy and dietary intake and physical activity in four-year-old children of first-time Swedish mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Bohman, Benjamin; Berglind, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    .03). Mothers' belief in their ability to limit unhealthy dietary and physical activity behaviours was inversely associated with children's intake of unhealthy snacks (β: -0.06 [95%CI: -0.10; -0.02] P 

  20. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  1. Dietary Determinants of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Lisa W

    2005-01-01

    .... Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary factors may be important in the etiology of PCa. The objective of our research is to determine how nutritional compounds genistein, betasitosterol (STT...

  2. Direct data access protocols benchmarking on DPM

    CERN Document Server

    Furano, Fabrizio; Keeble, Oliver; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The Disk Pool Manager is an example of a multi-protocol, multi-VO system for data access on the Grid that went though a considerable technical evolution in the last years. Among other features, its architecture offers the opportunity of testing its different data access frontends under exactly the same conditions, including hardware and backend software. This characteristic inspired the idea of collecting monitoring information from various testbeds in order to benchmark the behaviour of the HTTP and Xrootd protocols for the use case of data analysis, batch or interactive. A source of information is the set of continuous tests that are run towards the worldwide endpoints belonging to the DPM Collaboration, which accumulated relevant statistics in its first year of activity. On top of that, the DPM releases are based on multiple levels of automated testing that include performance benchmarks of various kinds, executed regularly every day. At the same time, the recent releases of DPM can report monitoring infor...

  3. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  4. Formalization of Quantum Protocols using Coq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Boender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Information Processing, which is an exciting area of research at the intersection of physics and computer science, has great potential for influencing the future development of information processing systems. The building of practical, general purpose Quantum Computers may be some years into the future. However, Quantum Communication and Quantum Cryptography are well developed. Commercial Quantum Key Distribution systems are easily available and several QKD networks have been built in various parts of the world. The security of the protocols used in these implementations rely on information-theoretic proofs, which may or may not reflect actual system behaviour. Moreover, testing of implementations cannot guarantee the absence of bugs and errors. This paper presents a novel framework for modelling and verifying quantum protocols and their implementations using the proof assistant Coq. We provide a Coq library for quantum bits (qubits, quantum gates, and quantum measurement. As a step towards verifying practical quantum communication and security protocols such as Quantum Key Distribution, we support multiple qubits, communication and entanglement. We illustrate these concepts by modelling the Quantum Teleportation Protocol, which communicates the state of an unknown quantum bit using only a classical channel.

  5. Direct data access protocols benchmarking on DPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furano, Fabrizio; Devresse, Adrien; Keeble, Oliver; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager is an example of a multi-protocol, multi-VO system for data access on the Grid that went though a considerable technical evolution in the last years. Among other features, its architecture offers the opportunity of testing its different data access frontends under exactly the same conditions, including hardware and backend software. This characteristic inspired the idea of collecting monitoring information from various testbeds in order to benchmark the behaviour of the HTTP and Xrootd protocols for the use case of data analysis, batch or interactive. A source of information is the set of continuous tests that are run towards the worldwide endpoints belonging to the DPM Collaboration, which accumulated relevant statistics in its first year of activity. On top of that, the DPM releases are based on multiple levels of automated testing that include performance benchmarks of various kinds, executed regularly every day. At the same time, the recent releases of DPM can report monitoring information about any data access protocol to the same monitoring infrastructure that is used to monitor the Xrootd deployments. Our goal is to evaluate under which circumstances the HTTP-based protocols can be good enough for batch or interactive data access. In this contribution we show and discuss the results that our test systems have collected under the circumstances that include ROOT analyses using TTreeCache and stress tests on the metadata performance.

  6. Dietary Polyphenols in the Prevention of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tressera-Rimbau

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols have an important protective role against a number of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, brain dysfunction, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide: more people die annually from cardiovascular diseases than from any other cause. The most important behavioural risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excess alcohol intake. The dietary consumption of polyphenols has shown to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality by cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. It is well-known that the protective effects of polyphenols in vivo depend on the grade how they are extracted from food and on their intestinal absorption, metabolism, and biological action with target tissues. The aim of this review was to summarise the relation between polyphenols of different plant sources and stroke in human intervention studies, animal models, and in vitro studies.

  7. Dietary Polyphenols in the Prevention of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, M.

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols have an important protective role against a number of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, brain dysfunction, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide: more people die annually from cardiovascular diseases than from any other cause. The most important behavioural risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excess alcohol intake. The dietary consumption of polyphenols has shown to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality by cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. It is well-known that the protective effects of polyphenols in vivo depend on the grade how they are extracted from food and on their intestinal absorption, metabolism, and biological action with target tissues. The aim of this review was to summarise the relation between polyphenols of different plant sources and stroke in human intervention studies, animal models, and in vitro studies. PMID:29204249

  8. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease Incidence and Risk Markers in a Middle-Aged British Male Population: Data from the Caerphilly Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Elly; Markey, Oonagh; Geleijnse, Johanna; Givens, David; Lovegrove, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Dietary behaviour is an important modifiable factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. The study aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs) and explore their association with CVD incidence and risk markers. A follow-up of 1838 middle-aged men, aged 47–67 years recruited into the Caerphilly

  9. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  10. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  11. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  12. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly; Sohonpal, Gundeep; Lange, Kylie; Golley, Rebecca

    2013-01-07

    The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children's dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1) investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children's saturated fat intake; and (2) to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children's saturated fat intake. Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30 minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environment--Parent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children's dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat) were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (pchange in saturated fat. An increase in nutrition knowledge (β=-0.2), perceived responsibility (β=-0.3) and restriction (β=-0.3) from baseline to week 12 were associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake. The present study was one of the first to quantify changes in the family food environment, and identify a number of factors which were associated with a positive dietary change. Because interventions focus on behaviour change, the findings may provide specific targets for intervention strategies in the future. Australia New Zealand Clinical

  13. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Long-term dietary intervention trials: critical issues and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton Georgina E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many challenges involved in running randomised controlled dietary intervention trials that investigate health outcomes. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the recruitment process, retention of participants and challenges faced in our dairy intervention trial, and to provide strategies to combat the difficulties of running long-term dietary intervention trials. Methods A 12-month, randomised, two-way crossover study was conducted in overweight adults with habitually low dairy food consumption to assess the effects of a high dairy intake (4 servings of reduced-fat dairy per day compared with a low dairy intake (1 serving of reduced-fat dairy per day on measures of cardiometabolic and cognitive health. On completion of the high dairy intake phase, each participant was interviewed about their experience in the trial and responses were used to evaluate the key issues for study participants. Results Although the recruitment target was achieved, high rates of attrition (49.3% and difficulties maintaining participant compliance (reported by 37.8% of participants were major threats to the viability of the study. Factors that contributed to the high attrition included inability to comply with the dietary requirements of the study protocol (27.0%, health problems or medication changes (24.3% and time commitment (10.8%. Conclusion Attrition and adherence to study requirements present challenges to trials requiring longer-term dietary change. Including a run-in period to further assess the motivation, commitment and availability of participants, maintaining regular contact with participants during control phases, minimising time commitment, providing flexibility with dietary requirements, facilitating positive experiences, and stringent monitoring of diet are some key recommendations for future dietary intervention trials. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12608000538347

  15. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  16. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  17. Code Generation for Protocols from CPN models Annotated with Pragmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Kindler, Ekkart

    software implementation satisfies the properties verified for the model. Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs) have been widely used to model and verify protocol software, but limited work exists on using CPN models of protocol software as a basis for automated code generation. In this report, we present an approach...... modelling languages, MDE further has the advantage that models are amenable to model checking which allows key behavioural properties of the software design to be verified. The combination of formally verified models and automated code generation contributes to a high degree of assurance that the resulting...... for generating protocol software from a restricted class of CPN models. The class of CPN models considered aims at being descriptive in that the models are intended to be helpful in understanding and conveying the operation of the protocol. At the same time, a descriptive model is close to a verifiable version...

  18. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  19. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  20. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  1. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive