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Sample records for diet physical activity

  1. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of ... feet before, during, and after physical activity. What physical activities should I do if I have diabetes? Most ...

  2. A diet and physical activity intervention for rural African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURPOSE Epidemic levels of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are rampant in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. We assessed the effectiveness of a six-month, church-based, diet and physical activity (PA) intervention for improving diet quality (as ...

  3. Physical activity and healthy diet: determinants and implicit relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Aida Isabel

    2014-06-01

    People who decide to lose weight by dieting often do so without participating in any associated physical activity. Although some people who participate in sports are unconcerned about their diet, it is generally believed that people who exercise tend to eat a healthy diet and those who do not exercise eat a less healthy diet. There is no clear relationship between the decisions regarding participation in physical activity and eating a healthy diet when choices are taken freely and not influenced by policy factors promoting healthy behaviour. However, these decisions may reveal some common explanatory factors and an implicit link. As such the aim of this study was to identify the common explanatory factors and investigate the existence of an implicit relationship. Econometric estimate - bivariate probit estimation. Using data from the Portuguese National Health Survey, a bivariate probit was undertaken for decisions regarding participation in physical activity and eating a healthy diet. The correlation between the residuals gives information on the implicit relationship between the healthy choices. Common explanatory factors were found between the decisions to eat healthy snacks and participate in physical activity, such as being married. However, holding voluntary private health insurance, smoking, getting older, living alone and unemployment were found to dissuade people from making healthy choices. Positive correlation was found between the residuals of the probit estimations, indicating that other unmeasurable variables have a similar influence on both decisions, such as peer pressure, cultural values, fashion, advertising and risk aversion. Further research is needed to improve understanding of decision making related to participation in physical activity and eating a healthy diet. This will facilitate the design of policies that will make a greater contribution to healthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier

  4. Nordic monitoring on diet, physical activity and overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagt, Sisse; Andersen, Lene Frost; Anderssen, Sigmund A.

    . In 2009, the indicator questions were validated against an objective method (physical activity) or existing survey methods (diet) and the present report mainly describes the validation studies. On basis of the validation studies the working group suggests that the indicators are used in a future......In 2007, a Nordic working group was established with the aim to describe a future Nordic monitoring system on diet, physical activity and overweight. The monitoring system should be simple and at relatively low cost. Therefore it has been decided to conduct the moni-toring as a telephone interview...

  5. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L

    2005-08-24

    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  6. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Cora L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet. International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  7. Diet and Physical Activity Apps: Perceived Effectiveness by App Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Amdam, Gro V; Almli, Valerie L; Oostindjer, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Background Diet and physical activity apps are two types of health apps that aim to promote healthy eating and energy expenditure through monitoring of dietary intake and physical activity. No clear evidence showing the effectiveness of using these apps to promote healthy eating and physical activity has been previously reported. Objective This study aimed to identify how diet and physical activity (PA) apps affected their users. It also investigated if using apps was associated with changes in diet and PA. Methods First, 3 semi-structured focus group discussions concerning app usability were conducted (15 app users and 8 nonusers; mean age 24.2 years, SD 6.4), including outcome measures such as motivations, experiences, opinions, and adherence. Results from the discussions were used to develop a questionnaire. The questionnaire, which contained questions about behavior changes, app usage, perceived effectiveness, and opinions of app usability, was answered by 500 Norwegians, with a mean age of 25.8 years (SD 5.1). Results App users found diet and PA apps effective in promoting healthy eating and exercising. These apps affected their actions, health consciousness, and self-education about nutrition and PA; and were also a part of their social lives. Over half of the users perceived that apps were effective in assisting them to eat healthily and to exercise more. Diet apps were more effective when they were frequently used and over a long period of time, compared to infrequent or short-term use (P=.01 and P=.02, respectively). Users who used diet and PA apps, perceived apps as more effective than users who only used one type of app (all Pusers were better at maintaining diet and PA behaviors than nonusers (all P<.05). Young adults found apps fun to use, but sometimes time consuming. They wanted apps to be designed to meet their personal expectations. Conclusions App usage influenced action, consciousness, self-education about nutrition and PA, and social life. It

  8. Treatment of NAFLD with diet, physical activity and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Trenell, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Lifestyle intervention can be effective when treating non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) patients. Weight loss decreases cardiovascular and diabetes risk and can also regress liver disease. Weight reductions of ⩾10% can induce a near universal non-alcoholic steatohepatitis resolution and fibrosis improvement by at least one stage. However, modest weight loss (>5%) can also produce important benefits on the components of the NAFLD activity score (NAS). Additionally, we need to explore the role of total calories and type of weight loss diet, micro- and macronutrients, evidence-based benefits of physical activity and exercise and finally support these modifications through established behavioural change models and techniques for long-term maintenance of lifestyle modifications. Following a Mediterranean diet can reduce liver fat even without weight loss and is the most recommended dietary pattern for NAFLD. The Mediterranean diet is characterised by reduced carbohydrate intake, especially sugars and refined carbohydrates (40% of the calories vs. 50-60% in a typical low fat diet), and increased monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acid intake (40% of the calories as fat vs. up-to 30% in a typical low fat diet). Both TV sitting (a reliable marker of overall sedentary behaviour) and physical activity are associated with cardio-metabolic health, NAFLD and overall mortality. A 'triple hit behavioural phenotype' of: i) sedentary behaviour, ii) low physical activity, and iii) poor diet have been defined. Clinical evidence strongly supports the role of lifestyle modification as a primary therapy for the management of NAFLD and NASH. This should be accompanied by the implementation of strategies to avoid relapse and weight regain. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blarigan, Erin L; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes the evidence regarding physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis in relation to quality of life, disease recurrence, and survival. There have been extensive reports on adiposity, inactivity, and certain diets, particularly those high in red and processed meats, and increased risk of colorectal cancer. Only in the past decade have data emerged on how such lifestyle factors are associated with outcomes in colorectal cancer survivors. Prospective observational studies have consistently reported that physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis reduces mortality. A meta-analysis estimated that each 15 metabolic equivalent task-hour per week increase in physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis was associated with a 38% lower risk of mortality. No randomized controlled trials have been completed to confirm that physical activity lowers risk of mortality among colorectal cancer survivors; however, trials have shown that physical activity, including structured exercise, is safe for colorectal cancer survivors (localized to metastatic stage, during and after treatment) and improves cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function. In addition, prospective observational studies have suggested that a Western dietary pattern, high carbohydrate intake, and consuming sugar-sweetened beverages after diagnosis may increase risk of colorectal cancer recurrence and mortality, but these data are limited to single analyses from one of two US cohorts. Additional data from prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available evidence, it is reasonable to counsel colorectal cancer survivors to engage in regular physical activity and limit consumption of refined carbohydrates, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  10. Can Diet and Physical Activity Limit Alzheimer's Disease Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Shraddha D; Geetha, Thangiah; Broderick, Tom L; Babu, Jeganathan Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting elderly individuals at an alarming rate. It has become a global health crisis imposing tremendous social and economic burden on society. Although there is no cure for AD, it is important to identify and implement preventive strategies that may delay or prevent the symptoms, limit the burden, and improve the quality of life of those afflicted. Adequate nutrition and physical activity are the two potential lifestyle modifiable factors that have gained considerable interest for their potential in the prevention or management of this challenging disease. In this review, we discuss the beneficial effects of physical activity and adequate nutrition on minimizing the risk of developing AD. The research question was initially formulated in a structured and explicit way. Relevant studies were identified using a wide range of scientific databases. Their potential relevance was based on the criteria for inclusion and exclusion. The quality of selected studies was subjected to a more precise quality assessment using standard tools. A detailed description of the implemented intervention and how it differed from what the control group received was outlined. The effects of intervention on measurable outcomes for the study sample were applied. One hundred and sixty-four references were included in the review comprising of epidemiological, longitudinal, cross-sectional, intervention and randomized controlled studies. This review highlighted the effect of various nutrient diet supplements on cognitive performance in humans as well as animals with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Moreover, the effect of physical exercise on the cognitive function in animal models with AD was outlined. The findings of this review highlight the therapeutic potential of combination of nutritionally adequate diet and physical activity in preventing or delaying the symptoms associated with AD pathology.

  11. Diet and physical activity in the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mamta; Shike, Moshe

    2014-12-01

    Diet has been linked to the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) and may explain some of the differences in incidence and mortality among various populations. Evidence suggests that a high intake of red and processed meats is associated with an increased risk of CRC. The protective benefits of fiber are unclear, although in some studies fiber is associated with reduced CRC risk. The role of supplements, such as calcium, vitamin D, and folic acid, remains uncertain, and these nutrients cannot be currently recommended for chemoprevention. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. Because of the inherent difficulty in studying the effects of specific nutrients, dietary pattern analysis may be a preferable approach to the investigation of the relationship between diet and risk for human diseases. Lifestyle modifications, such as increasing physical activity and consumption of a diet rich in fiber, fruits, vegetables, fish, and poultry and low in red and processed meats, have been advocated for primary prevention of several chronic diseases, and may in fact be beneficial for cancer prevention, particularly CRC. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  12. Determinants of diet and physical activity (DEDIPAC): a summary of findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, J.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Loyen, A.; Ahrens, W.; Allais, O.; Andersen, L.F.; Cardon, G.; Capranica, L.; Chastin, S.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; De Craemer, M.; Donnelly, A.; Ekelund, U.; Finglas, P.; Flechtner-Mors, M.; Hebestreit, A.; Kubiak, T.; Lanza, M.; Lien, N.; MacDonncha, C.; Mazzocchi, M.; Monsivais, P.; Murphy, M.; Nicolaou, M.; Nöthlings, U.; O’Gorman, D.J.; Renner, B.; Roos, G.; van den Berg, M.; Schulze, M.B.; Steinacker, J.M.; Stronks, K.; Volkert, D.; Lakerveld, J.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of the Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity (DEDIPAC) Knowledge Hub, 2013–2016, was the first action taken by the ‘Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life’ European Joint Programming Initiative. DEDIPAC aimed to provide better insight into the determinants of diet, physical activity

  13. Determinants of diet and physical activity (DEDIPAC): a summary of findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, Johannes; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Loyen, Anne; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Allais, Oliver; Andersen, Lene F.; Cardon, Greet; Capranica, Laura; Chastin, Sebastien; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; de Craemer, Marieke; Donnelly, Alan; Ekelund, Ulf; Finglas, Paul; Flechtner-Mors, Marion; Hebestreit, Antje; Kubiak, Thomas; Lanza, Massimo; Lien, Nanna; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Mazzocchi, Mario; Monsivais, Pablo; Murphy, Marie; Nicolaou, Mary; Nöthlings, Ute; O'Gorman, Donal J.; Renner, Britta; Roos, Gun; van den Berg, Matthijs; Schulze, Matthias B.; Steinacker, Jürgen M.; Stronks, Karien; Volkert, Dorothee; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of the Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity (DEDIPAC) Knowledge Hub, 2013-2016, was the first action taken by the 'Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life' European Joint Programming Initiative. DEDIPAC aimed to provide better insight into the determinants of diet, physical activity

  14. Determinants of diet and physical activity (DEDIPAC): a summary of findings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, Johannes; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Loyen, Anne; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Allais, Oliver; Andersen, Lene F; Cardon, Greet; Capranica, Laura; Chastin, Sebastien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Craemer, Marieke; Donnelly, Alan; Ekelund, Ulf; Finglas, Paul; Flechtner-Mors, Marion; Hebestreit, Antje; Kubiak, Thomas; Lanza, Massimo; Lien, Nanna; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Mazzocchi, Mario; Monsivais, Pablo; Murphy, Marie; Nicolaou, Mary; Nöthlings, Ute; O'Gorman, Donal J; Renner, Britta; Roos, Gun; van den Berg, Matthijs; Schulze, Matthias B; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Stronks, Karien; Volkert, Dorothee; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of the Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity (DEDIPAC) Knowledge Hub, 2013-2016, was the first action taken by the 'Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life' European Joint Programming Initiative. DEDIPAC aimed to provide better insight into the determinants of diet, physical activity

  15. Are a healthy diet and physical activity synergistically associated with cognitive functioning in older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, W.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, M.; Van der Schans, C. P.; Hobbelen, J. S. M.

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being

  16. Are a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Synergistically Associated with Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, W; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, M; van der Schans, C P; Hobbelen, J S M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and

  17. Are a healthy diet and physical activity synergistically associated with cognitive functioning in older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Willemke; Jager, Harriët; Visser, M.; van der Schans, Cees; Hobbelen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and

  18. Are a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Synergistically Associated with Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijholt, W; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, M; van der Schans, C P; Hobbelen, J S M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being physically active with cognitive functioning. Cross-sectional study. Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) were used. We analyzed data from 2,165 community dwelling adults who were aged 55-85 years, 56% of whom were female. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), an MMSE score of >26 indicates good cognitive functioning. Physical activity was assessed by the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire and was considered sufficient if the person engaged in moderately intense physical activity ≥ 20 min/day. A healthy diet score was based on the intake of fruit, vegetables and fish. Each of the food groups was assigned a score that ranged from 1 (well below the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet) to 4 (well above the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet), and the scores were aggregated to determine a healthy diet (healthy ≥ 9 points). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine the (synergistic) association among physical activity, a healthy diet and cognitive functioning. All analyses were adjusted for potential chronic diseases and lifestyle confounders. Of all of the participants, 25% were diagnosed with a cognitive impairment (MMSE ≤26), 80% were physically active and 41% had a healthy diet. Sixty three percent of the participants both adhered to a healthy diet and were physically active. Sufficient daily physical activity (OR=2.545 phealthy diet (OR=1.766 p=.002) were associated with good cognitive functioning. After adjusting for confounding factors, sufficient physical activity was not significantly related to cognitive functioning (p=.163); however adherence to a healthy diet remained

  19. Physical Activity and Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity: The ATTICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros A. Kavouras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association of physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in total antioxidant capacity (TAC. A random sample of 1514 men and 1528 women was selected from Attica region. Physical activity was assessed with a translated version of the validated “International Physical Activity Questionnaire” (iPAQ, and dietary intake through a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by the MedDietScore that incorporated the inherent characteristics of this diet. TAC was positively correlated with the degree of physical activity (P<.05. TAC was also positively correlated with MedDietScore (r=0.24, P<.001. Stratified analysis by diet status revealed that the most beneficial results were observed to highly active people as compared to inactive, who also followed the Mediterranean diet (288  ±  70 μmol/L, 230  ±  50 μmol/L, resp., after adjusting for various confounders. Increased physical activity and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet were associated with increased total antioxidant capacity.

  20. Factors Related to Healthy Diet and Physical Activity in Hospital-Based Clinical Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nancy M; Butler, Robert; Sorrell, Jeanne

    2014-09-30

    Hospitals often promote healthy lifestyles, but little is known about nurses' actual diet and physical activity. Greater understanding about these lifestyle choices for clinical nurses may improve existing hospital-based programs and/or create desirable services. This article discusses a study that considered diet and physical activity of clinical nurses, using elements of Pender's self-care theory as a conceptual framework. Study methods included a cross-sectional, correlational design and a convenience sample of 278 nurses who worked on units with 24 hours/day and seven days-per-week responsibilities. Participants completed diet and exercise questionnaires about perceptions of attitudes and opinions, barriers, diet benefits/exercise motivators, self-efficacy, and locus of control, and personal and work characteristics. Diet and activity categories were created. Study results demonstrated that over 50% of nurses had moderately healthy diets but were insufficiently active. Healthy diet and physical activity levels were associated with higher self-efficacy, more diet benefits and physical activity motivators, fewer perceived barriers, and confidence in body image. The article discussion and conclusion sections note areas for future research and suggest that focused interventions that address benefits, motivators, and self-efficacy may increase participation in hospital-based programs and enhance healthy lifestyle for hospital-based clinical nurses.

  1. An Evaluation of Diet and Physical Activity Messaging in African American Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brook E.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The use of faith-based organizations as sites to deliver diet and physical activity interventions is increasing. Methods to assess the messaging environment within churches are limited. Our research aimed to develop and test an objective assessment methodology to characterize health messages, particularly those related to diet and physical…

  2. Low-income, pregnant, African American women's views on physical activity and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Susan W; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to gain insight into how low-income, pregnant, African American women viewed physical activity and approached nutrition during pregnancy. Three focus groups with a total of 26 women were conducted utilizing open-ended questions related to physical activity and diet during pregnancy. Content analysis was used to analyze the verbatim transcripts. Groups were compared and contrasted at the within-group and between-group levels to identify themes. Two themes that related to physical activity during pregnancy were identified: 1) fatigue and low energy dictate activity and 2) motivation to exercise is not there. Three themes were identified that related to diet: 1) despite best intentions, appetite, taste, and cravings drive eating behavior; 2) I'll decide for myself what to eat; and 3) eating out is a way of life. Women reported that being physically active and improving their diets was not easy. Women indicated that their levels of physical activity had decreased since becoming pregnant. Attempts at improving their diets were undermined by frequenting fast food restaurants and cravings for highly dense, palatable foods. Women ceded to the physical aspects of pregnancy, often choosing to ignore the advice of others. A combination of low levels of physical activity and calorie-dense diets increased the risk of excessive gestational weight gain in this sample of women, consequently increasing the risk for weight retention after pregnancy. Health care providers can promote healthy eating and physical activity by building on women's being "in tune with and listening to" their bodies. They can query women about their beliefs regarding physical activity and diet and offer information to ensure understanding of what contributes to healthy pregnancy outcomes. Intervention can focus on factors such as cravings and what tastes good, suggesting ways to manage pregnancy effects within a healthy diet. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  3. Diet and physical activity in schools: perspectives from the implementation of the WHO global strategy on diet, physical activity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeias, Vanessa; Armstrong, Timothy P; Xuereb, Godfrey C

    2010-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes, are by far the leading cause of mortality in the world, representing 60% of all deaths. Unhealthy diets and physical inactivity are well-established risk factors for overweight and the major NCD. In response to the rapid global growth of the NCD burden, the 2008 Action Plan on Prevention and Control of NCD and the 2004 Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health (DPAS) have been developed and endorsed as key international policy instruments. As part of the work of the World Health Organization (WHO) to implement these resolutions, a framework describing the core elements for the development and implementation of a national school policy focused on diet and physical activity has been developed. This framework is included in the "DPAS implementation tool box", and it aims to guide policy-makers in the development and implementation of policies that promote healthy eating and physical activity in the school setting through changes in environment, behaviour and education. The article describes the key elements of the framework and details how this tool is integrated into other WHO activities to provide leadership, guidance, capacity building, evidence-based recommendations and advocacy for action to improve dietary practices and increase physical activity globally.

  4. Why combine diet and physical activity in the same international research society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Tom

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research in diet and physical activity in the U.S. started in very different traditions, with behavioral science input being uneven in their development. Investigators and policy makers in Europe have recognized the complementarity of diet and physical activity and incorporated them both under the label Public Health Nutrition. Joining these disciplines internationally offers the opportunity to benefit all, since the problems addressed are human, not specific to any one country. In regard to why combine diet and physical activity, at the biological level, there is reason to believe that diet and physical activity working in concert can remodel physiological structures and processes toward healthful ends. The diet and physical activity behaviors themselves vary in characteristics and are similar in others. The behavioral science components of these two disciplines face similar problems, and can learn from the advances made by the other, in the areas of measurement, correlates and intervention. By working together, knowledge will be enhanced from uncovering complementary and interactive relationships between diet and physical activity, and in relation to disease risks, that may result in designing more effective and efficient interventions and policies. Since the behavioral sciences are at a disadvantage in comparison to the biological sciences in terms of scientific advances and thereby capturing the popular imagination for solutions to health problems, we must redouble our efforts to enhance funding for behavioral research in regard to diet and physical activity and to make the research advances necessary to prevent the medicalizing of essentially social and behavioral problems. Nutrition and physical activity should most effectively do this together.

  5. Moderate Physical Activity and Its Relationship to Select Measures of a Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Frank; Dunnagan, Tim; Haynes, George; Moore, Sylvia; Pelican, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    In rural communities, physical activity may influence and predict nutritional behaviors. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if an individual's stage of participation in moderate physical activity was related to select measures of a healthy diet. Data were collected using a mail-in survey from a random sample conducted in the…

  6. Associations among physical activity, diet quality, and weight status in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; Taverno Ross, Sharon E; Liese, Angela D; Dowda, Marsha

    2015-04-01

    Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese, but the associations between physical activity, diet quality, and weight status have not been examined in a representative sample of US adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), diet quality, and weight status within and across age groups in US adults. Participants included 2587 men and 2412 women age 20 to ≥70 yr from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 and 2005-2006. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Diet quality was assessed with overall Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores. Measures of weight status, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were assessed using standard National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey protocols. Across age groups, MVPA was lower in the older age groups for both men and women, whereas diet quality was higher (P men and women in nearly every age group (P men age 30-39, 40-49 (BMI only), and 50-59 yr and women age 50-59 yr (P physical activity, and diet quality in US men and women. MVPA was very consistently related to weight status in both genders. The relation between diet quality and weight status was less consistent. These findings provide support for public health efforts to prevent obesity by promoting increased physical activity in adult Americans.

  7. The effects of diet and physical activity on plasma homovanillic acid in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Mohs, R C; Davis, K L

    1983-03-01

    This study examines the effect of diet and moderate physical activity on plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in healthy young males. At weekly intervals, subjects were fed four isocaloric meals: polycose (pure carbohydrate), sustecal, low monoamine, and high monoamine. Moderate physical activity consisted of 30 minutes of exercise on a bicycle ergometer. The effect of diet on plasma HVA (pHVA) was highly significant. Compared to the polycose meal, the high monoamine meal significantly increased pHVA. Moderate physical activity also significantly increased pHVA. Future clinical studies using pHVA in man as an index of brain dopamine function should control for the effects of both diet and physical activity.

  8. The clustering of diet, physical activity and sedentary behavior in children and adolescents: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Timperio, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior are important, yet modifiable, determinants of obesity. Recent research into the clustering of these behaviors suggests that children and adolescents have multiple obesogenic risk factors. This paper reviews studies using empirical, data-driven methodologies, such as cluster analysis (CA) and latent class analysis (LCA), to identify clustering patterns of diet, PA and sedentary behavior among children or adolescents and their associations wi...

  9. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  10. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: Education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Lian eTam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011, estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3% to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviours. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  11. Design of Video Games for Children’s Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self reg...

  12. ‘Small Changes' to Diet and Physical Activity Behaviors for Weight Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Hills

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous short- and long-term health consequences. Low levels of physical activity and poor dietary habits are consistent with an increased risk of obesity in an obesogenic environment. Relatively little research has investigated associations between eating and activity behaviors by using a systems biology approach and by considering the dynamics of the energy balance concept. A significant body of research indicates that a small positive energy balance over time is sufficient to cause weight gain in many individuals. In contrast, small changes in nutrition and physical activity behaviors can prevent weight gain. In the context of weight management, it may be more feasible for most people to make small compared to large short-term changes in diet and activity. This paper presents a case for the use of small and incremental changes in diet and physical activity for improved weight management in the context of a toxic obesogenic environment.

  13. Combined diet and physical activity is better than diet or physical activity alone at improving health outcomes for patients in New Zealand's primary care intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Catherine Anne; Hamlin, Michael John

    2018-02-08

    A dearth of knowledge exists regarding how multiple health behavior changes made within an exercise prescription programme can improve health parameters. This study aimed to analyse the impact of changing diet and increasing exercise on health improvements among exercise prescription patients. In 2016, a representative sample of all enroled New Zealand exercise prescription programme (Green Prescription) patients were surveyed (N = 1488, 29% male, 46% ≥ 60 yr). Seven subsamples were created according to their associated health problems; metabolic (n = 1192), physiological (n = 627), psychological (n = 447), sleep problems (n = 253), breathing difficulties (n = 243), fall prevention (n = 104), and smoking (n = 67). After controlling for sex and age, multinomial regression analyses were executed. Overall, weight problems were most prevalent (n = 886, 60%), followed by high blood pressure/risk of stroke (n = 424, 29%), arthritis (n = 397, 27%), and back pain/problems (n = 382, 26%). Among patients who reported metabolic health problems, those who changed their diet were 7.2, 2.4 and 3.5 times more likely to lose weight, lower their blood pressure, and lower their cholesterol, respectively compared to the control group. Moreover, those who increased their physical activity levels were 5.2 times more likely to lose weight in comparison to controls. Patients who both increased physical activity and improved diet revealed higher odds of experiencing health improvements than those who only made one change. Most notably, the odds of losing weight were much higher for patients changing both behaviours (17.5) versus changing only physical activity (5.2) or only diet (7.2). Although it is not currently a programme objective, policy-makers could include nutrition education within the Green Prescription initiative, particularly for the 55% of patients who changed their diet while in the programme. Physical activity prescription with a

  14. Relationship between diet and physical activity level in adolescents from post-grammar schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitruk, Agnieszka; Kunicka, Izabela; Popławska, Helena; Hołub, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate diet and physical activity are vital determinants of psychophysical development in children and adolescents. The aim of the study was to analyse an association between dietary habits and physical activity levels of adolescents from post-grammar schools. The study included 110 girls and 65 boys between 16 and 19 years of age from two post-grammar schools in Biała Podlaska in Poland. They were subjected to a diagnostic survey providing information on their diet (number of meals a day, their regularity, frequency of bread, dairy, meat, fish, sweet, fruit, vegetable and fast food consumption, preferred ways of food processing). Physical activity levels were determined with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire--Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Based on these data, the respondents were stratified to high, moderate and low physical activity groups. Due to small number of participants presenting with low physical activity levels, we did not include this group in further analyses. The significance of differences in the dietary habits of adolescents presenting with high and moderate physical activity levels was verified with the χ2 test. Most girls and boys presented with high levels of physical activity. However, we did not find an evident relationship between dietary habits and physical activity levels. Girls from high and moderate physical activity groups differed solely in terms of the number of daily meals, frequency of meat and sweet consumption, and significant intergroup differences observed among boys pertained to the frequencies of whole-wheat bread, meat and fast food consumption. The abovementioned food products were consumed more often by girls and boys presenting with high physical activity levels. The dietary mistakes observed in physically active adolescents from post-secondary schools justify intensification of their dietary education programs.

  15. Lifestyle: importance of a balanced diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmake, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide evidenced-based information to help the clinician understand the relationship of lifestyle (nutritional and activity) approaches to disease prevention and health promotion. Major health factors correlated to these activities of daily life will be reviewed.

  16. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  17. Story immersion may be effective in promoting diet and physical activity in Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effect of playing a health video game embedded with story immersion, Escape from Diab (Diab), on children's diet and physical activity (PA), and also explored whether children immersed in Diab had greater positive outcomes. The study design employed two groups, nonrandomized...

  18. Investigating acculturation, diet, and physical activity among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in diet and physical activity. Research to understand the acculturative process early in life is important; however, there is no qualitative research directly with Chinese-American children. This study, currently in progress, a...

  19. Physical activity, healthy diet and good cognitive functioning: findings from the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Willemke; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Visser, M.; Hobbelen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Background. In an ageing society cognitive decline is expected to become an important health problem. Previous studies showed that a healthy lifestyle, i.e. sufficient physical activity and a healthy diet,can benefit cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to assess the (synergistic) association

  20. Improving diet and physical activity: 12 lessons from controlling tobacco smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Yach, Derek; McKee, Martin; Lopez, Alan D; Novotny, Tom

    2005-01-01

    On behalf of Oxford Vision 2020, a partnership dedicated to preventing the forecast worldwide growth of chronic diseases, the authors suggest that 12 lessons learnt from attempts to control tobacco smoking could be used to tackle the chronic disease epidemics evolving from unhealthy diets and a lack of physical activity

  1. The declining prevalence of overweight among Russian children: income, diet, and physical activity behavior changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household income has been shown to be positively associated with overweight among post-Soviet Russian adults. The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among income, diet, physical activity behaviors and overweight among Russian children during a period of economic upheaval. Subjects inc...

  2. Diet and physical activity in African-American girls: Seasonal differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet and physical activity (PA) may vary by season. Two 24-hour dietary recalls and 7 days of accelerometry were collected from 342 8-10 year-old African-American girls between January 2013 and October 2014. Season was based on time of data collection (fall, spring, winter, summer). Seasonal differe...

  3. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  4. Design of video games for children's diet and physical activity behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet, and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and ov...

  5. Physical activity level is impaired and diet dependent in preterm newborn pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Muqing; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Van Ginneken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    and neonatal physical activity. METHODS: In experiment 1, preterm and term pigs were fed parenteral nutrition (PN) or PN plus bovine colostrum (BC, 16-64 ml/kg/d enterally) for 5 d. In experiment 2, preterm pigs were fed PN+BC or PN+formula for 5 d. In experiment 3, preterm pigs were fed BC, formula, or human...... feeding increased HCA, intestinal weights, and necrotizing enteritis resistance, relative to formula (experiment 3). CONCLUSION: Preterm pigs show decreased physical activity, and the first enteral feeds diet dependently stimulate both gut growth and physical activity. The effects may arise from...

  6. Brain Functional Connectivity Is Modified by a Hypocaloric Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity in Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casares, Natalia; Bernal-López, María R; Roé-Vellvé, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Fernández-García, Jose C; García-Arnés, Juan A; Ramos-Rodriguez, José R; Alfaro, Francisco; Santamaria-Fernández, Sonia; Steward, Trevor; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Garcia-Garcia, Isabel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco J; Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state has shown altered brain connectivity networks in obese individuals. However, the impact of a Mediterranean diet on cerebral connectivity in obese patients when losing weight has not been previously explored. The aim of this study was to examine the connectivity between brain structures before and six months after following a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet and physical activity program in a group of sixteen obese women aged 46.31 ± 4.07 years. Before and after the intervention program, the body mass index (BMI) (kg/m²) was 38.15 ± 4.7 vs. 34.18 ± 4.5 ( p diet and physical exercise.

  7. Determinants of diet and physical activity (DEDIPAC): a summary of findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Loyen, Anne; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Allais, Oliver; Andersen, Lene F; Cardon, Greet; Capranica, Laura; Chastin, Sebastien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Craemer, Marieke; Donnelly, Alan; Ekelund, Ulf; Finglas, Paul; Flechtner-Mors, Marion; Hebestreit, Antje; Kubiak, Thomas; Lanza, Massimo; Lien, Nanna; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Mazzocchi, Mario; Monsivais, Pablo; Murphy, Marie; Nicolaou, Mary; Nöthlings, Ute; O'Gorman, Donal J; Renner, Britta; Roos, Gun; van den Berg, Matthijs; Schulze, Matthias B; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Stronks, Karien; Volkert, Dorothee; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2017-11-03

    The establishment of the Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity (DEDIPAC) Knowledge Hub, 2013-2016, was the first action taken by the 'Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life' European Joint Programming Initiative. DEDIPAC aimed to provide better insight into the determinants of diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour across the life course, i.e. insight into the causes of the causes of important, non-communicable diseases across Europe and beyond. DEDIPAC was launched in late 2013, and delivered its final report in late 2016. In this paper we give an overview of what was achieved in terms of furthering measurement and monitoring, providing overviews of the state-of-the-art in the field, and building toolboxes for further research and practice. Additionally, we propose some of the next steps that are now required to move forward in this field, arguing in favour of 1) sustaining the Knowledge Hub and developing it into a European virtual research institute and knowledge centre for determinants of behavioural nutrition and physical activity with close links to other parts of the world; 2) establishing a cohort study of families across all regions of Europe focusing specifically on the individual and contextual determinants of major, non-communicable disease; and 3) furthering DEDIPAC's work on nutrition, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour policy evaluation and benchmarking across Europe by aligning with other international initiatives and by supporting harmonisation of pan-European surveillance.

  8. Effects of antenatal diet and physical activity on maternal and fetal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogozińska, Ewelina; Marlin, Nadine; Jackson, Louise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet- and physical activity-based interventions in pregnancy have the potential to alter maternal and child outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether or not the effects of diet and lifestyle interventions vary in subgroups of women, based on maternal body mass index (BMI), age, parity......, ethnicity, parity or underlying medical conditions for GWG, and composite maternal and fetal outcomes. Lifestyle interventions reduce Caesarean sections (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.99), but not other individual maternal outcomes such as gestational diabetes mellitus (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.10), pre...

  9. Association of Vitamin D with Diet Quality, Sun Exposure, Physical Activity, Sociodemographic and Anthropometrics Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sharifi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D has been linked to health conditions and many serious diseases including cardiovascular, diabetes, and cancer. This study was conducted to determine the correlation between vitamin D with diet quality, sun exposure, physical activity, sociodemographic, and anthropometrics indices. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 180 subjects (90 males and 90 females aged from 14 to 57 years were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and anthropometric data, physical activity and food intake information. The correlation between serum vitamin D with these variables was analyzed. Results: Significant difference was noted between two genders regarding age, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, job, income, physical activity, LDL, HDL, TG, and cholesterol. Low quality diets denoted to a mean global score of 47±6.3 and 46±6.4 in male and females, respectively. No significant difference was found between diet quality, calcium intake (1310±734 mg, and vitamin D intake (1.8±1.5 mg with serum vitamin D level. Further analysis revealed that there was a significant positive correlation between cholesterol and saturated fat intake and serum vitamin D. Between two genders, the correlation between physical activity (p<0.005, sitting time(p<0.04, and income (p<0.04 with serum vitamin D level was significant. Conclusion: Based on significant correlation between serum vitamin D level, with cholesterol, saturated fat intake, physical activity and income, we can conclude that physical activity has correlation with a favorable vitamin D status.

  10. Economic instruments for population diet and physical activity behaviour change: a systematic scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Shemilt

    Full Text Available Unhealthy diet and low levels of physical activity are common behavioural factors in the aetiology of many non-communicable diseases. Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of policy and research interest in the use of taxes and other economic instruments to improve population health.To assemble, configure and analyse empirical research studies available to inform the public health case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change.We conducted a systematic scoping review of evidence for the effects of specific interventions to change, or general exposure to variations in, prices or income on dietary and physical activity behaviours and corollary outcomes. Systematic electronic searches and parallel snowball searches retrieved >1 million study records. Text mining technologies were used to prioritise title-abstract records for screening. Eligible studies were selected, classified and analysed in terms of key characteristics and principal findings, using a narrative, configuring synthesis focused on implications for policy and further research.We identified 880 eligible studies, including 192 intervention studies and 768 studies that incorporated evidence for prices or income as correlates or determinants of target outcomes. Current evidence for the effects of economic instruments and exposures on diet and physical activity is limited in quality and equivocal in terms of its policy implications. Direct evidence for the effects of economic instruments is heavily skewed towards impacts on diet, with a relative lack of evidence for impacts on physical activity.The evidence-based case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change may be less compelling than some proponents have claimed. Future research should include measurement of people's actual behavioural responses using study designs capable of generating reliable causal inferences regarding intervention

  11. Variations in reporting of outcomes in randomized trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogozińska, Ewelina; Marlin, Nadine; Yang, Fen

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy report on various outcomes. We aimed to assess the variations in outcomes reported and their quality in trials on lifestyle interventions in pregnancy. METHODS: We searched major databases without language restrictions for randomized controlled...... trials on diet and physical activity-based interventions in pregnancy up to March 2015. Two independent reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction. We estimated the percentage of papers reporting 'critically important' and 'important' outcomes. We defined the quality of reporting...... as a proportion using a six-item questionnaire. Regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting this quality. RESULTS: Sixty-six randomized controlled trials were published in 78 papers (66 main, 12 secondary). Gestational diabetes (57.6%, 38/66), preterm birth (48.5%, 32/66) and cesarian section (60...

  12. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, diet, and cancer: an update and emerging new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Anderson, Cheryl; Lippman, Scott M

    2017-08-01

    The lifestyle factors of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and diet are increasingly being studied for their associations with cancer. Physical activity is inversely associated with and sedentary behaviour is positively (and independently) associated with an increased risk of more than ten types of cancer, including colorectal cancer (and advanced adenomas), endometrial cancers, and breast cancer. The most consistent dietary risk factor for premalignant and invasive breast cancer is alcohol, whether consumed during early or late adult life, even at low levels. Epidemiological studies show that the inclusion of wholegrain, fibre, fruits, and vegetables within diets are associated with reduced cancer risk, with diet during early life (age diet-related factors have not yet shown any conclusive associations between diet and cancer incidence. Obesity is a key contributory factor associated with cancer risk and mortality, including in dose-response associations in endometrial and post-menopausal breast cancer, and in degree and duration of fatty liver disease-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Obesity produces an inflammatory state, characterised by macrophages clustered around enlarged hypertrophied, dead, and dying adipocytes, forming crown-like structures. Increased concentrations of aromatase and interleukin 6 in inflamed breast tissue and an increased number of macrophages, compared with healthy tissue, are also observed in women with normal body mass index, suggesting a metabolic obesity state. Emerging randomised controlled trials of physical activity and dietary factors and mechanistic studies of immunity, inflammation, extracellular matrix mechanics, epigenetic or transcriptional regulation, protein translation, circadian disruption, and interactions of the multibiome with lifestyle factors will be crucial to advance this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Are diet and physical activity patterns related to cigarette smoking in adolescents? Findings from Project EAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Story, Mary; Perry, Cheryl L; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J

    2007-07-01

    An inadequate diet and physical inactivity may compound the many deleterious effects of smoking on health. Some research indicates that smoking behavior is related to other health behaviors, but little research has examined how smoking may be related to dietary intake of key nutrients, consumption of fast food, sedentary lifestyle, or weight status. The purpose of this study was to describe smoking frequency among adolescents and its relationship to physical activity and dietary patterns. The research study employed a cross-sectional, population-based design. Adolescents self-reported cigarette smoking, physical activity, and eating behaviors on the Project EAT (Eating Among Teens) survey and reported dietary intake on a food frequency questionnaire completed in school classrooms. The sample included 4746 middle school and high school students from Minneapolis-St. Paul public schools. Mixed-model regression, which was controlled for sex, race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, grade level (middle school or high school), and school, was used to examine the association of smoking with diet and physical activity patterns. Overall, reported smoking frequency was inversely related to participating in team sports, eating regular meals, and consuming healthful foods and nutrients. Smoking frequency was directly related to frequency of fast-food and soft drink consumption. Adolescents who smoke cigarettes may be less likely to engage in health-promoting lifestyle behaviors. Interventions are needed to prevent smoking and the unhealthy dietary practices and physical activity behaviors that may be associated with it.

  14. Diet quality is associated with leisure-time physical activity in individuals at cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort-Pires, Milena; Salvador, Emanuel P; Folchetti, Luciana D; Siqueira-Catania, Antonela; Barros, Camila R; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouvea

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether diet quality was associated with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and television viewing and the associations of these variables with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and novel biomarkers in individuals at cardiometabolic risk. A total of 193 prediabetic adults (63.7% women, mean age 54.1 years), screened for a diabetes prevention program in Brazil, participated in this cross-sectional study. Clinical data and blood samples were collected for several determinations. Twenty-four-hour recalls were used to calculate the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to Brazilian dietary habits and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess physical activity level. Analysis of covariance with adjustments for age and body mass index (BMI) was employed to test associations across categories of LTPA and television viewing. Stratifying according to LTPA categories, the most active subset (≥150 minutes/week) showed better HEI scores after adjustments (64.6 ± 11.0, 65.1 ± 10.3, and 68.6 ± 10.8, p = 0.02) and significant higher values of dark green and orange vegetables but not of whole grains (p = 0.06). Active individuals had lower BMI, waist circumference, inflammatory markers, and better insulin sensitivity (p physical activity [PA]), with those with unhealthy habits revealing better anthropometric and cardiometabolic profiles in the former group. Diet quality assessed by the HEI adapted for Brazilian eating habits attained significance in differentiating more active from inactive at-risk individuals during leisure time. Time watching television, as a surrogate of sedentary behavior, is not useful to detect unhealthy diet quality. LTPA is indicative of better cardiometabolic profile reflected by lipid and inflammatory markers and index of insulin resistance.

  15. Sex determines effect of physical activity on diet preference: Association of striatal opioids and gut microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jenna R; Muckerman, Julie E; Wright, Anna M; Davis, Daniel J; Childs, Tom E; Gillespie, Catherine E; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Booth, Frank W; Ericsson, Aaron C; Will, Matthew J

    2017-09-15

    Previous studies suggest an interaction between the level of physical activity and diet preference. However, this relationship has not been well characterized for sex differences that may exist. The present study examined the influence of sex on diet preference in male and female Wistar rats that were housed under either sedentary (no wheel access) (SED) or voluntary wheel running access (RUN) conditions. Following a 1 week acclimation period to these conditions, standard chow was replaced with concurrent ad libitum access to a choice of 3 pelleted diets (high-fat, high-sucrose, and high-corn starch) in the home cage. SED and RUN conditions remained throughout the next 4 week diet preference assessment period. Body weight, running distance, and intake of each diet were measured daily. At the conclusion of the 4 week diet preference test, animals were sacrificed and brains were collected for mRNA analysis. Fecal samples were also collected before and after the 4 week diet preference phase to characterize microbiota composition. Results indicate sex dependent interactions between physical activity and both behavioral and physiological measures. Females in both RUN and SED conditions preferred the high-fat diet, consuming significantly more high-fat diet than either of the other two diets. While male SED rats also preferred the high-fat diet, male RUN rats consumed significantly less high-fat diet than the other groups, instead preferring all three diets equally. There was also a sex dependent influence of physical activity on both reward related opioid mRNA expression in the ventral striatum and the characterization of gut microbiota. The significant sex differences in response to physical activity observed through both behavioral and physiological measures suggest potential motivational or metabolic difference between males and females. The findings highlight the necessity for further exploration between male and female response to physical activity and feeding

  16. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Jago, Russ; Griffith, Melissa Juliano; Islam, Noemi; Nguyen, Nga; Watson, Kathleen B

    2011-01-01

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. Evaluate outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, and adiposity. Two-group RCT; assessments occurred at baseline, immediately after Diab, immediately after Nano, and 2 months later. Data were collected in 2008-2009, and analyses were conducted in 2009-2010. 133 children aged 10-12 years, initially between 50th percentile and 95th percentile BMI. Treatment group played Diab and Nano in sequence. Control Group played diet and physical activity knowledge-based games on popular websites. Servings of fruit, vegetable, and water; minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity. At each point of assessment: 3 nonconsecutive days of 24-hour dietary recalls; 5 consecutive days of physical activity using accelerometers; and assessment of height, weight, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold. A repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted (analyzed in 2009-2010). Children playing these video games increased fruit and vegetable consumption by about 0.67 servings per day (pchange. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Diet, Physical Activity, and Obesity in School-Aged Indigenous Youths in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C. Valery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake (“short nutrition questionnaire” were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food (“fast food” at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.43–4.40, though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P<0.001. Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07–3.35 more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity.

  18. Physical activity and hypocaloric diet recovers osteoblasts homeostasis in women affected by abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte, Viviana M; Fittipaldi, Simona; Marocco, Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Fornari, Rachele; Guidetti, Laura; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Nicolai, Emanuele; Di Luigi, Luigi; Donini, Lorenzo M; Baldari, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Greco, Emanuela A; Migliaccio, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease linked to metabolic chronic disorders such as diabetes, and hypertension. Also, it has recently been associated with skeletal alterations and low bone mineral density. We previously demonstrated that exposure of osteoblasts to sera of sedentary subjects affected by obesity alters cell homeostasis in vitro, leading to disruption of intracellular differentiation pathways and cellular activity. Thus, the purpose of the present study has been to evaluate whether sera of sedentary obese women, subjected to physical activity and hypocaloric diet, could recover osteoblast homeostasis in vitro as compared to the sera of same patients before intervention protocol. To this aim, obese women were evaluated at time 0 and after 4, 6, and 12 months of individualized prescribed physical activity and hypocaloric diet. Dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry measurements were performed at each time point, as well as blood was collected at the same points. Cells were incubated with sera of subjects before and after physical activity as described: obese at baseline and after for 4, 6, and 12 months of physical activity and nutritional protocol intervention. Osteoblasts exposed to sera of patients, who displayed increased lean and decreased fat mass (from 55.5 ± 6.5 to 57.1 ± 5.6% p ≤ 0.05; from 44.5 ± 1.1 to 40.9 ± 2.6% p ≤ 0.01 respectively), showed a time-dependent increase of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, versus cells exposed to sera of obese patients before intervention protocol, suggesting recovery of osteoblast homeostasis upon improvement of body composition. An increase in β-catenin nuclear accumulation and nuclear translocation was also observed, accompanied by an increase in Adiponectin receptor 1 protein expression, suggesting positive effect on cell differentiation program. Furthermore, a decrease in sclerostin amount and an increase of type 1 procollagen amino-terminal-propeptide were depicted as compared to

  19. Clustering of lifestyle factors in Spanish university students: the relationship between smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Gómez, Carlos; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Tauler-Riera, Pedro; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Pericas-Beltran, Jordi; Martinez-Andreu, Sonia; Aguilo-Pons, Antoni

    2012-11-01

    To ascertain the prevalence of and association between main lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking) in students from the Balearic Islands University. A cross-sectional, descriptive study. A questionnaire including questions on lifestyle, dietary habits and physical activity habits was administered to the students. Four different diet quality scores were calculated (Diet Diversity Score, Mediterranean Diet Score, Dietary Guidelines Score and Global Dietary Guidelines Score). A sample of students from the Balearic Islands University. Nine hundred and eighty-seven students (45·5 % males; mean age 21·5 (sd 3·3) years). The dietary pattern of the student population was characterized by a low consumption of cereals and tubers, fruits, vegetables, olive oil, legumes and nuts, and a high consumption of processed meat, sweets, snacks, soft drinks and pastries. Linear, positive and statistically significant correlations were found between the number of meals consumed daily and all of the diet quality scores determined. Determinants of diet quality, both in the univariate and multivariate analyses, were physical activity practice, sex, age and number of meals consumed daily. Risk factors such as smoking, diet and physical inactivity had a tendency of clustering among Spanish university students. Overall diet quality was low, due to important departures from dietary recommendations and loss of the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern. Nutritional education campaigns that include promotion of physical activity practice are needed to improve the overall health status of this population.

  20. Examining the Association between Intervention-Related Changes in Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight as Moderated by the Food and Physical Activity Environments among Rural, Southern Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Johnston, Larry F; Evenson, Kelly R; McGuirt, Jared T; Gizlice, Ziya; Whitt, Olivia R; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have been conducted in rural areas assessing the influence of community-level environmental factors on residents' success improving lifestyle behaviors. Our aim was to examine whether 6-month changes in diet, physical activity, and weight were moderated by the food and physical activity environment in a rural adult population receiving an intervention designed to improve diet and physical activity. We examined associations between self-reported and objectively measured changes in diet, physical activity, and weight, and perceived and objectively measured food and physical activity environments. Participants were followed for 6 months. Participants were enrolled in the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project, a lifestyle intervention study conducted in Lenoir County, located in rural southeastern North Carolina. Sample sizes ranged from 132 to 249, depending on the availability of the data. Participants received four counseling sessions that focused on healthy eating (adapted Mediterranean diet pattern) and increasing physical activity. Density of and distance to food and physical activity venues, modified food environment index, Walk Score, crime, and perceived nutrition and physical activity neighborhood barriers were the potential mediating factors. Diet quality, physical activity, and weight loss were the outcomes measured. Statistical analyses included correlation and linear regression and controlling for potential confounders (baseline values of the dependent variables, age, race, education, and sex). In adjusted analysis, there was an inverse association between weight change and the food environment, suggesting that participants who lived in a less-healthy food environment lost more weight during the 6-month intervention period (P=0.01). Also, there was a positive association between self-reported physical activity and distance to private gyms (P=0.04) and an inverse association between private gym density and pedometer-measured steps (P=0.03), indicating

  1. Antenatal weight management: Diet, physical activity, and gestational weight gain in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Judy A; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Pearce, Jo; Jethwa, Preeti H; Taylor, Moira A; Avery, Amanda; Ellis, Sarah; McMullen, Sarah; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J

    2017-06-01

    to investigate women's physical activity levels, diet and gestational weight gain, and their experiences and motivations of behavior change. analysis of cross-sectional data collected during a longitudinal, cohort study examining physiological, psychological, sociodemographic, and self-reported behavioural measures relating to bodyweight. women recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust. 193 women ≤27 weeks gestation and aged 18 years or over. MEASUREMENTS & FINDINGS: measurements included weight and height, the Dietary Instrument for Nutrition Education (Brief Version), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short Form), and open questions of perceptions of behaviour change. 50.3% (n=97) were overweight/obese, and women gained 0.26kg/wk (IQR 0.34kg/wk) since conception. The majority consumed low levels of fat (n=121; 63.4%), high levels of unsaturated fat (n=103; 53.9%), and used a dietary supplement (n=166; 86.5%). However, 41% (n=76) were inactive, 74.8% (n=143) did not consume high levels of fibre, and 90.0% (n=171) consumed less than 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Body mass index category was not associated with diet, physical activity levels, or gestational weight gain. Themes generated from open-questions relating to behaviour change were: (1) Risk management, (2) Coping with symptoms, (3) Self-control, (4) Deviation from norm, (5) Nature knows best. early pregnancy is a period of significant and heterogeneous behaviour change, influenced by perceptions of risk and women's lived experience. Behaviour was influenced not only by perceptions of immediate risk to the fetus, but also by the women's lived experience of being pregnant. There are exciting opportunities to constructively reframe health promotion advice relating to physical activity and diet in light of women's priorities. The need for individualized advice is highlighted, and women across all body mass index categories would

  2. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for CVD Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors The U.S. Preventive ...

  3. The Associations of Maternal Weight Change with Breastfeeding, Diet and Physical Activity During the Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olmedo, Nancy; Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; Neufeld, Lynnette M; García-Guerra, Armando; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    To determine the association between breastfeeding practices, diet and physical activity and maternal postpartum weight. This was a secondary data analysis of a randomized community trial on beneficiaries of the Programa de Desarrollo Humano Oportunidades, recently renamed Prospera (n = 314 pregnant women), without any diseases that could affect body weight. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the association between postpartum weight change and changes in diet, physical activity and type of breastfeeding. The mean postpartum weight change from the first to the third month was 0.6 ± 2.2 kg. Women who breastfed exclusively for 3 months had a 4.1 (SE = 1.9) kg weight reduction in comparison with women who did not provide exclusive breastfeeding or who discontinued breastfeeding before 3 months (p = 0.04). There was no association between postpartum weight change and physical activity (p = 0.24) or energy intake (p = 0.06). Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with maternal postpartum weight reduction. These results reinforce the World Health Organization recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life in order to reduce the risk of weight retention or weight gain in postpartum women. It has been well established that exclusive breastfeeding is beneficial for both infants and mothers, but promoting breastfeeding as a strategy to promote postpartum weight loss is of paramount importance, especially in countries like Mexico where excessive weight in women of reproductive age is a public health problem.

  4. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thor Munch; Olsen, David B; Søndergaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index).......To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index)....

  5. Diet and physical activity--interactions for health; public health nutrition in the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, M; Yngve, A; Poortvliet, E; Warm, D; Ekelund, U

    1999-09-01

    For the majority of European adults, who neither smoke nor drink excessively, the most significant controllable risk factors affecting their long-term health are what they eat, and how physically active they are. Scientists are supposed to clarify to policy makers and health professionals the usefulness of their health messages. However, to be able to do that, a more detailed understanding is needed of the basic mechanisms behind the effects on health of diet and physical activity and, especially, the two in combination. Further, better methods for assessment of nutrition and physical activity in the population have to be developed, and more and better baseline data have to be collected. Increased and more efficient interventions are then needed. People trained and competent in the new discipline of Public Health Nutrition are required. Through the stimulating support that the European Commission, as well as other national and international partners, are presently giving to the development of Public Health Nutrition across Europe, we can hope for an increased mobility, networking and understanding between European nutrition and physical activity professionals. This will most likely result in greater and better policy making, strategy development, implementation and evaluation. We now have a great possibility to develop the integrated field of preventive nutrition and health enhancing physical activity.

  6. Weight management practices associated with PCOS and their relationships with diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, L J; Brown, W J; McNaughton, S A; Joham, A E; Teede, H J

    2017-03-01

    Do weight management practices differ in women with and without PCOS? Women in the general population with self-reported PCOS are more likely to be using healthy weight management practices and alternative non-lifestyle measures for weight management than women without PCOS. Lifestyle management is the first-line treatment in PCOS. However, the specific weight management practices used by women with PCOS and their effect on diet and physical activity are unclear. The study was a population-based observational cross-sectional study involving women in the 1973-1978 cohort (n = 7767 total; n = 556 with PCOS, n = 7211 without PCOS). Women with and without self-reported PCOS were included. Self-reported outcome measures included healthy lifestyle-related or alternative non-lifestyle-related (e.g. laxatives or smoking) weight management practices, dietary intake and physical activity. Women with PCOS were more likely to be following both healthy [reducing meal or snack size (odds ratio (OR) 1.50, 95% CI 1.14, 1.96, P = 0.004) and reducing fat or sugar intake (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03, 1.69, P = 0.027) or following a low glycaemic index diet (OR 2.88, 95% CI 2.30, 3.59, P PCOS. In PCOS, the use of a range of healthy weight management practices was associated with increases in physical activity (P PCOS, height, weight, diet, physical activity and weight management behaviours. In PCOS, we should focus on improving healthy weight practices across both diet quality and quantity, and on assessing alternative weight practices and their potential adverse effect on dietary intake. L.M. is supported by a South Australian Cardiovascular Research Development Program Fellowship (ID AC11S374); a program collaboratively funded by the National Heart Foundation, the South Australian Department of Health and the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute. H.T. is supported by the NHMRC. S.A.M. is supported by an NHMRC Career Development Fellowship Level 2, ID1104636 and was

  7. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Diet, obesity and low physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Dreyer, L; Overvad, K

    1997-01-01

    through well-described modifications of dietary habits. During the last 10 years, low physical activity has been pinpointed as a risk factor for cancers at various sites, especially the colon; however, the causal mechanism is still unknown. Obesity, defined as a body mass index of 30 or more...... from case-control studies, but have not been confirmed in large population-based cohort studies. Although the research in this area indicates that diet is important in cancer prevention, current knowledge does not allow reliable estimates of the numbers and proportions of cancers that could be avoided...

  8. Clustering of diet, physical activity and smoking and a general willingness to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Kremers, Stef; Smeets, Tamara; Reubsaet, Astrid

    2008-01-01

    Addressing multiple health behaviours are important in preventing disease and mortality. The present study investigated the clustering of health behaviours, cognitive determinants and stages of change in 2827 adults for the lifestyle factors of physical activity, fruit, vegetable and fat consumption and smoking. The results showed that only 3% of the total population met recommended guidelines for all of the five behaviours. Behaviours were found to be weakly associated. Behaviour-specific cognitions and stages of change for the behaviours clustered more strongly, however. With respect to diet and physical activity, respondents in the preparation stage for one behaviour were likely also to be preparing to change another behaviour. Possible mechanisms for the apparent general willingness to change multiple behaviours are discussed, as well as potential implications for health promotion practice.

  9. The clustering of diet, physical activity and sedentary behavior in children and adolescents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Timperio, Anna

    2014-01-22

    Diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior are important, yet modifiable, determinants of obesity. Recent research into the clustering of these behaviors suggests that children and adolescents have multiple obesogenic risk factors. This paper reviews studies using empirical, data-driven methodologies, such as cluster analysis (CA) and latent class analysis (LCA), to identify clustering patterns of diet, PA and sedentary behavior among children or adolescents and their associations with socio-demographic indicators, and overweight and obesity. A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken to identify studies which have used data-driven methodologies to investigate the clustering of diet, PA and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents aged 5-18 years old. Eighteen studies (62% of potential studies) were identified that met the inclusion criteria, of which eight examined the clustering of PA and sedentary behavior and eight examined diet, PA and sedentary behavior. Studies were mostly cross-sectional and conducted in older children and adolescents (≥ 9 years). Findings from the review suggest that obesogenic cluster patterns are complex with a mixed PA/sedentary behavior cluster observed most frequently, but healthy and unhealthy patterning of all three behaviors was also reported. Cluster membership was found to differ according to age, gender and socio-economic status (SES). The tendency for older children/adolescents, particularly females, to comprise clusters defined by low PA was the most robust finding. Findings to support an association between obesogenic cluster patterns and overweight and obesity were inconclusive, with longitudinal research in this area limited. Diet, PA and sedentary behavior cluster together in complex ways that are not well understood. Further research, particularly in younger children, is needed to understand how cluster membership differs according to socio-demographic profile. Longitudinal research is

  10. The clustering of diet, physical activity and sedentary behavior in children and adolescents: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior are important, yet modifiable, determinants of obesity. Recent research into the clustering of these behaviors suggests that children and adolescents have multiple obesogenic risk factors. This paper reviews studies using empirical, data-driven methodologies, such as cluster analysis (CA) and latent class analysis (LCA), to identify clustering patterns of diet, PA and sedentary behavior among children or adolescents and their associations with socio-demographic indicators, and overweight and obesity. A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken to identify studies which have used data-driven methodologies to investigate the clustering of diet, PA and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents aged 5–18 years old. Eighteen studies (62% of potential studies) were identified that met the inclusion criteria, of which eight examined the clustering of PA and sedentary behavior and eight examined diet, PA and sedentary behavior. Studies were mostly cross-sectional and conducted in older children and adolescents (≥9 years). Findings from the review suggest that obesogenic cluster patterns are complex with a mixed PA/sedentary behavior cluster observed most frequently, but healthy and unhealthy patterning of all three behaviors was also reported. Cluster membership was found to differ according to age, gender and socio-economic status (SES). The tendency for older children/adolescents, particularly females, to comprise clusters defined by low PA was the most robust finding. Findings to support an association between obesogenic cluster patterns and overweight and obesity were inconclusive, with longitudinal research in this area limited. Diet, PA and sedentary behavior cluster together in complex ways that are not well understood. Further research, particularly in younger children, is needed to understand how cluster membership differs according to socio-demographic profile. Longitudinal research

  11. The association of lifestyle with the physical activity and diet of adolescents in Bhopal City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu Santha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the association of lifestyle with physical activity and diet of adolescents in Bhopal City, Madhya Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 310 college going adolescents within an age range of 17–23 years from an Arts Institute in Bhopal city were selected for the study. Self-reported questionnaire for adolescents to assess lifestyle factors (tobacco and alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, and dietary habits were used. Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation were applied wherever indicated. Results: Out of the total study population, 54% were males and 46% were females. Majority, i.e., 66% of the total study participants were optimal weight, 28% were underweight, and only a few, 5% were overweight. A significant association was observed between lifestyle habits (P < 0.05 and regular physical activity and dietary habits. Conclusion: Lifestyle factors have a strong association with regular physical activities and dietary practices among the adolescents. The unsatisfactory lifestyle habits of adolescents are a major public health concern. These maladapted habits track into later life as predictors of depleted health. Hence, it is mandatory that health professionals keep a check and provide regular health education among children and adolescents.

  12. Associations of physical activity and diet with the onset of menopause in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chisato; Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tamai, Yuya; Tsuji, Michiko; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Prospective studies on physical activity and diet and the onset of natural menopause are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity and dietary factors potentially related to endogenous estrogen levels such as fats, dietary fiber, soy isoflavones, and alcohol with the onset of menopause in a cohort of premenopausal women. Study participants were 3,115 premenopausal Japanese women aged 35 to 56 years derived from the participants in the Takayama Study. Physical activity was assessed by a validated questionnaire at baseline, and the metabolic equivalent score was calculated. The dietary intakes were estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline and adjusted for total energy. Menopause status was defined as the absence of menstruation for 12 months or more. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of the occurrence of menopause after controlling for age, parity, body mass index, smoking status, years of education, and lifelong irregular menstrual cycle. During the 10-year follow-up, 1,790 women experienced natural menopause. A high physical activity level and a high intake of polyunsaturated fat were moderately but significantly associated with the earlier onset of menopause; the hazard ratios for the highest versus lowest quartile were 1.17 (95% CI, 1.02-1.34) for physical activity and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.01-1.31) for polyunsaturated fat intake. Total fat, other types of fat, dietary fiber, soy isoflavones, and alcohol were not associated with the onset of menopause. These data suggest that high levels of physical activity and polyunsaturated fat intake are associated with earlier onset of menopause.

  13. [Study on diet, physical activities and body mass index in Chinese population in 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gong-huan; Ma, Jie-min; Liu, Na; Chen, Ai-ping

    2005-04-01

    To describe the prevalence of behavior on diet, physical activities and body mass index (BMI) in different populations related to factors as education, occupation and geographical distribution. Indicators including frequency of taking different foods, intake of cooking oil/fast foods, intensities of physical activities at work, proportion of taking physical exercises during the day, sedentary life style and BMI were calculated based on results from 17 questions of behavior risk factors surveillance (BRFS) questionnaire by weight on age structures from 2000 census. Seventy percentage of the people took vegetable and 40 percent took fruits 5-7 days per week, and over 50 percent of them ate pork/beef/mutton but few of them ate beans and eggs. 25 percent of the people ate chicken/duck/fish/and shrimps 5-7 times per week but another 40 percent ate them only less then once per week. 70% of the people almost never drank milk or milk-products. 15 percent of them consumed sweet and greasy foods 3-7 days per week and 30 percent of them ate smoked food 3-7 days per week in the past 30 days. The proportions of food intake were different under different geographical regions, education levels and occupations. 11.7% of the sample population cooked mainly with animal oil, and 33% of the students had ever been to McDonald's. 11.7%, 20.5%, 44.7% and 23.0% of the subjects engaged in sedentary, light, moderate or heavy physical activities respectively. 18.04% of the subjects took part in physical exercises with different proportions by gender, occupation, education and geographical settings. 8.3% people were slim which was defined as having BMI lower than 18.5 kg/m(2). 68.0% of the people had a BMI as 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2). 23.7% of the subjects were being overweight which was defined as having BMI greater than 24 kg/m(2), among which 8.5% people with a BMI of 24-24.9 kg/m(2). The prevalence of overweight and obesity will increase in the next 20-30 years, with the habits of taking more

  14. Investigating environmental determinants of diet, physical activity, and overweight among adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Duran, Ana Clara; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Lock, Karen

    2011-06-01

    There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe some built environment and local food environment variables and to explore their association with the overweight rate and diet and physical activity area-level aggregated indicators of adults living in the city of Sao Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. This formative study includes an ecological analysis of environmental factors associated with overweight across 31 submunicipalities of the city of Sao Paulo using statistical and spatial analyses. Average prevalence of overweight was 41.69% (95% confidence interval 38.74, 44.64), ranging from 27.14% to 60.75% across the submunicipalities. There was a wide geographical variation of both individual diet and physical activity, and indicators of food and built environments, favoring wealthier areas. After controlling for area socioeconomic status, there was a positive correlation between regular fruits and vegetables (FV) intake and density of FV specialized food markets (r = 0.497; p fast-food restaurant density and overweight prevalence was found. A negative association between overweight prevalence and density of parks and public sport facilities was seen (r = -0.527; p food access and health inequalities.

  15. Relations of diet and physical activity to bone mass and height in black and white adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Dong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Because the development of healthy bodies during the years of growth has life-long health consequences, it is important to understand the early influences of diet and physical activity (PA. One way to generate hypotheses concerning such influences is to conduct cross-sectional studies of how diet and PA are related to different components of body composition. The subjects were 660 black and white adolescents. Total body bone mineral content (BMC was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; free-living diet and PA were assessed with 4-7 separate 24-h recalls. The main dietary variables investigated were: total energy intake, macronutrient distribution (%, dairy servings, vitamin D, and calcium. The main PA variables were hours of moderate PA (3-6 METs and vigorous PA (>6 METs. BMC was higher in blacks than in whites (P<0.01 and it increased more in boys than in girls (age by sex interaction as age increased (P<0.01. After adjustment for age, race and sex, higher levels of BMC were associated with higher levels of energy intake, dairy servings, calcium, vitamin D, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.05. In the multivariable model, significant and independent proportions of the variance in BMC were explained by race, the age by sex interaction, calcium, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.01. When height was used as the outcome variable, similar diet results were obtained; however, there was a sex by vigorous PA interaction, such that vigorous PA was associated with height only in the girls. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the bone mass and height of growing youths are positively influenced by higher dietary intake of energy and dairy foods, along with sufficient amounts of vigorous PA. This hypothesis needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials.

  16. Profiling Physical Activity, Diet, Screen and Sleep Habits in Portuguese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1 describe profiles of children’s lifestyle behaviours; (2 identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3 estimate combined effects of individual/ socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74–10.41, and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98–4.72 were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43–0.84. Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05.

  17. Brain Functional Connectivity Is Modified by a Hypocaloric Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity in Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia García-Casares

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in the resting state has shown altered brain connectivity networks in obese individuals. However, the impact of a Mediterranean diet on cerebral connectivity in obese patients when losing weight has not been previously explored. The aim of this study was to examine the connectivity between brain structures before and six months after following a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet and physical activity program in a group of sixteen obese women aged 46.31 ± 4.07 years. Before and after the intervention program, the body mass index (BMI (kg/m2 was 38.15 ± 4.7 vs. 34.18 ± 4.5 (p < 0.02, and body weight (kg was 98.5 ± 13.1 vs. 88.28 ± 12.2 (p < 0.03. All subjects underwent a pre- and post-intervention fMRI under fasting conditions. Functional connectivity was assessed using seed-based correlations. After the intervention, we found decreased connectivity between the left inferior parietal cortex and the right temporal cortex (p < 0.001, left posterior cingulate (p < 0.001, and right posterior cingulate (p < 0.03; decreased connectivity between the left superior frontal gyrus and the right temporal cortex (p < 0.01; decreased connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the somatosensory cortex (p < 0.025; and decreased connectivity between the left and right posterior cingulate (p < 0.04. Results were considered significant at a voxel-wise threshold of p ≤ 0.05, and a cluster-level family-wise error correction for multiple comparisons of p ≤ 0.05. In conclusion, functional connectivity between brain structures involved in the pathophysiology of obesity (the inferior parietal lobe, posterior cingulate, temporo-insular cortex, prefrontal cortex may be modified by a weight loss program including a Mediterranean diet and physical exercise.

  18. Stool patterns of Malaysian adults with functional constipation: association with diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlyn, Mena M; Nagarajah, Lee H L; Fatimah, A; Norimah, A K; Goh, K L

    2013-04-01

    Diet and lifestyle modification is commonly used in constipation management. As there is a dearth of studies on this topic in Malaysia, we aim to elucidate the relations between stool patterns, dietary intake and physical activity levels among adults with functional constipation. From a database collected via surveys at public events, a convenience sample of 100 adults diagnosed with Rome II-defined functional constipation was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After severity assessment using the Chinese Constipation Questionnaire, subjects completed 2-week bowel movement diaries to determine stool frequency, consistency and output. Dietary intake and physical activity levels were assessed twice using three-day 24-hour diet recalls and International Physical Activity Questionnaire, respectively. Ninety subjects who completed the study were included in the analysis. Mean weekly stool frequency was 3.9 +/- 1.9 times, consistency score was 2.6 +/- 0.6 (range 1.0-4.0), output was 11.0 +/- 6.3 balls (40 mm diameter) and severity score was 10.3 +/- 3.3 (range 5.0-22.0). Mean daily dietary intakes were: energy 1,719 +/- 427kcal, dietary fibre 15.0 +/- 4.9g and fluid 2.5 +/- 0.8L. The majority of subjects were physically inactive. Stool frequency and output were positively associated with dietary fibre (r(s) = 0.278, P < 0.01; r(s) = 0.226, P < 0.05) and fluid intake (r(s) = 0.257, P < 0.05; OR = 3.571, 95% CI [1.202-10.609]). Constipation severity was associated with higher physical activity levels (OR = 2.467, 95% CI [1.054-5.777]). Insufficient intake of dietary fibre and fluid are associated with aggravated constipation symptoms. Further studies are necessary to confirm usefulness of dietary intervention in treatment of constipation as dietary factors alone may not influence overall severity and stool consistency, an integral element of constipation.

  19. Diet and physical activity in relation to weight change among breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaw, Yong Heng; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Weay, Yong Heng; Saibul, Nurfaizah; Sariman, Sarina; Hashim, Zailina

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide an overview of lifestyle changes after breast cancer diagnosis and to examine the relationship between dietary and physical activity changes with weight changes in breast cancer patients. Women with breast carcinomas (n=368) were recruited from eight hospitals and four breast cancer support groups in peninsular Malaysia. Dietary and physical activity changes were measured from a year preceding breast cancer diagnosis to study entry. Mean duration since diagnosis was 4.86±3.46 years. Dietary changes showed that majority of the respondents had decreased their intake of high fat foods (18.8-65.5%), added fat foods (28.3-48.9%), low fat foods (46.8-80.7%), red meat (39.7%), pork and poultry (20.1-39.7%) and high sugar foods (42.1-60.9%) but increased their intake of fish (42.7%), fruits and vegetables (62.8%) and whole grains (28.5%). Intake of other food groups remained unchanged. Only a small percentage of the women (22.6%) had increased their physical activity since diagnosis where most of them (16.0%) had increased recreational activities. Age at diagnosis (β= -0.20, p= 0.001), and change in whole grain (β= -0.15, p= 0.003) and fish intakes (β= 0.13, p= 0.013) were associated with weight changes after breast cancer diagnosis. In summary, the majority of the women with breast cancer had changed their diets to a healthier one. However, many did not increase their physical activity levels which could improve their health and lower risk of breast cancer recurrence.

  20. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Diet, obesity and low physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Dreyer, L; Overvad, K

    1997-01-01

    from case-control studies, but have not been confirmed in large population-based cohort studies. Although the research in this area indicates that diet is important in cancer prevention, current knowledge does not allow reliable estimates of the numbers and proportions of cancers that could be avoided...... through well-described modifications of dietary habits. During the last 10 years, low physical activity has been pinpointed as a risk factor for cancers at various sites, especially the colon; however, the causal mechanism is still unknown. Obesity, defined as a body mass index of 30 or more......In the early 1980s, Doll and Peto estimated that about 35% of all deaths from cancer in the United States were attributable to dietary factors, with a margin of uncertainty ranging from 10 to 70%. Since then, several dietary factors, e.g. fat and meat, have been suggested to increase the risk...

  1. Effect of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    were supplemented with study level data from studies that did not provide IPD, the overall effect was similar, with stronger evidence of benefit for gestational diabetes (0.76, 0.65 to 0.89, I2=36.8%; 59 studies, 16 885 women).Conclusion Diet and physical activity based interventions during pregnancy......Objective To synthesise the evidence on the overall and differential effects of interventions based on diet and physical activity during pregnancy, primarily on gestational weight gain and maternal and offspring composite outcomes, according to women's body mass index, age, parity, ethnicity...... Randomised trials on diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy.Data synthesis Statistical models accounted for clustering of participants within trials and heterogeneity across trials leading to summary mean differences or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the effects overall...

  2. Effect of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Randomised trials on diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy.Data synthesis Statistical models accounted for clustering of participants within trials and heterogeneity across trials leading to summary mean differences or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the effects overall......Objective To synthesise the evidence on the overall and differential effects of interventions based on diet and physical activity during pregnancy, primarily on gestational weight gain and maternal and offspring composite outcomes, according to women's body mass index, age, parity, ethnicity...... were supplemented with study level data from studies that did not provide IPD, the overall effect was similar, with stronger evidence of benefit for gestational diabetes (0.76, 0.65 to 0.89, I2=36.8%; 59 studies, 16 885 women).Conclusion Diet and physical activity based interventions during pregnancy...

  3. A Systematic Review of Digital Interventions for Improving the Diet and Physical Activity Behaviors of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Taylor; Barker, Mary; Maria Jacob, Chandni; Morrison, Leanne; Lawrence, Wendy; Strömmer, Sofia; Vogel, Christina; Woods-Townsend, Kathryn; Farrell, David; Inskip, Hazel; Baird, Janis

    2017-12-01

    Many adolescents have poor diet and physical activity behaviors, which can lead to the development of noncommunicable diseases in later life. Digital platforms offer inexpensive means of delivering health interventions, but little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of digital interventions to improve diet quality and increase physical activity in adolescents, to effective intervention components and to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Following a systematic search, abstracts were assessed against inclusion criteria, and data extraction and quality assessment were performed for included studies. Data were analyzed to identify key features that are associated with significant improvement in behavior. A total of 27 studies met inclusion criteria. Most (n = 15) were Web site interventions. Other delivery methods were text messages, games, multicomponent interventions, emails, and social media. Significant behavior change was often seen when interventions included education, goal setting, self-monitoring, and parental involvement. None of the publications reported cost-effectiveness. Due to heterogeneity of studies, meta-analysis was not feasible.It is possible to effect significant health behavior change in adolescents through digital interventions that incorporate education, goal setting, self-monitoring, and parental involvement. Most of the evidence relates to Web sites and further research into alternate media is needed, and longer term outcomes should be evaluated. There is a paucity of data on the cost-effectiveness of digital health interventions, and future trials should report these data. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Story Immersion May Be Effective in Promoting Diet and Physical Activity in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C; Buday, Richard; Gao, Yang

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of playing a health video game embedded with story immersion, Escape from Diab (Diab), on children's diet and physical activity (PA) and to explore whether children immersed in Diab had greater positive outcomes. Two groups, nonrandomized; 3 outcome assessments: at baseline, immediately after the game (post 1), and 8-10 weeks after the game (post 2). A total of 179 Chinese children aged 8-12 years. The treatment group played Diab; the control group received no intervention. Motivation; self-efficacy; preference for fruit, vegetables, water, and PA; as well as PA behavior. Adjusted changes to post 1 and post 2 by ANCOVA controlling for demographic and baseline variables. Children who played Diab had increased intrinsic motivation for fruit and water, self-efficacy for PA, and self-reported PA scores at post 1 (all P Children with higher immersion scores (above the median) had increased intrinsic motivation for fruit and water, and autonomous and controlled motivation for PA at post 1 (all P children's psychological correlates of diet and PA and PA behavior. However, its maintenance of effectiveness needs to be enhanced and mechanisms of change need to be investigated more thoroughly. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Do Natural Experiments of Changes in Neighborhood Built Environment Impact Physical Activity and Diet? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Freya; George, Emma S; Feng, Xiaoqi; Merom, Dafna; Bennie, Andrew; Cook, Amelia; Sanders, Taren; Dwyer, Genevieve; Pang, Bonnie; Guagliano, Justin M; Kolt, Gregory S; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2018-01-26

    Physical activity and diet are major modifiable risk factors for chronic disease and have been shown to be associated with neighborhood built environment. Systematic review evidence from longitudinal studies on the impact of changing the built environment on physical activity and diet is currently lacking. A systematic review of natural experiments of neighborhood built environment was conducted. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize study characteristics, study quality, and impact of changes in neighborhood built environment on physical activity and diet outcomes among residents. Natural experiments of neighborhood built environment change, exploring longitudinal impacts on physical activity and/or diet in residents, were included. From five electronic databases, 2084 references were identified. A narrative synthesis was conducted, considering results in relation to study quality. Nineteen papers, reporting on 15 different exposures met inclusion criteria. Four studies included a comparison group and 11 were pre-post/longitudinal studies without a comparison group. Studies reported on the impact of redeveloping or introducing cycle and/or walking trails ( n = 5), rail stops/lines ( n = 4), supermarkets and farmers' markets ( n = 4) and park and green space ( n = 2). Eight/15 studies reported at least one beneficial change in physical activity, diet or another associated health outcome. Due to limitations in study design and reporting, as well as the wide array of outcome measures reported, drawing conclusions to inform policy was challenging. Future research should consider a consistent approach to measure the same outcomes (e.g., using measurement methods that collect comparable physical activity and diet outcome data), to allow for pooled analyses. Additionally, including comparison groups wherever possible and ensuring high quality reporting is essential.

  6. Do Natural Experiments of Changes in Neighborhood Built Environment Impact Physical Activity and Diet? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya MacMillan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and diet are major modifiable risk factors for chronic disease and have been shown to be associated with neighborhood built environment. Systematic review evidence from longitudinal studies on the impact of changing the built environment on physical activity and diet is currently lacking. A systematic review of natural experiments of neighborhood built environment was conducted. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize study characteristics, study quality, and impact of changes in neighborhood built environment on physical activity and diet outcomes among residents. Natural experiments of neighborhood built environment change, exploring longitudinal impacts on physical activity and/or diet in residents, were included. From five electronic databases, 2084 references were identified. A narrative synthesis was conducted, considering results in relation to study quality. Nineteen papers, reporting on 15 different exposures met inclusion criteria. Four studies included a comparison group and 11 were pre-post/longitudinal studies without a comparison group. Studies reported on the impact of redeveloping or introducing cycle and/or walking trails (n = 5, rail stops/lines (n = 4, supermarkets and farmers’ markets (n = 4 and park and green space (n = 2. Eight/15 studies reported at least one beneficial change in physical activity, diet or another associated health outcome. Due to limitations in study design and reporting, as well as the wide array of outcome measures reported, drawing conclusions to inform policy was challenging. Future research should consider a consistent approach to measure the same outcomes (e.g., using measurement methods that collect comparable physical activity and diet outcome data, to allow for pooled analyses. Additionally, including comparison groups wherever possible and ensuring high quality reporting is essential.

  7. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Thor; Olsen, David B.; Søndergaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index). Study design: Cross sectional study, comparing Inuit...... eating a western diet with Inuit eating a traditional diet. Methods: Two physically active Greenland Inuit groups consuming different diet, 20 eating a traditional diet (Qaanaaq) and 15 eating a western diet (TAB), age (mean (range)); 38, (22–58) yrs, BMI; 28 (20–40) were subjected to an oral glucose...... tolerance test (OGTT), blood sampling, maximal oxygen uptake test, food interview/collection and monitoring of physical activity. Results: All Inuit had a normal OGTT. Fasting glucose (mmol/l), HbA1c (%), total cholesterol (mmol/l) and HDL-C (mmol/l) were for Qaanaaq women: 4.8±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 4.96±0.42, 1...

  8. Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, or Diet-What Are the Correlates of Obesity in Polish School Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, Stanisław H; Toriola, Abel L; Starościak, Wojciech; Lewandowski, Marek; Paul, Yvonne; Oyeyemi, Adewale L

    2017-06-20

    There is substantial evidence of rising prevalence of overweight and obesity and its co-morbidities among children in western-high income developed countries. In the European Union, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing fastest among Polish children. Yet, there is paucity of evidence on the relationship of behavioral factors with body weight status of children in Poland. This study examined the association of obesity with physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet among Polish children. A total of 641 children (10-15 years) recruited from the Lower Silesia region of Poland participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants' anthropometrics, physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and dietary intake were assessed. Outcome variables were weight categories (according to body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], and percentage body fat [% BF]). The strongest negative correlation was found between VO₂max and %BF ( r = -0.39, p <0.05). Significant negative correlation was also found between VO₂max and weight categories ( r = -0.15). Results of the multinomial logit analysis showed that VO₂max increased in groups of overweight, normal weight and underweight children by 13%, 26% and 19%, respectively as compared to the group of obese children. VO₂max and weight and obesity indices were strongly correlated in both gender and age groups. Education and intervention programs to increase physical fitness (VO₂max) through aerobic training are recommended for Physical Education teachers, parents and children in order to reduce the rate of overweight and obesity among children in the Lower Silesia region of Poland.

  9. Perceived influence and college students' diet and physical activity behaviors: an examination of ego-centric social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brook E; Forthofer, Melinda; Bantum, Erin O; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-06

    Obesity is partially a social phenomenon, with college students particularly vulnerable to changes in social networks and obesity-related behaviors. Currently, little is known about the structure of social networks among college students and their potential influence on diet and physical activity behaviors. The purpose of the study was to examine social influences impacting college students' diet and physical activity behaviors, including sources of influence, comparisons between sources' and students' behaviors, and associations with meeting diet and physical activity recommendations. Data was collected from 40 students attending college in Hawaii. Participants completed diet and physical activity questionnaires and a name generator. Participants rated nominees' influence on their diet and physical activity behaviors as well as compared nominees' behaviors to their own. Descriptive statistics were used to look at perceptions of influence across network groups. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between network variables and odds of meeting recommendations. A total of 325 nominations were made and included: family (n = 116), college friends (n = 104), high school friends (n = 87), and significant others (n = 18). Nearly half of participants were not from Hawaii. Significant others of non-Hawaii students were perceived to be the most influential (M(SD) = 9(1.07)) and high school friends the least influential (M(SD) = 1.31(.42)) network. Overall, perceived influence was highest for diet compared to physical activity, but varied based on comparisons with nominees' behaviors. Significant others were most often perceived has having similar (44 %) or worse (39 %) eating behaviors than participants, and those with similar eating behaviors were perceived as most influential (M(SD) = 9.25(1.04)). Few associations were seen between network variables and odds of meeting recommendations. Among the groups nominated, high

  10. Perceived influence and college students’ diet and physical activity behaviors: an examination of ego-centric social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook E. Harmon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is partially a social phenomenon, with college students particularly vulnerable to changes in social networks and obesity-related behaviors. Currently, little is known about the structure of social networks among college students and their potential influence on diet and physical activity behaviors. The purpose of the study was to examine social influences impacting college students’ diet and physical activity behaviors, including sources of influence, comparisons between sources’ and students’ behaviors, and associations with meeting diet and physical activity recommendations. Methods Data was collected from 40 students attending college in Hawaii. Participants completed diet and physical activity questionnaires and a name generator. Participants rated nominees’ influence on their diet and physical activity behaviors as well as compared nominees' behaviors to their own. Descriptive statistics were used to look at perceptions of influence across network groups. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between network variables and odds of meeting recommendations. Results A total of 325 nominations were made and included: family (n = 116, college friends (n = 104, high school friends (n = 87, and significant others (n = 18. Nearly half of participants were not from Hawaii. Significant others of non-Hawaii students were perceived to be the most influential (M(SD = 9(1.07 and high school friends the least influential (M(SD = 1.31(.42 network. Overall, perceived influence was highest for diet compared to physical activity, but varied based on comparisons with nominees’ behaviors. Significant others were most often perceived has having similar (44 % or worse (39 % eating behaviors than participants, and those with similar eating behaviors were perceived as most influential (M(SD = 9.25(1.04. Few associations were seen between network variables and odds of meeting

  11. Design of Video Games for Children's Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self regulatory behaviors (problem solving, goal setting, goal review, decision making), rewards (e.g., points and positive statements generated by the program), immediate feedback (e.g., through characters and/or statements that appear on the computer screen at critical decision points), and personalization (e.g., tailored choices offered at critical junctures, based on responses to baselines questions related to preferences, outcome expectancies, etc). We are in the earliest stages of learning how to optimally design effective behavior change procedures for use in VG, and yet they have been demonstrated to change behavior. As we learn, VG offer more and better opportunities for obesity prevention that can adjust to individual needs and preferences.

  12. Lifestyle Modulators of Neuroplasticity: How Physical Activity, Mental Engagement, and Diet Promote Cognitive Health during Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristy Phillips

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of the elderly across the globe will approximate 2.1 billion by 2050. Juxtaposed against this burgeoning segment of the population is evidence that nonpathological aging is associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline in a variety of domains, changes that can cause mild disability even before the onset of dementia. Given that pharmacological treatments that mitigate dementia are still outstanding, alternative therapeutic options are being investigated increasingly. The results from translational studies have shown that modifiable lifestyle factors—including physical activity, cognitive engagement, and diet—are a key strategy for maintaining brain health during aging. Indeed, a multiplicity of studies has demonstrated relationships between lifestyle factors, brain structure and function, and cognitive function in aging adults. For example, physical activity and diet modulate common neuroplasticity substrates (neurotrophic signaling, neurogenesis, inflammation, stress response, and antioxidant defense in the brain whereas cognitive engagement enhances brain and cognitive reserve. The aims of this review are to evaluate the relationship between modifiable lifestyle factors, neuroplasticity, and optimal brain health during aging; to identify putative mechanisms that contribute positive brain aging; and to highlight future directions for scientists and clinicians. Undoubtedly, the translation of cutting-edge knowledge derived from the field of cognitive neuroscience will advance our understanding and enhance clinical treatment interventions as we endeavor to promote brain health during aging.

  13. Diet and Physical Activity Behaviors in Primary Care Patients with Recent Intentional Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Bethany Barone; Tudorascu, Dana; Bryce, Cindy L; Comer, Diane; Fischer, Gary S; Hess, Rachel; Huber, Kimberly A; McTigue, Kathleen M; Simkin-Silverman, Laurey R; Conroy, Molly B

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle habits of primary care patients with recent, intentional weight loss are unclear and need to be better understood to aid in translational health promotion efforts. We aimed to characterize diet and exercise habits in primary care patients with recent, intentional weight loss, comparing those with greater (≥10%) vs. lesser (5 to recipes (p=0.019). Average self-reported moderate-vigorous physical activity was 319 (281) minutes/week, with significant differences between greater (374 (328) minutes/week) vs. lesser (276 (230) minutes/week) weight loss groups (p=0.017). By pedometer, 30% had ≥7,500 steps/day; the proportion was higher in greater (43%) vs. lesser (19%) weight loss groups (p=0.005). For weight loss, clinical patients typically employ simple strategies such as 5+ fruits and vegetables per day, fried foods and desserts ≤1 per week, elimination of sugary drinks, choosing low fat foods/recipes, and physical activity 45-60 min/day.

  14. Design of Video Games for Children’s Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self regulatory behaviors (problem solving, goal setting, goal review, decision making), rewards (e.g., points and positive statements generated by the program), immediate feedback (e.g., through characters and/or statements that appear on the computer screen at critical decision points), and personalization (e.g., tailored choices offered at critical junctures, based on responses to baselines questions related to preferences, outcome expectancies, etc). We are in the earliest stages of learning how to optimally design effective behavior change procedures for use in VG, and yet they have been demonstrated to change behavior. As we learn, VG offer more and better opportunities for obesity prevention that can adjust to individual needs and preferences. PMID:25364331

  15. Associations between diet quality and physical activity measures among a southern Ontario regional sample of grade 6 students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine diet quality and physical activity behaviours of grade 6 students by sex and body weight status, and to determine the associations between diet quality and physical activity behaviours. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, which included a 24-h diet recall and the modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), was administered to a cross-section of schools (n = 405 students from 15 schools). Measured height and weight were used to calculate body mass index and weight status (Cole et al. 2000). A Canadian version of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-C) was used to describe overall diet quality. The mean HEI-C was 69.6 (13.2) with the majority (72%) falling into the needs improvement category. The overall mean physical activity score was 3.7 out of a maximum of 5, with obese subjects being less active compared with normal weight and overweight (p < 0.001). Ordinal logistic regression analysis (of HEI-C vs. all measures of the PAQ-C, sex, and weight status) revealed that HEI-C ratings were likely to be higher in students that walked to and from school 5 days per week (vs. 0 days per week; odds ratio 3.18, p = 0.010); and were active 1 evening per week (vs. none; odds ratio 3.48, p = 0.039). The positive association between diet quality and some aspects of physical activity suggests possible clustering of health behaviours. Future research should test the potential benefits of promoting 1 health behaviour (e.g., healthy eating) with another (e.g., physical activity).

  16. Relation of diet and physical activity to obesity in children in elementary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senka Dinarević

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of pediatric obesity is increasing. Finding the most effective preventive measures for the development of obesity in each country requires accurate epidemiological data on the number of obese children and adolescents, and their habits regarding nutrition and activity. The objective of this study was evaluate diet and physical activity in primary school students in relation to the occurrence of obesity, to determine the prevalence of overweight, mark the basic causes of this phenomenon and to establish measures for treatment and prevention.Methods: pupils 1-8. grades of primary schools were surveyed in written forms in terms of nutrition and physical activity, and measured height and weight, body mass index (BMI-body mass index was calculated by whichwas estimated the level of nourishment: BMI> p (percentile 5-malnutrition, p 5-85 proper body weight, p 85-95 over-nutrition, p> 95 obesity.Results: The study comprised 2329 pupils from 10 primary schools in the Canton of Sarajevo. Number of respondents by age and gender was balanced: I-IV 1077, V-VIII 1252; M-1226 and -1103 W. Obese and overweight was 22.46%, 62.53% of normal weight and 15 underweight, 01%. Most children eat a sandwich from school 34.63%, and food from the bakery 23.36% and 23.64% a sandwich from home. Still-dense juices are mostly drunk, even 22.34% of the students, a maximum of 52.8% water. Daily candy had taken 53.21% of all primary school students. 33.80% of the students were active on physical activity lessons and daily only 28.27%.Conclusions: The overweight problem in relation to the way of nutrition and physical activity is evident. The most important factors in] uencing the development of obesity undernutrition of children in school, the high frequency of intake of sweets and thick juice, an inadequate level ofphysical activity and sedanteran way of life.

  17. Diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and perceptions of the environment in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, A A; Townshend, T; Alvanides, S; Stamp, E; Adamson, A J

    2009-10-01

    Few studies have explored both food behaviour and physical activity in an environmental context. Most research in this area has focused on adults; the aim of the present study was to describe perceptions of the environment, diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns in 16-20 year olds in full-time education (Newcastle, UK). Participants (n = 73) recruited from a college and sixth-form college completed a UK version of the Youth Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Survey, which included measures of sedentary behaviour. A validated food frequency questionnaire was completed and a factor applied to produce an estimated mean daily frequency of intake of each item, which was converted to nutrient intakes. A rank for Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) was assigned to their home postcode. Analysis explored associations between sedentary behaviours and nutrient intake. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, most participants reported being physically active for at least 1 h day(-1) on 3-4 (n = 28) or 5-7 days (n = 31). There were no significant differences in nutrient intake according to sample quartile IMD position. Sedentary behaviours were significantly associated with less healthy eating patterns. Higher total energy (P = 0.02), higher fat (P = 0.005), percentage energy from fat (P = 0.035) and lower carbohydrate intakes (P = 0.004) were significantly associated with more time spent watching DVDs at the weekend. This combination of sedentary behaviour and less healthy eating patterns has important implications for long-term health (e.g. the tracking of being overweight and obesity from adolescence into adulthood). Understanding behaviour relationships is an important step in developing interventions in this age group.

  18. Patterns of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet in U.S. adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Ronald J; Wang, Jing

    2013-08-01

    To identify patterns in adolescents' obesogenic behaviors and their relations to physical and psychological health. A nationally representative sample of 9,174 U.S. adolescents ages 11 to 16 years was surveyed on physical activity (PA), screen-based sedentary behavior (SB), frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy food items, weight status, weight control behavior, depression, physical symptoms, body dissatisfaction, overall health, and life satisfaction. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of PA, SB, and diet. A model with three latent classes best fit the data: Class 1 with high PA and high fruit and vegetable intake and low SB and intake of sweets, soft drinks, chips, and fries; Class 2 with high SB and high intake of sweets, soft drinks, chips, and fries; and Class 3 with low PA, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low intake of sweets, chips, and fries. Membership in the three classes was related to age, gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. In addition, members of Class 1 (26.5%) were more likely to be of normal weight status and to fare well on most of the other health indices; of Class 2 (26.4%) were less likely to be trying to lose weight but scored poorly on the mental health indices; and of Class 3 (47.2%) were less likely to be underweight and reported greater body dissatisfaction. Three prevalent patterns of adolescent obesogenic behaviors were identified and these patterns related to weight status, depression, and other indicators of physical and psychological health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Lifestyle intervention in general practice for physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet in elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Davorka; Marković, Biserka Bergman; Puljak, Livia; Lalić, Dragica Ivezić; Kranjčević, Ksenija; Vučak, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of programmed and intensified intervention on lifestyle changes, including physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and diet, in patients aged ≥ 65 with the usual care of general practitioners (GP). In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 738 patients aged ≥ 65 were randomly assigned to receive intensified intervention (N = 371) or usual care (N = 367) of a GP for lifestyle changes, with 18-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. The study was conducted in 59 general practices in Croatia between May 2008 and May 2010. The patients' mean age was 72.3 ± 5.2 years. Significant diet correction was achieved after 18-month follow-up in the intervention group, comparing to controls. More patients followed strictly Mediterranean diet and consumed healthy foods more frequently. There was no significant difference between the groups in physical activity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption or diet after the intervention. In conclusion, an 18-month intensified GP's intervention had limited effect on lifestyle habits. GP intervention managed to change dietary habits in elderly population, which is encouraging since elderly population is very resistant regarding lifestyle habit changes. Clinical trial registration number. ISRCTN31857696. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of the modified Parenting Strategies for Eating and Physical Activity Scale-Diet (PEAS-Diet) in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra C; Arredondo, Elva M; Horton, Lucy A; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2016-03-01

    Research shows that Latino parenting practices influence children's dietary and weight outcomes. Most studies use parent-reported data, however data from children may provide additional insight into how parents influence their children's diet and weight outcomes. The Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) has been validated in Latino adults, but not in children. This study evaluated the factor structure and concurrent and predictive validity of a modified version of the PEAS (PEAS-Diet) among Latino children. Data were collected from 361 children ages 7-13 from Imperial County, California, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy eating. The PEAS-Diet included 25 candidate items targeting six parenting practices pertaining to children's eating behaviors: (a) monitoring; (b) disciplining; (c) control; (d) permissiveness; (e) reinforcing; and (f) limit-setting. Children were on average ten years old (±2), 50% boys, 93% self-identified as Latino, 81% were US-born, and 55% completed English versus Spanish-language interviews. Using varimax rotation on baseline data with the total sample, six items were removed due to factor loadings .32 on more than one component). Parallel analysis and interpretability suggested a 5-factor solution explaining 59.46% of the variance. The subscale "limit-setting" was removed from the scale. The final scale consisted of 19 items and 5 subscales. Internal consistency of the subscales ranged from α = .63-.82. Confirmatory factor analyses provided additional evidence for the 5-factor scale using data collected 4 and 6 months post-baseline among the control group (n = 164, n = 161, respectively). Concurrent validity with dietary intake was established for monitoring, control, permissiveness, and reinforcing subscales in the expected directions. Predictive validity was not established. Results indicated that with the reported changes, the interview-administered PEAS-Diet is valid among Latino

  1. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: Rationale and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...

  2. A Second Chance: Meanings of Body Weight, Diet, and Physical Activity to Women Who Have Experienced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, Mary; Warren, Barbour S.; Devine, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To understand the meanings of diet, physical activity, and body weight in the context of women's cancer experiences. Design: Grounded theory using 15 qualitative interviews and 3 focus groups. Setting: Grassroots community cancer organizations in the northeastern United States. Participants: Thirty-six white women cancer survivors; 86%…

  3. Relative validity of the pre-coded food diary used in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Gille, Maj-Britt; Nielsen, Trine Holmgaard

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relative validity of the pre-coded food diary applied in the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity. Design: A cross-over study among seventy-two adults (aged 20 to 69 years) recording diet by means of a pre-coded food diary over 4 d and a 4 d...

  4. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Munch-Andersen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index. Study design: Cross sectional study, comparing Inuit eating a western diet with Inuit eating a traditional diet. Methods: Two physically active Greenland Inuit groups consuming different diet, 20 eating a traditional diet (Qaanaaq and 15 eating a western diet (TAB, age (mean (range; 38, (22–58 yrs, BMI; 28 (20–40 were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, blood sampling, maximal oxygen uptake test, food interview/collection and monitoring of physical activity. Results: All Inuit had a normal OGTT. Fasting glucose (mmol/l, HbA1c (%, total cholesterol (mmol/l and HDL-C (mmol/l were for Qaanaaq women: 4.8±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 4.96±0.42, 1.34±0.06, for Qaanaaq men: 4.9±0.1, 5.7±0.1, 5.08±0.31, 1.28±0.09, for TAB women: 5.1±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 6.22±0.39, 1.86±0.13, for TAB men: 5.1±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 6.23±0.15, 1.60±0.10. No differences were found in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the groups. There was a more adverse distribution of small dense LDL-C particles and higher total cholesterol and HDL-C concentration in the western diet group. Conclusions: Diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance was not found in the Inuit consuming either the western or the traditional diet, and this could, at least partly, be due to the high amount of regular daily physical activity. However, when considering the total cardio vascular risk profile the Inuit consuming a western diet had a less healthy profile than the Inuit consuming a traditional diet.

  5. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch-Andersen, Thor; Olsen, David B; Søndergaard, Hans; Daugaard, Jens R; Bysted, Anette; Christensen, Dirk L; Saltin, Bengt; Helge, Jørn W

    2012-03-19

    To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index). Cross sectional study, comparing Inuit eating a western diet with Inuit eating a traditional diet. Two physically active Greenland Inuit groups consuming different diet, 20 eating a traditional diet (Qaanaaq) and 15 eating a western diet (TAB), age (mean (range)); 38, (22-58) yrs, BMI; 28 (20-40) were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), blood sampling, maximal oxygen uptake test, food interview/collection and monitoring of physical activity. All Inuit had a normal OGTT. Fasting glucose (mmol/l), HbA1c (%), total cholesterol (mmol/l) and HDL-C (mmol/l) were for Qaanaaq women: 4.8±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 4.96±0.42, 1.34±0.06, for Qaanaaq men: 4.9±0.1, 5.7±0.1, 5.08±0.31, 1.28±0.09, for TAB women: 5.1±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 6.22±0.39, 1.86±0.13, for TAB men: 5.1±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 6.23±0.15, 1.60±0.10. No differences were found in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the groups. There was a more adverse distribution of small dense LDL-C particles and higher total cholesterol and HDL-C concentration in the western diet group. Diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance was not found in the Inuit consuming either the western or the traditional diet, and this could, at least partly, be due to the high amount of regular daily physical activity. However, when considering the total cardio vascular risk profile the Inuit consuming a western diet had a less healthy profile than the Inuit consuming a traditional diet.

  6. Investigating the associations between Mediterranean diet, physical activity and living environment with childhood asthma using path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphantonogeorgos, George; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Grigoropoulou, Dimitra; Yfanti, Konstantina; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Papadimitriou, Anastasios; Anthracopoulos, Michael B; Bakoula, Chryssa; Priftis, Kostas N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of the Mediterranean diet and physical activity with relation to living environment and childhood asthma. 1125 children (529 boys), 10 to 12 years old were recruited either in an urban environment (Athens, n = 700) or rural environment (n = 425) in Greece. A path analytic model was developed to assess the causal relation between urban environment and asthma prevalence (standardized ISAAC questionnaire), through the mediation of the Mediterranean diet (evaluated by the KIDMED food frequency questionnaire) and physical activity (evaluated by the PALQ physical activity questionnaire). The proposed model had a very good fit (χ2/df ratio =1.05, RMSEA=0.007, 90% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.046, p=0.97, CFI = 0.98). A significant total positive effect was found between urban environment and asthma symptoms (standardized beta= 0.09, penvironment - asthma relation (standardized beta=-0.029, penvironment on childhood asthma.

  7. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

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    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  8. Review of policies adopted in 34 Countries to improve diet and physical activity

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    Anna Ceccarelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Today, obesity can be considered in most OECD and EU countries as an unprecedented public health challenge which has been underestimated, poorly assessed and not fully accepted as a strategic governmental problem with substantial economic implications.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the major policy statements on diet and physical activity adopted in 34 OECD and other EU countries until 2008, and to point out similarities and differences between country approaches and factors that may explain them.


    Methods: Information about policies and interventions was mainly retrieved from official sources such as the WHO Regional Office for Europe nutrition policy database, and websites of Health Ministries and national public health institutions.


    Results: The review pointed out that almost all WHO and OECD Member States have government-approved policies on nutrition and food safety. Although countries have large data and documents on overweight and obesity, they do not seem to rely on them to define clear strategies and plans for action which, as a result, are often vague and unspecific.

    Conclusions: In order to reverse the obesity trend down to decent levels and to reach the lower socio-economic groups, concerted, multisectorial, long-term actions are needed in combination with a much larger political determination.

  9. Relationship of Body Mass Index with Diet, Physical Activities, and Lifestyles of Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Syed R; Alghofaily, Sakhar; Alshamrani, Hussam; Alhammad, Abdullah; Awan, Kamran Habib

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight issues and obesity by recording the body mass index (BMI) and explore the dietary habits, physical activities (PAs), and lifestyles of male students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. A custom-designed self-administrative form and questionnaire were used in this study for data collection. The first part of the form was used to record the participants' height and weight for the BMI. The participants were grouped as underweight (BMI 30.0). The second part comprised questions related to the dietary habits, PAs, and lifestyles of the male dental students. Chi-squared test was used to generate the significance of each question at significance surfing per day (p = 0.012). The prevalence of overweight issues and obesity is high among the dental students compared with the general population of Saudi Arabia, and there is a need for intervention programs to combat obesity among the dental students. The awareness about PA, healthy diet/lifestyle, consequences of overweight and obesity on their health and profession must be increased among the dental students to avoid future complications. The impact of obesity on individuals' oral health and its influence on dental treatment protocols and postoperative procedures has been well documented. Dental students are more prone to obesity due to their lifestyle with less PA and disordered eating habits and, thereby, are prone to obesity-related health hazards.

  10. Not merely a question of self-control: The longitudinal effects of overeating behaviors, diet quality and physical activity on dieters' perceived diet success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Carmen; Hartmann, Christina

    2016-12-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted between 2010 (T1) and 2014 (T2) on a random sample from the general Swiss population (N = 2781, 46% male). Results showed that dieters (restrained eaters) who reported lack of success in T2 were overweight in T1, had higher levels of emotional and external eating, overeating, and ambivalence toward eating palatable food in T1, and a significantly increased body mass index (BMI) in the period between T1 and T2. Dieters who reported success in T2 had maintained a normal BMI between T1 and T2, had a higher diet quality in T1 and had maintained regular physical activity for at least one year before T2. The logistic regression revealed that high levels of dispositional self-control provided the most important predictor of being a successful dieter. When controlling for dispositional self-control, high levels of emotional eating, overeating, and ambivalence in T1, together with increases in these levels between T1 and T2, were associated with a decreased likelihood of being a successful dieter in T2. High levels of diet quality in T1 and the maintenance of regular physical activity were associated with an increased likelihood of being a successful dieter in T2. Results suggest that diet success and failure is a long-term phenomenon, partly but not fully explained by dispositional self-control. Independent of self-control persistent patterns of overeating due to emotional eating and ambivalent feelings toward eating palatable food, also explain long-term diet failure. A high diet quality and maintenance of regular physical activity accounted for dieters' long-term success. This is the first study that examined the long-term psychological and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup.

  12. Associations of Socioeconomic Status with Diet and Physical Activity in Migrant Bougainvilleans in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengiau, Gwendalyn; Umezaki, Masahiro; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Siba, Peter; Watanabe, Chiho

    2014-01-01

    Urban migrants in Papua New Guinea have undergone a nutritional transition. The present study investigated associations of socioeconomic status with dietary and physical activity patterns among migrant Bougainvilleans from Nassioi territory in the capital city of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. All adults Naasioi migrants residing in Port Moresby were identified (N = 185) and 70 were included. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity, and dietary patterns were assessed by per-week consumption frequency of food items. Principal component analysis was applied to produce a composite score for socioeconomic status. Least square regression analysis indicated that socioeconomic status was positively correlated with consumption of a traditional diet (p = .03) and negatively with walking-related physical activity (p = .02), but it was not correlated with MET-minutes of moderate/vigorous activity. Different patterns of nutritional transition occur among migrants in urban Papua New Guinea, depending on socioeconomic status.

  13. Changing psychosocial determinants of physical activity and diet in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Smith, Ben J; Cinnadaio, Nancy; Bauman, Adrian; Tapsell, Linda; Cheung, N Wah; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2018-01-01

    To investigate how a behavioural lifestyle intervention influences psychosocial determinants of physical activity and dietary behaviours in a population at risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Fifty-nine women with a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m 2 and a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) participated in a randomized controlled study. The intervention group (n = 29) received 2 face-to-face and 5 telephone lifestyle-counselling sessions with a health professional. The control group (n = 30) received care as usual. At baseline and 6 months, psychosocial determinants related to physical activity and diet were measured with a self-administrated questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were applied to test for intervention effects. The intervention was effective in improving social support (β = 3.5, P diet from baseline to 6-month follow-up in the intervention group compared with the control group. The intervention reduced the following barriers to a physically active lifestyle: lack of energy and lack of motivation. Physical activity barriers like lack of time and lack of childcare were unchanged. The intervention reduced the following barriers to a healthy diet: lack of time, costs, having unhealthy snacks at home, and having cravings for sweets. This lifestyle intervention influenced psychosocial determinants relevant for overweight women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in prevention of T2DM. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Associations of Diet and Physical Activity with Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Jovana Mijatovic-Vukas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rising rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and related complications have prompted calls to identify potentially modifiable risk factors that are associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. We systematically reviewed the scientific literature for observational studies examining specific dietary and/or physical activity (PA factors and risk of GDM. Our search included PubMed, Medline, CINAHL/EBSCO, Science Direct and EMBASE, and identified 1167 articles, of which 40 met our inclusion criteria (e.g., singleton pregnancy, reported diet or PA data during pre-pregnancy/early pregnancy and GDM as an outcome measure. Studies were assessed for quality using a modified Quality Criteria Checklist from American Dietetic Association. Of the final 40 studies, 72% obtained a positive quality rating and 28% were rated neutral. The final analysis incorporated data on 30,871 pregnant women. Dietary studies were categorised into either caffeine, carbohydrate, fat, protein, calcium, fast food and recognized dietary patterns. Diets such as Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet and Alternate Healthy Eating Index diet (AHEI were associated with 15–38% reduced relative risk of GDM. In contrast, frequent consumption of potato, meat/processed meats, and protein (% energy derived from animal sources was associated with an increased risk of GDM. Compared to no PA, any pre-pregnancy or early pregnancy PA was associated with 30% and 21% reduced odds of GDM, respectively. Engaging in >90 min/week of leisure time PA before pregnancy was associated with 46% decreased odds of GDM. We conclude that diets resembling MedDiet/DASH diet as well as higher PA levels before or in early pregnancy were associated with lower risks or odds of GDM respectively. The systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO as CRD42016027795.

  15. Impact of Baseline Physical Activity and Diet Behavior on Metabolic Syndrome in a Pharmaceutical Trial: Results from NAVIGATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Kim M.; Sun, Jie-Lena; Thomas, Laine; Bales, Connie W.; Califf, Robert M.; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J.; Holman, Rury R.; McMurray, John J.V.; Bethel, M. Angelyn; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Haffner, Steven M.; Kraus, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The cardiometabolic risk cluster metabolic syndrome (MS) includes ≥3of elevated fasting glucose, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c), and increased waist circumference. Each can be affected by physical activity and diet. Our objective was to determine whether determine whether baseline physical activity and/or diet behavior impact MS in the course of a large pharmaceutical trial. Materials/Methods This was an observational study from NAVIGATOR, a double-blind, randomized (nateglinide, valsartan, both, or placebo), controlled trial between 2002 and 2004. We studied data from persons (n=9306) with impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or CVD risk factors; 7118 with pedometer data were included in this analysis. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day pedometer records; diet behavior was self-reported on a 6-item survey. An MS score (MSSc) was calculated using the sum of each MS component, centered around the Adult Treatment Panel III threshold, and standardized according to sample standard deviation. Excepting HDL-c, assessed at baseline and year 3, MS components were assessed yearly. Follow-up averaged 6 years. Results For every 2000-stepincrease in average daily steps, there was an associated reduction in average MSSc of 0.29(95%CI−0.33to−0.25).For each diet behavior endorsed, there was an associated reduction in average MSSc of 0.05 (95%CI−0.08 to −0.01).Accounting for the effects of pedometer steps and diet behavior together had minimal impact on parameter estimates with no significant interaction. Relations were independent of age, sex, race, region, smoking, family history of diabetes, and use of nateglinide, valsartan, aspirin, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering agent. Conclusions Baseline physical activity and diet behavior were associated independently with reductions in MSSc such that increased attention to these lifestyle elements providescardiometabolic

  16. Effect of Maternal Diet Diversity and Physical Activity on Neonatal Birth Weight: A Study from Urban Slums of Mumbai

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    Komal Manerkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India has the highest prevalence of low birth weight babies. Geographical variation and level of physical activity can influence diet diversity and maternal nutritional status which in turn influences the birth weight of the neonate. Mumbai is a large city comprising of slums in suburbs depicting diet diversity amongst populations. Aim: To study the maternal diet diversity, physical activity and its effect on birth weight of the neonates in urban slums of Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A six month follow-up study was carried out in three maternity homes representing different geographical areas of Western, Central and Southern Mumbai. A total number of 131 pregnant women were selected using simple random sampling. Final sample size was n=121 after follow-up loss of 9 and 1 miscarriage. Maternal anthropometric, socio-demographic, physical activity and diet diversity data was collected using structured questionnaires through personal interview after taking written informed consent. Birth weight of the neonate was recorded. Chi-Square, Correlation, ANOVA was used to test the significance. A p-value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Nineteen (15.7% were low birth weight (LBW infants, 102 (84.3% had normal weight. There was a significant association between place of Antenatal Clinic (ANC visit and diet diversity score and its subsequent effect on birth weight (p<0.05. Geographic variation had an impact on diet diversity scores which in turn affected the birth weight of neonates. Women who delivered low birth weight babies were more involved in household domestic activities (p<0.05 compared to those women who delivered normal weight babies. Conclusion: Diet diversity and physical activity influence the birth weight of neonates across different geographic locations. Despite of ample interventions available to prevent maternal malnutrition, the incidence of LBW was not decreased. Thus, this issue needs to be addressed at

  17. Stage of change and motivation to healthy diet and habitual physical activity in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centis, E; Trento, M; Dei Cas, A; Pontiroli, A E; De Feo, P; Bruno, A; Sasdelli, A S; Arturi, F; Strollo, F; Vigili De' Kreutzenberg, S; Invitti, C; Di Bonito, P; Di Mauro, M; Pugliese, G; Molteni, A; Marchesini, G

    2014-08-01

    Lifestyle changes to healthy diet (HD) and habitual physical activity (HPA) are recommended in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Yet, for most people with diabetes, it may be difficult to start changing. We investigated the stage of change toward healthier lifestyles according to Prochaska's model, and the associated psychological factors in T2DM patients, as a prerequisite to improve strategies to implement behavior changes in the population. A total of 1,353 consecutive outpatients with T2DM attending 14 tertiary centers for diabetes treatment completed the validated EMME-3 questionnaire, consisting of two parallel sets of instruments to define the stage of change for HD and HPA, respectively. Logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with stages that may hinder behavioral changes. A stage of change favoring progress to healthier behaviors was more common in the area of HD than in HPA, with higher scores in action and maintenance. Differences were observed in relation to gender, age and duration of disease. After adjustment for confounders, resistance to change toward HD was associated with higher body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio (OR) 1.05; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.08). Resistance to improve HPA also increased with BMI (OR 1.06; 95 % CI 1.03-1.10) and decreased with education level (OR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.64-0.92). Changing lifestyle, particularly in the area of HPA, is not perceived as an essential part of treatment by many subjects with T2DM. This evidence must be considered when planning behavioral programs, and specific interventions are needed to promote adherence to HPA.

  18. A life course examination of the physical environmental determinants of physical activity behaviour: A "Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity" (DEDIPAC) umbrella systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Angela; Perchoux, Camille; Puggina, Anna; Aleksovska, Katina; Buck, Christoph; Burns, Con; Cardon, Greet; Chantal, Simon; Ciarapica, Donatella; Condello, Giancarlo; Coppinger, Tara; Cortis, Cristina; D'Haese, Sara; De Craemer, Marieke; Di Blasio, Andrea; Hansen, Sylvia; Iacoviello, Licia; Issartel, Johann; Izzicupo, Pascal; Jaeschke, Lina; Kanning, Martina; Kennedy, Aileen; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Chun Man Ling, Fiona; Luzak, Agnes; Napolitano, Giorgio; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Pischon, Tobias; Polito, Angela; Sannella, Alessandra; Schulz, Holger; Sohun, Rhoda; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Walter; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Capranica, Laura; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a multitude of health benefits across the life course. However, many people fail to meet PA recommendations. Despite a plethora of studies, the evidence regarding the environmental (physical) determinants of physical activity remains inconclusive. To identify the physical environmental determinants that influence PA across the life course. An online systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and SPORTDiscus. The search was limited to studies published in English (January 2004 to April 2016). Only systematic literature reviews (SLRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies, that investigated the association between physical determinants and physical activity outcomes, were eligible for inclusion. The extracted data were assessed on the importance of determinants, strength of evidence and methodological quality. The literature search identified 28 SLRs and 3 MAs on 67 physical environmental characteristics potentially related to physical activity that were eligible for inclusion. Among preschool children, a positive association was reported between availability of backyard space and outdoor toys/equipment in the home and overall physical activity. The availability of physical activity programs and equipment within schools, and neighbourhood features such as pedestrian and cyclist safety structure were positively associated with physical activity in children and adolescents. Negative street characteristics, for example, lack of sidewalks and streetlights, were negatively associated with physical activity in adults. Inconsistent associations were reported for the majority of reviewed determinants in adults. This umbrella SLR provided a comprehensive overview of the physical environment determinants of physical activity across the life course and has highlighted, particularly amongst youth, a number of key determinants that may be associated with overall

  19. School promotion of healthful diet and physical activity: impact on learning outcomes and self-reported behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, G S; Simons-Morton, B; O'Hara, N M; Baranowski, T; Wilson, B

    1989-01-01

    The Go For Health Program included classroom health education and environmental changes in school lunch and physical education to foster healthful diet and exercise among elementary school children. Interventions were based on social learning theory and implementation was based on an organizational change strategy for school innovations. Two schools were assigned to intervention and two to control conditions. Cognitive measures (behavioral capability, self-efficacy, behavioral expectations) and self-reported diet and exercise behavior were assessed at baseline and following intervention. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the student and then the school as the unit of analysis. Statistically significant changes were observed for diet behavioral capability, self-efficacy, and behavioral expectations, use of salt, and exercise behavioral capability (fourth grade), self-efficacy (fourth grade) and frequency of participation in aerobic activity. The results provide evidence for program impact on learning outcomes and student behavior.

  20. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance – Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Sørensen, Louise B.; Andersen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    % of expected learning within one school year (P breakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three...

  1. NUTRITION AND FITNESS (PART 2: MENTAL HEALTH, AGING, AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A HEALTHY DIET AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LIFESTYLE

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    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Nutrition and Fitness held in Athens, Greece, on June 91-2, 2004 are presented in the book as a second volume of the series. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on nutrition and fitness by taking into consideration i mental health, ii psychiatric disorders, iii menopause, iv osteoporosis, v aging and vi healthy diet. The book also discusses the role of government in implementing a healthy diet and physical activity lifestyle. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of four parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i Mental Health, ii Aging, Osteoporosis and Physical Activity, iii Defining the Components of a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity for Health and iv The Role of Government in Implementing a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Lifestyle. In each specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for researchers, psychiatrists, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, geneticists, dietitians, food scientists, policy makers in government, private food industry and healthcare professionals in the fields of social and preventive medicine, geriatrics, public health, sports medicine. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. ASSESSMENT This book is almost a compulsory reading for anyone interested in nutrition, metabolism, social and preventive medicine, clinical nutrition, diabetics, genetics, obesity, public health, aging and osteoporosis, psychiatric disorders and sports medicine and for those wishing to run comprehensive research in this

  2. The Obesogenic Quality of the Home Environment: Associations with Diet, Physical Activity, TV Viewing, and BMI in Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schrempft

    Full Text Available The home environment is thought to play a key role in early weight trajectories, although direct evidence is limited. There is general agreement that multiple factors exert small individual effects on weight-related outcomes, so use of composite measures could demonstrate stronger effects. This study therefore examined whether composite measures reflecting the 'obesogenic' home environment are associated with diet, physical activity, TV viewing, and BMI in preschool children.Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 1096 completed a telephone interview (Home Environment Interview; HEI when their children were 4 years old. Diet, physical activity, and TV viewing were reported at interview. Child height and weight measurements were taken by the parents (using standard scales and height charts and reported at interview. Responses to the HEI were standardized and summed to create four composite scores representing the food (sum of 21 variables, activity (sum of 6 variables, media (sum of 5 variables, and overall (food composite/21 + activity composite/6 + media composite/5 home environments. These were categorized into 'obesogenic risk' tertiles.Children in 'higher-risk' food environments consumed less fruit (OR; 95% CI = 0.39; 0.27-0.57 and vegetables (0.47; 0.34-0.64, and more energy-dense snacks (3.48; 2.16-5.62 and sweetened drinks (3.49; 2.10-5.81 than children in 'lower-risk' food environments. Children in 'higher-risk' activity environments were less physically active (0.43; 0.32-0.59 than children in 'lower-risk' activity environments. Children in 'higher-risk' media environments watched more TV (3.51; 2.48-4.96 than children in 'lower-risk' media environments. Neither the individual nor the overall composite measures were associated with BMI.Composite measures of the obesogenic home environment were associated as expected with diet, physical activity, and TV viewing. Associations with BMI were not apparent at this age.

  3. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: Education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Lian eTam; Gregory eBonn; Gregory eBonn; Si Han eYeoh; Chee Piau eWong

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3% to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviours. This was do...

  4. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done...

  5. Maternal and paternal parenting practices and their influence on children's adiposity, screen-time, diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine a range of potential behavioral and maternal/paternal correlates of adiposity in children. Secondary aims were to examine (a) correlates of screen-time, diet and physical activity and (b) if there were differences in maternal and paternal physical activity- and dietary-related parenting practices. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 70 families with children (59% boys (41/70), mean age 8.4 (±2.4) years). Parenting practices were measured using the Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale. Children's outcomes included: 7-day pedometry (physical activity), screen-time, percent energy from core foods (Food frequency questionnaire) and BMI z-score. Multiple regression models were generated to examine the associations between maternal and paternal parenting practices and children's variables. In the regression analyses, fathers' BMI (p parenting practices [limit setting (p = .01), reinforcement (p = .02)] and child screen-time (p = .02) were significantly associated with intake of core foods. Despite some similarities within families, three out of five parenting constructs were significantly different between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have different parental influences on their children's weight status and lifestyle behaviors and both should be included in lifestyle interventions targeting children. A focus on maternal parenting specifically relating to screen-time and diet, and father's physical activity parenting and weight status may support their children in developing more healthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Validity of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in the Danish cohort 'Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Lene; Olsen, Anja; Petersen, Kristina Elin Nielsen

    2017-01-01

    ). When validating the questionnaire-derived measures of PA, leisure time physical activity was not correlated with VO2 max. Positive correlations were found for sports overall, but these were only significant for men: total hours per week of sports (r=0.26), MET-hours per week of sports (r=0......Valid assessments of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is essential in epidemiological studies to define dose-response relationship for e.g. formulating thorough recommendations of an appropriate pattern of PA to maintain good health. The aim of this study was to validate...... the Danish step test, the physical activity questionnaire Active-Q and self-rated fitness against directly measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). A population based subsample (n=125) was included from the 'Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations' (DCH-NG) cohort which is under establishment. Validity...

  7. Behaviour change techniques targeting both diet and physical activity in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradock, Kevin A; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Finucane, Francis M; Gainforth, Heather L; Quinlan, Leo R; Ginis, Kathleen A Martin

    2017-02-08

    Changing diet and physical activity behaviour is one of the cornerstones of type 2 diabetes treatment, but changing behaviour is challenging. The objective of this study was to identify behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and intervention features of dietary and physical activity interventions for patients with type 2 diabetes that are associated with changes in HbA 1c and body weight. We performed a systematic review of papers published between 1975-2015 describing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that focused exclusively on both diet and physical activity. The constituent BCTs, intervention features and methodological rigour of these interventions were evaluated. Changes in HbA 1c and body weight were meta-analysed and examined in relation to use of BCTs. Thirteen RCTs were identified. Meta-analyses revealed reductions in HbA 1c at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of -1.11 % (12 mmol/mol), -0.67 % (7 mmol/mol), -0.28 % (3 mmol/mol) and -0.26 % (2 mmol/mol) with an overall reduction of -0.53 % (6 mmol/mol [95 % CI -0.74 to -0.32, P 0.3 % reduction in HbA 1c : 'instruction on how to perform a behaviour', 'behavioural practice/rehearsal', 'demonstration of the behaviour' and 'action planning', as were intervention features 'supervised physical activity', 'group sessions', 'contact with an exercise physiologist', 'contact with an exercise physiologist and a dietitian', 'baseline HbA 1c >8 %' and interventions of greater frequency and intensity. Diet and physical activity interventions achieved clinically significant reductions in HbA 1c at three and six months, but not at 12 and 24 months. Specific BCTs and intervention features identified may inform more effective structured lifestyle intervention treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes.

  8. Assessment of Diet, Physical Activity and Biological, Social and Environmental Factors in a Multi-centre European Project on Diet- and Lifestyle-related Disorders in Children (IDEFICS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, Karin; Peplies, Jenny; Sjöström, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in developed countries. We present a European project, called Identification and Prevention of Dietary and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants (IDEFICS), that focuses on diet- and lifestyle-related diseases in children. This paper...... outlines methodological aspects and means of quality control in IDEFICS. IDEFICS will use a multicentre survey design of a population-based cohort of about 17,000 2- to 10-year-old children in nine European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden). The project...... will investigate the impact of dietary factors such as food intake and food preferences, lifestyle factors such as physical activity, psychosocial factors and genetic factors on the development of obesity and other selected diet- and lifestyle-related disorders. An intervention study will be set up in pre...

  9. Efficacy of interventions that use apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Bray, Nicola A; Williams, Susan L; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-12-07

    Health and fitness applications (apps) have gained popularity in interventions to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviours but their efficacy is unclear. This systematic review examined the efficacy of interventions that use apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adults. Systematic literature searches were conducted in five databases to identify papers published between 2006 and 2016. Studies were included if they used a smartphone app in an intervention to improve diet, physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour for prevention. Interventions could be stand-alone interventions using an app only, or multi-component interventions including an app as one of several intervention components. Outcomes measured were changes in the health behaviours and related health outcomes (i.e., fitness, body weight, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, quality of life). Study inclusion and methodological quality were independently assessed by two reviewers. Twenty-seven studies were included, most were randomised controlled trials (n = 19; 70%). Twenty-three studies targeted adults (17 showed significant health improvements) and four studies targeted children (two demonstrated significant health improvements). Twenty-one studies targeted physical activity (14 showed significant health improvements), 13 studies targeted diet (seven showed significant health improvements) and five studies targeted sedentary behaviour (two showed significant health improvements). More studies (n = 12; 63%) of those reporting significant effects detected between-group improvements in the health behaviour or related health outcomes, whilst fewer studies (n = 8; 42%) reported significant within-group improvements. A larger proportion of multi-component interventions (8 out of 13; 62%) showed significant between-group improvements compared to stand-alone app interventions (5 out of 14; 36%). Eleven studies reported app usage statistics

  10. Weight gain in healthy pregnant women in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI, diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2015-07-01

    to explore gestational weight gain in healthy women in relation to pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index, diet and physical activity. a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 455 healthy pregnant women of all gestational ages receiving antenatal care from an independent midwife in the Netherlands. Weight gain was assessed using the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and classified as below, within, or above the guidelines. A multinomial regression analysis was performed with weight gain classifications as the dependent variable (within IOM-guidelines as reference). Independent variables were pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index, diet (broken down into consumption of vegetables, fruit and fish) and physical activity (motivation to engage in physical activity, pre-pregnancy physical activity and decline in physical activity during pregnancy). Covariates were age, gestational age, parity, ethnicity, family income, education, perceived sleep deprivation, satisfaction with pre-pregnancy weight, estimated prepregnancy body mass index, smoking, having a weight gain goal and having received weight gain advice from the midwife. forty-two per cent of the women surveyed gained weight within the guidelines. Fourteen per cent of the women gained weight below the guidelines and 44 per cent gained weight above the guidelines. Weight gain within the guidelines, compared to both above and below the guidelines, was not associated with pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index nor with diet. A decline in physical activity was associated with weight gain above the guidelines (OR 0.54, 95 per cent CI 0.33-0.89). Weight gain below the guidelines was seen more often in women who perceived a greater sleep deprivation (OR 1.20, 95 per cent CI 1.02-1.41). Weight gain above the guidelines was seen less often in Caucasian women in comparison to non-Caucasian women (OR 0.22, 95 per cent CI 0.08-0.56) and with women who did not stop smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.49, 95 per cent CI 0.25-0.95). a decline in

  11. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James R

    2006-01-01

    ... physical activity and mindfulness-based stress reduction. This randomized trial will enroll 60 men with rising PSA levels along with a partner of their choice, half of whom will be randomized to the intervention and half to usual care...

  12. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James R

    2007-01-01

    ... physical activity and mindfulness-based stress reduction. This randomized trial will enroll 60 men with rising PSA levels along with a partner of their choice, half of whom will be randomized to the intervention and half to usual care...

  13. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Mediation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hebert, James

    2004-01-01

    ... physical activity and mindfulness-based stress reduction. This randomized trial will enroll 60 men with rising PSA levels along with a partner of their choice, half of whom will be randomized to the intervention and half to usual care...

  14. Compliance With the Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity Level of Users of the PAFES (Plan for Physical Activity, Sport and Health Web Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Physical Activity Plan Sport and Health web site (www.pafes.cat allows users to assess the level of adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD and level of physical activity (PA by two interactive questionnaires: the MD questionnaire adapted from the study Prevention with Mediterranean Diet (Predimed and the abbreviated version of the International Physical Activity questionnaire (IPAQ.Methods: A descriptive analysis was performed on the results of both questionnaires during the period 2009 to 2010.Results: Of the 1376 questionnaires analyzed on adherence to the MD, 12.5% of users have a high compliance, 67.2% moderate, and 20.3% low. Almost all (95.8% used olive oil as the main added fat, 82.2% and 78.4% reported a low intake of butter and derivatives, and sugary drinks, respectively, and 70.9% referred to an adequate intake of vegetables. On the negative side, 82.3% reported a low intake of legumes, 71.6% a high intake of red meat, 67.6% and 25% lower intake of fruit and nuts, respectively. As regards PA, of the 1221 questionnaires analyzed, 79.4% of the population met the PA health recommendations, 36.5% at a high level, and 42.9% moderate.Conclusions: Web questionnaires can be a useful tool in the promotion and dissemination of both habits. As a suggestion for improvement, we propose the inclusion of demographic variables to determine the profile of users who completed the questionnaires.

  15. Pancreatic cancer survivors' preferences, barriers, and facilitators related to physical activity and diet interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Anna E; Delk, Ashley; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Christein, John D; Contreras, Carlo; Posey, James A; Vickers, Selwyn; Oster, Robert; Rogers, Laura Q

    2016-12-01

    To conduct a telephone survey establishing pancreatic cancer survivors' level of interest in, preferences for, and perceived barriers and facilitators to participating in exercise and diet intervention programming. These data will inform the development of such interventions for newly-diagnosed patients. Seventy-one survivors treated for resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma from October 2011 to August 2014 were identified through an institutional cancer registry and contacted via telephone. A telephone survey was conducted to query survivors' level of interest in, preferences for, and perceived barriers and facilitators to participating in an exercise and dietary intervention program shortly after disease diagnosis. Acceptability of a technology-based visual communication (e.g., Skype™, FaceTime®) intervention was also assessed. Fifty participants completed the survey (response rate 71.8 %). Over two-thirds of participants reported interest in exercise and diet intervention programming. Over half reported comfort with a technology-delivered visual communication intervention. Barriers to participation included older age and physical, personal, and emotional problems. The most common facilitator was program awareness. Outcomes for future research important to participants were supportive care and quality of life. Most pancreatic cancer patients are interested in exercise and diet interventions shortly after diagnosis; however, some barriers to program participation exist. Future research and intervention planning for pancreatic cancer survivors should focus on developing messaging and strategies that provide support for survivorship outcomes, increase survivor awareness, address lack of familiarity with technology, reduce fears about potential barriers, and help survivors overcome these barriers. In so doing, survivorship needs can be better met and quality of life improved in this understudied population.

  16. Social-ecological resources as mediators of two-year diet and physical activity outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Manuel; Strycker, Lisa A; Mackinnon, David P; Toobert, Deborah J

    2008-03-01

    In behavioral research directed at the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the challenge is to understand how interventions might facilitate long-term lifestyle changes. The Mediterranean Lifestyle Program (MLP) is an intervention for postmenopausal women diagnosed with type 2 diabetes that has shown promising effects on outcomes that include increased physical activity and reduced fat consumption. The present study extended previous findings by evaluating diet-specific and activity-specific social-ecological resources as possible mediators of intervention effects over a 2-year period. Percent calories from saturated fat and caloric expenditure per week in all physical activities were assessed with self-report questionnaires. The MLP was successful in increasing participants' use of diet-specific and activity-specific family/friend and neighborhood resources. There was some evidence that changes in those resources mediated intervention effects on saturated fat consumption and physical activity outcomes. The experimental manipulation of mediators and the demonstrated mediational effects provided some support for the conclusion that social-ecological resources can contribute to improvements in healthful lifestyles for women with type 2 diabetes. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Impact of social norms and social support on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, C E; Grobler, L; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood is rapidly increasing, and it is essential that risk factors for NCDs be addressed in adolescence, both for the health of individuals during adolescence and for their health in later life. These risk factors include diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. No literature has been published that comprehensively summarizes the impact of social norms and social support on these behaviours among adolescents. Therefore, a scoping review was conducted to determine the extent of recent (since 2000) literature available on this topic. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search PubMed and EMBASE for eligible reviews. Review papers (narrative reviews, systematic and non-systematic reviews) published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to February 2013 were included in the overview. Two of the authors screened the titles and abstracts of the search results independently. Thirty reviews were included in the scoping review. This scoping review has shown sufficient evidence for parental influences, and especially the positive impact of an authoritative parenting style, on healthy behaviours of adolescents, although the evidence is somewhat more compelling for diet than for physical activity and sedentary behaviour. More research is needed to investigate parental and family influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. And the effect of peer influences on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents requires further investigation. The evidence presented affirms the consideration of social norms and social support in the development of interventions to address these behaviours in adolescents. The evidence regarding parenting style provides some concrete guidance for such interventions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The impact of an m-Health financial incentives program on the physical activity and diet of Australian truck drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson, Nicholas D.; Pavey, Toby G; Wright, Olivia RL; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Duncan, Mitch J; Gomersall, Sjaan; Trost, Stewart G.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic diseases are high in truck drivers and have been linked to work routines that promote inactivity and poor diets. This feasibility study examined the extent to which an m-Health financial incentives program facilitated physical activity and healthy dietary choices in Australian truck drivers. Methods Nineteen men (mean [SD] age = 47.5 [9.8] years; BMI = 31.2 [4.6] kg/m2) completed the 20-week program, and used an activity tracker and smartphone application (Jawbone ...

  19. Advising overweight persons about diet and physical activity in primary health care: Lithuanian health behaviour monitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaisvalavicius Vytautas

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a globally spreading health problem. Behavioural interventions aimed at modifying dietary habits and physical activity patterns are essential in prevention and management of obesity. General practitioners (GP have a unique opportunity to counsel overweight patients on weight control. The purpose of the study was to assess the level of giving advice on diet and physical activity by GPs using the data of Lithuanian health behaviour monitoring among adult population. Methods Data from cross-sectional postal surveys of 2000, 2002 and 2004 were analysed. Nationally representative random samples were drawn from the population register. Each sample consisted of 3000 persons aged 20–64 years. The response rates were 74.4% in 2000, 63.4% in 2002 and 61.7% in 2004. Self-reported body weight and height were used to calculate body mass index (BMI. Information on advising in primary health care was obtained asking whether GP advised overweight patients to change dietary habits and to increase physical activity. The odds of receiving advice on diet and physical activity were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses according to a range of sociodemographic variables, perceived health, number of visits to GPs and body-weight status. Results Almost a half of respondents were overweight or obese. Only one fourth of respondents reported that they were advised to change diet. The proportion of persons who received advice on physical activity was even lower. The odds of receiving advice increased with age. A strong association was found between perceived health and receiving advice. The likelihood of receiving advice was related to BMI. GPs were more likely to give advice when BMI was high. More than a half of obese respondents (63.3% reported that they had tried to lose weight. The association between receiving advice and self-reported attempt to lose weight was found. Conclusion The low rate of dietary and physical

  20. Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savage J Maurice

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. Methods Males (n 245 and females (n 231 were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD age 22 (1.6 y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%, 'medium' (M1; middle 50% or 'high' (H1; highest 25% categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2 were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 × 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (κ statistics. Results Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (κ ≤ 0.20 in both sexes, indicating substantial drift of subjects between the low, medium and high categories over time. The tracking of physical activity in males was fair (κ 0.202, but was poor in females (κ 0.021. In contrast, anthropometric variables such as weight, body mass index and sum of skinfolds tracked more strongly in females (κ 0.540, κ 0.307, κ 0.357 respectively than in males (κ 0.337, κ 0.199, κ 0.216 respectively. Conclusions The poor tracking of fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in young adulthood. In

  1. The Diet Quality of Competitive Adolescent Male Rugby Union Players with Energy Balance Estimated Using Different Physical Activity Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Burrows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometrics and dietary intakes were assessed in 25 competitive adolescent male rugby union players (14 to 18 years old. Diet was assessed using the validated Australian Eating Survey (AES food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was assessed through the Australian Recommended Food Score. Results: The median dietary intakes of participants met national recommendations for percent energy (% E from carbohydrate, protein and total fat, but not carbohydrate intake when evaluated as g/day as proposed in SDA guidelines. Median intakes of fibre and micronutrients including calcium and iron also met national recommendations. Overall diet quality was classified as ‘good’ with a median diet quality score of 34 (out of a possible 73; however, there was a lack of variety within key food groups including carbohydrates and proteins. Non-core food consumption exceeded recommended levels at 38% of the daily total energy intake, with substantial contributions from takeaway foods and sweetened beverages. A PAL coefficient of 1.2–1.4 was found to best balance the energy intakes of these players in their pre-season. Conclusions: Adolescent rugby players met the percent energy recommendations for macronutrients and attained an overall ‘good’ diet quality score. However, it was identified that when compared to specific recommendations for athletes, carbohydrate intakes were below recommendations and these players in their

  2. Associations of Parental Self-Efficacy with Diet, Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Swedish Preschoolers: Results from the MINISTOP Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Silfvernagel, Kristin; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Ortega, Francisco B.; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Löf, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Background: High parental self-efficacy (PSE) has been associated with healthy diets and higher levels of physical activity (PA) in children; however, data on PSE in relation to body weight and body composition are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of PSE with measures of diet, PA, body composition, and physical…

  3. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children's Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E; Broyles, Stephanie T; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2015-07-30

    This cross-sectional study examined differences in children's health behaviors during school term (ST) versus school holiday (SH: June-July) and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5-18 years (n = 406) from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score (BMIz) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth's physical activity and TV viewing.

  4. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Diet-Related eHealth and mHealth Research: Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Maher, Carol A; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Hingle, Melanie; Middelweerd, Anouk; Lopez, Michael L; DeSmet, Ann; Short, Camille E; Nathan, Nicole; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Poppe, Louise; Woods, Catherine B; Williams, Susan L; Wark, Petra A

    2018-04-18

    Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) approaches to address low physical activity levels, sedentary behavior, and unhealthy diets have received significant research attention. However, attempts to systematically map the entirety of the research field are lacking. This gap can be filled with a bibliometric study, where publication-specific data such as citations, journals, authors, and keywords are used to provide a systematic overview of a specific field. Such analyses will help researchers better position their work. The objective of this review was to use bibliometric data to provide an overview of the eHealth and mHealth research field related to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet. The Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection was searched to retrieve all existing and highly cited (as defined by WoS) physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet related eHealth and mHealth research papers published in English between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2016. Retrieved titles were screened for eligibility, using the abstract and full-text where needed. We described publication trends over time, which included journals, authors, and countries of eligible papers, as well as their keywords and subject categories. Citations of eligible papers were compared with those expected based on published data. Additionally, we described highly-cited papers of the field (ie, top ranked 1%). The search identified 4805 hits, of which 1712 (including 42 highly-cited papers) were included in the analyses. Publication output increased on an average of 26% per year since 2000, with 49.00% (839/1712) of papers being published between 2014 and 2016. Overall and throughout the years, eHealth and mHealth papers related to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet received more citations than expected compared with papers in the same WoS subject categories. The Journal of Medical Internet Research published most papers in the field (9.58%, 164/1712). Most

  5. Enhancing adherence in trials promoting change in diet and physical activity in individuals with a diagnosis of colorectal adenoma; a systematic review of behavioural intervention approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCahon, Deborah; Daley, Amanda J; Jones, Janet; Haslop, Richard; Shajpal, Arjun; Taylor, Aliki; Wilson, Sue; Dowswell, George

    2015-07-07

    Little is known about colorectal adenoma patients' ability to adhere to behavioural interventions promoting a change in diet and physical activity. This review aimed to examine health behaviour intervention programmes promoting change in diet and/or physical activity in adenoma patients and characterise interventions to which this patient group are most likely to adhere. Searches of eight databases were restricted to English language publications 2000-2014. Reference lists of relevant articles were also reviewed. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet and physical activity interventions in colorectal adenoma patients were included. Eligibility and quality were assessed and data were extracted by two reviewers. Data extraction comprised type, intensity, provider, mode and location of delivery of the intervention and data to enable calculation of four adherence outcomes. Data were subject to narrative analysis. Five RCTs with a total of 1932 participants met the inclusion criteria. Adherence to the goals of the intervention ranged from 18 to 86 % for diet and 13 to 47 % for physical activity. Diet interventions achieving ≥ 50 % adherence to the goals of the intervention were clinic based, grounded in cognitive theory, delivered one to one and encouraged social support. The findings of this review indicate that behavioural interventions can encourage colorectal adenoma patients to improve their diet. This review was not however able to clearly characterise effective interventions promoting increased physical activity in this patient group. Further research is required to establish effective interventions to promote adherence to physical activity in this population.

  6. Diet and physical activity as determinants of nutritional status in elderly women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to examine the relationship between physical activity, dietary intake and nutritional status in elderly women.

    Background of the study was a lack of knowledge about the existence of nutritionally unfavourable pathways

  7. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  8. Interactions between smoking and other exposures associated with lung cancer risk in women: diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubík, A; Zatloukal, P; Tomásek, L; Pauk, N; Havel, L; Dolezal, J; Plesko, I

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study is to estimate the differences in the impact of diet and physical exercise on lung cancer risk in female nonsmokers vs. smokers, and reveal interactions, if any. In a hospital based case-control study, data collected by in-person interviews from 569 female lung cancer cases and 2120 controls were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression stratifying by appropriate factors. Protective effects were observed for intake of milk/dairy products (OR=0.57, 95%CI 0.35-0.94), vegetables (OR=0.60, 95%CI 0.40-0.91), apples (OR=0.69), wine (OR=0.77), and physical exercise (OR=0.59, 95%CI 0.42-0.83) among smokers only, while no similar effects were found among nonsmokers. In contrast, the intake of black tea was associated with a protective effect (OR=0.66, 95%CI 0.47-0.94) among nonsmokers only. Comparing the effects of dietary items and physical activity on lung cancer risk among nonsmokers versus smokers, statistically significant effect modifications were found for black tea (P 0.005), and milk/dairy products (P 0.047). Borderline effect modifications emerged for physical exercise (P 0.077). These results indicate protective effects of some components of healthful diet and physical exercise among smokers, and of the intake of black tea among nonsmokers. The observed interactions of the impact of black tea, milk/dairy products and physical activity upon lung cancer risk in women at different levels of the smoking habit deserve further studies.

  9. Knowledge and perceptions about diet and physical activity among Sri Lankan adults with diabetes mellitus: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, P; Pigera, A S A D; Ishara, M H; Jayasekara, L M D T; Jayawardena, R; Katulanda, P

    2015-11-23

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a rapidly growing health concern in Sri Lanka. Diet and physical activity are important modifiable risk factors affecting the incidence, severity and management of DM. The present study aims to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions about dietary patterns and physical activity among a group of adults with DM in Sri Lanka using qualitative research methods. Fifty adults from a cohort of diabetic patients attending the medical clinics at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka were invited for the study. Data were collected via 10 Focus Group Discussions. Verbatim recording and documenting emotional responses were conducted by two independent observers. Directed content analysis of qualitative data was done with the help of NVIVO v10.0. Mean age was 61.2 ± 9.9 years and 46 % were males. Mean duration of diabetes was 10.4 ± 7.5 years. All were aware of the importance of diet in the management of DM. But most had difficulty in incorporating this knowledge into their lives mostly due to social circumstances. The majority described a list of 'good foods' and 'bad foods' for DM. They believed that 'good' foods can be consumed at all times, irrespective of quantity and 'bad' foods should be completely avoided. Many believed that fruits were bad for diabetes, while vegetables were considered as a healthy food choice. The majority thought that there were 'special' foods that help to control blood glucose, the most common being curry leaves and bitter-gourd. Most study participants were aware of the importance of being physical active. However, there was lack of consensus and clarity with regards to type, duration, timing and frequency of physical activity. Despite understanding the importance of dietary control and physical activity in the management of diabetes, adherence to practices were poor, mainly due to lack of clarity of information provided. There were many myths with regards to diet, some of which have originated from health care

  10. Overweight and Obesity Epidemic in Developing Countries: A Problem with Diet, Physical Activity, or Socioeconomic Status?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhurosy, Trishnee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health concern affecting more than half a billion people worldwide. Obesity rise is not only limited to developed countries, but to developing nations as well. This paper aims to compare the mean body mass index trends in the World Health Organisation- (WHO-) categorised regions since 1980 to 2008 and secondly to appraise how socioeconomic disparities can lead to differences in obesity and physical activity level across developing nations. Taking into account p...

  11. Leveraging geotagged Twitter data to examine neighborhood happiness, diet, and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Kath, Suraj; Meng, Hsien-Wen; Li, Dapeng; Smith, Ken Robert; VanDerslice, James A.; Wen, Ming; Li, Feifei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Using publicly available, geotagged Twitter data, we created neighborhood indicators for happiness, food and physical activity for three large counties: Salt Lake, San Francisco and New York. Methods We utilize 2.8 million tweets collected between February-August 2015 in our analysis. Geo-coordinates of where tweets were sent allow us to spatially join them to 2010 census tract locations. We implemented quality control checks and tested associations between Twitter-derived variables and sociodemographic characteristics. Results For a random subset of tweets, manually labeled tweets and algorithm labeled tweets had excellent levels of agreement: 73% for happiness; 83% for food, and 85% for physical activity. Happy tweets, healthy food references, and physical activity references were less frequent in census tracts with greater economic disadvantage and higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities and youths. Conclusions Social media can be leveraged to provide greater understanding of the well-being and health behaviors of communities—information that has been previously difficult and expensive to obtain consistently across geographies. More open access neighborhood data can enable better design of programs and policies addressing social determinants of health. PMID:28533568

  12. Effects of high-fat diet and physical activity on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 in mouse skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinnankoski-Tuikka Rita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of PDK4 is elevated by diabetes, fasting and other conditions associated with the switch from the utilization of glucose to fatty acids as an energy source. It is previously shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, a master regulator of energy metabolism, coactivates in cell lines pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4 gene expression via the estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα. We investigated the effects of long-term high-fat diet and physical activity on the expression of PDK4, PGC-1α and ERRα and the amount and function of mitochondria in skeletal muscle. Methods Insulin resistance was induced by a high-fat (HF diet for 19 weeks in C57BL/6 J mice, which were either sedentary or with access to running wheels. The skeletal muscle expression levels of PDK4, PGC-1α and ERRα were measured and the quality and quantity of mitochondrial function was assessed. Results The HF mice were more insulin-resistant than the low-fat (LF -fed mice. Upregulation of PDK4 and ERRα mRNA and protein levels were seen after the HF diet, and when combined with running even more profound effects on the mRNA expression levels were observed. Chronic HF feeding and voluntary running did not have significant effects on PGC-1α mRNA or protein levels. No remarkable difference was found in the amount or function of mitochondria. Conclusions Our results support the view that insulin resistance is not mediated by the decreased qualitative or quantitative properties of mitochondria. Instead, the role of PDK4 should be contemplated as a possible contributor to high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance.

  13. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Møller, Bente K; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20-60 years with a BMI of 18.5-35.0 kg/m(2). Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (pdifferences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (pdiffered according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern. These factors should be considered when planning studies and analysing data concerning appetite sensations.

  14. Variations in reporting of outcomes in randomized trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozińska, Ewelina; Marlin, Nadine; Yang, Fen; Dodd, Jodie M; Guelfi, Kym; Teede, Helena; Surita, Fernanda; Jensen, Dorte M; Geiker, Nina R W; Astrup, Arne; Yeo, SeonAe; Kinnunen, Tarja I; Stafne, Signe N; Cecatti, Jose G; Bogaerts, Annick; Hauner, Hans; Mol, Ben W; Scudeller, Tânia T; Vinter, Christina A; Renault, Kristina M; Devlieger, Roland; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Khan, Khalid S

    2017-07-01

    Trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy report on various outcomes. We aimed to assess the variations in outcomes reported and their quality in trials on lifestyle interventions in pregnancy. We searched major databases without language restrictions for randomized controlled trials on diet and physical activity-based interventions in pregnancy up to March 2015. Two independent reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction. We estimated the percentage of papers reporting 'critically important' and 'important' outcomes. We defined the quality of reporting as a proportion using a six-item questionnaire. Regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting this quality. Sixty-six randomized controlled trials were published in 78 papers (66 main, 12 secondary). Gestational diabetes (57.6%, 38/66), preterm birth (48.5%, 32/66) and cesarian section (60.6%, 40/66), were the commonly reported 'critically important' outcomes. Gestational weight gain (84.5%, 56/66) and birth weight (87.9%, 58/66) were reported in most papers, although not considered critically important. The median quality of reporting was 0.60 (interquartile range 0.25, 0.83) for a maximum score of one. Study and journal characteristics did not affect quality. Many studies on lifestyle interventions in pregnancy do not report critically important outcomes, highlighting the need for core outcome set development. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Physical activity, diet and behaviour modification in the treatment of overweight and obese adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södlerlund, Anne; Fischer, Annika; Johansson, Titti

    2009-05-01

    The aim was to extend the body of knowledge through a systematic review that combines the strengths and partly fills the gaps from earlier reviews. The aim is to review randomized controlled trials of the long-term effectiveness of physical exercise/activity with or without diet and/or behaviour modification therapy in terms of training effect, weight loss and improvement of body composition in overweight and obese, healthy adults. Data for systematic review was collected via a search of databases for literature published between 1995 and 2006. The search yielded 12 articles. The studies showed that training intensity should be moderate. The treatment of overweight and obese individuals with training alone cannot be expected to result in any substantial weight loss but should be combined with diet and behaviour modification therapy. However training can be an important factor in preventing further weight gain, or in helping individuals maintain a lowered body weight. According to this systematic review of randomized controlled trials, the treatment that produced the best weight loss results included a combination of training, behaviour therapy and diet.

  16. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinney SD

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15-25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

  17. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinney Stephen D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15–25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

  18. The effects of a 2-year individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitasalo, Anna; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Venäläinen, Taisa; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Karjalainen, Panu; Peltola, Jaana; Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Haapala, Eero A; Paananen, Jussi; Schwab, Ursula; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a long-term, individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet quality in children. We carried out a 2-year intervention study in a population sample of 506 children aged 6-8years in Finland in 2007-2012. We allocated the participants at baseline in the intervention and control group. We assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior by questionnaires and diet by food records. Total physical activity (+9min/d in intervention group vs. -5min/d in control group, p=0.001 for time*group interaction), unsupervised physical activity (+7min/d vs. -9min/d, psedentary behavior and enhanced diet quality in children. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01803776. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-10-15

    Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Pbreakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pperformance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The importance of physical activity and diet in the life of female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Pawłowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The lifestyle is known to be the most influential factor for maintaining a good health condition. Lack of physical activity and poor nutrition are two factors that suport each other in a negative way and result in an increasing number of obese people. Irregular nutrition is often closely related to irregular academic life. Aim of the research: The objective of this research is to find out how female students perceive health – how they understand and define it. Another objective is to determine whether nurses-to-be and psychiatrists-to-be perceive health differently than other students and whether their health-esteem is backed with their free-time physical activity and regular nutrition. It is crucial to find out what factors, according to the research, have the biggest influence on people’s health. Material and methods: The research involved 180 female students of full-time courses at the Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce: 98 female students of the Health Sciences Faculty and 82 female students of other faculties. The method of a diagnostic survey and a questionnaire were used in the research. Results : The female students perceived health as a quality, well-being, an absence of disease; and for female nursing students health was not only the absence of disease or disability but also biopsychosocial well-being. The most important factors that influence the health condition are physical activity and nutrition. A high evaluation does not correspond to taking care of one’s health. Fewer than 8% of the female students practised sport in their free time and ate regularly. More than a half neither did sport nor ate regularly (Pearson’s contingency coefficient C reaches a value of 0.1. Conclusions : The female nursing students, contrary to the female students of other faculties, perceive health in the same way as the World Health Organisation. Regardless of faculty, physical activity and regular nutrition are considered to be

  1. Digital health behaviour change interventions targeting physical activity and diet in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Anna L; Fisher, Abigail; Smith, Lee; Heinrich, Malgorzata; Potts, Henry W W

    2017-12-01

    The number of cancer survivors has risen substantially due to improvements in early diagnosis and treatment. Health behaviours such as physical activity (PA) and diet can reduce recurrence and mortality, and alleviate negative consequences of cancer and treatments. Digital behaviour change interventions (DBCIs) have the potential to reach large numbers of cancer survivors. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of relevant studies identified by a search of Medline, EMBASE, PubMed and CINAHL. Studies which assessed a DBCI with measures of PA, diet and/or sedentary behaviour were included. Fifteen studies were identified. Random effects meta-analyses showed significant improvements in moderate-vigorous PA (seven studies; mean difference (MD) = 41 min per week; 95% CI 12, 71) and body mass index (BMI)/weight (standardised mean difference (SMD) = -0.23; 95% CI -0.41, -0.05). There was a trend towards significance for reduced fatigue and no significant change in cancer-specific measures of quality of life (QoL). Narrative synthesis revealed mixed evidence for effects on diet, generic QoL measures and self-efficacy and no evidence of an effect on mental health. Two studies suggested improved sleep quality. DBCIs may improve PA and BMI among cancer survivors, and there is mixed evidence for diet. The number of included studies is small, and risk of bias and heterogeneity was high. Future research should address these limitations with large, high-quality RCTs, with objective measures of PA and sedentary time. Digital technologies offer a promising approach to encourage health behaviour change among cancer survivors.

  2. Diet, body size, physical activity and risk of prostate cancer: An umbrella review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markozannes, Georgios; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Karli, Dimitra; Evangelou, Evangelos; Ntzani, Evangelia; Gunter, Marc J; Norat, Teresa; Ioannidis, John P; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K

    2016-12-01

    The existing literature on the relationship between diet, body size, physical activity and prostate cancer risk was summarised by the World Cancer Research Fund Continuous Update Project (CUP). An evaluation of the robustness of this evidence is required to help inform public health policy. The robustness of this evidence was evaluated using several criteria addressing evidence strength and validity, including the statistical significance of the random effects summary estimate and of the largest study in a meta-analysis, number of prostate cancer cases, between-study heterogeneity, 95% prediction intervals, small-study effects bias, excess significance bias and sensitivity analyses with credibility ceilings. A total of 248 meta-analyses were extracted from the CUP, which studied associations of 23 foods, 31 nutrients, eight indices of body size and three indices of physical activity with risk of total prostate cancer development, mortality or cancer development by stage and grade. Of the 176 meta-analyses using a continuous scale to measure the exposures, no association presented strong evidence by satisfying all the aforementioned criteria. Only the association of height with total prostate cancer incidence and mortality presented highly suggestive evidence with a 4% higher risk per 5 cm greater height (95% confidence interval, 1.03, 1.05). Associations for body mass index, weight, height, dietary calcium and spirits intake were supported by suggestive evidence. Overall, the association of diet, body size, physical activity and prostate cancer has been extensively studied, but no association was graded with strong evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of high fat diet, ovariectomy, and physical activity on leptin receptor expression in rat brain and white fat tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažetić, Senka; Labak, Irena; Viljetić, Barbara; Balog, Marta; Vari, Sandor G; Krivošíková, Zora; Gajdoš, Martin; Kramárová, Patrícia; Kebis, Anton; Vuković, Rosemary; Puljak, Livia; Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Heffer, Marija

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate in a rat animal model whether ovariectomy, high fat diet (HFD), and physical activity in the form of running affect leptin receptor (Ob-R) distribution in the brain and white fat tissue compared to sham (Sh) surgery, standard diet (StD), and sedentary conditions. The study included 48 female laboratory Wistar rats (4 weeks old). Following eight weeks of feeding with standard or HFD, rats were subjected to either OVX or Sh surgery. After surgery, all animals continued StD or HFD for the next 10 weeks. During these 10 weeks, ovariectomy and Sh groups were subjected to physical activity or sedentary conditions. Free-floating immunohistochemistry and Western blot methods were carried out to detect Ob-R in the brain and adipose tissue. StD-ovariectomy-sedentary group had a greater number of Ob-R positive neurons in lateral hypothalamic nuclei than StD-Sh-sedentary group. There was no difference in Ob-R positive neurons in arcuatus nuclei between all groups. Ob-R distribution in the barrel cortex was higher in HFD group than in StD group. Ob-R presence in perirenal and subcutaneous fat was decreased in StD-ovariectomy group. HFD and ovariectomy increased Ob-R distribution in lateral hypothalamic nuclei, but there was no effect on arcuatus nuclei. Our results are first to suggest that HFD, ovariectomy, and physical activity affect Ob-R distribution in the barrel cortex, which might be correlated with the role of Ob-R in election of food in rats.

  4. Association between diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours in 9-10-year-old British White children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, P A J; Jones, A P; van Sluijs, E M F; Jennings, A; Welch, A; Cassidy, A; Griffin, S J

    2013-03-01

    To examine the association between diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours in 9-10-year-old children. A cross-sectional study using data from the SPEEDY (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young People) study undertaken in Norfolk, UK. Data from 4-day food diaries and 7 days of accelerometery were matched on concurrent days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), time spent in sedentary behaviour and various measures of dietary intake were collected. Covariates included age, sex, weight status, family socio-economic status, and energy intake reporting quality. Multivariable regression models, adjusted for clustering of children by school and stratified by sex, were fitted to examine the associations between dietary measures and physical activity and sedentary outcomes. In total, 1317 children (584 boys and 733 girls) provided concurrent data. Boys in the highest quartile of energy percentage from protein spent approximately 6 min [95% confidence interval (CI) 0-12] less in MVPA compared with boys in the lowest quartile. Those in the highest quartiles of fruit and vegetable intake and fruit juice intake had respective average activity counts per minute that were 56 above (95% CI 8-105) and 48 below (95% CI 2-95) those in the lowest quartiles, whilst those in the highest quartile of fizzy drink consumption spent approximately 7 min (95% CI 2-13) more in MVPA and approximately 14 min (95% CI 5-24 min) less in sedentary behaviour. Boys in the highest quartile of savoury snack consumption spent approximately 8 min (95% CI 2-13 min) more in MVPA per day, and approximately 12 min (95% CI 2-23) less in sedentary behaviour. No significant associations were apparent among girls. Few associations were detected, and the directions of those that were apparent were mainly counterintuitive. The extent to which this reflects a true lack of association or is associated with the measurement methods used for

  5. [Impact of an intervention on diet and physical activity on obesity prevalence in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner G, Rinat; Durán A, Samuel; Garrido L, María Jesús; Balmaceda H, Sebastián; Jadue H, Liliana; Atalah S, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In Chile childhood obesity is a growing public health problem. Intervention programs within schools have shown variable results, with better impacts when multiple aspects are involved and included the entire educational community. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect on the nutritional status of children in intervention schools within 2 years of duration (Healthy Living Program). The sample included 2,527 students first through fourth grade of 3 counties of Santiago. The students were intervened and followed for a period of two years in their food and nutrition habits, physical activity and self-care practices, by a team of nutritionists and physical education teachers. Weight and height were measured at start of program, end of the first and second years of intervention, under standardized conditions and calculated the Z score of BMI and nutritional status according to the WHO reference 2007. At the end of the second year 1,453 children were reassessed. There was a significant decrease in BMI Z score in obese children (-0.3 SD) and obesity decreased from 21.8% to 18.4% at the end of the intervention. 75% of schoolchildren obese and 60.5% overweight decreased their BMI Z score, reduction that was greater in men and students in the upper grades. 51.9% of normal weight children increased their BMI Z-score age, although most less than 0.5 SD. The intervention in education, nutrition and physical activity among schoolchildren in three communes of Greater Santiago was effective in reducing the prevalence of obesity (-3.4 percentage points). The big challenge is to find mechanisms to give continuity to the program and evaluate long-term effects. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Lifestyle factors and adolescent depressive symptomatology: Associations and effect sizes of diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Joshua; Jacka, Felice N; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Strugnell, Claudia; Swinburn, Boyd A; Allender, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Depression affects many Australian adolescents. Research points to the potential of lifestyle improvement for the population-level prevention of mental disorders. However, most studies examine single relationships without considering the combined contribution of lifestyle factors to variance in depression. This study examined associations between adolescent diet, physical activity and screen time behaviours and depressive symptomatology. A cross-sectional sample of year 8 and 10 students was recruited from 23 participating schools in 18 Victorian communities. Students were recruited using opt-out consent, resulting in 3295 participants from 4680 registered school enrolments (Participation Rate: 70.4%). Participants completed a supervised self-report questionnaire comprising Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-Short Form, an assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviours during and outside school, and weekly food intake. Surveyed covariates included hours of sleep per night, age, socio-economic status and measured anthropometry. A hierarchical regression stratified by gender was conducted, with dichotomised Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-Short Form score as the outcome, and screen time, physical activity and dietary patterns as predictors. Nested regression analyses were then conducted to ascertain the variance in Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-Short Form score attributable to each significant predictor from the initial regression. Increased scores on an unhealthy dietary pattern (odds ratio = 1.18; 95% confidence interval = [1.07, 1.32]) and physical activity guideline attainment (0.91; [0.85, 0.97]) were associated with depressive symptomatology in males, while screen time guideline attainment (0.95; [0.91, 0.98]) was associated with depression in females. No association was observed between healthy diet pattern and Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-Short Form. Overall, effect sizes were generally small, and the regression model accounted for 5.22% of

  7. Lifestyle Habits: Diet, physical activity and sleep duration among Omani adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilani, Hashem; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa; Waly, Mostafa I; Musaiger, Abdulrahman

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the lifestyle habits-physical activity (PA), eating habits (EH), and sleep duration (SD)-of Omani adolescents, and to examine gender differences in such variables. 802 Omani adolescents (442 females and 360 males), aged 15-18 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometric indices, PA level, and EH and SD were evaluated by the Arab Teenage Lifestyle questionnaire. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment was also administered. The results showed that although the study subjects had a sedentary lifestyle (lack of PA, average of 6.7 hours sleep, and consumption of high calorie foods), they maintained a normal body mass (less than 25 Kg/m(2)). Males were more than twice as active as females. With respect to EH, there were few gender differences, except in dairy and meat consumption where 62.5% and 55.5% of males consumed more than 3 servings, respectively, compared to 18.78 % and 35.2% of females, respectively. In addition, waist/height ratio, height, reasons for being active, energy drinks, potato consumption, eating sweets, vigorous PA and breakfast EHs were statistically significant independent predictors for BMI, P habits were also widely found among both genders. There is an urgent need for more research as well as a national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and discouraging sedentary behaviour among Omani adolescents.

  8. The effectiveness of e-& mHealth interventions to promote physical activity and healthy diets in developing countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Alley, Stephanie; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-10-10

    Promoting physical activity and healthy eating is important to combat the unprecedented rise in NCDs in many developing countries. Using modern information-and communication technologies to deliver physical activity and diet interventions is particularly promising considering the increased proliferation of such technologies in many developing countries. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the effectiveness of e-& mHealth interventions to promote physical activity and healthy diets in developing countries. Major databases and grey literature sources were searched to retrieve studies that quantitatively examined the effectiveness of e-& mHealth interventions on physical activity and diet outcomes in developing countries. Additional studies were retrieved through citation alerts and scientific social media allowing study inclusion until August 2016. The CONSORT checklist was used to assess the risk of bias of the included studies. A total of 15 studies conducted in 13 developing countries in Europe, Africa, Latin-and South America and Asia were included in the review. The majority of studies enrolled adults who were healthy or at risk of diabetes or hypertension. The average intervention length was 6.4 months, and text messages and the Internet were the most frequently used intervention delivery channels. Risk of bias across the studies was moderate (55.7 % of the criteria fulfilled). Eleven studies reported significant positive effects of an e-& mHealth intervention on physical activity and/or diet behaviour. Respectively, 50 % and 70 % of the interventions were effective in promoting physical activity and healthy diets. The majority of studies demonstrated that e-& mHealth interventions were effective in promoting physical activity and healthy diets in developing countries. Future interventions should use more rigorous study designs, investigate the cost-effectiveness and reach of interventions, and focus on emerging technologies, such as

  9. Relationships between health literacy, motivation and diet and physical activity in people with type 2 diabetes participating in peer-led support groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Lise; Rowlands, Gill; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate associations between health literacy (HL) and diet and physical activity, and motivation and diet and physical activity in Danish people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional design including 194 individuals with type 2 diabetes participating in peer......, for people with type 2 diabetes, functional HL and autonomous motivation may be important drivers for following diet recommendations, and autonomous motivation may be the most important factor for following recommendations regarding physical activity. These concepts may therefore be highly relevant......-led support groups provided by the Danish Diabetes Association between January-December 2015. The participants completed a questionnaire at the first meeting including; The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) measure, The Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ) (Self-Determination Theory...

  10. Diets rich in vegetables and physical activity are associated with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The onset of Pre Eclampsia was higher within vendors and inactive women as well as among vegetarians (3.1%) than women with diet high in meat (9.7%). Pre Eclampsia occurred more (p<0.05) among pregnants with rare daily servings of vegetables (33.3%) than pregnants with 3 or more daily servings of vegetables ...

  11. Alberta's Tomorrow Project: adherence to cancer prevention recommendations pertaining to diet, physical activity and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Heather K; Xu, Jian-Yi; Vaseghi, Sanaz; Lo Siou, Geraldine; McGregor, S Elizabeth; Robson, Paula J

    2017-05-01

    To explore cross-sectional adherence to cancer prevention recommendations by adults enrolled in a prospective cohort in Alberta, Canada. Questionnaire data were used to construct a composite cancer prevention adherence score for each participant, based on selected personal recommendations published by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Data were self-reported on health and lifestyle, past-year physical activity and past-year FFQ. The scores accounted for physical activity, dietary supplement use, body size, and intakes of alcohol, fruit, vegetables and red meat. Tobacco exposure was also included. Scores ranged from 0 (least adherent) to 7 (most adherent). Alberta's Tomorrow Project; a research platform based on a prospective cohort. Adult men and women (n 24 988) aged 35-69 years recruited by random digit dialling and enrolled in Alberta's Tomorrow Project between 2001 and 2009. Of the cohort, 14 % achieved adherence scores ≥5 and 60 % had scores ≤3. Overall adherence scores were higher in women (mean (sd): 3·4 (1·1)) than in men (3·0 (1·2)). The extent of overall adherence was also associated with level of education, employment status, annual household income, personal history of chronic disease, family history of chronic disease and age. Reported adherence to selected personal recommendations for cancer prevention was low in this cohort of adults. In the short to medium term, these results suggest that more work is required to identify behaviours to target with cancer prevention strategies at a population level. Future work will explore the associations between adherence scores and cancer risk in this cohort.

  12. The impact of an m-Health financial incentives program on the physical activity and diet of Australian truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Nicholas D; Pavey, Toby G; Wright, Olivia Rl; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Duncan, Mitch J; Gomersall, Sjaan; Trost, Stewart G; Brown, Wendy J

    2017-05-18

    Chronic diseases are high in truck drivers and have been linked to work routines that promote inactivity and poor diets. This feasibility study examined the extent to which an m-Health financial incentives program facilitated physical activity and healthy dietary choices in Australian truck drivers. Nineteen men (mean [SD] age = 47.5 [9.8] years; BMI = 31.2 [4.6] kg/m 2 ) completed the 20-week program, and used an activity tracker and smartphone application (Jawbone UP™) to regulate small positive changes in occupational physical activity, and fruit, vegetable, saturated fat and processed/refined sugar food/beverage choices. Measures (baseline, end-program, 2-months follow-up; April-December 2014) were accelerometer-determined proportions of work time spent physically active, and a workday dietary questionnaire. Statistical (repeated measures ANOVA) and thematic (interviews) analyses assessed program impact. Non-significant increases in the mean proportions of work time spent physically active were found at end-program and follow-up (+1%; 7 mins/day). Fruit (p = 0.023) and vegetable (p = 0.024) consumption significantly increased by one serve/day at end-program. Non-significant improvements in saturated fat (5%) and processed/refined sugar (1%) food/beverage choices were found at end-program and follow-up. Overall, 65% (n = 11) of drivers demonstrated positive changes in physical activity, and at least one dietary choice (e.g. saturated fat) at follow-up. Drivers found the financial incentives component of the program to be a less effective facilitator of change than the activity tracker and smartphone application, although this technology was easier to use for monitoring of physical activity than healthy dietary choices. Not all drivers benefitted from the program. However, positive changes for different health behaviours were observed in the majority of participants. Outcomes from this feasibility study inform future intervention development for

  13. The impact of an m-Health financial incentives program on the physical activity and diet of Australian truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Gilson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases are high in truck drivers and have been linked to work routines that promote inactivity and poor diets. This feasibility study examined the extent to which an m-Health financial incentives program facilitated physical activity and healthy dietary choices in Australian truck drivers. Methods Nineteen men (mean [SD] age = 47.5 [9.8] years; BMI = 31.2 [4.6] kg/m2 completed the 20-week program, and used an activity tracker and smartphone application (Jawbone UP™ to regulate small positive changes in occupational physical activity, and fruit, vegetable, saturated fat and processed/refined sugar food/beverage choices. Measures (baseline, end-program, 2-months follow-up; April–December 2014 were accelerometer-determined proportions of work time spent physically active, and a workday dietary questionnaire. Statistical (repeated measures ANOVA and thematic (interviews analyses assessed program impact. Results Non-significant increases in the mean proportions of work time spent physically active were found at end-program and follow-up (+1%; 7 mins/day. Fruit (p = 0.023 and vegetable (p = 0.024 consumption significantly increased by one serve/day at end-program. Non-significant improvements in saturated fat (5% and processed/refined sugar (1% food/beverage choices were found at end-program and follow-up. Overall, 65% (n = 11 of drivers demonstrated positive changes in physical activity, and at least one dietary choice (e.g. saturated fat at follow-up. Drivers found the financial incentives component of the program to be a less effective facilitator of change than the activity tracker and smartphone application, although this technology was easier to use for monitoring of physical activity than healthy dietary choices. Conclusions Not all drivers benefitted from the program. However, positive changes for different health behaviours were observed in the majority of participants. Outcomes from this

  14. An Exploratory Study on a Chest-Worn Computer for Evaluation of Diet, Physical Activity and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, wearable computers have become new members in the family of mobile electronic devices, adding new functions to those provided by smartphones and tablets. As "always-on" miniature computers in the personal space, they will play increasing roles in the field of healthcare. In this work, we present our development of eButton, a wearable computer designed as a personalized, attractive, and convenient chest pin in a circular shape. It contains a powerful microprocessor, numerous electronic sensors, and wireless communication links. We describe its design concepts, electronic hardware, data processing algorithms, and its applications to the evaluation of diet, physical activity and lifestyle in the study of obesity and other chronic diseases.

  15. Effect of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    , and pre-existing medical condition; and secondarily on individual complications.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD). Data sources Major electronic databases from inception to February 2017 without language restrictions.Eligibility criteria for selecting studies...... Randomised trials on diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy.Data synthesis Statistical models accounted for clustering of participants within trials and heterogeneity across trials leading to summary mean differences or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the effects overall...... intervention effects across subgroups, for either gestational weight gain or composite outcomes. There was strong evidence that interventions reduced the odds of caesarean section (0.91, 0.83 to 0.99, I2=0%; 32 studies, 11 410 women), but not for other individual complications in IPD meta-analysis. When IPD...

  16. Sleep duration's association with diet, physical activity, mental status, and weight among Korean high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is a critical public health problem, especially in Korean adolescents. This study aimed to identify the association between sleep duration and dietary behaviors, physical activity, mental status, and nutritional status among high school students in South Korea. Based on the data collected from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, 31,407 high school students who met the inclusion criteria were selected and the association between sleep duration and selected health risk factors was identified using multivariable logistic regression models. The average daily sleep duration was 5.7 hours, and the mean BMI was 21.3 kg/m2. Participants with shorter durations of sleep (=7 hours of sleep) were more likely to feel sad or hopeless (adjusted OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00-1.18), have suicidal ideation (adjusted OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27), and feel much or very much stressed (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.66-2.00). Moreover, shorter sleep was associated with less frequent muscle-strengthening exercises, >=3 times per week (adjusted OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.94), and more frequent cracker consumption, >=3 times per week (adjusted OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.13-1.35). High school students in South Korea suffer from extreme sleep deprivation; only 16% of the students were found to have >=7 hours of sleep during weekdays. Sleep education should be provided to students to improve their physical and mental health.

  17. Associations of diet quality with cognition in children - the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Eero A; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Schwab, Ursula; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2015-10-14

    Evidence on the associations of dietary patterns with cognition in children is limited. Therefore, we investigated the associations of the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score with cognition in children. The present cross-sectional study sample included 428 children aged 6-8 years (216 boys and 212 girls). The BSDS and the DASH score were calculated using data from 4 d food records, higher scores indicating better diet quality. Cognition was assessed by the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) score, a higher score indicating better cognition. Among all children, the BSDS (standardised regression coefficient β = 0·122, P =0·012) and the DASH score (β = 0·121, P =0·015) were directly associated with the Raven's CPM score. Among boys, a lower BSDS (β = 0·244, Pcognition. In conclusion, a poorer diet quality was associated with worse cognition in children, and the relationship was stronger in boys than in girls.

  18. Just-in-Time Feedback in Diet and Physical Activity Interventions: Systematic Review and Practical Design Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembre, Susan M; Liao, Yue; Robertson, Michael C; Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Kerr, Jacqueline; Haffey, Meghan E; Burnett, Taylor; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Hicklen, Rachel S

    2018-03-22

    The integration of body-worn sensors with mobile devices presents a tremendous opportunity to improve just-in-time behavioral interventions by enhancing bidirectional communication between investigators and their participants. This approach can be used to deliver supportive feedback at critical moments to optimize the attainment of health behavior goals. The goals of this systematic review were to summarize data on the content characteristics of feedback messaging used in diet and physical activity (PA) interventions and to develop a practical framework for designing just-in-time feedback for behavioral interventions. Interventions that included just-in-time feedback on PA, sedentary behavior, or dietary intake were eligible for inclusion. Feedback content and efficacy data were synthesized descriptively. The review included 31 studies (15/31, 48%, targeting PA or sedentary behavior only; 13/31, 42%, targeting diet and PA; and 3/31, 10%, targeting diet only). All studies used just-in-time feedback, 30 (97%, 30/31) used personalized feedback, and 24 (78%, 24/31) used goal-oriented feedback, but only 5 (16%, 5/31) used actionable feedback. Of the 9 studies that tested the efficacy of providing feedback to promote behavior change, 4 reported significant improvements in health behavior. In 3 of these 4 studies, feedback was continuously available, goal-oriented, or actionable. Feedback that was continuously available, personalized, and actionable relative to a known behavioral objective was prominent in intervention studies with significant behavior change outcomes. Future research should determine whether all or some of these characteristics are needed to optimize the effect of feedback in just-in-time interventions. ©Susan M Schembre, Yue Liao, Michael C Robertson, Genevieve Fridlund Dunton, Jacqueline Kerr, Meghan E Haffey, Taylor Burnett, Karen Basen-Engquist, Rachel S Hicklen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http

  19. Effect of different intensities of physical activity on cardiometabolic markers and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats fed with a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo B. Batacan, Jr; Mitch J. Duncan; Vincent J. Dalbo; Geraldine L. Buitrago; Andrew S. Fenning

    2018-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) and diet are 2 lifestyle factors that affect cardiometabolic risk. However, data on how a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet influences the effect of different intensities of PA on cardiometabolic health and cardiovascular function in a controlled setting are yet to be fully established. This study investigated the effect of sedentary behavior, light-intensity training (LIT), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiometabolic markers and vasc...

  20. Trends in physical activity, sedentary behavior, diet, and BMI among US adolescents, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Ronald J; Wang, Jing

    2013-10-01

    The high prevalence of adolescent obesity in the United States has been attributed to population changes in physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors. This study examines 8-year trends in these behaviors in US adolescents ages 11 to 16. Nationally representative samples of US students in grades 6 to 10 were recruited during the 2001-2002 (N = 14607), 2005-2006 (N = 9150), and 2009-2010 (N = 10848) school years by using multistage stratified designs, with census regions and grades as strata, and school districts as the primary sampling units. African-American and Hispanic students were oversampled to obtain better estimates for those groups. Using the Health Behavior in School-aged Children quadrennial surveys, identical questions assessed BMI, PA, and sedentary and dietary behaviors at each school year. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted taking into account the sampling design and controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and family affluence. Across the quadrennial surveys, significant increases were identified in number of days with at least 60 minutes of PA, daily consumption of fruits and vegetables, eating breakfast on weekdays and weekends, and BMI. Television viewing and consumption of sweets and sweetened beverages decreased across this same period. These same patterns were seen in all racial/ethnic groups. These patterns suggest that public health efforts to improve the obesity-related behaviors of US adolescents may be having some success. However, alternative explanations for the increase in BMI over the same period need to be considered.

  1. Overweight and obesity epidemic in developing countries: a problem with diet, physical activity, or socioeconomic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhurosy, Trishnee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health concern affecting more than half a billion people worldwide. Obesity rise is not only limited to developed countries, but to developing nations as well. This paper aims to compare the mean body mass index trends in the World Health Organisation- (WHO-) categorised regions since 1980 to 2008 and secondly to appraise how socioeconomic disparities can lead to differences in obesity and physical activity level across developing nations. Taking into account past and current BMI trends, it is anticipated that obesity will continue to take a significant ascent, as observed by the sharp increase from 1999 to 2008. Gender differences in BMI will continue to be as apparent, that is, women showing a higher BMI trend than men. In the coming years, the maximum mean BMI in more developed countries might be exceeded by those in less developed ones. Rather than focusing on obesity at the individual level, the immediate environment of the obese individual to broader socioeconomic contexts should be targeted. Most importantly, incentives at several organisational levels, the media, and educational institutions along with changes in food policies will need to be provided to low-income populations.

  2. Validity of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in the Danish cohort "Diet, Cancer and Health-Next Generations".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, L; Olsen, A; Petersen, K E N; Rostgaard-Hansen, A L; Dragsted, L O; Nordsborg, N B; Tjønneland, A; Halkjaer, J

    2017-12-01

    Valid assessments of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are essential in epidemiological studies to define dose-response relationship for formulating thorough recommendations of an appropriate pattern of PA to maintain good health. The aim of this study was to validate the Danish step test, the physical activity questionnaire Active-Q, and self-rated fitness against directly measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max). A population-based subsample (n=125) was included from the "Diet, Cancer and Health-Next Generations" (DCH-NG) cohort which is under establishment. Validity coefficients, which express the correlation between measured and "true" exposure, were calculated, and misclassification across categories was evaluated. The validity of the Danish step test was moderate (women: r=.66, and men: r=.56); however, men were systematically underestimated (43% misclassification). When validating the questionnaire-derived measures of PA, leisure-time physical activity was not correlated with VO 2 max. Positive correlations were found for sports overall, but these were only significant for men: total hours per week of sports (r=.26), MET-hours per week of sports (r=.28) and vigorous sports (0.28) alone were positively correlated with VO 2 max. Finally, the percentage of misclassification was low for self-rated fitness (women: 9% and men: 13%). Thus, self-rated fitness was found to be a superior method to the Danish step test, as well as being less cost prohibitive and more practical than the VO 2 max method. Finally, even if correlations were low, they support the potential for questionnaire outcomes, particularly sports, vigorous sports, and self-rated fitness to be used to estimate CRF. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of some diet habit and physical activity in adolescents in Tehran (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hossein Rashidi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unhealthy lifestyle ends to some important health problems in adolescence, and also causes chronic non-communicable disease, hence increasing mortality and morbidity in adults. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the components of lifestyle in adolescence. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 346 male and 197 female of adolescents aged 9 to 16 years were selected randomly from the 5th district of Tehran city in 2011. Data were gathered from the lifestyle questionnaires which were designed and consistent with the findings of studies. Questionnaire has the dimensions of nutrition and energy drink consumption, exercise and sleep patterns. The data were analyzed by the chi-square and t-test. Findings: 142 (72% of girls and 260 (77% of boys consumed daily dairy. Daily and weekly fast food intakes in girls were 8 (4.1% and 52 (26.4%, while in the boys were 36 (10.4% and 110(31.8% respectively. Totally, more than 149 (75% of girls and 295 (86% of boys consumed soda. 17 (8.6% of girls and 59 (17.1% of teenage boys consumed energetic drink at least once a week. Adolescent girls and boys had a physical activity on average 3.2 and 4.2 days respectively in gymnasium in a week. Conclusion: According to the results, correction of nutritional behaviors is a mandatory task. In addition due to the trends of adolescence toward doing exercise in public places, the policy for the equipping of public place and gyms should be reconsidered in our society.

  4. Diet, physical activity, and adiposity in children in poor and rich neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghan Mahshid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity in Canadian children increased three-fold in twenty years. Children living in low-income neighborhoods exercise less and are more overweight than those living in more affluent neighborhoods after accounting for family socio-economic status. Strategies to prevent obesity in children have focused on personal habits, ignoring neighborhood characteristics. It is essential to evaluate diet and physical activity patterns in relation to socio-economic conditions to understand the determinants of obesity. The objective of this pilot study was to compare diet, physical activity, and the built environment in two Hamilton area elementary schools serving socio-economically different communities. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study (November 2005-March 2006 in two public elementary schools in Hamilton, Ontario, School A and School B, located in low and high socioeconomic areas respectively. We assessed dietary intake, physical activity, dietary restraint, and anthropometric measures in consenting children in grades 1 and higher. From their parents we assessed family characteristics and walkability of the built environment. Results 160 children (n = 48, School A and n = 112, School B, and 156 parents (n = 43, School A and n = 113, School B participated in this study. The parents with children at School A were less educated and had lower incomes than those at School B. The School A neighborhood was perceived to be less walkable than the School B neighborhood. Children at School A consumed more baked foods, chips, sodas, gelatin desserts, and candies and less low fat dairy, and dark bread than those at School B. Children at School A watched more television and spent more time in front of the computer than children studying at School B, but reported spending less time sitting on weekdays and weekends. Children at both schools were overweight but there was no difference in their mean BMI z-scores (School A = 0.65 versus School

  5. [Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in rural and urban adolescents of southern Spain, life satisfaction, anthropometry, and physical and sedentary activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Nuviala, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Porcel-Gálvez, Ana-María; Moral-García, José-Enrique; Martínez-López, Emilio-José

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is one of the healthier diet models. Mediterranean food patterns are suffering a deterioration that can especially affect children and adolescents. Determine adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescents of southern Spain and its relationship with the residence area, sex, age, life satisfaction, anthropometry, and habits of physical activity and sedentary activities. A total of 1973 adolescents (11-18 years) of southern Spain participated in this descriptive cross-sectional study. Cut-off value between rural and urban locations was 10000 inhabitants. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was calculated from the KIDMED questionnaire. Life satisfaction, physical activity, and sedentary activities also were measured through valid and reliable questionnaires. Body mass index and % body fat were measured using the TANITA BC-420-S body analyzer. 30.9% of the adolescents reported an optimal quality diet, percent higher in rural locations (P sedentary in front of a screen (P diet had a healthier lifestyle and they showed greater life satisfaction. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of antenatal diet and physical activity on maternal and fetal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogozińska, Ewelina; Marlin, Nadine; Jackson, Louise

    2017-01-01

    , Caucasian ethnicity and underlying medical condition(s), by undertaking an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. We also evaluated the association of gestational weight gain (GWG) with adverse pregnancy outcomes and assessed the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE...... quantified the relationship between weight gain and complications, and undertook a decision-analytic model-based economic evaluation to assess the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. RESULTS: Diet and lifestyle interventions reduced GWG by an average of 0.70 kg (95% CI -0.92 to -0.48 kg; 33 studies......: The differential effects of lifestyle interventions on individual pregnancy outcomes need evaluation. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42013003804. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme....

  7. The stability of children's weight status over time, and the role of television, physical activity, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sandra L; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2017-07-01

    Weight-related behaviors such as sedentary activity, physical activity, and diet have been the focus of efforts to prevent and reduce the occurrence of obesity and overweight in children, but few longitudinal studies have examined the effects of weight-related behaviors on changes in weight status over time in children. This study examines the effects of weight-related behaviors on subsequent changes in weight during childhood. We used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative prospective cohort of children in the United States. Data, including anthropometric measures, were collected six times across 1998-2007 (analytic sample=4938). We employed an autoregressive cross-lagged model in a structural equation model framework to assess the effects of behavioral factors -intake of fruit, vegetables, fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages, television viewing, and physical activity - on weight stability over time. BMI z-scores were highly stable throughout childhood: the standardized parameter estimates of BMI z-scores on subsequent-period BMI z-scores ranged from 0.79 to 0.86. BMI z-scores were least stable between Kindergarten and 1st grade but became highly stable between 3rd and 5th grades. After accounting for prior weight, behavioral factors had little effect on subsequent weight. The most important behavioral factor was TV viewing in the 1st and 3rd grades: an additional hour of daily TV viewing was associated with 0.04 higher BMI z-score. It is important to prevent excessive weight gain early in childhood, as weight patterns are long-lasting; the most important behavioral factor may be limiting children's screen time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychosocial predictors of diet and physical activity in African- Amercians: results from the Delta Body and Soul effectiveness trial, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations among psychosocial constructs of behavior change and post-intervention changes in diet and physical activity (PA). The study design was quasi-experimental with cluster (church) treatment assignment. The study setting was churches (n=8) in a rur...

  9. Diet, Physical Activity, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in Irish Children: The Cork Children's Lifestyle Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Eimear; Kearney, Patricia M; Perry, Ivan J; Browne, Gemma M; Harrington, Janas M

    2014-08-19

    Childhood obesity is complex, and its aetiology is known to be multifaceted. The contribution of lifestyle behaviors, including poor diet and physical inactivity, to obesity remains unclear. Due to the current high prevalence, childhood obesity is an urgent public health priority requiring current and reliable data to further understand its aetiology. The objective of this study is to explore the individual, family, and environmental factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity, with a specific focus on diet and physical activity. A secondary objective of the study is to determine the average salt intake and distribution of blood pressure in Irish children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of children 8-11 years old in primary schools in Cork, Ireland. Urban schools were selected using a probability proportionate to size sampling strategy, and a complete sample of rural schools from one area in Cork County were invited to participate. Information collected included physical measurement data (anthropometric measurements, blood pressure), early morning spot and 24 hour urine samples, a 3 day estimated food diary, and 7 days of accelerometer data. Principal- (school head) reported, parent/guardian-reported, and child-reported questionnaires collected information on lifestyle behaviors and environmental attributes. The Cork Children's Lifestyle Study (CCLaS) was designed by the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health in University College Cork, Ireland in 2011 and 2012. Piloting and modification of study methods was undertaken. Data collection took place between April 2012 and June 2013. Overall, 27/46 schools and 1075/1641 children, of which 623 were boys, participated. Preliminary data analysis is underway. It is anticipated that the results of the CCLaS study will be available in late 2014. The CCLaS study has collected in-depth data on a wide range of individual, family, social, and environmental correlates which will allow us to access

  10. Diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese adolescents aged 12 to 17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khudairy, Lena; Loveman, Emma; Colquitt, Jill L; Mead, Emma; Johnson, Rebecca E; Fraser, Hannah; Olajide, Joan; Murphy, Marie; Velho, Rochelle Marian; O'Malley, Claire; Azevedo, Liane B; Ells, Louisa J; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rees, Karen

    2017-06-22

    Adolescent overweight and obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with short- and long-term health consequences. Modifying known dietary and behavioural risk factors through behaviour changing interventions (BCI) may help to reduce childhood overweight and obesity. This is an update of a review published in 2009. To assess the effects of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. We performed a systematic literature search in: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS, and the trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP Search Portal. We checked references of identified studies and systematic reviews. There were no language restrictions. The date of the last search was July 2016 for all databases. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for treating overweight or obesity in adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias, evaluated the overall quality of the evidence using the GRADE instrument and extracted data following the guidelines of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We contacted trial authors for additional information. We included 44 completed RCTs (4781 participants) and 50 ongoing studies. The number of participants in each trial varied (10 to 521) as did the length of follow-up (6 to 24 months). Participants ages ranged from 12 to 17.5 years in all trials that reported mean age at baseline. Most of the trials used a multidisciplinary intervention with a combination of diet, physical activity and behavioural components. The content and duration of the intervention, its delivery and the comparators varied across trials. The studies contributing most information to outcomes of weight and body mass index (BMI) were from studies at a low risk of bias, but studies with a high risk of bias provided data on adverse events

  11. Treatment of metabolic syndrome by combination of physical activity and diet needs an optimal protein intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Frédéric; Lac, Gérard; Courteix, Daniel; Doré, Eric; Chapier, Robert; Roszyk, Laurence; Sapin, Vincent; Lesourd, Bruno

    2012-09-17

    The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein intake has been set at 1.0-1.3 g/kg/day for senior. To date, no consensus exists on the lower threshold intake (LTI = RDA/1.3) for the protein intake (PI) needed in senior patients ongoing both combined caloric restriction and physical activity treatment for metabolic syndrome. Considering that age, caloric restriction and exercise are three increasing factors of protein need, this study was dedicated to determine the minimal PI in this situation, through the determination of albuminemia that is the blood marker of protein homeostasis. Twenty eight subjects (19 M, 9 F, 61.8 ± 6.5 years, BMI 33.4 ± 4.1 kg/m²) with metabolic syndrome completed a three-week residential programme (Day 0 to Day 21) controlled for nutrition (energy balance of -500 kcal/day) and physical activity (3.5 hours/day). Patients were randomly assigned in two groups: Normal-PI (NPI: 1.0 g/kg/day) and High-PI (HPI: 1.2 g/kg/day). Then, patients returned home and were followed for six months. Albuminemia was measured at D0, D21, D90 and D180. At baseline, PI was spontaneously 1.0 g/kg/day for both groups. Albuminemia was 40.6 g/l for NPI and 40.8 g/l for HPI. A marginal protein under-nutrition appeared in NPI with a decreased albuminemia at D90 below 35 g/l (34.3 versus 41.5 g/l for HPI, p treatment based on restricted diet and exercise in senior people with metabolic syndrome, the lower threshold intake for protein must be set at 1.2 g/kg/day to maintain blood protein homeostasis.

  12. Effect of adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity on weight loss in a technology-supported behavioral intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wang1, Susan M Sereika2,3, Eileen R Chasens2, Linda J Ewing4, Judith T Matthews2,5, Lora E Burke2,31School of Nursing, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, 2School of Nursing, 3Graduate School of Public Health, 4School of Medicine, 5University Center for Social and Urban Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USABackground: Examination of mediating behavioral factors could explain how an intervention works and thus provide guidance to optimize behavioral weight-loss programs. This study examined the mediating role of adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity on weight loss in a behavioral weight-loss trial testing the use of personal digital assistants (PDA for self-monitoring.Methods: Mediation analysis was conducted to examine the possible mediating role of adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity between treatments using varying self-monitoring methods (paper record, PDA, and PDA with daily tailored feedback messages and weight loss.Findings: The sample (N = 210 was predominantly white (78% and female (85%. Compared to a paper record, using a PDA for self-monitoring diet (P = 0.027 and physical activity (P = 0.014 had significant direct effects on weight loss at 12 months, as well as a significant indirect effect on outcomes through improved adherence to self-monitoring (PS < 0.001. Receiving an automated daily feedback message via PDA only had a significant indirect effect on weight through self-monitoring adherence to diet (P = 0.004 and physical activity (P = 0.002.Conclusions: Adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity is important as the underlying mechanism in this technology-supported behavioral weight-loss intervention.Keywords: behavioral intervention, self-monitoring, mobile technology, mediation analysis, weight loss, adherence 

  13. Adherence to diet, physical activity and body weight recommendations and breast cancer incidence in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sarah J O; Dash, Chiranjeev; Rosenberg, Lynn; Yu, Jeffrey; Palmer, Julie R; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2016-12-15

    Adherence to cancer prevention recommendations has been associated with lower incidence of breast cancer in previous studies, but evidence in African American women is limited. This project evaluated the association between adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) cancer prevention recommendations and breast cancer incidence among African American women. The Black Women's Health Study (analytic cohort = 49,103) is an ongoing prospective cohort study of African American women, ages 21-69 years at baseline (1995). Adherence scores for seven WCRF/AICR recommendations (adherent = 1, partial adherence = 0.5, non-adherence = 0) were calculated using questionnaire data and summed for overall (maximum = 7) and diet only (maximum = 5) scores. Associations between baseline and time-varying adherence scores and breast cancer incidence (N = 1,827 incident cases through 2011) were evaluated using proportional hazards regression. In this cohort, 8.5% adhered >4 recommendations. Adherence at baseline was not associated with breast cancer incidence. Higher overall time-varying adherence (per 0.5 point increase) was associated with lower breast cancer incidence (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.84-0.96). Adherence to physical activity, sugar beverage and red and processed meat recommendations were also associated with reduced risk. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was low and may be associated with lower breast cancer incidence in African American women. © 2016 UICC.

  14. Phytase supplementation increases bone mineral density, lean body mass and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-zinc diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Angus G; Marchitelli, Louis J; Whicker, Jered S; Song, Yang; Ho, Emily; Young, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with nutritionally essential minerals, including zinc (Zn). Animal studies show that addition of microbial phytase (P) to low-Zn diets improves Zn status and bone strength. The present study determined the effects of phytase supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD), body composition and voluntary running activity of male rats fed a high phytic acid, low-Zn diet. In a factorial design, rats were assigned to ZnLO (5 mg/kg diet), ZnLO+P (ZnLO diet with 1500 U phytase/kg) or ZnAD (30 mg/kg diet) groups and were divided into voluntary exercise (EX) or sedentary (SED) groups, for 9 weeks. SED rats were significantly heavier from the second week, and no catch-up growth occurred in EX rats. Feed intakes were not different between groups throughout the study. ZnLO animals had decreased food efficiency ratios compared to both phytase-supplemented (ZnLO+P) and Zn-adequate (ZnAD) animals (Pbone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA) and BMD than rats fed ZnLO diets; and in rats fed ZnAD diets these indices were the highest. The dietary effects on BMC, BA and BMD were independent of activity level. We conclude that consuming supplemental dietary phytase or dietary Zn additively enhances Zn status to increase BMD, LBM and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-Zn diet. While the findings confirm that bone health is vulnerable to disruption by moderate Zn deficiency in rats, this new data suggests that if dietary Zn is limiting, supplemental phytase may have beneficial effects on LBM and performance activity. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of diet and physical activity of brazilian schoolchildren: usability testing of a web-based questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Filipe Ferreira; Schmoelz, Camilie Pacheco; Davies, Vanessa Fernandes; Di Pietro, Patrícia Faria; Kupek, Emil; de Assis, Maria Alice Altenburg

    2013-08-19

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has been used with increasing frequency for the assessment of diet and physical activity in health surveys. A number of Web-based questionnaires have been developed for children and adolescents. However, their usability characteristics have scarcely been reported, despite their potential importance for improving the feasibility and validity of ICT-based methods. The objective of this study was to describe the usability evaluation of the Consumo Alimentar e Atividade Física de Escolares (CAAFE) questionnaire (Food Consumption and Physical Activity Questionnaire for schoolchildren), a new Web-based survey tool for the self-assessment of diet and physical activity by schoolchildren. A total of 114 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years took part in questionnaire usability testing carried out in computer classrooms at five elementary schools in the city of Florianopolis, Brazil. Schoolchildren used a personal computer (PC) equipped with software for recording what is on the computer screen and the children's speech during usability testing. Quantitative and qualitative analyses took into account objective usability metrics such as error counts and time to complete a task. Data on the main difficulties in accomplishing the task and the level of satisfaction expressed by the children were assessed by the observers using a standardized form and interviews with the children. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to summarize both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of the data obtained. The mean time for completing the questionnaire was 13.7 minutes (SD 3.68). Compared to the children in 2nd or 3rd grades, those in 4th or 5th grades spent less time completing the questionnaire (median 12.4 vs 13.3 minutes, P=.022), asked for help less frequently (median 0 vs 1.0 count, P=.005), had a lower error count (median 2.0 vs 8.0 count, Pperformance score (median 73.0 vs 68.0, P=.005). Children with a PC at home

  16. Prenatal physical activity and diet composition affect the expression of nutrient transporters and mTOR signaling molecules in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, K E; Ferraro, Z M; Holcik, M; Adamo, K B

    2015-02-01

    Adequate nutrient delivery to the fetus is essential for optimal growth. Differences in prenatal physical activity level and diet quality influence maternal energy balance and these factors may alter placental nutrient transport. We investigated the associations between meeting physical activity guidelines and the quality of maternal diet on the expression of genes involved in fatty acid, amino acid and glucose transport, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and insulin signaling in the placenta from 16 term pregnancies. Physical activity was directly measured with accelerometry, diet composition was assessed with 24 h dietary recalls, and gene expression was measured with custom polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays. Women who met physical activity guidelines had lower gene expression of fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and the beta non-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and a higher expression of SNAT2. There was a strong positive correlation observed between total sugar intake and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) (r = 0.897, p = 0.000, n = 12), and inverse correlations between total sugar and mTOR and IGF1 expression. Percentage of total calories from protein was inversely related to insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) (r = -0.605, p = 0.028, n = 13). Variations in maternal physical activity and diet composition altered the expression of genes involved in fatty acid, amino acid and glucose transport and mTOR signaling. Future research on placental nutrient transport should include direct measures of maternal PA and dietary habits to help eliminate confounding factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Joint Associations of Sedentary Time and Physical Activity With Mobility Disability in Older People: The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Loretta; Jin, Yichen; Talegawkar, Sameera; Matthews, Charles E

    2018-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to determine the joint associations of sedentary time and physical activity with mobility disability in older age. We analyzed prospective data from 134,269 participants in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-American Association of Retired Persons (NIH-AARP) Diet and Health Study between 1995-1996 and 2004-2005. Total sitting time (h/d), TV viewing time (h/d) and light- and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (h/wk) were self-reported at baseline, and mobility disability at follow-up was defined as being "unable to walk" or having an "easy usual walking pace (sedentary time and total physical activity with the odds of disability. Among the most active participants (>7 h/wk), sitting sedentary time, combined with increased physical activity may be necessary to maintain function in older age.

  18. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  19. Diet-Related Knowledge and Physical Activity in a Large Cohort of Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Patients: PROGENS ARENA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Klupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that behavioral intervention is crucial for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM prevention and management. We aimed to estimate dietary habits and diet-oriented knowledge as well as the level of physical activity in 2500 insulin-treated Polish type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients (55.4% women. The mean age of the study participants was 64.9 ± 9.3 years, mean BMI was 31.4 kg/m2 ± 4.5, mean diabetes duration was 12.4 ± 6.9 years, and mean baseline HbA1c was 8.5%  ± 1.2. At the study onset, all the patients completed a questionnaire concerning health-oriented behavior. Results showed a significant lack of diet-related knowledge. For example, only 37.5% recognized that buckwheat contains carbohydrates; the percentage of correct answers in questions about fruit drinks and pasta was 56.4% and 61.2%, respectively. As for the physical activity, only 57.4% of examined T2DM patients declared any form of deliberate physical activity. To conclude, the cohort of poorly controlled insulin-treated T2DM patients studied by us is characterized by insufficient diet-related knowledge and by a very low level of physical activity. Further studies on other populations of insulin-treated T2DM patients are required to confirm these findings.

  20. Influence of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet quality in childhood on the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders during adolescence: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, XiuYun; Bastian, Kerry; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Studies among youth suggest that physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and poor diet quality are associated with poor mental health. Few population-based studies have investigated these relationships longitudinally. We examined the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and diet quality in childhood and the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders throughout adolescence. We linked health behavior survey data from 2003 among 10- to 11-year-old children across Nova Scotia, Canada, with administrative health care data from 2003 to 2011. Students' diet quality was assessed using the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were self-reported, and internalizing and externalizing disorders were diagnosed by a physician. We applied Cox regression to examine the associations of the health behaviors with the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders between 2003 and 2011. Of the 4861 participating students, 23.7% and 9.4% had a diagnosis of internalizing and externalizing disorders, respectively. The incidences of internalizing and externalizing disorders were higher among students who were less physically active and spent more time using computers and video games. These findings suggest that promoting an active lifestyle in childhood may contribute to the prevention of both internalizing and externalizing disorders during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The next step in health behavior research: the need for ecological moderation analyses - an application to diet and physical activity at childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Van Kann, Dave Hh; de Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2014-04-17

    The ecological perspective holds that human behavior depends on the interaction of different environmental factors and personal characteristics, but it lacks validation and operationalization. In the current paper, an ecological view was adopted to examine the interactive impact of several ecological systems on children's dietary intake and physical activity at childcare or similar facilities. The ecological view was operationalized into three types of interaction: 1) interaction between types of childcare environment (physical, social, political, economic); 2) interaction between micro-systems (the childcare and home environment) in meso-systems; and 3) interaction between childcare environment and child characteristics. The predictive value of each of these interactions was tested based on a systematic review of the literature. Several studies support the hypothesis that the influence of the childcare environment on children's physical activity and diet is moderated by child characteristics (age, gender), but interaction between environmental types as well as between micro-systems is hardly examined in the field of behavioral nutrition and physical activity. Qualitative studies and general child development research provide some valuable insights, but we advocate quantitative research adopting an ecological perspective on environmental influences. Empirical studies operationalizing a true ecological view on diet and physical activity are scarce. Theorizing and assessment of interaction is advocated to become common practice rather than an exception in behavioral nutrition and physical activity research, in order to move the field forward.

  2. A Personalised, Sensor-Based Smart Phone Intervention for Physical Activity and Diet – PRECIOUS N-of-1 Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Nurmi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an urgent need for interventions which can effectively change behaviours, in order to prevent and reduce the impact of costly chronic conditions such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (WHO, 2014. Smartphones offer a platform for cost-effective and broad implementation, and at the same time, via real-time tracking and sensor data, offer unprecedented possibilities for personalising interventions (Jovanov & Milenkovic, 2011. While a great number of health-related applications exist already, the content of these is rarely based on behaviour change theory, and, consequently, evidence for the effectiveness of digital behaviour change applications is minimal (Webb, Joseph, Yardley, & Michie, 2010. Even when health-related applications are theory-based, users will likely not achieve behavioural changes if they do not engage with the applications. This lack of engagement is supported by statistics: a quarter of downloaded apps were only used once (Leger, 2011. A major challenge of health care research is therefore the identification of personal treatment response, and factors which mitigate engagement and effectiveness within individuals. To address these issues, our research group, an EU-funded multi-disciplinary consortium has developed the PREventitive Care Infrastructure based On Ubiquitous Sensing (PRECIOUS mobile application. This app targets behavioural changes in physical activity, diet, and stress, and includes both motivational and action components for each. The service design draws from evidence-based techniques in self-determination theory (SDT, Deci & Ryan, 2000, motivational interviewing (MI, Miller & Rollnick, 2002, and social cognitive theories (e.g. Schwarzer, 2008, to enhance engagement with the process of behaviour change. Through integrating sensor data, self-reported responses, and self-monitoring records, the system provides each user with a dynamic, personalised trajectory through the app

  3. Dynamic Energy Balance: An Integrated Framework for Discussing Diet and Physical Activity in Obesity Prevention-Is it More than Eating Less and Exercising More?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Lindsay, Anne R; Hongu, Nobuko; Houtkooper, Linda

    2017-08-19

    Understanding the dynamic nature of energy balance, and the interrelated and synergistic roles of diet and physical activity (PA) on body weight, will enable nutrition educators to be more effective in implementing obesity prevention education. Although most educators recognize that diet and PA are important for weight management, they may not fully understand their impact on energy flux and how diet alters energy expenditure and energy expenditure alters diet. Many nutrition educators have little training in exercise science; thus, they may not have the knowledge essential to understanding the benefits of PA for health or weight management beyond burning calories. This paper highlights the importance of advancing nutrition educators' understanding about PA, and its synergistic role with diet, and the value of incorporating a dynamic energy balance approach into obesity-prevention programs. Five key points are highlighted: (1) the concept of dynamic vs. static energy balance; (2) the role of PA in weight management; (3) the role of PA in appetite regulation; (4) the concept of energy flux; and (5) the integration of dynamic energy balance into obesity prevention programs. The rationale for the importance of understanding the physiological relationship between PA and diet for effective obesity prevention programming is also reviewed.

  4. Relationships between health literacy, motivation and diet and physical activity in people with type 2 diabetes participating in peer-led support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Lise; Rowlands, Gill; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2018-03-17

    To investigate associations between health literacy (HL) and diet and physical activity, and motivation and diet and physical activity in Danish people with type 2 diabetes. We used a cross-sectional design including 194 individuals with type 2 diabetes participating in peer-led support groups provided by the Danish Diabetes Association between January-December 2015. The participants completed a questionnaire at the first meeting including; The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) measure, The Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ) (Self-Determination Theory) measuring type of motivation, and two HL scales: The HLS-EU-Q16, and the Diabetes Health Literacy scale (Ishikawa, H). Data were analyzed using linear regression models adjusting for age, gender, educational level, diabetes duration, motivation and HL. The adjusted β (95%CI) showed that autonomous motivation and functional HL were associated with following recommended diet: autonomous motivation; 0.43 (0.06; 0.80) and functional HL; 0.52 (0.02; 1.00). Autonomous motivation was related to following physical activity recommendations; β (95%CI) 0.56 (0.16; 0.96). This study indicates that, for people with type 2 diabetes, functional HL and autonomous motivation may be important drivers for following diet recommendations, and autonomous motivation may be the most important factor for following recommendations regarding physical activity. These concepts may therefore be highly relevant to address in interventions to people with type 2 diabetes. Different interventions are suggested. Copyright © 2018 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions targeting sleep and their impact on child body mass index, diet, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Chai, Li Kheng; Williams, Christopher M; Wiggers, John; Finch, Meghan; Wolfenden, Luke

    2016-05-01

    This review aimed to examine the impact of interventions involving an explicit sleep component on child body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. A systematic search was undertaken in six databases to identify randomized controlled trials examining the impact of interventions with a sleep component on child BMI, dietary intake, and/or physical activity. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted assessing the impact of included interventions on child BMI. Of the eight included trials, three enforced a sleep protocol and five targeted sleep as part of multicomponent behavioral interventions either exclusively or together with nutrition and physical activity. Meta-analysis of three studies found that multicomponent behavioral interventions involving a sleep component were not significantly effective in changing child BMI (n = 360,-0.04 kg/m(2) [-0.18, 0.11], I(2)  = 0%); however, only one study included in the meta-analysis successfully changed sleep duration in children. There were some reported improvements to adolescent diet, and only one trial examined the impact on child physical activity, where a significant effect was observed. Findings from the included studies suggest that where improvements in child sleep duration were achieved, a positive impact on child BMI, nutrition, and physical activity was also observed. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  6. Statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions of MC4R and FTO with diet and physical activity on obesity: new effects on alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Corella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fat mass and obesity (FTO and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations with body-weight are modulated by diet and physical activity (PA, and to study their association with alcohol and food intake. METHODS: Adherence to Mediterranean diet (AdMedDiet and physical activity (PA were assessed by validated questionnaires in 7,052 high cardiovascular risk subjects. MC4R rs17782313 and FTO rs9939609 were determined. Independent and joint associations (aggregate genetic score as well as statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions were analyzed. RESULTS: FTO rs9939609 was associated with higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and obesity (P<0.05 for all. A similar, but not significant trend was found for MC4R rs17782313. Their additive effects (aggregate score were significant and we observed a 7% per-allele increase of being obese (OR=1.07; 95%CI 1.01-1.13. We found relevant statistical interactions (P<0.05 with PA. So, in active individuals, the associations with higher BMI, WC or obesity were not detected. A biological (non-statistical interaction between AdMedDiet and rs9939609 and the aggregate score was found. Greater AdMedDiet in individuals carrying 4 or 3-risk alleles counterbalanced their genetic predisposition, exhibiting similar BMI (P=0.502 than individuals with no risk alleles and lower AdMedDiet. They also had lower BMI (P=0.021 than their counterparts with low AdMedDiet. We did not find any consistent association with energy or macronutrients, but found a novel association between these polymorphisms and lower alcohol consumption in variant-allele carriers (B+/-SE: -0.57+/-0.16 g/d per-score-allele; P=0.001. CONCLUSION: Statistical and biological interactions with PA

  7. Perspectives on enhancing physical activity and diet for health promotion among at-risk urban UK South Asian communities: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Cross-Bardell, Laura; George, Tracey; Bhoday, Mandeep; Tuomainen, Helena; Qureshi, Nadeem; Kai, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives \\ud \\ud To explore perspectives on enhancing physical activity and diet among South Asians in urban deprived communities at high risk of chronic disease and to inform development of culturally appropriate health promotion intervention. \\ud \\ud Design\\ud \\ud Qualitative study using semistructured one-to-one and family group interviews with thematic analysis of data. \\ud \\ud \\ud Setting \\ud \\ud Urban disadvantaged communities in the East Midlands of the UK. \\ud \\ud \\ud Participants \\...

  8. Extra-virgin olive oil diet and mild physical activity prevent cartilage degeneration in an osteoarthritis model: an in vivo and in vitro study on lubricin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Pichler, Karin; Weinberg, Annelie Martina; Loreto, Carla; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2013-12-01

    Mediterranean diet includes a relatively high fat consumption mostly from monounsaturated fatty acids mainly provided by olive oil, the principal source of culinary and dressing fat. The beneficial effects of olive oil have been widely studied and could be due to its phytochemicals, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Lubricin is a chondroprotective glycoprotein and it serves as a critical boundary lubricant between opposing cartilage surfaces. A joint injury causes an initial flare of cytokines, which decreases lubricin expression and predisposes to cartilage degeneration such as osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of extra-virgin olive oil diet and physical activity on inflammation and expression of lubricin in articular cartilage of rats after injury. In this study we used histomorphometric, histological, immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, western blot and biochemical analysis for lubricin and interleukin-1 evaluations in the cartilage and in the synovial fluid. We report the beneficial effect of physical activity (treadmill training) and extra-virgin olive oil supplementation, on the articular cartilage. The effects of anterior cruciate ligament transection decrease drastically the expression of lubricin and increase the expression of interleukin-1 in rats, while after physical activity and extra-virgin olive oil supplemented diet, the values return to a normal level compared to the control group. With our results we can confirm the importance of the physical activity in conjunction with extra-virgin olive oil diet in medical therapy to prevent osteoarthritis disease in order to preserve the articular cartilage and then the entire joint.

  9. Association between perceived neighbourhood characteristics, physical activity and diet quality: results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Dóra; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Griep, Rosane Härter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Giatti, Luana; Bensenor, Isabela; Del Carmen Bisi Molina, Maria; Aquino, Estela M L; Diez-Roux, Ana; de Pina Castiglione, Débora; Santos, Simone M

    2016-08-09

    The study explores associations between perceived neighbourhood characteristics, physical activity and diet quality, which in Latin America and Brazil have been scarcely studied and with inconsistent results. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 14,749 individuals who participated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto, ELSA-Brasil) baseline. The study included current and retired civil servants, aged between 35 and 74 years, from universities and research institutes in six Brazilian states. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form was used to characterize physical activity during leisure time and commuting; additional questions assessed how often fruit and vegetables were consumed, as a proxy for diet quality. Neighbourhood characteristics were evaluated by the "Walking Environment" and "Availability of Healthy Foods" scales originally used in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Associations were examined using multinomial logistic regression. Perceiving a more walkable neighbourhood was positively associated with engaging in leisure time physical activity and doing so for longer weekly. Compared with those who saw their neighbourhood as less walkable, those who perceived it as more walkable had 1.69 (95 % CI 1.57-1.83) and 1.39 (1.28-1.52) greater odds of engaging in leisure time physical activity for more than 150 min/week or up to 150 min/week (vs. none), respectively. Perceiving a more walkable neighbourhood was also positively associated with transport-related physical activity. The same pattern was observed for diet: compared with participants who perceived healthy foods as less available in their neighbourhood, those who saw them as more available had odds 1.48 greater (1.31-1.66) of eating fruits, and 1.47 greater (1.30-1.66) of eating vegetables, more than once per day. Perceived walkability and neighbourhood availability of healthy food were

  10. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... кий Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global strategy development ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on Physical Activity ...

  11. Design and methods for "Commit to Get Fit" - a pilot study of a school-based mindfulness intervention to promote healthy diet and physical activity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Druker, Sue; Meyer, Florence; Bock, Beth; Crawford, Sybil; Pbert, Lori

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular prevention is more effective if started early in life, but available interventions to promote healthy lifestyle habits among youth have been ineffective. Impulsivity in particular has proven to be an important barrier to the adoption of healthy behaviors in youth. Observational evidence suggests that mindfulness interventions may reduce impulsivity and improve diet and physical activity. We hypothesize that mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education will improve dietary habits and physical activity among teenagers by reducing impulsive behavior and improving planning skills. The Commit to Get Fit study is a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial examining the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of school-based mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education for promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity among adolescents. Two schools in central Massachusetts (30 students per school) will be randomized to receive mindfulness training plus standard health education (HE-M) or an attention-control intervention plus standard health education (HE-AC). Assessments will be conducted at baseline, intervention completion (2 months), and 8 months. Primary outcomes are feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, diet, impulsivity, mood, body mass index, and quality of life. This study will provide important information about feasibility and preliminary estimates of efficacy of a school-delivered mindfulness and health education intervention to promote healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors among adolescents. Our findings will provide important insights about the possible mechanisms by which mindfulness training may contribute to behavioral change and inform future research in this important area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Both food restriction and high-fat diet during gestation induce low birth weight and altered physical activity in adult rat offspring: the "Similarities in the Inequalities" model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio da Silva Cunha

    Full Text Available We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called "Similarities in the Inequalities", in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the "similarities in the inequalities" phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib, receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR, receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam's habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF, receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels, abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The "similarities in the inequalities" effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females. Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters, probably through different biological mechanisms.

  13. Physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA

  14. Towards the integration and development of a cross-European research network and infrastructure: the DEterminants of DIet and Physical ACtivity (DEDIPAC) Knowledge Hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Kroeze, Willemieke; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Allais, Oliver; Andersen, Lene Frost; Cardon, Greet; Capranica, Laura; Chastin, Sebastien; Donnelly, Alan; Ekelund, Ulf; Finglas, Paul; Flechtner-Mors, Marion; Hebestreit, Antje; Hendriksen, Ingrid; Kubiak, Thomas; Lanza, Massimo; Loyen, Anne; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Mazzocchi, Mario; Monsivais, Pablo; Murphy, Marie; Nöthlings, Ute; O'Gorman, Donal J; Renner, Britta; Roos, Gun; Schuit, Abertine J; Schulze, Matthias; Steinacker, Jürgen; Stronks, Karien; Volkert, Dorothee; Van't Veer, Pieter; Lien, Nanna; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes

    2014-11-22

    To address major societal challenges and enhance cooperation in research across Europe, the European Commission has initiated and facilitated 'joint programming'. Joint programming is a process by which Member States engage in defining, developing and implementing a common strategic research agenda, based on a shared vision of how to address major societal challenges that no Member State is capable of resolving independently. Setting up a Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) should also contribute to avoiding unnecessary overlap and repetition of research, and enable and enhance the development and use of standardised research methods, procedures and data management. The Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity (DEDIPAC) Knowledge Hub (KH) is the first act of the European JPI 'A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life'. The objective of DEDIPAC is to contribute to improving understanding of the determinants of dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. DEDIPAC KH is a multi-disciplinary consortium of 46 consortia and organisations supported by joint programming grants from 12 countries across Europe. The work is divided into three thematic areas: (I) assessment and harmonisation of methods for future research, surveillance and monitoring, and for evaluation of interventions and policies; (II) determinants of dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours across the life course and in vulnerable groups; and (III) evaluation and benchmarking of public health and policy interventions aimed at improving dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. In the first three years, DEDIPAC KH will organise, develop, share and harmonise expertise, methods, measures, data and other infrastructure. This should further European research and improve the broad multi-disciplinary approach needed to study the interactions between multilevel determinants in influencing dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Insights will be translated into more effective

  15. Morningness-eveningness interferes with perceived health, physical activity, diet and stress levels in working women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraszti, Réka Ágnes; Purebl, Gyorgy; Salavecz, Gyongyver; Poole, Lydia; Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Sleep and health are closely interrelated and sleep quality is a well-known contributor to perceived health. However, effects of sleep-timing preference i.e. morningness-eveningness on health has yet to be revealed. In this study, we explored the relationship between morningness-eveningness and perceived health in a sample of female working professionals (N = 202). Sleep-timing preference was measured using the Composite Scale of Morningness. Perceived health was characterized by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, WHO Well-Being Scale-5 and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 scores. We also investigated possible mechanisms, including stress and health-impairing behaviours. In accordance with previous data, we found more depressive mood, lower well-being and poorer perceived health among evening types. To assess health-impairing behaviours we collected data on smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet. Among the possible mechanism variables, greater stress, less frequent physical activity and less healthy diet were associated with eveningness. Furthermore, stress diminished the strength of the association between morningness-eveningness and depressed mood. Physical activity attenuated the strength of the association between morningness-eveningness and well-being. No effects of alcohol consumption could be identified. Our data show that evening preference behaves as a health risk in terms of associating with poor perceived health. Our findings also suggest that this effect might be mediated by health behaviours and stress.

  16. Information Technology and Lifestyle: A Systematic Evaluation of Internet and Mobile Interventions for Improving Diet, Physical Activity, Obesity, Tobacco, and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshin, Ashkan; Babalola, Damilola; Mclean, Mireille; Yu, Zhi; Ma, Wenjie; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Arabi, Mandana; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-08-31

    Novel interventions are needed to improve lifestyle and prevent noncommunicable diseases, the leading cause of death and disability globally. This study aimed to systematically review, synthesize, and grade scientific evidence on effectiveness of novel information and communication technology to reduce noncommunicable disease risk. We systematically searched PubMed for studies evaluating the effect of Internet, mobile phone, personal sensors, or stand-alone computer software on diet, physical activity, adiposity, tobacco, or alcohol use. We included all interventional and prospective observational studies conducted among generally healthy adults published between January 1990 and November 2013. American Heart Association criteria were used to evaluate and grade the strength of evidence. From 8654 abstracts, 224 relevant reports were identified. Internet and mobile interventions were most common. Internet interventions improved diet (N=20 studies) (Class IIa A), physical activity (N=33), adiposity (N=35), tobacco (N=22), and excess alcohol (N=47) (Class I A each). Mobile interventions improved physical activity (N=6) and adiposity (N=3) (Class I A each). Evidence limitations included relatively brief durations (generally Internet and mobile interventions improve important lifestyle behaviors up to 1 year. This systematic review supports the need for long-term interventions to evaluate sustainability. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. Do mothers affect daughter's behaviors? Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors in Kuwaiti mother-daughter dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Lemia H; Vaccaro, Joan A; Sukhram, Shiryn D; Huffman, Fatma G

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate 169 Kuwaiti mother-daughter dyads and their associations with health behaviors for eating healthy, engaging in physical activity, daughters perceived body weight, time spent with computer/video, and time viewing television. Female students aged 10-14 years were selected from private and public schools in the State of Kuwait. Results demonstrated that daughters exhibited similar behaviors to their mothers in their perceived eating behavior, physical activity, computer/video game use, and TV screen time. Future research is essential to determine the role of mothers in effective health behavior intervention strategies for female Kuwaiti adolescents.

  18. Intensity and timing of physical activity in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer risk: the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Tricia M; Moore, Steven C; Gierach, Gretchen L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    Despite strong evidence of an inverse association of physical activity with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, whether a certain intensity or time of life of physical activity is most effective for lowering breast cancer risk is not known. In 118,899 postmenopausal women in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we examined the relations of light and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity during four periods of life ('historical': ages 15-18, 19-29, 35-39 years; 'recent': past 10 years) to postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Physical activity was assessed by self-report at baseline, and 4287 incident breast cancers were identified over 6.6 years of follow-up. In age-adjusted and multivariate Cox regression models, >7 hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity during the past 10 years was associated with 16% reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (RR:0.84; 95%CI:0.76,0.93) compared with inactivity. The association remained statistically significant after adjustment for BMI (RR:0.87; 95%CI:0.78,0.96). Neither moderate-to-vigorous activity during other periods of life nor light intensity activity during any period of life was related to breast cancer risk, and associations did not vary by tumor characteristics. A high level of recent, but not historical, physical activity of moderate-to-vigorous intensity is associated with reduced postmenopausal breast cancer risk. More precise recall of recent physical activity than activity in the distant past is one possible explanation for our findings

  19. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children’s Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E. Staiano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined differences in children’s health behaviors during school term (ST versus school holiday (SH: June–July and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5–18 years (n = 406 from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score(BMIz ) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth’s physical activity and TV viewing.

  20. Is pregnancy a teachable moment for diet and physical activity behaviour change? An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experiences of women during their first pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Lou; Shaw, Rachel L; French, David P

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy may provide a 'teachable moment' for positive health behaviour change, as a time when women are both motivated towards health and in regular contact with health care professionals. This study aimed to investigate whether women's experiences of pregnancy indicate that they would be receptive to behaviour change during this period. Qualitative interview study. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, this study details how seven women made decisions about their physical activity and dietary behaviour during their first pregnancy. Two women had required fertility treatment to conceive. Their behaviour was driven by anxiety and a drive to minimize potential risks to the pregnancy. This included detailed information seeking and strict adherence to diet and physical activity recommendations. However, the majority of women described behaviour change as 'automatic', adopting a new lifestyle immediately upon discovering their pregnancy. Diet and physical activity were influenced by what these women perceived to be normal or acceptable during pregnancy (largely based on observations of others) and internal drivers, including bodily signals and a desire to retain some of their pre-pregnancy self-identity. More reasoned assessments regarding benefits for them and their baby were less prevalent and influential. Findings suggest that for women who conceived relatively easily, diet and physical activity behaviour during pregnancy is primarily based upon a combination of automatic judgements, physical sensations, and perceptions of what pregnant women are supposed to do. Health professionals and other credible sources appear to exert less influence. As such, pregnancy alone may not create a 'teachable moment'. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Significant life events can be cues to action with relation to health behaviour change. However, much of the empirical research in this area has focused on negative health experiences such as

  1. Effectiveness of cultural adaptations of interventions aimed at smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity in ethnic minorities. a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierkens, Vera; Hartman, Marieke A; Nicolaou, Mary; Vissenberg, Charlotte; Beune, Erik J A J; Hosper, Karen; van Valkengoed, Irene G; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    The importance of cultural adaptations in behavioral interventions targeting ethnic minorities in high-income societies is widely recognized. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in such interventions. To systematically review the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in interventions that target smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity and to explore features of such adaptations that may account for their effectiveness. Systematic review using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials registers (1997-2009). a) effectiveness study of a lifestyle intervention targeted to ethnic minority populations living in a high income society; b) interventions included cultural adaptations and a control group that was exposed to the intervention without the cultural adaptation under study; c) primary outcome measures included smoking cessation, diet, or physical activity. Out of 44904 hits, we identified 17 studies, all conducted in the United States. In five studies, specific cultural adaptations had a statistically significant effect on primary outcomes. The remaining studies showed no significant effects on primary outcomes, but some presented trends favorable for cultural adaptations. We observed that interventions incorporating a package of cultural adaptations, cultural adaptations that implied higher intensity and those incorporating family values were more likely to report statistically significant effects. Adaptations in smoking cessation interventions seem to be more effective than adaptations in interventions aimed at diet and physical activity. This review indicates that culturally targeted behavioral interventions may be more effective if cultural adaptations are implemented as a package of adaptations, the adaptation includes family level, and where the adaptation results in a higher intensity of the intervention. More systematic experiments are needed in which

  2. Effectiveness of cultural adaptations of interventions aimed at smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity in ethnic minorities. a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Nierkens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of cultural adaptations in behavioral interventions targeting ethnic minorities in high-income societies is widely recognized. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in such interventions. AIM: To systematically review the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in interventions that target smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity and to explore features of such adaptations that may account for their effectiveness. METHODS: Systematic review using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials registers (1997-2009. INCLUSION CRITERIA: a effectiveness study of a lifestyle intervention targeted to ethnic minority populations living in a high income society; b interventions included cultural adaptations and a control group that was exposed to the intervention without the cultural adaptation under study; c primary outcome measures included smoking cessation, diet, or physical activity. RESULTS: Out of 44904 hits, we identified 17 studies, all conducted in the United States. In five studies, specific cultural adaptations had a statistically significant effect on primary outcomes. The remaining studies showed no significant effects on primary outcomes, but some presented trends favorable for cultural adaptations. We observed that interventions incorporating a package of cultural adaptations, cultural adaptations that implied higher intensity and those incorporating family values were more likely to report statistically significant effects. Adaptations in smoking cessation interventions seem to be more effective than adaptations in interventions aimed at diet and physical activity. CONCLUSION: This review indicates that culturally targeted behavioral interventions may be more effective if cultural adaptations are implemented as a package of adaptations, the adaptation includes family level, and where the adaptation results in a

  3. Effect of Sleep Duration, Diet, and Physical Activity on Obesity and Overweight Elementary School Students in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, YunTing; Jiang, YanRui; Sun, WanQi; Zhu, Qi; Ip, Patrick; Zhang, DongLan; Liu, ShiJian; Chen, Chang; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Tang, MingYu; Dong, WenFang; Wu, YuFeng; Yin, Yong; Jiang, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Background: This was a cross-sectional survey to investigate the relationship of age, parent education, sleep duration, physical activity, and dietary habits with overweight or obesity in school-age children in Shanghai. Methods: The survey gathered information from 13,001 children in grades 1 through 5 (age 6 to 10 years) among 26 elementary…

  4. Physical activity, diet and gene-environment interactions in relation to body mass index and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnehed, Nina; Tynelius, Per; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between genetic susceptibility to obesity, physical activity (PA), dietary fibre, sugar and fat intakes and 4-year changes in body mass index (BMI) and attained waist circumference (WC) in a cohort of 287 monozygotic and 189...

  5. Apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents: a review of quality, features and behaviour change techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda L; Hayman, Melanie; Bray, Nicola A; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Gnam, Jens-Peter; Bachert, Philip; Direito, Artur; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-06-24

    The number of commercial apps to improve health behaviours in children is growing rapidly. While this provides opportunities for promoting health, the content and quality of apps targeting children and adolescents is largely unexplored. This review systematically evaluated the content and quality of apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents, and examined relationships of app quality ratings with number of app features and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used. Systematic literature searches were conducted in iTunes and Google Play stores between May-November 2016. Apps were included if they targeted children or adolescents, focused on improving diet, physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour, had a user rating of at least 4+ based on at least 20 ratings, and were available in English. App inclusion, downloading and user-testing for quality assessment and content analysis were conducted independently by two reviewers. Spearman correlations were used to examine relationships between app quality, and number of technical app features and BCTs included. Twenty-five apps were included targeting diet (n = 12), physical activity (n = 18) and sedentary behaviour (n = 7). On a 5-point Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS), overall app quality was moderate (total MARS score: 3.6). Functionality was the highest scoring domain (mean: 4.1, SD: 0.6), followed by aesthetics (mean: 3.8, SD: 0.8), and lower scoring for engagement (mean: 3.6, SD: 0.7) and information quality (mean: 2.8, SD: 0.8). On average, 6 BCTs were identified per app (range: 1-14); the most frequently used BCTs were providing 'instructions' (n = 19), 'general encouragement' (n = 18), 'contingent rewards' (n = 17), and 'feedback on performance' (n = 13). App quality ratings correlated positively with numbers of technical app features (rho = 0.42, p improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents had moderate

  6. Acceptability of an Online Health Videogame to Improve Diet and Physical Activity in Elementary School Students: “Fitter Critters”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, John; Lance, Bri; Karetas, Andrew; Druker, Susan; Panza, Emily; Olendzki, Barbara; Andersen, Victoria; Pbert, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Interest in health videogames to stimulate health behavior change is increasing, yet little research exists on their use. This study tested the acceptability of an online health videogame called “Fitter Critters™” (Megazoid Games, Collegeville, PA) for improving healthy diet and activity in elementary school students. Subjects and Methods In October and November 2011, fifth grade students (n=97) from a school in central Massachusetts played the game for 1 week during their health class. Measures of nutrition and activity knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy were completed prior to playing the game and again on the final day along with a videogame acceptability questionnaire. Results The videogame was highly acceptable to participants as measured by the acceptability questionnaire mean rating of 4.52 (SD=0.60), where 1=strongly disagree and 5=strongly agree; 73% of students played the game at least once outside of class. Significant increases in positive attitudes toward healthy eating (Pvideogame engages students in learning about healthy eating and activity. Further research should assess whether the positive changes observed in knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy translate into behavior change. PMID:24761317

  7. Acceptability of an Online Health Videogame to Improve Diet and Physical Activity in Elementary School Students: "Fitter Critters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kristin L; Ferrara, John; Lance, Bri; Karetas, Andrew; Druker, Susan; Panza, Emily; Olendzki, Barbara; Andersen, Victoria; Pbert, Lori

    2012-08-01

    Interest in health videogames to stimulate health behavior change is increasing, yet little research exists on their use. This study tested the acceptability of an online health videogame called "Fitter Critters™" (Megazoid Games, Collegeville, PA) for improving healthy diet and activity in elementary school students. In October and November 2011, fifth grade students ( n =97) from a school in central Massachusetts played the game for 1 week during their health class. Measures of nutrition and activity knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy were completed prior to playing the game and again on the final day along with a videogame acceptability questionnaire. The videogame was highly acceptable to participants as measured by the acceptability questionnaire mean rating of 4.52 (SD=0.60), where 1=strongly disagree and 5=strongly agree; 73% of students played the game at least once outside of class. Significant increases in positive attitudes toward healthy eating ( P videogame engages students in learning about healthy eating and activity. Further research should assess whether the positive changes observed in knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy translate into behavior change.

  8. [Evaluation of the lifestyle of students of physiotherapy and technical & computer science basing on their diet and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrela-Kuder, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of a dietary habits profile and physical activity of Physiotherapy and Technical & Computer Science students. The research involved a group of 174 non-full-time students of higher education institutions in Krakow aged between 22 and 27. 81 students of the surveyed studied Physiotherapy at the University of Physical Education, whereas 93 followed a course in Technical & Computer Science at the Pedagogical University. In this project a diagnostic survey method was used. The study revealed that the lifestyle of university youth left much to be desired. Dietary errors were exemplified by irregular meals intake, low consumption of fish, milk and dairy, snacking between meals on high calorie products with a poor nutrient content. With regard to physical activity, Physiotherapy students were characterised by more positive attitudes than those from Technical & Computer Science. Such physical activity forms as swimming, team sports, cycling and strolling were declared by the surveyed the most frequently. Health-oriented education should be introduced in such a way as to improve the knowledge pertaining to a health-promoting lifestyle as a means of prevention of numerous diseases.

  9. Psychological determinants of physical activity across the life course: A "DEterminants of DIet and Physical ACtivity" (DEDIPAC umbrella systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cortis

    Full Text Available Low levels of physical activity (PA are reported to contribute to the occurrence of non-communicable diseases over the life course. Although psychological factors have been identified as an important category concerning PA behavior, knowledge on psychological determinants of PA is still inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this umbrella systematic literature review (SLR was to summarize and synthesize the scientific evidence on psychological determinants of PA behavior across the life course. A systematic online search was conducted on MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases. The search was limited to studies published in English from January 2004 to April 2016. SLRs and meta-analyses (MAs of observational studies investigating the association of psychological variables and PA were considered eligible. Extracted data were evaluated based on importance of determinants, strength of evidence, and methodological quality. The full protocol is available from PROSPERO (Record ID: CRD42015010616. Twenty reviews (14 SLRs and 6 MAs, mostly of moderate methodological quality, were found eligible. Convincing evidence was found for self-efficacy (positive association with PA in children and adolescents, and stress (negative association with PA regardless of age. Most of the evidence revealing an association between psychological determinants and PA is probable and limited, mainly due to differences in the definition of PA and of psychological determinants across reviews. Thus, scholars are urged to reach a consensus on clear definitions of relevant psychological determinants of PA, subsuming cultural biases and allowing the possibility to obtain clear interpretations and generalizability of findings. Finally, most psychological determinants should be considered within a larger framework of other multi-level determinants that may interact or mediate some of the effects.

  10. Change in weight and body composition in obese subjects following a hypocaloric diet plus different training programs or physical activity recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Pedro J; Bermejo, Laura M; Peinado, Ana B; López-Plaza, Bricia; Cupeiro, Rocío; Szendrei, Barbara; Calderón, Francisco J; Castro, Eliane A; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2015-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different physical activity programs, in combination with a hypocaloric diet, on anthropometric variables and body composition in obese subjects. Ninety-six obese (men: n = 48; women: n = 48; age range: 18-50 yr) participated in a supervised 22-wk program. They were randomized into four groups: strength training (S; n = 24), endurance training (E; n = 26), combined strength + endurance training (SE; n = 24), and physical activity recommendations (C; n = 22). In addition, all groups followed the same hypocaloric diet. At baseline and at the end of the intervention, dietetic and physical activity variables were assessed using validated questionnaires. Anthropometric variables were recorded along with body composition variables measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry techniques. At the end of the intervention, significant improvements were seen within groups in terms of body weight (S: -9.21 ± 0.83 kg; E: -10.55 ± 0.80 kg; SE: -9.88 ± 0.85 kg; C: -8.69 ± 0.89 kg), and total fat mass (S: -5.24 ± 0.55%; E: -5.35 ± 0.55%; SE: -4.85 ± 0.56%; C: -4.89 ± 0.59%). No differences were seen between groups at this time in terms of any other anthropometric or body composition variables examined. All groups increased their total physical activity in metabolic equivalents (MET) per week during the intervention, but with no difference between groups (S: 976 ± 367 MET-min/wk; E: 954 ± 355 MET-min/wk; SE: 1 329 ± 345 MET-min/wk; C: 763 ± 410 MET-min/wk). This study shows that, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, exercise training and adherence to physical activity recommendations are equally effective at reducing body weight and modifying body composition in the treatment of obesity (Clinical Trials Gov. number: NCT01116856). Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Perceptions of diet, physical activity, and obesity-related health among black daughter-mother pairs in Soweto, South Africa: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Phillips

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is on the rise in South Africa, particularly among females living in urban environments. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the emic perspectives of black young adult daughter and mother pairs living in Soweto, South Africa on diet, physical activity, and obesity-related health within their social and cultural context. Methods Purposeful sampling was used to recruit daughters with a normal body mass index (BMI who have obese mothers. Individual semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 daughters (age 24 years and 15 of their mothers in Soweto, South Africa. Interview questions related to: a eating and physical activity behaviors and perceptions, b perceptions of social and community level factors, c cultural beliefs about diet and body image, and d intergenerational relationships. Data were analyzed using four-phases of thematic analysis and the constant comparison approach. Results Daughters and mothers had similar ideas of the definition of healthy food and the importance of eating healthy, but mothers were more likely to report eating healthy because of their age, adverse health experiences, and a desire to live longer. Daughters and mothers engaged in physical activity for reasons related to weight maintenance and feeling better, but mothers reported being more likely to start exercising as a result of a health concern. Daughters and mothers had comparable views of what makes a person healthy. Daughters and mothers relied on each other for food purchasing and food preparation. Conclusion Daughters and mothers shared some similar perceptions of diet, physical activity, and health that were rooted in their daily life in Soweto. However, mothers generally reported being more likely to exhibit healthy eating and physical activity behaviors despite being obese. The mothers may have adopted these perceptions and behaviors later in life linked to ageing

  12. Social influence and motivation to change health behaviors among Mexican-origin adults: implications for diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Wilkinson, Anna V; Koehly, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether influence from social network members is associated with motivation to change dietary and physical activity behaviors. Baseline assessment followed by mailing of family health history-based personalized messages (2 weeks) and follow-up assessment (3 months). Families from an ongoing population-based cohort in Houston, Texas. 475 adults from 161 Mexican-origin families. Out of 347 households contacted, 162 (47%) participated. Family health history, social networks, and motivation to change behaviors. Two-level logistic regression modeling. Having at least one network member who encourages one to eat more fruits and vegetables (p = .010) and to engage in regular physical activity (p = .046) was associated with motivation to change the relevant behavior. About 40% of the participants did not have encouragers for these behaviors. Identification of new encouragers within networks and targeting natural encouragers (e.g., children, spouses) may increase the efficacy of interventions to motivate behavioral changes among Mexican-origin adults.

  13. Roles of diet, lifetime physical activity and oxidative DNA damage in the occurrence of prostate cancer among men in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Suzana; Shafurah, Siti; Hasan Shaari, Nur Suraiya Abu; Rajikan, Roslee; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Golkhalkhali, Babak; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of information on risk factors of prostate cancer, especially those related to dietary and lifestyle among Asian populations. This study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary intake (macronutrients, fruits, vegetables and lycopene), lifetime physical activity and oxidative DNA damage with prostate cancer. A case control study was carried out among 105 subjects (case n=35, control n=70), matched for age and ethnicity. Data on sociodemographic, medical, dietary intake, consumption of lycopene rich food and lifetime physical activity were obtained through an interview based questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height and waist hip circumferences were also carried out on subjects. A total of 3 mL fasting venous blood was drawn to assess lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay. Cases had a significantly higher intake of fat (27.7 ± 5.5%) as compared to controls (25.1 ± 5.9%) (p diet, high intake of fruits, vegetables and lycopene rich foods and being physical active at middle age were found to be protective. Thus, it is essential for Malaysian men to consume adequate fruits and vegetables, reduce fat intake and engage in physical activity in order to reduce prostate cancer risk.

  14. Do health behaviours change after colonoscopy? A prospective cohort study on diet, alcohol, physical activity and smoking among patients and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Gill; Brown, Alistair; Campbell, Anna; Campbell, Neil; Diament, Bob; Fielding, Shona; Forbat, Liz; Masson, Lindsey F; O'Carroll, Ronan; Stein, Kevin; Morrison, David S

    2014-01-14

    To describe diet, alcohol, physical activity and tobacco use prospectively, that is, before and 10 months after colonoscopy for patients and their partners. Prospective cohort study of health behaviour change in patients and partners. Comparison groups are patients receiving a normal result notification (NRN) versus patients receiving an abnormal result notification (ARN). Patients and partners (controls) are also compared. 5 Scottish hospitals. Of 5798 colonoscopy registrations, 2577 (44%) patients met the eligibility criteria of whom 565 (22%) were recruited; 460 partners were also recruited. International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Scottish Collaborative Group Food Frequency Questionnaire (includes alcohol), smoking status, sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, medical conditions, colonoscopy result, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, behaviour-specific self-efficacy scales. 57% of patients were men, with a mean age of 60.8 years (SE 0.5) and 43% were from more affluent areas. 72% (n=387) of patients received an ARN and 28% (n=149) received an NRN. Response rate of the second questionnaire was 68.9%. Overall, 27% of patients consumed <5 measures of fruit and vegetables/day, 20% exceeded alcohol limits, 50% had low levels of physical activity and 21% were obese. At 10-month follow-up, a 5% reduction in excessive alcohol consumption and an 8% increase in low levels of physical activity were observed among patients; no significant changes occurred in partners. Baseline high alcohol consumption and low physical activity were the strongest predictors of these behaviours at follow-up. Low alcohol self-efficacy and increasing age were associated with poorer health-related behaviours at follow-up for alcohol consumption and physical activity, respectively. Colonoscopy is associated with marginal beneficial changes in some behaviours but not others. Further work is needed to explore how services can optimise increases in beneficial

  15. A community-based multilevel intervention for smoking, physical activity and diet: short-term findings from the Community Interventions for Health programme in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jun; Liu, Qing-Min; Ren, Yan-Jun; He, Ping-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Feng; Gao, Fang; Li, Li-Ming

    2014-04-01

    To assess the short-term impact of a comprehensive, community-based multilevel intervention on knowledge, beliefs and practices with respect to smoking, physical activity and diet in Hangzhou, China. A non-randomised, controlled, before-after quasi-experimental trial was conducted in two intervention areas and one comparison area. The intervention built on a socioecological framework and took place across four settings: neighbourhoods, schools, workplaces and community health centres. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of adults aged 18-64 years at baseline and a subsequent follow-up were conducted in 2008/2009 and 2011 in the intervention and comparison areas. A 2-year intervention programme was begun in mid-2009 and continued until mid-2011. A total of 2016 adults at baseline and 2016 adults at follow-up completed the survey. Over the 2-year intervention period, the intervention areas showed a statistically significant decline (25.2% vs 18.7%, psmoking compared with the comparison area (18.0% vs 16.4%, p=0.343). The proportion of individuals who had noticed anyone smoking in any of nine locations in the previous 30 days demonstrated a statistically significant decline in the intervention (78.9% vs 66.5%, psmoking and physical activity but not diet. A community-based multilevel intervention programme is feasible in urban China.

  16. Diet quality, physical activity, smoking status, and weight fluctuation are associated with weight change in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Newby, P K; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Jasuja, Guneet K; Pencina, Michael J; McKeon-O'Malley, Catherine; Fox, Caroline S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Millen, Barbara E

    2010-07-01

    The effect of diet quality on weight change, relative to other body weight determinants, is insufficiently understood. Furthermore, research on long-term weight change in U.S. adults is limited. We evaluated prospectively patterns and predictors of weight change in Framingham Offspring/Spouse (FOS) women and men (n = 1515) aged > or =30 y with BMI > or = 18.5 kg/m2 and without cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline over a 16-y period. Diet quality was assessed using the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score. In women, older age (P Diet quality interacted with former smoking status (P-interaction = 0.02); former smokers with lower diet quality gained an additional 5.2 kg compared with those with higher diet quality (multivariable-adjusted P-trend = 0.06). Among men, older age (P smoking (P smoking status (P smoking status in men were stronger predictors of weight change than diet quality among FOS adults. Women who stopped smoking over follow-up and had poor diet quality gained the most weight. Preventive interventions need to be sex-specific and consider lifestyle factors.

  17. Building a National Neighborhood Dataset From Geotagged Twitter Data for Indicators of Happiness, Diet, and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Li, Dapeng; Meng, Hsien-Wen; Kath, Suraj; Nsoesie, Elaine; Li, Feifei; Wen, Ming

    2016-10-17

    Studies suggest that where people live, play, and work can influence health and well-being. However, the dearth of neighborhood data, especially data that is timely and consistent across geographies, hinders understanding of the effects of neighborhoods on health. Social media data represents a possible new data resource for neighborhood research. The aim of this study was to build, from geotagged Twitter data, a national neighborhood database with area-level indicators of well-being and health behaviors. We utilized Twitter's streaming application programming interface to continuously collect a random 1% subset of publicly available geolocated tweets for 1 year (April 2015 to March 2016). We collected 80 million geotagged tweets from 603,363 unique Twitter users across the contiguous United States. We validated our machine learning algorithms for constructing indicators of happiness, food, and physical activity by comparing predicted values to those generated by human labelers. Geotagged tweets were spatially mapped to the 2010 census tract and zip code areas they fall within, which enabled further assessment of the associations between Twitter-derived neighborhood variables and neighborhood demographic, economic, business, and health characteristics. Machine labeled and manually labeled tweets had a high level of accuracy: 78% for happiness, 83% for food, and 85% for physical activity for dichotomized labels with the F scores 0.54, 0.86, and 0.90, respectively. About 20% of tweets were classified as happy. Relatively few terms (less than 25) were necessary to characterize the majority of tweets on food and physical activity. Data from over 70,000 census tracts from the United States suggest that census tract factors like percentage African American and economic disadvantage were associated with lower census tract happiness. Urbanicity was related to higher frequency of fast food tweets. Greater numbers of fast food restaurants predicted higher frequency of fast

  18. Dietary patterns in obese pregnant women; influence of a behavioral intervention of diet and physical activity in the UPBEAT randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Angela C; Seed, Paul T; Patel, Nashita; Barr, Suzanne; Bell, Ruth; Briley, Annette L; Godfrey, Keith M; Nelson, Scott M; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Robinson, Sian M; Sanders, Thomas A; Sattar, Naveed; Wardle, Jane; Poston, Lucilla; Goff, Louise M

    2016-11-29

    Understanding dietary patterns in obese pregnant women will inform future intervention strategies to improve pregnancy outcomes and the health of the child. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a behavioral intervention of diet and physical activity advice on dietary patterns in obese pregnant woman participating in the UPBEAT study, and to explore associations of dietary patterns with pregnancy outcomes. In the UPBEAT randomized controlled trial, pregnant obese women from eight UK multi-ethnic, inner-city populations were randomly assigned to receive a diet/physical activity intervention or standard antenatal care. The dietary intervention aimed to reduce glycemic load and saturated fat intake. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline (15 +0 -18 +6 weeks' gestation), post intervention (27 +0 -28 +6 weeks) and in late pregnancy (34 +0 -36 +0 weeks). Dietary patterns were characterized using factor analysis of the baseline FFQ data, and changes compared in the control and intervention arms. Patterns were related to pregnancy outcomes in the combined control/intervention cohort (n = 1023). Four distinct baseline dietary patterns were defined; Fruit and vegetables, African/Caribbean, Processed, and Snacks, which were differently associated with social and demographic factors. The UPBEAT intervention significantly reduced the Processed (-0.14; 95% CI -0.19, -0.08, P obese pregnant women an intensive dietary intervention improved Processed and Snack dietary pattern scores. African/Caribbean and Processed patterns were associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes, and provide potential targets for future interventions. Current controlled trials; ISRCTN89971375.

  19. A study of the combined effects of physical activity and air pollution on mortality in elderly urban residents: the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle Ann; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Hertel, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases, the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise. We aimed to examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. A total of 52,061 subjects (50-65 years of age) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, living in Aarhus and Copenhagen, reported data on physical activity in 1993-1997 and were followed until 2010. High exposure to air pollution was defined as the upper 25th percentile of modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels at residential addresses. We associated participation in sports, cycling, gardening, and walking with total and cause-specific mortality by Cox regression, and introduced NO2 as an interaction term. In total, 5,534 subjects died: 2,864 from cancer, 1,285 from cardiovascular disease, 354 from respiratory disease, and 122 from diabetes. Significant inverse associations of participation in sports, cycling, and gardening with total, cardiovascular, and diabetes mortality were not modified by NO2. Reductions in respiratory mortality associated with cycling and gardening were more pronounced among participants with moderate/low NO2 [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.72 and 0.55; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.73, respectively] than with high NO2 exposure (HR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.11 and HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.18, p-interaction = 0.09 and 0.02, respectively). In general, exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution did not modify associations, indicating beneficial effects of physical activity on mortality. These novel findings require replication in other study populations.

  20. Social influence and motivation to change health behaviors among Mexican origin adults: Implications for diet and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether influence from social network members is associated with motivation to change dietary and physical activity behaviors. Design Baseline assessment followed by mailing of family health history-based personalized messages (2 weeks) and follow-up assessment (3 months). Setting Families from an ongoing population-based cohort in Houston, TX. Subjects 475 adults from 161 Mexican origin families. Out of 347 households contacted, 162 (47%) participated. Measures Family health history, social networks, and motivation to change behaviors. Analysis Two-level logistic regression modeling. Results Having at least one network member who encourages one to eat more fruits and vegetables (p=.010) and to engage in regular physical activity (p=.046) was associated with motivation to change the relevant behavior. About 40% of the participants did not have encouragers for these behaviors. Conclusions Identification of new encouragers within networks and targeting natural encouragers (e.g., children, spouses) may increase the efficacy of interventions to motivate behavioral changes among Mexican origin adults. PMID:22208416

  1. Mediating effects of group cohesion on physical activity and diet in women of color: health is power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; O'Connor, Daniel P; Smith-Ray, Renae; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A; Layne, Charles S; Brosnan, Marcella; Cubbin, Catherine; McMillan, Tracy; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effects and mediating factors of a physical activity (PA) or vegetable and fruit (VF) group cohesion intervention. Longitudinal design. Harris County and Travis County, Texas. Community-dwelling African-American and Hispanic or Latina women. Three hundred ten women were randomized to a PA (n  =  204) or VF (n  =  106) intervention group. Women met in groups six times over the course of 6 months and were exposed to a group cohesion intervention to promote walking or to increase VF consumption. Women completed the International PA Questionnaire, National Cancer Institute VF and fat screeners, PA Group Environment Questionnaire, and 7-day accelerometer protocol at baseline and post-intervention. The direct and mediated effects of the intervention on outcomes were evaluated using a mediational chain model, controlling for baseline values and covariates using path analysis. Women were middle aged (mean  =  44.4 years) and overweight or obese (mean body mass index  =  34.0 kg/m(2)). PA increased and fat consumption decreased for both groups, whereas VF consumption increased for women in VF group only (all p psychological and physical health benefits for African-American and Hispanic or Latina women, but refinement of measures and intervention delivery is needed to determine whether hypothesized mediational pathways are valid.

  2. The long-term effect of screening and lifestyle counseling on changes in physical activity and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Toft, Ulla; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    five years, all participants in the intervention group (n = 6,091) received individual lifestyle counseling; participants at high risk of ischemic heart disease - according to pre-specified criteria - were also offered group-based counseling. The control group (n = 3,324) was followed by questionnaires.......6 min/week, p = 0.003) and less intake of saturated fat (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.17-0.56) than the control group. Improvements in the intake of vegetables and fish achieved during the intervention were not maintained in the longer-term. CONCLUSIONS: Screening and lifestyle counseling had sustained effects....... Both groups were followed one, three, five, and ten years after baseline. Changes in physical activity and dietary habits (intake of vegetables, fruit, fish, and saturated fat) during and after the intervention were investigated using random-coefficient models. RESULTS: Five years after...

  3. Improvement in diet habits, independent of physical activity helps to reduce incident diabetes among prediabetic Asian Indian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Jagannathan; Selvam, Sundaram; Snehalatha, Chamukuttan; Nanditha, Arun; Simon, Mary; Shetty, Ananth Samith; Godsland, Ian F; Johnston, Desmond G; Ramachandran, Ambady

    2014-12-01

    To assess the beneficial effects of the components of lifestyle intervention in reducing incidence of diabetes in Asian Indian men with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in India. This analysis was based on a 2 year prospective, randomized controlled primary prevention trial in a cohort of Asian Indian men with IGT (n=537) (Clinical Trial No: NCT00819455). Intervention and control groups were given standard care advice at baseline. Additionally, the intervention group received frequent, mobile phone based text message reminders on healthy lifestyle principles. Dietary intake and physical activity habits were recorded by validated questionnaires. The lifestyle goals were: reductions in consumption of carbohydrates, oil, portion size and body mass index of at least 1 unit (1 kg/m(2)) from baseline and maintenance of good physical activity. The association between diabetes and lifestyle goals achieved was assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Changes in insulin sensitivity (Matsuda's insulin sensitivity index) and oral disposition index during the follow-up were assessed. At the end of the study, 123 (23.8%) participants developed diabetes. The mean lifestyle score was higher in the intervention group compared with control (2.59 ± 1.13 vs. 2.28 ± 1.17; P=0.002). Among the 5 lifestyle variables, significant improvements in the 3 dietary goal were seen with intervention. Concomitant improvement in insulin sensitivity and oral disposition index was noted. Higher lifestyle score was associated with lower risk of developing diabetes (odds ratio: 0.54 [95% CI: 0.44-0.70]; P<0.0001). Beneficial effects of intervention were associated with increased compliance to lifestyle goals. The plausible mechanism is through improvement in insulin sensitivity and beta cell preservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enriching diets for childhood mental and physical development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To ensure optimal growth and development, strict diets should be discouraged and sound meal patterns should be encouraged, including starting the day with breakfast, and eating a variety of foods to ensure adequate intakes of nutrients and fibre. Regular physical activity promotes a healthy body weight and normal bone ...

  5. The contribution of diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour to body mass index in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, L J; Ranasinha, S; Zoungas, S; McNaughton, S A; Brown, W J; Teede, H J

    2013-08-01

    What is the contribution of diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour to body mass index (BMI) in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? PCOS status, higher energy intake and glycaemic index and lower physical activity were independently associated with BMI. Obesity worsens the clinical features of PCOS and women with PCOS have an elevated prevalence of overweight and obesity. It is not known whether there is a contribution of lifestyle factors such as dietary intake, physical activity or sedentary behaviour to the elevated prevalence of obesity in PCOS. This study is a population-based observational study with data currently collected at 13 year follow-up. The study commenced in 1996. For this analysis, data are analysed at one time point corresponding to the Survey 5 of the cohort in 2009. At this time 8200 participants remained (58% retention of baseline participants) of which 7466 replied to the questionnaire; 409 self-reported a diagnosis of PCOS and 7057 no diagnosis of PCOS. Australian women born in 1973-1978 from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Mean BMI was higher in women with PCOS compared with non-PCOS (29.3 ± 7.5 versus 25.6 ± 5.8 kg/m(2), P diet quality and micronutrient intake and lower saturated fat and glycaemic index intake) but increased energy intake, increased sitting time and no differences in total physical activity compared with non-PCOS. PCOS status, higher energy intake and glycaemic index and lower physical activity, as well as age, smoking, alcohol intake, occupation, education and country of birth, were independently associated with BMI. The weaknesses of this study include the self-reported diagnosis of PCOS, and the women not reporting PCOS not having their control status clinically verified which is likely to underrepresent the PCOS population. We are also unable to determine if lifestyle behaviours contributed to the PCOS diagnosis or were altered in response to diagnosis. The strengths

  6. Parent-child associations for changes in diet, screen time, and physical activity across two decades in modernizing China: China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fei; Howard, Annie Green; Herring, Amy H; Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M; Aiello, Allison E; Zhang, Bing; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-11-11

    While the household context is important for lifestyle behavior interventions, few studies have examined parent-child associations for diet and physical activity (PA) changes over time in a rapidly urbanizing country. We aimed to investigate changes in diet, screen time, and PA behaviors over time in children and their parents living in the same household, and examine the parent-child association for these behaviors. We studied dietary, screen time, and PA behaviors in 5,201 parent-child pairs (children aged 7-17y) using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, and 2009). We collected three-day 24-h recall diet data to generate percentages of energy from animal-source foods, away-from-home eating, and snacking from 1991-2009, which are known urbanization-related behaviors. We used a seven-day PA recall to collect screen time (hours/week) and leisure-time sports participation (yes/no) since 2004. We examined the changes in children's and parents' behaviors over time using random-effects negative binomial regression for diet and screen time, and random-effects logistic regression for leisure-time sports. We then regressed each of the behaviors of offspring on each of their parents' same behaviors to examine the parent-child association, using the same set of models. We observed increases in energy from animal-source foods, eating away-from-home, and snacking, as well as screen time and leisure-time sports in parents and children over time, with different rates of change between children and their parents for some behaviors. We found positive parent-child associations for diet, screen time, and PA. When parental intakes increased by 10 % energy from each dietary behavior, children's increase in intakes ranged from 0.44 to 1.59 % total energy for animal-source foods, 0.17 % to 0.45 % for away-from-home eating, and 2.13 % to 7.21 % for snacking. Children were also more likely to participate in leisure

  7. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa S. Gibson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK. Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ, a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD, in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006 and BMI centiles (p = 0.002 than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001. Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15. Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005, who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01. In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management.

  8. Reliability and validity of Web-SPAN, a web-based method for assessing weight status, diet and physical activity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, K E; McCargar, L J

    2012-02-01

    Web-based surveys are becoming increasing popular. The present study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Web-Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition (Web-SPAN) for self-report of height and weight, diet and physical activity by youth. School children aged 11-15years (grades 7-9; n=459) participated in the school-based research (boys, n=225; girls, n=233; mean age, 12.8years). Students completed Web-SPAN (self-administered) twice and participated in on-site school assessments [height, weight, 3-day food/pedometer record, Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), shuttle run]. Intraclass (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficients and paired samples t-tests were used to assess the test-retest reliability of Web-SPAN and to compare Web-SPAN with the on-site assessments. Test-retest reliability for height (ICC=0.90), weight (ICC=0.98) and the PAQ-C (ICC=0.79) were highly correlated, whereas correlations for nutrients were not as strong (ICC=0.37-0.64). There were no differences between Web-SPAN times 1 and 2 for height and weight, although there were differences for the PAQ-C and most nutrients. Web-SPAN was strongly correlated with the on-site assessments, including height (ICC=0.88), weight (ICC=0.93) and the PAQ-C (ICC=0.70). Mean differences for height and the PAQ-C were not significant, whereas mean differences for weight were significant resulting in an underestimation of being overweight/obesity prevalence (84% agreement). Correlations for nutrients were in the range 0.24-0.40; mean differences were small but generally significantly different. Correlations were weak between the web-based PAQ-C and 3-day pedometer record (r=0.28) and 20-m shuttle run (r=0.28). Web-SPAN is a time- and cost-effective method that can be used to assess the diet and physical activity status of youth in large cross-sectional studies and to assess group trends (weight status). © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The

  9. Diet, physical activity or both for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Gimenez-Perez, Gabriel; Mauricio, Didac

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether diet, physical activity or both can prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in at-risk people is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess...... the effects of diet, physical activity or both on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing T2DM. SEARCH METHODS: This is an update of the Cochrane Review published in 2008. We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, ICTRP...... RESULTS: We included 12 RCTs randomising 5238 people. One trial contributed 41% of all participants. The duration of the interventions varied from two to six years. We judged none of the included trials at low risk of bias for all 'Risk of bias' domains.Eleven trials compared diet plus physical activity...

  10. AHA Scientific Statement Population Approaches to Improve Diet, Physical Activity, and Smoking Habits A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Afshin, Ashkan; Benowitz, Neal L.; Bittner, Vera; Daniels, Stephen R.; Franch, Harold A.; Jacobs, David R.; Kraus, William E.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Krummel, Debra A.; Popkin, Barry M.; Whitsel, Laurie P.; Zakai, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor lifestyle, including suboptimal diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Although even modest population shifts in risk substantially alter health outcomes, the optimal population-level approaches to improve lifestyle are not well established. Methods and Results For this American Heart Association Scientific Statement, the writing group systematically reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for effective population approaches to improve dietary habits, increase physical activity, and reduce tobacco use. Strategies were considered in 6 broad domains: (1) media and education campaigns; (2) labeling and consumer information; (3) taxation, subsidies, and other economic incentives; (4) school and workplace approaches; (5) local environmental changes; and (6) direct restrictions and mandates. The writing group also reviewed the potential contributions of healthcare systems and surveillance systems to behavior change efforts. Several specific population interventions that achieved a Class I or IIa recommendation with grade A or B evidence were identified, providing a set of specific evidence-based strategies that deserve close attention and prioritization for wider implementation. Effective interventions included specific approaches in all 6 domains evaluated for improving diet, increasing activity, and reducing tobacco use. The writing group also identified several specific interventions in each of these domains for which current evidence was less robust, as well as other inconsistencies and evidence gaps, informing the need for further rigorous and interdisciplinary approaches to evaluate population programs and policies. Conclusions This systematic review identified and graded the evidence for a range of population-based strategies to promote lifestyle change. The findings provide a framework for policy makers, advocacy groups, researchers, clinicians, communities, and other

  11. Effects of weight loss with a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on body composition, voluntary physical activity, and fecal microbiota of obese cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotto, Marissa R; de Godoy, Maria R C; Holscher, Hannah D; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of restriction feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on loss of body weight (BW), voluntary physical activity, body composition, and fecal microbiota of overweight cats. ANIMALS 8 neutered male adult cats. PROCEDURES After BW maintenance for 4 weeks (week 0 = last week of baseline period), cats were fed to lose approximately 1.5% of BW/wk for 18 weeks. Food intake (daily), BW (twice per week), body condition score (weekly), body composition (every 4 weeks), serum biochemical analysis (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16), physical activity (every 6 weeks), and fecal microbiota (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16) were assessed. RESULTS BW, body condition score, serum triglyceride concentration, and body fat mass and percentage decreased significantly over time. Lean mass decreased significantly at weeks 12 and 16. Energy required to maintain BW was 14% less than National Research Council estimates for overweight cats and 16% more than resting energy requirement estimates. Energy required for weight loss was 11% more, 6% less, and 16% less than American Animal Hospital Association recommendations for weight loss (80% of resting energy requirement) at weeks 1 through 4, 5 through 8, and 9 through 18, respectively. Relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased and Bacteroidetes decreased with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Restricted feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet appeared to be a safe and effective means for weight loss in cats. Energy requirements for neutered cats may be overestimated and should be reconsidered.

  12. Effectiveness of a diet and physical activity promotion strategy on the prevention of obesity in Mexican school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity in children in Mexico was among the countries with the highest prevalence's in the world. Mexico currently has few innovative and comprehensive experiences to help curb the growth of this serious public health problem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a nutrition and physical activity strategy, called "Nutrition on the Go" ("nutrición en movimiento") in maintaining the BMI values of school children in the State of Mexico. Methods A two-stage cluster trial was carried out. Sixty schools were selected in the State of Mexico, of which 30 were randomly assigned to the intervention group (IG) and 30 to the control group (CG). A total of 1020 fifth grade school children participated. The intervention strategy aimed to decrease the energy content of school breakfasts and include fruits and vegetables, as well as increase physical activity and the consumption of water during the time spent at school. The strategy was implemented over a 6-month period. Results The estimated probability (EP) of obesity between baseline and the final stage for the IG decreased 1% (Initial EP = 11.8%, 95%CI 9.0, 15.2, final EP = 10.8, 95%CI 8.4, 13.) For the CG, the probability increased 0.9% (baseline EP = 10.6%; 95%CI 8.1, 13.7; final EP = 11.5, 95%CI 9.0, 14.6). The interaction between the intervention and the stage is the average odd time corrected treatment effect, which is statistically significant (p = 0.01) (OR = 0.68, 95%CI 0.52, 091). This represents the interaction between intervention and stage, which is highly significant (p = 0.01) (OR = 0.68; 95%CI 0.52, 091). In addition, girls had a protective effect on obesity (OR = 0.56; 95%CI 0.39, 0.80). Conclusions The intervention strategy is effective in maintaining the BMI of school children. PMID:22381137

  13. Effectiveness of a diet and physical activity promotion strategy on the prevention of obesity in Mexican school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamah Levy Teresa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity in children in Mexico was among the countries with the highest prevalence's in the world. Mexico currently has few innovative and comprehensive experiences to help curb the growth of this serious public health problem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a nutrition and physical activity strategy, called "Nutrition on the Go" ("nutrición en movimiento" in maintaining the BMI values of school children in the State of Mexico. Methods A two-stage cluster trial was carried out. Sixty schools were selected in the State of Mexico, of which 30 were randomly assigned to the intervention group (IG and 30 to the control group (CG. A total of 1020 fifth grade school children participated. The intervention strategy aimed to decrease the energy content of school breakfasts and include fruits and vegetables, as well as increase physical activity and the consumption of water during the time spent at school. The strategy was implemented over a 6-month period. Results The estimated probability (EP of obesity between baseline and the final stage for the IG decreased 1% (Initial EP = 11.8%, 95%CI 9.0, 15.2, final EP = 10.8, 95%CI 8.4, 13. For the CG, the probability increased 0.9% (baseline EP = 10.6%; 95%CI 8.1, 13.7; final EP = 11.5, 95%CI 9.0, 14.6. The interaction between the intervention and the stage is the average odd time corrected treatment effect, which is statistically significant (p = 0.01 (OR = 0.68, 95%CI 0.52, 091. This represents the interaction between intervention and stage, which is highly significant (p = 0.01 (OR = 0.68; 95%CI 0.52, 091. In addition, girls had a protective effect on obesity (OR = 0.56; 95%CI 0.39, 0.80. Conclusions The intervention strategy is effective in maintaining the BMI of school children.

  14. Perspectives on enhancing physical activity and diet for health promotion among at-risk urban UK South Asian communities: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-Bardell, Laura; George, Tracey; Bhoday, Mandeep; Tuomainen, Helena; Qureshi, Nadeem; Kai, Joe

    2015-02-27

    To explore perspectives on enhancing physical activity and diet among South Asians in urban deprived communities at high risk of chronic disease and to inform development of culturally appropriate health promotion intervention. Qualitative study using semistructured one-to-one and family group interviews with thematic analysis of data. Urban disadvantaged communities in the East Midlands of the UK. 45 respondents, including 34 people of South Asian origin (16 at-risk individuals, six family groups involving 18 relatives), of mainly Pakistani and Indian origin, including 16 non-English speakers; and 11 health professionals working locally with communities of concern. South Asian participants underlined the challenges of requiring family members across generations to engage in modifying dietary behaviours, and the central role of communal eating of traditional 'Asian' food in their cultural lives. Barriers to increasing physical activity included cost, personal safety and lack of time outside of long working hours and carer commitments. However, increasing walking activity was regarded as feasible by both community and health professional participants. Respondents emphasised using a social approach for potential interventions, undertaking activity with family or friends and with bilingual community peers to facilitate engagement, motivation and support. Spoken content and delivery of interventions was favoured, including personal stories and multilingual audio-visual information; within local informal rather than provider settings, including the home; and aided by pedometers for self-monitoring. Focusing on physical activity by increasing walking may hold promise as health promotion in this deprived South Asian community context. Further intervention development, with exploration of feasibility and acceptability of the social approach and elements suggested, is merited. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  15. A systematic review of methods to assess intake of fruits and vegetables among healthy European adults and children: a DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Fiona; Ryan, Kathleen; Perry, Ivan J; Schulze, Matthias B; Andersen, Lene Frost; Geelen, Anouk; Van't Veer, Pieter; Eussen, Simone; Dagnelie, Pieter; Wijckmans-Duysens, Nicole; Harrington, Janas M

    2017-02-01

    Evidence suggests that health benefits are associated with consuming recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V), yet standardised assessment methods to measure F&V intake are lacking. The current review aims to identify methods to assess F&V intake among children and adults in pan-European studies and inform the development of the DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) toolbox of methods suitable for use in future European studies. A literature search was conducted using three electronic databases and by hand-searching reference lists. English-language studies of any design which assessed F&V intake were included in the review. Studies involving two or more European countries were included in the review. Healthy, free-living children or adults. The review identified fifty-one pan-European studies which assessed F&V intake. The FFQ was the most commonly used (n 42), followed by 24 h recall (n 11) and diet records/diet history (n 7). Differences existed between the identified methods; for example, the number of F&V items on the FFQ and whether potatoes/legumes were classified as vegetables. In total, eight validated instruments were identified which assessed F&V intake among adults, adolescents or children. The current review indicates that an agreed classification of F&V is needed in order to standardise intake data more effectively between European countries. Validated methods used in pan-European populations encompassing a range of European regions were identified. These methods should be considered for use by future studies focused on evaluating intake of F&V.

  16. Social Gradients and Physical Activity Trends in an Obesogenic Dietary Pattern: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura; Toumpakari, Zoi; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2018-03-22

    An energy-dense, high-fat, low-fibre dietary pattern has been prospectively associated with the development of obesity in childhood but is population-specific, which limits translating the pattern into interventions. We explored the generalisability and correlates of this obesogenic dietary pattern in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) for the first time. Data came from participants ( n = 4636 children and n = 4738 adults) with 4-day food diaries in NDNS 2008-2014. Reduced rank regression was applied to 51 food groups to explain variation in energy density, fibre and fat intake. Consistency of the pattern in population subgroups (according to sex, age, occupation and income) was compared with the whole sample pattern using coefficients of congruence (COC). Pattern correlates (sociodemographic, survey year, physical activity and eating related behaviours) were explored using multiple linear regression. Food group loadings were similar to the previously identified obesogenic dietary pattern and were generalisable across all sub-groups (COC: 0.93-0.99). An obesogenic diet was associated with eating takeaways, being omnivorous, a manual household occupation and lower household income in both adults and children ( p pattern could be used to monitor the effectiveness of obesity prevention policies or develop personalised interventions.

  17. Cohort profile: Ho Chi Minh City Youth Cohort--changes in diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and relationship with overweight/obesity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Nguyen Hoang Hanh Doan; Hong, Tang Kim; Dibley, Michael John

    2012-01-01

    The Ho Chi Minh Youth cohort study aimed to assess the change in nutritional status; indicators of adiposity; diet; physical activity and sedentary behaviours; home, neighbourhood and school microenvironments and their complex relationships in adolescents in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City. Prospective 5-year cohort. Systematic random sampling was used to select 18 schools in urban districts. Children were followed up over 5 years with an assessment in each year. Consent, from both adolescents and their parents, was required. At baseline, 759 students were recruited into the cohort, and of these students, 740 remained in the cohort for the first round, 712 for the second round, 630 for the third round and 585 for the last round of follow-up. Anthropometric measurements were taken using established guidelines. Six main groups of exposure factors including dietary intake and behaviours, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, family social and physical environment, school environment, socioeconomic status and parental characteristics were measured. Retention rate was high (77%). Within 5-year period, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity using International Obesity Task Force cut-off values increased from 14.2% to 21.8%. Time spent on physical activity decreased significantly in the 5-year period from 87 to 50 min/day. Time spent on sedentary behaviours increased in the 5-year period from 512 to 600 min/day. The complete data analysis of this cohort study will allow a full exploration of the role of environmental and lifestyle behaviours on adolescent overweight and obesity and also identify the factors most strongly associated with excess weight gain and the appearance of overweight and obesity in different age groups of adolescents from this large city in Vietnam.

  18. Diet and Physical Activity Interventions to Prevent or Treat Obesity in South Asian Children and Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Brown

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The metabolic risks associated with obesity are greater for South Asian populations compared with White or other ethnic groups, and levels of obesity in childhood are known to track into adulthood. Tackling obesity in South Asians is therefore a high priority. The rationale for this systematic review is the suggestion that there may be differential effectiveness in diet and physical activity interventions in South Asian populations compared with other ethnicities. The research territory of the present review is an emergent, rather than mature, field of enquiry, but is urgently needed. Thus the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of diet and physical activity interventions to prevent or treat obesity in South Asians living in or outside of South Asia and to describe the characteristics of effective interventions. Methods: Systematic review of any type of lifestyle intervention, of any length of follow-up that reported any anthropometric measure for children or adults of South Asian ethnicity. There was no restriction on the type of comparator; randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and before-after studies were included. A comprehensive search strategy was implemented in five electronic databases: ASSIA, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Embase, Medline and Social Sciences Citation Index. The search was limited to English language abstracts published between January 2006 and January 2014. References were screened; data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by two reviewers. Results are presented in narrative synthesis and meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included, seven children, 21 adult and one mixed age. No studies in children under six were identified. Sixteen studies were conducted in South Asia, ten in Europe and three in USA. Effective or promising trials include physical activity interventions in South Asian men in Norway

  19. Diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obesity in preschool children up to the age of 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jill L; Loveman, Emma; O'Malley, Claire; Azevedo, Liane B; Mead, Emma; Al-Khudairy, Lena; Ells, Louisa J; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rees, Karen

    2016-03-10

    Child overweight and obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with short- and long-term health consequences. To assess the effects of diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obesity in preschool children up to the age of 6 years. We performed a systematic literature search in the databases Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and LILACS, as well as in the trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP Search Portal. We also checked references of identified trials and systematic reviews. We applied no language restrictions. The date of the last search was March 2015 for all databases. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions for treating overweight or obesity in preschool children aged 0 to 6 years. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias, evaluated the overall quality of the evidence using the GRADE instrument, and extracted data following the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We contacted trial authors for additional information. We included 7 RCTs with a total of 923 participants: 529 randomised to an intervention and 394 to a comparator. The number of participants per trial ranged from 18 to 475. Six trials were parallel RCTs, and one was a cluster RCT. Two trials were three-arm trials, each comparing two interventions with a control group. The interventions and comparators in the trials varied. We categorised the comparisons into two groups: multicomponent interventions and dietary interventions. The overall quality of the evidence was low or very low, and six trials had a high risk of bias on individual 'Risk of bias' criteria. The children in the included trials were followed up for between six months and three years.In trials comparing a multicomponent intervention with usual care, enhanced usual care, or information control, we found a greater reduction in body mass index (BMI

  20. The diet, physical activity and accommodation of patients with quiescent pulmonary tuberculosis in a poor South Indian community. A four-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, C V; Rajendran, K; Mohan, K; Fox, W; Radhakrishna, S

    1966-01-01

    A previous report from the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras, has shown that, if standard chemotherapy is given for one year, the response of patients treated at home in very poor environmental circumstances is nearly as good as that of those treated in sanatorium under much more favourable conditions. This paper reports on a four-year follow-up of all the patients whose disease was bacteriologically quiescent at the end of the year's treatment. During this period, all the patients were managed on a domiciliary basis; about a quarter of them received chemotherapy with isoniazid alone for two years, another quarter received the drug for one year and the rest received no specific chemotherapy. Despite adverse environmental factors (poor diet; long hours of work often involving strenuous physical activity; overcrowded living conditions; and, for the sanatorium patients, the stresses of returning suddenly to the unfavourable home environment), the great majority of patients in both series maintained quiescent disease throughout the follow-up period. Furthermore, the few patients whose disease relapsed bacteriologically were at no special dietary disadvantage in comparison with those who maintained quiescent disease throughout, nor did they show any appreciable differences in occupation, physical activity or living accommodation. These findings, together with the earlier ones, indicate that, despite adverse environmental circumstances, standard chemotherapy for an adequate period of time is sufficient in the great majority of patients for the attainment of bacteriological quiescence and its maintenance thereafter.

  1. Educational inequalities in general and mental health: differential contribution of physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtze, Nanna; Eikemo, Terje A; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2013-04-01

    Behavioural, material and psychosocial risk factors may explain educational inequalities in general health. To what extent these risk factors have similar or different contributions to educational inequalities in mental health is unknown. Data were derived from the Norwegian Survey of Level of Living from 2005, comprising 5791 respondents aged ≥ 25 years. The study objectives were addressed by means of a series of logistic regression analyses in which we examined: (i) educational inequalities in self-reported general and mental health; (ii) the associations between behavioural, material and psychosocial risk factors and general and mental health, controlled for sex, age and education; and (iii) the contribution of risk factors to the observed health gradients. The lower educated were more likely to be in poor health [odds ratio (OR): 3.46 (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.84-4.21)] and to be in poor mental health [OR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.12-1.78)] than the highest educated. The joint contribution of behavioural, material and psychosocial risk factors explained all the variations of mental health inequalities, whereas these were able to explain ~40% of the inequalities in general health. Both behavioural and material risk factors contributed substantially to the explanation of general and mental health inequalities, whereas the psychosocial risk factor (i.e. having close persons to communicate with) only seemed to make a larger difference for the explanation of mental health inequalities. Policies and interventions to reduce health inequalities should have a broad focus. Combined strategies should be applied to improve physical activity, decrease smoking and improve material and psychosocial conditions among lower educated groups, to achieve the true potential of reducing inequalities in both general and mental health.

  2. Diet, physical activity and socio-economic disparities of obesity in Lebanese adults: findings from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamieh, Marie Claire; Moore, Helen J; Summerbell, Carolyn; Tamim, Hani; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Hwalla, Nahla

    2015-03-21

    The prevalence of obesity within countries varies by gender, age, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Identification of behavioural factors that are associated with obesity within the country's context is critical for the development of effective public health programs which aim to prevent and manage obesity. The objective of this study was to assess age and gender differentials in the prevalence of obesity in Lebanon and examine correlates of obesity with a focus on socioeconomic disparities. Following the WHO STEPwise guidelines, a national survey was conducted in Lebanon in 2008-2009. Households were selected randomly from all Governorates based on stratified cluster sampling method. One adult aged 20 years and over was randomly selected from each household for the interview. Anthropometric measurements and 24 hour recall dietary intake were obtained. The final sample included 1244 men and 1453 women. Descriptive statistics were computed for BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the relationship between energy intake and obesity adjusted for relevant co-variables. The prevalence of obesity among Lebanese adults was 26.1%. Gender differences in obesity estimates were observed across age groups and the three obesity classes, with men showing higher prevalence rates at the younger age groups (20-49 years), and women showing higher prevalence rates in older age groups (50 years and above). Obesity showed significant associations with socio-economic status in women; it decreased with higher educational attainment (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.91), greater household assets (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.72) and lower crowding index (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.98), net of the effect of other co-variates. There was a significant positive association between obesity and energy intake in both genders, and a negative association between obesity and physical activity, significantly

  3. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  4. Physical activity, diet and other behavioural interventions for improving cognition and school achievement in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Booth, Josephine N; Laird, Yvonne; Sproule, John; Reilly, John J; Saunders, David H

    2018-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is high. Lifestyle changes towards a healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced sedentary activities are recommended to prevent and treat obesity. Evidence suggests that changing these health behaviours can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children and adolescents in general. There are various theoretical mechanisms that suggest that children and adolescents with excessive body fat may benefit particularly from these interventions. Objectives To assess whether lifestyle interventions (in the areas of diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and behavioural therapy) improve school achievement, cognitive function (e.g. executive functions) and/or future success in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight, compared with standard care, waiting-list control, no treatment, or an attention placebo control group. Search methods In February 2017, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and 15 other databases. We also searched two trials registries, reference lists, and handsearched one journal from inception. We also contacted researchers in the field to obtain unpublished data. Selection criteria We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for weight management in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight. We excluded studies in children and adolescents with medical conditions known to affect weight status, school achievement and cognitive function. We also excluded self- and parent-reported outcomes. Data collection and analysis Four review authors independently selected studies for inclusion. Two review authors extracted data, assessed quality and risks of bias, and evaluated the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We contacted study authors to obtain additional information. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Where the same outcome was assessed across different

  5. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  6. Effects of physical form and stage of maturity at harvest of whole-crop barley silage on intake, chewing activity, diet selection and faecal particle size of dairy steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rustas, B.-O.; Nørgaard, Peder; Jalali, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of physical form and stage of maturity at harvest of whole-crop barley silage (WCBS) on feed intake, eating and rumination activity, diet selection and faecal particle size in dairy steers. Whole-crop barley was harvested and ensiled in round bales. Eight dairy ste...

  7. Is the intention-behaviour gap greater amongst the more deprived? A meta-analysis of five studies on physical activity, diet, and medication adherence in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Ng, Yin-Lam; Griffin, Simon J; Sutton, Stephen; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-02-01

    Unhealthy behaviour is more common amongst the deprived, thereby contributing to health inequalities. The evidence that the gap between intention and behaviour is greater amongst the more deprived is limited and inconsistent. We tested this hypothesis using objective and self-report measures of three behaviours, both individual- and area-level indices of socio-economic status, and pooling data from five studies. Secondary data analysis. Multiple linear regressions and meta-analyses of data on physical activity, diet, and medication adherence in smoking cessation from 2,511 participants. Across five studies, we found no evidence for an interaction between deprivation and intention in predicting objective or self-report measures of behaviour. Using objectively measured behaviour and area-level deprivation, meta-analyses suggested that the gap between self-efficacy and behaviour was greater amongst the more deprived (B = .17 [95% CI = 0.02, 0.31]). We find no compelling evidence to support the hypothesis that the intention-behaviour gap is greater amongst the more deprived. What is already known on this subject? Unhealthy behaviour is more common in those who are more deprived. This may reflect a larger gap between intentions and behaviour amongst the more deprived. The limited evidence to date testing this hypothesis is mixed. What does this study add? In the most robust study to date, combining results from five trials, we found no evidence for this explanation. The gap between intentions and behaviour did not vary with deprivation for the following: diet, physical activity, or medication adherence in smoking cessation. We did, however, find a larger gap between perceived control over behaviour (self-efficacy) and behaviour in those more deprived. These findings add to existing evidence to suggest that higher rates of unhealthier behaviour in more deprived groups may be reduced by the following: ◦ Strengthening behavioural control mechanisms (such as executive

  8. The combined impact of diet, physical activity, sleep and screen time on academic achievement: a prospective study of elementary school students in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin L; Ekwaru, John P; Gleddie, Douglas; Storey, Kate E; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-03-09

    Few studies have investigated the independent associations of lifestyle behaviors (diet, physical activity, sleep, and screen time) and body weight status with academic achievement. Even fewer have investigated the combined effect of these behaviors on academic achievement. We hypothesize that the combined effect of these behaviors will have a higher impact on academic achievement than any behavior alone, or that of body weight status. In 2011, 4253 grade 5 (10-11 years old) students and their parents were surveyed about the child's diet, physical activity, screen time and sleep. Students' heights and weights were measured by research assistants. Academic achievement was measured using provincial standardized exams in mathematics, reading and writing, and was expressed as 'meeting' or 'not meeting' expectations as per standardized criterion. Exams were written 1 year following the measurement of lifestyle behaviors. Lifestyle behaviors were measured with self- and parental proxy reports and expressed as meeting recommendations (yes/no) for each behavior. Mixed effects logistic regression models adjusting for demographic confounders and caloric intake were used to determine the independent and combined associations. Meeting dietary recommendations was associated with increased likelihood of meeting academic expectations for each of math, reading and writing. Meeting recommendations for screen time and sleep was associated with meeting expectations for writing. For all three subjects, meeting additional lifestyle behavior recommendations was associated with higher likelihood of meeting expectations. Children who met 7-9 lifestyle behavior recommendations had greater than three-times the odds of meeting expectations for reading compared to those who met 0-3 recommendations (OR: 3.07, 95% CI: 2.09, 4.51), and 1.47 and 2.77 times the odds of meeting expectations in mathematics and writing, respectively. Body weight status was not associated with academic achievement

  9. Design of a school randomized trial for nudging students towards healthy diet and physical activity to prevent obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Verly Junior, Eliseu; Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Araújo, Marina Campos; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Sgambato, Michele Ribeiro; de Souza, Bárbara da Silva Nalin; Marques, Emanuele Souza; Baltar, Valéria Troncoso; de Oliveira, Alessandra Silva Dias; da Silva, Ana Carolina Feldenheimer; Pérez-Cueto, Federico J.; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of nudge activities at school on the students’ body mass index (BMI). Design: School-based factorial randomized community trial. Setting: Eighteen public schools in the municipality of Duque de Caxias, metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Participants and intervention: The 18 schools will be randomized into 4 group arms: group 1—control (without any activity); group 2—will receive educational activities in the classroom; group 3—will receive changes in the school environment (nudge strategies); group 4—will receive educational activities and changes in the school environment. Activities will occur during the 2018 school-year. Main outcome measure(s): The primary (BMI) and secondary (body fat percentage) outcomes will be assessed at baseline and after the study using a portable electronic scale with a segmental body composition monitor. The height will be measured by a portable stadiometer. Analysis: Statistical analyses for each outcome will be conducted through linear mixed models that took into account the missing data and cluster effect of the schools. PMID:29390278

  10. Physical activity, diet and other behavioural interventions for improving cognition and school achievement in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Booth, Josephine N; Laird, Yvonne; Sproule, John; Reilly, John J; Saunders, David H

    2018-03-02

    The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is high. Lifestyle changes towards a healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced sedentary activities are recommended to prevent and treat obesity. Evidence suggests that changing these health behaviours can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children and adolescents in general. There are various theoretical mechanisms that suggest that children and adolescents with excessive body fat may benefit particularly from these interventions. To assess whether lifestyle interventions (in the areas of diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and behavioural therapy) improve school achievement, cognitive function (e.g. executive functions) and/or future success in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight, compared with standard care, waiting-list control, no treatment, or an attention placebo control group. In February 2017, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and 15 other databases. We also searched two trials registries, reference lists, and handsearched one journal from inception. We also contacted researchers in the field to obtain unpublished data. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for weight management in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight. We excluded studies in children and adolescents with medical conditions known to affect weight status, school achievement and cognitive function. We also excluded self- and parent-reported outcomes. Four review authors independently selected studies for inclusion. Two review authors extracted data, assessed quality and risks of bias, and evaluated the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We contacted study authors to obtain additional information. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Where the same outcome was assessed across different intervention types, we reported standardised effect sizes for findings from single

  11. Promoting a healthy diet and physical activity in adults with intellectual disabilities living in community residences: Design and evaluation of a cluster-randomized intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wihlman Ulla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adults with intellectual disabilities have poor dietary habits, low physical activity and weight disturbances. This study protocol describes the design and evaluation of a health intervention aiming to improve diet and physical activity in this target group. In Sweden, adults with intellectual disabilities often live in community residences where the staff has insufficient education regarding the special health needs of residents. No published lifestyle interventions have simultaneously targeted both residents and staff. Methods/Design The intervention is designed to suit the ordinary work routines of community residences. It is based on social cognitive theory and takes 12-15 months to complete. The intervention includes three components: 1 Ten health education sessions for residents in their homes; 2 the appointment of a health ambassador among the staff in each residence and formation of a network; and 3 a study circle for staff in each residence. The intervention is implemented by consultation with managers, training of health educators, and coaching of health ambassadors. Fidelity is assessed based on the participation of residents and staff in the intervention activities. The study design is a cluster-randomised trial with physical activity as primary outcome objectively assessed by pedometry. Secondary outcomes are dietary quality assessed by digital photography, measured weight, height and waist circumference, and quality of life assessed by a quality of life scale. Intermediate outcomes are changes in work routines in the residences assessed by a questionnaire to managers. Adults with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities living in community residences in Stockholm County are eligible for inclusion. Multilevel analysis is used to evaluate effects on primary and secondary outcomes. The impact of the intervention on work routines in community residences is analysed by ordinal regression analysis. Barriers and

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  16. Cardiometabolic syndrome and its association with education, smoking, diet, physical activity, and social support: findings from the Pennsylvania 2007 BRFSS Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longjian; Núñez, Ana E

    2010-07-01

    The authors aimed to examine the prevalence of cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) and its association with education, smoking, diet, physical activity, and social support among white, black, and Hispanic adults using data from the 2007 Pennsylvania Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, the largest population-based survey in the state. The authors examined associations between CMS and associated factors cross-sectionally using univariate and multivariate methods. The study included a representative sample of 12,629 noninstitutionalized Pennsylvanians aged > or =18. Components of CMS included obesity, hypercholesterolemia, angina (as a surrogate for decreased high-density lipoprotein), prehypertension or hypertension, and prediabetes or diabetes. CMS was identified as the presence of > or =3 CMS components. The results show that the prevalence of CMS was 20.48% in blacks, followed by Hispanics (19.14%) and whites (12.26%), (Psmoking, daily consumption of vegetables and/or fruits <3 servings, and lack of social support were significantly associated with the odds of having CMS. In conclusion, black and Hispanic adults have a significantly higher prevalence of CMS than whites. The significant association between CMS and risk factors provides new insights in the direction of health promotion to prevent and control CMS in those who are at high risk.

  17. Detailed methods of two home-based vegetable gardening intervention trials to improve diet, physical activity, and quality of life in two different populations of cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases, Mallory G; Frugé, Andrew D; De Los Santos, Jennifer F; Locher, Julie L; Cantor, Alan B; Smith, Kerry P; Glover, Tony A; Cohen, Harvey J; Daniel, Michael; Morrow, Casey D; Moellering, Douglas R; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-09-01

    Cancer survivors suffer from long-term adverse effects that reduce health-related quality of life (QOL) and physical functioning, creating an urgent need to develop effective, durable, and disseminable interventions. Harvest for Health, a home-based vegetable gardening intervention, holds promise for these domains. This report describes the methods and recruitment experiences from two randomized controlled feasibility trials that employ a waitlist-controlled design. Delivered in partnership with Cooperative Extension Master Gardeners, this intervention provides one-on-one mentorship of cancer survivors in planning and maintaining three seasonal vegetable gardens over 12months. The primary aim is to determine intervention feasibility and acceptability; secondary aims are to explore effects on objective and subjective measures of diet, physical activity and function, and QOL and examine participant factors associated with potential effects. One trial is conducted exclusively among 82 female breast cancer survivors residing in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area (BBCS); another broadly throughout Alabama among 46 older cancer survivors aged >60 (ASCS). Response rates were 32.6% (BBCS) and 52.3% (ASCS). Both trials exceeded 80% of their accrual target. Leading reasons for ineligibility were removal of >10 lymph nodes (lymphedema risk factor), lack of physician approval, and unwillingness to be randomized to the waitlist. To date, recruitment and implementation of Harvest for Health appears feasible. Although both studies encountered recruitment challenges, lessons learned can inform future larger-scale studies. Vegetable gardening interventions are of interest to cancer survivors and may provide opportunities to gain life skills leading to improvements in overall health and QOL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. What is the effect of diet and/or exercise interventions on behavioural compensation in non-exercise physical activity and related energy expenditure of free-living adults? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Analiza M; Júdice, Pedro B; Carraça, Eliana V; King, Neil; Teixeira, Pedro J; Sardinha, Luís B

    2018-06-01

    Non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) and/or non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) reductions may occur from diet and/or exercise-induced negative energy balance interventions, resulting in less-than-expected weight loss. This systematic review describes the effects of prescribed diet and/or physical activity (PA)/exercise on NEPA and/or NEAT in adults. Studies were identified from PubMed, web-of-knowledge, Embase, SPORTDiscus, ERIC and PsycINFO searches up to 1 March 2017. Eligibility criteria included randomised controlled trials (RCT), randomised trials (RT) and non-randomised trials (NRT); objective measures of PA and energy expenditure; data on NEPA, NEAT and spontaneous PA; ≥10 healthy male/female aged>18 years; and ≥7 d length. The trial is registered at PROSPERO-2017-CRD42017052635. In all, thirty-six articles (RCT-10, RT-9, NRT-17) with a total of seventy intervention arms (diet, exercise, combined diet/exercise), with a total of 1561 participants, were included. Compensation was observed in twenty-six out of seventy intervention arms (fifteen studies out of thirty-six reporting declines in NEAT (eight), NEPA (four) or both (three)) representing 63, 27 and 23 % of diet-only, combined diet/exercise, and exercise-only intervention arms, respectively. Weight loss observed in participants who decreased NEAT was double the weight loss found in those who did not compensate, suggesting that the energy imbalance degree may lead to energy conservation. Although these findings do not support the hypothesis that prescribed diet and/or exercise results in decreased NEAT and NEPA in healthy adults, the underpowered trial design and the lack of state-of-the-art methods may limit these conclusions. Future studies should explore the impact of weight-loss magnitude, energetic restriction degree, exercise dose and participant characteristics on NEAT and/or NEPA.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ... Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a DFCN Promotion ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  2. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  3. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  4. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  5. Blender Bikes: Blending Nutrition and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Theresa M.; Smathers, Carol A.

    2018-01-01

    Many Americans do not meet the recommendations for diet and physical activity. A blender bike can be an effective tool when coupled with hands-on activities that reinforce health recommendations. We created "Blending Nutrition and Physical Activity: An Activity Guide for Use with Blender Bikes" to use when incorporating a blender bike…

  6. Clustering of diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Australian children: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, R M; McNaughton, S A; Timperio, A

    2015-07-01

    Evidence suggests diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour cluster together in children, but research supporting an association with overweight/obesity is equivocal. Furthermore, the stability of clusters over time is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the clustering of diet, PA and sedentary behaviour in Australian children and cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with overweight/obesity. Stability of obesity-related clusters over 3 years was also examined. Data were drawn from the baseline (T1: 2002/2003) and follow-up waves (T2: 2005/2006) of the Health Eating and Play Study. Parents of Australian children aged 5-6 (n=87) and 10-12 years (n=123) completed questionnaires. Children wore accelerometers and height and weight were measured. Obesity-related clusters were determined using K-medians cluster analysis. Multivariate regression models assessed cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between cluster membership, and body mass index (BMI) Z-score and weight status. Kappa statistics assessed cluster stability over time. Three clusters, labelled 'most healthy', 'energy-dense (ED) consumers who watch TV' and 'high sedentary behaviour/low moderate-to-vigorous PA' were identified at baseline and at follow-up. No cross-sectional associations were found between cluster membership, and BMI Z-score or weight status at baseline. Longitudinally, children in the 'ED consumers who watch TV' cluster had a higher odds of being overweight/obese at follow-up (odds ratio=2.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 6.9; P<0.05). Tracking of cluster membership was fair to moderate in younger (K=0.24; P=0.0001) and older children (K=0.46; P<0.0001). This study identified an unhealthy cluster of TV viewing with ED food/drink consumption, which predicted overweight/obesity in a small longitudinal sample of Australian children. Cluster stability was fair to moderate over 3 years and is a novel finding. Prospective research in larger samples is needed to

  7. Physical activity and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...

  8. Incidence of myocardial infarction among Swedish and immigrant smoking women: can physical activity modify the risk? An epidemiological study on the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Raj Kumar; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Janzon, Ellis

    2013-11-01

    Sweden has shown a decreasing tendency in the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), except among middle-aged women. The incidence among middle-aged immigrant women is less explored. To determine if foreign-born women have a higher risk of MI as compared to women born in Sweden. Furthermore, to examine if physical activity (PA) modifies the risk of MI regardless of immigration status and smoking habits. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study was used for analyses. A total of 16,776 women aged 45-73 years participated. The mean follow-up time was 13.8±4 years. Mean age was 57.4±7.9 years. No difference was found in incidence of MI between Swedish and immigrant women (p=0.72). For current smokers among Swedish women, the relative risk (RR) with no/low PA was 2.93 (95% CI 2.07-4.14) and with moderate/high PA, the RR was 2.21 (95% CI 1.61-3.03) with no/low PA-never smoker as the reference group. Among immigrant smoking women, the RR with no/low PA was 4.56 (95% CI 1.62-12.8) and with moderate/high PA, the RR was 3.27 (95% CI 1.21-8.84) with no/low PA-never smoker as the reference group. PA reduces the risk of MI in non-smokers as well as in smokers, regardless of immigration status. Furthermore, PA was even more beneficial for women born outside Sweden. Against this background, immigrant women ought to get special consideration and attention from both caregivers and public health workers.

  9. Development and implementation of a lifestyle intervention to promote physical activity and healthy diet in the Dutch general practice setting: the BeweegKuur programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of patients with diabetes is increasing. BeweegKuur (Dutch for 'Exercise Therapy' is a Dutch lifestyle intervention which aims to effectively and feasibly promote physical activity and better dietary behaviour in primary health care to prevent diabetes. Methods The goal of this paper is to present the development process and the contents of the intervention, using a model of systematic health promotion planning. The intervention consists of a 1-year programme for diabetic and prediabetic patients. Patients are referred by their general practitioner (GP to a lifestyle advisor (LSA, usually the practice nurse or a physiotherapist. Based on specific inclusion criteria and in close collaboration with the patient, an individual exercise programme is designed and supervised by the LSA. This programme can be attended at existing local exercise facilities or (temporarily under the supervision of a specialized exercise coach or physiotherapist. All participants are also referred to a dietician and receive diet-related group education. In the first pilot year (2008, the BeweegKuur programme was implemented in 7 regions in the Netherlands (19 GP practices and health centres, while 14 regions (41 GP practices and health centres participated during the second year. The aim is to implement BeweegKuur in all regions of the Netherlands by 2012. Discussion The BeweegKuur programme was systematically developed in an evidence- and practice-based process. Formative monitoring studies and (controlled effectiveness studies are needed to examine the diffusion process and the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention.

  10. Intervention dose estimation in health promotion programmes: a framework and a tool. Application to the diet and physical activity promotion PRALIMAP trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legrand Karine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the outcomes of health promotion and prevention programmes may depend on the level of intervention, studies and trials often fail to take it into account. The objective of this work was to develop a framework within which to consider the implementation of interventions, and to propose a tool with which to measure the quantity and the quality of activities, whether planned or not, relevant to the intervention under investigation. The framework and the tool were applied to data from the diet and physical activity promotion PRALIMAP trial. Methods A framework allowing for calculation of an intervention dose in any health promotion programme was developed. A literature reviews revealed several relevant concepts that were considered in greater detail by a multidisciplinary working group. A method was devised with which to calculate the dose of intervention planned and that is actually received (programme-driven activities dose, as well as the amount of non-planned intervention (non-programme-driven activities dose. Results Indicators cover the roles of all those involved (supervisors, anchor personnel as receivers and providers, targets, in each intervention-related groups (IRG: basic setting in which a given intervention is planned by the programme and may differ in implementation level and for every intervention period. All indicators are described according to two domains (delivery, participation in two declensions (quantity and quality. Application to PRALIMAP data revealed important inter- and intra-IRG variability in intervention dose. Conclusions A literature analysis shows that the terminology in this area is not yet consolidated and that research is ongoing. The present work provides a methodological framework by specifying concepts, by defining new constructs and by developing multiple information synthesis methods which must be introduced from the programme's conception. Application to PRALIMAP underlined the

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  13. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Activity Calendar Activity Information Sheets I Heard Hurdle ... Links Sleep Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Physical Activity Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Lurking in ...

  14. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  15. Diet, physical activity or both for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Gimenez-Perez, Gabriel; Mauricio, Didac; Roqué I Figuls, Marta; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Richter, Bernd

    2017-12-04

    The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether diet, physical activity or both can prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in at-risk people is unknown. To assess the effects of diet, physical activity or both on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing T2DM. This is an update of the Cochrane Review published in 2008. We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, ICTRP Search Portal and reference lists of systematic reviews, articles and health technology assessment reports. The date of the last search of all databases was January 2017. We continuously used a MEDLINE email alert service to identify newly published studies using the same search strategy as described for MEDLINE up to September 2017. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a duration of two years or more. We used standard Cochrane methodology for data collection and analysis. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence using GRADE. We included 12 RCTs randomising 5238 people. One trial contributed 41% of all participants. The duration of the interventions varied from two to six years. We judged none of the included trials at low risk of bias for all 'Risk of bias' domains.Eleven trials compared diet plus physical activity with standard or no treatment. Nine RCTs included participants with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), one RCT included participants with IGT, impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG) or both, and one RCT included people with fasting glucose levels between 5.3 to 6.9 mmol/L. A total of 12 deaths occurred in 2049 participants in the diet plus physical activity groups compared with 10 in 2050 participants in the comparator groups (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.50 to 2.50; 95% prediction interval 0.44 to 2.88; 4099 participants, 10 trials; very low-quality evidence). The definition of T2DM incidence

  16. Study protocol: Differential effects of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes - individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis and health economic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruifrok, Anneloes E; Rogozinska, Ewelina; van Poppel, Mireille N M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women who gain excess weight are at risk of complications during pregnancy and in the long term. Interventions based on diet and physical activity minimise gestational weight gain with varied effect on clinical outcomes. The effect of interventions on varied groups of women...... and pregnancy outcomes in clinically relevant subgroups of women. METHODS/DESIGN: Randomised trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy will be identified by searching the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, LILACS, Pascal, Science Citation Index, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews......, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database. Primary researchers of the identified trials are invited to join the International Weight Management in Pregnancy Collaborative Network and share their individual patient...

  17. Economic Evaluation of Combined Diet and Physical Activity Promotion Programs to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Among Persons at Increased Risk: A Systematic Review for the Community Preventive Services Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Qu, Shuli; Zhang, Ping; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Gregg, Edward W.; Albright, Ann; Hopkins, David; Pronk, Nicolaas P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a highly prevalent and costly disease. Studies indicate that combined diet and physical activity promotion programs can prevent type 2 diabetes among persons at increased risk. Purpose To systematically evaluate the evidence on cost, cost-effectiveness, and cost-benefit estimates of diet and physical activity promotion programs. Data Sources Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, EconLit, and CINAHL through 7 April 2015. Study Selection English-language studies from high-income countries that provided data on cost, cost-effectiveness, or cost-benefit ratios of diet and physical activity promotion programs with at least 2 sessions over at least 3 months delivered to persons at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Data Extraction Dual abstraction and assessment of relevant study details. Data Synthesis Twenty-eight studies were included. Costs were expressed in 2013 U.S. dollars. The median program cost per participant was $653. Costs were lower for group-based programs (median, $417) and programs implemented in community or primary care settings (median, $424) than for the U.S. DPP (Diabetes Prevention Program) trial and the DPP Outcomes Study ($5881). Twenty-two studies assessed the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of the programs. From a health system perspective, 16 studies reported a median ICER of $13 761 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) saved. Group-based programs were more cost-effective (median, $1819 per QALY) than those that used individual sessions (median, $15 846 per QALY). No cost-benefit studies were identified. Limitation Information on recruitment costs and cost-effectiveness of translational programs implemented in community and primary care settings was limited. Conclusion Diet and physical activity promotion programs to prevent type 2 diabetes are cost-effective among persons at increased risk. Costs are lower when programs are delivered to groups in community

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  20. No additional effect of different types of physical activity on 10-hour muscle protein synthesis in elderly men on a controlled energy- and protein-sufficient diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, Jacob; Agergaard, Jakob; Kjær, Michael

    2016-01-01

    protein synthesis (MPS) are less investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of daily physical activities upon MPS in elderly individuals. Methods: A total of 24 elderly men (70 +/- 1 year) were recruited and randomly assigned: inactivity in form of bed-rest (IA), daily physical......-hour myofibrillar protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR), and typical prerequisites for calculating FSR were fulfilled. Physical activities were monitored, and venous blood and muscle biopsies collected. Results: Physical activity was highest in the DA compared to both the IA and RE groups. Nutrient...... activities (DA), or heavy resistance exercise (RE). All groups undertook a normal eating routine containing carbohydrates (52 E%), fat (32 E%), and protein (16 E%). Ingestion of labeled milk protein ([1-C-13] leucine-labeled whey and caseinate) served to maintain tracer enrichment for determination of 10...

  1. Study protocol for "Moving Bright, Eating Smart"- A phase 2 clinical trial on the acceptability and feasibility of a diet and physical activity intervention to prevent recurrence in colorectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Judy W C; Lee, Antoinette M; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Fong, Daniel Y T; Leung, Sharron; Cerin, Ester; Chan, Wynnie Y Y; Leung, Ivy P F; Lam, Sharon H S; Taylor, Aliki J; Cheng, Kar-keung

    2013-05-20

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer and cancer-killer in Hong Kong with an alarming increasing incidence in recent years. The latest World Cancer Research Fund report concluded that foods low in fibre, and high in red and processed meat cause colorectal cancer whereas physical activity protects against colon cancer. Yet, the influence of these lifestyle factors on cancer outcome is largely unknown even though cancer survivors are eager for lifestyle modifications. Observational studies suggested that low intake of a Western-pattern diet and high physical activity level reduced colorectal cancer mortality. The Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Health Action Process Approach have guided the design of intervention models targeting a wide range of health-related behaviours. We aim to demonstrate the feasibility of two behavioural interventions intended to improve colorectal cancer outcome and which are designed to increase physical activity level and reduce consumption of a Western-pattern diet. This three year study will be a multicentre, randomised controlled trial in a 2x2 factorial design comparing the "Moving Bright, Eating Smart" (physical activity and diet) programme against usual care. Subjects will be recruited over a 12-month period, undertake intervention for 12 months and followed up for a further 12 months. Baseline, interim and three post-intervention assessments will be conducted.Two hundred and twenty-two colorectal cancer patients who completed curative treatment without evidence of recurrence will be recruited into the study. Primary outcome measure will be whether physical activity and dietary targets are met at the end of the 12-month intervention. Secondary outcome measures include the magnitude and mechanism of behavioural change, the degree and determinants of compliance, and the additional health benefits and side effects of the intervention. The results of this study will establish the feasibility of targeting the two

  2. Physical activity in different periods of life, sedentary behavior, and the risk of ovarian cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qian; Yang, Hannah P; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Hollenbeck, Albert; Matthews, Charles E

    2013-11-01

    Physical activity and sedentary behavior may influence ovarian cancer risk, but clear evidence is lacking. We prospectively investigated the relations of self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior to ovarian cancer incidence in a cohort of 148,892 U.S. women ages 50-71 years at baseline (1995-1996), who were followed through 2006. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We also conducted analysis by hormone use, body mass index (BMI), and cancer subtype. We identified 753 incident epithelial ovarian cancers. Overall, neither physical activity nor sedentary behavior at baseline was associated with ovarian cancer risk. Compared with women who never or rarely engaged in vigorous physical activity in the past year, women who reported more than 5 times/week of vigorous physical activity had an RR of 1.05 (95% CI, 0.84-1.32). Women who sat 7+ hours/day had an RR of 1.05 (95% CI, 0.80-1.37) compared with those reporting sedentary behavior in middle and older ages were not associated with ovarian cancer risk. We found no clear support for a role of physical activity and sedentary behavior in ovarian cancer risk. ©2013 AACR.

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ...

  10. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  11. Physical Activity for Health and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Khoo, Selina; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The aging process is commonly associated with declines in health, cognitive function and well-being. However, lifestyle factors like diet, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity were repeatedly highlighted as predictors of a healthy aging process. However, recent research has shown that physical activity is the strongest predictor of health in older adults. Recent studies have confirmed the strong effect of physical activity on cardiovascular, metabolic, mu...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  13. Weight Status in US Youth: The Role of Activity, Diet, and Sedentary Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Tasha; Velasco Mondragon, H. Eduardo; Rohm-Young, Deborah; Bronner, Yvonne; Hossain, Mian B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess associations of physical activity, diet, and sedentary behaviors with overweight and obesity. Methods: Analyses of the NHANES 2003-06 were conducted among 2368 US adolescents, ages 12-19. Self-reported diet and sedentary behavior measures were used; physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Results:…

  14. Physical activity and lifestyle modification in the reduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... of cardiovascular disease and decreasing risk factors is to change unhealthy lifestyle habits. Due to the ... diet, blood pressure, hypokinetic disease, physical activity, and stress levels.

  15. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  16. The effect of an online video intervention ‘Movie Models’ on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to children’s physical activity, screen-time and healthy diet: a quasi experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Lepeleere

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In children, being sufficiently physically active, having low levels of screen-time and having a healthy diet are largely influenced by parenting practices. Children of parents applying positive parenting practices are at lower risk for overweight and obesity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a health promoting online video intervention for parents (‘Movie Models’ on children’s physical activity (PA, screen-time and healthy diet, and on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to these parenting practices. The online videos are delivered to parents of primary schoolchildren, and were based on real-life scenarios. Methods A two-armed, quasi experimental design was used. Parents of primary schoolchildren were recruited between November and December 2013 by spreading an appeal in social media, and by contacting primary schools. Participating parents were predominantly of high socio-economic status (SES (83.1%, and only 6.8% of children were overweight/obese. Intervention group participants were invited to watch online videos for 4 weeks. Specific parenting practices, parental self-efficacy, PA, screen-time and healthy diet of the child were assessed at baseline (T0, at one (T1 and at four (T2 months post baseline. Repeated Measures (Multivariate ANOVAs were used to examine intervention effects. The potential moderating effect of age and gender of the child and parental SES was also examined. Results Between T0 and T2, no significant intervention effects were found on children’s PA, screen-time or healthy diet. Most significant intervention effects were found for more complex parenting practices (e.g., an increase in motivating the child to eat fruit. Subgroup analyses showed that the intervention had more effect on the actual parenting practices related to PA, screen-time and healthy diet in parents of older children (10–12 years old, whereas intervention effects on parental self

  17. The effect of an online video intervention 'Movie Models' on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to children's physical activity, screen-time and healthy diet: a quasi experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lepeleere, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Verloigne, Maïté

    2017-04-27

    In children, being sufficiently physically active, having low levels of screen-time and having a healthy diet are largely influenced by parenting practices. Children of parents applying positive parenting practices are at lower risk for overweight and obesity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a health promoting online video intervention for parents ('Movie Models') on children's physical activity (PA), screen-time and healthy diet, and on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to these parenting practices. The online videos are delivered to parents of primary schoolchildren, and were based on real-life scenarios. A two-armed, quasi experimental design was used. Parents of primary schoolchildren were recruited between November and December 2013 by spreading an appeal in social media, and by contacting primary schools. Participating parents were predominantly of high socio-economic status (SES) (83.1%), and only 6.8% of children were overweight/obese. Intervention group participants were invited to watch online videos for 4 weeks. Specific parenting practices, parental self-efficacy, PA, screen-time and healthy diet of the child were assessed at baseline (T0), at one (T1) and at four (T2) months post baseline. Repeated Measures (Multivariate) ANOVAs were used to examine intervention effects. The potential moderating effect of age and gender of the child and parental SES was also examined. Between T0 and T2, no significant intervention effects were found on children's PA, screen-time or healthy diet. Most significant intervention effects were found for more complex parenting practices (e.g., an increase in motivating the child to eat fruit). Subgroup analyses showed that the intervention had more effect on the actual parenting practices related to PA, screen-time and healthy diet in parents of older children (10-12 years old), whereas intervention effects on parental self-efficacy related to those behaviors were stronger in parents of

  18. Moderators of Intervention Dose Effects on Diet Quality and Physical Activity Changes in a Church-Based, Multicomponent, Lifestyle Study: Delta Body and Soul III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J. L.; Zoellner, J. M.; Tussing-Humphreys, L. M.; Goodman, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participants' dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential effects observed, but are not often reported. Hence,…

  19. The role of body mass index, physical activity, and diet in colorectal cancer recurrence and survival: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Kampman, E.

    2010-01-01

    The role of dietary and other lifestyle factors in colorectal cancer recurrence and survival is largely unknown. We conducted a review to summarize the evidence from epidemiologic studies that examined the association of body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and nutrition with colorectal cancer

  20. The effectiveness of smoking cessation, physical activity/diet and alcohol reduction interventions delivered by mobile phones for the prevention of non-communicable diseases: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Palmer

    Full Text Available We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation, physical activity (PA, diet, and alcohol reduction interventions delivered by mobile technology to prevent non-communicable diseases (NCDs.We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs of mobile-based NCD prevention interventions using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL (Jan 1990-Jan 2016. Two authors extracted data.71 trials were included: smoking cessation (n = 18; PA (n = 15, diet (n = 3, PA and diet (n = 25; PA, diet, and smoking cessation (n = 2; and harmful alcohol consumption (n = 8. 4 trials had low risk of bias. The effect of SMS-based smoking cessation support on biochemically verified continuous abstinence was pooled relative risk [RR] 2.19 [95% CI 1.80-2.68], I2 = 0% and on verified 7 day point prevalence of smoking cessation was pooled RR 1.51 [95% CI 1.06-2.15], I2 = 0%, with no reported adverse events. There was no difference in peak oxygen intake at 3 months in a trial of an SMS-based PA intervention. The effect of SMS-based diet and PA interventions on: incidence of diabetes was pooled RR 0.67 [95% CI 0.49, 0.90], I2 = 0.0%; end-point weight was pooled MD -0.99Kg [95% CI -3.63, 1.64] I2 = 29.4%; % change in weight was pooled MD -3.1 [95%CI -4.86- -1.3] I2 0.3%; and on triglyceride levels was pooled MD -0.19 mmol/L [95% CI -0.29, -0.08], I2 = 0.0%. The results of other pooled analyses of the effect of SMS-based diet and PA interventions were heterogenous (I2 59-90%. The effects of alcohol reduction interventions were inconclusive.Smoking cessation support delivered by SMS increases quitting rates. Trials of PA interventions reporting outcomes ≥3 months showed no benefits. There were at best modest benefits of diet and PA interventions. The effects of the most promising SMS-based smoking, diet and PA interventions on morbidity and mortality in high-risk groups should be established in adequately powered RCTs.

  1. The effectiveness of smoking cessation, physical activity/diet and alcohol reduction interventions delivered by mobile phones for the prevention of non-communicable diseases: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Melissa; Sutherland, Jennifer; Barnard, Sharmani; Wynne, Aileen; Rezel, Emma; Doel, Andrew; Grigsby-Duffy, Lily; Edwards, Suzanne; Russell, Sophie; Hotopf, Ellie; Perel, Pablo; Free, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation, physical activity (PA), diet, and alcohol reduction interventions delivered by mobile technology to prevent non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mobile-based NCD prevention interventions using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL (Jan 1990-Jan 2016). Two authors extracted data. 71 trials were included: smoking cessation (n = 18); PA (n = 15), diet (n = 3), PA and diet (n = 25); PA, diet, and smoking cessation (n = 2); and harmful alcohol consumption (n = 8). 4 trials had low risk of bias. The effect of SMS-based smoking cessation support on biochemically verified continuous abstinence was pooled relative risk [RR] 2.19 [95% CI 1.80-2.68], I2 = 0%) and on verified 7 day point prevalence of smoking cessation was pooled RR 1.51 [95% CI 1.06-2.15], I2 = 0%, with no reported adverse events. There was no difference in peak oxygen intake at 3 months in a trial of an SMS-based PA intervention. The effect of SMS-based diet and PA interventions on: incidence of diabetes was pooled RR 0.67 [95% CI 0.49, 0.90], I2 = 0.0%; end-point weight was pooled MD -0.99Kg [95% CI -3.63, 1.64] I2 = 29.4%; % change in weight was pooled MD -3.1 [95%CI -4.86- -1.3] I2 0.3%; and on triglyceride levels was pooled MD -0.19 mmol/L [95% CI -0.29, -0.08], I2 = 0.0%. The results of other pooled analyses of the effect of SMS-based diet and PA interventions were heterogenous (I2 59-90%). The effects of alcohol reduction interventions were inconclusive. Smoking cessation support delivered by SMS increases quitting rates. Trials of PA interventions reporting outcomes ≥3 months showed no benefits. There were at best modest benefits of diet and PA interventions. The effects of the most promising SMS-based smoking, diet and PA interventions on morbidity and mortality in high-risk groups should be established in adequately powered RCTs.

  2. The effectiveness of smoking cessation, physical activity/diet and alcohol reduction interventions delivered by mobile phones for the prevention of non-communicable diseases: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jennifer; Barnard, Sharmani; Wynne, Aileen; Rezel, Emma; Doel, Andrew; Grigsby-Duffy, Lily; Edwards, Suzanne; Russell, Sophie; Hotopf, Ellie; Perel, Pablo; Free, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    Background We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation, physical activity (PA), diet, and alcohol reduction interventions delivered by mobile technology to prevent non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mobile-based NCD prevention interventions using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, CINAHL (Jan 1990–Jan 2016). Two authors extracted data. Findings 71 trials were included: smoking cessation (n = 18); PA (n = 15), diet (n = 3), PA and diet (n = 25); PA, diet, and smoking cessation (n = 2); and harmful alcohol consumption (n = 8). 4 trials had low risk of bias. The effect of SMS-based smoking cessation support on biochemically verified continuous abstinence was pooled relative risk [RR] 2.19 [95% CI 1.80–2.68], I2 = 0%) and on verified 7 day point prevalence of smoking cessation was pooled RR 1.51 [95% CI 1.06–2.15], I2 = 0%, with no reported adverse events. There was no difference in peak oxygen intake at 3 months in a trial of an SMS-based PA intervention. The effect of SMS-based diet and PA interventions on: incidence of diabetes was pooled RR 0.67 [95% CI 0.49, 0.90], I2 = 0.0%; end-point weight was pooled MD -0.99Kg [95% CI -3.63, 1.64] I2 = 29.4%; % change in weight was pooled MD -3.1 [95%CI -4.86- -1.3] I2 0.3%; and on triglyceride levels was pooled MD -0.19 mmol/L [95% CI -0.29, -0.08], I2 = 0.0%. The results of other pooled analyses of the effect of SMS-based diet and PA interventions were heterogenous (I2 59–90%). The effects of alcohol reduction interventions were inconclusive. Conclusions Smoking cessation support delivered by SMS increases quitting rates. Trials of PA interventions reporting outcomes ≥3 months showed no benefits. There were at best modest benefits of diet and PA interventions. The effects of the most promising SMS-based smoking, diet and PA interventions on morbidity and mortality in high-risk groups should be established in adequately

  3. Combined influence of healthy diet and active lifestyle on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Labayen, I; Jago, R; Martínez-Gómez, D; Dallongeville, J; Bel-Serrat, S; Marcos, A; Manios, Y; Breidenassel, C; Widhalm, K; Gottrand, F; Ferrari, M; Kafatos, A; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the combined influence of diet quality and physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, adolescents (n = 1513; 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study were studied. Dietary intake was registered using a 24-h recall and a diet quality index was calculated. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. Lifestyle groups were computed as: healthy diet and active, unhealthy diet but active, healthy diet but inactive, and unhealthy diet and inactive. CVD risk factor measurements included cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity indicators, blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and insulin resistance. A CVD risk score was computed. The healthy diet and active group had a healthier cardiorespiratory profile, fat mass index (FMI), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio (all P ≤ 0.05). Overall, active adolescents showed higher cardiorespiratory fitness, lower FMI, TC/HDL-C ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index and healthier blood pressure than their inactive peers with either healthy or unhealthy diet (all P ≤ 0.05). Healthy diet and active group had healthier CVD risk score compared with the inactive groups (all P ≤ 0.02). Thus, a combination of healthy diet and active lifestyle is associated with decreased CVD risk in adolescents. Moreover, an active lifestyle may reduce the adverse consequences of an unhealthy diet. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Contemporary physical activities

    OpenAIRE

    Tainio, Matti

    2018-01-01

    The customary view of today’s recreational physical activities turns the human movement into a rational practice that is pursued for practical reasons only: for health, vitality, stamina and longevity. This prevalent point of view affects the understanding of the ends, content and quality of physical activities and it creates a bias where the biological, physiological and medical characteristics of physical activities are emphasized while the sensuous, experiential and creative aspects are su...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram ...

  7. Urban rural differences in diet, physical activity and obesity in India: are we witnessing the great Indian equalisation? Results from a cross-sectional STEPS survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising morbidity and mortality due to non-communicable diseases can be partly attributed to the urbanized lifestyle leading to unhealthy dietary practices and increasing physical levels of inactivity. The demographic and nutrition transition in India has also contributed to the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases in this country. In this context, there is limited information in India on dietary patterns, levels of physical activity and obesity. The aim of the present study was thus to assess the urban rural differences in dietary habits, physical activity and obesity in India. Methods A household survey was done in the state of Punjab, India in a multistage stratified sample of 5127 individuals using the WHO STEPS questionnaire. Results No rural urban difference was found in dietary practices and prevalence of overweight and obesity except the fact that a significantly higher proportion of respondents belonging to rural area (15.6 % always/often add salt before/when eating as compared to urban area (9.1 %. Overall 95.8 % (94.6–97.0 of participants took less than 5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables on average per day. No significant urban rural difference was noted in both sexes in all three domains of physical activity such as work, transport and recreation. However, rural females (19.1 % were found to be engaged in vigorous activity more than the urban females (6.3 %. Males reported high levels of physical activity in both the settings. Absence of recreational activity was reported by more than 95 % of the subjects. Higher prevalence of obesity (asian cut offs used was seen among urban females (34.3 % as compared to their rural counterparts (23.2 %. Abdominal obesity was found to be significantly higher among females in both the settings compared to males (p < 0.001. Conclusions Poor dietary practices and physical inactivity seems to fuel the non-communicable disease epidemic in India. Non

  8. Cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance is not associated with decreased insulin signaling or AMPK activity and is alleviated by physical training in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; De Bock, Katrien; Richter, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Excess energy intake via a palatable low-fat diet (cafeteria diet) is known to induce obesity and glucose intolerance in rats. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this adaptation are not known, and it is also not known whether exercise training can reverse it. Male Wistar rats were assigned...... to 12-wk intervention groups: chow-fed controls (CON), cafeteria diet (CAF), and cafeteria diet plus swimming exercise during the last 4 wk (CAF(TR)). CAF feeding led to increased body weight (16%, P ...) among the groups. In conclusion, surplus energy intake of a palatable but low-fat cafeteria diet resulted in obesity and insulin resistance that was rescued by exercise training. Interestingly, insulin resistance was not accompanied by major defects in the insulin-signaling cascade or in altered AMPK...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity ... Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example ... Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  12. Short-Term Effectiveness of a Mobile Phone App for Increasing Physical Activity and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial (EVIDENT II Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Martin-Cantera, Carlos; González-Viejo, Mª Natividad; Fernandez-Alonso, Mª Del Carmen; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, Maria Soledad; Schmolling-Guinovart, Yolanda; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose-Angel; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-12-19

    The use of mobile phone apps for improving lifestyles has become generalized in the population, although little is still known about their effectiveness in improving health. We evaluate the effect of adding an app to standard counseling on increased physical activity (PA) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, 3 months after implementation. A randomized, multicenter clinical trial was carried out. A total of 833 participants were recruited in six primary care centers in Spain through random sampling: 415 in the app+counseling group and 418 in the counseling only group. Counseling on PA and the Mediterranean diet was given to both groups. The app+counseling participants additionally received training in the use of an app designed to promote PA and the Mediterranean diet over a 3-month period. PA was measured with the 7-day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) questionnaire and an accelerometer; adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener questionnaire. Participants were predominantly female in both the app+counseling (249/415, 60.0%) and counseling only (268/418, 64.1%) groups, with a mean age of 51.4 (SD 12.1) and 52.3 (SD 12.0) years, respectively. Leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by 7-day PAR increased in the app+counseling (mean 29, 95% CI 5-53 min/week; P=.02) but not in the counseling only group (mean 17.4, 95% CI -18 to 53 min/week; P=.38). No differences in increase of activity were found between the two groups. The accelerometer recorded a decrease in PA after 3 months in both groups: MVPA mean -55.3 (95% CI -75.8 to -34.9) min/week in app+counseling group and mean -30.1 (95% CI -51.8 to -8.4) min/week in counseling only group. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet increased in both groups (8.4% in app+counseling and 10.4% in counseling only group), with an increase in score of 0.42 and 0.53 points, respectively (Pincreased more in the app+counseling than counseling only group

  13. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical

  14. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  15. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  16. Children's recreational physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored children's participation in recreational (physical) activities and the extent to which this participation was influenced by individual and household socio-demographics and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Travel and activity diaries were used to collect

  17. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  18. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....

  19. Riverina men's study: a preliminary exploration of the diet, alcohol use and physical activity behaviours and attitudes of rural men in two Australian New South Wales electorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, G M; Craig, P; Black, D; Sutherland, D

    2008-01-01

    Discourses around men's health refer to greater risk-taking behaviour, the social construct of masculinity and differences between men's and women's rates of death and disease. These ways of describing 'men's health' may be inadequate, but many men, particularly rural men, experience health disadvantage. To determine the reported eating, drinking and exercise behaviours of rural men and relationships between reported behaviours and attitudes to health and body image, age and occupation. A written postal survey was used to collect demographic data, eating behaviours using the Food Habit Score, alcohol use, physical activity behaviours using an adaptation of the Pilot Study of the Fitness of Australians and attitudes to health and body image. The survey was sent to 2000 randomly selected men in two New South Wales Riverina federal electorates in June 2004, with 529 returns (27% response). Food Habit Scores; regularity of physical activity; frequency and amount of alcohol use; degree of agreement with statements about attitudes to health and body image. Descriptive statistics using frequencies and cross tabulations were performed with further univariate analyses conducted at a level of significance of 5%. Approximately one-third of the men achieved a poor Food Habit Score (rate (27%) limits the ability to generalise these results to the whole male population in the Farrer and Riverina federal electorates. This study describes the eating and physical activity behaviours of a sample of rural men and highlights the attitudes that are associated with poor lifestyle behaviours among this hard to reach group. Health promotion programs targeting men, especially rural men, should address existing attitudes to health which may impact on lifestyle behaviours.

  20. School-based intervention to enable school children to act as change agents on weight, physical activity and diet of their mothers: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Nalika; Kurotani, Kayo; Indrawansa, Susantha; Nonaka, Daisuke; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Samarasinghe, Diyanath

    2016-04-06

    School health promotion has been shown to improve the lifestyle of students, but it remains unclear whether school-based programs can influence family health. We developed an innovative program that enables school children to act as change agents in promoting healthy lifestyles of their mothers. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the child-initiated intervention on weight, physical activity and dietary habit of their mothers. A 12-month cluster randomized trial was conducted, with school as a cluster. Participants were mothers with grade 8 students, aged around 13 years, of 20 schools in Homagama, Sri Lanka. Students of the intervention group were trained by facilitators to acquire the ability to assess noncommunicable disease risk factors in their homes and take action to address them, whereas those of the comparison group received no intervention. Body weight, step count and lifestyle of their mothers were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Multi-level multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of intervention on continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Of 308 study participants, 261 completed the final assessment at 12 month. There was a significantly greater decrease of weight and increase of physical activity in the intervention group. The mean (95% confidence interval) difference comparing the intervention group with the control group was -2.49 (-3.38 to -1.60) kg for weight and -0.99 (-1.40 to -0.58) kg/m(2) for body mass index. The intervention group had a 3.25 (95% confidence interval 1.87-5.62) times higher odds of engaging in adequate physical activity than the control group, and the former showed a greater number of steps than the latter after intervention. The intervention group showed a greater reduction of household purchase of biscuits and ice cream. A program to motivate students to act as change agents of family's lifestyle was effective in decreasing weight and

  1. Leisure Time Physical Activity and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Nina Føns; Ekblond, Annette; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that a large part of the beneficial effect of physical activity on mortality is confined to a threshold effect of participation. METHODS: Self-reported physical activity was investigated in relation to all-cause mortality in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health...... cohort, including 29,129 women and 26,576 men aged 50-64 years at baseline 1993-1997. Using Cox proportional hazards models we investigated the associations between mortality rate and leisure time physical activity by exploring 1) participation (yes/no) in each type of activity; 2) a simple dose...... in specific leisure time physical activities, but not with more time spent on those activities. This could suggest that avoiding a sedative lifestyle is more important than a high volume of activity. Nonparticipation in these types of physical activity may be considered as risk factors....

  2. Pre- and postdiagnosis physical activity, television viewing, and mortality among patients with colorectal cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Engels, Eric A; Alfano, Catherine M; Hollenbeck, Albert; Park, Yikyung; Matthews, Charles E

    2015-01-10

    Physical inactivity has been associated with higher mortality risk among survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the independent effects of pre- versus postdiagnosis activity are unclear, and the association between watching television (TV) and mortality in survivors of CRC is previously undefined. We analyzed the associations between prediagnosis (n = 3,797) and postdiagnosis (n = 1,759) leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and TV watching and overall and disease-specific mortality among patients with CRC. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs, adjusting for known mortality risk factors. Comparing survivors of CRC reporting more than 7 hours per week (h/wk) of prediagnosis LTPA with those reporting no LTPA, we found a 20% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.95; P for trend = .021). Postdiagnosis LTPA of ≥ 7 h/wk, compared with none, was associated with a 31% lower all-cause mortality risk (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.98; P for trend = .006), independent of prediagnosis activity. Compared with 0 to 2 TV hours per day (h/d) before diagnosis, those reporting ≥ 5 h/d of TV before diagnosis had a 22% increased all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.41; P trend = .002), and more postdiagnosis TV watching was associated with a nonsignificant 25% increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.67; P for trend = .126). LTPA was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, whereas more TV watching was associated with increased mortality risk. For both LTPA and TV watching, postdiagnosis measures independently explained the association with mortality. Clinicians should promote both minimizing TV time and increasing physical activity for longevity among survivors of CRC, regardless of previous behaviors. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC CDC A-Z Index ... Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting ... attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple ...

  10. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG ...

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    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

  15. Effect of different intensities of physical activity on cardiometabolic markers and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats fed with a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B. Batacan, Jr

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: LIT induced positive adaptations on fat accumulation and cardiac conduction, and HIIT induced a positive effect on fat accumulation, mesenteric artery contraction, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. No other differences were observed between groups. These findings suggest that few positive health effects can be achieved through LIT and HIIT when consuming a chronic and sustained HFHC diet.

  16. Statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions of MC4R and FTO with diet and physical activity on obesity: new effects on alcohol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood. To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations ...

  17. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector...... effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  18. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...

  19. Walkability and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. Purpose The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. Methods The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18–65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1–10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.06, 2.32; p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. Conclusions This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with

  20. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  1. 76 FR 1168 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Health and Diet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Supplement will include: (1) Awareness and sources of information, (2) attitudes toward diet and physical... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0001] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Health and Diet Survey...

  2. Associations of lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and physical activity) with type 2 diabetes among American adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Kesheng; Maisonet, Mildred; Wang, Liang; Zheng, Shimin

    2017-09-01

    Over the long term, unhealthy lifestyles can lead to many health problems, especially type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the present study was to determine associations between lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet) and T2D in American adults (aged ≥20 years) in a nationally representative sample. Data for 12 987 American adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2014 were evaluated. Weighted multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the four lifestyle factors and T2D after adjusting for demographics and socioeconomic status (SES). Prevalence trends for T2D were examined using Cochran-Armitage tests. There was a significant increasing prevalence trend for T2D among American adults. Smokers and individuals consuming >12 alcoholic drinks in the past year were less likely to report having T2D than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.48) and those consuming diet were more likely to report having T2D than those eating an excellent diet (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.02-1.41). All these relationships remained significant after adjustment for demographics and SES. All four lifestyle factors were significantly associated with T2D among American adults. The findings of the present study provide useful information for healthcare providers that may help them promote specific lifestyle modifications. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. See Me Smoke-Free: Protocol for a Research Study to Develop and Test the Feasibility of an mHealth App for Women to Address Smoking, Diet, and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbi, Peter; Hingle, Melanie; Johnson, Thienne; Cunningham, James K; Armin, Julie; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-01-21

    This paper presents the protocol for an ongoing research study to develop and test the feasibility of a multi-behavioral mHealth app. Approximately 27 million women smoke in the US, and more than 180,000 women die of illnesses linked to smoking annually. Women report greater difficulties quitting smoking. Concerns about weight gain, negative body image, and low self-efficacy may be key factors affecting smoking cessation among women. Recent studies suggest that a multi-behavioral approach, including diet and physical activity, may be more effective at helping women quit. Guided imagery has been successfully used to address body image concerns and self-efficacy in our 3 target behaviors-exercise, diet and smoking cessation. However, it has not been used simultaneously for smoking, diet, and exercise behavior in a single intervention. While imagery is an effective therapeutic tool for behavior change, the mode of delivery has generally been in person, which limits reach. mHealth apps delivered via smart phones offer a unique channel through which to distribute imagery-based interventions. The objective of our study is to evaluate the feasibility of an mHealth app for women designed to simultaneously address smoking, diet, and physical activity behaviors. The objectives are supported by three specific aims: (1) develop guided imagery content, user interface, and resources to reduce weight concern, and increase body image and self-efficacy for behavior change among women smokers, (2) program a prototype of the app that contains all the necessary elements of text, graphics, multimedia and interactive features, and (3) evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the app with women smokers. We created the program content and designed the prototype application for use on the Android platform in collaboration with 9 participants in multiple focus groups and in-depth interviews. We programmed and tested the application's usability with 6 participants

  4. See Me Smoke-Free: Protocol for a Research Study to Develop and Test the Feasibility of an mHealth App for Women to Address Smoking, Diet, and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thienne; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper presents the protocol for an ongoing research study to develop and test the feasibility of a multi-behavioral mHealth app. Approximately 27 million women smoke in the US, and more than 180,000 women die of illnesses linked to smoking annually. Women report greater difficulties quitting smoking. Concerns about weight gain, negative body image, and low self-efficacy may be key factors affecting smoking cessation among women. Recent studies suggest that a multi-behavioral approach, including diet and physical activity, may be more effective at helping women quit. Guided imagery has been successfully used to address body image concerns and self-efficacy in our 3 target behaviors—exercise, diet and smoking cessation. However, it has not been used simultaneously for smoking, diet, and exercise behavior in a single intervention. While imagery is an effective therapeutic tool for behavior change, the mode of delivery has generally been in person, which limits reach. mHealth apps delivered via smart phones offer a unique channel through which to distribute imagery-based interventions. Objective The objective of our study is to evaluate the feasibility of an mHealth app for women designed to simultaneously address smoking, diet, and physical activity behaviors. The objectives are supported by three specific aims: (1) develop guided imagery content, user interface, and resources to reduce weight concern, and increase body image and self-efficacy for behavior change among women smokers, (2) program a prototype of the app that contains all the necessary elements of text, graphics, multimedia and interactive features, and (3) evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the app with women smokers. Methods We created the program content and designed the prototype application for use on the Android platform in collaboration with 9 participants in multiple focus groups and in-depth interviews. We programmed and tested the application

  5. Maternal work and children's diet, activity, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy; Shier, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Mothers' work hours are likely to affect their time allocation towards activities related to children's diet, activity and well-being. For example, mothers who work more may be more reliant on processed foods, foods prepared away from home and school meal programs for their children's meals. A greater number of work hours may also lead to more unsupervised time for children that may, in turn, allow for an increase in unhealthy behaviors among their children such as snacking and sedentary activities such as TV watching. Using data on a national cohort of children, we examine the relationship between mothers' average weekly work hours during their children's school years on children's dietary and activity behaviors, BMI and obesity in 5th and 8th grade. Our results are consistent with findings from the literature that maternal work hours are positively associated with children's BMI and obesity especially among children with higher socioeconomic status. Unlike previous papers, our detailed data on children's behaviors allow us to speak directly to affected behaviors that may contribute to the increased BMI. We show that children whose mothers work more consume more unhealthy foods (e.g. soda, fast food) and less healthy foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, milk) and watch more television. Although they report being slightly more physically active, likely due to organized physical activities, the BMI and obesity results suggest that the deterioration in diet and increase in sedentary behaviors dominate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical activity, obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakka, T A; Bouchard, C

    2005-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle and overweight are major public health, clinical, and economical problems in modern societies. The worldwide epidemic of excess weight is due to imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and consequent overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity 45-60 min per day prevents unhealthy weight gain and obesity, whereas sedentary behaviors such as watching television promote them. Regular exercise can markedly reduce body weight and fat mass without dietary caloric restriction in overweight individuals. An increase in total energy expenditure appears to be the most important determinant of successful exercise-induced weight loss. The best long-term results may be achieved when physical activity produces an energy expenditure of at least 2,500 kcal/week. Yet, the optimal approach in weight reduction programs appears to be a combination of regular physical activity and caloric restriction. A minimum of 60 min, but most likely 80-90 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per day may be needed to avoid or limit weight regain in formerly overweight or obese individuals. Regular moderate intensity physical activity, a healthy diet, and avoiding unhealthy weight gain are effective and safe ways to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and to reduce premature mortality in all population groups. Although the efforts to promote cardiovascular health concern the whole population, particular attention should be paid to individuals who are physically inactive, have unhealthy diets or are prone to weight gain. They have the highest risk for worsening of the cardiovascular risk factor profile and for cardiovascular disease. To combat the epidemic of overweight and to improve cardiovascular health at a population level, it is important to develop strategies to increase habitual physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in

  7. Promoting Physical Activity in Adapted Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Joonkoo; Beamer, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    The importance of physical activity has received considerable attention during the past decade. Physical education has been viewed as a cost-effective way to promote physical activity as a public health initiative. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that a "substantial percentage" of students' overall…

  8. Leptin, Leptin Soluble Receptor, and the Free Leptin Index following a Diet and Physical Activity Lifestyle Intervention in Obese Males and Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Herrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin (LEP is associated with appetite regulation and metabolism. Concentration is linear with adiposity, suggesting LEP resistance. LEP circulates freely and bound with its soluble receptor (sOB-r; the ratio is the free leptin index (FLI, an index of leptin resistance; lower FLI suggests reduced biological action. Purpose. The aim was to determine the effect of changes in adipose tissue distribution on LEP, sOB-r, and FLI following 6 months (6 M of a diet/exercise weight loss program (WLP. In addition, we aim to identify predictors of the FLI. Methods. 6 M WLP consisted of diet/lifestyle interventions following ADA guidelines. Body composition was assessed by DXA. LEP and sOB-r analysis were done via ELISA. Results. 10 adults completed the WLP. Significant reductions were seen in total fat percentage (% fat, nontrunk fat, (NTF, and trunk fat (TF from base to 3 m and 6 M (p≤0.05. The FLI were reduced at 3 M and 6 M for males and 6 M for females. Total body fat and body weight predicted the FLI in both sexes. Conclusions. LEP and FLI reductions following 6 M of WLP were achieved independent of sOB-r changes. We also demonstrate that the FLI can be predicted noninvasively through total fat mass and body weight in kilograms.

  9. Study protocol for a systematic review of evidence for lifestyle interventions targeting smoking, sleep, alcohol/other drug use, physical activity, and healthy diet in people with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Thornton, Louise; Lappin, Julia M; Hanstock, Tanya; Sylvia, Louisa; Jacka, Felice; Baker, Amanda L; Berk, Michal; Mitchell, Phillip B; Callister, Robin; Rogers, Naomi; Webster, Stephanie; Dennis, Simon; Oldmeadow, Christopher; MacKinnon, Andrew; Doran, Christopher; Turner, Alyna; Hunt, Sally

    2016-07-05

    People with bipolar disorder (BD) have a mortality gap of up to 20 years compared to the general population. Physical conditions, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, cause the majority of excess deaths in psychiatric populations and are the leading causes of mortality in people with BD. However, comparatively little attention has been paid to reducing the risk of physical conditions in psychiatric populations. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors are among the potentially modifiable risk factors for a range of commonly comorbid chronic medical conditions, including CVD, diabetes, and obesity. This systematic review will identify and evaluate the available evidence for effective interventions to reduce risk and promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in BD. We will search MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL for published research studies (with at least an abstract published in English) that evaluate behavioral or psychosocial interventions to address the following lifestyle factors in people with BD: tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, overweight or obesity, sleep-wake disturbance, and alcohol/other drug use. Primary outcomes for the review will be changes in tobacco use, level of physical activity, diet quality, sleep quality, alcohol use, and illicit drug use. Data on each primary outcome will be synthesized across available studies in that lifestyle area (e.g., tobacco abstinence, cigarettes smoked per day), and panel of research and clinical experts in each of the target lifestyle behaviors and those experienced with clinical and research with individuals with BD will determine how best to represent data related to that primary outcome. Seven members of the systematic review team will extract data, synthesize the evidence, and rate it for quality. Evidence will be synthesized via a narrative description of the behavioral interventions and their effectiveness in improving the healthy lifestyle behaviors

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  13. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...

  14. Physical activity and osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gates, L S; Leyland, K M; Sheard, S

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as an important factor within studies of osteoarthritis (OA). However, subjective methods used to assess PA are highly variable and have not been developed for use within studies of OA, which creates difficulties when comparing and interpreting PA...... established via an international expert consensus meeting and modified Delphi exercise using a geographically diverse committee selected on the basis of individual expertise in physical activity, exercise medicine, and OA. Agreement was met for all aims of study: (1) The use of Metabolic Equivalent of Task...... (MET) minutes per week (MET-min/week) as a method for harmonising PA variables among cohorts; (2) The determination of methods for treating missing components of MET-min/week calculation; a value will be produced from comparable activities within a representative cohort; (3) Exclusion of the domain...

  15. Physical activity in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cvecka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  16. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Policy and Environmental Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on policy and environmental supports for physical activity, diet, and breastfeeding. This data is used for DNPAO's Data, Trends, and Maps...

  17. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  18. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adolescent's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). This data is used for...

  19. The importance of fats in food of persons physically active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Włodarczyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A diet program of physically active individuals accounts for about 50% of the success in attaining the desired physical form. Patterns that include resting metabolism, physical activity, and daily energy expenditure, as needed: reduction, stabilization, weight gain, are used. Among those who practice sports for whom nutrition is of great importance in achieving their goal, recently, there has been a great deal of interest in ketogenic diets, low carbohydrates commonly called "fatty". Therefore, it is important to explain the importance, types and role of fats in the nutrition of physically active persons.

  20. Physical activity of pregnant and postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łosień

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic elements of a healthy lifestyle is regular physical activity. Nowadays, more and more women during pregnancy take up the topic of the impact of physical activity and diet on the child developing in the womb. The existence of birth schools allows you to prepare for delivery, obtain information on acceptable safe activity adapted to the health of the future mother and ways of rational nutrition. The silhouette of women during pregnancyis constantly changing. Literature often shows the subject of a decrease in self-esteem during this period, associated with hormonal changes, appearance, fatigue and limitation of time for self-development. In the literature, we find two different positions of women about the subject of physical activity during pregnancy. The first position speaks of virtually complete limitation of activity, the second is about taking minimal activity such as before pregnancy. The aim of the study: 1 What impact on physical well-being in pregnant women and postpartum is having, 2 Is there a relationship between physical activity and pregnancy? 3 Is there a relationship between physical activity and postpartum period?, 4 What is the most common motivation to undertake physical activity after delivery? Material and methods:57 women aged 18 to 47 participated in the study. The study used an original anonymous survey of 28 questions. The questions concerned, among others: pregnancy, postnatal period, physical activity during pregnancy and after delivery. Conclusions: Taking physical activity during pregnancy and after childbirth influences the increase of self-esteem and well-being of women. About 25% of women surveyed did not return to physical activity a year after delivery. The basic factors influencing the activity after childbirth are the desire to improve the appearance, well-being and return to fitness which they presented before delivery.

  1. Design of a school randomized trial for nudging students towards healthy diet and physical activity to prevent obesity: PAAPAS Nudge study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Verly Junior, Eliseu; Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Araújo, Marina Campos; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Sgambato, Michele Ribeiro; de Souza, Bárbara da Silva Nalin; Marques, Emanuele Souza; Baltar, Valéria Troncoso; de Oliveira, Alessandra Silva Dias; da Silva, Ana Carolina Feldenheimer; Pérez-Cueto, Federico J; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of nudge activities at school on the students' body mass index (BMI). School-based factorial randomized community trial. Eighteen public schools in the municipality of Duque de Caxias, metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The 18 schools will be randomized into 4 group arms: group 1-control (without any activity); group 2-will receive educational activities in the classroom; group 3-will receive changes in the school environment (nudge strategies); group 4-will receive educational activities and changes in the school environment. Activities will occur during the 2018 school-year. The primary (BMI) and secondary (body fat percentage) outcomes will be assessed at baseline and after the study using a portable electronic scale with a segmental body composition monitor. The height will be measured by a portable stadiometer. Statistical analyses for each outcome will be conducted through linear mixed models that took into account the missing data and cluster effect of the schools. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Urban–rural and gender differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet and physical activity among young black South Africans between 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheeta Peer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs have increased in South Africa over the past 15 years. While these usually manifest during mid-to-late adulthood, the development of modifiable risk factors that contribute to NCDs are usually adopted early in life. Objective: To describe the urban–rural and gender patterns of NCD risk factors in black adolescents and young adults (15- to 24-year-olds from two South African Demographic and Health Surveys conducted 5 years apart. Design: An observational study based on interviews and measurements from two cross-sectional national household surveys. Changes in tobacco and alcohol use, dietary intake, physical inactivity, and overweight/obesity among 15- to 24-year-olds as well as urban–rural and gender differences were analysed using logistic regression. The ‘Surveyset’ option in Stata statistical software was used to allow for the sampling weight in the analysis. Results: Data from 3,186 and 2,066 black 15- to 24-year-old participants in 1998 and 2003, respectively, were analysed. In males, the prevalence of smoking (1998: 21.6%, 2003: 19.1% and problem drinking (1998: 17.2%, 2003: 15.2% were high and increased with age, but in females were much lower (smoking – 1998: 1.0%, 2003: 2.1%; problem drinking – 1998: 4.2%, 2003: 5.8%. The predominant risk factors in females were overweight/obesity (1998: 29.9%, 2003: 31.1% and physical inactivity (2003: 46%. Urban youth, compared to their rural counterparts, were more likely to smoke (odds ratio (OR: 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.09–1.75, have high salt intake (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.12–2.78, be overweight/obese (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.14–1.69, or be physically inactive (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12–1.89. However, they had lower odds of inadequate micronutrient intake (OR: 0.46, 95% CI 0.34–0.62, and there was no overall significant urban– rural difference in the odds for problem drinking but among females the odds were higher in

  3. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....

  4. Satiating properties of diets rich in dietary fibre fed to sows asevaluated by physico-chemical properties, gastric emptying rate and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    and these satiating properties could be attributed to increased swelling and WBC in the stomach, which in turn delayed the gastric emptying rate of the liquid phase of gastric content. Measurements of gastric emptying turned out to be a practical tool for ranking of the ability of DF sources to reduce activity...

  5. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...

  6. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  7. [Sport and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P

    2010-01-01

    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  8. Prostate Can Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos J

    2006-01-01

    .... The most extensively studied risk factors for prostate cancer include age, race/ethnicity, family history, diet, androgen metabolism, alcohol consumption, obesity, physical activity and smoking...

  9. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.

  10. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  11. Tips for Starting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs ... Starting Physical Activity Related Topics Section Navigation Tips to Help You Get Active ...

  12. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  13. Environmental influences on food choice, physical activity and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Duffey, Kiyah; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2005-12-15

    In this paper, the environment is defined as the macro- and community-level factors, including physical, legal and policy factors, that influence household and individual decisions. Thus, environment is conceived as the external context in which household and individual decisions are made. This paper reviews the literature on the ways the environment affects diet, physical activity, and obesity. Other key environmental factors discussed include economic, legal, and policy factors. Behind the major changes in diet and physical activity in the US and globally lie large shifts in food production, processing, and distribution systems as well as food shopping and eating options, resulting in the increase in availability of energy-dense foods. Similarly, the ways we move at home, work, leisure, and travel have shifted markedly, resulting in substantial reductions in energy expenditure. Many small area studies have linked environmental shifts with diet and activity changes. This paper begins with a review of environmental influences on diet and physical activity, and includes the discussion of two case studies on environmental influences on physical activity in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. The case studies illustrate the important role of physical activity resources and the inequitable distribution of such activity-related facilities and resources, with high minority, low educated populations at strong disadvantage. Further, the research shows a significant association of such facilities with individual-level health behavior. The inequity in environmental supports for physical activity may underlie health disparities in the US population.

  14. Diet discussion begins for signing convention on physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    As a part of the amendment of the domestic laws required for signing the 'Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials', the government placed the bill for the partial amendment of the 'Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Materials, Nuclear Fuel Materials and Reactors' to the current session of the Diet, following the formal approval by the Cabinet on March 11. This bill provides for punishment in the case of endangering or threat related to the handling and use of nuclear materials. The Atomic Energy Commission proposed in December, last year the early signing of the Convention and the legislation on the antiterrorism and physical protection measures required for the signing. The amendment consists mainly of two parts: one stipulates the obligation for those who manage the handling of nuclear materials to take the proper measures for their physical protection, and the other stipulates the punishment of the crimes related to nuclear materials. Regarding the other amendment of the relevant domestic laws, the Criminal Law was partially amended in June, last year. The Aviation Act and the Ships Safety Act, both related to the transport of nuclear materials, will not be amended, but only the relevant Ministerial Ordinances will be revised. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials came into force in February, 1987, and consists of 23 articles. (Kako, I.)

  15. Physical activity cardio-surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Stocka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Health Behaviors are one of the most important factors that determine health. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of diseases i.e. hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes type 2, stroke and overweight and obesity. In the study this in the clinic of cardiac surgery University Hospital # 1 in Bydgoszcz in the period from October to November 2016 uses the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ.  Encouraging patients coronary artery bypass grafting for physical activity before the procedure should be to educate patients about the importance of traffic before the operations and promote health promoting behaviors i.e.. correct diet and maintain a proper body weight, control blood pressure and glucose levels, and appropriate form traffic adapted to the needs and capabilities of the patient.

  16. [Promoting a balanced diet and physical activity among children : Conditions for the successful implementation and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies: Results of two qualitative case studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbock, Berit; Muellmann, Saskia; Zeeb, Hajo; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-10-01

    To date, conditions for successfully implementing and maintaining multi-level interventions and policies for the promotion of a balanced diet and physical activity are not well understood from the perspective of stakeholders. The aim of this article is to examine which factors are regarded as facilitating or impeding introduction, implementation and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies from the standpoint of stakeholders. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with stakeholders of one multi-level intervention (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS [IDEFICS] for the prevention of childhood obesity, n = 4) and one policy (Federal state offices coordinating networks for the provision of healthy food options in schools, n = 3) were analysed using qualitative content analysis. In both cases, the use of existing structures facilitated introduction, implementation and maintenance. Additionally, training of staff for implementation according to standardised protocols or concepts and taking structures and work conditions of settings into account during implementation were considered essential. In both cases, conflicting interests in interdisciplinary stakeholder teams regarding intervention content and implementation were identified as a barrier. A lack of political support and insecure long-term funding only played a role in regard to the implementation and maintenance of policies. On the other hand, target groups of the multi-level intervention were not sufficiently involved in the development of intervention materials which resulted in a lack of tailoring and acceptance in the target groups. The results provide important insights into the long-term implementation of multi-level interventions and policies in different settings.

  17. Physical activity as a metabolic stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F

    2000-08-01

    Both physical activity and diet stimulate processes that, over time, alter the morphologic composition and biochemical function of the body. Physical activity provides stimuli that promote very specific and varied adaptations according to the type, intensity, and duration of exercise performed. There is further interest in the extent to which diet or supplementation can enhance the positive stimuli. Prolonged walking at low intensity presents little metabolic, hormonal, or cardiovascular stress, and the greatest perturbation from rest appears to be from increased fat oxidation and plasma free fatty acid mobilization resulting from a combination of increased lipolysis and decreased reesterification. More intense jogging or running largely stimulates increased oxidation of glycogen and triacylglycerol, both of which are stored directly within the muscle fibers. Furthermore, these intramuscular stores of carbohydrate and fat appear to be the primary substrates for the enhanced oxidative and performance ability derived from endurance training-induced increases in muscle mitochondrial density. Weightlifting that produces fatigue in brief periods (ie, in 15-90 s and after 15 repetitive contractions) elicits a high degree of motor unit recruitment and muscle fiber stimulation. This is a remarkably potent stimulus for altering protein synthesis in muscle and increasing neuromuscular function. The metabolic stress of physical activity can be measured by substrate turnover and depletion, cardiovascular response, hormonal perturbation, accumulation of metabolites, or even the extent to which the synthesis and degradation of specific proteins are altered, either acutely or by chronic exercise training.

  18. Physical Activity in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réol, Lise Andersen

    physical activity during each school day from 0th to 10th school year, as a tool to facilitate health, motivation and academic performance. A qualitative study on pupils in 6th grade (N=8) and teachers’ (N=3) experience of movement and physical activities in school gives support to the idea, that physical...... activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities...

  19. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  20. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gurven

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity.A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR, the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity.Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by activity alone; further study of diet

  1. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by activity alone; further study of diet, food intake and

  2. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  3. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  8. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  9. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes your heart rate to go up Walking, hiking, jogging, running Water aerobics or swimming laps Bicycling, skateboarding, rollerblading, and jumping rope Ballroom dancing and aerobic dancing Tennis, soccer, hockey, and basketball Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health ...

  10. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  11. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  12. Diet induced thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp KR

    2004-01-01

    Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Resu...

  13. Destroying God's Temple? Physical Inactivity, Poor Diet, Obesity, and Other "Sin" Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faries, Mark D; McClendon, Megan; Jones, Eric J

    2017-02-17

    On average, our participants (N = 112), who self-proclaimed to be Christians, believed that physically inactive lifestyles, unhealthy eating, overeating, and being obese destroy the body, God's temple. However, these beliefs were less definitive, than those of other common "sin" behaviors, such as drug use, smoking, and excessive drinking of alcohol. In addition, destroying the body with physical inactivity or poor diet was not necessarily viewed as sinful. Subsequently, these beliefs did not relate to self-reported physical activity, dietary behavior, or body mass index. It is possible that inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are not internalized into the spiritual perspective as destroying the body, God's temple, in the same way as other "sin" behaviors.

  14. Physical activity and survival in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Søgaard, Karen; Karlsen, Randi V

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knowledge about lifestyle factors possibly influencing survival after breast cancer (BC) is paramount. We examined associations between two types of postdiagnosis physical activity (PA) and overall survival after BC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used prospective data on 959 BC survivors from...... the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, all enrolled before diagnosis. Self-reported PA was measured as time per activity, and estimated metabolic equivalent task (MET)-hours per week were summed for each activity. We constructed measures for household, exercise, and total PA. The association between...... from all causes during the study period. In adjusted analyses, exercise PA above eight MET h/week compared to lower levels of activity was significantly associated with improved overall survival (HR, 0.68; confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.99). When comparing participation in exercise to non...

  15. Physics of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples ... of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to ... ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: June 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, ... If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World ... Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  1. A randomized trial of diet and physical activity in women treated for stage II—IV ovarian cancer: Rationale and design of the Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES): An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG-225) Study☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A.; Crane, Tracy E.; Miller, Austin; Garcia, David O.; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Alberts, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancer death in United States women. Efforts to improve progression free survival (PFS) and quality of life (QoL) after treatment for ovarian cancer are necessary. Observational studies suggest that lifestyle behaviors, including diet and physical activity, are associated with lower mortality in this population. The Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES) NRG 0225 study is a randomized, controlled trial designed to test the hypothesis that a 24 month lifestyle intervention will significantly increase PFS after oncological therapy for stage II-IV ovarian cancer. Women are randomized 1:1 to a high vegetable and fiber, low-fat diet with daily physical activity goals or an attention control group. Secondary outcomes to be evaluated include QoL and gastrointestinal health. Moreover an a priori lifestyle adherence score will be used to evaluate relationships between adoption of the diet and activity goals and PFS. Blood specimens are collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months for analysis of dietary adherence (carotenoids) in addition to mechanistic biomarkers (lipids, insulin, telomere length). Women are enrolled at NRG clinic sites nationally and the telephone based lifestyle intervention is delivered from The University of Arizona call center by trained health coaches. A study specific multi-modal telephone, email, and SMS behavior change software platform is utilized for information delivery, coaching and data capture. When completed, LIVES will be the largest behavior-based lifestyle intervention trial conducted among ovarian cancer survivors. PMID:27394382

  2. Ketogenic diet alters dopaminergic activity in the mouse cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, William H; Adams, Ryan E; Wyss, Livia S

    2014-06-13

    The present study was conducted to determine if the ketogenic diet altered basal levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in mice. The catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norephinephrine (NE) and the indolamine serotonin (5HT) were quantified postmortem in six different brain regions of adult mice fed a ketogenic diet for 3 weeks. The dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) were also measured. Tissue punches were collected bilaterally from the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, nucleus accumbens, anterior caudate-putamen, posterior caudate-putamen and the midbrain. Dopaminergic activity, as measured by the dopamine metabolites to dopamine content ratio - ([DOPAC]+[HVA])/[DA] - was significantly increased in the motor and somatosensory cortex regions of mice fed the ketogenic diet when compared to those same areas in brains of mice fed a normal diet. These results indicate that the ketogenic diet alters the activity of the meso-cortical dopaminergic system, which may contribute to the diet's therapeutic effect in reducing epileptic seizure activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High carbohydrate diet and physical inactivity associated with central obesity among premenopausal housewives in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Roopasingam, Tharrmini; Dibley, Michael J

    2014-08-23

    Prevalence of obesity and overweight is rising in developing countries, including Sri Lanka at a rapid pace due to dietary and lifestyle changes. This study aimed to assess the association between high carbohydrate diet, physical inactivity and central obesity among premenopausal housewives in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional study. A sample of 100 premenopausal women with home duties aged between 20 to 45 years were selected randomly from two divisional secretariats (DS), representing urban and rural sectors in Sri Lanka. Data on basic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary assessment and physical activity were collected. We defined central obesity as a waist circumference ≥80 cm, which is the WHO recommended cut-off. Independent sample t test was used to compare the mean values. Linear and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to find out the relationship and the magnitude of association between central obesity and percentage of energy contributed from carbohydrate and physical activity level, respectively. The women reported an average of 18 starch portions per day, which was well above the national recommendations. Seventy percent of energy in the diet came from carbohydrate. The mean BMI and waist circumference of total sample was 25.4 kgm-2 and 78.5 cm, respectively. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and centrally obesity among total sample was 38%, 34% and 45%, respectively. A significant positive correlation observed between high carbohydrate diet and waist circumference (r = 0.628, p household level to reverse this trend among the housewives in Sri Lanka.

  4. Why Physical Activity Is Important (for Girls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Fitness Why physical activity is important Why physical activity is important You may wonder if being physically ... you are to be around. That's partly because physical activity gets your brain to make "feel-good" chemicals ...

  5. Physical Activity Improves Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Physical activity improves quality of life Updated:Mar 2,2015 ... proven to improve both mental and physical health. Physical activity boosts mental wellness. Regular physical activity can relieve ...

  6. Physical activity, obesity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E.; Grunseit, Anne C.; Rangul, Vegar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most studies of physical activity (PA) epidemiology use behaviour measured at a single time-point. We examined whether 'PA patterns' (consistently low, consistently high or inconsistent PA levels over time) showed different epidemiological relationships for anthropometric and mortality...

  7. Physical activity and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskarabhatla, Krishna V; Birrer, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic syndrome consisting of two main groups, type 1 and 2, is characterized by absolute or relative insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. Individuals with DM take part in physical activity for health promotion, disease management, and or recreational or competitive sports. Several studies confirm the beneficial role of physical activity in favorably altering the prognosis of DM. Exercise as a therapeutic strategy has potential risks, too. Hence, sports medicine physicians caring for athletes with diabetes have several important responsibilities. Diabetic education; pre-participatory evaluation for vascular, neurological, retinal or joint disease; diabetic status and control; promotion of blood glucose self-monitoring; and individualized dietary, medication, and physical activity plans are essential to achieve safe and enjoyable outcomes in individuals with diabetes who are embarking on physical activity.

  8. Physical Activity and Pediatric Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine whether moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were independently associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. Methods Data from the International Children's Accelerometry Database...

  9. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankinson, Arlene L; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-03-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, (i) "metabolically healthy" obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and (ii) "at risk" obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity determinants of obesity phenotypes are unclear. We hypothesized that metabolically healthy obese have more favorable behavioral factors, including less adverse diet composition and higher activity levels than at risk obese in the multi-ethnic group of 775 obese American adults ages 40-59 years from the International Population Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) cohort. In gender-stratified analyses, mean values for diet composition and activity behavior variables, adjusted for age, race, and education, were compared between metabolically healthy and at risk obese. Nearly one in five (149/775 or 19%) of obese American INTERMAP participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese. Diet composition and most activity behaviors were similar between obesity phenotypes, although metabolically healthy obese women reported higher sleep duration than at risk obese women. These results do not support hypotheses that diet composition and/or physical activity account for the absence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in metabolically healthy obese. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  10. Epilepsy, physical activity and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrizosa-Moog, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy are prone to be sedentary compared with the general population. The causes of inactivity are ignorance, prejudice, overprotection, fear and shame. There is no scientific evidence supporting a limitation of physical exercise in persons with epilepsy. The benefits of exercise in these patients are huge. Positive aspects are: physical conditioning, prevention of seizures, emotional wellbeing, social interaction, drug treatment adherence, osteoporosis prevention and better quality of life for patients and their families. Having in mind the individual characteristics, physical exercise should be prescribed and guided. Available evidence underlies the complementary therapeutic effects of physical activity with large positive results at a low cost. Sports or regular physical activity should be a standard indication for persons with epilepsy.

  11. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  12. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-19

    Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on academic achievement and other

  13. Kinaesthetic activities in physics instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Christiansen, Frederik V

    2016-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...

  14. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  15. Food choice, appetite and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F

    1999-09-01

    Food choices and diet composition have been studied less often than energy intake in subjects with varying levels of physical activity. The reported effects of exercise on food choices are not fully consistent, especially on the short term. Type of exercise, intensity, duration can affect the results as well as subjects' characteristics (gender, age, previous training and fitness). A crucial role could also be played by psychological (chronic dieting, attitudes toward health and food, long-established food habits and preferences) and social (traditions, food availability, appropriate times and places) factors. In short-term intervention studies, where a meal is ingested a few minutes following a bout of exercise of varying duration and intensity, an increase in CHO intake is most often reported, while increased protein intake is an occasional observation. In long-term (several weeks) training interventions, intake is assessed from dietary records. Again CHO intake is augmented in exercised subjects as compared to controls, while that of saturated fats and cholesterol may also be affected. Epidemiological studies (without dietary or exercise intervention) often report that habitually active persons eat more and ingest more fruits and vegetables than less active peers. It is not known to what extent such food choices are driven by biological needs (e.g. replacement of glycogen) or elicited by social and psychological factors.

  16. Multiple behavior changes in diet and activity: a randomized controlled trial using mobile technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; McFadden, H Gene; Vaughn, Jocelyn; Kozak, Andrea T; Smith, Malaina; Moller, Arlen C; Epstein, Leonard H; Demott, Andrew; Hedeker, Donald; Siddique, Juned; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2012-05-28

    Many patients exhibit multiple chronic disease risk behaviors. Research provides little information about advice that can maximize simultaneous health behavior changes. To test which combination of diet and activity advice maximizes healthy change, we randomized 204 adults with elevated saturated fat and low fruit and vegetable intake, high sedentary leisure time, and low physical activity to 1 of 4 treatments: increase fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, decrease fat and sedentary leisure, decrease fat and increase physical activity, and increase fruit/vegetable intake and decrease sedentary leisure. Treatments provided 3 weeks of remote coaching supported by mobile decision support technology and financial incentives. During treatment, incentives were contingent on using the mobile device to self-monitor and attain behavioral targets; during follow-up, incentives were contingent only on recording. The outcome was standardized, composite improvement on the 4 diet and activity behaviors at the end of treatment and at 5-month follow-up. Of the 204 individuals randomized, 200 (98.0%) completed follow-up. The increase fruits/vegetables and decrease sedentary leisure treatments improved more than the other 3 treatments (P improved less than the other 3 treatments (P mobile technology and financial incentives holds promise to improve diet and activity. Targeting fruits/vegetables and sedentary leisure together maximizes overall adoption and maintenance of multiple healthy behavior changes.

  17. Renovated Parks Improve Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.

  18. National Recommendations for Physical Activity and Physical Activity Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Rütten, Alfred; Pfeifer, Klaus; Banzer, Winfried; Ferrari, Nina; Füzéki, Eszter; Geidl, Wolfgang; Graf, Christine; Hartung, Verena; Klamroth, Sarah; Völker, Klaus; Vogt, Lutz; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionuţ; Gediga, Günther; Messing, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Always and at any age, regular physical activity can act as a powerful elixir with a beneficial effect on health and well-being. The wide variety of health effects that physical activity can have, for example on our cardiovascular system, back and joints, is scientifically well proven. At the same time, we spend most of our time sitting – at school, at the office or in the car. Our bodies, however, want to be on the move! This fundamental instinct is deeply rooted in human nature and this bas...

  19. Role of Diet in Influencing Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badsha, Humeira

    2018-01-01

    Background: Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. Discussion: However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA. Some benefits of vegan diet may be explained by antioxidant constituents, lactobacilli and fibre, and by potential changes in intestinal flora. Similarly, Mediterranean diet shows anti-inflammatory effects due to protective properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins, but also by influencing the gut microbiome. Gluten-free and elemental diets have been associated with some benefits in RA though the existing evidence is limited. Long-term intake of fish and other sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are protective for development of RA. The benefits of fasting, anti-oxidant supplementation, flavanoids, and probiotics in RA are not clear. Vitamin D has been shown to influence autoimmunity and specifically decrease RA disease activity. The role of supplements such as fish oils and vitamin D should be explored in future trials to gain new insights in disease pathogenesis and develop RA-specific dietary recommendations. Conclusion: Specifically more research is needed to explore the association of diet and the gut microbiome and how this can influence RA disease activity. PMID:29515679

  20. Labeling fish with an activable element through their diet. [samarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michibata, Hitoshi (Toyama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-10-01

    Stable samarium, one of the rare earth elements, was fed to medaka (Oryzias latipes) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). The concentration of samarium in the labeled fish was determined by neutron activation analysis. In O. latipes, samarium was detectable even 1 yr after the labeled diet was eaten. In C. auratus, samarium was retained in the fifth brachial arch, scales, and gills.

  1. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  2. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma & Physical Activity in the School MAKING A DIFFERENCE Asthma & Physical Activity in the School MAKING A DIFFERENCE Min: 5/ ... D. Chair, NAEPP School Subcommittee Working Group on Physical Activity and School American Medical Association Karen Huss, Ph. ...

  3. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... adults aged 18 and over who met the Physical Activity Guidelines for aerobic physical activity: 51.7% Percent ...

  4. Consequences of Inadequate Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-27

    Listen as CDC Epidemiologist Susan Carlson, PhD, talks about her research, which estimates the percentage of US deaths attributed to inadequate levels of physical activity.  Created: 3/27/2018 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/27/2018.

  5. Daily Physical Activity Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…

  6. Metabolic benefits of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Volčanšek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is the most beneficial intervention in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Life style, which has become mostly sedentary, leads to growing incidence in obesity, what could cause the first so far reduction in life expectancy in developed countries.Physical activity reduces the chronic low-grade inflammation, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. Regular physical activity exerts two anti-inflammatory effects: reduction of visceral fat, which produces the majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and production of myokines. It has been proposed that cytokines and other peptides that are produced by muscle fibers should be classified as myokines that exert autocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects. Myokines induce muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, stimulate fat oxidation, improve insulin sensitivity and have an anti-inflammatory effect.  Therefore, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ and this provides the basis for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, gut, bones and brain. Physical inactivity leads to an altered myokine profile, associating sedentary life style with some chronic diseases.Physical activity is recommended as a tool for weight management and prevention of weight gain, for weight loss and for prevention of weight regain. High quality studies have confirmed the important impact of exercise on improving blood glucose control in diabetic patients, and on preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in predisposed populations. Prescribing specific exercise tailored to individual's needs is an intervention strategy for health improvement. Physical fitness counteracts the detrimental effects of obesity reducing morbidity and mortality.

  7. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring

  8. Improving Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes in Overweight and Inactive Patients Through an Educational and Motivational Intervention Addressing Diet and Physical Activity: A Prospective Study in Naples, South Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallé, Francesca; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Cirella, Assunta; Di Dio, Mirella; Miele, Alessandra; Spinosa, Tiziana; Liguori, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    Nutrition and physical activity are key elements in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. A community-based, multidisciplinary educational intervention aimed to improve quality of life and disease self-management in sedentary, overweight/obese type 2 diabetic patients was implemented in Naples, South Italy. The 9-month intervention included a motivational program, a nutrition program, and an exercise program. Satisfaction, worry, and embarrassment regarding their condition, together with disease-related behaviors and propensity towards physical activity, were evaluated through a validated questionnaire before and after the intervention; health status perception was evaluated through the short-form 12 questionnaire. Changes in HbA1c level and weight were also checked. A significant improvement (p management of hypoglycemic crisis and food choice; in nearly all the items related to living with the disease (p System.

  9. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  10. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  11. Physics Laboratory technical activities, 1991. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebbie, K.B.

    1992-02-01

    The report summarizes research projects, measurement method development, calibration and testing, and data evaluation activities that were carried out during calendar year 1991 in the NIST Physics Laboratory. These activities fall in the areas of electron and optical physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, radiometric physics, quantum metrology, ionizing radiation, time and frequency, quantum physics, and fundamental constants

  12. The effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Koning, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Bosscher, R.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To critically review the literature with respect to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health. Data Sources: A search for relevant English-written papers published between 1980 and 2000 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  13. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  14. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  15. Effects of High Fat Diet and Physical Exercise on Glucose Tolelance and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    福田,哲也

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the interrelationships between the westernized diet and physical exercise as they affect the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), adiposity, glucose tolerance and insulin response to an intraperitoneal glucose load (1.5g/kg bw) and insulin sensitivity to exogenous insulin (0.2U/kg bw) were studied in spontaneously exercised and sedentary rats fed either a high fat diet (40% fat, modern western type) or a low fat diet (10% fat, traditional Japanese typ...

  16. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The findings revealed that 64% of the participants were physically active both within the work and recreation domains and 65% of the participants had good physical activity promoting practices. Discussing physical activity and giving out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in ...

  17. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in promotion of physical activity. Policies on ... highlighted. Conclusion: Although physiotherapists experience barriers to promoting physical activity, they have good physical activity .... workplace tended to vary from lack of books or articles on.

  18. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents......; however, there was some heterogeneity among the studies. This review reveals a critical need for future longitudinal assessments of low PA, its mechanisms, and its implications for incident asthma in children. The systematic review was prospectively registered at PROSPERO (registration number: CRD...

  19. Physical activity and health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), due to its role in health promotion and disease prevention, is of particular interest to be investigated. The aims of this thesis were: to assess the associations between PA and different health outcomes (lower urinary tract symptoms, cancer incidence, and mortality) in the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM); to perform a dose-response meta-analysis of published associations between walking and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD); and to provide user-...

  20. Impact of a cafeteria diet and daily physical training on the rat serum metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-García, Susana; Del Bas, Josep M; Caimari, Antoni; Escorihuela, Rosa M; Arola, Lluís; Suárez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Regular physical activity and healthy dietary patterns are commonly recommended for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is diagnosed at an alarmingly increasing rate, especially among adolescents. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the relevance of physical exercise on the modulation of the metabolome in healthy people and those with MetS. We have previously shown that treadmill exercise ameliorated different symptoms of MetS. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a MetS-inducing diet and different intensities of aerobic training on the overall serum metabolome of adolescent rats. For 8 weeks, young rats were fed either standard chow (ST) or cafeteria diet (CAF) and were subjected to a daily program of training on a treadmill at different speeds. Non-targeted metabolomics was used to identify changes in circulating metabolites, and a combination of multivariate analysis techniques was implemented to achieve a holistic understanding of the metabolome. Among all the identified circulating metabolites influenced by CAF, lysophosphatidylcholines were the most represented family. Serum sphingolipids, bile acids, acylcarnitines, unsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E and A derivatives also changed significantly in CAF-fed rats. These findings suggest that an enduring systemic inflammatory state is induced by CAF. The impact of physical training on the metabolome was less striking than the impact of diet and mainly altered circulating bile acids and glycerophospholipids. Furthermore, the serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were increased in CAF-fed rats, and C-reactive protein was decreased in trained groups. The leptin/adiponectin ratio, a useful marker of MetS, was increased in CAF groups, but decreased in proportion to training intensity. Multivariate analysis revealed that ST-fed animals were more susceptible to exercise-induced changes in metabolites than animals with MetS, in which moderate

  1. Impact of a cafeteria diet and daily physical training on the rat serum metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Suárez-García

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity and healthy dietary patterns are commonly recommended for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS, which is diagnosed at an alarmingly increasing rate, especially among adolescents. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the relevance of physical exercise on the modulation of the metabolome in healthy people and those with MetS. We have previously shown that treadmill exercise ameliorated different symptoms of MetS. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a MetS-inducing diet and different intensities of aerobic training on the overall serum metabolome of adolescent rats. For 8 weeks, young rats were fed either standard chow (ST or cafeteria diet (CAF and were subjected to a daily program of training on a treadmill at different speeds. Non-targeted metabolomics was used to identify changes in circulating metabolites, and a combination of multivariate analysis techniques was implemented to achieve a holistic understanding of the metabolome. Among all the identified circulating metabolites influenced by CAF, lysophosphatidylcholines were the most represented family. Serum sphingolipids, bile acids, acylcarnitines, unsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E and A derivatives also changed significantly in CAF-fed rats. These findings suggest that an enduring systemic inflammatory state is induced by CAF. The impact of physical training on the metabolome was less striking than the impact of diet and mainly altered circulating bile acids and glycerophospholipids. Furthermore, the serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were increased in CAF-fed rats, and C-reactive protein was decreased in trained groups. The leptin/adiponectin ratio, a useful marker of MetS, was increased in CAF groups, but decreased in proportion to training intensity. Multivariate analysis revealed that ST-fed animals were more susceptible to exercise-induced changes in metabolites than animals with MetS, in which

  2. The Role of Built Environments in Physical Activity, Eating, and Obesity in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, James F.; Glanz, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Over the past forty years various changes in the U.S. "built environment" have promoted sedentary lifestyles and less healthful diets. James Sallis and Karen Glanz investigate whether these changes have had a direct effect on childhood obesity and whether improvements to encourage more physical activity and more healthful diets are likely to lower…

  3. Importance of a balanced diet on the physical fitness level of schoolchildren aged 6-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Louisa; Wong, Thomas; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies have focused on a single nutrient's relationship with disease and thus are unable to strongly support the health claims of a balanced diet. This article explores the integrated effect of nine nutrients on an individual's physical fitness level. Two-day dietary records and physical fitness assessments were collected in three primary schools. Cluster analysis allowed compliance with nutrient recommendations to be compared among groups of primary school students with different characteristics. Two clusters were identified statistically. Cluster B, which comprised more schoolchildren at the 'Good' and 'Pass' levels and fewer at the 'Excellent' level, had significantly more participants who met the guidelines for total fat, saturated fat, sodium and cholesterol, compared with Cluster A. This finding reveals the benefits of a balanced diet, with physical fitness level as the outcome measure. The results also have implications for approaching health problems from the diet-fitness perspective rather than the obesity-disease perspective.

  4. Effects of Combined Vigorous Interval Training Program and Diet on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Physical Self-Perceptions Among Obese Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Olivier; Vallier, Jean-Marc; Nicol, Caroline; Mercier, Charles-Symphorien; Maïano, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effects of a five-week intervention combining vigorous interval training (VIT) with diet among twenty-four obese adolescents. Fourteen girls and ten boys (aged 14-15) schooled in a pediatric rehabilitation center participated. The VIT intensity was targeted and remained above 80% of maximal heart rate (HR) and over six kilocalories per minute. Pre- and postintervention measures were body composition (BMI, weight, body fat percentage), physical self-perceptions (PSP), physical fitness (6-min walking distance and work) and its associated physiological responses (HR peak and blood lactate concentration). A series of two-way analyses of variance or covariance controlling for weight loss were used to examine the changes. Significant improvements were found in body composition, physical fitness and PSP (endurance, activity level, sport competence, global physical self-concept and appearance). In addition, boys presented higher levels of perceived strength and global physical self-concept than girls. Finally, there was a significant increase in perceived endurance, sport competence, and global physical self-concept in girls only. This five-week VIT program combined with diet represents an effective means for improving body composition, physical fitness, and PSP in obese adolescents, the effects on PSP being larger among girls.

  5. The “We Act – together for health study”: design of a multicomponent intervention study to promote physical activity, healthy diet and wellbeing in school among children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Høstgaard Bonde, Ane; Stjernqvist, Nanna Wurr

    and the family. Three educational components targeted the school: 1) Lunch meal habits integrated into science and Danish (“IEAT”) and physical activity integrated into maths (“IMOVE”), 2) Vision workshop integrated primarily into Danish, and 3) the Action and Change process at class and school level. Teachers...... process was demanding due to the context of the school reform and the present pressure on schools. In total 27 municipalities and 256 schools were contacted. A moderation of the theory based intervention, reducing the school level, was done to recruit the necessary number of schools. The result of theory...

  6. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2015-01-05

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Segment of the Cochrane Register of Studies,The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, the British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORT Discus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.org; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA); the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were searched and we contacted experts in the field. The searches were updated to 16 January 2014, unrestricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised individuals from the same community were excluded. At least two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Each study was assessed for the setting, the number of included components

  7. Promoting physical activity and improving dietary quality of Singaporean adolescents: effectiveness of a school-based fitness and wellness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loong, Claudine; Leo, Latasha; Goh, Danielle; Lim, Pei Sin; Loke, Wai Mun

    2018-01-13

    Limited data are available on the effectiveness of the school-based structured fitness and wellness program to influence dietary quality and physical activity levels in Singaporean adolescents. The study examined if a 20-h (over 10 weeks) school-based structured fitness and wellness module affects the diet quality indices, energy intakes, physical activity levels and the associated energy expenditures in a group of healthy, male adolescents with low diet quality and physical activity levels. Participant demography, anthropometry, dietary intake and daily physical activity were obtained at the beginning, mid-point and end of the 10-week program. Physical activity levels were assessed accelerometrically over a 1-weekday period. Dietary intake were taken using a structured 7-day food diary, and diet quality assessed using the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). The 31 enrolled participants (age 19.8 ± 0.6 years) with body mass index (BMI) (19.8 ± 0.6 kg/m2) followed diets of low diet quality scores (48.3 ± 9.6 out of 100) and engaged in 3.87 ± 2.00 h of physical activity daily before the start of the intervention. Their dietary quality and physical activity levels did not change significantly throughout the intervention period. They scored poorly in the moderation and overall balance components of the diet quality assessment. The physical activity duration correlated inversely to the diet quality scores. Our results suggest that the prescribed school-based fitness and wellness module was ineffective in influencing the diet quality and physical activity levels of Singaporean male adolescents with low diet quality and physical activity levels.

  8. Ways optimization physical activity students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilij Sutula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: on the basis of the analysis of results of poll of students, first, to define structure and the importance of the factors influencing formation of motivation at them to sports and sports activity, secondly, to allocate possible subjects for extension of the maintenance of theoretical and methodical-practical components of sports formation of student's youth. Material and Methods: the study involved students of first and second courses of the Institute for training bodies and the Faculty of Law of the National University №9 Yaroslav the Wise and the students of the Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts and Zhytomyr State University named after Ivan Franko. Results: it is established that during training at national law university interests of students concerning factors which motivate them to sports and sports activity significantly change. The analyses data testify that a key factor which prevents students to be engaged in sports and sports activity, lack of free time is. It is proved that students consider necessary to receive information on the physical state. Conclusions: results of research allowed allocating the most significant factors which motivate students to be engaged in sports and sports activity. It is established subjects of theoretical and methodical and practical components of sports education which interest students of NLU and KNUCA and ZSU. It is shown that for students of Law University of importance topic of theoretical and methodological and practical components of physical education strongly depends on the year of their training.

  9. Dyslipidemia, Diet and Physical Exercise in Children on Treatment With Antiretroviral Medication in El Salvador: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Michela; Sagrado, Maria José; Escobar, Gustavo; Lazzerini, Marzia; Rivas, Estefanie; Martín-Cañavate, Rocio; Pérez de López, Elsy; Ayala, Sandra; Castaneda, Luis; Aparicio, Pilar; Custodio, Estefanía

    2016-10-01

    Dyslipidemias are common in HIV-infected children, especially if treated with protease inhibitors, but there are few data on how to treat dyslipidemias in this population. We estimated the dyslipidemia prevalence and its association with treatment, diet and physical exercise in children on antiretroviral treatment at the El Salvador reference center for pediatric HIV care (CENID). Information was gathered regarding socio-demographic characteristics, treatment, diet and physical activity of 173 children aged 5-18 years and receiving antiretroviral therapy. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), viral load and CD4 T-lymphocytes were measured. Abnormal concentrations were defined as triglycerides ≥130 mg/dL in 10- to 18-year olds and ≥100 mg/dL in diet and physical exercise. Of the 173 children, 83 (48%) had hypertriglyceridemia and 25 (14.5%) hypercholesterolemia. High LDL-C concentrations were observed in 17 children (9.8%) and low HDL-C in 38 (22%). Treatment with protease inhibitors was significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia [prevalence ratio (PR) 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-3.8] and hypercholesterolemia (PR 9.0; 95% CI: 3.6-22.2). Higher adherence to a "high fat/sugar diet" was associated with hypercholesterolemia (PR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3) and high LDL-C (PR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0-2.9). Compared with those exercising exercising ≥7 times were less likely to have low HDL-C (PR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.7). These results suggest that a healthy diet and exercise habits can contribute to controlling some aspects of the lipid profile in this population.

  10. Active tracer analysis of iron in anemia children's diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yunhui; Xiao Lun

    1994-01-01

    With stable 58 Fe as tracer the absorption rate of iron in anemia children's diet is determined by INAA. Children are four to five years old. FeCl 2 solution of enriched 58 Fe is taken orally. The feces five days ever since are collected, dried and irradiated in the reactor and activity of 59 Fe is measured. This method is accurate, reliable, applicable and harmless. It may be applied to determine Zn, Ca and other elements. The experimental results show that: (1) Soybean protein makes no contribution to, or may even inhibit, the absorption of iron from the diet. (2) With vitamin C added to soybean protein, the absorption rate of iron is increased. (3) Specifically treated soybean sprouts powder or fermented soybean powder enhances the biological utilization of iron

  11. Occupational and leisure time physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Men with low physical fitness and high occupational physical activity are recently shown to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association between occupational physical activity with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality may also depend on leisure...... time physical activity....

  12. Nutrition and Physical Activity in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common liver disease worldwide and it is associated with other medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. The mechanisms of the underlying disease development and progression are not completely established and there is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment. In the gold standard treatment for NAFLD weight loss, dietary therapy, and physical activity are included. However, little scientific evidence is available on diet and/or physical activity and NAFLD specifically. Many dietary approaches such as Mediterranean and DASH diet are used for treatment of other cardiometabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but on the basis of its components their role in NAFLD has been discussed. In this review, the implications of current dietary and exercise approaches, including Brazilian and other guidelines, are discussed, with a focus on determining the optimal nonpharmacological treatment to prescribe for NAFLD.

  13. Impact of CPAP on activity patterns and diet in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool-Anwar, Salma; Goodwin, James L; Drescher, Amy A; Baldwin, Carol M; Simon, Richard D; Smith, Terry W; Quan, Stuart F

    2014-05-15

    Patients with severe OSA consume greater amounts of cholesterol, protein, and fat as well as have greater caloric expenditure. However, it is not known whether their activity levels or diet change after treatment with CPAP. To investigate this issue, serial assessments of activity and dietary intake were performed in the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES); a 6-month randomized controlled study of CPAP vs. sham CPAP on neurocognitive outcomes. Subjects were recruited into APPLES at 5 sites through clinic encounters or public advertisement. After undergoing a diagnostic polysomnogram, subjects were randomized to CPAP or sham if their AHI was ≥ 10. Adherence was assessed using data cards from the devices. At the Tucson and Walla Walla sites, subjects were asked to complete validated activity and food frequency questionnaires at baseline and their 4-month visit. Activity and diet data were available at baseline and after 4 months treatment with CPAP or sham in up to 231 subjects (117 CPAP, 114 Sham). Mean age, AHI, BMI, and Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) for this cohort were 55 ± 13 [SD] years, 44 ± 27 /h, 33 ± 7.8 kg/m(2), and 10 ± 4, respectively. The participants lacking activity and diet data were younger, had lower AHI and arousal index, and had better sleep efficiency (p Level of adherence defined as hours of device usage per night at 4 months was significantly higher among men in CPAP group (4.0 ± 2.9 vs. 2.6 ± 2.6). No changes in consumption of total calories, protein, carbohydrate or fat were noted after 4 months. Except for a modest increase in recreational activity in women (268 ± 85 vs. 170 ± 47 calories, p increase in recreational activity in women, OSA patients treated with CPAP do not substantially change their diet or physical activity habits after treatment. .

  14. The Evolution of Physical Activity Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Overview: A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity “lifestyle” phy...

  15. The Evolution of Physical Activity Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth Ann

    2015-08-01

    A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity "lifestyle" physical activity. The author updates nurses on physical activity guidelines and provides tips for promoting physical activity, with a focus on lifestyle activities such as walking to work. This article also addresses new research findings on the importance of decreasing sedentary and sitting time, even in physically active people.

  16. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was ...

  17. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  18. "Pushing" physical activity, and justice.